WorldWideScience

Sample records for agricultural commodities opportunities

  1. Shade-grown coffee in Puerto Rico: Opportunities to preserve biodiversity while reinvigorating a struggling agricultural commodity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkhataria, R.; Collazo, J.A.; Groom, M.J.; Jordan-Garcia, A.

    2012-01-01

    Shade-grown coffee contributes to biodiversity conservation and has many ecological benefits. We reviewed historical trends in coffee production and interviewed 100 coffee growers in 1999 to determine current management practices and attitudes toward the cultivation of sun and shade coffee in Puerto Rico. We discuss the outlook for the coffee industry in the 21st century and implications for biodiversity conservation, hoping lessons from Puerto Rico will apply to the international coffee industry. Throughout the 20th century, government intervention, including subsidies and technical assistance, supported coffee farming in Puerto Rico. In an effort to modernize coffee production and increase yields, the conversion from shade to sun coffee plantations was encouraged. Despite government support, the amount of land devoted to this once dominant agricultural commodity declined markedly between 1982 and 2007 (84%), due to labor shortages, low income, and catastrophic hurricanes. We found that a return to shaded plantations would be embraced by most farmers. Growers of shaded coffee were generally happier with their cultivation practices (89.3% satisfied) than growers of sun coffee (60.9% satisfied), valued biodiversity, and were willing to cultivate coffee under shade if given similar incentives to those received for farming sun coffee. The future of the coffee industry in Puerto Rico may depend on government programs that capitalize upon emerging markets for sustainably produced, shade-grown coffee. We conclude that where governments have close ties to the coffee industry, they should strive to wed economic development with the conservation of biodiversity and associated ecological services by providing support and incentives for the production of shade coffee. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  2. 7 CFR 65.205 - Perishable agricultural commodity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Perishable agricultural commodity. 65.205 Section 65... COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.205 Perishable agricultural commodity. Perishable agricultural commodity means fresh and frozen fruits and vegetables of...

  3. Radiation processing of food and agricultural commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reducing post-harvest food losses is becoming increasingly important for sustaining food supplies. Appropriate post-harvest processing, handling, storage and distribution practices are as important as the efforts to increase productivity for improving food security, food safety and international trade in agricultural commodities. Preservation of food by ionizing radiation involves controlled application of energy of ionizing radiation such as gamma rays, X-rays, and accelerated electrons to agricultural commodities, food products and ingredients, for improving their storage life, hygiene and safety. The process employs either gamma rays emitted by radioisotopes such as cobalt-60 or high-energy electrons or X-rays generated from machine sources

  4. 76 FR 41048 - Agricultural Commodity Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... polylactic acid (a corn derivative used in biodegradable packaging), butanol (a chemical derived from... FR 65586, Oct. 26, 2010. \\5\\ Those comments are available on the Commission's Web site at: http... to the term agricultural commodity, please review the NPRM at 75 FR 65586-65587. 2. The...

  5. 15 CFR 740.18 - Agricultural commodities (AGR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agricultural commodities (AGR). 740.18... EXCEPTIONS § 740.18 Agricultural commodities (AGR). (a) Eligibility requirements. License Exception AGR permits the export of agricultural commodities to Cuba, as well as the reexport of U.S....

  6. 49 CFR 1313.6 - Contract summary for agricultural commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract summary for agricultural commodities... FOR THE TRANSPORTATION OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS § 1313.6 Contract summary for agricultural commodities. (a) Summary information. The summary of a contract for the transportation of agricultural...

  7. Overview of plant dosimetry in agricultural commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive research carried out for more than three decades at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay and other laboratories in India had conclusively established application of radiation processing of food for catering to the domestic and export market. A major milestone of food irradiation was reached in the country when Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology, a constituent unit of Department of Atomic Energy had set up 'SPICE PLANT' at Vashi, Navi Mumbai in the year 2000. It was first demonstration plant for radiation processing of spices for hygienisation purpose. For expanding scope of applications in agricultural sector, the next step in this direction was taken by BARC for setting up 'KRUSHAK' plant at Lasalgaon, Nashik. This was the first plant for low dose application of gamma radiation in agricultural commodities i.e. for sprout inhibition in onion and potatoes

  8. Export Market Development for Agricultural Commodity Promotion Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Spatz, Karen J.

    1989-01-01

    Export market development activities are an integral part of today's agricultural marketing due to increasing competition worldwide. Marketing activities include promotion, advertising, and research financed by private and government-supported commodity groups. Cooperatives and private industry primarily market brand products but they also support generic promotion through legislated commodity programs. Federal and State agricultural commodity promotion programs are supported by growers and/o...

  9. Effects of Trade Liberalization on Agriculture in Malaysia: Commodity Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Tengku Ahmad, Tengku Mohd Ariff; Tawang, Ariffin

    1999-01-01

    This book analyzes commodity aspects of the effects of trade liberalization on agriculture in Malaysia. The study describes the effects of trade liberalization on selected commodities namely palm oil, rice, and tobacco at the national level and farm level. The analysis included ex-ante and ex-post welfare gain and loss at the national level and profitability at the farm level.

  10. 75 FR 65586 - Agricultural Commodity Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... polylactic acid (a corn derivative used in biodegradable packaging), butanol (a chemical derived from... more commodities.'' (See 72 FR 66099, note 7 (November 27, 2007)). See new CEA Sec. 1a(47) for the... 58 FR 5587 (Jan. 22, 1993). Note that because Part 35 was implemented pursuant to a Sec....

  11. World oil and agricultural commodity prices: Evidence from nonlinear causality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing co-movements between the world oil and agricultural commodity prices have renewed interest in determining price transmission from oil prices to those of agricultural commodities. This study extends the literature on the oil-agricultural commodity prices nexus, which particularly concentrates on nonlinear causal relationships between the world oil and three key agricultural commodity prices (corn, soybeans, and wheat). To this end, the linear causality approach of Toda-Yamamoto and the nonparametric causality method of Diks-Panchenko are applied to the weekly data spanning from 1994 to 2010. The linear causality analysis indicates that the oil prices and the agricultural commodity prices do not influence each other, which supports evidence on the neutrality hypothesis. In contrast, the nonlinear causality analysis shows that: (i) there are nonlinear feedbacks between the oil and the agricultural prices, and (ii) there is a persistent unidirectional nonlinear causality running from the oil prices to the corn and to the soybeans prices. The findings from the nonlinear causality analysis therefore provide clues for better understanding the recent dynamics of the agricultural commodity prices and some policy implications for policy makers, farmers, and global investors. This study also suggests the directions for future studies. - Research highlights: → This study determines the price transmission mechanisms between the world oil and three key agricultural commodity prices (corn, soybeans, and wheat). → The linear and nonlinear cointegration and causality methods are carried out. → The linear causality analysis supports evidence on the neutrality hypothesis. → The nonlinear causality analysis shows that there is a persistent unidirectional causality from the oil prices to the corn and to the soybeans prices.

  12. Commodity Agriculture, Civic Agriculture and the Future of U.S. Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyson, Thomas A.; Guptill, Amy

    2004-01-01

    Commodity agriculture and civic agriculture represent two distinct types of farming found in the U.S. today. Commodity agriculture is grounded on the belief that the primary objectives of farming should be to produce as much food/fiber as possible for the least cost. It is driven by the twin goals of productivity and efficiency. Civic…

  13. 76 FR 6095 - Commodity Options and Agricultural Swaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ..., soybean meal, livestock, livestock products, and frozen concentrated orange juice (but not onions). \\22....'' See 75 FR 65586, Oct. 26, 2010. In addition to the provisions on swaps in an agricultural commodity... related matters. \\12\\ See Agricultural Swaps, 75 FR 59666, Sept. 28, 2010. II. Background A....

  14. Agricultural Commodity Futures Market Volatility: A Case for Punctuated Equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Apperson, George P.

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural commodity futures markets have experienced dramatic price swings since 2007 as compared to previous periods. Applied economic research has not reached a consensus as to whether market fundamentals or speculative participation has been the cause of the increased volatility. Policy research has concentrated on the legislative intent of the law and how recent financial and commodity market regulation should revert back to the successful policies of the twentieth century. Policy scho...

  15. Effects of Trade Liberalization on Agriculture in China: Commodity Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Jikun; Chen, Chunlai

    1999-01-01

    This book analyzes commodity aspects of the effects of trade liberalization on agriculture in China. The study describes the effects of trade liberalization on selected commodities namely rice, wheat, maize, soybean, sweet potato, potato, other grains, pork, beef, mutton, poultry, egg, milk and fish at the national level and farm level. The analysis included ex-ante and ex-post welfare gain and loss at the national level and profitability at the farm level.

  16. Why does Colombia lack agricultural commodity futures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Moreno-Alemay

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the reasons why futures contracts are not traded as an alternative to price hedging for agricultural goods in Colombia. Based on surveys, interviews and statistical analysis, this study identified that conceptual gaps in contract negotiation, lack of consensus in the agricultural sector regarding the use of financial mechanisms and the sector’s infrequent contact with Colombia’s financial institutions, are the main reasons why a futures contracts market has not emerged.

  17. 29 CFR 780.116 - Commodities included by reference to the Agricultural Marketing Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Marketing Act. 780.116 Section 780.116 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR... Commodities § 780.116 Commodities included by reference to the Agricultural Marketing Act. (a) Section 3(f... defined as agricultural commodities in section 15(g) of the Agricultural Marketing Act, as amended (12...

  18. 31 CFR 560.533 - Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.533 Section 560.533 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices, provided that the sale and exportation...

  19. 31 CFR 538.526 - Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 538.526 Section 538.526 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices to the Government of Sudan, to any individual or...

  20. 49 CFR 1039.10 - Exemption of agricultural commodities except grain, soybeans, and sunflower seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exemption of agricultural commodities except grain... REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS § 1039.10 Exemption of agricultural commodities except grain, soybeans, and sunflower seeds. The rail transportation of the commodities listed below is exempt from the provisions of...

  1. 76 FR 22339 - Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Exportation of Agricultural Commodities, Medicine, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... to submit a biennial report to the Congress on the operation of licensing procedures for such exports... licensing procedures required by section 906 of the Act for the export of agricultural commodities, medicine... effectiveness of OFAC's licensing procedures for the export of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

  2. Balancing detail and scale in assessing transparency to improve the governance of agricultural commodity supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godar, Javier; Suavet, Clément; Gardner, Toby A.; Dawkins, Elena; Meyfroidt, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    To date, assessments of the sustainability of agricultural commodity supply chains have largely relied on some combination of macro-scale footprint accounts, detailed life-cycle analyses and fine-scale traceability systems. Yet these approaches are limited in their ability to support the sustainability governance of agricultural supply chains, whether because they are intended for coarser-grained analyses, do not identify individual actors, or are too costly to be implemented in a consistent manner for an entire region of production. Here we illustrate some of the advantages of a complementary middle-ground approach that balances detail and scale of supply chain transparency information by combining consistent country-wide data on commodity production at the sub-national (e.g. municipal) level with per shipment customs data to describe trade flows of a given commodity covering all companies and production regions within that country. This approach can support supply chain governance in two key ways. First, enhanced spatial resolution of the production regions that connect to individual supply chains allows for a more accurate consideration of geographic variability in measures of risk and performance that are associated with different production practices. Second, identification of key actors that operate within a specific supply chain, including producers, traders, shippers and consumers can help discriminate coalitions of actors that have shared stake in a particular region, and that together are capable of delivering more cost-effective and coordinated interventions. We illustrate the potential of this approach with examples from Brazil, Indonesia and Colombia. We discuss how transparency information can deepen understanding of the environmental and social impacts of commodity production systems, how benefits are distributed among actors, and some of the trade-offs involved in efforts to improve supply chain sustainability. We then discuss the challenges and

  3. Energy prices and agricultural commodity prices: Testing correlation using copulas method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The linear relationships between energy prices and prices for agricultural commodities such as corn and soybeans may have been affected, over the last several years, by policy legislations in the farm sector, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, and the Renewable Fuel Standard Program for 2014. Using high-frequency data and newer methodology, this study investigates dependence between agricultural commodity futures prices and energy futures prices. Results reveal that agricultural commodity and energy future prices are highly correlated and exhibit positive and significant relationship. Findings from this study highlight that an increase in energy price increases the price of agricultural commodities. - Highlights: • Energy policy mandates production of 15 billion gallons of corn ethanol by 2015. • Energy-intensive agriculture has a link between energy sector and crop production costs. • We investigate correlation between energy prices and agricultural commodity prices. • Agricultural commodity and energy future prices are highly correlated. • Increase in energy price increases the price of agricultural commodity

  4. Agri-Commodity Price Dynamics: The Relationship Between Oil and Agricultural Market

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Franco; Vasciaveo, Michela

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the interactions among the prices of some agricultural commodities in Italy and United States by using the time series analysis method. After a general overview of the world and European agri-markets, the agricultural commodity and oil prices are investigated in order to analyze the cross-market interactions and test the hypothesis that the increased volatility in agricultural prices is caused by the exogenous crude oil prices. For the analysis the data abo...

  5. 29 CFR 780.112 - General meaning of “agriculture or horticultural commodities.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mineral wealth or other natural resources, or by uncultivated natural growth. For example, peat humus or peat moss is not an agricultural commodity. Wirtz v. Ti Ti Peat Humus Co., 373 f(2d) 209 (C.A.4)....

  6. Tips for Organizing an Educational Agricultural Commodity Trading Club

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, John

    2011-01-01

    Educational commodity marketing clubs have been an effective tool for producers to develop their grain and livestock marketing skills. These groups are further enhanced when the participants engage in "actual trading" versus "paper trading" techniques. When a club chooses to try actual trading, it becomes more complicated than pooling monies…

  7. 31 CFR 560.532 - Payment for and financing of exports and reexports of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and reexports of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.532 Section 560.532... commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for payment terms. The following payment terms for sales of agricultural commodities and products, medicine, and medical equipment pursuant to §§...

  8. Evidence on trends in the single factoral terms of trade in African agricultural commodity production

    OpenAIRE

    Fleming, Euan M.; Fleming, Pauline

    2007-01-01

    The ability of African countries to achieve sustained improvements in agricultural incomes depends on their ability to generate total factor productivity (TFP) change in their agricultural sectors and adjust to movements in agricultural output and input prices. The single factoral terms of trade index measures these changes, calculated as changes in the product of TFP and the agricultural terms of trade. Estimates of the single factoral terms of trade index for the selected commodities over t...

  9. Agricultural commodity prices and oil prices: mutual causation

    OpenAIRE

    McFarlane, Ian

    2016-01-01

    The world market price of many commodities including US corn (maize) peaked sharply in 2008. The US Energy Policy Act (2005) led to a rapid rise in demand for corn ethanol as a partial substitute for gasoline in the USA. In this paper we report analysis of weekly prices of corn, wheat, sugar and crude oil, together with monthly series derived from those and other weekly prices, for two consecutive seven year periods: 1999-2005 and 2006-2012. We find strong evidence of cointegration between pr...

  10. Evaluating Quality Improvement in Nonhomogeneous Agricultural Commodities: The Case of Australian Beef

    OpenAIRE

    Voon, Thomas Jan P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper develops conceptual and empirical frameworks for assessing the economic benefits from agricultural research which enhances the amount of a desirable characteristic in each unit of a heterogeneous commodity. The commodity is assumed to comprise two or more joint products accruable in fixed proportion. Quality improvement is perceived as an increase in the proportion of a joint product with more of a more-valued characteristic and, as such, is modelled as a shift in the supply curve ...

  11. Agricultural and oil commodities: price transmission and market integration between US and Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Franco Rosa; Michela Vasciaveo; Weaver, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of this article it to get some evidences of market interaction between United States and Italy using the time series analysis of spot prices spanning from January 1999 to May 2012 for crude oil and three ag-commodities: wheat, corn and soybean. These crops have been selected for their relevance in ag-commodity exchanges between US and Italy markets. The integration between US and Italy agricultural markets is hypothesized for the consistent volume of crop traded between these two coun...

  12. Agricultural and oil commodities: price transmission and market integration between US and Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Rosa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this article it to get some evidences of market interaction between United States and Italy using the time series analysis of spot prices spanning from January 1999 to May 2012 for crude oil and three ag-commodities: wheat, corn and soybean. These crops have been selected for their relevance in ag-commodity exchanges between US and Italy markets. The integration between US and Italy agricultural markets is hypothesized for the consistent volume of crop traded between these two countries while the price transmission is related to the leading price signals of the CBT (Chicago Board of Trade. The integration between oil and ag-commodity markets is suggested both by the large use of energy intensive inputs, (fertilizer, seed, machinery in production of these ag-commodities, and their use in biofuel production. The results suggest: a for US market the evidence of market integration between crude oil and US ag-commodities; b for Italy the integration with US ag-commodity markets and less evidence of integration with the oil market. These results are valuable information both for the agents and policy makers contributing to improve the information accuracy to predict the price movements used by marketing operators for their strategies and policy makers to set up policies to re-establish conditions of market efficiency and allocate these ag-commodities in alternative market channels.

  13. Is there co-movement of agricultural commodities futures prices and crude oil?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even though significant attempts have appeared in literature, the current perception of co-movement of commodity prices appear inadequate and static. In particular we focus on price movements between crude oil futures and a series of agricultural commodities and gold futures. A comparative framework is applied to identify changes in relationships through time and various cointegration methodologies and causality tests are employed. Our results indicate that co-movement is a dynamic concept and that some economic and policy development may change the relationship between commodities. Furthermore we show that biofuel policy buffers the co-movement of crude oil and corn futures until the crude oil prices surpass a certain threshold. - Highlights: → We show that co-movement of commodity futures is a temporal concept. → A variation in parallel movement between 2 large periods occurs. → Biofuel policy buffers parallel movement of corn and crude oil futures

  14. Is there co-movement of agricultural commodities futures prices and crude oil?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natanelov, Valeri, E-mail: valeri.natanelov@ugent.be [Department of Agricultural Economics, Ghent University, Coupure links 653, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Alam, Mohammad J. [Department of Agricultural Economics, Ghent University, Coupure links 653, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Department of Agribusiness and Marketing, Bangladesh Agricultural University (Bangladesh); McKenzie, Andrew M. [Department of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness, University of Arkansas, AR (United States); Van Huylenbroeck, Guido [Department of Agricultural Economics, Ghent University, Coupure links 653, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2011-09-15

    Even though significant attempts have appeared in literature, the current perception of co-movement of commodity prices appear inadequate and static. In particular we focus on price movements between crude oil futures and a series of agricultural commodities and gold futures. A comparative framework is applied to identify changes in relationships through time and various cointegration methodologies and causality tests are employed. Our results indicate that co-movement is a dynamic concept and that some economic and policy development may change the relationship between commodities. Furthermore we show that biofuel policy buffers the co-movement of crude oil and corn futures until the crude oil prices surpass a certain threshold. - Highlights: > We show that co-movement of commodity futures is a temporal concept. > A variation in parallel movement between 2 large periods occurs. > Biofuel policy buffers parallel movement of corn and crude oil futures

  15. Commodity Currencies and Currency Commodities

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth W. Clements; Renee Fry

    2006-01-01

    There is a large literature on the influence of commodity prices on the currencies of countries with a large commodity-based export sector such as Australia, New Zealand and Canada ("commodity currencies"). There is also the idea that because of pricing power, the value of currencies of certain commodity-producing countries affects commodity prices, such as metals, energy, and agricultural-based products ("currency commodities"). This paper merges these two strands of the literature to analys...

  16. 31 CFR 560.530 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Commodity Classification of EAR 99 from BIS for medicines and submit a copy to OFAC. See 15 CFR 745.3 for..., 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1, and that fall within the term “agricultural commodity” as defined... the Commerce Control List in the Export Administration Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement no....

  17. Oil Prices, Exchange Rate and Prices for Agricultural Commodities: Empirical Evidence from Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Burakov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate long and short-term impact of changes in oil prices and the exchange rate on prices of seven groups of agricultural products in Russia (buckwheat, grain crops, potatoes, oat, wheat, rye, barley. In this paper, Granger causality approach is applied to test long-run interlinkages with monthly data from January 1999 to October 2015. For testing the response of agricultural prices to sudden shocks in oil prices and exchange rate in the short run, we use impulse-response techniques. The results of impulse response analysis show that agricultural prices are not particularly sensitive to changes in oil prices and the exchange rate of Russian ruble in the short term, except for imported commodities. In the long run, Granger causal relationship between agricultural prices and oil prices is missing, and with exchange rate is observed only in case of imported agricultural goods.

  18. Modelling the marginal revenue of water in selected agricultural commodities: A panel data approach

    OpenAIRE

    Moolman, C.E.; Blignaut, J.N.; van Eyden, R.

    2006-01-01

    South Africa is a water-stressed country where water availability is an important constraint to economic and social development, and will become even more so in the future if this scarce resource is not managed effectively. In order to manage this scarce supply of water, we need to value it. This study focuses on the value of water in the agricultural sector, in particular the marginal revenue of water for six irrigation commodities namely avocados, bananas, grapefruit, mangoes, oranges and s...

  19. Modeling the Marginal Revenue of Water in Selected Agricultural Commodities: A Panel Date Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Moolman, C.E.; Blignaut, J.N.; van Eyden, R.

    2006-01-01

    South Africa is a water-stressed country where water availability is an important constraint to economic and social development, and will become even more so in the future if this scarce resource is not managed effectively. In order to manage this scarce supply of water, we need to value it. This study focuses on the value of water in the agricultural sector, in particular the marginal revenue of water for six irrigation commodities namely avocados, bananas, grapefruit, mangoes, oranges and s...

  20. The competitive advantage of velvet beans as an economic agricultural commodity / Edward James Daniel de Villiers

    OpenAIRE

    De Villiers, Edward James Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The competitive advantage of velvet beans as an economic agricultural commodity. In the past 40 years, although food insecurity, poverty and environmental degradation persist, worldwide farmers have made considerable progress in increasing per capita food production whilst better understanding natural-resource management. Literature indicates that — in the decades to come — food demand will both grow and change for three reasons, namely increased numbers of people, increased income (people wi...

  1. Non-destructive radio-frequency and microwave measurement of moisture content in agricultural commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of moisture content in agricultural commodities, the usefulness of the dielectric properties of such products for sensing moisture content by radiofrequency and microwave measurements, and factors affecting these properties are briefly discussed. Recent developments in the understanding of principles for online moisture sensing and the sensing of individual kernel, seed, nut and fruit moisture contents by radiofrequency and microwave techniques are reviewed. A brief discussion is included on aspects of practical application

  2. Amylolytic enzyme production byRhizopus oryzae grown on agricultural commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, R C; Hang, Y D

    1990-03-01

    The amylolytic enzyme production byRhizopus oryzae NRRL 395 grown on different agricultural commodities was datermined. The mould produced much higher enzyme activity from barley, corn, bats, and rice than from cassava. The optimal temperature for enzyme production was 30°C. Neutralization with CaCO3 greatly enhanced the rate of enzyme production. Nitrogen supplementation of cassava resulted in higher enzyme yields.

  3. The Effects of the Internet on U.S. Bilateral Trade in Agricultural and Horticultural Commodities

    OpenAIRE

    Wheatley, W. Parker; Roe, Terry L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the reasons why the Internet might have a positive effect on the international trade in agricultural and horticultural commodities between the United States and its partners. It provides some simple econometric tests which differentiate the export and import effects of Internet infrastructure and cost. It also shows that the effect may be dependent on product heterogeneity/perishability. Given the growth of the Internet over the past decade, coming to terms and me...

  4. Study on the Perceived Risk about the Online Shopping for Fresh Agricultural Commodities and Customer Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lingling; HUANG; Juan; FENG; Fengxian; YAN

    2014-01-01

    Fresh agricultural commodities have been entering the era of network marketing. However,the coverage population is still relatively small. In this paper,more than 400 online shopping customer survey data are statistically analyzed based on perceived risk multidimensional model by factor analysis method to classify the potential customers’ perceived risk,concluding that food safety risks,mental health risk,relative convenience risk,liquidity risk,privacy risk and time risk are the most important risk factors that impact potential customers online shopping of fresh agricultural commodities. By using customers prediction model which is based on the classification and prediction methods to mining potential customers,it comes to the conclusion that men are more likely to purchase fresh agricultural commodities online,specifically,in the male sample,those whose average monthly net purchase cost equals to or is higher than 51 yuan or whose online shopping time equals to or is longer than 3 years and at the same time whose age is younger than 30 are the most potential customers. Finally,it puts forward corresponding countermeasures and suggestions from the perspectives of risk control and effective customer acquisition.

  5. The Theory of Storage and Price Dynamics of Agricultural Commodity Futures: the Case of Corn and Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Benavides Perales

    2010-01-01

    Using a restricted version of the BEKK model it is tested an implication of the theory of storage that supply-and-demand fundamentals affect the price dynamics of agricultural commodities. The commodities under analysis are corn and wheat. An interest-storage-adjusted-spread was used as a proxy variable for supply-and-demand fundamentals to test the aforementioned implication for both commodities. It is also tested the Samuelson hypothesis that spot prices have higher volatility than futures ...

  6. Opportunities and tradeoffs for global agricultural intensification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, N. D.; Gerber, J. S.; Johnston, M.; Ray, D. K.; Ramankutty, N.; Foley, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Meeting the expected doubling of food demand by 2050 will require either expansion of the world's croplands into sensitive ecosystems or the intensification of production on existing croplands. Although both strategies involve environmental tradeoffs, more sustainable pathways of cropland intensification (which minimize local environmental externalities) may maximize benefits across the suite of ecosystem services. Here we provide an integrated, global-scale assessment of opportunities for agricultural intensification, drivers of yield limitation, and environmental tradeoffs of achieving increased yields. We used climate analog techniques to quantify geographically-explicit yield gaps and potential production increases for seventeen major crops. To analyze the drivers of yield gaps, we collected sub-national agricultural management data and built a global, crop-specific dataset of nitrogen, phosphate, and potash fertilizer application rates. Using fertilizer and irrigation data, we constructed simple, empirically derived input-yield models and analyzed yield-limiting factors across the globe. We find substantial variation in yield-limiting factors with crop and geography, with Eastern Europe and Sub-Saharan Africa standing out as hotspots of nutrient limitation. We assessed environmental tradeoffs of intensification by determining where production increases could occur for the least additional resource use and by identifying areas where the current tradeoffs between nutrient application and yield could be improved. These results underscore the critical role of agricultural management practices in meeting the interconnected food security and sustainability challenges of the coming decades.

  7. Speculation and volatility spillover in the crude oil and agricultural commodity markets: A Bayesian analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper assesses factors that potentially influence the volatility of crude oil prices and the possible linkage between this volatility and agricultural commodity markets. Stochastic volatility models are applied to weekly crude oil, corn, and wheat futures prices from November 1998 to January 2009. Model parameters are estimated using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. Speculation, scalping, and petroleum inventories are found to be important in explaining the volatility of crude oil prices. Several properties of crude oil price dynamics are established, including mean-reversion, an asymmetry between returns and volatility, volatility clustering, and infrequent compound jumps. We find evidence of volatility spillover among crude oil, corn, and wheat markets after the fall of 2006. This can be largely explained by tightened interdependence between crude oil and these commodity markets induced by ethanol production.

  8. Speculation and volatility spillover in the crude oil and agricultural commodity markets: A Bayesian analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Xiaodong, E-mail: xdu23@wisc.ed [Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI (United States); Yu, Cindy L., E-mail: cindyyu@iastate.ed [Department of Statistics, Iowa State University, IA (United States); Hayes, Dermot J., E-mail: dhayes@iastate.ed [Department of Economics and Department of Finance, Iowa State University, IA (United States)

    2011-05-15

    This paper assesses factors that potentially influence the volatility of crude oil prices and the possible linkage between this volatility and agricultural commodity markets. Stochastic volatility models are applied to weekly crude oil, corn, and wheat futures prices from November 1998 to January 2009. Model parameters are estimated using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. Speculation, scalping, and petroleum inventories are found to be important in explaining the volatility of crude oil prices. Several properties of crude oil price dynamics are established, including mean-reversion, an asymmetry between returns and volatility, volatility clustering, and infrequent compound jumps. We find evidence of volatility spillover among crude oil, corn, and wheat markets after the fall of 2006. This can be largely explained by tightened interdependence between crude oil and these commodity markets induced by ethanol production.

  9. Challenges and Opportunities in Developing Beijing Modern Urban Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    We analyze development situations of Beijing modern urban agriculture from agricultural distribution,agricultural foundation and agricultural industrial system.Our research on challenges and opportunities of Beijing modern urban agriculture indicates that challenges include short of resources,deterioration of environment,and high production cost,and opportunities include large market space,advanced agricultural industrial experience and many other development opportunities.On the basis of these,we put forward development thought of Beijing modern urban agriculture in " the Twelfth Five Plan" period.We must improve foundation,integration and demonstration of agriculture;orient towards market and satisfy medium and high end market demands;actively cultivate and strengthen agricultural industrial level;create unique product brand;and raise added value of agricultural products.

  10. THE IMPACT OF THE RECENT FEDERAL RESERVE LARGESCALE ASSET PURCHASES ON THE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITY PRICES: A HISTORICAL DECOMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed H. Saghaian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluate the effects of the recent Federal Reserve’s purchases of longterm assets on prices of agricultural commodities. The first large-scale asset purchases began at the end of 2008, after the Great Recession, and the second purchases began in November of 2010. The commodities included in this analysis are meats (beef, pork, and broilers, cereal grains (corn, soybeans, wheat, and rice, and softs (sugar, coffee, cocoa, and cotton. Using historical decompositions, we find significant increases in the nominal agricultural prices of ten out of 12 agricultural commodities under investigation from the second large-scale asset purchases (in 2010 but the first set large-scale asset purchases had only two positive effects.

  11. The Predictability of GARCH-Type Models on the Returns Volatility of Primary Indonesian Exported Agricultural Commodities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saarce Elsye Hatane

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural sector plays an important role in Indonesia‟s economy; especially for the plantation sub-sector contributing high revenues to Indonesia‟s exporting sectors. The primary agricultural commodities in Indonesian export discussed in this study would be Crude Palm Oil (CPO, Natural Rubber TSR20, Arabica Coffee, Robusta Coffee, Cocoa, White Pepper and Black Pepper. Meanwhile, the returns volatility nature of agricultural commodity is famous. The volatility refers to heteroscedasticity nature of the returns which can be modeled by GARCH-type models. The returns volatility can be describe by the residual of the mean equation and volatility of error variances in the previous periods. The aims of this study are to examine the predictability of GARCH-type models on the returns volatility of those seven agricultural commodities and to determine the best GARCH-type models for each commodity based on the traditional symmetric evaluation statistics. The results find that the predictability of ARCH, GARCH, GARCH-M, EGACRH and TGARCH, as type of GARCH models used in this study, are different for each commodity.

  12. Price transmission for agricultural commodities in Uganda: An empirical vector autoregressive analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen Kaspersen, Line; Føyn, Tullik Helene Ystanes

    price relations, i.e. the price variations between geographically separated markets in Uganda and the world markets. Our analysis indicates that food markets in Uganda, based on our study of sorghum price transmission, are not integrated into world markets, and that oil prices are a very determining...... factor for price transmission within the country. However, the case is a bit different for the cash crop, Robusta coffee. In the period in the 1990’s with high coffee prices on the world market, prices in Uganda were strongly connected to world prices, and did not depend on the oil price. This indicates......This paper investigates price transmission for agricultural commodities between world markets and the Ugandan market in an attempt to determine the impact of world market prices on the Ugandan market. Based on the realization that price formation is not a static concept, a dynamic vector...

  13. Viewpoint. Community-Supported Agriculture: Opportunities for Environmental Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Timothy P.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the Community Farm of Ann Arbor, Michigan, in the context of critical social, economic, and environmental issues related to agriculture and the rural environment and the emerging movement for community-supported agriculture (CSA) in the United States. Discusses how CSA works, biodynamic agriculture, and opportunities for environmental…

  14. The Competitiveness of Agricultural Foreign Trade Commodities of the CR Assessed by Way of the Lafay Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Burianová, A. Belova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with agricultural foreign trade of the Czech Republic in the period of 2008 – 2011. For the whole sector structure of agricultural production – 24 aggregations of commodities structured according to chapters of food goods - it attempts to ascertain how the individual commodities are faring on the foreign market. It presents several tools for the assessment of competitiveness. Primarily, this includes the Balassa auxiliary RCA (Revealed Comparative Advantage index, and the Lafay index. The last, most comprehensive criterion was utilized – the Lafay index. For the years in question, attention is first given to the overall development of agricultural foreign trade (AFT, the value of export and import is summarized, and the balance and turnover is calculated. The territorial structure is shown, total export is studied, as well as export into the EU 27 countries, into the three countries that are the biggest trading partners (Germany, Slovakia, Poland and into third countries. For the last year, 2011, the results for the aggregations of commodities that show up on the given market are processed into clear tables, with the order of the first five aggregations of commodities being shown. The results for the year 2008 are set out briefly, and changes in the structure that occurred within the past four years are discussed.The article was prepared as part of the Research Project MSM 6046070906 “Economics of Resources of Czech Agriculture and Their Effective Utilization within Multifunctional Agricultural-Food Systems”.

  15. Agricultural Education: Key to Providing Broader Opportunities for Third World Women in Production Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelle, Mark A.; Holt, Barbara A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors focus on providing opportunities for women in Third World countries in agriculture. A review of the body of knowledge in agricultural development and of the issues surrounding current world food crises is included. (CH)

  16. 75 FR 15403 - Information Collection, Procurement of Agricultural Commodities for Foreign Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... vendors while allowing CCC to more efficiently acquire commodities. The Web-Based Supply Chain System... services, such as transportation, for use in international programs. Ocean transportation contracting...

  17. 48 CFR 470.201 - Acquisition of commodities and freight shipment for Foreign Agricultural Service programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements and on an overall (foreign and U.S. flag) basis for the remaining portion of the commodities being... determination. (b) Multiple offers or delivery points. If more than one offer for the sale of commodities is...; (iii) Provide the same deadline for receipt of written freight offers from both U.S. flag vessel...

  18. A Simple Model of Endogenous Agricultural Commodity Price Fluctuations with Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Sophie Mitra; Jean-Marc Boussard

    2011-01-01

    A debate has been raging for centuries regarding the effects of inter-annual storage on commodity prices. Most analysts consider storage to function as a price stabilizer, while others place it at the core of an explanation of intriguing features of commodity price series, such as skewed distributions. Most studies have been developed in the context of the theory of competitive storage where random shocks affect supply or demand. Recently, the endogenous chaotic behavior of markets has become...

  19. Irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment of food and agricultural commodities. Proceedings of a final research coordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    World trade in fresh horticultural produce, durables and ornamentals continues to grow. Accompanying increased trade in agricultural products is the increased risk for inadvertently transporting quarantine pests to countries or regions where they do not occur. Quarantined pests, including insects such as fruit flies, beetles, moths, scales, mealybugs, thrips, and mites, can seriously disrupt marketing of fresh agricultural products not only between countries, but also between geographical areas within countries (e.g. Florida to California; Hawaii to mainland USA; Queensland to Victoria, Australia; Okinawa to Japan) unless accepted postharvest quarantine treatments are available. Quarantine or phytosanitary treatments (such as fumigation, heat, cold or irradiation) disinfest host commodities of insect pests before they are moved through market channels to areas where the pests do not occur. Among the phytosanitary treatments, irradiation is recognized as a versatile treatment with broadspectrum activity against arthropod pests at dose levels that have minimal adverse effects on the quality of most commodities. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, initiated in 1998 a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Irradiation as a Phytosanitary Treatment of Food and Agricultural Commodities. This CRP included 16 participants from Australia, Brazil, Chile, China (2), India, Islamic Republic of Iran, Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, Poland, Syrian Arab Republic, Thailand, Turkey and the USA (2). Research coordination meetings were held in Bangkok, Thailand, 29 March - 2 April 1999; Fresno, California, 13-16 November 2001; and Vienna, 2-4 November 2002. This CRP built on the achievements of two previous CRPs on Irradiation as a Quarantine Treatment of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables, (1986-1990), and Irradiation as a Quarantine Treatment of Mites, Nematodes and Insects other than Fruit Flies(1992-1997). This publication presents the research results

  20. Co-ordinated research programme on use of irradiation as a quarantine treatment of food and agricultural commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This brief article summarizes the reports presented at the Final Research Co-ordination Meeting on the use of irradiation as a quarantine treatment of food and agricultural commodities. The results show that irradiation is a viable alternative to ethylene dibromide fumigation of food, and that neither the radiation dose required for fruit fly disinfestation (0.15 kGy) nor that required to provide quarantine security against other arthropod pests (0.3 kGy) causes significant changes in the physicochemical or organoleptic properties of most fruits and vegetables. 1 ref

  1. Summary report on the use of irradiation as a quarantine treatment of agricultural commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considerable data are available to demonstrate that gamma irradiation is an effective quarantine treatment for papaya infested with fruit fly species found in Hawaii. These data are acceptable to the USDA-APHIS as a quarantine treatment for this commodity. However, its practical application can be realized only when FDA approves the use of irradiation, either for this purpose alone or as a process of food preservation. Additional data are needed to develop quarantine treatment schedules for irradiation of other commodities such as citrus, stone fruits, tropical fruits, etc., against these and other insect species. For this reason, a Consultant Meeting was convened at the East-West Center, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii from 21 to 23 November, 1983, to evaluate existing data and to define future activities to establish the possible use of irradiation as an acceptable quarantine treatment

  2. Empirical research on spatial and time series properties of agricultural commodity prices

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xing

    2012-01-01

    The integration of European agriculture into the world economy has also accelerated price interaction between member states and the rest of the world during last decades. Consequently, the fluctuation in world market prices was more quickly transmitted to European member states, including Finland. Increasing price uncertainty and price volatility in agricultural products became more evident. The openness of regional agriculture such as EU and Finnish to the world is irreversible, and the int...

  3. 78 FR 32227 - Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act; Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... 35), this document announces the Agricultural Marketing Service's (AMS) intention to request approval..., and brokers engaged in the business of buying, selling, or negotiating the purchase or sale...

  4. Processing of food and agricultural commodities with electron beam from microtron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A microtron machine source installed by the Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT), Indore, at Mangalore University, was used in the study. The machine was operated at a beam power of 1.8 W, beam energy of 8.6 MeV, and a beam current of 20 mA. After initial standardization, the irradiation of commodities was carried out. The doses employed were 0.06 kGy for onion, 0.10 kGy for potato, 0.25 kGy for rawa, and 8 kGy for spices. The desired dose was delivered by exposing the samples from the two opposite sides of the box. The microbial load in spice samples was determined immediately after the experiment, as well as after six months of storage at the ambient temperature (26±2 degC). Onion and potato samples were stored for a six months period both at ambient temperature and 15 degC for observing the effect of electron beam irradiation on sprouting in these commodities. Rawa samples were stored at ambient temperature for observing the effect of electron beam irradiation on insect disinfestation. The electron beam irradiation at the recommended doses was found to be as effective as gamma radiation in bringing down the microbial load of the tested spices to the desired level, disinfestations of rawa, and inhibition of sprouting in onion. In the case of potato even four-side irradiation of the product box did not inhibit the sprouting completely. This indicated the necessity of standardization of machine parameters for uniform dose distribution in the product box for each commodity. These lab-scale studies showed that electron beam could in principle be used for processing of various food products after standardizing the machine parameters and ensuring uniform dose distribution in the product. Use of this technology on commercial scale would need standardization on larger machines

  5. Supplement: Commodity Index Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Commodity Futures Trading Commission — Shows index traders in selected agricultural markets. These traders are drawn from the noncommercial and commercial categories. The noncommercial category includes...

  6. Co-location opportunities for renewable energy and agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Sujith; Macknick, Jordan; Lobell, David; Field, Christopher; Elchinger, Michael; Stoltenberg, Blaise

    2015-04-01

    Solar energy installations in arid and semi-arid regions are rapidly increasing, due to technological advances and policy changes. Large-scale expansion of solar infrastructure can adversely impact land and water resources. A major challenge is how to meet the ever-expanding energy demand with limited land and water resources, in the context of increasing competition from agricultural and domestic consumption. We explored opportunities to co-locate solar infrastructures and agricultural crops or biofuel feedstocks to maximize the efficiency of land and water use. We considered energy inputs/outputs, water use, greenhouse gas emissions and economics of solar installations in comparison to location-specific agricultural /biofuel crops in different arid regions of the world. The life cycle analyses show that co-located systems are economically viable in some areas and may provide opportunities for electrification and stimulate economic growth in rural areas. The water inputs for cleaning solar panels (photo voltaic) or mirrors (concentrated solar) and dust suppression are similar to amounts required for the desert-adapted crops (e.g. agave, aloe) considered in the study, suggesting the possibility of integrating the two systems to maximize water and land use efficiency. A life-cycle analysis of a hypothetical co-location indicated higher returns per m3 of water used than either system alone. Arid and semi arid regions of the world are experiencing high population growth, creating additional demand for land and water resources. In these water limited areas, coupled solar infrastructure and agriculture could be established on marginal lands, thus minimizing the socioeconomic and environmental issues resulting from cultivation of high value non-food crops in prime agricultural lands.

  7. Economic feasibility studies using radiation for the preservation of some agricultural commodities in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilot-scale experiments on irradiation and storage of onions, garlic and mangoes were carried out using commercial storage facilities. The benefits of irradiation in terms of loss reduction and cost were calculated. The results showed that the percentage of marketable weight of irradiated onions was significantly higher than that of untreated samples after 5 months of storage. Cost analyses showed that irradiation exhibits incremental benefit for treating the commodity. Irradiated garlic kept under commercial cold storage had a higher marketable weight than the non-treated sample which was stored at ambient condition after 7 months. The incremental benefit of irradiation plus cold storage was Peso 4350 per ton for this duration of storage. A comparison of treatment costs of mangoes by fumigation, irradiation and hot-water dip plus irradiation was made. Irradiation cost was calculated to be Peso 9325/ton as compared to Peso 18785/ton for fumigation and Peso 9625/ton for hot water dip plus irradiation

  8. Marketing patterns of agricultural commodities in an upland area of Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M. van Ommeren

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the uplands of Central Java a wide variety of dry cultivated crops are produced for subsistence as well as for cash. The marketing channels for these crops are also diverse. The producers can choose between selling at the market place or at their farms; either to consumers or traders; or they can sell their products to wholesalers in the towns. However, this freedom of choice is not absolute and is determined by the quantity of the merchandise. Farmers/who can sell large amounts of produce are able to bypass some steps in the hierarchical order of market places or traders. Thus, producers with relatively large farmlands can sell their commodities in more profitable ways compared to those with /smaller farms. Moreover, the latter are often forced to sell their produce below market value to traders who provided them with advance or who bought the crop before harvest (tebasan, because of their need for cash

  9. Processing of food and agricultural commodities with electron beam from microtron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A microtron machine source installed by the Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT), Indore, at Mangalore University, was used to study effects of irradiation on onion, potato, rava, and spices. The microbial load in spice samples was determined immediately after the experiment, as well as after six months of storage at the ambient temperature (26±2 deg C). Onion and potato samples were stored for a six months period both at ambient temperature and 15 deg C for observing the effect of electron beam irradiation on sprouting in these commodities. Rawa samples were stored at ambient temperature for observing the effect of electron beam irradiation on insect disinfestation. The results are discussed in detail in this paper. These lab-scale studies showed that electron beam could in principle be used for processing of various food products after standardizing the machine parameters and ensuring uniform dose distribution in the product. (author)

  10. Irradiation as a quarantine treatment of agricultural commodities against arthropod pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of quarantine treatments is to eliminate, as far as possible, the risks of introduction or establishment of exotic pests in countries or regions where they do not already occur. Treatments may be applied to host commodities traded commercially or carried by travellers. Ionizing radiation is very effective when used as a quarantine treatment to disinfest fresh, dried or processed fruits, grains and other plant materials. It is highly effective in killing or inactivating arthropod pests, leaves no residues, and at the low doses required it can be used on most commodities without affecting the quality. The most important single pest group of quarantine importance internationally is arguably fruit flies in fresh fruits and vegetables. More than thirty species of fruit flies are recognized as serious quarantine pests. Dose-mortality studies with irradiation have shown that doses of 75-150 Gy prevent adult emergence. At two Task Force Meetings on Irradiation as a Quarantine Treatment convened by the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation, a generic dose of 150 Gy was recommended against any fruit, based on extensive research data for these pests. Most fruits are relatively unaffected by quarantine disinfestation treatments of 100-300 Gy but some, for example avocado, appear to be intolerant. Other pests of quarantine importance for which irradiation is an appropriate disinfestation treatment include certain moths (Lepidoptera), beetles (Coleoptera), bugs (Homoptera), flies (Diptera), thrips (Thysanoptera) and mites (Acarina). The Task Force Group also recommended that a generic treatment of 300 Gy, based on the inability to perpetuate the species, would be appropriate for any pest other than fruit fly. This was derived from extensive research on the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and the mango seed weevil, Sternochaetus mangiferae (Fabricius), with supporting results on eleven other pests from six orders. (author). 54 refs, 2 tabs

  11. SUSTAINABLE ORGANIC AGRICULTURE: OPPORTUNITY FOR THAI-RURAL FARMER DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waripas Jiumpanyarach

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed an opportunity of rural farmers in north of Thailand by interviewing 124 households which were 59 families from Tumbon-Santa Aumpor- Narnoi Nan province, 23 families from Tumbon-Banlao Aumpor-Mayjai Prayao Province, 22 families from Tumbon-Sritoi Aumpor-Mayjai Prayao Province, and 20 families from Tumbon-Parfak Aumpor-Mayjai Prayao Province during January 2012 – October 2012. Probit model was developed to answer some factors that impacted farm’s income. The results showed that the relationships between both organic and inorganic land and income level are positive. Most of the farmers were willing to change from conventional agricultures to organic agriculture but they did not have enough information and extension from government and private sectors. Comparing benefits and cost between conventional and organic agriculture found that organic agricultures provided better price and farmers will have better quality of live. Systems of knowledge and policies need to be developed and apply for peasants and farmers in north rural area in Thailand.

  12. Using irradiation for preservation of foods and agricultural commodities in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Agricultural Policy was formulated to draw the guideline for the development of Malaysian agriculture until 2000. The most important aspect of the policy is to encourage the agricultural sector to increase productivity in order to attain self-sufficiency and to promote export. To increase agricultural and food production, it is necessary to upgrade the quality and to reduce postharvest loss. The food preservation during handling, processing and storage is important, and the current preservation methods emphasize the improvement in handling, drying, chilling, freezing and the use of chemicals. The technology of food irradiation was introduced only at the research level in Malaysia in 1974. Presently, UTN (Unit Tenaga Nuklear) has a semi-commercial Co-60 facility suitable for the research and development of food irradiation. The commercial use of irradiation and the marketing of treated agricultural and food products are still prohibited. The objective of this paper is to review briefly the possibility of the practical application of food irradiation in Malaysia. The irradiation of rice, black and white pepper, frozen shrimps, cocoa, fruits and vegetables is discussed. (K.I.)

  13. Prices of agricultural commodities, biofuels and fossil fuels in long-run relationships: a comparative study for the USA and Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Tanja; Bentzen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Time-series data for the USA and Europe representing prices of agricultural commodities, biofuels and fossil fuels are used for a comparative analysis of long-run price relationships. There is some evidence for cointegration between ethanol and gasoline, especially for the USA, and in the case of...... of biodiesel, stronger evidence of cointegration between biodiesel, diesel and soya oil for both the USA and Europe. Finally, biofuel prices do not seem to influence agricultural commodity prices or fossil fuel prices.......Time-series data for the USA and Europe representing prices of agricultural commodities, biofuels and fossil fuels are used for a comparative analysis of long-run price relationships. There is some evidence for cointegration between ethanol and gasoline, especially for the USA, and in the case...

  14. Harmonisation of food consumption data format for dietary exposure assessments of chemicals analysed in raw agricultural commodities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boon, Polly E.; Ruprich, Jiri; Petersen, Annette;

    2009-01-01

    in RACs at a European level. In this approach, consumption data needs to be converted to edible part of RAC (e-RAC) level using a RAC conversion database. To subsequently use this data in exposure assessments, both e-RACs and RACs analysed in chemical control programmes should be classified via a uniform...... system. Furthermore, chemical concentrations in RACs may need to be converted to e-RAC level using processing factors. To illustrate the use of this approach, we describe how the Dutch RAC conversion database was used to convert consumption data of four national consumption surveys to e-RAC level......In this paper, we present an approach to format national food consumption data at raw agricultural commodity (RAC) level. In this way, the data is both formatted in a harmonised way given the comparability of RACs between countries, and suitable to assess the dietary exposure to chemicals analysed...

  15. Postradiation mortality of the mold mite, Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) (Acarida: Acaridae), infesting agricultural commodities and used packagings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postradiation mortality of deutonymphs and adults of the mold mite, Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) , the most resistant stages to gamma irradiation, was studied. Mites were irradiated with doses of gamma radiation within a wide range (0.26 - 2.11 kGy). Survival time of irradiated adults decreased with increasing dose. Females irradiated with higher doses lived longer than males. A dose in the range of 1.5 - 2.1 kGy would be sufficient if mortality of the mold mite within a 10-day period is the aim of radiation disinfestation of used packagings. However, the use of such high doses of gamma radiation for direct killing the acarid mites within a commodity may adversely affect many agricultural products, and it would require more shielding and would be expensive. Therefore, lower doses of gamma radiation (≥ 0.26 kGy), causing the sterility in mites, are suggested for irradiation of these products. (author)

  16. Flavone-rich maize: An opportunity to improve the nutritional value of an important commodity crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel Casas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural outputs have resulted in food production continuously expanding. Satisfying the needs of a fast growing human population, higher yields, more efficient food processing, and food esthetic value, resulted in crop varieties with higher caloric intake but lacking many phytochemicals important for plant protection and adequate human nutrition. The increasing incidence of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, combined with social disparity worldwide prompted the interest in developing enhanced crops that can simultaneously address the two sides of the current malnutrition sword, increasing yield while providing added nutritional value. Flavones, phytochemicals associated with the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet, have potent anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic activities. However, many Mediterranean diet-associated vegetables are inaccessible, or lowly consumed, in many parts of the world. Maize is the most widely grown cereal crop, yet most lines used for hybrid maize production lack flavones. As a first step towards a sustainable strategy to increasing the nutritional value of maize-based diets, we investigated the accumulation and chemical properties of flavones in maize seeds of defined genotypes. We show that the pericarps of the P1-rr genotype accumulate flavones at levels comparable to those present in some flavone-rich vegetables, and are mostly present in their C- and O-glycosylated forms. Some of these glycosides can be readily converted into the corresponding more active health beneficial aglycones during food processing. Our results provide evidence that nutritionally beneficial flavones could be re-introduced into elite lines to increase the dietary benefits of maize.

  17. 31 CFR 538.523 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 99 from BIS for medicines and submit a copy to OFAC. See 15 CFR 745.3 for instructions for obtaining... Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1, and that fall within the term “agricultural commodity” as... on the Commerce Control List in the Export Administration Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement...

  18. Modeling agricultural commodity prices and volatility in response to anticipated climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobell, D. B.; Tran, N.; Welch, J.; Roberts, M.; Schlenker, W.

    2012-12-01

    Food prices have shown a positive trend in the past decade, with episodes of rapid increases in 2008 and 2011. These increases pose a threat to food security in many regions of the world, where the poor are generally net consumers of food, and are also thought to increase risks of social and political unrest. The role of global warming in these price reversals have been debated, but little quantitative work has been done. A particular challenge in modeling these effects is that they require understanding links between climate and food supply, as well as between food supply and prices. Here we combine the anticipated effects of climate change on yield levels and volatility with an empirical competitive storage model to examine how expected climate change might affect prices and social welfare in the international food commodity market. We show that price level and volatility do increase over time in response to decreasing yield, and increasing yield variability. Land supply and storage demand both increase, but production and consumption continue to fall leading to a decrease in consumer surplus, and a corresponding though smaller increase in producer surplus.

  19. The accountancy implications of commodity derivatives in the agricultural sector / Susanna Levina Middelberg

    OpenAIRE

    Middelberg, Susanna Levina

    2011-01-01

    Food security is a global topic of discussion and agricultural sectors play a vital role in the provision thereof. In South Africa the agribusinesses are some of the key players in providing financing, risk management and market advisory services to producers. Since the deregulation of the grain industry during 1996, many of these agribusinesses have converted their business form from cooperative to company and therefore adhere to International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). These agri...

  20. Recent trends and prospects for agricultural commodity exports in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Takamasa Akiyama; Larson, Donald F

    1989-01-01

    Sub - Sahran African (SSA) countries have seen sharp declines in their shares of agricultural export markets. But their export dependence on the most important crops - coffee and cocoa - has increased. Comparisons in the region and with countries outside the region show the importance of appropriate exchange rates and producer pricing policies, as well as support for technological advancement, for good performance in these sectors. Some countries have successfully introduced changes in these ...

  1. Missouri Agricultural Energy Saving Team-A Revolutionary Opportunity (MAESTRO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntosh, Jane [MDA; Schumacher, Leon [University of Missouri

    2014-10-23

    The Missouri Agricultural Energy Saving Team-A Revolutionary Opportunity (MAESTRO) program brought together a team of representatives from government, academia, and private industry to enhance the availability of energy efficiency services for small livestock producers in the State of Missouri. The Missouri Department of Agriculture (MDA) managed the project via a subcontract with the University of Missouri (MU), College of Agriculture Food and Natural Resources, MU Extension, the MU College of Human Environmental Sciences, the MU College of Engineering, and the Missouri Agricultural and Small Business Development Authority (MASBDA). MU teamed with EnSave, Inc, a nationally-recognized expert in agricultural energy efficiency to assist with marketing, outreach, provision of farm energy audits and customer service. MU also teamed with independent home contractors to facilitate energy audits of the farm buildings and homes of these livestock producers. The goals of the project were to: (1) improve the environment by reducing fossil fuel emissions and reducing the total energy used on small animal farms; (2) stimulate the economy of local and regional communities by creating or retaining jobs; and (3) improve the profitability of Missouri livestock producers by reducing their energy expenditures. Historically, Missouri scientists/engineers conducted programs on energy use in agriculture, such as in equipment, grain handling and tillage practices. The MAESTRO program was the first to focus strictly on energy efficiency associated with livestock production systems in Missouri and to investigate the applicability and potential of addressing energy efficiency in animal production from a building efficiency perspective. A. Project Objectives The goal of the MAESTRO program was to strengthen the financial viability and environmental soundness of Missouri's small animal farms by helping them implement energy efficient technologies for the production facility, farm

  2. 75 FR 8909 - Funding Opportunity Title: Commodity Partnerships for Small Agricultural Risk Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... various crop insurance provisions. St. Paul, Minnesota Regional Office (IA, MN, and WI)--AGR- Lite..., and WA.) Springfield, Illinois Regional Office: (IL, IN, MI, and OH.) St. Paul, Minnesota Regional... install fixed equipment; c. Repair or maintain privately owned vehicles; d. Pay for the preparation of...

  3. Stopping the spread of agricultural pests with radiation: Quarantine commodity treatments and eradication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almost 60 yr ago, E. F. Knipling, a young U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) entomologist, proposed that it might be economically feasible to eradicate the newly introduced screwworm from Florida if a way could be found to sterilize the males. He believed that the male screwworm fly's strong mating instinct would cause released sterile males to seek out and mate with native screwworm females, interrupting the normal reproductive cycle. Knipling thought this was possible because another USDA scientist, R. C. Bushland, had recently found a way to rear this animal parasite cheaply and in large numbers in the laboratory, making possible the rearing and release of large numbers of sterile male flies into the native population. Some 13 yr would pass before research showed that radiation-induced dominant lethal mutations offered an efficient, practical way to render screwworm flies sterile

  4. Comparing Critical Capitalist Commodity Chains in the Early Twenty-first Century: Opportunities For and Constraints on Labor and Political Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Sowers

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There have been a number of critical historical opportunities for labor to exert power by interrupting long distance flows of commodities at the extraction, processing, and transport stages. This vulnerability has been used by workers in these industries to gain higher wages and better working conditions and to achieve political goals in national and international arenas. In this paper, we compare two commodity chains that are critical components of the global economy. The first, which we describe as transport, is a broad category involving a range of manufactured goods, whose delivery to customers around the world was fundamentally changed in the past fifty years via "containerization" and "the logistics revolution." The second is oil and gas, which also has experienced recently dramatic changes in both extraction (via "tar sands" and "[racking" and transportation. In each case, we discuss possibilities and challenges for labor and political organizing to disrupt capital in these key commodity chains. We identify the "stakes" in each commodity chain by demonstrating the vulnerabilities on which labor and political organizations/movements could capitalize, which usually stem from the capital intensity and global integration of each critical commodity chain. These vulnerabilities are the factors which form the most basic opportunities for organizing in these sectors. Our analysis further suggests that while transport and raw materials remain vulnerable nodes in capitalist commodity chains, there are also constraints and challenges to be faced by labor and social movement organizations (SMOs that might attempt to leverage power over these circuits of the world-economy.

  5. 29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wild commodities. 780.114 Section 780.114 Labor Regulations... AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Agricultural Or Horticultural Commodities § 780.114 Wild commodities. Employees engaged in the gathering...

  6. Agriculture in Brazil and China : challenges and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Sawaya Jank; Shunli Yao; Carter, Colin A.; Mário Queiroz de Monteiro Jales

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the asymmetries and complementarities between Brazil's and China's agricultural sectors. Brazil and China are key players in world agriculture. Both countries are among the world's top five producers and exporters of agricultural products and have a significant portion of their population working in agriculture. However, four significant facts profoundly differentiate Brazilian and Chinese agriculture. First, while Brazil has one of the world's most liberal agricultural se...

  7. A method for calculating a land-use change carbon footprint (LUC-CFP) for agricultural commodities - applications to Brazilian beef and soy, Indonesian palm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, U Martin; Henders, Sabine; Cederberg, Christel

    2014-11-01

    The world's agricultural system has come under increasing scrutiny recently as an important driver of global climate change, creating a demand for indicators that estimate the climatic impacts of agricultural commodities. Such carbon footprints, however, have in most cases excluded emissions from land-use change and the proposed methodologies for including this significant emissions source suffer from different shortcomings. Here, we propose a new methodology for calculating land-use change carbon footprints for agricultural commodities and illustrate this methodology by applying it to three of the most prominent agricultural commodities driving tropical deforestation: Brazilian beef and soybeans, and Indonesian palm oil. We estimate land-use change carbon footprints in 2010 to be 66 tCO2 /t meat (carcass weight) for Brazilian beef, 0.89 tCO2 /t for Brazilian soybeans, and 7.5 tCO2 /t for Indonesian palm oil, using a 10 year amortization period. The main advantage of the proposed methodology is its flexibility: it can be applied in a tiered approach, using detailed data where it is available while still allowing for estimation of footprints for a broad set of countries and agricultural commodities; it can be applied at different scales, estimating both national and subnational footprints; it can be adopted to account both for direct (proximate) and indirect drivers of land-use change. It is argued that with an increasing commercialization and globalization of the drivers of land-use change, the proposed carbon footprint methodology could help leverage the power needed to alter environmentally destructive land-use practices within the global agricultural system by providing a tool for assessing the environmental impacts of production, thereby informing consumers about the impacts of consumption and incentivizing producers to become more environmentally responsible. PMID:24838193

  8. A method for calculating a land-use change carbon footprint (LUC-CFP) for agricultural commodities - applications to Brazilian beef and soy, Indonesian palm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, U Martin; Henders, Sabine; Cederberg, Christel

    2014-11-01

    The world's agricultural system has come under increasing scrutiny recently as an important driver of global climate change, creating a demand for indicators that estimate the climatic impacts of agricultural commodities. Such carbon footprints, however, have in most cases excluded emissions from land-use change and the proposed methodologies for including this significant emissions source suffer from different shortcomings. Here, we propose a new methodology for calculating land-use change carbon footprints for agricultural commodities and illustrate this methodology by applying it to three of the most prominent agricultural commodities driving tropical deforestation: Brazilian beef and soybeans, and Indonesian palm oil. We estimate land-use change carbon footprints in 2010 to be 66 tCO2 /t meat (carcass weight) for Brazilian beef, 0.89 tCO2 /t for Brazilian soybeans, and 7.5 tCO2 /t for Indonesian palm oil, using a 10 year amortization period. The main advantage of the proposed methodology is its flexibility: it can be applied in a tiered approach, using detailed data where it is available while still allowing for estimation of footprints for a broad set of countries and agricultural commodities; it can be applied at different scales, estimating both national and subnational footprints; it can be adopted to account both for direct (proximate) and indirect drivers of land-use change. It is argued that with an increasing commercialization and globalization of the drivers of land-use change, the proposed carbon footprint methodology could help leverage the power needed to alter environmentally destructive land-use practices within the global agricultural system by providing a tool for assessing the environmental impacts of production, thereby informing consumers about the impacts of consumption and incentivizing producers to become more environmentally responsible.

  9. Missouri Agricultural Energy Saving Team-A Revolutionary Opportunity (MAESTRO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntosh, Jane [MDA; Schumacher, Leon [University of Missouri

    2014-10-23

    The Missouri Agricultural Energy Saving Team-A Revolutionary Opportunity (MAESTRO) program brought together a team of representatives from government, academia, and private industry to enhance the availability of energy efficiency services for small livestock producers in the State of Missouri. The Missouri Department of Agriculture (MDA) managed the project via a subcontract with the University of Missouri (MU), College of Agriculture Food and Natural Resources, MU Extension, the MU College of Human Environmental Sciences, the MU College of Engineering, and the Missouri Agricultural and Small Business Development Authority (MASBDA). MU teamed with EnSave, Inc, a nationally-recognized expert in agricultural energy efficiency to assist with marketing, outreach, provision of farm energy audits and customer service. MU also teamed with independent home contractors to facilitate energy audits of the farm buildings and homes of these livestock producers. The goals of the project were to: (1) improve the environment by reducing fossil fuel emissions and reducing the total energy used on small animal farms; (2) stimulate the economy of local and regional communities by creating or retaining jobs; and (3) improve the profitability of Missouri livestock producers by reducing their energy expenditures. Historically, Missouri scientists/engineers conducted programs on energy use in agriculture, such as in equipment, grain handling and tillage practices. The MAESTRO program was the first to focus strictly on energy efficiency associated with livestock production systems in Missouri and to investigate the applicability and potential of addressing energy efficiency in animal production from a building efficiency perspective. A. Project Objectives The goal of the MAESTRO program was to strengthen the financial viability and environmental soundness of Missouri's small animal farms by helping them implement energy efficient technologies for the production facility, farm

  10. Improved (ERTS) information and its impact on U.S. markets for agricultural commodities: A quantitiative economic investigation of production, distribution and net export effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    An econometric investigation into the markets for agricultural commodities is summarized. An overview of the effort including the objectives, scope, and architecture of the analysis and the estimation strategy employed is presented. The major empirical results and policy conclusions are set forth. These results and conclusions focus on the economic importance of improved crop forecasts, U.S. exports, and government policy operations. A number of promising avenues of further investigation are suggested.

  11. Vertical coordination in high-value commodities

    OpenAIRE

    Birthal, Pratap S.; Joshi, P.K.; Gulati, Ashok

    2005-01-01

    "Rising per capita income, urbanization and globalization are changing the consumption basket in the developing countries towards high-value commodities (like fruits & vegetables, milk, meat, poultry, fish, etc.). This paper explores how smallholders can benefit from the emerging opportunities from a silent demand-driven changes in high-value agriculture in India. The study examines the institutional mechanisms adopted by different firms to integrate small producers of milk, broilers and vege...

  12. Comparison of production-phase environmental impact metrics derived at the farm- and national-scale for United States agricultural commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agricultural production is critical for human survival and simultaneously contributes to ecosystem degradation. There is a need for transparent, rapid methods for evaluating the environmental impacts of agricultural production at the system-level in order to develop sustainable food supplies. We have developed a method for estimating the greenhouse gas (GHG), land use and reactive nitrogen inputs associated with the agricultural production phase of major crop and livestock commodities produced in the United States (US). Materials flow analysis (MFA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) techniques were applied to national inventory datasets. The net anthropogenic nitrogen inputs (NANI) toolbox served as the primary accounting tool for LCA and MFA. NANI was updated to create links between nitrogen fertilizer and nitrogen fixation associated with feed crops and animal food commodities. Results for the functional units kilogram (kg) of product and kg of protein for 2002 data fall within ranges of published LCA results from farm-scale studies across most metrics. Exceptions include eutrophication potential for milk and GHGs for chicken and eggs, these exceptions arise due to differing methods and boundary assumptions; suggestions for increasing agreement are identified. Land use for livestock commodities are generally higher than reported by other LCA studies due to the inclusion of all land identified as pasture or grazing land in the US in this study and given that most of the estimates from other LCAs were completed in Europe where land is less abundant. The method provides a view of the entire US agricultural system and could be applied to any year using publically available data. Additionally, utilizing a top-down approach reduces data collection and processing time making it possible to develop environmental inventory metrics rapidly for system-level decision-making. (letter)

  13. Comparison of production-phase environmental impact metrics derived at the farm- and national-scale for United States agricultural commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Christine; Xue, Xiaobo; Howarth, Robert W.

    2015-11-01

    Agricultural production is critical for human survival and simultaneously contributes to ecosystem degradation. There is a need for transparent, rapid methods for evaluating the environmental impacts of agricultural production at the system-level in order to develop sustainable food supplies. We have developed a method for estimating the greenhouse gas (GHG), land use and reactive nitrogen inputs associated with the agricultural production phase of major crop and livestock commodities produced in the United States (US). Materials flow analysis (MFA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) techniques were applied to national inventory datasets. The net anthropogenic nitrogen inputs (NANI) toolbox served as the primary accounting tool for LCA and MFA. NANI was updated to create links between nitrogen fertilizer and nitrogen fixation associated with feed crops and animal food commodities. Results for the functional units kilogram (kg) of product and kg of protein for 2002 data fall within ranges of published LCA results from farm-scale studies across most metrics. Exceptions include eutrophication potential for milk and GHGs for chicken and eggs, these exceptions arise due to differing methods and boundary assumptions; suggestions for increasing agreement are identified. Land use for livestock commodities are generally higher than reported by other LCA studies due to the inclusion of all land identified as pasture or grazing land in the US in this study and given that most of the estimates from other LCAs were completed in Europe where land is less abundant. The method provides a view of the entire US agricultural system and could be applied to any year using publically available data. Additionally, utilizing a top-down approach reduces data collection and processing time making it possible to develop environmental inventory metrics rapidly for system-level decision-making.

  14. 7 CFR 65.135 - Covered commodity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Covered commodity. 65.135 Section 65.135 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.135 Covered commodity. (a) Covered...

  15. Educational and Training Opportunities in Sustainable Agriculture. 7th Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Jane Potter

    This directory contains information about institutions and organizations involved in organic, alternative, or sustainable agriculture, and its focus is on education, training, and provision of information. The directory contains program and contact information for 122 institutions, associations, centers, universities, and foundations; and 4…

  16. Educational and Training Opportunities in Sustainable Agriculture. 5th Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Jane Potter

    This directory lists 151 programs in alternative farming systems (systems that aim at maintaining agricultural productivity and profitability, while protecting natural resources, especially sustainable, low-input, regenerative, biodynamic or organic farming and gardening). It includes programs conducted by colleges and universities, research…

  17. Challenges and opportunities in supporting sustainable agriculture and food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 2014 IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry (San Francisco, August, 2014) included a symposium on “Challenges Associated with Global Adoption of Agricultural Biotechnology” to review current obstacles in promoting GM crops. Challenges identified by symposium presenters included i) ...

  18. Eco-efficient Agriculture: Concepts, Challenges, and Opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keating, B.A.; Carberry, P.S.; Bindraban, P.S.; Asseng, S.; Meinke, H.B.; Dixon, J.

    2010-01-01

    Eco-efficiency in the simplest of terms is about achieving more with less—more agricultural outputs, in terms of quantity and quality, for less input of land, water, nutrients, energy, labor, or capital. The concept of eco-efficiency encompasses both the ecological and economic dimensions of sustain

  19. New opportunities for agricultural digestate valorization: current situation and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Monlau, Florian; Sambusiti, Cécilia; Ficara, Elena; Aboulkas, A.; Barakat, Abdellatif; Carrère, Hélène

    2015-01-01

    In the agricultural sector of many European countries, biogas production through anaerobic digestion (AD) is becoming a very fast-growing market. Anaerobic digestion is a simple and robust process that biologically converts an organic matrix into biogas and digestate, the latter corresponding to the anaerobically non-degraded fraction. So far, digestate has been mostly used at farm-scales for improving soils or as fertilizer. However, its ever-increasing production induces problems related to...

  20. African Land Ecology: Opportunities and Constraints for Agricultural Development

    OpenAIRE

    R. L. Voortman; Sonneveld, B. G. J. S.; M.A. Keyzer

    2000-01-01

    Current agriculture in Sub-Sahara Africa is undeveloped and the Green Revolution has left the continent largely untouched. Poor performance is often related to a number of socio-economic factors. In this paper we argue that there are also some specifities of natural resources, namely local homogeneity and spatial diversity of the pre-dominant Basement Complex soils, that imply that simple fertilizer strategies may not produce the yield increases obtained elsewhere. Keywords: Sub-Sahara Africa...

  1. Working while travelling: Tourism development opportunities for agricultural regions

    OpenAIRE

    Ruhanen, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    While the backpacker visitor has received increasing attention over the past several decades, the notion of backpackers who work during their travels, despite some exceptions, has not been considered in such detail. Therefore, this paper examines the concept of the working backpacker and considers the opportunities this market subset can offer rural and regional areas. Utilising an Australian case study where 234 working backpacker visitors were surveyed; a preliminary analysis of this market...

  2. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in California Agricultural Irrigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Daniel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Aghajanzadeh, Arian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKane, Aimee [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Pumping water for agricultural irrigation represents a significant share of California’s annual electricity use and peak demand. It also represents a large source of potential flexibility, as farms possess a form of storage in their wetted soil. By carefully modifying their irrigation schedules, growers can participate in demand response without adverse effects on their crops. This report describes the potential for participation in demand response and automated demand response by agricultural irrigators in California, as well as barriers to widespread participation. The report first describes the magnitude, timing, location, purpose, and manner of energy use in California. Typical on-­farm controls are discussed, as well as common impediments to participation in demand response and automated demand response programs. Case studies of demand response programs in California and across the country are reviewed, and their results along with overall California demand estimates are used to estimate statewide demand response potential. Finally, recommendations are made for future research that can enhance the understanding of demand response potential in this industry.

  3. REVEALED COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE AND THE MEASUREMENT OF INTERNATIONAL COMPETITIVENESS FOR AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF WOOL EXPORTERS

    OpenAIRE

    Leishman, David; Menkhaus, Dale J.; Whipple, Glen D.

    1999-01-01

    Trade liberalization and laissez-faire economics are altering the structure of agricultural production and trade. The principle of comparative advantage, a classic tenet of economics, is a useful tool for understanding the future of world agriculture. This study employs a "Revealed Comparative Advantage" approach to investigate patterns of comparative advantage among six major wool exporting countries.

  4. Bio-energy utilizes surplusses at the agricultural commodity markets. Large potentials of the biomass; Bioenergie verwertet Ueberschuesse an den Agrarmaerkten. Grosse Potenziale der Biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-03-19

    At the beginning of spring in the northern hemisphere, the situation in agricultural markets relaxes visibly. After the year 2012 was characterized by periods of drought in the United States and some Eastern European countries, in recent months good harvests in major producing countries in the southern hemisphere have provided that the stocks of major agricultural commodities are grown again. Thus, enough resources are still available for the supply of food and energy. There still exists land potential in Europe and on other continents for the use of bio-energy. In addition to new power plant crops, known arable crop cultures contribute to the exploration of such a potential: An example of this is the sugar beet. The view on the global supply balance in agricultural goods inter alia the major staple food rice shows that there exist large surpluses on the food markets. However, these surpluses do not benefit the hungry persons in the world. Hunger is a problem of distribution which is not associated with the growth of bio-energy.

  5. Productivity developments in European agriculture: relations to and opportunities for biomass production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, M.P.; Londo, H.M.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses if, how fast and to what maximum yield improvements can be realized in Europe in the coming decades and what the opportunities and relations are to biomass production. The starting point for the analysis is the historic context of developments in European agriculture over the pa

  6. 7 CFR 46.39 - Inspection of commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection of commodities. 46.39 Section 46.39..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING OF PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES REGULATIONS (OTHER THAN RULES OF PRACTICE) UNDER THE PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES ACT, 1930...

  7. From the USDA: Educating the Next Generation: Funding Opportunities in Food, Agricultural, Natural Resources, and Social Sciences Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Joyce E; Wagner, David J

    2016-01-01

    The National Institute of Food and Agriculture within the U.S. Department of Agriculture provides leadership, capacity, and funds to support the continuing development of a safe and competitive agricultural system. Many of the agency's educational programs are led by the Division of Community and Education (DOCE). These programs span agricultural education, enhancing agricultural literacy through both formal and nonformal education. Here, we have highlighted funding opportunities within DOCE that enhance agricultural education and literacy by supporting the improvement of students' critical communication, leadership skills, and experiential learning opportunities. Some of these programs include opportunities for which students can apply, while others focus on faculty applications. Opportunities faculty can apply for may support student-recruitment and student-retention techniques, curriculum development, innovative teaching methods, and institutional capacity-building programs. Overall, these programs foster a diverse workforce in agricultural science that matches the increasing diversity of the country.

  8. From the USDA: Educating the Next Generation: Funding Opportunities in Food, Agricultural, Natural Resources, and Social Sciences Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Joyce E; Wagner, David J

    2016-01-01

    The National Institute of Food and Agriculture within the U.S. Department of Agriculture provides leadership, capacity, and funds to support the continuing development of a safe and competitive agricultural system. Many of the agency's educational programs are led by the Division of Community and Education (DOCE). These programs span agricultural education, enhancing agricultural literacy through both formal and nonformal education. Here, we have highlighted funding opportunities within DOCE that enhance agricultural education and literacy by supporting the improvement of students' critical communication, leadership skills, and experiential learning opportunities. Some of these programs include opportunities for which students can apply, while others focus on faculty applications. Opportunities faculty can apply for may support student-recruitment and student-retention techniques, curriculum development, innovative teaching methods, and institutional capacity-building programs. Overall, these programs foster a diverse workforce in agricultural science that matches the increasing diversity of the country. PMID:27587851

  9. From the USDA: Educating the Next Generation: Funding Opportunities in Food, Agricultural, Natural Resources, and Social Sciences Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Joyce E.; Wagner, David J.

    2016-01-01

    The National Institute of Food and Agriculture within the U.S. Department of Agriculture provides leadership, capacity, and funds to support the continuing development of a safe and competitive agricultural system. Many of the agency’s educational programs are led by the Division of Community and Education (DOCE). These programs span agricultural education, enhancing agricultural literacy through both formal and nonformal education. Here, we have highlighted funding opportunities within DOCE that enhance agricultural education and literacy by supporting the improvement of students’ critical communication, leadership skills, and experiential learning opportunities. Some of these programs include opportunities for which students can apply, while others focus on faculty applications. Opportunities faculty can apply for may support student-recruitment and student-retention techniques, curriculum development, innovative teaching methods, and institutional capacity-building programs. Overall, these programs foster a diverse workforce in agricultural science that matches the increasing diversity of the country. PMID:27587851

  10. Opportunities for Demand Response in California Agricultural Irrigation: A Scoping Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, Gary; Wilcox, Edmund; Olsen, Daniel; Goli, Sasank

    2013-01-02

    California agricultural irrigation consumes more than ten billion kilowatt hours of electricity annually and has significant potential for contributing to a reduction of stress on the grid through demand response, permanent load shifting, and energy efficiency measures. To understand this potential, a scoping study was initiated for the purpose of determining the associated opportunities, potential, and adoption challenges in California agricultural irrigation. The primary research for this study was conducted in two ways. First, data was gathered and parsed from published sources that shed light on where the best opportunities for load shifting and demand response lie within the agricultural irrigation sector. Secondly, a small limited survey was conducted as informal face-to-face interviews with several different California growers to get an idea of their ability and willingness to participate in permanent load shifting and/or demand response programs. Analysis of the data obtained from published sources and the survey reveal demand response and permanent load shifting opportunities by growing region, irrigation source, irrigation method, grower size, and utility coverage. The study examines some solutions for demand response and permanent load shifting in agricultural irrigation, which include adequate irrigation system capacity, automatic controls, variable frequency drives, and the contribution from energy efficiency measures. The study further examines the potential and challenges for grower acceptance of demand response and permanent load shifting in California agricultural irrigation. As part of the examination, the study considers to what extent permanent load shifting, which is already somewhat accepted within the agricultural sector, mitigates the need or benefit of demand response for agricultural irrigation. Recommendations for further study include studies on how to gain grower acceptance of demand response as well as other related studies such as

  11. 7 CFR 868.32 - Who shall inspect commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Who shall inspect commodities. 868.32 Section 868.32... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES Regulations Inspection Methods and Procedures § 868.32 Who shall inspect commodities. Official commodity inspections shall be performed only by official personnel....

  12. 7 CFR 247.28 - Storage and inventory of commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Storage and inventory of commodities. 247.28 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.28 Storage and inventory of commodities. (a) What are the requirements for storage of commodities? State and local...

  13. Challenges and Opportunities for Developing Capacity in Earth Observations for Agricultural Monitoring: The GEOGLAM Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcraft, A. K.; Di Bella, C. M.; Becker Reshef, I.; Deshayes, M.; Justice, C. O.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2011, the Group on Earth Observations Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) Initiative has been working to strengthen the international community's capacity to use Earth observation (EO) data to derive timely, accurate, and transparent information on agriculture, with the goals of reducing market volatility and promoting food security. GEOGLAM aims to develop capacity for EO-based agricultural monitoring at multiple scales, from national to regional to global. This is accomplished through training workshops, developing and transferring of best-practices, establishing networks of broad and sustainable institutional support, and designing or adapting tools and methodologies to fit localized contexts. Over the past four years, capacity development activities in the context of GEOGLAM have spanned all agriculture-containing continents, with much more work to be done, particularly in the domains of promoting access to large, computationally-costly datasets. This talk will detail GEOGLAM's experiences, challenges, and opportunities surrounding building international collaboration, ensuring institutional buy-in, and developing sustainable programs.

  14. Agricultural Sector of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Climate Change—Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognjen Zurovec

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Half of Bosnia and Herzegovina’s (BH population lives in rural areas. Agricultural production is a backbone of the rural economy and generates significant economic value for the country. BH is highly vulnerable to climate change, which poses a significant development challenge given the climate-sensitivity of the agricultural sector, the share of agriculture in the total economy, the number of people employed in the sector, and the closely related socio-economic issues of food security. BH has experienced serious incidences of extreme weather events over the past two decades, causing severe economic losses. Based on available data and currently available climate projections, exposure to threats from climate change will continue to increase. The review paper presents the current state of the BH agricultural sector and the impact of potential climate change on agricultural systems. It proposes policy options to optimize opportunities and mitigate consequences of possible climate change in the agricultural sector. Development of policy and research capacity should include harmonisation and centralisation of domestic agricultural policies, carrying out a vulnerability assessment and strengthening the public and private extension systems. Further technological development should include improvements in weather and climate information systems, crop development, irrigation and water management.

  15. UNCTAD commodity yearbook 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Commodity Yearbook is intended to provide disaggregated data at the world, regional and country levels for trade and consumption in selected agricultural primary commodities and minerals, ores and metals. Production series have been included for the latter group of commodities, since comprehensive diaggregated data are unavailable elsewhere. Basic tables have been designed, from both the commodity and the country point of view, to serve as background material to international commodity discussions and negotiations in the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. The classification of countries and territories by region has been adopted for statistical convenience only, and follows that employed by the Statistical Office of the United Nations. Four main regions are defined: Developed market economy countries, Countries of Eastern Europe, Socialist countries of Asia and Developing countries and territories. For developed and developing countries and territories, the main regions have been further subdivided (e.g., EEC, EFTA, Africa, etc.) to provide additional information. The exact composition of each region is shown in section V of the general notes

  16. More 'crop per drop': constraints and opportunities for precision irrigation in European agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, James M; Daccache, Andre; Vickers, Laura H; Hess, Tim M; Weatherhead, E Keith; Grove, Ivan G; Knox, Jerry W

    2013-03-30

    Dwindling water supplies, increasing drought frequency and uncertainties associated with a changing climate mean Europe's irrigated agriculture sector needs to improve water efficiency and produce more 'crop per drop'. This paper summarizes the drivers for change, and the constraints and opportunities for improving agricultural water management through uptake of precision irrigation technologies. A multi-disciplinary and integrated approach involving irrigation engineers, soil scientists, agronomists and plant physiologists will be needed if the potential for precision irrigation within the field crop sector is to be realized.

  17. Online Web portal of competence-based training opportunities for Organic Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Thanopoulos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A number of Information and Communication Technology (ICT tools such as web portals, learning portals and course management platforms have been developed and used in order to support EU-funded research and training projects in the area of Organic Agriculture (OA. This tools transfer the technological infrastructure needed in order to facilitate specific tasks, such as the organization of educational, research and information content, like the competences, learning opportunities, certificates and vocational opportunities. This paper presents the case of the CerOrganic Web portal (http://portal.cerorganic.eu, which is used for providing access to resources related to vocational education and training in the context of OA.

  18. 44 CFR 206.151 - Food commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Food commodities. 206.151... Food commodities. (a) The Administrator will assure that adequate stocks of food will be ready and... section, the Administrator may direct the Secretary of Agriculture to purchase food commodities...

  19. PROVIDING AGRICULTURAL RISKS IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA: TRENDS, PROBLEMS AND OPPORTUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia CAPRIAN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author presents results of scientific researches on the problems which farmers of the Republic of Moldova are facing in the field of risk management and insurance. In conclusion, the author formulates recommendations on farm managers’ opportunities to benefit from subsidized insurance, but also some recommendations resulting from the research of the experience of other countries from the European Union aimed to ensure the entrepreneurial risks in agricultural entities.

  20. Constellation Commodities Studies Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirschka, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Constellation program was NASA's long-term program for space exploration. The goal of the commodities studies was to solicit industry expertise in production, storage, and transportation required for future use and to improve efficiency and life cycle cost over legacy methods. Objectives were to consolidate KSC, CCAFS and other requirements; extract available industry expertise; identify commercial opportunities; and establish synergy with State of Florida partnerships. Study results are reviewed.

  1. Estimation Of Demand System In An Aids Model:The Opportunity For Exporting Thai Agricultural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waripas Jiumpanyarach

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of the estimation of Almost Ideal Demand System(AIDS model is developed to estimate quantity respond based on price. Five major export agricultural products data from the office of Agricultural Economics, Thailand and Biofuel policy from the office of the National Economic and Social Development Broad were used. The AIDS model estimatesdemand of palm, cassava, and sugar are highly response to changed price. Rubber and rice has less response to the changed price. All of major agricultural products are affect expenditure of Thailand export. This result suggest that the opportunity for increasing supply of energy plants, which benefits to Thai farmer communities for expanding market share in energy plants in domestic and global market.

  2. 7 CFR 1499.8 - Entry and handling of commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Entry and handling of commodities. 1499.8 Section 1499.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT....8 Entry and handling of commodities. (a) The participant shall make all necessary arrangements...

  3. Quantitative analysis of dicamba residues in raw agricultural commodities with the use of ion-pairing reagents in LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongyue; Riter, Leah S; Wujcik, Chad E; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2016-03-01

    A sensitive and selective HPLC-MS/MS method was developed for the quantitative analysis of dicamba residues in raw agricultural commodities (RACs). Instead of analysis in the traditionally used negative electrospray ionization (ESI) mode, these anionic compounds were detected in positive ESI with the use of ion-pairing reagents. In this approach, only a small amount (60µM) of a commercially available dicationic ion-pairing reagent was introduced into the post-column sample stream. This method has been validated in six different types of RACs including corn grain, corn stover, cotton seed, soybean, soy forage and orange with satisfactory quantitative accuracy and precision. The limits of quantitation (LOQ) values for these analytes were 1.0 to 3.0µg/kg. The standard curves were linear over the range of the tested concentrations (3.0 to 500µg/kg), with correlation coefficient (r) values≥0.999. Evaluation of ionization effects in RAC matrix extracts using diluent blanks for comparison showed no significant matrix effects were present. PMID:26717820

  4. Water Resources and Sustainable Agriculture in 21st Century: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrar, G.

    2008-05-01

    Global agriculture faces some unique challenges and opportunities for the rest of this century. The need for food, feed and fiber will continues to grow as the world population continue to increase in the future. Agricultural ecosystems are also expected to be the source of a significant portion of renewable energy and fuels around the world, without further compromising the integrity of the natural resources base. How can agriculture continue to provide these services to meet the growing needs of world population while sustaining the integrity of agricultural ecosystems and natural resources, the very foundation it depends on? In the last century, scientific discoveries and technological innovations in agriculture resulted in significant increase in food, feed and fiber production globally, while the total amount of water, energy, fertilizers and other input used to achieve this growth remained the same or even decreased significantly in some parts of the world. Scientific and technical advances in understanding global and regional water and energy cycles, water resources management, soil and water conservation practices, weather prediction, plant breeding and biotechnology, and information and communication technologies contributed to this tremendous achievement. The projected increase in global population, urbanization, and changing lifestyles will continue the pressure on both agriculture and other managed and natural ecosystems to provide necessary goods and services for the rest of this century. To meet these challenges, we must obtain the requisite scientific and technical advances in the functioning of Earth's water, energy, carbon and biogeochemical cycles. We also need to apply the knowledge we gain and technologies we develop in assessing Earth's ecosystems' conditions, and their management and stewardship. In agricultural ecosystems, management of soil and water quality and quantity together with development of new varieties of plants based on advances

  5. Commodity team motivation and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englyst, Linda; Jørgensen, Frances; Johansen, John;

    2007-01-01

    with a commodity team's objective of creating opportunities for synergy and coordination of purchasing. In the teams studied, motivation appeared to be influenced to some degree by a number of factors, including rewards, leadership behaviors, goal setting, and the career goals of the commodity team members......In this article, an in-depth single case study is presented in order to explore and discuss the functioning of commodity teams in a global sourcing context. Specifically the study aimed at identifying factors that may influence team members' motivation to participate in activities consistent...

  6. Co-location opportunities for renewable energy and agriculture in Northwestern India: Tradeoffs and Synergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, S.; Macknick, J.; Lobell, D. B.; Field, C. B.; Ganesan, K.; Jain, R.; Elchinger, M.; Stoltenberg, B.

    2014-12-01

    Solar energy installations in arid and semi-arid regions of India are rapidly increasing, due to technological advances and policy support. Even though solar energy provides several benefits such as reduction of greenhouse gases, reclamation of degraded land, and improving the quality of life, the deployment of large-scale solar energy infrastructure can adversely impact land and water resources. A major challenge is how to meet the ever-expanding energy demand with limited land and water resources, in the context of increasing competition from agricultural and domestic consumption. We investigated whether water consumption for solar energy development in northwestern India could impact other water and land uses, and explored opportunities to co-locate solar infrastructures and agricultural crops to maximize the efficiency of land and water use. We considered energy inputs/outputs, water use, greenhouse gas emissions and economics of solar installations in northwestern India in comparison to Aloe vera cultivation, a widely promoted land use in the region. The life cycle analyses show that co-located systems are economically viable in some rural areas and may provide opportunities for rural electrification and stimulate economic growth. The water inputs for cleaning solar panels and dust suppression are similar to amounts required for aloe, suggesting the possibility of integrating the two systems to maximize water and land use efficiency. A life-cycle analysis of a hypothetical co-location indicated higher returns per m3 of water used than either system alone. The northwestern region of India is experiencing high population growth, creating additional demand for land and water resources. In these water limited areas, coupled solar infrastructure and agriculture could be established on marginal lands, thus minimizing the socioeconomic and environmental issues resulting from cultivation of non-food crops (e.g. Aloe) in prime agricultural lands.

  7. 7 CFR 251.4 - Availability of commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of commodities. 251.4 Section 251.4... Availability of commodities. (a) General. The Department shall make commodities available for distribution and... receiving commodities under this part shall not diminish their normal expenditures for food because...

  8. ASSET STORABILITY AND HEDGING EFFECTIVENESS IN COMMODITY FUTURES MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jian; Awokuse, Titus O.

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines risk minimization hedging effectiveness for major storable and nonstorable agricultural commodity futures markets. Based on the error correction model bivariate GARCH frameworks, some evidence is found that the hedging effectiveness is stronger for storable commodities than nonstorable commodities under consideration. The finding illustrates an important difference between storable and nonstorable commodities with regard to their hedging function.

  9. Incorporating Agroforestry Approaches into Commodity Value Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Edward

    2011-08-01

    The productivity of tropical agricultural commodities is affected by the health of the ecosystem. Shade tolerant crops such as coffee and cocoa benefit from environmental services provided by forested landscapes, enabling landscape design that meets biodiversity conservation and economic needs. What can motivate farmers to apply and maintain such landscape approaches? Rather than rely on a proliferation of externally funded projects new opportunities are emerging through the international market that buys these commodities. As part of their growing commitment to sustainable supply chains, major companies are supporting agroforestry approaches and requiring producers and traders to demonstrate that the source of their commodities complies with a set of principles that conserves forested landscapes and improves local livelihoods. The paper presents examples of international companies that are moving in this direction, analyzes why and how they are doing it and discusses the impact that has been measured in coffee and cocoa communities in Latin America and Africa. It particularly considers the role of standards and certification systems as a driver of this commitment to promote profitable operations, environmental conservation and social responsibility throughout the coffee and cocoa value chains. Such approaches are already being taken to scale and are no longer operating only in small niches of the market but the paper also considers the limitations to growth in this market-based approach.

  10. Incorporating agroforestry approaches into commodity value chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Edward

    2011-08-01

    The productivity of tropical agricultural commodities is affected by the health of the ecosystem. Shade tolerant crops such as coffee and cocoa benefit from environmental services provided by forested landscapes, enabling landscape design that meets biodiversity conservation and economic needs. What can motivate farmers to apply and maintain such landscape approaches? Rather than rely on a proliferation of externally funded projects new opportunities are emerging through the international market that buys these commodities. As part of their growing commitment to sustainable supply chains, major companies are supporting agroforestry approaches and requiring producers and traders to demonstrate that the source of their commodities complies with a set of principles that conserves forested landscapes and improves local livelihoods. The paper presents examples of international companies that are moving in this direction, analyzes why and how they are doing it and discusses the impact that has been measured in coffee and cocoa communities in Latin America and Africa. It particularly considers the role of standards and certification systems as a driver of this commitment to promote profitable operations, environmental conservation and social responsibility throughout the coffee and cocoa value chains. Such approaches are already being taken to scale and are no longer operating only in small niches of the market but the paper also considers the limitations to growth in this market-based approach.

  11. Towards a Gendered Agro-Commodity Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primrose Nakazibwe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Commodity or value chains are the dominant means to channel agro-food products from cultivators to consumers. Direct open markets are either non-existent or insignificant . These chains are also the main mechanisms for integrating underprivileged groups into the world economy. Why do global value chains generate sorrow for many and joy for a few, and why are these outcomes heavily gender biased? To look for answers this article critically reviews the post-2000 and earlier gender literature by proponents and opponents of the mainstream value chain approach. The purpose is to provide a methodological contribution on the integration of gender into the commodity chain approach. Most studies have fo cused on the economic effects of chain dynamics on women in agricultural product and labor markets. Some have extended this reasoning with social and cultural effects. Despite these advances, analytical gaps still exist as most existing research has concentrated on the agricultural nodes of modern, high value chains and lacks a gendered conceptual foundation. Scarce attention has been given to traditional staple crops, non-agricultural nodes, and feed back effects of gender relations on the chain. Our results indicate that an appropriate GCC approach should also consider the gendered impacts of the interaction between the governance structure and the institutiona l embeddedness, as well as the consequences of intra-household division of resources and labor in all stages of the chain. These two conceptual complements will be needed to explain the opportunities and constraints to improve gender equity in traditional and modern agro-commodity chains.

  12. 7 CFR 65.125 - Commingled covered commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commingled covered commodities. 65.125 Section 65.125... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.125 Commingled covered commodities....

  13. Agricultural biogas plants – A systematic analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we discuss the prospects of agricultural biogas plants. We conducted an integrated SWOT–AHP analysis for such plants in Austria in order to identify strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT factors), and to weight the factors identified based on expert judgments, calculated according to the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. The results show that financial aspects are dominant in three of the four SWOT categories. Technological aspects and issues regarding utilization seem to play a relatively minor role. Factors that are not directly under the control of plant operators are currently perceived as crucial for the success of agricultural biogas plants. We conclude that such plants will only succeed in contributing to sustainable energy supply goals when economic and political conditions are favorable over the long term. - Highlights: • Integrated SWOT–AHP analysis for agricultural biogas plants in Austria. • Quantification of weighting factors based on expert judgments. • Financial aspects dominate over technological and environmental aspects. • Sophisticated and flexible subsidy schemes are crucial for the further diffusion of the technology

  14. 7 CFR 1499.9 - Damage to or loss of commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Damage to or loss of commodities. 1499.9 Section 1499.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION... or loss of commodities. (a) FAS will be responsible for the donated commodities prior to the...

  15. 7 CFR 1499.11 - Use of commodities and sale proceeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of commodities and sale proceeds. 1499.11 Section 1499.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT....11 Use of commodities and sale proceeds. (a) A participant must use the donated commodities...

  16. The impact of commodity price and conservation policy scenarios on deforestation and agricultural land use in a frontier area within the Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, R.W.; Rodrigues Filho, S.; Lindoso, D.; Debortoli, N.; Litre, G.; Bursztyn, M.

    2014-01-01

    Deforestation in the Amazon is caused by the complex interplay of different drivers. Price of commodities such as beef and soya, and incoming migration are paramount factors. Construction of new highways is a key aspect, as they enable a growing flow of people and economic activities, provoking an i

  17. 7 CFR 917.22 - Nomination of Peach Commodity Committee members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nomination of Peach Commodity Committee members. 917.22 Section 917.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... Nomination of Peach Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the Peach Commodity...

  18. Commodity team motivation and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englyst, Linda; Jørgensen, Frances; Johansen, John;

    2008-01-01

    opportunities for synergy and coordination of purchasing. In the teams studied, motivation appeared to be influenced to some degree by a number of factors, including rewards, leadership behaviours, goal setting, and the career goals of the commodity team members. In some cases, inconsistencies between......In this article, an in-depth single case study is presented in order to explore and discuss the functioning of commodity teams in a global sourcing context. Specifically, the study aimed at identifying factors that may influence team members' motivation to participate in activities that create...

  19. Commodity Team Motivation and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englyst, Linda; Jørgensen, Frances; Johansen, John;

    2008-01-01

    opportunities for synergy and coordination of purchasing. In the teams studied, motivation appeared to be influenced to some degree by a number of factors, including rewards, leadership behaviours, goal setting, and the career goals of the commodity team members. In some cases, inconsistencies between......In this article, an in-depth single case study is presented in order to explore and discuss the functioning of commodity teams in a global sourcing context. Specifically, the study aimed at identifying factors that may influence team members' motivation to participate in activities that create...

  20. Career opportunities for college graduates with the Agricultural Research Service Agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agricultural Research Service is the principal scientific research agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. This agency employs more than 7,600 people working at various locations in the United States and U.S. territories. Careers for new scientists span a variety of disciplines such as c...

  1. 29 CFR 780.151 - Particular operations on commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Particular operations on commodities. 780.151 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Preparation for Market § 780.151 Particular operations on...

  2. 7 CFR 247.10 - Distribution and use of CSFP commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distribution and use of CSFP commodities. 247.10... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.10 Distribution and use of CSFP commodities. (a) What are the requirements for distributing CSFP commodities...

  3. 7 CFR 253.3 - Availability of commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of commodities. 253.3 Section 253.3... FOR HOUSEHOLDS ON INDIAN RESERVATIONS § 253.3 Availability of commodities. (a) Conditions for... commodities to households under the authority of any law, except that distribution may be made (1) on...

  4. 7 CFR 1599.8 - Entry and handling of commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Entry and handling of commodities. 1599.8 Section... PROGRAM § 1599.8 Entry and handling of commodities. (a) The participant shall make all necessary arrangements for receiving the donated commodities in the targeted country, including obtaining...

  5. 75 FR 34973 - Notice of Opportunity To Submit Content Request for the Agricultural Energy Program Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... being conducted as a follow-on survey to the 2007 Census of Agriculture. In future years, annual surveys... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Agriculture. Respondents who answered that they generated energy or electricity in 2007 are eligible for...

  6. International portfolio diversification : commodities

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Khawar; Alija, Lulzim

    2013-01-01

    We study whether Norwegian Investors should include commodities in their portfolios. Firstly, we discuss the correlation and dispersion between commodities and international equity markets, in addition to possible time trends in the correlation and dispersion between the commodity and the equity market. Secondly, we analyze the return-to-risk tradeoff and the mean-variance efficiency when adding commodities to traditional portfolios. We find no added improvement to the mean-variance efficienc...

  7. Western Balkans: state of agriculture and its opportunities on the eve of EU accession

    OpenAIRE

    Tamás Mizik

    2011-01-01

    The Western Balkan countries can be characterised by their shared goal, which is the quickest possible accession to the European Union. Agriculture is an important obstacle to achieving this goal. The role of agriculture differs widely among the analysed countries but is more important than the average of the EU. This study gives a comprehensive overview of the most important agricultural indicators related to both crop and livestock production. These indicators present a precise picture of t...

  8. Western Balkans: State of Agriculture and its Opportunities on the Eve of EU Accession - II

    OpenAIRE

    Tamás Mizik

    2011-01-01

    The Western Balkan countries can be characterized by their shared goal, which is the quickest possible accession to the European Union. Agriculture is an important obstacle to achieving this goal. The role of agriculture differs widely among the analyzed countries but is more important than the average of the EU. This study gives a comprehensive overview of the most important agricultural indicators related to both crop and livestock production. These indicators present a precise picture of t...

  9. Agricultural Sector of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Climate Change—Challenges and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Ognjen Zurovec; Pål Olav Vedeld; Bishal Kumar Sitaula

    2015-01-01

    Half of Bosnia and Herzegovina’s (BH) population lives in rural areas. Agricultural production is a backbone of the rural economy and generates significant economic value for the country. BH is highly vulnerable to climate change, which poses a significant development challenge given the climate-sensitivity of the agricultural sector, the share of agriculture in the total economy, the number of people employed in the sector, and the closely related socio-economic issues of food security. BH...

  10. Agriculture as the opportunity for sustainable development of Slovene rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Lampič

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of agriculture in rural areas has changed significantly, it has even increased, since having been attributed numerous new functions, from social to ecologic. Also Slovene agriculture, its direction, intensity level, size and proprietal structure was subject to considerable changes as a result of inclusion of Slovenia in the EU and implementation of the Common Agricultural Policy. However it should be considered whether the direction of development of Slovene agriculture corresponds to protection and conservation of our major natural resources?

  11. Choke Points and Opportunities in the Supply Chain of ASEAN Agricultural Products: A Philippine Country Study

    OpenAIRE

    Israel, Danilo C.; Roehlano M. Briones

    2014-01-01

    This study identifies and examines "choke points" in the supply chain of two selected commodity groups that are of interest to the region of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations: crude coconut oil (which belongs to the HS15 group), and fish and crustacean, mollusks, and other aquatic invertebrates (which belong to the HS03 group). For crude coconut oil, no major choke points were identified from mill site to export stages, but cost and delay factors were found at the farm-to-mill stage,...

  12. COMMODITY PRICES AND UNIT ROOT TESTS

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Dabin; Tomek, William G.

    2004-01-01

    Endogenous variables in structural models of agricultural commodity markets are typically treated as stationary. Yet, tests for unit roots have rather frequently implied that commodity prices are not stationary. This seeming inconsistency is investigated by focusing on alternative specifications of unit root tests. We apply various specifications to Illinois farm prices of corn, soybeans, barrows and gilts, and milk for the 1960 through 2002 time span. The preponderance of the evidence sugges...

  13. EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR WEED SCIENTISTS IN THE USDA AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agricultural Research Service (ARS) is the agency that conducts in-house research within the United States Department of Agriculture. ARS conducts a broad research portfolio covering over 1200 projects at over 100 locations across the country. Weed science research is conducted on a range of t...

  14. Conservation agriculture for small holder rainfed farming: Opportunities and constraints of new mechanized seeding systems

    OpenAIRE

    Johansen, C; Haque, M.E.; R. W. Bell; Thierfelder, Christian; Esdaile, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    In the past, development and dissemination of conservation agriculture technologies, such as mechanized seeders and herbicides, has suited large-scale agricultural operations. Recent innovations specifically designed for smallholders have been developed in Brazil and introduced in Africa. These include animal-drawn rippers and direct seeders, which have produced equal yields to conventional tillage and seed broadcasting. However, more research is needed concerning weed management and place-ba...

  15. Opportunities and constraints of organic agriculture in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Arpaphan Pattanapant; Ganesh P. Shivakoti

    2009-01-01

    The application of chemicals in conventional agriculture to increase productivity can result in environmental degradation, bring about economic problems and cause harmful effects on farmers, labourers and consumers. Responding to these problems, a number of nongovernmental organizations and government agencies have been promoting organic agriculture in the province of Chiang Mai in order to assure food safety and at the same time alleviate the poverty of farmers. The present study discusses t...

  16. Western Balkans: State of Agriculture and its Opportunities on the Eve of EU Accession - I

    OpenAIRE

    Tamás Mizik

    2011-01-01

    The Western Balkan countries can be characterised by their shared goal, which is thequickest possible accession to the European Union. Agriculture is an important obstacle to achievingthis goal. The role of agriculture differs widely among the analysed countries but is more importantthan the average of the EU. This study gives a comprehensive overview of the most importantagricultural indicators related to both crop and livestock production. These indicators present aprecise picture of the se...

  17. Strategic pricing of commodities

    OpenAIRE

    Jörnsten, Kurt; Ubøe, Jan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we will consider a setting where a large number of agents are trading commodity bundles. Assuming that agents of the same type have a certain utility attached to each transaction, we construct a statistical equilibrium which in turn implies prices on the different commodities. Our basic question is then the following: Assume that some commodities come out with prices that are socially unacceptable. Is it possible to change these prices systematically if a new type of agents is p...

  18. Commodities Inventory Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Carpantier, Jean-Francois; DUFAYS, Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    Does commodity price volatility increase when inventories are low? We are the first ones to document this relationship. To that aim, we estimate asym- metric volatility models for a large set of commodities over 1994-2011. Since inventories are hard to measure, especially for high frequency data, we use positive return shocks as a new original proxy for inventories and find that asymmetric GARCH models reveal a significant inventory effect for many commodities. The results look robust. They h...

  19. The Principles and the Specifics of Trading in Commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Dušan; Herbacsková, Anita

    2012-12-01

    In the present period of instability on financial markets, investments in commodities are the solution for elimination of the consequences of inflation and ensure the yield. When investing in commodities, the use of specifics of commodities compared to other assets. The distribution of commodities we can interpret for agricultural commodities, commodities of energy, precious and other metals, and weather. Therefore, in the framework of the investment portfolio are the commodities. This is the reason why one of the most popular types of investment assets now become commodities. In the interpretation of particular commodities we talk about commodity futures. The reason is that the spot market with commodities is limited storage facilities. The growth of the popularity, which allows a wide range of commodities, has caused that in addition to from institutional investors and speculators for trade may involve even small investors. This development will be supplemented by interpretation of the charts and figers, which will be commented and used for generalization of knowledge. Finally, the article will be interpreted by the further development of the market for commodities as it by article assumes from the results of research.

  20. 7 CFR 226.5 - Donation of commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Donation of commodities. 226.5 Section 226.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT CARE FOOD PROGRAM Assistance to States § 226.5...

  1. Food, water, and fault lines: Remote sensing opportunities for earthquake-response management of agricultural water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jenna; Ustin, Susan; Sandoval-Solis, Samuel; O'Geen, Anthony Toby

    2016-09-15

    Earthquakes often cause destructive and unpredictable changes that can affect local hydrology (e.g. groundwater elevation or reduction) and thus disrupt land uses and human activities. Prolific agricultural regions overlie seismically active areas, emphasizing the importance to improve our understanding and monitoring of hydrologic and agricultural systems following a seismic event. A thorough data collection is necessary for adequate post-earthquake crop management response; however, the large spatial extent of earthquake's impact makes challenging the collection of robust data sets for identifying locations and magnitude of these impacts. Observing hydrologic responses to earthquakes is not a novel concept, yet there is a lack of methods and tools for assessing earthquake's impacts upon the regional hydrology and agricultural systems. The objective of this paper is to describe how remote sensing imagery, methods and tools allow detecting crop responses and damage incurred after earthquakes because a change in the regional hydrology. Many remote sensing datasets are long archived with extensive coverage and with well-documented methods to assess plant-water relations. We thus connect remote sensing of plant water relations to its utility in agriculture using a post-earthquake agrohydrologic remote sensing (PEARS) framework; specifically in agro-hydrologic relationships associated with recent earthquake events that will lead to improved water management. PMID:27241204

  2. Food, water, and fault lines: Remote sensing opportunities for earthquake-response management of agricultural water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jenna; Ustin, Susan; Sandoval-Solis, Samuel; O'Geen, Anthony Toby

    2016-09-15

    Earthquakes often cause destructive and unpredictable changes that can affect local hydrology (e.g. groundwater elevation or reduction) and thus disrupt land uses and human activities. Prolific agricultural regions overlie seismically active areas, emphasizing the importance to improve our understanding and monitoring of hydrologic and agricultural systems following a seismic event. A thorough data collection is necessary for adequate post-earthquake crop management response; however, the large spatial extent of earthquake's impact makes challenging the collection of robust data sets for identifying locations and magnitude of these impacts. Observing hydrologic responses to earthquakes is not a novel concept, yet there is a lack of methods and tools for assessing earthquake's impacts upon the regional hydrology and agricultural systems. The objective of this paper is to describe how remote sensing imagery, methods and tools allow detecting crop responses and damage incurred after earthquakes because a change in the regional hydrology. Many remote sensing datasets are long archived with extensive coverage and with well-documented methods to assess plant-water relations. We thus connect remote sensing of plant water relations to its utility in agriculture using a post-earthquake agrohydrologic remote sensing (PEARS) framework; specifically in agro-hydrologic relationships associated with recent earthquake events that will lead to improved water management.

  3. Graduate Education in Risk Analysis for Food, Agriculture, and Veterinary Medicine: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Ana-Paula; Wolt, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    The notion of risk in relation to food and food production has heightened the need to educate students to effectively deal with risk in relation to decision making from a science-based perspective. Curricula and related materials were developed and adopted to support graduate learning opportunities in risk analysis and decision making as applied…

  4. Namibia specific climate smart agricultural land use practices: Challenges and opportunities for enhancing ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Talamondjila Naanda, Martha; Bloemertz, Lena

    2015-04-01

    Agriculture is a backbone for many African economies, with an estimated 70% of Africans active in agricultural production. The sector often does not only directly contribute to, but sustains food security and poverty reduction efforts. Sustaining this productivity poses many challenges, particularly to small scale subsistence farmers (SSF) in dry land areas and semi-arid countries like Namibia. SSF in northern central Namibia mix crop and livestock production on degraded semi-arid lands and nutrient-poor sandy soils. They are fully dependent on agricultural production with limited alternative sources of income. Mostly, their agricultural harvests and outputs are low, not meeting their livelihood needs. At the same time, the land use is often not sustainable, leading to degradation. The Namibia case reveals that addressing underlying economic, social and environmental challenges requires a combination of farm level-soil management practices with a shift towards integrated landscape management. This forms the basis for SSF to adopt sustainable land management practices while building institutional foundations, like establishing SSF cooperatives. One way in which this has been tested is through the concept of incentive-based motivation, i.e. payment for ecosystem services (PES), in which some of the beneficiaries pay, for instance for farmers or land users, who provide the services. The farmers provide these services by substituting their unsustainable land and soil management and adopting new (climate smart agricultural) land use practices. Climate Smart Agricultural land use practices (CSA-LUP) are one way of providing ecosystem services, which could be fundamental to long-term sustainable soil and land management solutions in Africa. There are few PES cases which have been systematically studied from an institutional development structure perspective. This study presents lessons evolving from the notion that direct participation and involvement of local people

  5. 我国农产品新品种期货市场效率实证研究%Empirical Research on the Efficiency of New Products of Agriculture Commodity Futures Markets in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周蓓; 齐中英

    2013-01-01

    Empirical research on the efficiency of futures markets is the hot research field in futures markets. This paper examines the efficiency of random walk hypothesis for the new products of agriculture commodity futures markets in China:palm oil, colza oil and early long-grain rice futures which all come into the market after 2007. The random walk hypothesis is tested with Lo-MacKinlay variance ratio test and unit root test. We found that these three new products futures markets all follow the random walk hypothesis and therefore all reach the weak-form efficiency. This result shows although new products futures enter the market not long, but they are under the normal operation and steady development in the many joint efforts. Moreover, the successful coming into the market and effective operation of these new products futures must provide valuable experiences for the new products of agriculture commodity futures which will come into the market later.%  期货市场效率的实证研究是期货市场的一个热点研究领域。本文采用方差比方法并结合单位根方法,对我国07年以后上市的农产品期货新品种棕榈油、菜籽油及早籼稻期货市场的效率进行了随机游走检验,结果表明:这3个农产品新品种期货市场均满足随机游走假设,全部达到了信息弱式有效。这一实证结果说明,农产品期货新品种上市时间虽然不长,但是在多方的共同努力下,市场整体运行规范,稳步发展,在扶持现代农业发展中发挥了积极作用;并且农产品期货新品种的成功上市、有效运行,无疑为进一步农产品期货新品种的推出提供了值得借鉴的宝贵经验。

  6. The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 3: Intensive use of living resources, agriculture. Part 3: The integrated impact of improved (ERS) information on US agricultural commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, A. D.

    1974-01-01

    The economic value of information produced by an assumed operational version of an earth resources survey satellite of the ERTS class is assessed. The theoretical capability of an ERTS system to provide improved agricultural forecasts is analyzed and this analysis is used as a reasonable input to the econometric methods derived by ECON. An econometric investigation into the markets for agricultural commodities is summarized. An overview of the effort including the objectives, scopes, and architecture of the analysis, and the estimation strategy employed is presented. The results and conclusions focus on the economic importance of improved crop forecasts, U.S. exports, and government policy operations. Several promising avenues of further investigation are suggested.

  7. Western Balkans: State of Agriculture and its Opportunities on the Eve of EU Accession - II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Mizik

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Western Balkan countries can be characterised by their shared goal, which is thequickest possible accession to the European Union. Agriculture is an important obstacle to achievingthis goal. The role of agriculture differs widely among the analysed countries but is more importantthan the average of the EU. This study gives a comprehensive overview of the most importantagricultural indicators related to both crop and livestock production. These indicators present aprecise picture of the sector’s relevance, production structure, efficiency and international relations.After demonstrating changes in input use, production structure, prices, terms of trade and agriculturalpolicies, the next section identifies some of the reasons for these changes. The time horizon of theanalysis goes back to the early nineties and tries to capture some transition effects. The consequencesof the Yugoslav war can be easily recognised in every country involved. However, since the end ofthe war Serbia became the leading producer and the only net exporter of agricultural goods in theregion. Nevertheless, the current situation is endangered by several issues, such as imbalancedsectoral production, fragmented production structure, relatively low yields, unfavourable exportcomposition, and poor food hygiene and quality control, which anticipate painful and hard actionsneed to be carried out.

  8. Western Balkans: State of Agriculture and its Opportunities on the Eve of EU Accession - I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Mizik

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The Western Balkan countries can be characterised by their shared goal, which is thequickest possible accession to the European Union. Agriculture is an important obstacle to achievingthis goal. The role of agriculture differs widely among the analysed countries but is more importantthan the average of the EU. This study gives a comprehensive overview of the most importantagricultural indicators related to both crop and livestock production. These indicators present aprecise picture of the sector’s relevance, production structure, efficiency and international relations.After demonstrating changes in input use, production structure, prices, terms of trade and agriculturalpolicies, the next section identifies some of the reasons for these changes. The time horizon of theanalysis goes back to the early nineties and tries to capture some transition effects. The consequencesof the Yugoslav war can be easily recognised in every country involved. However, since the end ofthe war Serbia became the leading producer and the only net exporter of agricultural goods in theregion. Nevertheless, the current situation is endangered by several issues, such as imbalancedsectoral production, fragmented production structure, relatively low yields, unfavourable exportcomposition, and poor food hygiene and quality control, which anticipate painful and hard actionsneed to be carried out.

  9. Commodities and Stock Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Jawad Hussain Shahzad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is a multivariate analysis of commodities and stock investment in a newly established market scenario. Return distribution asymmetry is examined with higher order movements. Skewness in commodity future’s return is largely insignificant, whereas kurtosis is highly significant for both stock and commodity future contracts. Correlation analysis is done with Pearson’s and Kendall’s tau measures. Commodities provide significant diversification benefits when added in a portfolio of stocks. Compared with stocks, commodity future’s returns show stronger correlation with unexpected inflation. The volatility is measured through Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle - Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (GJR-GARCH model and reflects that commodities have inverted asymmetric behavior, that is, more impact from the upward shocks compared with downward. Stocks have asymmetric volatility, that is, more impact from negative shocks compared with positive. Gold has highest inverted asymmetric volatility. Tail dependence, measured through Student’s t copula, shows no combined downside movement. In conclusion, commodity investments provide diversification and inflation protection.

  10. Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on agriculture describes how climate change will affect primary agriculture production in Canada with particular focus on potential adaptation options, and vulnerability of agriculture at the farm level. Agriculture is a vital part of the Canadian economy, although only 7 per cent of Canada's land mass is used for agricultural purposes due to the limitations of climate and soils. Most parts of Canada are expected to experience warmer conditions, longer frost-free seasons and increased evapotranspiration. The impacts of these changes on agriculture will vary depending on precipitation changes, soil conditions, and land use. Northern regions may benefit from longer farming seasons, but poor soil conditions will limit the northward expansion of agricultural crops. Some of the negative impacts associated with climate change on agriculture include increased droughts, changes in pest and pathogen outbreaks, and moisture stress. In general, it is expected that the positive and negative impacts of climate change would offset each other. 74 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  11. Returns in commodities futures markets and financial speculation: a multivariate GARCH approach

    OpenAIRE

    Manera, Matteo; Nicolini, Marcella; Vignati, Ilaria

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses futures prices for four energy commodities (light sweet crude oil, heating oil, gasoline and natural gas) and five agricultural commodities (corn, oats, soybean oil, soybeans and wheat), over the period 1986-2010. Using CCC and DCC multivariate GARCH models, we find that financial speculation is poorly significant in modelling returns in commodities futures while macroeconomic factors help explaining returns in commodities futures. Moreover, spillovers between commodities ...

  12. Opportunities within the Revised EU Common Agricultural Policy to Address the Decline of Farmland Birds: An Irish Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daire Ó hUallacháin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The loss of global biological diversity continues despite on-going conservation efforts. Agriculture is the major terrestrial land use in Europe and any conservation efforts to protect biological diversity must address sustainable use of these food production systems. Using Ireland, within the European Union policy framework, as an example, the declines in farmland birds are discussed. The opportunities afforded to farmland bird conservation as a result of the recent reform to the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP are outlined. The potential for revised and refined CAP, specifically agri-environment schemes, to deliver benefits for biodiversity and for farmland bird species within Irish agricultural ecosystems is explored. Despite all the efforts to date and the significant resources invested in implementing agri-environment measures and schemes, few attempts have been made to collect monitoring and surveillance data with which to quantitatively assess the effectiveness of schemes, and measures that are designed to assist in the recovery of farmland biodiversity, including bird species, in Ireland.

  13. Financialization of commodities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Falkowski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic theory of price formation tells us how the price of a particular asset will change based on the adjustment to its supply and demand. However, values of assets are also determined by other business fundamentals, company’s and world events, human psychology, and investors’ belief about the possible future profit. In recent history that lead to an increase of individual and institutional investors’ interest in allocating their resources in commodity markets. With a large inflow of capital commodities’ prices started to rise making them attractive components to effective investment portfolios. The presented paper addresses the issue of so called commodities ‘financialization’ process. It looks at the main factors standing behind commodities’ price movements and to what extent financial market participants contributed to commodities price volatility in recent years. Based on the data examined it distinguishes the involvement of both commercial and non-commercial traders in short and long term periods of time. As well as explaining the impact of growing investors’ interest in commodity markets it defines other market forces - like currency appreciations and emerging markets - as being part of increased volatility in raw and soft commodity markets. Along with market examination the paper focuses on possible future outcomes in attempts to regulate commodities derivatives markets and potential effects of those efforts.

  14. Integrated assessment of conservation opportunities in the irrigated agriculture sector of the Pacific Northwest Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrer, B.J.; Lezberg, A.J.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1985-02-01

    This report documents research to identify the potential energy savings and cost per kWh saved for implementing currently available energy conservation measures in the irrigated agriculture sector of the Pacific Northwest. A computer model that simulates the energy consumption process of irrigation systems and estimates the levelized costs of undertaking conservation investments is the primary analytical tool used in this research. Using engineering and economic input parameters for the various conservation measures that could potentially be implemented in irrigated agriculture, the Irrigation Sector Energy Planning (ISEP) model generates estimates of energy savings and cost per kWh saved for the measures. All parameters input to the ISEP model are based upon empirical field data. Results provided by the ISEP model indicate tht by the year 2003 a total of approximately 158.6 average MW of energy could potentially be saved in the Pacific Northwest irrigation sector on all sprinkler-irrigated acres. Approximately 130.4 average MW can be saved on acres currently by sprinkler, while an additional 28.2 average MW could be saved on new acres that are forecast to come under irrigation in the next 20 years. The largest share of the total savings (47%) is estimated to come from the use of low-pressure irrigation. Over 60% of the total potential savings 158.6 average MW is estimated to be available for a cost per kWh saved of 20 mills or less and over 75% could be achieved for a cost of 30 mills or less. Savings from low-pressure irrigation and the redesign of fittings and mainlines will normally cost less than 20 mills per kWh saved. Almost all of the savings that are estimated to cost more than 30 mills per kWh saved to obtain are savings from improved irrigation scheduling on irrigated acres that use surface water and have low average pumping lifts.

  15. 78 FR 67331 - Notice of Request for Extension of a Currently Approved Assessment Exemption for Organic Commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Notice of Request for Extension of a Currently Approved Assessment Exemption for Organic Commodities AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION....C. 3501), this notice announces the Agricultural Marketing Service's (``AMS'') intention to...

  16. High-Resolution Biogeochemical Simulation Identifies Practical Opportunities for Bioenergy Landscape Intensification Across Diverse US Agricultural Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, J.; Adler, P. R.; Evans, S.; Paustian, K.; Marx, E.; Easter, M.

    2015-12-01

    The sustainability of biofuel expansion is strongly dependent on the environmental footprint of feedstock production, including both direct impacts within feedstock-producing areas and potential leakage effects due to disruption of existing food, feed, or fiber production. Assessing and minimizing these impacts requires novel methods compared to traditional supply chain lifecycle assessment. When properly validated and applied at appropriate spatial resolutions, biogeochemical process models are useful for simulating how the productivity and soil greenhouse gas fluxes of cultivating both conventional crops and advanced feedstock crops respond across gradients of land quality and management intensity. In this work we use the DayCent model to assess the biogeochemical impacts of agricultural residue collection, establishment of perennial grasses on marginal cropland or conservation easements, and intensification of existing cropping at high spatial resolution across several real-world case study landscapes in diverse US agricultural regions. We integrate the resulting estimates of productivity, soil carbon changes, and nitrous oxide emissions with crop production budgets and lifecycle inventories, and perform a basic optimization to generate landscape cost/GHG frontiers and determine the most practical opportunities for low-impact feedstock provisioning. The optimization is constrained to assess the minimum combined impacts of residue collection, land use change, and intensification of existing agriculture necessary for the landscape to supply a commercial-scale biorefinery while maintaining exiting food, feed, and fiber production levels. These techniques can be used to assess how different feedstock provisioning strategies perform on both economic and environmental criteria, and sensitivity of performance to environmental and land use factors. The included figure shows an example feedstock cost-GHG mitigation tradeoff frontier for a commercial-scale cellulosic

  17. Extension’s Role in Commodity Marketing Education: Past, Present, and Future

    OpenAIRE

    Riley, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, market situation and outlook has often included some form of price forecast. Recent volatility in agricultural commodity markets is making price forecasts challenging and at times less reliable. In addressing this price volatility, changes in agricultural markets are highlighted along with price forecasts: pre- and post-increased market volatility. Given these recent challenges, the future of Extension agricultural commodity marketing is discussed.

  18. Feeding the Corn Belt: Opportunities for phosphorus recycling in U.S. agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metson, Geneviève S; MacDonald, Graham K; Haberman, Daniel; Nesme, Thomas; Bennett, Elena M

    2016-01-15

    The supply of phosphorus (P) is a critical concern for food security. Concentrated mineral P deposits have been the source of almost all new P entering the biosphere. However, this resource is often used inefficiently, raising concerns about both nutrient pollution and future access to fertilizers. One solution to both of these problems is to enhance our ability to capture and recycle P from waste streams. However, the efficacy of doing this has not been rigorously explored. Here, we examine the potential for recycling major P sources in the United States to supply the necessary P for domestic corn (maize) production. Using 2002 population and agricultural census data, we examine the distribution of three key recyclable P sources (human food waste, human excreta, and animal manure) and P demand from grain and silage corn across the country to determine the distance P would need to be transported from sources to replenish P removed from soils in harvested corn plants. We find that domestic recyclable P sources, predominantly from animal manures, could meet national corn production P demands with no additional fertilizer inputs. In fact, only 37% of U.S. sources of recyclable P would be required to meet all P demand from U.S. corn harvested annually. Seventy-four percent of corn P demand could be met by recyclable P sources in the same county. Surplus recyclable P sources within-counties would then need to travel on average 302 km to meet the largest demand in and around the center of the 'Corn Belt' region where ~50% of national corn P demand is located. We find that distances between recyclable sources and crop demands are surprisingly short for most of the country, and that this recycling potential is mostly related to manure. This information can help direct where recycling efforts should be most-effectively directed. PMID:26453407

  19. 78 FR 16189 - Transportation of Agricultural Commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... 21st Century Act MCSAP Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program NHS National Highway System Legal Basis... Contents Executive Summary Acronyms and Abbreviations Legal Basis for the Rulemaking Background Current... of exemptions for ``covered farm vehicles'' (CFVs) and their drivers. The definition of a CFV...

  20. Cross-commodity hedges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy risk management is the principal topic of this paper. Four major subjects are examined: cross-commodity trading objectives (reduce the risk of an underlying exposure in another commodity); portfolio risk reduction (an Alberta power distributor exposed to high pool prices could protect against high pool prices through a fixed price purchase of Alberta natural gas); tailoring pricing to customer needs (sell power to the gas producer indexed to the price of gas); and (4) reducing insurance costs (rather than purchasing downside protection (puts) individually against oil and gas prices, a producer could purchase a basket option). Since the key issue in cross-commodity transactions is the estimation of correlation, it is important to be prepared to alter correlation assumptions. 1 tab., 2 figs

  1. Uranium: The recalcitrant commodity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium is analysed as a special market commodity and compared with other metals like copper. The supply-demand balance, production costs and the special form of pricing are discussed. The likely evaluation of inventories and the future capacity utilization are also discussed and commented. (author). 2 refs, 8 figs

  2. 7 CFR 917.21 - Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. 917.21... AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Administrative Bodies § 917.21 Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the Pear Commodity Committee shall...

  3. 7 CFR 917.121 - Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee... Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the Pear Commodity Committee shall be made by the growers of pears in the respective representation areas as...

  4. 7 CFR 917.18 - Nomination of commodity committee members of the Control Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nomination of commodity committee members of the... Administrative Bodies § 917.18 Nomination of commodity committee members of the Control Committee. Nominations... following manner: (a) A nomination for one member shall be made by each commodity committee...

  5. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2009-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2009 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2008 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Because specific information concerning committed inventory was no longer available from the Defense Logistics Agency, National Defense Stockpile Center, that information, which was included in earlier Mineral Commodity Summaries publications, has been deleted from Mineral Commodity Summaries 2009. National reserves and reserve base information for most mineral commodities found in this report, including those for the United States, are derived from a variety of sources. The ideal source of such information would be comprehensive evaluations that apply the same criteria to deposits in different geographic areas and report the results by country. In the absence of such evaluations, national reserves and reserve base estimates compiled by countries for selected mineral commodities are a primary source of national reserves and reserve base information. Lacking national assessment information by governments, sources such as academic articles, company reports, common business practice, presentations by company representatives, and trade journal articles, or a combination of these, serve as the basis for national reserves and reserve base information reported in the mineral commodity sections of this publication. A national estimate may be assembled from the following: historically reported

  6. Reconciling biofuels, sustainability and commodities demand. Pitfalls and policy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing fossil fuel prices, energy security considerations and environmental concerns, particularly concerning climate change, have motivated countries to explore alternative energy sources including biofuels. Global demand for biofuels has been rising rapidly due to biofuel support policies established in many countries. However, proposed strong links between biofuels demand and recent years' high food commodity prices, and notions that increasing biofuels production might bring about serious negative environmental impacts, in particularly associated with the land use change to biofuel crops, have shifted public enthusiasm about biofuels. In this context, the ELOBIO project aims at shedding further light to these aspects of biofuel expansion by collecting and reviewing the available data, and also developing strategies to decrease negative effects of biofuels while enabling their positive contribution to climate change, security of supply and rural development. ELOBIO considers aspects associated with both 1st and 2nd generation biofuels, hence analyses effects on both agricultural commodity markets and lignocellulosic markets. This project, funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe programme, consists of a review of current experiences with biofuels and other renewable energy policies and their impacts on other markets, iterative stakeholder-supported development of low-disturbing biofuels policies, model supported assessment of these policies' impacts on food, feed and lignocellulosic markets, and finally an assessment of the effects of selected optimal policies on biofuels costs and potentials. Results of the ELOBIO study show that rapid biofuel deployment without careful monitoring of consequences and implementation of mitigating measures risks leading to negative consequences. Implementing ambitious global biofuel targets for 2020, based on current 1st generation technologies, can push international agricultural commodity prices upwards and increase crop

  7. OPTIMAL COMMODITY PROMOTION IN IMPERFECTLY COMPETITIVE MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Mingxia; Sexton, Richard J.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the optimal collection and expenditure of funds for agricultural commodity promotion in markets where the processing and distribution sectors may exhibit oligopoly and/or oligopsony power. The conditions that characterize optimal advertising intensity under perfect competition for funds generated from either per-unit or lump-sum taxes do not, in general, hold when marketing is imperfectly competitive. Simulation analyses show that imperfect competition always reduces farmers' o...

  8. Multiple pathways of commodity crop expansion in tropical forest landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commodity crop expansion, for both global and domestic urban markets, follows multiple land change pathways entailing direct and indirect deforestation, and results in various social and environmental impacts. Here we compare six published case studies of rapid commodity crop expansion within forested tropical regions. Across cases, between 1.7% and 89.5% of new commodity cropland was sourced from forestlands. Four main factors controlled pathways of commodity crop expansion: (i) the availability of suitable forestland, which is determined by forest area, agroecological or accessibility constraints, and land use policies, (ii) economic and technical characteristics of agricultural systems, (iii) differences in constraints and strategies between small-scale and large-scale actors, and (iv) variable costs and benefits of forest clearing. When remaining forests were unsuitable for agriculture and/or policies restricted forest encroachment, a larger share of commodity crop expansion occurred by conversion of existing agricultural lands, and land use displacement was smaller. Expansion strategies of large-scale actors emerge from context-specific balances between the search for suitable lands; transaction costs or conflicts associated with expanding into forests or other state-owned lands versus smallholder lands; net benefits of forest clearing; and greater access to infrastructure in already-cleared lands. We propose five hypotheses to be tested in further studies: (i) land availability mediates expansion pathways and the likelihood that land use is displaced to distant, rather than to local places; (ii) use of already-cleared lands is favored when commodity crops require access to infrastructure; (iii) in proportion to total agricultural expansion, large-scale actors generate more clearing of mature forests than smallholders; (iv) property rights and land tenure security influence the actors participating in commodity crop expansion, the form of land use displacement

  9. Multiple pathways of commodity crop expansion in tropical forest landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyfroidt, Patrick; Carlson, Kimberly M.; Fagan, Matthew E.; Gutiérrez-Vélez, Victor H.; Macedo, Marcia N.; Curran, Lisa M.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Dyer, George A.; Gibbs, Holly K.; Lambin, Eric F.; Morton, Douglas C.; Robiglio, Valentina

    2014-07-01

    Commodity crop expansion, for both global and domestic urban markets, follows multiple land change pathways entailing direct and indirect deforestation, and results in various social and environmental impacts. Here we compare six published case studies of rapid commodity crop expansion within forested tropical regions. Across cases, between 1.7% and 89.5% of new commodity cropland was sourced from forestlands. Four main factors controlled pathways of commodity crop expansion: (i) the availability of suitable forestland, which is determined by forest area, agroecological or accessibility constraints, and land use policies, (ii) economic and technical characteristics of agricultural systems, (iii) differences in constraints and strategies between small-scale and large-scale actors, and (iv) variable costs and benefits of forest clearing. When remaining forests were unsuitable for agriculture and/or policies restricted forest encroachment, a larger share of commodity crop expansion occurred by conversion of existing agricultural lands, and land use displacement was smaller. Expansion strategies of large-scale actors emerge from context-specific balances between the search for suitable lands; transaction costs or conflicts associated with expanding into forests or other state-owned lands versus smallholder lands; net benefits of forest clearing; and greater access to infrastructure in already-cleared lands. We propose five hypotheses to be tested in further studies: (i) land availability mediates expansion pathways and the likelihood that land use is displaced to distant, rather than to local places; (ii) use of already-cleared lands is favored when commodity crops require access to infrastructure; (iii) in proportion to total agricultural expansion, large-scale actors generate more clearing of mature forests than smallholders; (iv) property rights and land tenure security influence the actors participating in commodity crop expansion, the form of land use displacement

  10. What Drives Commodity Prices?

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Shu-Ling; Jackson, John D; Kim, Hyeongwoo; Resiandini, Pramesti

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines common forces driving the prices of 51 highly tradable commodities. We demonstrate that highly persistent movements of these prices are mostly due to the first common component, which is closely related to the US nominal exchange rate. In particular, our simple factor-based model outperforms the random walk model in out-of-sample forecast for the US exchange rate. The second common factor and de-factored idiosyncratic components are consistent with stationarity, implyin...

  11. Do irrelevant commodities matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Fleurbaey, Marc; Tadenuma, Koichi

    2007-01-01

    We study how to evaluate allocations independently of individual preferences over unavailable commodities. We prove impossibility results suggesting that such evaluations encounter serious difficulties. This is related to the well-known problem of performing international comparisons of standard of living across countries with different consumption goods. We show how possibility results can be retrieved with restrictions on the domain of preferences, on the application of the independence axi...

  12. Mineral commodity summaries 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2013-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2013 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2012 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2013 are welcomed.

  13. Mineral commodity summaries 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2014-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2014 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2013 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2014 are welcomed.

  14. Commodity-Free Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Commodity-free calibration is a reaction rate calibration technique that does not require the addition of any commodities. This technique is a specific form of the reaction rate technique, where all of the necessary reactants, other than the sample being analyzed, are either inherent in the analyzing system or specifically added or provided to the system for a reason other than calibration. After introduction, the component of interest is exposed to other reactants or flow paths already present in the system. The instrument detector records one of the following to determine the rate of reaction: the increase in the response of the reaction product, a decrease in the signal of the analyte response, or a decrease in the signal from the inherent reactant. With this data, the initial concentration of the analyte is calculated. This type of system can analyze and calibrate simultaneously, reduce the risk of false positives and exposure to toxic vapors, and improve accuracy. Moreover, having an excess of the reactant already present in the system eliminates the need to add commodities, which further reduces cost, logistic problems, and potential contamination. Also, the calculations involved can be simplified by comparison to those of the reaction rate technique. We conducted tests with hypergols as an initial investigation into the feasiblility of the technique.

  15. Outlook '98 - Commodity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canadian oil and natural gas producers'' participation in commodity and foreign exchange markets to alter the pricing characteristics of their commodity portfolios was reviewed. It was concluded that through the various risk management structures available from financial and physical market participants, Canadian oil and gas producers retain the ongoing ability to design, pro-actively, their desired exposure to oil and gas prices. Various industry-wide re-examination of risk management programs have taken place during the past two years. Based on these studies, the industry anticipates material volatility in West Texas Intermediate (WTI) oil and Alberta natural gas prices throughout 1998. Furthermore, there is considerable uncertainty surrounding the price differentials between WTI crude and Canadian oil streams, and between Alberta gas prices and other North American regional gas markets. Against this background of uncertainty, it is reasonable to predict that companies will use risk management strategies in an effort to outperform industry average prices, thereby ensuring that pro-active risk management activity will continue throughout 1998

  16. Radiation technology for value addition to food and agro commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assuring adequate food security to citizens of the country requires deployment of strategies for augmenting agricultural production while reducing post-harvest losses. Appropriate post-harvest processing, handling, storage and distribution practices are as important as the efforts to increase productivity for sustained food security, food safety and international trade in agricultural commodities. Nuclear energy has played a significant role both in the improvement of crop productivity, as well as, in the preservation and hygienization of agricultural produce

  17. Commodities, energy and environmental finance

    CERN Document Server

    Ludkovski, Michael; Sircar, Ronnie

    2015-01-01

    This volume is a collection of chapters covering the latest developments in applications of financial mathematics and statistics to topics in energy, commodity financial markets and environmental economics. The research presented is based on the presentations and discussions that took place during the Fields Institute Focus Program on Commodities, Energy and Environmental Finance in August 2013. The authors include applied mathematicians, economists and industry practitioners, providing for a multi-disciplinary spectrum of perspectives on the subject. The volume consists of four sections: Electricity Markets; Real Options; Trading in Commodity Markets; and Oligopolistic Models for Energy Production. Taken together, the chapters give a comprehensive summary of the current state of the art in quantitative analysis of commodities and energy finance. The topics covered include structural models of electricity markets, financialization of commodities, valuation of commodity real options, game-theory analysis of ...

  18. Enhancing Supply Chain Connectivity and Competitiveness of ASEAN Agricultural Products: Identifying Choke Points and Opportunities for Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Israel, Danilo C.; Roehlano M. Briones

    2014-01-01

    This study examines "choke points" in the supply chain of two selected commodity groups that are of interest to the ASEAN region; within the HS15 group the study focuses on crude coconut oil (CNO); for HS03 the study covers fish and crustacean, mollusks, and other aquatic invertebrates (HS 03). For CNO, no major choke points have been identified from mill site to export stages; cost and delay factors can be found at the farm to mill stage, namely low farm productivity, poor postharvest practi...

  19. Price Volatility of Main Food Commodity in Banyumas Regency Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Hayati Putri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural product is commodity which tends to fluctuate. Price volatility is caused by the change of agricultural production due to climate change as well as pest and disease. Furthermore, it is also caused by the change of agricultural land and high demand of agricultural products on religious holidays. This study was conducted to examine how volatile some of main food commodities in Banyumas Regency. Secondary data analysis method with quantitative approach was used in this research. Time series data of some food commodity prices (rice IR 64, local soybean, maize, chili red peppers, onion and garlic from January 2008 – December 2013 were utilized. The coefficient of variation was calculated to determine price volatility. The result showed that the price of red chili pepper, onion and garlic was tending to volatile. The coefficient of variation ratio of those commodities was about 20% - 35%. While the price of rice, local soybean and maize was stable. The coefficient of variation ratio of those commodities was less than 9%. This study also includes some policies that can be suggested to prevent price volatility.

  20. Negotiating commodity price risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the negotiations that led to PrimeWest's acquisition of Northstar's Grand Forks property at the end of 1997 was presented as an example of dealing with commodity price risk in an asset purchase. The paper described the pricing environment at the time of negotiations, the oil price collar, and the closing results. In 1998 PrimeWest drilled nine out of ten successful wells which are currently producing at an average production rate of 2776 bpd. In the event, PrimeWest has been able to maintain good value in its Grand Forks property acquisition, despite low oil prices. It is believed that the oil price collar was the main component of value retention. The oil price collar was the mechanism to protect PrimeWest, should oil prices remain below the field price. It is believed that this transaction would not have occurred without the price collar. 5 tabs., 12 figs

  1. 76 FR 77670 - Retail Commodity Transactions Under Commodity Exchange Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... FR 39188 (Sept. 25, 1990) (``Brent Interpretation''). II. Commission Interpretation of ``Actual... COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 1 RIN 3038-AD64 Retail Commodity Transactions Under Commodity Exchange Act AGENCY... the CEA to add a new subparagraph, section 2(c)(2)(D) of the CEA,\\6\\ entitled ``Retail...

  2. Commodity Currencies and the Real Exchange Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Cashin; Luis Felipe Céspedes;; Ratna Sahay

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines whether the real exchange rates of commodity-exporting countries and the real prices of their commodity exports move together over time. Using IMF data on the world prices of 44 commodities and national commodity export shares, we construct new monthly indices of national commodity export prices for 58 commodity-exporting countries over 1980-2002. Evidence of a longrun relationship between national real exchange rate and real commodity prices is found for about onethird of...

  3. The Commodity and its Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines fishing quota as a commodity in both a conceptual perspective and through ethnographic examples. Inspired by Marx’s ideas of the commodity, use-value, exchange-value, and ground rent, the chapter combines a theoretical approach with ethnographic material. The different aspec...

  4. 7 CFR 1425.17 - Eligible commodity and pooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COOPERATIVE MARKETING ASSOCIATIONS § 1425.17... marketing proceeds from the commodity in accordance with § 1425.18; and (5) Members agreed to accept a... ineligible, the CMA must repay any loans outstanding with principal plus interest and any market...

  5. THE 2002 FARM ACT: PROVISIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR COMMODITY MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Westcott, Paul C.; Young, C. Edwin; Price, J. Michael

    2002-01-01

    The Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (2002 Farm Act), which governs agricultural programs through 2007, was signed into law in May 2002. This report presents an initial evaluation of the new legislation's effects on agricultural commodity markets, based on sectorwide model simulations under alternative policy assumptions. The analysis shows that loan rate changes under the marketing assistance loan program of the 2002 Farm Act initially result in an increase in total planted acr...

  6. Commodity Markets, Risk and Poverty: A Case of Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Malunda, Dickson

    2011-01-01

    For most low developed economies in Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA), agriculture has been the main source of livelihood contributing 34% to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and 64% to employment, either directly or indirectly. Dependence on agricultural commodities for exports has been accompanied by a high degree of price risk in terms of both volatile and declining prices, a phenomenon which has not only affected the way households allocate their resources but also affected their welfare in terms of c...

  7. Forecasting Exchange Rates with Commodity Convenience Yields

    OpenAIRE

    Beutler, Toni

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates whether commodity convenience yields - the yields that accrue to the holders of physical commodities - can predict the exchange rate of commodity-exporters' currencies. Predictability is a consequence of the fact that i) convenience yields are useful predictors for commodity prices and ii) commodity currencies have a strong relationship with commodity prices. The empirical evidence indicates that there is a significant relationship between aggregate measures of conveni...

  8. Quarterly Web Interfaced Commodity Reporting

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — QWICR is a secure, online Title II commodity reporting system accessible to USAID Missions, PVO Cooperating Sponsors and Food for Peace Officers. QWICR provides PVO...

  9. Processing Trade Banned Commodities announced

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The new catalogue of processing trade-banned commodities was announced recently. The announcement was executed since November 22 of 2006. The Catalogue will be adjusted according to related policies of the state.

  10. Unconventional Commodities – Future Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Ion Schileru

    2005-01-01

    The author of this work reveals a few of the processes from contemporary economy which require the reorganization of commodities offer. The globalism, the free trade, the buyer’s emancipation and other processes, they all generate conditions for the unconventional’s affirmation within the reality - „commodities”. Situations where unconventional appears are presented along with implications and exemplifications. The research of the unconventional regarding the trade-commodity presents a large ...

  11. Energy and Food Commodity Prices Linkage: An Examination with Mixed-Frequency Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trujillo Barrera, A.A.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Is the relationship between energy and agricultural commodities an important factor in the increasing price variability of food commodities? Findings from the literature appear to be mixed and highly influenced by the data frequency used in those analysis. A recurrent task in time series ap

  12. 77 FR 20353 - United States Warehouse Act; Export Food Aid Commodities Licensing Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Farm Service Agency United States Warehouse Act; Export Food Aid Commodities Licensing Agreement AGENCY: Farm Service Agency, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Licensing Agreement Fee Schedule. SUMMARY: This notice specifies the fee schedule for the new Export Food Aid Commodities (EFAC)...

  13. 76 FR 13972 - United States Warehouse Act; Export Food Aid Commodities Licensing Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... Farm Service Agency United States Warehouse Act; Export Food Aid Commodities Licensing Agreement AGENCY... (FSA) proposes adding export food aid commodities (EFAC) to the agricultural products for which... operators that apply voluntarily agree to be licensed, observe the rules for licensing, and pay...

  14. Identifying agricultural research and development investment opportunities in sub-Saharan Africa: A global, economy-wide analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ehui, Simeon K.; Tsigas, Marinos E.

    2006-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is the most important development challenge of the 21st century. Poverty is higher in most African countries than elsewhere in the developing world. According to the recently published Report of the Commission for Africa, economic growth in Africa is necessary for substantially reducing poverty. Among three proposed policy options, the Commission recommends that African countries invest significantly in agriculture. But policy makers in the region face a dilemma: whic...

  15. FORECASTING FUTURE EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR FOOD, AGRICULTURE, AND NATURAL RESOURCES HIGHER EDUCATION GRADUATES USING ADJUSTED BUREAU OF LABOR FORECASTS

    OpenAIRE

    Bullock, K. Wayne; Litzenberg, Kerry K.

    2002-01-01

    Forecasts of the number of future professionals required for an ongoing safe, efficient US food system are highly important. The demand for adequately prepared higher education graduates must be met by the US Food, Agriculture, and Natural Resources Education System. Without accurate forecasts of the human resource needs of the food sector of the economy, adequate professionals may not be available when needed. This research effort makes use of Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) forecasted empl...

  16. 7 CFR 46.48 - Procedure for investigating complaints involving commodities of a unique nature or coming from a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedure for investigating complaints involving commodities of a unique nature or coming from a distinct geographic area. 46.48 Section 46.48 Agriculture... Procedure for investigating complaints involving commodities of a unique nature or coming from a...

  17. "退耕还林工程"实施后安塞县商品型生态农业建设成效%Effect of constructing ecological agriculture with commodities after launching “Grain for Green Project” in Ansai County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李奇睿; 王继军

    2011-01-01

    以安塞县为例,分析了该县商品型生态农业的建设成效,探讨了商品型生态农业建设对区域农业生态经济系统演替过程产生的影响.结果表明:在退耕还林还草工程实施的背景下,安塞县商品型生态农业建设取得了明显的生态、经济和社会效益;2007年与1999年相比,全县林草覆盖率提高了12.6%,水土流失治理程度提高了14%;高效设施农业已成为安塞县主干道周围农业生产的主要模式,其产值占农林牧渔总产值的72%;农民人均纯收入较1999年增长了83.51%,其中工副业、种植业和果业收入占农民总收入的77.28%;农业生产稳定指数同比提高了51.61%,粮食稳定性指数同比增加了17.07%,二、三产业发展稳定性指数同比下降了77.91%.%Taking Ansai County as an example, the effect of constructing ecological agriculture with commodities was analyzed, and its impact on the suocession process of regional agricultural eeo-economic system was discussed. The results indicated that: in the context of launching Grain for Green Project, there were significant ecological, economic and social benefits from constructing ecological agriculture with commodities in Ansai County. Compared to that of 1999,the vegetation coverage rate in Ansai County increased by 12.6%, and soil-water erosion rehabilitation rate increased by14% in 2007. Efficient facility farming had become the main mode of agricultural production, which was near the arterial roads in Ansai County and took up 72% of GAP (the gross agricultural product). Compared to the figure of 1999,net income per peasant increased by 83.51 %. Especially, the income of sideline, crop farming and fruit accounted for 77.28% of the total revenue. The stability index of agricultural production had increased by 51.61% year on year,while the food stability index had grown by 17.07% annually. Meanwhile, the development stability index of secondary and tertiary econo.mie sectors

  18. Mineral commodity profiles: Silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterman, W.C.; Hilliard, Henry E.

    2005-01-01

    United States, about 30 companies accounted for more than 90 percent of the silver fabricated. The consumption of silver for all fabrication uses is expected to grow slowly through the decade ending in 2010 at about 1.3 percent per year for the world and 2.4 percent per year for the United States. World and U.S. reserves and reserve bases are more than adequate to satisfy the demand for newly mined silver through 2010. The other components of supply will be silver recovered from scrap, silver from industrial stocks, and silver bullion that is sold into the market from commodity exchange and private stocks.

  19. 75 FR 29307 - Web Based Supply Chain Management Commodity Offer Form, Paperwork Collection Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Web Based Supply Chain Management Commodity Offer Form, Paperwork Collection... Based Supply Chain Management (WBSCM) that will allow respondents to submit information electronically... CONTACT: David Tuckwiller, Project Manager, Web Based Supply Chain Management System, phone (202)...

  20. 48 CFR 8.715 - Replacement commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Replacement commodities. 8... Are Blind or Severely Disabled 8.715 Replacement commodities. When a commodity on the Procurement List is replaced by another commodity which has not been previously acquired, and a qualified...

  1. Strengthening the Competitive Position of Commodity Marketers Two Case Study Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    McLaughlin, Edward W.; Perosio, Debra J.

    1993-01-01

    Producers and marketers of agricultural commodities are often beset with a similar set of problems that generally may be reduced to the following question: "how can we modify our product or program in such a way as to gain a competitive edge on our competition?" As every commodity marketer knows, there is, unfortunately, no easy answer to this question. Obtaining higher prices and returns for agricultural products is possible, but requires commitment, vision and attention to the ever-changing...

  2. Coupling relationship of ecological agricultural system of commodities in Ansai county based on structural equation model%基于结构方程模型的安塞县商品型生态农业系统耦合关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李奇睿; 王继军; 郭满才

    2012-01-01

    依据农户调查数据,运用结构方程模型分析了安塞县及其南、中、北商品型生态农业系统耦合关系,结果表明:农业资源与农业产业是商品型生态农业系统耦合的核心,但由于生态环境改善未对系统耦合起到基础或支撑作用,使得资源与产业局部相悖.从安塞县整体而言,生态环境直接影响系统耦合,但其标准化系数却是-0.11,导致农业资源与产业态势标准化相关系数只有0.46,使系统耦合对经济效益的影响强度较弱,即退耕还林还草工程的实施改善了生态环境,但环境改善所增加的农业资源量并未得到相关产业的有效利用,系统耦合效果不显著;就安塞县南-中-北而言,其商品型生态农业系统耦合模式类型分别为“林区养殖业-果业-设施农业”、“经济林-果业-设施农业”和“畜牧业-特色农产品-经济林”,由于养殖业与林草资源未形成有效产业链,相比较北部耦合效果较好.针对农业资源利用率低的现实,在商品型生态农业建设过程中需要强化草畜业,发展优质果业及精、细、密型种植业,完善商品裂生态农业系统链网结构,实现农业产业与资源的优化耦合.%To investigate possible differences in the coupling relationship of EASC (ecological agro-system of commodities) due to location, the coupling relationship of EASC in Ansai county and its south, north, and central section based on data from household surveys was analyzed using the structural equation model. Results showed that agricultural practices and agricultural resources were the core of the coupling relationship of EASC. When agricultural resources were utilized with low efficiency, agricultural practices did not advance in the same speed with environmental amelioration and agricultural resources accumulation, which hampered the optimization of the coupling relationship of EASC and also the advance of the regional economy. At the county

  3. Index Investment and Financialization of Commodities

    OpenAIRE

    Ke Tang; Wei Xiong

    2010-01-01

    This paper finds that, concurrent with the rapid growing index investment in commodities markets since early 2000s, futures prices of different commodities in the US became increasingly correlated with each other and this trend was significantly more pronounced for commodities in the two popular GSCI and DJ-UBS commodity indices. This finding reflects a financialization process of commodities markets and helps explain the synchronized price boom and bust of a broad set of seemingly unrelated ...

  4. A Study on Market Efficiency of Selected Commodity Derivatives Traded on NCDEX During 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajipriya, N.

    2012-10-01

    The study aims at testing the weak form of Efficient Market Hypothesis in the context of an emerging commodity market - National Commodity Derivatives Exchange (NCDEX), which is considered as the prime commodity derivatives market in India. The study considered daily spot and futures prices of five selected commodities traded on NCDEX over 12 month period (the futures contracts originating and expiring during the period January 2011 to December 2011) The five commodities chosen are Pepper, Crude palm Oil, steel silver and Chana as they account for almost two-thirds of the value of agricultural commodity derivatives traded on NCDEX. The results of Run test indicate that both spot and futures prices are weak form efficient

  5. 78 FR 52426 - Retail Commodity Transactions Under Commodity Exchange Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... Transactions Under Commodity Exchange Act, 76 FR 77670 (Dec. 14, 2011). II. Summary of Comments A. Comments... factors set forth in the Interpretation. \\19\\ 76 FR 77670, 77672 (Dec. 14, 2011). \\20\\ Id. 2. When the 28...)(ii). \\24\\ See, e.g., Statutory Interpretation Concerning Forward Transactions, 55 FR 39188 (Sept....

  6. Papaya Development Model As A Competitive Local Superior Commodity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reny Sukmawani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study the comparative advantage and papaya competitive and to design its development model by using the approach of local base agriculture development. This research uses survey method. The resulting research shows that papaya is a base commodity that has comparative advantage and competitive. The development papaya in the district of Sukabumi is quite good bases on eight superior creations. But in order to be the main sector in economic development and has a competition, the development of papaya must concern to its influence factors. In supporting papaya development as a competitive local superior commodity, it needs to be done some efforts are as follows: (1 increase a skillful worker; (2 improve business management; (3 increase papaya productivity by using technology and study papaya planted technology in specific local superior commodity; (4 develop the involvement of the business relation; (5 provide market information and information technology network; and (6 improve infrastructures.

  7. A future Demand Side Management (DSM) opportunity for utility as variable renewable penetrate scale up using agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ines, A.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Modi, V.; Robertson, A. W.; Lall, U.; Kocaman Ayse, S.; Chaudhary, S.; Kumar, A.; Ganapathy, A.; Kumar, A.; Mishra, V.

    2015-12-01

    Energy demand management, also known as demand side management (DSM), is the modification of consumer demand for energy through various methods such as smart metering, incentive based schemes, payments for turning off loads or rescheduling loads. Usually, the goal of demand side management is to encourage the consumer to use less power during periods of peak demand, or to move the time of energy use to off-peak times. Peak demand management does not necessarily decrease total energy consumption, but could be expected to reduce the need for investments in networks and/or power plants for meeting peak demands. Electricity use can vary dramatically on short and medium time frames, and the pricing system may not reflect the instantaneous cost as additional higher-cost that are brought on-line. In addition, the capacity or willingness of electricity consumers to adjust to prices by altering elasticity of demand may be low, particularly over short time frames. In the scenario of Indian grid setup, the retail customers do not follow real-time pricing and it is difficult to incentivize the utility companies for continuing the peak demand supply. A question for the future is how deeper penetration of renewable will be handled? This is a challenging problem since one has to deal with high variability, while managing loss of load probabilities. In the case of managing the peak demand using agriculture, in the future as smart metering matures with automatic turn on/off for a pump, it will become possible to provide an ensured amount of water or energy to the farmer while keeping the grid energized for 24 hours. Supply scenarios will include the possibility of much larger penetration of solar and wind into the grid. While, in absolute terms these sources are small contributors, their role will inevitably grow but DSM using agriculture could help reduce the capital cost. The other option is of advancing or delaying pump operating cycle even by several hours, will still ensure

  8. Identifying the spatial and temporal variability of economic opportunity costs to promote the adoption of alternative land uses in grain growing agricultural areas: an Australian example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, G; Bryan, B A; Ostendorf, B

    2015-05-15

    Grain growers face many future challenges requiring them to adapt their land uses to changing economic, social and environmental conditions. To understand where to make on ground changes without significant negative financial repercussions, high resolution information on income generation over time is required. We propose a methodology which utilises high resolution yield data collected with precision agriculture (PA) technology, gross margin financial analysis and a temporal standardisation technique to highlight the spatial and temporal consistency of farm income. On three neighbouring farms in Western Australia, we found non-linear relationships between income and area. Spatio-temporal analysis on one farm over varying seasons found that between 37 and 49% (1082-1433ha) of cropping area consistently produced above the selected income thresholds and 43-32% (936-1257ha) regularly produced below selected thresholds. Around 20% of area showed inconsistent temporal variation in income generation. Income estimated from these areas represents the income forgone if a land use change is undertaken (the economic opportunity cost) and the average costs varied spatially from $190±114/ha to $560±108/ha depending on what scenario was chosen. The interaction over space and time showed the clustering of areas with similar values at a resolution where growers make input decisions. This new evidence suggests that farm area could be managed with two strategies: (a) one that maximises grain output using PA management in temporally stable areas which generate moderate to high income returns and (b) one that proposes land use change in low and inconsistent income returning areas where the financial returns from an alternative land use may be comparable. The adoption of these strategies can help growers meet the demand for agricultural output and offer income diversity and adaptive capacity to deal with the future challenges to agricultural production. PMID:25836353

  9. Budget Constraints Affect Male Rats' Choices between Differently Priced Commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wingerden, Marijn; Marx, Christine; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Demand theory can be applied to analyse how a human or animal consumer changes her selection of commodities within a certain budget in response to changes in price of those commodities. This change in consumption assessed over a range of prices is defined as demand elasticity. Previously, income-compensated and income-uncompensated price changes have been investigated using human and animal consumers, as demand theory predicts different elasticities for both conditions. However, in these studies, demand elasticity was only evaluated over the entirety of choices made from a budget. As compensating budgets changes the number of attainable commodities relative to uncompensated conditions, and thus the number of choices, it remained unclear whether budget compensation has a trivial effect on demand elasticity by simply sampling from a different total number of choices or has a direct effect on consumers' sequential choice structure. If the budget context independently changes choices between commodities over and above price effects, this should become apparent when demand elasticity is assessed over choice sets of any reasonable size that are matched in choice opportunities between budget conditions. To gain more detailed insight in the sequential choice dynamics underlying differences in demand elasticity between budget conditions, we trained N=8 rat consumers to spend a daily budget by making a number of nosepokes to obtain two liquid commodities under different price regimes, in sessions with and without budget compensation. We confirmed that demand elasticity for both commodities differed between compensated and uncompensated budget conditions, also when the number of choices considered was matched, and showed that these elasticity differences emerge early in the sessions. These differences in demand elasticity were driven by a higher choice rate and an increased reselection bias for the preferred commodity in compensated compared to uncompensated budget conditions

  10. Budget Constraints Affect Male Rats' Choices between Differently Priced Commodities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijn van Wingerden

    Full Text Available Demand theory can be applied to analyse how a human or animal consumer changes her selection of commodities within a certain budget in response to changes in price of those commodities. This change in consumption assessed over a range of prices is defined as demand elasticity. Previously, income-compensated and income-uncompensated price changes have been investigated using human and animal consumers, as demand theory predicts different elasticities for both conditions. However, in these studies, demand elasticity was only evaluated over the entirety of choices made from a budget. As compensating budgets changes the number of attainable commodities relative to uncompensated conditions, and thus the number of choices, it remained unclear whether budget compensation has a trivial effect on demand elasticity by simply sampling from a different total number of choices or has a direct effect on consumers' sequential choice structure. If the budget context independently changes choices between commodities over and above price effects, this should become apparent when demand elasticity is assessed over choice sets of any reasonable size that are matched in choice opportunities between budget conditions. To gain more detailed insight in the sequential choice dynamics underlying differences in demand elasticity between budget conditions, we trained N=8 rat consumers to spend a daily budget by making a number of nosepokes to obtain two liquid commodities under different price regimes, in sessions with and without budget compensation. We confirmed that demand elasticity for both commodities differed between compensated and uncompensated budget conditions, also when the number of choices considered was matched, and showed that these elasticity differences emerge early in the sessions. These differences in demand elasticity were driven by a higher choice rate and an increased reselection bias for the preferred commodity in compensated compared to

  11. Aflatoxins in selected Thai commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansakul, Natthasit; Limsuwan, Sasithorn; Böhm, Josef; Hollmann, Manfred; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxin (AF) B1, B2, G1 and G2 were determined in 120 samples of selected Thai commodities including unpolished rice, unpolished glutinous rice, chilli powder, whole dried chilli pods and raw peanut. The mean concentrations of the total AFs for analysed samples were 0.16, 25.43, 14.18, 6.62 and 1.43 µg kg(-1) with positive incidences of 4%, 20%, 97%, 37% and 30%, respectively. Quantitative analysis was performed using HPLC equipped with post-column derivatisation and fluorescence detection. Sample clean-up was carried out using immunoaffinity columns for selective enrichment of AFs. The method was validated by using certified reference material, which showed recoveries over 85%. The limit of detections (LODs) and limit of quantifications (LOQs) were in a range between 0.01-0.11 µg kg(-1) and 0.03-0.38 µg kg(-1), respectively. The results clearly demonstrated that AFs were detectable in different matrices. Chilli powder was found to have the highest level of AFs contamination followed by chilli pods, peanut and rice, respectively. However, among the selected commodities, unpolished rice contained only trace levels of AFB1 and AFB2. With regard to the fact that AFs are a natural contaminant in commodities, this report calls to attention the regular monitoring and effective control of food commodities to prevent health hazards.

  12. Commodity Team Motivation and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englyst, Linda; Jørgensen, Frances; Johansen, John;

    2007-01-01

    This article explores factors influencing the motivation and performance of commodity teams in a global sourcing context. Several challenges are related to the classical dilemma of matrix organization, but with particular implications in this specific context of purchasing. We report on a reward...

  13. Commodity hardware and software summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolbers, S.

    1997-04-01

    A review is given of the talks and papers presented in the Commodity Hardware and Software Session at the CHEP97 conference. An examination of the trends leading to the consideration of PC`s for HEP is given, and a status of the work that is being done at various HEP labs and Universities is given.

  14. "Pricing Average Options on Commodities"

    OpenAIRE

    Kenichiro Shiraya; Akihiko Takahashi

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a new approximation formula for pricing average options on commodities under a stochastic volatility environment. In particular, it derives an option pricing formula under Heston and an extended lambda-SABR stochastic volatility models (which includes an extended SABR model as a special case). Moreover, numerical examples support the accuracy of the proposed average option pricing formula.

  15. Balancing-out floods and droughts: Opportunities to utilize floodwater harvesting and groundwater storage for agricultural development in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelic, Paul; Srisuk, Kriengsak; Saraphirom, Phayom; Nadee, Suwanchai; Pholkern, Kewaree; Chusanathas, Sumrit; Munyou, Sitisak; Tangsutthinon, Theerasak; Intarasut, Teerawash; Smakhtin, Vladimir

    2012-11-01

    SummaryThailand's naturally high seasonal endowment of water resources brings with it the regularly experienced problems associated with floods during the wet season and droughts during the dry season. Downstream-focused engineering solutions that address flooding are vital, but do not necessarily capture the potential for basin-scale improvements to water security, food production and livelihood enhancement. Managed aquifer recharge, typically applied to annual harvesting of wet season flows in dry climates, can also be applied to capture, store and recover episodic extreme flood events in humid environments. In the Chao Phraya River Basin it is estimated that surplus flows recorded downstream above a critical threshold could be harvested and recharged within the shallow alluvial aquifers in a distributed manner upstream of flood prone areas without significantly impacting existing large-medium storages or the Gulf and deltaic ecosystems. Capturing peak flows approximately 1 year in four by dedicating around 200 km2 of land to groundwater recharge would reduce the magnitude of flooding and socio-economic impacts and generate around USD 250 M/year in export earnings for smallholder rainfed farmers through dry season cash cropping without unduly compromising the demands of existing water users. It is proposed that farmers in upstream riparian zones be co-opted as flood harvesters and thus contribute to improved floodwater management through simple water management technologies that enable agricultural lands to be put to higher productive use. Local-scale site suitability and technical performance assessments along with revised governance structures would be required. It is expected that such an approach would also be applicable to other coastal-discharging basins in Thailand and potentially throughout the Asia region.

  16. Agricultural Minerals Operations - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes agricultural minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  17. Aromatherapy Oils: Commodities, Materials, Essences

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth Barcan

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the essential oils that are the central tools of aromatherapy and uses them as a case study for different approaches to material culture. It considers the conceptual and political implications of thinking of essential oils as, in turn, commodities, materials and essences. I argue that both cultural studies and aromatherapy have something to learn from each other. Classic materialist approaches might do well to focus more attention on the material properties and effects o...

  18. Commodity Price Volatility Across Exchange Rate Regimes

    OpenAIRE

    John T. Cuddington; Hong Liang

    1998-01-01

    This paper documents a new "stylized fact" regarding commodity prices using alternative datasets covering the period from 1880 to 1996: The volatility of real commodity prices, defined as nominal commodity prices deflated by the manufacturing unit value index, is higher under flexible-exchange rate regimes than fixed-exchange rate regimes. Furthermore, changes in exchange regime are associated with changes in the persistence of commodity price shocks. Implications of this finding for open-eco...

  19. Land-use policies and corporate investments in agriculture in the Gran Chaco and Chiquitano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Polain de Waroux, Yann; Garrett, Rachael D; Heilmayr, Robert; Lambin, Eric F

    2016-04-12

    Growing demand for agricultural commodities is causing the expansion of agricultural frontiers onto native vegetation worldwide. Agribusiness companies linking these frontiers to distant spaces of consumption through global commodity chains increasingly make zero-deforestation pledges. However, production and land conversion are often carried out by less-visible local and regional actors that are mobile and responsive to new agricultural expansion opportunities and legal constraints on land use. With more stringent deforestation regulations in some countries, we ask whether their movements are determined partly by differences in land-use policies, resulting in "deforestation havens." We analyze the determinants of investment decisions by agricultural companies in the Gran Chaco and Chiquitano, a region that has become the new deforestation "hot spot" in South America. We test whether companies seek out less-regulated forest areas for new agricultural investments. Based on interviews with 82 companies totaling 2.5 Mha of properties, we show that, in addition to proximity to current investments and the availability of cheap forestland, lower deforestation regulations attract investments by companies that tend to clear more forest, mostly cattle ranching operations, and that lower enforcement attracts all companies. Avoiding deforestation leakage requires harmonizing deforestation regulations across regions and commodities and promoting sustainable intensification in cattle ranching.

  20. 22 CFR 228.51 - Commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commodities. 228.51 Section 228.51 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES ON SOURCE, ORIGIN AND NATIONALITY FOR COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY USAID Waivers § 228.51 Commodities. (a) Waiver criteria. Any waiver must be based...

  1. Regime shift in fertilizer commodities indicates more turbulence ahead for food security.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J Elser

    Full Text Available Recent human population increase has been enabled by a massive expansion of global agricultural production. A key component of this "Green Revolution" has been application of inorganic fertilizers to produce and maintain high crop yields. However, the long-term sustainability of these practices is unclear given the eutrophying effects of fertilizer runoff as well as the reliance of fertilizer production on finite non-renewable resources such as mined phosphate- and potassium-bearing rocks. Indeed, recent volatility in food and agricultural commodity prices, especially phosphate fertilizer, has raised concerns about emerging constraints on fertilizer production with consequences for its affordability in the developing world. We examined 30 years of monthly prices of fertilizer commodities (phosphate rock, urea, and potassium for comparison with three food commodities (maize, wheat, and rice and three non-agricultural commodities (gold, nickel, and petroleum. Here we show that all commodity prices, except gold, had significant change points between 2007-2009, but the fertilizer commodities, and especially phosphate rock, showed multiple symptoms of nonlinear critical transitions. In contrast to fertilizers and to rice, maize and wheat prices did not show significant signs of nonlinear dynamics. From these results we infer a recent emergence of a scarcity price in global fertilizer markets, a result signaling a new high price regime for these essential agricultural inputs. Such a regime will challenge on-going efforts to establish global food security but may also prompt fertilizer use practices and nutrient recovery strategies that reduce eutrophication.

  2. 7 CFR 917.119 - Procedure for nominating members for various Commodity Committees; meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Committees; meetings. 917.119 Section 917.119 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Bodies § 917.119 Procedure for nominating members for various Commodity Committees; meetings. (a) The nomination procedures that appear in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section apply to both the Peach and...

  3. GLOBAL CHALLENGES FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalana Bartosova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the evaluation of economic, social and environmental challenges of sustainable agriculture. The selected indicators of the economic challenges of sustainable agriculture imply that agriculture in Slovakia is not in long term be able to ensure competitiveness in the European market, gross agricultural output is characterized by a faster decline in animal production than in crop production and the value of import of agri-food commodities is higher than the value of export. According to selected indicators of social challenges of sustainable agriculture the number of persons working in agriculture has decreasing tendency in last years. The evaluation of selected indicators of environmental challenges of sustainable agriculture implies that area of organic agriculture is the most widely applied sub-measure within the measure agri-environmental payments. For ensuring the balance of the three mentioned dimensions of sustainable agriculture is necessary to increase of local production and consumption of local products, to ensure the protection of nature and landscape, to ensure rural development and to increase the employment opportunities in countryside.

  4. Opportunities and Challenges for O2O Agricultural Produce E-businesses%O2O农产品电子商务的机遇与挑战

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张则岭

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduced the connotation of the O2O e-commerce, analyzed the current status of the development of the O2O agricultural produce e-businesses in China, summarized the opportunities and challenges this mode faced in China, and at the end, proposed the countermeasures for its better development.%阐述了O2O电子商务的内涵,分析了我国O2O农产品电子商务的发展现状,总结了O2O农产品电子商务面临的政府推动、通信技术和智能手机出现、移动支付技术成熟、网购快速增长等发展机遇,指出其也面临物流配送体系不完善、农产品质量标准不一、资源整合困难、O2O消费市场急需培育、人才和资金匮乏等诸多问题,最后提出了发展O2O农产品电子商务的对策建议。

  5. 77 FR 71773 - Mandatory Country of Origin Labeling of Covered Commodities: Notice of Request for Revision of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Mandatory Country of Origin Labeling of Covered Commodities: Notice of Request... the currently approved information collection of the Mandatory Country of Origin Labeling (COOL) of... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Mandatory Country of Origin Labeling of Covered Commodities. OMB Number:...

  6. Innovations in urban agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, van der J.W.; Renting, Henk; Veenhuizen, Van René

    2014-01-01

    This issuehighlights innovations in urban agriculture. Innovation and the various forms of innovations are of particular importance because urban agriculture is adapted to specific urban challenges and opportunities. Innovation is taking place continuously, exploring the multiple fundions of urban a

  7. 7 CFR 1210.505 - Department of Agriculture costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Department of Agriculture costs. 1210.505 Section 1210.505 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  8. Analysis of Interregional Commodity Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirach Hirun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Commodity Flow Survey (CFS was launched to collect comprehensive freight flow data throughout the kingdom of Thailand. The survey’s database is the most complete collection of commodity flow data in Thailand. The need to reveal interregional freight characteristics using available data from the CFS led to the objectives of this research. Approach: An origin destination matrix based on province was calibrated using a flexible Box-Cox function form. It used maximum likelihood and the backward method for calibration and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE and Mean Relative Error (MRE to verify the model’s performance. Independent variables were classified into three groups: origin variable, destination variable and geographic variable. The origin variable represented the behavior of the trip as generated at the place of origin. Some consumption occurred at the origin. The employment and the average plant size variables were selected for potential productivity while personal income per capita and total populations were included to explain consumption behavior at the origin. Personal income per capita and total populations were selected for destination variables which act as proxy for final demand at the destination. The third category, distance, was the most conventional friction variable for geographical variables. Results: The calibrated model revealed that origin income, origin average plant size and origin population performed poorly. Therefore these variables were eliminated. The best developed model included four strongly significant variables at a 5% level: origin employment, destination population, destination income per capita and distance. Conclusion: The results showed that the selected variables and the Box-Cox functional form were successful in explaining behavior of interregional freight transportation in Thailand. The developed model was the first interregional freight transportation model to be

  9. Trading Forests: Quantifying the Contribution of Global Commodity Markets to Emissions from Tropical Deforestation

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Martin; Henders, Sabine; Kastner, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to improve our understanding of how and where global supply-chains linkconsumers of agricultural and forest commodities across the world to forest destruction in tropicalcountries. A better understanding of these linkages can help inform and support the design ofdemand-side interventions to reduce tropical deforestation. To that end, we map the link betweendeforestation for four commodities (beef, soybeans, palm oil, and wood products) in eight casecountries (Argentina, Bolivi...

  10. Education: Commodity, Come-On, or Commitment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    2000-07-01

    July 4, and the glass art shown on pages 812-816, remind us that freedom is fragile. Through their governments, citizens of democracies have traditionally made strong commitments to education on grounds that without it individuals would not be able to act responsibly and to make wise decisions in voting booths and public meetings. All citizens have a stake in everyone's education, because a better-educated citizenry benefits all of society. In this country such a commitment has produced a system of public schools and public universities that offers opportunities to many who otherwise could not afford a level of education commensurate with their talents. But there are signs that this commitment to public education is flagging. Many students, teachers, and administrators view education as merely a way to enhance personal prosperity. How often have you heard the statistic that a college education pays for itself through increased earning power, even if it costs $20,000-30,000 per year? Investing in education pays off just as investing in the stock market does, provided you wait long enough. Attending a better school gets you a better job and a better income. In other words, a certified level of education is a commodity-something that is useful and can be turned to commercial advantage. Viewing education as a commodity has several consequences. First, if education is a means to better employment rather than better citizenship, why should anyone pay for it other than the person who benefits? Why should I pay taxes to help someone else get a better job when I could be spending the money for my own benefit? Education as a commodity makes such attitudes reasonable, though not commendable, and the result is lessened support for public education. Second, those who supply education as an economic good should be rewarded, and those who are much better at educating should be rewarded much more. Hence the fear of Arthur Levine, president of Teachers College, Columbia University

  11. Commodities and Switzerland: Development Policy Challenges and Policy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Thut

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EDITOR’S NOTEThis paper, written in December 2012, is a contribution to the ‘Policy Debate’ section of the International Development Policy. In this section, academics, policy makers and practitioners engage in a dialogue on global development challenges. Papers are copy-edited but not peer-reviewed. Instead, an initial thematic contribution is followed by critical comments and reactions from different stakeholders. This paper by Werner Thut is followed by reactions and analysis from a non-profit policy institute (Alexandra Gillies, Revenue Watch Institute, New York, ‘Crafting a Strategic Response to the Commodity-Development Conundrum’, a Southern scholar (Prof. Humberto Campodonico, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima ‘Going Beyond Transparency and Good Governance’ | ‘Más allá de la transparencia y una buena gobernanza’ and a representative of the trading sector (Stéphane Graber, Secretary General of Geneva Trading & Shipping Association – ‘Reassessing the Merchants’ Role in a Globalized Economy’.PAPER’S ABSTRACTSwitzerland is one of the world’s largest commodity trading hub. The author, senior policy adviser at the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC, reviews experiences and policy options related to commodity trading from a development policy perspective. While this sector has become of strategic importance to Switzerland’s economy, it also entails a number of risks. On the other hand, Swiss development cooperation efforts focus on several resource-rich countries, whose mineral and agricultural commodities are traded via Switzerland. How can Switzerland assist these countries to reap the benefits of their natural resource wealth? This paper looks at development policy aspects of commodity trading in relation to Swiss foreign and domestic policy. It examines ongoing policy debates in Switzerland and discusses development policy options.

  12. Assessing Price Forecasting Models for Organic Commodities

    OpenAIRE

    Gubanova, Tatiana; Escalante, Cesar; Lohr, Luanne; Timothy PARK

    2005-01-01

    This project develops price forecasting models to guide organic commodity marketing decisions. Forecasting models for organic commodity prices at the farm level are specified and tested using a comprehensive national farm price series data set collected for organic commodities in the United States. A framework for testing the predictive ability of competing models using conditional predictive ability is developed. Forecast performance is evaluated using the root mean squared error (RMSE) a...

  13. Variance risk premia in energy commodities

    OpenAIRE

    Trolle, Anders; Eduardo S. Schwartz

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates variance risk premia in energy commodities, particularly crude oil and natural gas, using a robust model-independent approach. Over a period of 11 years, we find that the average variance risk premia are significantly negative for both energy commodities. However, it is difficult to explain the level and variation in energy variance risk premia with systematic or commodity specific factors. The return profile of a natural gas variance swap resembles that of a call opti...

  14. Success Essentials of Yiwu Small Commodity Market

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Yu

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to find the success factors of Yiwu Small Commodity Market. Beside this main objective, the historical reasons of Yiwu Small Commodity Market’s formation also have been analyzed. The purpose was to integrate the historical reasons and internal reasons together to get more comprehensive analysis results of Yiwu market. During the process of research, interviews of five shopkeepers in Yiwu Small Commodity Market were done. The interviews were held in April 2...

  15. Lattice QCD with commodity hardware and software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large scale QCD Monte Carlo calculations have typically been performed on either commercial supercomputers or specially built massively parallel computers such as Fermilab's ACPMAPS. Commodity computer systems offer impressive floating point performance-to-cost ratios which exceed those of commercial supercomputers. As high performance networking components approach commodity pricing, it becomes reasonable to assemble a massively parallel supercomputer from commodity parts. The authors describe the work and progress to date of a collaboration working on this problem

  16. A new departure in international commodities policies?

    OpenAIRE

    Maennig, Wolfgang

    1988-01-01

    In the course of the last United Nations' World Trade Conference (UNCTAD) the Soviet Union, Ivory Coast and Bulgaria signed the agreement on the Common Fund for Commodities. The Fund, which was conceived as the cornerstone of a new international commodities policy, will thus come into effect in the near future, probably in the course of 1988. Will this leadt o a new departure for international commodities policies?

  17. Testing aggregation consistency across geography and commodities

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qinghua; Shumway, C. Richard

    2004-01-01

    Consistent aggregation of production data across commodities and states was tested using Lewbel's generalized composite commodity theorem (GCCT). This was the first empirical GCCT test for consistent geographic aggregation and was applied to two groups of states. Consistent commodity aggregation was tested in all states for two output groups and three input groups and in one state for a larger number of groups. Using a more powerful test procedure than previously applied to production data, m...

  18. Lattice QCD with commodity hardware and software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmgren, D.J. [and others

    2000-01-25

    Large scale QCD Monte Carlo calculations have typically been performed on either commercial supercomputers or specially built massively parallel computers such as Fermilab's ACPMAPS. Commodity computer systems offer impressive floating point performance-to-cost ratios which exceed those of commercial supercomputers. As high performance networking components approach commodity pricing, it becomes reasonable to assemble a massively parallel supercomputer from commodity parts. The authors describe the work and progress to date of a collaboration working on this problem.

  19. Aromatherapy Oils: Commodities, Materials, Essences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Barcan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the essential oils that are the central tools of aromatherapy and uses them as a case study for different approaches to material culture. It considers the conceptual and political implications of thinking of essential oils as, in turn, commodities, materials and essences. I argue that both cultural studies and aromatherapy have something to learn from each other. Classic materialist approaches might do well to focus more attention on the material properties and effects of things. Aromatherapy, on the other hand, could benefit from the enriched political understanding associated with classic materialist critique. New materialist strains of cultural studies may also find the vibrancy of matter that underpins many CAM/New Age practices worthy of examination.

  20. Parallel supercomputing with commodity components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, M.S.; Goda, M.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Becker, D.J. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)] [and others

    1997-09-01

    We have implemented a parallel computer architecture based entirely upon commodity personal computer components. Using 16 Intel Pentium Pro microprocessors and switched fast ethernet as a communication fabric, we have obtained sustained performance on scientific applications in excess of one Gigaflop. During one production astrophysics treecode simulation, we performed 1.2 x 10{sup 15} floating point operations (1.2 Petaflops) over a three week period, with one phase of that simulation running continuously for two weeks without interruption. We report on a variety of disk, memory and network benchmarks. We also present results from the NAS parallel benchmark suite, which indicate that this architecture is competitive with current commercial architectures. In addition, we describe some software written to support efficient message passing, as well as a Linux device driver interface to the Pentium hardware performance monitoring registers.

  1. 31 CFR Appendix B to Part 560 - Bulk Agricultural Commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) oil, other 1515.50 Sesame oil 1512.11 Sunflower-seed oil, crude 1512.19 Sunflower-seed oil, other 1212... Soybean cake, meal and pellets 1507.10 Soybean oil, crude 1507.90 Soybean oil, other 1514.10 Rapeseed, colza and mustard oil, crude 1514.90 Rapeseed, colza and mustard oil, other 1515.21 Corn (Maize)...

  2. 31 CFR Appendix A to Part 538 - Bulk Agricultural Commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) oil, other 1515.50 Sesame oil 1512.11 Sunflower-seed oil, crude 1512.19 Sunflower-seed oil, other 1212... Soybean cake, meal and pellets 1507.10 Soybean oil, crude 1507.90 Soybean oil, other 1514.10 Rapeseed, colza and mustard oil, crude 1514.90 Rapeseed, colza and mustard oil, other 1515.21 Corn (Maize)...

  3. Ideological Challenges to Changing Strategic Orientation in Commodity Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Press, Melea; Arnould, Eric; Murray, Jeff;

    2014-01-01

    Why do some firms not change their strategic orientation despite economic incentives to do so? Most current literature on changing strategic orientations focuses on an antecedents and outcomes approach to business orientations. Intimated, but rarely addressed is, first, the idea that strategic or...

  4. Education: Commodity, Come-On, or Commitment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    2000-07-01

    July 4, and the glass art shown on pages 812-816, remind us that freedom is fragile. Through their governments, citizens of democracies have traditionally made strong commitments to education on grounds that without it individuals would not be able to act responsibly and to make wise decisions in voting booths and public meetings. All citizens have a stake in everyone's education, because a better-educated citizenry benefits all of society. In this country such a commitment has produced a system of public schools and public universities that offers opportunities to many who otherwise could not afford a level of education commensurate with their talents. But there are signs that this commitment to public education is flagging. Many students, teachers, and administrators view education as merely a way to enhance personal prosperity. How often have you heard the statistic that a college education pays for itself through increased earning power, even if it costs $20,000-30,000 per year? Investing in education pays off just as investing in the stock market does, provided you wait long enough. Attending a better school gets you a better job and a better income. In other words, a certified level of education is a commodity-something that is useful and can be turned to commercial advantage. Viewing education as a commodity has several consequences. First, if education is a means to better employment rather than better citizenship, why should anyone pay for it other than the person who benefits? Why should I pay taxes to help someone else get a better job when I could be spending the money for my own benefit? Education as a commodity makes such attitudes reasonable, though not commendable, and the result is lessened support for public education. Second, those who supply education as an economic good should be rewarded, and those who are much better at educating should be rewarded much more. Hence the fear of Arthur Levine, president of Teachers College, Columbia University

  5. The changing dynamics between biofuels and commodity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent development of the biofuel industries coincides with significant increases in prices of basic commodities such as food and feed. Against popular perception, it appears that there is not a straightforward causal relationship between the two; there are a number of factors that determine the level and strength of the impact of the biofuels sector on other commodities. For the case of markets of agricultural raw material these factors include the amount of feedstock claimed by the biofuels industry, its relative purchasing power, the responsiveness of the agricultural sector to price incentives and availability of substitutes. For consumer food markets we must additionally consider the relative share of agricultural input costs in the retail food price and the demand elasticity. Based on the analysis of these factors and estimates of other studies that attempted to quantify the price impacts of biofuels on crop prices, we conclude that the impact of biofuels is relatively small, especially when compared with other causes that triggered the recent price increases. We end the paper with a recommendation for future efforts in curbing food price inflations while keeping ambitious biofuel targets and suggest a shift in focus of the debate around the social costs of biofuels

  6. The changing dynamics between biofuels and commodity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bole, T.; Londo, H.M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-06-15

    The recent development of the biofuel industries coincides with significant increases in prices of basic commodities such as food and feed. Against popular perception, it appears that there is not a straightforward causal relationship between the two; there are a number of factors that determine the level and strength of the impact of the biofuels sector on other commodities. For the case of markets of agricultural raw material these factors include the amount of feedstock claimed by the biofuels industry, its relative purchasing power, the responsiveness of the agricultural sector to price incentives and availability of substitutes. For consumer food markets we must additionally consider the relative share of agricultural input costs in the retail food price and the demand elasticity. Based on the analysis of these factors and estimates of other studies that attempted to quantify the price impacts of biofuels on crop prices, we conclude that the impact of biofuels is relatively small, especially when compared with other causes that triggered the recent price increases. We end the paper with a recommendation for future efforts in curbing food price inflations while keeping ambitious biofuel targets and suggest a shift in focus of the debate around the social costs of biofuels.

  7. How to time the commodities markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Basu; R. Oomen; A. Stremme

    2010-01-01

    In this article we construct and investigate the performance of elementary trading strategies that allow an investor to time between equities and commodities. Our strategies appear to capture time-varying risk premiums in the equity and commodity markets, enabling them to successfully time the marke

  8. Notes on Exchange Rates and Commodity Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Clements, Kenneth W.; Meher Manzur

    2001-01-01

    Brief analytical notes on the interactions between exchange rates and commodity prices. Gold and iron-ore are used as examples of the issues raised. The paper also presents a stylised model to determine the effects of exchange-rate changes on the internal and external prices of commodities. Also included is a simple geometric exposition of the issues.

  9. 44 CFR 402.2 - Restricted commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Positive List (15 CFR part 399) (as amended from time to time) of the Comprehensive Export Schedule of the... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restricted commodities. 402.2... SHIPMENTS ON AMERICAN FLAG SHIPS AND AIRCRAFT (T-1, INT. 1) § 402.2 Restricted commodities. The...

  10. Pricing of commodities futures: an empirical study

    OpenAIRE

    Τάσσης, Δημήτριος Κ.

    2014-01-01

    In the current thesis, methods and models for pricing commodities contracts are presented and studied. More specifically, a model which was created by Gibson and Schwartz (1990) is studied in depth, analysed and implemented using Matlab. Moreover, results of implementation are presented and analysed. Implementation is based on a large data set of more than 20 years futures prices of crude oil commodities.

  11. Cotton expansion and biodiversity loss in African savannahs, opportunities and challenges for conservation agriculture: a review paper based on two case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baudron, F.; Corbeels, M.; Monicat, F.; Giller, K.E.

    2009-01-01

    We review agricultural impacts on biodiversity and the potential of conservation agriculture in developing productive and environment-friendly cropping systems. We then analyse experiences from two African landscapes of global importance for conservation: the Mid Zambezi Valley in Southern Africa an

  12. Scientific Research: Commodities or Commons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeir, Koen

    2013-10-01

    Truth is for sale today, some critics claim. The increased commodification of science corrupts it, scientific fraud is rampant and the age-old trust in science is shattered. This cynical view, although gaining in prominence, does not explain very well the surprising motivation and integrity that is still central to the scientific life. Although scientific knowledge becomes more and more treated as a commodity or as a product that is for sale, a central part of academic scientific practice is still organized according to different principles. In this paper, I critically analyze alternative models for understanding the organization of knowledge, such as the idea of the scientific commons and the gift economy of science. After weighing the diverse positive and negative aspects of free market economies of science and gift economies of science, a commons structured as a gift economy seems best suited to preserve and take advantage of the specific character of scientific knowledge. Furthermore, commons and gift economies promote the rich social texture that is important for supporting central norms of science. Some of these basic norms might break down if the gift character of science is lost. To conclude, I consider the possibility and desirability of hybrid economies of academic science, which combine aspects of gift economies and free market economies. The aim of this paper is to gain a better understanding of these deeper structural challenges faced by science policy. Such theoretical reflections should eventually assist us in formulating new policy guidelines.

  13. 22 CFR 211.4 - Availability and shipment of commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Availability and shipment of commodities. 211.4 Section 211.4 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT TRANSFER OF FOOD COMMODITIES FOR FOOD... commodities. (a) Shipment, distribution and use of commodities. Commodities shall be available for...

  14. Innovations in urban agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Schans, van der, D.A.; Renting, Henk; Veenhuizen, van, R.

    2014-01-01

    This issuehighlights innovations in urban agriculture. Innovation and the various forms of innovations are of particular importance because urban agriculture is adapted to specific urban challenges and opportunities. Innovation is taking place continuously, exploring the multiple fundions of urban agriculture, including food security, income generation and environmental management.

  15. Agriculture and Energy: Implications for Food Security, Water, and Land Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokgoz, S.; Zhang, W.; Msangi, S.; Bhandary, P.

    2011-12-01

    Sustainable production of agricultural commodities and growth of international trade in these goods are challenged as never before by supply-side constraints (such as climate change, water and land scarcity, and environmental degradation) and by demand-side dynamics (volatility in food and energy markets, the strengthening food-energy linkage, population growth, and income growth). On the one hand, the rapidly expanding demand can potentially create new market opportunities for agriculture. On the other hand, there are many threats to a sufficient response by the supply side to meet this growing and changing demand. Agricultural production systems in many countries are neither resource-efficient, nor producing according to their full potential. The stock of natural resources such as land, water, nutrients, energy, and genetic diversity is shrinking relative to demand, and their use must become increasingly efficient in order to reduce environmental impacts and preserve the planet's productive capacity. World energy prices have increased rapidly in recent years. At the same time, agriculture has become more energy-intensive. Higher energy costs have pushed up the cost of producing, transporting and processing agricultural commodities, driving up commodity prices. Higher energy costs have also affected water use and availability through increased costs of water extraction, conveyance and desalinization, higher demand for hydroelectric power, and increased cost of subsidizing water services. In the meantime, the development of biofuels has diverted increasing amounts of agricultural land and water resources to the production of biomass-based renewable energy. This more "intensified" linkage between agriculture and energy comes at a time when there are other pressures on the world's limited resources. The related high food prices, especially those in the developing countries, have led to setbacks in the poverty alleviation effort among the global community with more

  16. 76 FR 20305 - Consultative Group To Eliminate the Use of Child Labor and Forced Labor in Imported Agricultural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... agricultural products or commodities imported into the United States are produced by forced labor or child... commodities to reduce the likelihood that agricultural products or commodities imported into the United States... include child slavery; sale/trafficking of children; debt bondage; serfdom; forced/compulsory labor;...

  17. 天津外向型农业的优势、机遇及发展建议%Advantages, Opportunities and Development Suggestions of Export-oriented Agriculture in Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付俊红

    2012-01-01

    天津外向型农业发展得益于科技的有力支撑、农业产业结构优化、稳步提高的农产品质量以及对外资的利用,但同时也存在农业资源禀赋缺乏、农业组织化程度低、科技投入相对不足、农产品出口额低等问题,结合当前面临的机遇与挑战,本文对天津外向型农业发展提出了三点建议:加大支持力度,调整扶持重点;增加科技投入,提高比较优势;培育龙头企业,打造品牌产品.%Tianjin's export-oriented agricultural development has benefited from the strong support of science and technology, agricultural industrial structure optimization, the steady improvement of the quality of agricultural products, as well as the utilization of foreign capital. But there are also some problems, which include a lack of agricultural resource endowment, the low degree of agriculture corporatization, the relative insufficiency of investment in science and technology, the agricultural product export amount is too low, and so on. Combined with the current opportunities and challenges, three suggestions for the development of Tianjin's export-oriented agriculture were put forward: enhancing support of government, adjusting support key; increasing investment in science and technology, enhancing the comparative advantage; cultivating leading enterprises, creating brand products.

  18. Pairs trading the commodity futures curve

    OpenAIRE

    Nikkanen, A. (Antti)

    2013-01-01

    I create a pairs trade on the commodity futures curve, which captures the roll returns of commodity futures and minimizes the standard deviation of the returns. The end results is a strategy that has an annualized arithmetic return of 6,04% and an annualized standard deviation of 2,01%. Transaction costs and liquidity are also accounted for. The goal was to create and backtest a trading strategy that tries to capture the roll return component of commodity futures returns. In order to redu...

  19. Portfolio Diversification with Commodity Futures: Properties of Levered Futures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woodard, J.D.; Egelkraut, T.M.; Garcia, P.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2005-01-01

    Portfolio Diversification with Commodity Futures: Properties of Levered Futures This study extends previous work on the impact of commodity futures on portfolio performance by explicitly incorporating levered futures into the portfolio optimization problem. Using data on nine individual commodity fu

  20. 76 FR 64892 - Agricultural Policy Advisory Committee and the Agricultural Technical Advisory Committees for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... expertise and knowledge of agricultural trade as it relates to policy and commodity specific issues. Members... knowledge, background, or expertise. USDA will assist SGEs in disclosing their financial interest and will... representation on the committees with representation from producers, farm and commodity organizations,...

  1. The Ivorian pineapple : social action within the international pineapple commodity network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, S.

    2006-01-01

    Today, a significant part of the agricultural commodities that we find at markets in the West are cultivated in developing countries. Many of these products are shipped around the world, passing through a complex network of actors involved in production, distribution and marketing activities. Who ar

  2. 7 CFR 17.5 - Contracts between commodity suppliers and importers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (Webb-Pomerene Law). A supplier who is a member of a Webb-Pomerene association and who enters into contracts with importers as a member of such an association shall so indicate in a statement on, or attached... COMMODITIES MADE AVAILABLE UNDER TITLE I OF THE AGRICULTURAL TRADE DEVELOPMENT AND ASSISTANCE ACT OF 1954,...

  3. 22 CFR 211.8 - Disposition of commodities unfit for authorized use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Law 480 Agricultural Commodity Account. The net proceeds of sales shall be deposited with the U.S... approved by USAID or the Diplomatic Post. If no competent local authority is available, USAID or the...) Donation to a governmental or charitable organization for use as animal feed or for other nonfood use....

  4. Fiscal Policy, the Real Exchange Rate, and Commodity Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhart, Carmen

    1991-01-01

    The role of the international commodity market in transmitting disturbances is considered in a model that incorporates commodities as an input in production. The analysis employs a three-country framework: a liquidity-constrained commodity supplier and two industrial countries that import the commodity, export differentiated manufactured goods, and hold the outstanding debt of the commodity exporter. In this setting the impact of changes in fiscal policy, commodity supplies, and the real inte...

  5. Regional integration and commodity tax harmonization

    OpenAIRE

    De Bonis, Valeria

    1997-01-01

    In a closed economy, a commodity tax drives a wedge between the producer price and the consumer price. In open economies, intercountry differences in commodity taxation can induce two additional distortions: (1) Cross-country differences in consumer marginal rates of substitution (which result in an inefficient allocation of world consumption), which arise when countries levy taxes on goods and services consumed within their borders (the destination principle). (2) Cross-country differences i...

  6. Accelerating semantic graph databases on commodity clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morari, Alessandro; Castellana, Vito G.; Haglin, David J.; Feo, John T.; Weaver, Jesse R.; Tumeo, Antonino; Villa, Oreste

    2013-10-06

    We are developing a full software system for accelerating semantic graph databases on commodity cluster that scales to hundreds of nodes while maintaining constant query throughput. Our framework comprises a SPARQL to C++ compiler, a library of parallel graph methods and a custom multithreaded runtime layer, which provides a Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) programming model with fork/join parallelism and automatic load balancing over a commodity clusters. We present preliminary results for the compiler and for the runtime.

  7. Evaluating Transmission Prices between Global Agricultural Markets and Consumers' Food Price Indices in the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-German, Sol; Garrido, Alberto; Bardaji, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The rise of price levels and volatility of world agricultural commodities since 2006-2008 was followed by increased and more volatile food price inflation around the world. Using error correction models, this paper evaluates the velocity and extent to which world agricultural commodity price movements affect consumer food prices in the 28 EU's Member States. Results show a significant long run relationship between world agricultural commodity prices and food consumer prices in over half of th...

  8. Managing commodity markets: the case of OPEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since primary commodity producers first took control of their natural resources, they have attempted to utilize production/price management with varying degrees of success. As a tool aimed at regulating, rather than controlling, commodity markets, this type of resource management is an essential means of achieving realistic economic returns, which, in the long run, serves the interests of the producer of the commodity in question, as well as its consumer. By regulating commodity markets in times of stable prices producing countries would benefit from a steady and constant level of export earnings, thus allowing them to achieve a sustainable level of economic development. As far as the oil market is concerned, stable prices, set in a range favourable to both producers and consumers, would give investors the confidence needed for long-term exploration. This is particularly important for a commodity such as oil, at a time when the lead time between exploration starting and actual production getting under way is increasing. Not only would producers benefit from stable export earnings, which are an essential requirement for the planning of their development process, but consuming countries would at the same time benefit in two ways: first, they would gain security of supply; and second, as fluctuations in their expenditure for this commodity are reduced, they would be a position to manage their economies more efficiently. (author)

  9. 29 CFR 780.611 - Workweek exclusively in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Workweek exclusively in agriculture. 780.611 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption...

  10. Estimation of Truck Trips on Large-Scale Irrigation Project: A Combinatory Input-Output Commodity-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackchai Sirikijpanichkul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the agricultural-based countries, the requirement on transportation infrastructure should not only be limited to accommodate general traffic but also the transportation of crop and agricultural products during the harvest seasons. Most of the past researches focus on the development of truck trip estimation techniques for urban, statewide, or nationwide freight movement but neglect the importance of rural freight movement which contributes to pavement deterioration on rural roads especially during harvest seasons. Recently, the Thai Government initiated a plan to construct a network of reservoirs within the northeastern region, aiming at improving existing irrigation system particularly in the areas where a more effective irrigation system is needed. It is expected to bring in new opportunities on expanding the cultivation areas, increasing the economy of scale and enlarging the extent market of area. As a consequence, its effects on truck trip generation needed to be investigated to assure the service quality of related transportation infrastructure. This paper proposes a combinatory input-output commodity-based approach to estimate truck trips on rural highway infrastructure network. The large-scale irrigation project for the northeastern of Thailand is demonstrated as a case study.

  11. On the New Opportunities for the Building of Informationization of Agricultural Product Wholesale Market%新机遇下的农产品批发市场信息化建设思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白玉英

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural product wholesale market is the central link of circulation of agricultural products,connecting the producing and selling of agricultural products.But there are many issues to be resolved in agricultural product wholesale markets in China,such as the weak market infrastructure,the unreasonable planning and layout,the backward and single transactions,and market information,the low level of market information and market management,the imperfect relevant legal system,the unreasonable formation of prices of agricultural products,the low level of organization of production and sales,the quality and safety of agricultural products,etc.In 2011 and 2012,agricultural product wholesale market is facing new opportunities in the construction,which provides good conditions for solving the issues about the informationization of agricultural product wholesale markets.%目前,我国农产品批发市场存在着很多有待解决的问题。诸如,市场基础设施总体薄弱,规划布局不合理,交易方式大都落后且单一,市场信息化水平偏低,市场管理水平不到位,相关法律制度不完善,农产品价格形成不规范,产销组织化程度偏低,农产品质量安全等问题。文章以2011年和2012年农产品批发市场信息化建设面临的新机遇为切入点,提出应健全相关法律法规、采取层次梯度和试点相结合的方式、建立专业的电子商务做基础保障等措施,以加快农产品批发市场信息化建设的步伐。

  12. How New York State's agriculture industry is staying competitive

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Deitz; Margaret Cowell

    2005-01-01

    We examine some of the challenges facing New York's agriculture industry and outline some innovative responses. We distinguish between two types of agriculture: commodities and value-added consumer foods. We show that commodities are a small fraction of the agriculture industry in New York State and are not a growing market segment, while value-added goods are the primary products of New York farms and represent a market segment that is growing significantly. We then briefly discuss important...

  13. Global Drivers of Agricultural Demand and Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Sands, Ronald; Jones, Carol; Marshall, Elizabeth P.

    2014-01-01

    Recent volatility in agricultural commodity prices and projections of world population growth raise concerns about the ability of global agricultural production to meet future demand. This report explores the potential for future agricultural production to 2050, using a model-based analysis that incorporates the key drivers of agricultural production, along with the responses of producers and consumers to changes to those drivers. Model results show that for a percentage change in population,...

  14. The Impact of the Global Commodity and Financial Crises on Poverty in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thurlow, James; Tarp, Finn; McCoy, Simon;

    Economic growth in Vietnam has been fairly resilient to the global commodity and financial crises, but it is unclear why. In addition, the impact of the crises on employment and poverty is in dispute. We develop a dynamic computable general equilibrium model to decompose impacts and estimate...... distributional outcomes. Our results indicate that the 2008 commodity crisis increased employment and reduced poverty by favouring labour-intensive exports, especially in agriculture. The 2009 financial crisis reversed these gains. It pushed more than a million workers into unemployment and about 3 million...

  15. 22 CFR 228.11 - Source and origin of commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Source and origin of commodities. 228.11... NATIONALITY FOR COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY USAID Conditions Governing Source and Nationality of Commodity Procurement Transactions for USAID Financing § 228.11 Source and origin of commodities. (a)...

  16. 22 CFR 228.52 - Suppliers of commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suppliers of commodities. 228.52 Section 228.52... COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY USAID Waivers § 228.52 Suppliers of commodities. Geographic code changes authorized by waiver with respect to the source of commodities automatically apply to the nationality...

  17. 41 CFR 51-6.13 - Replacement and similar commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... commodities. 51-6.13 Section 51-6.13 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... PROCEDURES § 51-6.13 Replacement and similar commodities. (a) When a commodity on the Procurement List is replaced by another commodity which has not been recently procured, and a nonprofit agency can furnish...

  18. 17 CFR 31.6 - Registration of leverage commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Registration of leverage... LEVERAGE TRANSACTIONS § 31.6 Registration of leverage commodities. (a) Registration of leverage commodities. Each leverage commodity upon which a leverage contract is offered for sale or purchase or is sold...

  19. Biotechnology opportunities in agriculture. June 1980-November 1989 (A Bibliography from the Management Contents data base). Report for June 1980-November 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-04-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning advances in biotechnology and their impact on agricultural and food production markets. Crop growth stimulators, pharmaceutical products developed using biotechnology, poultry vaccines, salt tolerant plants, genetically engineered immune properties in plants and animals, and food crops of uniform size with improved flavor are among the products discussed. Specific company investments and activities in the biotechnology field are included. (This updated bibliography contains 155 citations, 19 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  20. Department of Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Natural Resources Ethics Farm Bill Food and Nutrition Food Safety Forestry Housing Assistance Laws and Regulations Organic Agriculture Outreach Plant Health Research and Science Rural and Community Development Rural Opportunities Trade Travel and Recreation USDA for ...

  1. Collaboration in Agricultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Roland L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Theme articles discuss environment, food, agriculture, and renewal resources as they relate to science education, learning partnerships, collaboration in Kyrghyzstan, leadership development, opportunities for collaboration, networking, and the creation of a shared course between agribusiness and biology. (JOW)

  2. Theme: Future Programs of Agricultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jasper S.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This issue, focusing on future programs of agricultural education, includes articles on the future of agriculture, bioelectronics, secondary programs, technical education in agriculture, young and adult farmer programs, instructional technology, and expanding opportunities for women. (CT)

  3. 76 FR 49291 - Agricultural Swaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... pursuant to a rule, regulation or order of the Commission adopted pursuant to certain provisions of the... of proposed rules that would, among other things, implement regulations whereby swaps in agricultural... amend the Commission's regulations regarding commodity option transactions. However, in this final...

  4. Biofuel and Food-Commodity Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Zilberman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes key findings of alternative lines of research on the relationship between food and fuel markets, and identifies gaps between two bodies of literature: one that investigates the relationship between food and fuel prices, and another that investigates the impact of the introduction of biofuels on commodity-food prices. The former body of literature suggests that biofuel prices do not affect food-commodity prices, but the latter suggests it does. We try to explain this gap, and then show that although biofuel was an important contributor to the recent food-price inflation of 2001–2008, its effect on food-commodity prices declined after the recession of 2008/09. We also show that the introduction of cross-price elasticity is important when explaining soybean price, but less so when explaining corn prices.

  5. Expected commodity returns and pricing models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stochastic models of commodity prices have evolved considerably in terms of their structure and the number and interpretation of the state variables that model the underlying risk. Using multiple factors, different specifications and modern estimation techniques, these models have gained wide acceptance because of their success in accurately fitting the observed commodity futures' term structures and their dynamics. It is not well emphasized however that these models, in addition to providing the risk neutral distribution of future spot prices, also provide their true distribution. While the parameters of the risk neutral distribution are estimated more precisely and are usually statistically significant, some of the parameters of the true distribution are typically measured with large errors and are statistically insignificant. In this paper we argue that to increase the reliability of commodity pricing models, and therefore their use by practitioners, some of their parameters — in particular the risk premium parameters — should be obtained from other sources and we show that this can be done without losing any precision in the pricing of futures contracts. We show how the risk premium parameters can be obtained from estimations of expected futures returns and provide alternative procedures for estimating these expected futures returns. - Highlights: • Simple methodology to improve the performance of commodity pricing models • New information about commodity futures expected return is added to the estimation. • No significant effect in pricing futures contracts is observed. • More reliable commodity pricing model's expected returns are obtained. • Methodology is open to any expected futures return model preferred by practitioner

  6. The Simple Economics of Commodity Price Speculation

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher R. Knittel; Robert S. Pindyck

    2013-01-01

    The price of crude oil in the U.S. never exceeded $40 per barrel until mid-2004. By 2006 it reached $70, and in July 2008 it peaked at $145. By late 2008 it had plummeted to about $30 before increasing to $110 in 2011. Are speculators at least partly to blame for these sharp price changes? We clarify the effects of speculators on commodity prices. We focus on crude oil, but our approach can be applied to other commodities. We explain the meaning of "oil price speculation," how it can occur, a...

  7. Occurrence of ochratoxin A in commodities and processed food - A review of EU occurrence data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    A brief review on the occurrence of ochratoxin A in commodities and processed food on the European market (meat and meat products, cereal and cereal products, spices, beer, cocoa and derived products, coffee, wine, dried vine fruits, grape juice) is given in an historical perspective based on two...... EU project reports from the activity initiated by the European Commission: Scientific cooperation on questions relating to food (SCOOP). The most important commodities contaminated with ochratoxin A are known and the amount of occurrence data is in most cases comprehensive. However, gaps of knowledge...... exist, e.g. possible year-to-year variations for wine, dried vine fruits and grape juice are not well investigated. In addition, a follow-up on possible improvements in agricultural and processing practices is needed for some of the commodities recently discovered as being contaminated with ochratoxin A...

  8. Rambutan Commodity Development Strategy as Regional Potential Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Pujiati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential product of a region needs to be developed in order to improve the social welfare. Commonly, at harvest time, there is abundant horticulture commodity. Unluckily, the price of the commodity drops significantly. In other words, it costs  extremely cheap. The purpose of research is analyzing the internal and external factors and determining an appropriate strategy for developing rambutan in Central Java, especially at Gunungpati District, Semarang, Central Java Province. The primary data of this research is obtained from 58 rambutan farmers that have been interviewed and have filled out the questionnaire forms. The secondary data is taken from the Central Bureau of Statistics, the monograph of the village and the internet by implementing the literature study method. Then, SWOT analysis is implemented for analizing the data. The internal factors that become the strengths are fertilized land for rambutan to grow and the farmers’ hereditary experiences in cultivating rambutan. Further, the lack of absorbing power of knowledge and technologies and the low existence of rambutan business are the weaknesses. Next, the external factor that becomes opportunity is the continuous increasing market demand, while the threat is the young generations having no interest in rambutan business. Finally, the stability (hold and maintain strategy should be implemented for developing rambutan business

  9. Multifractal analysis of the Korean agricultural market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hongseok; Oh, Gabjin; Kim, Seunghwan

    2011-11-01

    We have studied the long-term memory effects of the Korean agricultural market using the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method. In general, the return time series of various financial data, including stock indices, foreign exchange rates, and commodity prices, are uncorrelated in time, while the volatility time series are strongly correlated. However, we found that the return time series of Korean agricultural commodity prices are anti-correlated in time, while the volatility time series are correlated. The n-point correlations of time series were also examined, and it was found that a multifractal structure exists in Korean agricultural market prices.

  10. ENDOGENOUS QUALITY AND AGRICULTURAL POLICY ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    James, Jennifer S.

    1999-01-01

    The typical analysis of agricultural policy assumes that the commodity of interest is homogeneous, and that it does not change as a result of policy implementation. This paper develops a model of agricultural policy analysis when the restriction of product homogeneity is relaxed and policy-induced quality responses are incorporated.

  11. Commodities Trading: An Essential Economic Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This issue focuses on commodities trading as an essential economic tool. Activities include critical thinking about marketing decisions and discussion on how futures markets and options are used as important economic tools. Discussion questions and a special student project are included. (EH)

  12. Bitcoin: a Money-like Informational Commodity

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstra, Jan A.; Weijland, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The question "what is Bitcoin" allows for many answers depending on the objectives aimed at when providing such answers. The question addressed in this paper is to determine a top-level classification, or type, for Bitcoin. We will classify Bitcoin as a system of type money-like informational commodity (MLIC).

  13. 7 CFR 1421.5 - Eligible commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... respect to barley, canola, corn, flaxseed, grain sorghum, oats, rice, soybeans, sunflower seed for extraction of oil, wheat, and other commodities designated by CCC, the determination of eligibility will be... oats, mustard seed, rapeseed, safflower seed, flaxseed, and sunflower seed used for a purpose...

  14. Rheological and commodity properties of petroleum mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of researches of rheological and commodity characteristics of prognosis petroleum mixtures, pumping on an Western Kazakhstan-Kumkol petroleum pipe-line are presented. It is shown, that petroleum mixtures are low viscous, low solidifying and have not viscosity anomaly at positive temperatures. (author)

  15. 22 CFR 120.4 - Commodity jurisdiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commodity jurisdiction. 120.4 Section 120.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS... and media. The fit of the item is its ability to physically interface or interconnect with or...

  16. Global Histories, Imperial Commodities, Local Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curry Machado, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The history of the modern world can be described through the history of the commodities that were produced, traded and consumed, on an increasingly global scale. The papers presented in this book show how in this process borders were transgressed, local agents combined with metropolitan representati

  17. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Chapagain

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. The paper analyses the consequences of international virtual water flows on the global and national water budgets. The assessment shows that the total amount of water that would have been required in the importing countries if all imported agricultural products would have been produced domestically is 1605 Gm3/yr. These products are however being produced with only 1253 Gm3/yr in the exporting countries, saving global water resources by 352 Gm3/yr. This saving is 28% of the international virtual water flows related to the trade of agricultural products and 6% of the global water use in agriculture. National policy makers are however not interested in global water savings but in the status of national water resources. Egypt imports wheat and in doing so saves 3.6 Gm3/yr of its national water resources. Water use for producing export commodities can be beneficial, as for instance in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Brazil, where the use of green water resources (mainly through rain-fed agriculture for the production of stimulant crops for export has a positive economic impact on the national economy. However, export of 28 Gm3/yr of national water from Thailand related to rice export is at the cost of additional pressure on its blue water resources. Importing a product which has a relatively high ratio of green to blue virtual water content saves global blue water resources that generally have a higher opportunity cost than green water.

  18. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Chapagain

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. The paper analyses the consequences of international virtual water flows on the global and national water budgets. The assessment shows that the total amount of water that would have been required in the importing countries if all imported agricultural products would have been produced domestically is 1605 Gm3/yr. These products are however being produced with only 1253 Gm3/yr in the exporting countries, saving global water resources by 352 Gm3/yr. This saving is 28 per cent of the international virtual water flows related to the trade of agricultural products and 6 per cent of the global water use in agriculture. National policy makers are however not interested in global water savings but in the status of national water resources. Egypt imports wheat and in doing so saves 3.6 Gm3/yr of its national water resources. Water use for producing export commodities can be beneficial, as for instance in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Brazil, where the use of green water resources (mainly through rain-fed agriculture for the production of stimulant crops for export has a positive economic impact on the national economy. However, export of 28 Gm3/yr of national water from Thailand related to rice export is at the cost of additional pressure on its blue water resources. Importing a product which has a relatively high ratio of green to blue virtual water content saves global blue water resources that generally have a higher opportunity cost than green water.

  19. What commodities and countries impact inequality in the global food system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Joel A.; D'Odorico, Paolo; Suweis, Samir; Seekell, David A.

    2016-09-01

    The global distribution of food production is unequal relative to the distribution of human populations. International trade can increase or decrease inequality in food availability, but little is known about how specific countries and commodities contribute to this redistribution. We present a method based on the Gini coefficient for evaluating the contributions of country and commodity specific trade to inequality in the global food system. We applied the method to global food production and trade data for the years 1986-2011 to identify the specific countries and commodities that contribute to increasing and decreasing inequality in global food availability relative to food production. Overall, international trade reduced inequality in food availability by 25%-33% relative to the distribution of food production, depending on the year. Across all years, about 58% of the total trade links acted to reduce inequality with ˜4% of the links providing 95% of the reduction in inequality. Exports from United States of America, Malaysia, Argentina, and Canada are particularly important in decreasing inequality. Specific commodities that reduce inequality when traded include cereals and vegetables. Some trade connections contribute to increasing inequality, but this effect is mostly concentrated within a small number of commodities including fruits, stimulants, and nuts. In terms of specific countries, exports from Slovenia, Oman, Singapore, and Germany act to increase overall inequality. Collectively, our analysis and results represent an opportunity for building an enhanced understanding of global-scale patterns in food availability.

  20. Techniques for Analyzing the Attractiveness of International Commodity Markets Under Conditions of Economic Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olha Pryhara

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines existing techniques and proposes its own for analyzing the attractiveness of international commodity markets in light of the globalization of world economic processes. Taking into account the supranational nature of the world economic environment when examining categories in the attractiveness of international commodity markets, the author introduces a multilevel system of indicators: market attractiveness at the mega-level – global level; market attractiveness at the macro-level national level; market attractiveness at the mezo-level – level of an individual sector. The attractiveness of international commodity markets is considered to be the degree of conformity between market environment factors and the mega-, macro- and mezo-levels of the economic interests of enterprises concerning the entry into and strategies for their activity on the international commodity markets in the short-, medium- and long-term. The author designs a stage-by-stage technique for strategically analyzing the attractiveness of international commodity markets in order to frame efficient market strategies of enterprises. Relying on the proposed techniques, she rates the integrated indicators of market accessibility and the possibility of realizing the economic interests of enterprises in target markets, bringing the index data into a matrix of «market accessibility – opportunity for realizing the economic interests of enterprises.» The analysis of a country’s position in the matrix makes it possible to frame efficient market strategies for enterprises.

  1. Strategic analysis of Swedish agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Fogelfors, Håkan; Wivstad, Maria; Eckersten, Henrik; Holstein, Fredrik; Johansson, Susanne; Verwijst, Theo

    2009-01-01

    This strategic analysis of Swedish agriculture – production systems and agricultural landscapes in a time of change – focuses on climate change, future availability of natural resources and economic regulation in a global food market. The background to the project was that the Faculty of Natural Resources and Agriculture of the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences identified an urgent need to explore the implications and opportunities of coming changes for agricultural production syste...

  2. Recognizing risk in global agriculture: a summary of the 2011 Agricultural Symposium

    OpenAIRE

    Jason Henderson

    2011-01-01

    Historically, record profits in the agriculture industry have been fleeting - farm booms have been followed by busts. Recent profitability suggests agriculture has entered a new "golden era." Still the glint of banner profits could turn out to be fool's gold amid soaring market risks and volatile commodity prices. ; Henderson reports on the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City's agriculture symposium- "Recognizing Risk in Global Agriculture"-July 19 and 20, 2011, in Kansas City. About 200 agri...

  3. Gambier : Indonesia Leading Commodities in The Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamda Fauza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gambier is one of Indonesia's small holder plantation commodities with a high economic value and has a commercial prospective for the future regard to the various usefulness. Gambier terms, in addition, to use as the name of the plant, is also the trade name of the product produced by the plant, extract of the leaves and young branches of the gambier plant.  In Indonesia, gambier have been subsisted in a golden era and be the prominent commodity.  In the early 19th century, gambier has become one of the commodities traded in Europe.  After World War II, gambier is no longer an important export products that are traded in the international market.  Further, development of gambier plantations in Indonesia are not so obvious information.  At this time in Indonesia, West Sumatra is the center of gambier production, moreover gambier also called as a specific plants of West Sumatra.  Mostly, gambier is produced by small home industries with the traditional tools and use more human labor.  Gambier is cultivated and processed in a unique method, therefore, gambier plant development become complicated. However, gambier development in Indonesia especially in West Sumatera for the future is still promising, considering its various usefulness and the role of Indonesia as the world's major producer.  Along with to the all contributing factors, there are numerous challenges and obstacles in the development for various aspects of this commodity.  Furthermore, intense participation from the stakeholders; government, farmers, researchers, investors, and traders in management ranging from farming techniques, processing, trade, and institutions are necessary. Thus, it could be expected, gambier would be turn around as a foremost commodity in the future.

  4. 26 CFR 31.3121(g)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE... “commodity” refers to a single agricultural or horticultural product, for example, all apples are to be treated as a single commodity, while apples and peaches are to be treated as two separate commodities....

  5. Canola – Where to for WA Agriculture?

    OpenAIRE

    Pluske, Johanna M.; Lindner, Robert K.

    2001-01-01

    Canola may be marketed as oilseed, oil or meal. Supply and demand of each of the commodities is influenced by, physical factors associated with land and weather, substitute commodity competition, land-use competition, production indirectly associated with canola such as that within the livestock industry and the effects of technology and more specifically plant breeding. Furthermore, domestic agricultural and international trade policies, standard of living, and political stability of countri...

  6. 77 FR 11251 - Commodity Pool Operators and Commodity Trading Advisors: Compliance Obligations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... delegated much of its direct oversight activities relating to CPOs, CTAs, and commodity pools. See, 75 FR... limits for excluded commodity transactions. \\47\\ 7 U.S.C. 6a(c); 76 FR 71626, 71643 (Nov. 18, 2011). \\48...\\ See H.R. Rep. No. 93-975, 93d Cong., 2d Sess. (1974), p. 20. \\20\\ See 68 FR 47231 (Aug. 8, 2003)....

  7. Constraints and opportunities for implementing nutrition‐specific, agricultural and market‐based approaches to improve nutrient intake adequacy among infants and young children in two regions of rural Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelto, Gretel; Armar‐Klemesu, Margaret; Ferguson, Elaine F.; Chege, Peter; Musinguzi, Enock

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Several types of interventions can be used to improve nutrient intake adequacy in infant and young child (IYC) diets, including fortified foods, home fortification, nutrition education and behaviour change communication (BCC) in addition to agricultural and market‐based strategies. However, the appropriate selection of interventions depends on the social, cultural, physical and economic context of the population. Derived from two rural Kenyan populations, this analysis combined information from: (1) a quantitative analysis to derive a set of food‐based recommendations (FBRs) to fill nutrient intake gaps in IYC diets and identify ‘problem nutrients’ for which intake gaps require solutions beyond currently available foods and dietary patterns, and (2) an ethnographic qualitative analysis to identify contextual factors posing opportunities or constraints to implementing the FBRs, including perceptions of cost, convenience, accessibility and appropriateness of the recommended foods for IYC diets and other social or physical factors that determine accessibility of those foods. Opportunities identified included BCC to increase the acceptability and utilisation of green leafy vegetables (GLV) and small fish and agronomic interventions to increase the productivity of GLV and millet. Value chains for millet, beans, GLV, milk and small fish should be studied for opportunities to increase their accessibility in local markets. Processor‐level interventions, such as partially cooked fortified dry porridge mixes or unfortified cereal mixes incorporating millet and beans, may increase the accessibility of foods that provide increased amounts of the problem nutrients. Multi‐sectoral actors and community stakeholders should be engaged to assess the feasibility of implementing these locally appropriate strategies. PMID:26778801

  8. US Forest Service Recreation Opportunities

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting the recreation opportunity information that the Forest Service collects through the Recreation Portal and shares with the public...

  9. Commons/Commodity: Peer Production Caught in the Web of the Commercial Market

    OpenAIRE

    B. Meng; Wu, F.

    2013-01-01

    The development of digital technology and computer networks has enabled many kinds of online collaboration. This article examines Zimuzu, a Chinese case of online peer production that produces and distributes online Chinese subtitles of foreign media content. Zimuzu provides an opportunity to extend our understanding of how the tensions between the commodity and commons production models are being articulated in an online setting. Using empirical evidence collected from faceto- face interview...

  10. Application of bulk material commodity code in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text details the signification and current status and difficulty of commodity code in the nuclear power engineering. By the applying condition of Ling Ao Phrase 2 Nuclear Power Plant there are several ways to create commodity code. Detail how to make commodity code structure and commodity code rule. And define material style, commodity code prefix, size and thickness etc. Then create commodity code. The other way is by user define to create commodity code. Next register specification in VPRM, make size range, thickness and branch fitting consolidation in the specification, select commodity code to create part number. And introduce how the interface of VPRM and PDMS, how import the weight data, and how make owner part number press in the drawing conveniently. The part numbers are applied in the drawings of LingAo Phrase 2 Nuclear Power Plant, owner accepts them. (authors)

  11. Valuing embryos as both commodities and singularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legge, Michael; Fitzgerald, Ruth

    2016-03-11

    An argument put forward against gamete and embryo donation, sale and research, is that to do so would treat the gametes or embryos as objects with no intrinsic value as human. Instead, gametes and embryos created and used for donation, sale or research, can be considered more like a commodity created and traded for economic exchange--something that is valuable only for the amount of money or other goods and services that others are willing to exchange. While Kant asserts that humans have dignity rather than object worth, the provision of human gametes and embryos are progressively becoming utilities for resolving childlessness and for certain research investigations. In this paper we discuss the commodity market and the relationship to human reproduction material. PMID:27005877

  12. Improving the energy efficiency of freight in the United States through commodity-based analysis: justification and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efforts to reduce energy use in freight transportation usually center around ''mode-based'' approaches, namely improving the energy efficiency of energy intensive modes, such as truck, and shifting more freight to energy efficient modes, such as rail. In the first part of this paper we review the recent trends and future prospects for these mode-based approaches, finding that despite substantial improvement in the technological efficiency of freight modes and robust growth in the use of intermodal rail since 1980, total freight energy use across all modes in the US has grown by approximately 33%, with proportional growth in carbon emissions. In the second part of the paper we propose use of a ''commodity-based'' approach, in which freight energy use is disaggregated by contribution of major commodity groups, in order to support efficiency improvement at the commodity level. Two potential applications of the commodity based approach, namely (1) life cycle analysis of energy use for major commodity groups and (2) spatial analysis of freight patterns, are demonstrated using the 1993 US Commodity Flow Survey data. Results of these preliminary findings suggest that commodity groups vary widely in the ratio of energy use in production to energy use in transport, and that for many commodity groups, there may be substantial opportunities for saving energy by redistributing flow patterns. Through development of the commodity-based approach, we also identify the collaborative involvement of shippers and carriers as a key point in improving energy efficiency, since it can be used to both make the mode-based approach more effective and address new issues such as the underlying growth in tonne-km. Benefits for air quality and other transportation issues are also discussed. (author)

  13. Securitization and Commodity Contingency in International Lending

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald W. Anderson; Gilbert, Christopher L.

    1989-01-01

    Securitization of LDC debt would significantly aid the international debt problem by increasing liquidity and expanding the range of investors. Securitization is problematic, however, in large part due to sovereign risks involved. At present sovereign risks, commodity price risks and currency risks remain unbundled in general obligation loan contracts. Using a game theoretic model we illustrate the need to separate sovereign risks from other risks and associate the sovereign default with a th...

  14. GENERIC COMMODITY PROMOTION AND PRODUCT DIFFERENTIATION

    OpenAIRE

    John M Crespi

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers whether generic promotion lowers the differentiation among competing brands as claimed in the 1997 Supreme Court case (Wileman et al. v. Glickman). Commodity promotion is modeled as a multi-stage game where products are vertically differentiated. Analytical results show that if the benefits of generic advertising from increased demand are outweighed by the costs from lower product differentiation then high-quality producers will not benefit from generic promotion but prod...

  15. LNG: a commodity in the making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although still far from being a commodity, LNG is undoubtedly emerging as an essential vector for world gas expansion. The flexibility it procures in terms of supply is of prime importance for future market equilibrium. Despite a number of uncertainties and constraints liable to thwart the realisation of the most optimistic growth prospects, the LNG trade remains wedded to rapid growth of about 7%/year by 2020, boosting its share of world gas trade to some 38% by that horizon. (author)

  16. Food Safety. Commodity Science Point of View

    OpenAIRE

    Romuald I. Zalewski; Skawinska, Eulalia

    2006-01-01

    The paper addresses "food safety" and 'food quality' from the position of commodity and food science rather than economy. The various descriptions of both terms in literature are reviewed in connection with customer/supplier ability to evaluate food safety and quality by examination of various characteristics. Food safety has been described as opposite to food risk. Differences in perception of food risk by customer, producer/supplier and official agencies are discussed in this paper. The obj...

  17. Time Series Models for Exchange Rate and Agricultural Price Forecasts Time Series Models for Exchange Rate and Agricultural Price Forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Orden

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available Time Series Models for Exchange Rate and Agricultural Price Forecasts In this study, we focus on the role of the exchange rate in explaining variation in agricultural commodity prices. Particular attention is paid to stationary and models in levels versus differences and we find differencing useful in making agricultural prices forecasts.

  18. Opportunity Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise Møller; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Tollestrup, Christian;

    2012-01-01

    some of the specific approaches applicable to the design of opportunities. By looking at industrial designers working with entrepreneurial opportunities, it becomes evident that there is a set of approaches, which can turn the opportunity recognition process into an intentional and proactive process....... or development oriented, the act of ‘recognition’ is still a central part of the definition. Recently the term “Opportunity Design” has been introduced, suggesting that opportunities can be proactively and intentionally designed. However, the relatedness between the opportunity recognition process...... and opportunity design is not clear. Furthermore, there is still a lack of approaches, methods and tools, which can support entrepreneurs in designing the entrepreneurial opportunities. In this paper, we take steps towards defining opportunity design in respect to the opportunity recognition process, and identify...

  19. Real Exchange Rate and Commodity Prices in a Neoclassical Model

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhart, Carmen

    1988-01-01

    This paper represents a neoclassical model that explains the observed empirical relationship between government spending and world commodity supplies and the real exchange rate and real commodity prices. It is shown that fiscal expansion and increasing world commodity supplies simultaneously lead to an appreciation of the real exchange rate and a decline in relative commodity prices. The structural model is estimated and its forecasting performance is compared to a variety of models. We fin...

  20. Multifractal Properties of Price Fluctuations of Stocks and Commodities

    OpenAIRE

    Kaushik Matia; Yosef Ashkenazy; H. Eugene Stanley

    2003-01-01

    We analyze daily prices of 29 commodities and 2449 stocks, each over a period of $\\approx 15$ years. We find that the price fluctuations for commodities have a significantly broader multifractal spectrum than for stocks. We also propose that multifractal properties of both stocks and commodities can be attributed mainly to the broad probability distribution of price fluctuations and secondarily to their temporal organization. Furthermore, we propose that, for commodities, stronger higher orde...

  1. Do commodities offer diversification benefits in multi-asset portfolios?

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen-Tangen, Nicoline Heier; Overaae, Mats

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade commodities have increased in popularity as an alternative asset class. Previous research reports the diversification benefits when adding individual commodity indices or futures to a traditional portfolio of stocks and bonds, due to low correlation to traditional asset classes. Hence, a major motive of commodity investments is to increase the performance of the portfolio. More recent research report that commodities have been financialized and that the benefits of addi...

  2. LDC commodity risk analysis and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the current operation of the new competitive electricity market in Ontario, local distribution companies (LDCs) are required to pay the monthly invoice of the Independent Market Operator (IMO) before they collect from end-users for the consumption period covered by the invoice, with no clear guarantee that the recovery will occur. This situation creates a major cash flow problem and financial risk for LDCs and threatens the integrity and stability of the electricity market. This paper described 3 features of Ontario's competitive electricity market that create financial and commodity risk. The first problem is that there is no limit on how high prices can rise. Increases in wholesale commodity prices can result in a situation where the amount of the IMO's invoice is greater than the LDC's ability to pay at the time of receipt. Secondly, the LDC bears a 100 per cent payment obligation to the IMO administrator of the wholesale market. The third problem is that LDCs bear payment default risk from all consumers in the Ontario market, including electricity retailers. This paper presents some specific policy solutions that can protect the market from this threat. It was suggested that in order to protect the integrity of Ontario's electricity market during high prices, a policy must be drafted to address the commodity price financing risk (CPFR) issue. The policy must also define what happens if prices increase past the LDCs financing obligation limit. tabs., figs

  3. 7 CFR 1421.110 - Commodity certificate exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... commodity certificate for the marketing assistance loan collateral. (b) The exchange rate is the lesser of... price, as determined by CCC, for rice or the alternative repayment rate for all other commodities, as determined by CCC. (c) Commodity certificate exchanges may not be used when locking in a repayment rate...

  4. 49 CFR 1248.1 - Freight commodity statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freight commodity statistics. 1248.1 Section 1248... STATISTICS § 1248.1 Freight commodity statistics. All class I railroads, as described in § 1240.1 of this... statistics on the basis of the commodity codes named in § 1248.101. Carriers shall report quarterly on...

  5. 44 CFR 402.5 - Forwarding commodities previously shipped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forwarding commodities... commodities previously shipped. Order T-1 applies to transportation on or discharge from ships documented... ship or aircraft, before the issuance of Order T-1, had transported restricted commodities...

  6. 46 CFR 531.10 - Excepted and exempted commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excepted and exempted commodities. 531.10 Section 531.10... ARRANGEMENTS Exceptions and Implementation § 531.10 Excepted and exempted commodities. (a) Statutory exceptions... or paper waste. (b) Commission exemptions. The following commodities and/or services are not...

  7. 41 CFR 51-6.4 - Military resale commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... commodities. 51-6.4 Section 51-6.4 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... PROCEDURES § 51-6.4 Military resale commodities. (a) Purchase procedures for ordering military resale commodities are available from the central nonprofit agencies. Authorized resale outlets (military...

  8. 31 CFR 560.526 - Commodities trading and related transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commodities trading and related... Licenses, Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.526 Commodities trading and related transactions. (a) Trading in Iranian-origin commodities. With respect to § 560.206, specific licenses may...

  9. Effectiveness of conventional commodity treatments (heat, refrigeration, chemical, others) to satisfy quarantine regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quarantine treatments other than irradiation are discussed and examples given. Because of public concern about the use of chemicals to control insect pests in fruits and vegetables, more research emphasis by Agricultural Research Service, Untied States Department of Agriculture, scientists involved with developing quarantine treatments has been directed towards temperature manipulation and ways of eliminating the need for treatment. Single treatments include fumigation, temperature manipulation (heat/refrigeration), a modified atmosphere, physical barriers and an insecticide dip. Commodity quarantine treatment/certification research is concerned with killing pests and minimizing or eliminating the need for treatment. Future quarantine treatment research should be carried out along these lines. (author). 30 refs

  10. Development assessment of leisure agriculture in Henan province of China based on SWOT-AHP method

    OpenAIRE

    Yichuan Zhang; Lei Feng

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The development of leisure agriculture is an important means of agricultural industry structure adjustment of Henan province, China, to realize the transition from traditional agriculture to modern agriculture. Design/methodology/approach: The SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, Threat) analysis of Henan leisure agriculture will contribute to the sustainable development of Henan leisure agriculture. The strength, weakness, opportunity and threat of developing leisure agriculture ...

  11. Trade in water and commodities as adaptations to global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, R. B.; Hertel, T. W.; Prousevitch, A.; Baldos, U. L. C.; Frolking, S. E.; Liu, J.; Grogan, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    The human capacity for altering the water cycle has been well documented and given the expected change due to population, income growth, biofuels, climate, and associated land use change, there remains great uncertainty in both the degree of increased pressure on land and water resources and in our ability to adapt to these changes. Alleviating regional shortages in water supply can be carried out in a spatial hierarchy through i) direct trade of water between all regions, ii) development of infrastructure to improve water availability within regions (e.g. impounding rivers), iii) via inter-basin hydrological transfer between neighboring regions and, iv) via virtual water trade. These adaptation strategies can be managed via market trade in water and commodities to identify those strategies most likely to be adopted. This work combines the physically-based University of New Hampshire Water Balance Model (WBM) with the macro-scale Purdue University Simplified International Model of agricultural Prices Land use and the Environment (SIMPLE) to explore the interaction of supply and demand for fresh water globally. In this work we use a newly developed grid cell-based version of SIMPLE to achieve a more direct connection between the two modeling paradigms of physically-based models with optimization-driven approaches characteristic of economic models. We explore questions related to the global and regional impact of water scarcity and water surplus on the ability of regions to adapt to future change. Allowing for a variety of adaptation strategies such as direct trade of water and expanding the built water infrastructure, as well as indirect trade in commodities, will reduce overall global water stress and, in some regions, significantly reduce their vulnerability to these future changes.

  12. 75 FR 30364 - Information Collection; Outreach Opportunity Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Information Collection; Outreach Opportunity Questionnaire AGENCY... Opportunity Questionnaire. DATES: Comments must be received in writing on or before August 2, 2010 to be... Friday. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Outreach Opportunity Questionnaire. OMB Number:...

  13. Factor Structure in Commodity Futures Return and Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Lunde, Asger; Olesen, Kasper Vinther

    Using data on more than 750 million futures trades during 2004-2013, we analyze eight stylized facts of commodity price and volatility dynamics in the post financialization period. We pay particular attention to the factor structure in returns and volatility and to commodity market integration with...... the equity market. We find evidence of a factor structure in daily commodity futures returns. However, the factor structure in daily commodity futures volatility is even stronger than in returns. When computing model-free realized commodity betas with the stock market we find that they were high...... during 2008-2010 but have since returned to the pre-crisis level close to zero. The common factor in commodity volatility is nevertheless clearly related to stock market volatility. We conclude that, while commodity markets appear to again be segmented from the equity market when only returns are...

  14. The stochastic seasonal behavior of energy commodity convenience yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper contributes to the commodity pricing literature by consistently modeling the convenience yield with its empirically observed properties. Specifically, in this paper, we show how a four-factor model for the stochastic behavior of commodity prices, with two long- and short-term factors and two additional seasonal factors, may accommodate some of the most important empirically observed characteristics of commodity convenience yields, such as the mean reversion and stochastic seasonality. Based on this evidence, a theoretical model is presented and estimated to characterize the commodity convenience yield dynamics that are consistent with previous findings. We also show that commodity price seasonality is better estimated through convenience yields than through futures prices. - Highlights: • Energy commodity convenience yields exhibit mean reversion and stochastic seasonality. • We present a model for convenience yields accounting for their observed characteristics. • Commodity price seasonality is better estimated through convenience yields

  15. Kinetic market models with single commodity having price fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, A; Chakrabarti, Bikas K.; Chatterjee, Arnab

    2006-01-01

    We study here numerically the behavior of an ideal gas like model of markets having only one non-consumable commodity. We investigate the behavior of the steady-state distributions of money, commodity and total wealth, as the dynamics of trading or exchange of money and commodity proceeds, with local (in time) fluctuations in the price of the commodity. These distributions are studied in markets with agents having uniform and random saving factors. The self-organizing features in money distribution are similar to the cases without any commodity (or with consumable commodities), the commodity distribution shows an exponential decay. The wealth distribution shows interesting behavior: Gamma like distribution for uniform saving propensity and has the same power-law tail, as that of the money distribution for a market with agents having random saving propensity.

  16. International trade in livestock and livestock products: the need for a commodity-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, G R; Tambi, E N; Hargreaves, S K; Leyland, T J; Catley, A P; van 't Klooster, G G M; Penrith, M L

    2004-10-01

    International animal health standards designed to facilitate safe trade in livestock and livestock products are set by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) under the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and documented in the OIE's Terrestrial Animal Health Code. A core principle of the Code is the need for countries to eradicate important transboundary animal diseases (TADs) to reduce the risk of exporting disease to trading partners. International food safety standards are set by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, administered jointly by the World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The goal of global eradication of most TADs is unachievable for the foreseeable future, other than in the case of rinderpest, and this prevents many countries, especially developing nations, from engaging in international trade under WTO rules. This paper proposes an alternative, commodity-based approach to the formulation of international animal health and food safety standards, based on the fact that different commodities pose very different risks when it comes to the spread of human and animal pathogens. Therefore, the risk mitigation strategies required are equally commodity-dependent. The authors conclude that more focused commodity standards would improve access to international markets for all countries, especially those in the developing world. For this objective to be realised, credible and independent certification is required. PMID:15508847

  17. A strong argument for using non-commodities to generate electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An optimal control approach towards generating electricity is used to analyze the trade-off between using of primary sources which are regarded as commodities, such as fossil fuels, biomass and water to generate electricity, and exploiting these sources for their other economic uses (for example, in the petrochemical industry, in the production of fuels, in agriculture, in steelmaking, and so forth). In order to do so, a dynamic model is presented which establishes relationships between economic growth, the fossil fuel, water and biomass sectors, and energy policies, based on the application of the Pontryagin Maximum Principle. Among other results, the analysis establishes that, under the optimal path, the price of commodities for non-energy uses should be twice the price of the energy assets. This indicates that sources which are not commodities such as solar energy, wind energy, and geothermal energy, should be used to generate electricity. - Highlights: • We used an optimal control approach to analyze the trade-off between the multiple uses of energy resource. • We used a dynamic model which establishes relationships between economic growth, the fossil fuel, water and biomass sectors. • The analysis establishes that the price of commodities for non-energy uses should be twice the price of the energy assets

  18. Consumption Pattern of Different Commodities in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina Amir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze the “Consumption Pattern of Different Commodities in Pakistan” using the cross-sectional data taken from the household integrated Economic survey. This paper aims to analyze that what is the impact of per capita consumption on different household income group in Pakistan. In particular, per capita consumption of eleven (11 different variables with respect to different income groups. Ordinary least square method was used for the estimation of each equation for each variable. in the purpose of estimating this, different income groups were taken and identified the exact relationship between average incomes per household to the average expenditures per household since in the estimation of equations per capita consumption of each income group calculated respect to per capita income, so the formation of different equations were determined. Per capita income (PCY becomes independent of the unit of observation. Since, each household faces the same commodity prices prevailing at the time of household survey, for the purpose of analysis, total consumption expenditure has been disaggregated in to 11 commodity groups listed in table. The table indicates that value of R- squared is high and the co-efficient have correct signs and are significant at 1 percent level of significance, at 5 percent level of significance and at 10 percent level of significance. Overall results explain that with the increase in income expenditure increase for luxuries and decrease for necessities, but it will differ in rich and poor. Finally it is found that poor people consume more on necessities and rich people consume on luxuries as their income increase.

  19. Agricultural growth, the status of women, and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, L A; Stapleton, D C

    1995-08-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that fertility is affected differently by economic growth depending upon the specific sector (agriculture, manufacturing, heavy industry, and services) where growth occurred. The hypothesis is that fertility responses are not identical across sectors. The sample includes 51 World Bank member countries in varying stages of development. The econometric model pertains to 1965-88 and the percentage change in the total fertility rate (TFR). During the study period the average TFR declined by over 22%, but the extent of change varied by country and included, for instance, countries such as Ethiopia that experienced fertility increases from 5.8 to 6.5. Hong Kong's TFR declined by 66% from 4.7 to 1.6. Analysis included measures of changes in gross domestic product (GDP) for each of the four sectors and change in real per capita exports in agricultural commodities, resources, and manufactured products. Changes in educational status and changes in infant mortality were also included in some models. There were mixed results for the impact of total GDP. Sectoral analysis shows a positive, small significant impact on TFR from changes in the GDP per capita in agriculture (domestic and export products), and a negative, small significant impact from manufacturing growth. Heavy industry and services produced insignificant impact. In the model with only domestic consumption, results show a stronger coefficient and continued significance for agricultural productivity, agricultural exports, and manufacturing changes per capita. Manufacturing exports produced a negative, insignificant impact. The null hypothesis is rejected only in models comparing aggregate GDP in agriculture and manufacturing industries plus control variables (excluding heavy industry and services). Only secondary education was a negative, significant determinant of fertility. Infant mortality was insignificant when sectoral growth and education were included in the model. The evidence

  20. Airships for transporting highly volatile commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonstegaard, M.

    1975-01-01

    Large airships may prove feasible as carriers of commodities that move as gases or cryogenic liquids; buoyant gaseous cargo could be ballasted with liquid cargo. Airships are compact in shape, operate in a rarified medium, and hence can be fast and perhaps economic carriers of costly cryogenic tanks. The high-pressure gas pipeline has excessive surface area when carrying hydrogen and excessive fluid density when carrying natural gas, while the cryogenic ocean tanker runs in a dense medium and makes gravity waves. But the airship, despite its fluid dynamic advantages, faces problems of safety, weather, and altitude control.

  1. Brazil Agriculture Policy Review

    OpenAIRE

    Quiroga, Jose; Brooks, Jonathan; Melyukhina, Olga

    2005-01-01

    In June 2005, OECD members met with senior government officials from Brazil to discuss Brazilian agricultural policies and future directions, as a part of a comprehensive agricultural policy review. Ongoing dialogue with Brazil on policy issues is important to fostering a better understanding of global challenges and opportunities that lie ahead. Results of the review will be published by the OECD in 2005. This policy note provides a preview of key findings.

  2. 29 CFR 780.104 - How modern specialization affects the scope of agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How modern specialization affects the scope of agriculture... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Introductory § 780.104 How modern...

  3. 29 CFR 780.607 - “Primarily employed” in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âPrimarily employedâ in agriculture. 780.607 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption...

  4. 29 CFR 780.210 - The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.210 The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.” As stated in § 780.127, the typical...

  5. 29 CFR 780.128 - General statement on “secondary” agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General statement on âsecondaryâ agriculture. 780.128... APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Practices Exempt Under âsecondaryâ Meaning of...

  6. 29 CFR 780.606 - Interpretation of term “agriculture.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for Exemption § 780.606 Interpretation of term “agriculture.” Section 3(f) of the Act, which...

  7. 29 CFR 780.405 - Exemption is direct and does not mean activities are agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... agriculture. 780.405 Section 780.405 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture or Irrigation That Is Exempted From the Overtime...

  8. 76 FR 11701 - Amendments to Commodity Pool Operator and Commodity Trading Advisor Regulations Resulting From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... and Commodity Trading Advisors: Amendments to Compliance Obligations, 76 FR 7976 (Feb. 11, 2011); and Swap Data Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements; Proposed Rule, 75 FR 76574 (Dec. 8, 2010). II. The... would establish business conduct standards for swap dealers and major swap participants. See 75 FR...

  9. 17 CFR 4.14 - Exemption from registration as a commodity trading advisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... a commodity trading advisor. 4.14 Section 4.14 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS General Provisions, Definitions and Exemptions § 4.14 Exemption from registration as a commodity trading advisor. This section...

  10. Facing the globalization of China's agricultural development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Rui; LIU Chang

    2007-01-01

    This article discussed what economic globalization had brought to China's agricultural development and how to deal with the globalization of China's agricultural development after China's entry into WTO. This study expounded our opportunities and challenges under the new circumstance of China's accession to WTO on the agriculture and gave some measures to reduce the unfavorable impacts on the agriculture.

  11. organic agriculture in Syria : policy options

    OpenAIRE

    Santucci, Fabio M.

    2010-01-01

    The author analyses present difficulties of conventional agriculture in Syria. Market opportunities, in Syria and abroad, are illustrated. Possible actions and participatory approach are thus covered.

  12. Sustainability of biofuels in Latin America: Risks and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, Rainer, E-mail: rainer.janssen@wip-munich.de [WIP Renewable Energies, Sylvensteinstrasse 2, 81369 Munich (Germany); Rutz, Dominik Damian [WIP Renewable Energies, Sylvensteinstrasse 2, 81369 Munich (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Several Latin American countries are setting up biofuel programmes to establish alternative markets for agricultural commodities. This is mainly triggered by the current success of Brazilian bioethanol production for the domestic market and for export. Furthermore, the global biofuel market is expected to increase due to ambitious biofuel programmes in the EU and in the USA. Colombia, Venezuela, Costa Rica and Guatemala are focusing on bioethanol production from sugarcane whereas biofuel production in Argentina is based on soy biodiesel. Recent developments of the biofuel sector take place extremely rapid especially in Argentina, which became one of the five largest biodiesel producers in the world in 2008. Till date no specific biofuel sustainability certification systems have been implemented in Latin American, as well as on global level. This fact and the predominant use of food crops for biofuel production raise concerns about the sustainability of biofuel production related to environmental and social aspects. This paper provides an overview of the hotspots of conflicts in biofuel production in Latin America. It investigates presently available sustainability tools and initiatives to ensure sustainable biofuel production in Latin America. Finally, it provides an outlook on how to integrate sustainability in the Latin American biofuel sector. - Research Highlights: > This study investigates risks and opportunities of biofuels in Latin America. > Latin American countries are setting up programmes to promote biofuel development. > Strong biofuel sectors provide opportunities for economic development. > Potential negative impact includes deforestation and effects on food security. > Sustainability initiatives exist to minimise negative impact.

  13. Sustainability of biofuels in Latin America: Risks and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several Latin American countries are setting up biofuel programmes to establish alternative markets for agricultural commodities. This is mainly triggered by the current success of Brazilian bioethanol production for the domestic market and for export. Furthermore, the global biofuel market is expected to increase due to ambitious biofuel programmes in the EU and in the USA. Colombia, Venezuela, Costa Rica and Guatemala are focusing on bioethanol production from sugarcane whereas biofuel production in Argentina is based on soy biodiesel. Recent developments of the biofuel sector take place extremely rapid especially in Argentina, which became one of the five largest biodiesel producers in the world in 2008. Till date no specific biofuel sustainability certification systems have been implemented in Latin American, as well as on global level. This fact and the predominant use of food crops for biofuel production raise concerns about the sustainability of biofuel production related to environmental and social aspects. This paper provides an overview of the hotspots of conflicts in biofuel production in Latin America. It investigates presently available sustainability tools and initiatives to ensure sustainable biofuel production in Latin America. Finally, it provides an outlook on how to integrate sustainability in the Latin American biofuel sector. - Research Highlights: → This study investigates risks and opportunities of biofuels in Latin America. → Latin American countries are setting up programmes to promote biofuel development. → Strong biofuel sectors provide opportunities for economic development. → Potential negative impact includes deforestation and effects on food security. → Sustainability initiatives exist to minimise negative impact.

  14. Indonesia Export, Import, and Demand for Domestic Commodities under Economics Liberalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Irawan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to identify the behaviour of export, import and domestic commoditiesdemand in liberalization era both in the long run and the short run. This researchapplies the Vector Error Correction Model, Johansen Cointegration Test, Impulse ResponseAnalysis and Granger Causality Test. The data range from 1993:01 to 2002:12. The resultshows that in the long run the cross-price elasticity of imported non agricultural goods withrespect to demand for domestically produced goods have lower magnitudes than own priceelasticity of domestically produced goods. The demand elasticity of import commodities iselastic but that of domestic commodities is inelastic.Keywords: Import, Export, Economic Liberalization, Vector Error Correction Model

  15. Do Exchange Rates Really Help Forecasting Commodity Prices?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, Lasse; Kaltwasser, Pablo Rovira; Sercu, Piet

    prices and if the latter are exogenous to the exchange rate dynamics. In our view, however, commodity prices are essentially financial asset prices that are set in a forward-looking way, exactly like exchange rates. If both the exchange rate and the commodity prices are based on discounted future......Chen et al. (2010) report that for ‘commodity currencies’, the exchange rate predicts the country’s commodity index but not vice versa. The commodity currency hypothesis is consistent with the Engle and West (2005) exchange rate model if the fundamental is chosen to be the country’s key export...... of commodity prices. Cross-predictability, in contrast, seems to be only minor at best, not robust to plausible variations in the test design, and bi-directional rather than one-directional. We show to what extent the difference between Chen et al’s empirical findings and ours is due to the presence of time...

  16. Indian Agricultural Marketing- A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel-Ul-Rehman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture in India has directly or indirectly continued to be the source of livelihood to majority of the population. Indian agriculture has seen a lot of changes in its structure. India, predominantly an agricultural economy, has healthy signs of transformation in agriculture and allied activities. India has seen agriculture as a precious tool of economic development as other sectors of production depend on it. Efficient backward and forward integration with agriculture has led to globally competitive production system in terms of cost and quality. Cooperatives seem to be well positioned to coordinate product differentiation at the farm level and to integrate forward into value added processing activities.. Indian agriculture can be balanced and made efficient through proper and better management practices. The present study brings out past and present scenario of agricultural marketing prevailing in India, its challenges and future recommendations. Moreover the opportunities provide by agricultural marketing should be tapped effectively by the marketers.

  17. ARE THE COMMODITY CURRENCIES AN EXCEPTION TO THE RULE?

    OpenAIRE

    CHEN YU-CHIN; ROGOFF KENNETH

    2012-01-01

    This paper first confirms and extends findings in the previous literature that for major commodity exporters with market-based exchange rates, the world price of their primary commodity exports is an important and robust determinant for their real exchange rate values. However, despite inducing strong contemporaneous currency responses, commodity prices tell us little about subsequent exchange rate movements a quarter ahead. To further investigate real exchange rate predictability, we use Bay...

  18. Futures trading and the excess comovement of commodity prices

    OpenAIRE

    Le Pen, Yannick; Sévi, Benoît

    2013-01-01

    We empirically reinvestigate the issue of excess comovement of commodity prices initially raised in Pindyck and Rotemberg (1990) and show that excess comovement, when it exists, can be related to hedging and speculative pressure in commodity futures markets. Excess comovement appears when commodity prices remain correlated even after adjusting for the impact of common factors. While Pindyck and Rotemberg and following c ontributions examine this issue using a relevant but arbitrary set of con...

  19. The present value model of rational commodity pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Robert S. Pindyck

    1991-01-01

    The present value model relates an asset's price to the sum of its discounted expected future payoffs. I explore the limits of the model by testing its ability to explain the pricing of storable commodities. For commodities the payoff stream is the convenience yield that accrues from holding inventories, and it can be measured directly from spot and futures prices. Hence the model imposes restrictions on the joint dynamics of spot and futures prices, which I test for four commodities. I find ...

  20. Commodity Tax Competition Under Destination and Origin Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Lockwood, Ben

    1992-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of switching from the destination to the origin principle of taxation on non-cooperative commodity tax equilibrium. When taxes are constrained to uniformity across commodities, the switch has no effect. When differentiated taxes are allowed, the effects of the switch depend on whether countries are small or large. In both cases the switch imposes the requirement that taxes must be uniform across commodities within each country. In the second case there are two fu...

  1. A GENERAL APPROACH TO VALUING COMMODITY-LINKED BONDS

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Yufei; Turvey, Calum G.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a general approach to valuing commodity-linked bonds (CLBs) based on the Heath-Jarrow-Morton (HJM) framework. The model deals with four dimensions of uncertainty: prices of the underlying commodity, the value of firm that issues bonds, interest rates, and convenience yields. A mathematical formula for the price of a commodity-linked bond is derived. The previous results in Black and Scholes (1973), Merton (1973), Schwartz (1982), and Atta-Mensah (1992) ...

  2. 交情行为与创业机会:基于农业创业的多案例研究%Jiaoqing Behaviors and Entrepreneurial Opportunity:A Multi-case Study on Agricultural Entrepreneurship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘安成; 李鹏飞

    2014-01-01

    在中国情理文化背景下,创业者在社会交往中注重人际情感交流,这种交情行为对把握创业机会具有重要作用。选取央视《致富经》栏目中20个农业创业故事作为研究样本,运用扎根理论方法对数据进行编码,探析创业者如何在创业实践中运用交情行为获取创业机会。研究结果表明,创业者采用面子、人情和关系等社会技巧,向创业资源所有者寻求情感交汇以获得对方的社会认同,以此揭示创业者运用交情行为塑造创业导向性社会情境的行为机理;通过构建创业网络和激活创业资源,交情行为促进创业者对创业机会的探索和利用,具体表现为交情行为能够促进创业者从社会网络关系中构建创业网络、提高从创业网络中调用创业资源的效率、强化将社会资源激活为创业资源的机会。%Entrepreneurs emphasize emotional communication with others in social interaction under the background of Chinese culture .Entrepreneurs′jiaoqing behaviors play an important role in grasping entrepreneurial opportunity .This study coded twenty agricultural entrepreneurship stories from “Zhi Fu Jing” in CCTV-7 by the method of grounded theory , investigating how entre-preneurs take use of jiaoqing behaviors to seize entrepreneurial opportunity in entrepreneurial practice .The findings revealed that entrepreneurs adopt the social skills (e.g., renqing, guanxi and mianzi) to seek emotional convergence, thereby gaining social identification from entrepreneurial resource owners .This process showed the behavioral mechanism of how entrepreneurs take use of Jiaoqing behaviors to shape entrepreneurial oriented social context .Further, with constructing entrepreneurial network and tak-ing of entrepreneurial resources , jiaoqing behaviors stimulate entrepreneurs to explore and exploit entrepreneurial opportunity by①promoting entrepreneurs to construct entrepreneurial network

  3. 78 FR 2453 - Credit Suisse Opportunity Funds, et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... (``Opportunity Funds''), Credit Suisse Commodity Strategy Funds (``Commodity Strategy Funds''), Credit Suisse... Strategy Funds are organized as Delaware statutory trusts. Each is an open-end management investment... investment company. The Applicant Investing Funds invest or will invest in a variety of debt and/or...

  4. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Laws and Regulations Organic Agriculture Outreach Plant Health Research and Science Rural and Community Development Rural Opportunities ... Promise Zones StrikeForce for Rural Growth EDUCATION AND RESEARCH Agricultural Research Agricultural Statistics Economic Research Food and ...

  5. Commodity derivatives pricing with inventory effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Christian; Dziubinski, Matt P.

    We introduce tractable models for commodity derivatives pricing with inventory and volatility eects, and illustrate with applications to the oil market. We contribute to the existing literature in several respects. First, whereas the previous literature uses futures data for investigating...... the relationship between inventory and volatility, we use the information available in options traded on futures. Second, performance assessment in the previous literature has primarily evolved around explaining moments of data or forecasting prices of futures. Instead, we asses the performance of our model...... by considering both the ability of explaining prices in-sample and out-of-sample - assessing both the pricing-performance and the hedging-performance of the models. Third, we model the futures surface rather than the spot price process, and from the no-arbitrage relationship between spot and futures prices we...

  6. Caos en el mercado de commodities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinosa Méndez Christian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo aplica seis técnicas y herramientas (análisis gráfico, gráfico de recurrencia, entropía de espacio temporal, coeficiente de Hurst, exponente de Lyapunov y dimensión de correlación, a las series de retornos del cobre, oro, petróleo, plata, zinc, aluminio, plomo y níquel, con el fin de corroborar la existencia de un comportamiento caótico en el mercado de commodities. Se encuentra evidencia de que los mercados financieros se comportan de forma caótica en contra de la hipótesis de aleatoriedad. Se contrasta, igualmente, no-normalidad, no-aleatoriedad y no-linealidad. Los resultados encontrados contradicen algunos de los supuestos básicos de la teoría financiera moderna.

  7. From creation to consumption: objects and commodities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Bautista López

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Objects, persons and ideas are all merely merchandise in a world that is highly industrialised and utterly superficial. Consumer societies produce a profusion of merchandise. In strictly economic terms, merchandise is whatever has an exchange-value, in  a world where objects are valued for their utility. So goods are whatever is useful, where use can be measured in monetary terms. This perspective impoverishes social relations. People relate only insofar as their value dictates, and that value is merely utilitarian. Moreover, this commercialisation reaches up to impoverish society as a whole. All this is the result of a long process of objectification which, seeing the world as the exchange of goods, ends up treating people just like any other tradable commodity. This article takes a critical look at the processes involved, and proposes an explanation in terms of the social construction of 'utility''.

  8. Agriculture Beyond Food: Experiences from Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loffler, H.J.M.; Afiff, S.; Burgers, P.P.M.; Govers, C.; Heeres, H.J.; Karyanto, O.; Manurung, R.; Vel, J.A.C.; Visscher, S.; Zwaagstra, T.; Widyarani, R.

    2014-01-01

    The ABF programme addresses one of today’s major societal challenges, how to achieve a sustainable and inclusive biobased economy, with high-level scientific research on the thin lines between food and non-food, commodities and waste products, livelihood opportunities and risks, and local and global

  9. Can the environmental benefits of biomass support agriculture? - The case of cereals for electricity and bioethanol production in Northern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, Maria Isabel; Azqueta, Diego [Department of Economics, University of Alcala, Plaza de la Victoria, 3, 28002 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2008-01-15

    Recent policy documents, such as the EC Communication on an Energy Policy for Europe (January 2007) make emphasis on the opportunities that energy applications can offer certain agricultural commodities, especially in the framework of a progressive dismantling of the Common Agricultural Policy. This paper analyses whether this can be true for wheat and barley farmers, using the real example of a straw-based power plant in Northern Spain and a theoretical factory for bioethanol production fed with cereal grain. The outcomes of such an exercise, in which their relative environmental benefits vis-a-vis fossil fuel alternatives are worked out with the aid of a simplified life-cycle approach, show that the characteristics of the electricity and biomass markets, the baseline scenario and the fuel prices are crucial for the future of the sector. (author)

  10. Opportunity Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løwe Nielsen, Suna; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Nielsen, Louise Møller;

    2013-01-01

    design”. The framework explains how opportunities intentionally and pro-actively can be designed from methods and processes of moving-in and moving-out. An illustrative case of opportunity design within the area of sustainable energy and electric cars is presented to link the theoretical discussion...

  11. Alcohol as international commodity; Alcool como 'commodity' internacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negrao, Luiz Celso Parisi [Ministerio do Desenvolvimento, Industria e Comercio Exterior, Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Secretaria de Tecnologia Industrial]. E-mail: luiz.negrao@desenvolvimento.gov.br; Urban, Maria Lucia de Paula

    2004-12-15

    The ethanol is able to reduce the gas emissions, mainly in CO2 balance which gives a strong contribution for this fact. Using the alcohol rather than fossil fuels is a natural choice as a important renewable energy source. Also, to have the alcohol as international environmental commodity is the goal of all interested in this matter, since the entry into force the Kyoto protocol, with the Russian approval.

  12. Return of the Gentleman Farmer?: Conceptualising Gentrification in UK Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Lee-Ann

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, processes of gentrification are assessed in relation to non-commercial farming: the production of agricultural commodities without the intent of earning a living. The author argues that due to the connection between residence and productive assets (particularly land) inherent in farming, agricultural gentrification represents a…

  13. International Commodity Markets, Local Food Prices and Environment in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. E.; Hintermann, B.; Higgins, N.

    2008-12-01

    The recent massive increase in food and energy prices in the past five years, coupled with the awareness of the long term challenges of climate change to small holder agriculture in Africa has brought the issue of food security for the world's poorest people to the forefront once again. Asymmetric and limited integration of local commodity markets in West Africa highlights the weak position of Africa's rural countries in the face of climate change and demographic expansion. This paper will describe the functioning of local informal food markets in West African over the past twenty years and evaluate the impact of their limited integration with each other and with global commodity markets. Satellite remote sensing of vegetation has been used as a proxy for agricultural production in economic models to improve prediction of large swings in prices from year to year due to differences in supply. As demand increases, improvements in market functioning will be necessary to counter likely increases in production variability. Increasing Africa's stability in the face of climate change will require investment in agricultural production and transportation infrastructure in order to ensure an affordable flow of food to people in these extremely poor, landlocked countries.

  14. Electronic Commodity Market System for Food Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Fomina, Julia; Fomin, Eduard

    2011-01-01

    On the agricultural market, like any other market, there are transaction costs such as “discovering what the relevant prices are, the costs of negotiating and concluding a separate contract for each exchange transaction1”, and others. According to our research the average level of transaction costs in Russia for small and medium-sized enterprises is about 28% of the total cost. If the transaction costs of agricultural market are high, in order to reduce them entrepreneurs can arrange the addi...

  15. ICTs for Agriculture in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Zyl, Omri Van; Alexander, Trish; Graaf, Liezl De; Mukherjee, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    The strategic application of information and communications technology (ICT) to the agricultural industry, the largest economic sector in most African countries, offers the best opportunity for economic growth and poverty alleviation on the continent. Food security is paramount for the survival of individuals, families, and ultimately nations, yet Africa's agriculture sector has been in de...

  16. Zambia : Smallholder Agricultural Commercialization Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    This report focuses on the potential and opportunities for smallholder commercialization in Zambia. The paper discusses the framework for Zambia's smallholder commercialization strategy, the current state of smallholder agriculture in Zambia, key issues, support from agribusiness to smallholders, and development of potential and opportunities for smallholder commercialization. The paper co...

  17. AQSIQ Builds an Import & Export Commodity Inspection & Quarantine Information Database

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ To comprehensively strengthen the quality of work and ensure the safe processing of import and export commodities, the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of China (AQSIQ) recently initiated the establishment of a China import and export commodity inspection and quarantine information database.

  18. WARP Does Not Imply SARP for More Than Two Commodities

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Hans

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe only examples available in the literature to show that the Weak Axiom of Revealed Preference does not imply the Strong Axiom of Revealed Preference, the examples of Gale and Shafer, apply only to the case of three commodities. This paper constructs examples for four or more commodities.

  19. Crisis of financial system and evolution of commodities market

    OpenAIRE

    Varshavsky , Leonid

    2010-01-01

    The main stages and history of the current financial crisis are studied. The evolution of commodities market over the last decade is analyzed, as well as measures on strengthening regulation and control of the markets. Some problems of applied econometric modeling and forecasting development of commodities market are considered

  20. On the market value of information commodities. III. Demand price

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mowshowitz, A. (Abbe)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThe derived‐demand price of an information commodity depends on the commodity's cost impact on a user's production process. We model an arbitrary production process as a collection of interrelated tasks which can be represented in the form of a production digraph. The nodes of the digrap

  1. A Preference-Free Formula to Value Commodity Derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies a new model of commodity prices in which the stochastic convenience yield is an affine function of past commodity returns. While preserving market completeness, the model exhibits price nonstationarity and mean reversion under the martingale measure, and, as a consequence, it is a

  2. Applications of GARCH models to energy commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, H. Brett

    This thesis uses GARCH methods to examine different aspects of the energy markets. The first part of the thesis examines seasonality in the variance. This study modifies the standard univariate GARCH models to test for seasonal components in both the constant and the persistence in natural gas, heating oil and soybeans. These commodities exhibit seasonal price movements and, therefore, may exhibit seasonal variances. In addition, the heating oil model is tested for a structural change in variance during the Gulf War. The results indicate the presence of an annual seasonal component in the persistence for all commodities. Out-of-sample volatility forecasting for natural gas outperforms standard forecasts. The second part of this thesis uses a multivariate GARCH model to examine volatility spillovers within the crude oil forward curve and between the London and New York crude oil futures markets. Using these results the effect of spillovers on dynamic hedging is examined. In addition, this research examines cointegration within the oil markets using investable returns rather than fixed prices. The results indicate the presence of strong volatility spillovers between both markets, weak spillovers from the front of the forward curve to the rest of the curve, and cointegration between the long term oil price on the two markets. The spillover dynamic hedge models lead to a marginal benefit in terms of variance reduction, but a substantial decrease in the variability of the dynamic hedge; thereby decreasing the transactions costs associated with the hedge. The final portion of the thesis uses portfolio theory to demonstrate how the energy mix consumed in the United States could be chosen given a national goal to reduce the risks to the domestic macroeconomy of unanticipated energy price shocks. An efficient portfolio frontier of U.S. energy consumption is constructed using a covariance matrix estimated with GARCH models. The results indicate that while the electric

  3. An Introduction to Nutrition-Agriculture Linkages

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural development is now expected to proceed in a way that maximizes opportunities to improve health and nutrition. Accordingly, the term “nutrition-agriculture linkages” describes the set of relationships that shows the mutual dependence of nutrition, health and agriculture. Changes in nutrition or health status are expected to affect agricultural production; conversely changes in the agricultural sector can have significant effects on individual health and nutritional status. Most de...

  4. OPEC and other commodity cartels: a comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic literature provides specific characteristics for cartels. Although the theory of international cartels in not well developed in the literature, and every cartel is unique, some of these characteristics exist in each cartel. This study investigates the existence of these characteristics in six known commodity cartels including OPEC. In addition, it compares the oil companies' cartel, 'the Seven Sisters', to OPEC, and summarizes the findings of OPEC econometric models developed in the literature in the last 25 years and concludes that the results do not support cartel or competitive models for OPEC. Although other cartels are more successful than OPEC, many books and articles in economics use OPEC as a cartel example. Neither statistical tests nor theory support the popular use of OPEC as a cartel example. Indeed, this article concludes that OPEC is composed of Saudi Arabia, the dominant world producer, plus several distinct sub-groups and that separate models are required to explain the behavior of each. Assigning the power of some OPEC members to OPEC has caused confusion about its behavior. Recent OPEC success is attributed to political, natural, and technical capacity limitations in the oil fields that prevented countries from cheating on their quota. In other words, OPEC adherence to the quota, except for Saudi Arabia, is anything but voluntary. (author)

  5. Live HDR video streaming on commodity hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamee, Joshua; Hatchett, Jonathan; Debattista, Kurt; Chalmers, Alan

    2015-09-01

    High Dynamic Range (HDR) video provides a step change in viewing experience, for example the ability to clearly see the soccer ball when it is kicked from the shadow of the stadium into sunshine. To achieve the full potential of HDR video, so-called true HDR, it is crucial that all the dynamic range that was captured is delivered to the display device and tone mapping is confined only to the display. Furthermore, to ensure widespread uptake of HDR imaging, it should be low cost and available on commodity hardware. This paper describes an end-to-end HDR pipeline for capturing, encoding and streaming high-definition HDR video in real-time using off-the-shelf components. All the lighting that is captured by HDR-enabled consumer cameras is delivered via the pipeline to any display, including HDR displays and even mobile devices with minimum latency. The system thus provides an integrated HDR video pipeline that includes everything from capture to post-production, archival and storage, compression, transmission, and display.

  6. Commodity chemical growth to slow in 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In their latest chemical outlook, DRI/McGraw-Hill economists characterize 1992 as a peak year for U.S. commodity chemical demand growth, at 4.2%, tapering off to a compound 2.2% between 1993 and 1995. Just as operating rates begin to reach higher levels in 1995, however, DRI forecasts slowing GNP growth. DRI's Ramunas J. Svarcas expects a decline in exports. Those plastics promising the rosiest consumption outlook include melamine-formaldehyde resin, up 9.9% in 1992, from 155 million lbs in 1991, and projected to grow 8.6%/year through 1995; styrene acrylonitrile resin, up 23% this year, from 58 million lbs last year, and growing 8.2%/year through 1995; and unsaturated polyester, up 11.7% this year, from 1.07 billion lbs in 1991, and increasing at 6.5%/year. Methanol is a bright spot, with consumption growing 4.7%, from 11.2 billion lbs in 1991 and 12%/year thereafter. Ortho-xylene managed an impressive 21% rebound from a depressed 1991 level of 783 million lbs, and is expected to continue its recovery at 7.7%/year

  7. Natural gas : a highly lucrative commodity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exploration and production of natural gas has become highly profitable as natural gas is becoming a leading future commodity. With new technology, high demand and environmental benefits, natural gas is the preferred choice over petroleum as the leading source of energy to heat home and businesses. Canada is the world's third largest producer of natural gas with its Sable Offshore Energy Project being the fourth largest producing natural gas basin in North America. The basin will produce high quality sweet natural gas from 28 production wells over the course of the next 20 to 25 years. The gas will be transported to markets through Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and into the Northeastern United States via the Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline. The 1051 kilometer underground gas pipeline is currently running laterals to Halifax, Nova Scotia and Saint John, New Brunswick. Market studies are being conducted to determine if additional lines are needed to serve Cape Breton, Prince Edward Island and northern New Brunswick. A recent survey identified the following 5 reasons to convert to natural gas: (1) it is safe, (2) it is reliable, (3) it is easy to use, (4) it is cleaner burning and environmentally friendly compared to other energy sources, and (5) it saves the consumer money

  8. Genetically Modified Crops: Towards Agricultural Growth, Agricultural Development, or Agricultural Sustainability?

    OpenAIRE

    Azadi, Hossein; Ghanian, Mansour; Ghuchani, Omid M.; Rafiaani, Parisa; Taning, Clauvis N. T.; Hajivand, Roghaye Y.; Dogot, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The present debate on how to increase global food production in a sustainable way has focused on arguments over the pros and cons of genetically modified (GM) crops. Scientists in both public and private sectors clearly regard GM technology as a major new set of tools, whereas industry sees it as an opportunity for increased profits. However, it remains questionable whether GM crops can contribute to agricultural growth, agricultural development, and agricultural sustainability. This review p...

  9. Dependence structure of the commodity and stock markets, and relevant multi-spread strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jae; Kim, Sehyun; Jo, Yong Hwan; Kim, Soo Yong

    2011-10-01

    Understanding the dependence structure between the commodity and stock markets is a crucial issue in constructing a portfolio. It can also help us to discover new opportunities to implement spread trading using multiple assets classified in the two different markets. This study analyzed the dependence structure of the commodity and stock markets using the random matrix theory technique and network analysis. Our results show that the stock and commodity markets must be handled as completely separated asset classes except for the oil and gold markets, so the performance enhancement of the mean-variance portfolio is significant as expected. In light of the fact that WTI 1 month futures and four oil-related stocks are strongly correlated, they were selected as basic ingredients to complement the multi-spread convergence trading strategy using a machine learning technique called the AdaBoost algorithm. The performance of this strategy for non-myopic investors, who can endure short-term loss, can be enhanced significantly on a risk measurement basis.

  10. Agricultural market integration: price transmission and policy intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Vasciaveo, M.; Rosa, F.; Weaver, R

    2013-01-01

    The increasing co-movements between world oil and food prices in the 2000s has prompted interest in the transmission mechanism among markets. This research investigates integration and price transmission of some important agricultural commodities traded in market area that includes United States and Italy for a period spanning from January 1999 to May 2012. The hypothesis of market integration is verified for crude oil and three agri-commodities wheat, corn and soybean in Italy and US. They a...

  11. 75 FR 54794 - Commodity Pool Operators: Relief From Compliance With Certain Disclosure, Reporting and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... Independent Directors or Trustees of These Commodity Pools AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission... Registration Relief for Independent Directors or Trustees of Commodity ETFs As directed by the Sarbanes-Oxley... commodity interests in an active manner, such Commodity ETFs must have independent directors (or...

  12. 17 CFR 33.10 - Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions. 33.10 Section 33.10 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION REGULATION OF DOMESTIC EXCHANGE-TRADED COMMODITY OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 33.10 Fraud...

  13. 17 CFR 32.9 - Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions. 32.9 Section 32.9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION REGULATION OF COMMODITY OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 32.9 Fraud in connection with...

  14. 17 CFR 37.4 - Election to trade excluded and exempt commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election to trade excluded and exempt commodities. 37.4 Section 37.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING... commodities. A board of trade that is or elects to become a registered derivatives transaction...

  15. 22 CFR 201.44 - Vesting in USAID of title to commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vesting in USAID of title to commodities. 201... APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY TRANSACTIONS FINANCED BY USAID General Provisions Relating to USAID Financing of Commodities and Commodity-Related Services § 201.44 Vesting in USAID of title to commodities. (a) Vesting...

  16. 22 CFR 201.42 - Reexport of USAID-financed commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reexport of USAID-financed commodities. 201.42... COMMODITY TRANSACTIONS FINANCED BY USAID General Provisions Relating to USAID Financing of Commodities and Commodity-Related Services § 201.42 Reexport of USAID-financed commodities. Unless specifically...

  17. 17 CFR Appendix A to Part 31 - Schedule of Fees for Registration of Leverage Commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Registration of Leverage Commodities A Appendix A to Part 31 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION LEVERAGE TRANSACTIONS Pt. 31, App. A Appendix A to Part 31—Schedule of Fees for Registration of Leverage Commodities (a) Each application for registration of a leverage commodity must...

  18. Trading forests: land-use change and carbon emissions embodied in production and exports of forest-risk commodities

    OpenAIRE

    Henders, Sabine; Persson, U. Martin; Kastner, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Production of commercial agricultural commodities for domestic and foreign markets is increasingly driving land clearing in tropical regions, creating links and feedback effects between geographically separated consumption and production locations. Such teleconnections are commonly studied through calculating consumption footprints and quantifying environmental impacts embodied in trade flows, e.g., virtual water and land, biomass, or greenhouse gas emissions. The extent to which land-use cha...

  19. Examining consumer response to commodity-specific and broad-based promotion programs for fruits and vegetables using experimental economics

    OpenAIRE

    Rickard, Bradley J.; Liaukonyte, Jura; Kaiser, Harry M.; Richards, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    Generic promotion and advertising activities have traditionally been used to promote individual agricultural commodities. However, there is renewed interest in implementing a mandatory ―broad-based‖ promotion program for all fruits and vegetables, and this idea is highly controversial among those in the horticultural industry. Here we use data from an experiment that introduces subjects to various promotional efforts for fruits and vegetables to estimate the direct and indirect effects of adv...

  20. Opportunities and constraints for using gene-based technologies in animal agriculture in developing countries and possible role of international donor agencies in promoting R and D in this field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gene-based technologies for livestock are in varying stages of development and implementation mainly focussed on analysis of individual components of complex animal system. Most of these technologies, evolved through International initiatives in the developed countries, have found limited application for the livestock of developing world. Several genes and traits of excellence have been associated with livestock of developing countries of Asia and Africa. High milk fat in buffaloes, protein quality for mozzarella cheese in buffalo milk, the fiber of 'Pashmina' and 'Toos' in the hair coat of goats in cold dry regions, the high prolificacy gene in Black Bengal goats, twinning genes in Garole sheep, high salt tolerance of Andaman goats, high altitude mountain adaptability of Yak and Mithun, high lignin content feed utilization in tropical arid ecology by camel, sheep and goat and disease as well as stress resistance by different species are examples where livestock of developing world has a global advantage. Efficient epidemiology, disease surveillance and monitoring, value addition in meat, leather and diary industry, economic biopharmaceutical production from transgenic livestock and developing of comprehensive data base, are other areas in which gene-based technologies are directly involved and hold great prospect in developing economies. Animal owners in the developing world are resource poor, small scale operators, mostly landless or with marginal lands, having limited animal holdings, dependent on agro-ecology of temperate climate, with limited purchasing power and having little opportunity to access resources or make resource allocation decisions for animal production. This situation, for the poorest of the poor who live on livestock, is fast deteriorating mainly due to fragmentation of limited holdings, exhaustion of land resource, fatiguing of green revolution and increasing human and animal population pressure. Biotechnologies in the developing world have to

  1. Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-12-01

    In support of the Obama Administration's Climate Action Plan, the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Department of Agriculture jointly released the Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report, updating the federal government's progress to reduce methane emissions through biogas systems since the Biogas Opportunities Roadmap was completed by the three agencies in July 2014. The report highlights actions taken, outlines challenges and opportunities, and identifies next steps to the growth of a robust biogas industry.

  2. Agricultural Statistics of Egypt, 1970-84

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, George R.; Parker, John B.

    1985-01-01

    Egypt is one of the world's largest foad importers, annually consuming over $4 billion worth of imported agricultural commodities to feed a population of 48 million. The import bill is growing rapidly as population and consumption ~rowth rates exceed that of agricultural production. Egypt was the 10th largest market for U.S. agricultural exports in 1984. The U.S. market share is about 25 percent, with wheat, wheat flour, and corn making up the bulk of the shipments. This report consists of 90...

  3. Land use and agriculture sustainability: does landscape matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, Sylvie

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on showing how landscape can play a role in the sustainability of agricultural activities and what conditions have to be required to consider landscape as a sustainable output in this way. Nowadays, agricultural policies in Europe attach a growing importance to the direct management by agricultural producers of the countryside. This actual trend emphasizes the role of non-commodity outputs in the production process, with respect to the multifunctional nature of agricul...

  4. Agricultural Production Restrictions and Market Power: An Antitrust Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bolotova, Yuliya

    2015-01-01

    During the recent decade the organizations of agricultural producers in the national dairy, potato, egg and mushroom industries implemented various pre-production and production restriction practices with the primary objective of agricultural output price stabilization. The buyers of the affected agricultural commodities have challenged the legal status of production restrictions in a number of recent and current antitrust lawsuits, arguing that the Capper-Volstead Act, a limited antitrust ex...

  5. 17 CFR 3.13 - Registration of agricultural trade option merchants and their associated persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... meal, cottonseed, peanuts, soybeans, soybean meal, livestock, livestock products, and frozen... trade option merchants and their associated persons. 3.13 Section 3.13 Commodity and Securities... trade option merchants and their associated persons. (a) Definitions—(1) Agricultural trade...

  6. The Effects of Agricultural Research and Farm Subsidy Policies on Human Nutrition and Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Alston, Julian M.; Sumner, Daniel A.; Stephen A Vosti

    2005-01-01

    Agricultural policies including farm programs and R&D are said to have contributed to obesity by making food commodities cheaper and thereby encouraging consumption. This paper explores the links from agricultural policy to food prices and consumption and suggests that contribution of agricultural policy to obesity is not so clear.

  7. Prebiotic carbohydrate-related research within the USDA Agricultural Research Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture is interested in the development of prebiotic carbohydrates for a number of reasons. Many of the novel carbohydrates used or proposed for use as prebiotics are made from agricultural commodities such as milk, cornstarch, sugar,...

  8. Industrial commodity statistics yearbook 1994. Production and consumption statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This edition of the Yearbook consists of two parts. Part one contains annual quantity data on production of industrial commodities by country, geographical region, economic grouping and for the world. A standard list of about 530 commodities (about 590 statistical series) has been adopted for the publication. Most of the statistics refer to the ten-year period 1985-1994 for about 200 countries and areas. Part two presents data by country on apparent consumption of about 200 industrial commodities for 1986-1994

  9. Promotion of Agricultural Products Competitive Power in Heilongjiang Province with Modern Logistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The paper studied the competitive power of agricultural products in Heilongjiang Province by analyzing the revealed comparative advantage,and drew the conclution that agricultural products' competitive power was decreasing in Heilongjiang Province.There were three main reasons for this status: firstly,the cost of circulation of agricultural products was increasing;secondly,the commodity rate of agricultural products was low;thirdly,the marketing power of agricultural product was weak because of lacking the ...

  10. Ethiopian soya bean and sunflower value chains : Opportunities and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, J.H.M.; Dufera Gurmesa, N.; Lute, J.C.M.; Loo, van E.N.

    2011-01-01

    This report analyses the business opportunities of soya beans and sunflowers. The opportunities are addressed to firms in all levels of the value chain ranging from consumers to farmers in the Ethiopian agriculture.

  11. Fiscal policy, the real exchange rate and commodity prices: A global framework

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhart, Carmen

    1990-01-01

    The role of the international commodity market in transmitting disturbances is considered in a model that incorporates commodities as an input in production. The analysis employs a three-country framework: a liquidity-constrained commodity supplier and two industrial countries that import the commodity, export differentiated manufactured goods and hold the outstanding debt of the commodity exporter. In this setting the impact of changes in fiscal policy, commodity supplies, and the real inter...

  12. Agricultural Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehigh County Area Vocational-Technical School, Schnecksville, PA.

    This brochure describes the philosophy and scope of a secondary-level course in agricultural production. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: careers in agriculture and agribusiness, animal science and livestock production, agronomy, agricultural mechanics, supervised occupational experience programs, and the…

  13. Agriculture et politiques agricoles aux États-Unis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devienne Sophie

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The new Farm Bill has just been voted, after difficult negotiations between the White House and Congress. Since the beginning of the commodity-based programs in the 1930s, the agricultural policies in United States were aimed at supporting farm commodity markets and stabilizing farmers incomes. These commodity support policies have been an important contributor to the growth of agricultural productivity and commodity surplus. In the 1950s it became apparent that export demand was capable of creating farm prosperity and became important for the surplus disposal. The US agricultural policies aimed at expanding agricultural exports, and became more offensive as the export competition grew keener. For the first time in 1996, as the market estimates were optimistic, the Fair Act raised the possibility of an end to price support activities as a mean of farm income support. But in 1998 and 1999 weakened export demand led to marked reductions in the prices of the main crops. The 2002 Farm Bill restored the safety net for the farm income. Despite high prices and expansion of demand, and in contradiction with US commitments at the WTO, the new Farm Bill keep on aiming at providing a strong safety net for farm income, which allows the growth of agricultural productivity and the increase in US agriculture competitiveness, and at expanding trade.

  14. Monetary policy and world commodity markets: 2000-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Askari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Expansionary monetary policy in key industrial countries and a rapidly depreciating US dollar sent commodity prices soaring at unprecedented rates during 2003–2007. In contrast, consumer price indices in major OECD countries, a leading indicator for monetary policy, showed almost no inflation. This twin development is a puzzle as the evolution of consumer prices were not responsive to record low interest rates, doubledigit commodity inflation, and a sharp depreciation of the dollar. A common trend, identified as a monetary shock, drives commodity prices. Policymakers face a policy dilemma: maintain expansionary monetary policy stance with persistent commodity price inflation, subsequent severe world recession, and financial disorder, or tighten monetary policy with subsequent sustained economic growth and financial and price stability.

  15. 22 CFR 201.63 - Maximum prices for commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... producer in the original sale of that specific commodity; and (ii) A markup over the amount allowed in... competitors of the supplier; and (iii) To the extent not included in paragraph (e)(1)(i) of this section...

  16. Modeling Multi-commodity Trade Information Exchange Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Traczyk, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Market mechanisms are entering into new fields of economy, in which some constraints of physical world, e.g. Kirchoffs Law in power grid, must be taken into account during trading. On such markets, some of commodities, like telecommunication bandwidth or electrical energy, appear to be non-storable, and must be exchanged in real-time. On the other hand, the markets tend to react at shortest possible time, so an idea to delegate some competency to autonomous software agents is very attractive. Multi-commodity mechanism addresses the aforementioned requirements. Modeling the relationships between the commodities allows to formulate new, more sophisticated models and mechanisms, which reflect decision situations in a better manner. Application of multi-commodity approach requires solving several issues related to data modeling, communication, semantics aspects of communication, reliability, etc. This book answers some of the questions and points out promising paths for implementation and development. Presented s...

  17. Can the environmental benefits of biomass support agriculture?-The case of cereals for electricity and bioethanol production in Northern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, Maria Isabel [Department of Economics, University of Alcala, Plaza de la Victoria, 3, 28002 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: isabel.blanco@uah.es; Azqueta, Diego [Department of Economics, University of Alcala, Plaza de la Victoria, 3, 28002 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2008-01-15

    Recent policy documents, such as the EC Communication on an Energy Policy for Europe (January 2007) make emphasis on the opportunities that energy applications can offer certain agricultural commodities, especially in the framework of a progressive dismantling of the Common Agricultural Policy. This paper analyses whether this can be true for wheat and barley farmers, using the real example of a straw-based power plant in Northern Spain and a theoretical factory for bioethanol production fed with cereal grain. The outcomes of such an exercise, in which their relative environmental benefits vis-a-vis fossil fuel alternatives are worked out with the aid of a simplified life-cycle approach, show that the characteristics of the electricity and biomass markets, the baseline scenario and the fuel prices are crucial for the future of the sector.

  18. Purpose and potential for commodity exchanges in African economies:

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid, Shahidur; Winter-Nelson, Alex; Garcia, Philip

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the purpose and potential of commodity exchanges in Africa. Drawing from the existing literature and using indicative empirics, it examines the conditions that enable successful exchanges, highlights the special challenges to setting up exchanges in Africa, and reviews alternatives to domestic exchanges. We argue that many critical preconditions for the successful establishment of commodity exchanges in Africa remain binding in the short to medium term. The development of c...

  19. Empirical evidence for nonlinearity and irreversibility of commodity futures prices

    OpenAIRE

    Karapanagiotidis, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Theory suggests that commodity futures price levels and returns data may exhibit both nonlinear and nonreversible features. This paper attempts to provide a thorough empiri- cally investigation of these claims. The data set is composed of 25 individual continuous contract commodity futures series which fall within a number of industry sectors including softs, precious metals, energy, and livestock. Employing both time-domain and frequency- domain tests examining the higher order cumulan...

  20. Upon Further Review: A Commodity Chemist on Green Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, William F.

    2016-09-01

    Green chemistry is most often thought of in the context of specialty or pharmaceutical chemicals where many synthetic chemistry approaches are in play. However, principles similar to those of green chemistry and engineering were employed over the years in reducing cost and increasing volume of chemicals that became commodities. This paper considers some of those principles, their impact, and some perspectives on the potential and limits associated with green chemistry for commodity chemicals.

  1. A scoping study on the functioning of commodity markets

    OpenAIRE

    Burnett, Duncan; Greenhalgh, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Commodity production, whether for export or for domestic and subsistence consumption, plays a dominant role in sustaining the livelihoods of many millions of small producers throughout the developing world, as well as greatly influencing the incomes received by intermediaries, processors and governments. Over the past fifteen years, the liberalisation of commodity markets in many countries has had a major impact on smallholder operations and created many new challenges. While market liberalis...

  2. Increasing Trends in the Excess Comovement of Commodity Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Ohashi, Kazuhiko; OKIMOTO, Tatsuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate whether excess correlations among seemingly unrelated commodity returns have increased recently, and if so, how they were achieved. To this end, we generalize the model of excess comovement, originated by Pindyck and Rotemberg (1990) and extended by Deb, Trivedi, and Varangis (1996), to develop the smooth-transition dynamic conditional correlation (STDCC) model that can capture long-run trends and short-run dynamics in excess comovements. Using commodity returns ...

  3. Optimal Commodity Taxation with Varying Quality of Goods

    OpenAIRE

    Bastani, Spencer; Blomquist, Sören; Micheletto, Luca

    2015-01-01

    A standard result in the optimal taxation literature is that, when agents differ in market ability and the government aims at redistributing from high- to low-skilled agents by means of an optimal nonlinear labor income tax and a set of commodity taxes, an optimally designed commodity tax structure should encourage (discourage) the consumption of goods/services that are complement with labor (leisure). In this paper we highlight that, when agents can choose both the quality and the quantity o...

  4. Monetary policy and world commodity markets: 2000-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Askari; Noureddine Krichene

    2010-01-01

    Expansionary monetary policy in key industrial countries and a rapidly depreciating US dollar sent commodity prices soaring at unprecedented rates during 2003–2007. In contrast, consumer price indices in major OECD countries, a leading indicator for monetary policy, showed almost no inflation. This twin development is a puzzle as the evolution of consumer prices were not responsive to record low interest rates, doubledigit commodity inflation, and a sharp depreciation of the dollar. A commo...

  5. Industrial commodity statistics yearbook 1998. Production statistics (1989-1998)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This, the thirty-second in a series of annual compilation of statistics on world industry, contains annual quantity data on production of industrial commodities by country, geographical region, economic grouping and the world. A standard list of about 530 commodities (about 590 statistical series) has been adopted for the publication. Most of the statistics refer to the ten-year period 1989-1998 for about 200 countries and areas

  6. What does Marx mean by the "fetishism of commodities" ?

    OpenAIRE

    Dobra, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    The present paper aims to analyse Marx’s concept of “fetishism of commodities” by explaining the mechanism of a social genesis of determined illusions, arising in the sphere of production and circulation of commodities. It highlights the existence of an auto-sustained autarkic system of 4 variables – reification, objectification, duplicity and habit - sustaining and leading to the fetishism of commodities.

  7. Book review: Racist trademarks: slavery, orient, colonialism and commodity culture

    OpenAIRE

    Bezirgan, Bengi

    2013-01-01

    "Racist Trademarks: Slavery, Orient, Colonialism and Commodity Culture." Malte Hinrichsen. LIT Verlag. January 2013. --- Since the beginning of commodity culture, products have been marketed with images reflecting racist concepts of otherness. Using the prominent examples of three companies – Uncle Ben’s, Sarotti and Banania – Malte Hinrichsen examines how racist trademark figures were established in the U.S., Germany and France and built on nation-specific processes of racial stereotyping...

  8. Commodity Markets: Rational Expectations in Markets With Irrational Investors

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Teddy T.; Smith, Aaron D.

    2010-01-01

    The "financialization" of commodity markets have become a concern for policy makers and market participants. What was once a market for the hedging of holding physical commodities has expanded to become a market for the diversification of financial assets. When financial assets diversification goals are decoupled from the fundamental factors that affect producers and consumers of physical goods futures markets may not be as efficient in aggregating information concerning the economics of the ...

  9. Statistical microeconomics and commodity prices: theory and empirical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaquie, Belal E

    2016-01-13

    A review is made of the statistical generalization of microeconomics by Baaquie (Baaquie 2013 Phys. A 392, 4400-4416. (doi:10.1016/j.physa.2013.05.008)), where the market price of every traded commodity, at each instant of time, is considered to be an independent random variable. The dynamics of commodity market prices is given by the unequal time correlation function and is modelled by the Feynman path integral based on an action functional. The correlation functions of the model are defined using the path integral. The existence of the action functional for commodity prices that was postulated to exist in Baaquie (Baaquie 2013 Phys. A 392, 4400-4416. (doi:10.1016/j.physa.2013.05.008)) has been empirically ascertained in Baaquie et al. (Baaquie et al. 2015 Phys. A 428, 19-37. (doi:10.1016/j.physa.2015.02.030)). The model's action functionals for different commodities has been empirically determined and calibrated using the unequal time correlation functions of the market commodity prices using a perturbation expansion (Baaquie et al. 2015 Phys. A 428, 19-37. (doi:10.1016/j.physa.2015.02.030)). Nine commodities drawn from the energy, metal and grain sectors are empirically studied and their auto-correlation for up to 300 days is described by the model to an accuracy of R(2)>0.90-using only six parameters. PMID:26621991

  10. Portfolio Diversification with Commodities in Times of Financialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Zaremba

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study concentrates on the benefits of passive commodity investments in the context of the phenomenon of financialization. The research investigates the implications of increase in the correlation coefficients between equity and commodity investments for investors in financial markets. The paper is composed of several parts. First, the attributes of commodity investments and their benefits in the portfolio optimization are explored. Second, the phenomenon of the financialization is described and the research hypothesis is developed. Next, an empirical analysis is performed. I simulate the mean-variance spanning tests to examine the benefits of commodity investments before and after accounting for the impact of financialization. I proceed separate analysis for pre- and post-financialization period. The empirical research is based on asset classes’ returns and other related variables from years 1991-2012. The performed investigations indicate that the market financialization may have significant implications for commodity investors. Due to increase in correlation coefficients, the inclusion of the commodity futures in the traditional stock-bond portfolio appears to be no longer reasonable.

  11. Agricultural Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ling; Zhang, Panpan; Shu, Huajie; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, the quantity of agricultural waste has been rising rapidly all over the world. As a result, the environmental problems and negative impacts of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention. Therefore, there is a need to adopt proper approaches to reduce and reuse agricultural waste. This review presented about 200 literatures published in 2015 relating to the topic of agricultural waste. The review examined research on agricultural waste in 2015 from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management. Researchers highlighted the importance to reuse agricultural waste and investigated the potential to utilize it as biofertilizers, cultivation material, soil amendments, adsorbent, material, energy recycling, enzyme and catalyst etc. The treatment of agricultural waste included carbonization, biodegradation, composting hydrolysis and pyrolysis. Moreover, this review analyzed the differences of the research progress in 2015 from 2014. It may help to reveal the new findings and new trends in this field in 2015 comparing to 2014. PMID:27620093

  12. GCAM 3.0 Agriculture and Land Use: Data Sources and Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyle, G. Page; Luckow, Patrick; Calvin, Katherine V.; Emanuel, William R.; Nathan, Mayda; Zhou, Yuyu

    2011-12-12

    This report presents the data processing methods used in the GCAM 3.0 agriculture and land use component, starting from all source data used, and detailing all calculations and assumptions made in generating the model inputs. The report starts with a brief introduction to modeling of agriculture and land use in GCAM 3.0, and then provides documentation of the data and methods used for generating the base-year dataset and future scenario parameters assumed in the model input files. Specifically, the report addresses primary commodity production, secondary (animal) commodity production, disposition of commodities, land allocation, land carbon contents, and land values.

  13. Correlation between Islamic stock and Commodity markets: An investigation into the impact of financial crisis and financialization of commodity markets

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Aftab; Masih, Mansur

    2014-01-01

    The repercussions of the recent financial crisis were felt over different parts of the world causing much calamity to different markets, economies and investors. The capital markets, in particular, took a severe hit during the crisis plummeting to all-time lows. However, before the crisis, the significant rise in commodity prices since 2002 and their subsequent fall since July 2008 have revived the debate on the role of commodities in the strategic and tactical asset allocation process. There...

  14. Monitoring Particulate Matter with Commodity Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstius, David

    correlation with 1h data from a Federal Equivalent Method (FEM) beta-attenuation data, prototype instruments performed as well as commercially available equipment costing considerably more, and as well as another reference instrument under similar conditions at the same timescale (R2 = 0.6). Correlations were stronger when 24 h integrating times were used instead (R2 = 0.72). Chapter 4 replicates and extends the results of Chapter 3, showing that similar calibrations may be reasonably exchangeable between near-roadway and background monitoring sites. Chapter 4 also employs triplicate sensors to obtain data consistent with near-field (transport, and may also facilitate timely and empirical verification of interventions to reduce emissions and exposures, in many important contexts (e.g., the provision of improved cookstoves; congestion pricing; mitigation policies attached to infill development; etc.). They also demonstrate that calibrations against continuous reference monitoring equipment could be remotely transferred, within practical tolerances, to reasonably sized and adequately resourced participatory monitoring campaigns, with minimal risk of disruption to existing monitoring infrastructure (i.e., established monitoring sites). Given a collaborator with a short window of access to a reference monitoring site, this would overcome a nominally important barrier associated with non-gravimetric, in-situ calibration of continuous PM2.5 monitors. Progressive and disruptive prospects linked to a proliferation of comparable sensing technologies based on commodity hardware are discussed in Chapter 5.

  15. Seizing Opportunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    After the remarkable progress of the past five years, China has entered its new five-year plan period, starting from 2006, aiming to further its economic and social development. Though some are still talking about "China threat," many others consider the country's growth a huge opportunity. In an interview with People's Daily, Bill Fischer, former President of the Sino-European International Business School in Shanghai, comments on China's current development and also talks about problems the country fac...

  16. Evaluating Opportunities to Improve Material and Energy Impacts in Commodity Supply Chains.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanes, Rebecca J.; Carpenter, Alberta

    2016-06-28

    When evaluated at the process level, next-generation technologies may be more energy and emissions intensive than current technology. However, many advanced technologies have the potential to reduce material and energy consumption in upstream or downstream processing stages. In order to fully understand the benefits and consequences of technology deployment, next-generation technologies should be evaluated in context, as part of a supply chain. This work presents the Material Flows through Industry (MFI) scenario modeling tool. The MFI tool is a cradle-to-gate linear network model of the U.S. industrial sector that can model a wide range of manufacturing scenarios, including changes in production technology, increases in industrial energy efficiency, and substitution between functionally equivalent materials. The MFI tool was developed to perform supply chain scale analyses in order to quantify the impacts and benefits of next-generation technologies and materials at that scale. For the analysis presented in this paper, the MFI tool is utilized to explore a case study comparing a steel supply chain to the supply chains of several functionally equivalent materials. Several of the alternatives to the baseline steel supply chain include next-generation production technologies and materials. Results of the case study show that aluminum production scenarios can out-perform the steel supply chain by using either an advanced smelting technology or an increased aluminum recycling rate. The next-generation material supply chains do not perform as well as either aluminum or steel, but may offer additional use phase reductions in energy and emissions that are outside the scope of the MFI tool. Future work will combine results from the MFI tool with a use phase analysis.

  17. Redesigning Urban Carbon Cycles: from Waste Stream to Commodity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabander, D. J.; Fitzstevens, M. G.

    2013-12-01

    supporting urban agriculture. We are now extending this approach to additional large U.S. and European urban centers where different philosophical and technological approaches to managing urban waste carbon have resulted in a range of infrastructures, from highly distributed systems (Germany) to centralized mega facilities (London). Ultimately, this research will lead to a decision-making matrix model that will permit cities to customize their urban carbon waste stream facilities and transform this waste into a usable commodity.

  18. Worldwide Sustainability Hotspots in Potato Cultivation. 2. Areas with Improvement Opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evert, van F.K.; Ruijter, de F.J.; Conijn, J.G.; Rutgers, B.; Haverkort, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Agriculture has a large impact on the environment and retailers increasingly stimulate their suppliers to reduce the environmental impact of agricultural production. The environmental impact resulting from producing a commodity can be measured with a life cycle analysis (LCA) but performing an LCA i

  19. 44 CFR 402.3 - Addition of commodities to the Positive List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Addition of commodities to... commodities to the Positive List. Order T-1 applies to the transportation or discharge of commodities which are restricted at the time of transportation or discharge. Accordingly, if a commodity is added to...

  20. Industrial commodity statistics yearbook 1999. Production statistics (1990-1999)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the thirty-third In a series of annual compilations of statistics on world industry designed to meet both the general demand for information of this kind and the special requirements of the United Nations and related international bodies. Beginning with the 1992 edition, the title of the publication was changed to industrial Commodity Statistics Yearbook as the result of a decision made by the United Nations Statistical Commission at its twenty-seventh session to discontinue, effective 1994, publication of the Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume I, General Industrial Statistics by the Statistics Division of the United Nations. The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) has become responsible for the collection and dissemination of general industrial statistics while the Statistics Division of the United Nations continues to be responsible for industrial commodity production statistics. The previous title, Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume II, Commodity Production Statistics, was introduced in the 1982 edition. The first seven editions in this series were published under the title The Growth of World industry and the next eight editions under the title Yearbook of Industrial Statistics. This edition of the Yearbook contains annual quantity data on production of industrial commodities by country, geographical region, economic grouping and for the world. A standard list of about 530 commodities (about 590 statistical series) has been adopted for the publication. Most of the statistics refer to the ten-year period 1990-1999 for about 200 countries and areas

  1. Industrial commodity statistics yearbook 2000. Production statistics (1991-2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the thirty-third in a series of annual compilations of statistics on world industry designed to meet both the general demand for information of this kind and the special requirements of the United Nations and related international bodies. Beginning with the 1992 edition, the title of the publication was changed to industrial Commodity Statistics Yearbook as the result of a decision made by the United Nations Statistical Commission at its twenty-seventh session to discontinue, effective 1994, publication of the Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume I, General Industrial Statistics by the Statistics Division of the United Nations. The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) has become responsible for the collection and dissemination of general industrial statistics while the Statistics Division of the United Nations continues to be responsible for industrial commodity production statistics. The previous title, Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume II, Commodity Production Statistics, was introduced in the 1982 edition. The first seven editions in this series were published under the title The Growth of World industry and the next eight editions under the title Yearbook of Industrial Statistics. This edition of the Yearbook contains annual quantity data on production of industrial commodities by country, geographical region, economic grouping and for the world. A standard list of about 530 commodities (about 590 statistical series) has been adopted for the publication. Most of the statistics refer to the ten-year period 1991-2000 for about 200 countries and areas

  2. Industrial commodity statistics yearbook 2003. Production statistics (1994-2003)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the thirty-seventh in a series of annual compilations of statistics on world industry designed to meet both the general demand for information of this kind and the special requirements of the United Nations and related international bodies. Beginning with the 1992 edition, the title of the publication was changed to industrial Commodity Statistics Yearbook as the result of a decision made by the United Nations Statistical Commission at its twenty-seventh session to discontinue, effective 1994, publication of the Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume I, General Industrial Statistics by the Statistics Division of the United Nations. The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) has become responsible for the collection and dissemination of general industrial statistics while the Statistics Division of the United Nations continues to be responsible for industrial commodity production statistics. The previous title, Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume II, Commodity Production Statistics, was introduced in the 1982 edition. The first seven editions in this series were published under the title 'The Growth of World industry' and the next eight editions under the title 'Yearbook of Industrial Statistics'. This edition of the Yearbook contains annual quantity data on production of industrial commodities by country, geographical region, economic grouping and for the world. A standard list of about 530 commodities (about 590 statistical series) has been adopted for the publication. The statistics refer to the ten-year period 1994-2003 for about 200 countries and areas

  3. Industrial commodity statistics yearbook 2001. Production statistics (1992-2001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the thirty-fifth in a series of annual compilations of statistics on world industry designed to meet both the general demand for information of this kind and the special requirements of the United Nations and related international bodies. Beginning with the 1992 edition, the title of the publication was changed to industrial Commodity Statistics Yearbook as the result of a decision made by the United Nations Statistical Commission at its twenty-seventh session to discontinue, effective 1994, publication of the Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume I, General Industrial Statistics by the Statistics Division of the United Nations. The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) has become responsible for the collection and dissemination of general industrial statistics while the Statistics Division of the United Nations continues to be responsible for industrial commodity production statistics. The previous title, Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume II, Commodity Production Statistics, was introduced in the 1982 edition. The first seven editions in this series were published under the title The Growth of World industry and the next eight editions under the title Yearbook of Industrial Statistics. This edition of the Yearbook contains annual quantity data on production of industrial commodities by country, geographical region, economic grouping and for the world. A standard list of about 530 commodities (about 590 statistical series) has been adopted for the publication. The statistics refer to the ten-year period 1992-2001 for about 200 countries and areas

  4. Industrial commodity statistics yearbook 2002. Production statistics (1993-2002)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the thirty-sixth in a series of annual compilations of statistics on world industry designed to meet both the general demand for information of this kind and the special requirements of the United Nations and related international bodies. Beginning with the 1992 edition, the title of the publication was changed to industrial Commodity Statistics Yearbook as the result of a decision made by the United Nations Statistical Commission at its twenty-seventh session to discontinue, effective 1994, publication of the Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume I, General Industrial Statistics by the Statistics Division of the United Nations. The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) has become responsible for the collection and dissemination of general industrial statistics while the Statistics Division of the United Nations continues to be responsible for industrial commodity production statistics. The previous title, Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume II, Commodity Production Statistics, was introduced in the 1982 edition. The first seven editions in this series were published under the title 'The Growth of World industry' and the next eight editions under the title 'Yearbook of Industrial Statistics'. This edition of the Yearbook contains annual quantity data on production of industrial commodities by country, geographical region, economic grouping and for the world. A standard list of about 530 commodities (about 590 statistical series) has been adopted for the publication. The statistics refer to the ten-year period 1993-2002 for about 200 countries and areas

  5. A study on the systematization of commodity classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tae, Jae Woong; Shin, Dong Hoon [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    International community is trying to prevent the spread of WMD (Weapons of Mass Destruction), especially nuclear weapons. These efforts result in the declaration of UNSC Resolution 1540 in 2004, which made export controls the international norms for all nations in the world. Korea enacted Foreign Trade Act in 1989 to adhere to the export control standards worldwide. Export control system in Korea consists of commodity classification system and export license system. The commodity classification system is used to identify strategic commodity. The Export License system is used to verify that exports have met the conditions required by the international export control system. NSG guidelines, the NSG handbook and Public Notice on Trade of Strategic Items are used to classify items and technology However, some items or technology in NSG guidelines should be especially designed or prepared (EDP). It is difficult to determine which items or technology is strategic commodity because EDP criteria are qualitative. NSG or participant states don't provide clear criteria to classify items and technology but recommend establishing standards autonomously. Hence the result of deliberation on the same items and technology may be different by reviewer's experience, knowledge and governmental policy. It causes confusion of reviewers and export companies In this research, commodity classification systematization by EDP criteria's clarification was performed to increase consistency and efficiency.

  6. COMPETITIVENESS OF LEADING COMMODITIES TO SUPPORT DEVELOPING REGION OF AGROTOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murwatiningsih Murwatiningsih

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe aim of the research is to seek the competitiveness of the leading commodity in Semarang city which supports the development of centre commodity in agrotourism area. The method of analysis is leading sector, scoring analysis and capacity asessment through FGD. The result of the research reveals that leading commodities are Durian, Longan, Water Apple, and Rambutan. It is found that subdistrict Gunungpati and Mangunsari are ready to be the centre of horticulture commodity because its strategic location. It is located nearby Jatibarang reservoir (potential to be a tourism village, its cultivation is relatively successful, accessable transportation, and good management. Hence, it can be the pilot project area.Key words: competitiveness, centre, commodity, horticultureJEL Classification: O20, Q10AbstrakKesejahteraan petani tidak meningkat karena daya saingnya rendah dan pengelolannya tidak optimal. Tujuan penelitian, untuk melihat daya saing komoditas unggulan Kota Semarang untuk mendukung pengembangan sentra komoditas di kawasan agrowisata. Metode analisis yaitu sektor basis, analisis scoring serta capacity assessment melalui FGD. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan komoditas yang diunggulkan di Gunungpati adalah durian, klengkeng, jambu air dan rambutan. Kelurahan Gunungpati dan Mangunsari siap dijadikan sentra komoditas hortikultura di Kecamatan Gunungpati karena letaknya strategis- dekat dengan waduk Jatibarang (dapat menjadi desa wisata, budidaya relatif lebih berhasil, transportasi dan akseptibilitas lebih mudah, pengelolaannya bagus sehingga sudah menjadi daerah percontohan.Kata Kunci: daya saing, sentra, komoditas, hortikulturJEL Classification: O20, Q10

  7. A study on the systematization of commodity classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International community is trying to prevent the spread of WMD (Weapons of Mass Destruction), especially nuclear weapons. These efforts result in the declaration of UNSC Resolution 1540 in 2004, which made export controls the international norms for all nations in the world. Korea enacted Foreign Trade Act in 1989 to adhere to the export control standards worldwide. Export control system in Korea consists of commodity classification system and export license system. The commodity classification system is used to identify strategic commodity. The Export License system is used to verify that exports have met the conditions required by the international export control system. NSG guidelines, the NSG handbook and Public Notice on Trade of Strategic Items are used to classify items and technology However, some items or technology in NSG guidelines should be especially designed or prepared (EDP). It is difficult to determine which items or technology is strategic commodity because EDP criteria are qualitative. NSG or participant states don't provide clear criteria to classify items and technology but recommend establishing standards autonomously. Hence the result of deliberation on the same items and technology may be different by reviewer's experience, knowledge and governmental policy. It causes confusion of reviewers and export companies In this research, commodity classification systematization by EDP criteria's clarification was performed to increase consistency and efficiency

  8. Agricultural Finance Statistics, 1960-83

    OpenAIRE

    Amols, George; Kaiser, Wilson

    1984-01-01

    This bulletin presents farm financial statistics, including outstanding farm 4ebt by State and lender and average interest rates for agricultural loans charged by selected lenders for 1960-83. Farm debt includes both real estate and nonrea1 estate debt. Lenders include Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), Federal land banks, production credit associations, Federal intermediate credit banks, commercial banks, life insurance companies, Farmers Home Administration, and individuals and others.

  9. Agricultural Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Francis; AKSOY, M. Ataman

    2008-01-01

    Recent increases in food and other commodity prices have highlighted concerns that many poor countries are net food importers and higher food prices would worsen their trade balances. In this article, we analyze the changes in food trade balances associated with the 32% increase in food prices from 2000/2001 to 2004/2005. We find a small deterioration in food trade balances of low-income countries and an improvement in middle-income countries. The deterioration is most severe for countries in...

  10. Marketing of irradiated commodities in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Plessis, TA; Stevens, RCB

    Although the industrial exploitation of radiation processing in the medical and allied fields has been successfully marketed and applied for the past two decades in South Africa, the introduction of food radurisation on an industrial level adds a completely new dimension to the marketing of this processing technique. Extensive research into the use of radiation for the treatment of various foodstuffs has been carried out by the Nuclear Development Corporation of South Africa for more than a decade, resulting in South Africa being one of the first countries where a commercial irradiator dedicated to this branch of radiation processing, was established. The marketing of this process is especially difficult due to the emotive aspects associated with radiation and man's sensitive reaction to anything pertaining to his food. This situation was made even more difficult by the general public's apprehension towards nuclear activities throughout the world. In an attempt to transform the unfavourable public image associated with this process, an important first step was to form a National Steering Committee for the Marketing of Radurised Food, the members of which were drawn from various agricultural controlling bodies, the Department of Health, and other controlling bodies held in high esteem by the public, such as the Consumer Council and representatives from commerce and industry. This approach proved to be very successful and greatly assisted in creating a climate whereby the public in South Africa today generally has a favourable attitude towards the radurisation of foodstuffs. The development of this marketing strategy for food radurisation in South Africa is discussed in detail.

  11. Agriculture Beyond Food: Experiences from Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Loffler, H.J.M.; Afiff, S.; Burgers, P.P.M.; Govers, C.; Heeres, H. J.; O. Karyanto; Manurung, R.; Vel, J.A.C.; Visscher, S; Zwaagstra, T.; Widyarani, R.

    2014-01-01

    The ABF programme addresses one of today’s major societal challenges, how to achieve a sustainable and inclusive biobased economy, with high-level scientific research on the thin lines between food and non-food, commodities and waste products, livelihood opportunities and risks, and local and global economy. This book provides insights into the main issues and key questions relating to the biobased economy, reflects on the objectives of the ABF programme, and offers policy recommendations. It...

  12. Maximizing Amazonia's Ecosystem Services: Juggling the potential for carbon storage, agricultural yield and biodiversity in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, C. S.; Foley, J. A.; Gerber, J. S.; Polasky, S.

    2011-12-01

    The Amazon is not only an exceptionally biodiverse and carbon-rich tract of tropical forest, it is also a case study in land use change. Over the next forty years it will continue to experience pressure from an urbanizing and increasingly affluent populace: under a business-as-usual scenario, global cropland, pasture and biofuels systems will carry on expanding, while the Amazon's carbon storage potential will likely become another viable revenue source under REDD+. Balancing those competing land use pressures ought also take into account Amazonia's high - but heterogeneous - biodiversity. Knowing where Amazonia has opportunities to make efficient or optimal trade offs between carbon storage, agricultural production and biodiversity can allow policymakers to direct or influence LUC drivers. This analysis uses a spatially-explicit model that takes climate and management into account to quantify the potential agricultural yield of both the Amazon's most important agricultural commodities - sugar, soy and maize - as well as several that are going to come into increasing prominence, including palm oil. In addition, it maps the potential for carbon to be stored in forest biomass and relative species richness across Amazonia. We then compare carbon storage, agricultural yield and species richness and identify areas where efficient trade offs occur between food, carbon, and biodiversity - three critical ecosystem goods and services provided by the world's largest tropical forest.

  13. International Linkages of Agri-Processed and Energy commodities traded in India

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Pankaj; Mathur, Kritika

    2013-01-01

    The current study focuses on the linkages in agri-processed (soy oil and crude palm oil) and energy commodities (natural gas and crude oil) traded on commodity exchanges of India (NCDEX; MCX) and their corresponding international commodity exchanges(Chicago Board of Trade; Bursa Malaysia Derivative Exchange; New York Mercantile Exchange). This paper examines the linkages in futures price, return and volatility of a commodity across commodity exchanges with the help of three models – (a) Price...

  14. Trading forests: land-use change and carbon emissions embodied in production and exports of forest-risk commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henders, Sabine; Persson, U. Martin; Kastner, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Production of commercial agricultural commodities for domestic and foreign markets is increasingly driving land clearing in tropical regions, creating links and feedback effects between geographically separated consumption and production locations. Such teleconnections are commonly studied through calculating consumption footprints and quantifying environmental impacts embodied in trade flows, e.g., virtual water and land, biomass, or greenhouse gas emissions. The extent to which land-use change (LUC) and associated carbon emissions are embodied in the production and export of agricultural commodities has been less studied. Here we quantify tropical deforestation area and carbon emissions from LUC induced by the production and the export of four commodities (beef, soybeans, palm oil, and wood products) in seven countries with high deforestation rates (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Papua New Guinea). We show that in the period 2000-2011, the production of the four analyzed commodities in our seven case countries was responsible for 40% of total tropical deforestation and resulting carbon losses. Over a third of these impacts was embodied in exports in 2011, up from a fifth in 2000. This trend highlights the growing influence of global markets in deforestation dynamics. Main flows of embodied LUC are Latin American beef and soybean exports to markets in Europe, China, the former Soviet bloc, the Middle East and Northern Africa, whereas embodied emission flows are dominated by Southeast Asian exports of palm oil and wood products to consumers in China, India and the rest of Asia, as well as to the European Union. Our findings illustrate the growing role that global consumers play in tropical LUC trajectories and highlight the need for demand-side policies covering whole supply chains. We also discuss the limitations of such demand-side measures and call for a combination of supply- and demand-side policies to effectively limit tropical

  15. Trading forests: land-use change and carbon emissions embodied in production and exports of forest-risk commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production of commercial agricultural commodities for domestic and foreign markets is increasingly driving land clearing in tropical regions, creating links and feedback effects between geographically separated consumption and production locations. Such teleconnections are commonly studied through calculating consumption footprints and quantifying environmental impacts embodied in trade flows, e.g., virtual water and land, biomass, or greenhouse gas emissions. The extent to which land-use change (LUC) and associated carbon emissions are embodied in the production and export of agricultural commodities has been less studied. Here we quantify tropical deforestation area and carbon emissions from LUC induced by the production and the export of four commodities (beef, soybeans, palm oil, and wood products) in seven countries with high deforestation rates (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Papua New Guinea). We show that in the period 2000–2011, the production of the four analyzed commodities in our seven case countries was responsible for 40% of total tropical deforestation and resulting carbon losses. Over a third of these impacts was embodied in exports in 2011, up from a fifth in 2000. This trend highlights the growing influence of global markets in deforestation dynamics. Main flows of embodied LUC are Latin American beef and soybean exports to markets in Europe, China, the former Soviet bloc, the Middle East and Northern Africa, whereas embodied emission flows are dominated by Southeast Asian exports of palm oil and wood products to consumers in China, India and the rest of Asia, as well as to the European Union. Our findings illustrate the growing role that global consumers play in tropical LUC trajectories and highlight the need for demand-side policies covering whole supply chains. We also discuss the limitations of such demand-side measures and call for a combination of supply- and demand-side policies to effectively limit

  16. 17 CFR 1.54 - Contract market rules submitted to and approved or not disapproved by the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... submitted to and approved or not disapproved by the Secretary of Agriculture. 1.54 Section 1.54 Commodity... Secretary of Agriculture. Notwithstanding any provision of these rules, any bylaw, rule, regulation, or resolution of a contract market that was submitted to the Secretary of Agriculture pursuant or § 1.38(a)...

  17. Historical global statistics for mineral and material commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Grecia R.; Miller, Lisa D.; Barry, James J.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides information on the current use and flow of minerals and mineral-based materials in the U.S. and world economies. This Data Series report on “Historical Global Statistics for Mineral and Material Commodities” contains information on the production of selected commodities from 1990 to the most current year. The data may be used in the analysis of socioeconomic developments and trends and in the study of environmental issues associated with the extraction and processing of the selected commodities.

  18. ASSESSING THE GOVERNANCE FOR COMMODITY PRICE STABILIZATION - A RETROSPECTIVE LOOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Larisa Nicoleta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The volatility of commodity prices has become once again a matter of profound and controversial debates for both political and academic spheres worldwide in the framework of the global economy severely distressed by the recent economic turbulences. Although commodity markets were already notorious for their price instability, the events the world economy experienced in the years 2000s offered new connotations to this phenomenon. In the first decade of this millennium, the commodity markets have struggled with high volatility, with prices reaching historical peaks just to crash dramatically some months later and very soon to restart their rise. The significant increase in volatility generated many debates about its triggering factors, the implications in terms of risk exposure of economic actors, but also the need for reconfiguring regulatory policy frameworks. The quest for the most appropriate means to deal with commodity price turbulences has known different stages over the years. Decision makers worldwide have sought alternatives, formulated and tested various mechanisms whose central aim was to mitigate price fluctuations. Governments formulate and implement consistent regulatory policies whose international coordination is a ‘sine qua non’ condition for stabilizing these markets. However, the turbulences on commodity markets often generate policy responses that sometimes exacerbate rather than mitigate the price instability. The purpose of this paper is to assess the subject of governance regarding commodity price stabilization, offering a retrospective look at the mechanisms implemented over the years, with a central focus on the International Commodity Agreements – instruments through which in the previous decades the producer and consumer governments worldwide pursued price stabilization for some key commodities like sugar, coffee, cocoa, tin and natural rubber. After analyzing the effectiveness of the International Agreements and

  19. 77 FR 55183 - Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Agricultural Commodities to Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... Cuba AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security, Commerce. ACTION: Request for comments. SUMMARY: The... Cuba. BIS will include a description of these comments in its biennial report to the Congress, as... 772 of the Export Administration Regulations (EAR), to Cuba. Requirements and procedures...

  20. 75 FR 54594 - Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Agricultural Commodities to Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... Cuba AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security, Commerce. ACTION: Request for comments. SUMMARY: The... Cuba. BIS will include a description of these comments in its biennial report to the Congress, as... of the Export Administration Regulations (EAR), to Cuba. Requirements and procedures associated...

  1. 76 FR 20217 - Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act: Impact of Post-Default Agreements on Trust Protection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ...); American Banana Co. v. Republic Nat. Bank of N.Y., 362 F.3d 33 (2nd Cir. 2004); Patterson Frozen Foods, Inc... exceeding 30 days from receipt of produce violate the PACA prompt-pay provisions.\\3\\ \\2\\ See American Banana Co., 362 F.3d at 33; Patterson Frozen Foods, 307 F.3d at 669. \\3\\ American Banana Co., 362 F.3d at...

  2. 75 FR 32306 - Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act: Impact of Post-Default Agreements on Trust Protection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ...); American Banana Co. v. Republic Nat. Bank of N.Y., 362 F.3d 33 (2nd Cir. 2004); Patterson Frozen Foods, Inc... provisions.\\3\\ \\2\\ See American Banana Co., 362 F.3d at 33; Patterson Frozen Foods, 307 F.3d at 669. \\3\\ American Banana Co., 362 F.3d at 46. It is our interpretation of the statute and regulations that...

  3. Drought Stress and Preharvest Aflatoxin Contamination in Agricultural Commodity: Genetics, Genomics and Proteomics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baozhu Guo; Zhi-Yuan Chen; R. Dewey Lee; Brian T. Scully

    2008-01-01

    Throughout the world, aflatoxin contamination is considered one of the most serious food safety issues concerning health. Chronic problems with preharvest aflatoxin contamination occur in the southern US, and are particularly troublesome in corn, peanut, cottonseed, and tree nuts. Drought stress is a major factor to contribute to preharvest afiatoxin contamination. Recent studies have demonstrated higher concentration of defense or stress-related proteins in corn kernels of resistant genotypes compared with susceptible genotypes, suggesting that preharvest field condition (drought or not drought) influences gene expression differently In different genotypes resulting in different levels of "end products": PR(pathogenesis-related) proteins in the mature kernels. Because of the complexity of Aspergillus-plant interactions, better understanding of the mechanisms of genetic resistance will be needed using genomics and proteomics for crop improvement. Genetic Improvement of crop resistance to drought stress is one component and will provide a good perspective on the efficacy of control strategy. Proteomic comparisons of corn kernel proteins between resistant or susceptible genotypes to Aspergillus flavus infection have identified stress-related proteins along with antifungal proteins as associated with kernel resistance. Gene expression studies in developing corn kernels are In agreement with the proteomic studies that defense-related genes could be upregulated or downregulated by abiotic stresses.

  4. Use of irradiation as a quarantine treatment of food and agricultural commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings open with a review of the Co-ordinated Research Programme and continue with reports of the work carried out for the programme. The fourteen individual items have been indexed separately

  5. Drought stress and preharvest aflatoxin contamination in agricultural commodity: genetics, genomics and proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Baozhu; Chen, Zhi-Yuan; Lee, R Dewey; Scully, Brian T

    2008-10-01

    Throughout the world, aflatoxin contamination is considered one of the most serious food safety issues concerning health. Chronic problems with preharvest aflatoxin contamination occur in the southern US, and are particularly troublesome in corn, peanut, cottonseed, and tree nuts. Drought stress is a major factor to contribute to preharvest aflatoxin contamination. Recent studies have demonstrated higher concentration of defense or stress-related proteins in corn kernels of resistant genotypes compared with susceptible genotypes, suggesting that preharvest field condition (drought or not drought) influences gene expression differently in different genotypes resulting in different levels of "end products": PR(pathogenesis-related) proteins in the mature kernels. Because of the complexity of Aspergillus-plant interactions, better understanding of the mechanisms of genetic resistance will be needed using genomics and proteomics for crop improvement. Genetic improvement of crop resistance to drought stress is one component and will provide a good perspective on the efficacy of control strategy. Proteomic comparisons of corn kernel proteins between resistant or susceptible genotypes to Aspergillus flavus infection have identified stress-related proteins along with antifungal proteins as associated with kernel resistance. Gene expression studies in developing corn kernels are in agreement with the proteomic studies that defense-related genes could be upregulated or downregulated by abiotic stresses. PMID:19017115

  6. Economic feasibility of using gamma radiation for the preservation of some agricultural commodities in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onions irradiated with an average dose of 8.7 krad and stored under refrigeration for 5 months had 20 to 31% less loss than non-irradiated onions. Garlic irradiated with an average dose of 9.3 krad and stored under refrigeration for up to 7 months had 7.5% less loss at 5 months and 14.6% less loss at 7 months than non-irradiated garlic. Irradiation with 50 krad delayed yellowing of mangoes, but the effect varied with variety. The emergence of adult fruit flies was prevented by irradiation. Economic analyses of the irradiation of onions, garlic and mangoes indicated that irradiation can provide advantageous savings. (author). 2 refs, 12 tabs

  7. 78 FR 54199 - Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Exportation of Agricultural Commodities, Medicine, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... to submit a biennial report to the Congress on the operation of licensing procedures for such exports... preceding two-year period, of the licensing procedures required by section 906 of the Act for the export of... parties regarding the effectiveness of OFAC's licensing procedures for the export of...

  8. 75 FR 51917 - Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act: Increase in License Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... gains in technology and office consolidations this program now employs approximately 80 full time staff... rule to amend PACA regulations was published in the Federal Register on March 11, 2010 (75 FR 11472... preclude PACA from increasing fees until the funds on hand as of the end of the fiscal year in which...

  9. Agricultural Trade Liberalization and the Least Developed Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, N.B.J.; Pinstrup-Andersen, P.

    2007-01-01

    Although the current round of international trade negotiations was called a `Development Round¿, very little was accomplished before the negotiations stalled in mid-2006. Developing countries as a group stand to gain very substantially from trade reform in agricultural commodities. It is less clear

  10. AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRIALIZATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND PUBLIC POLICY

    OpenAIRE

    Drabenstott, Mark

    1995-01-01

    Industrialization is rapidly becoming a topic of great attention. Driven by fundamental economic forces, industrialization seems likely to advance ore quickly in the coming decade to more industry segments. By changing the way agriculture does business, industrialization will also bring change to public policy and agricultural institutions. Commodity policy will increasingly be out of step with a product-oriented industry. And as industrialization blurs the lines between producers and process...

  11. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE IN METROPOLITAN AREAS: ECONOMICS AND REGULATORY ISSUES

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Bruce L.

    1994-01-01

    Metropolitan agriculture is economically important, especially in the Northeast. While faced with substantial economic and regulatory obstacles, commercial farming in urban areas is surviving and even prospering. In terms of standard models of agriculture in economic development, this is a puzzle. But more detailed, spatial economic models indicate how labor-intensive production of perishable commodities in urbanized areas can make economic sense, especially when coupled with environmental am...

  12. Evaluating cash benefits as real options for a commodity producer in an emerging market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Antonio Lucena Aiube

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The amount of cash a firm should maintain is an old problem tackled by finance literature. The recent advances in finance, mainly in the derivatives area, has opened the opportunity to revisit this subject. Cossin and Hricko (2004 studied the benefits of cash holdings using the Real Options approach. We follow their ideas extending the problem to a specific commodity producer firm in an emerging economy. We evaluate the benefits considering that raising capital takes time (timing benefit and also the benefit of avoiding the issue of securities at unfavorable moments (underpricing benefit. We use numerical procedures to solve the problem. Despite the fact that the results are not totally intuitive, we verify that the timing benefit is much more relevant than that of avoiding the underpricing benefit and that firms in emerging economies have greater advantage holding cash than those in developed economies. There is empirical evidence of this last result in the literature.

  13. Real-time Digital Video Watermark Embedding System based on Software in Commodity PC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takaaki; Echizen, Isao; Tezuka, Satoru; Yoshiura, Hiroshi

    Emerging broadband networks and high performance of PCs provide new business opportunities of the live video streaming services for the Internet users in sport events or in music concerts. Digital watermarking for video helps to protect the copyright of the video content and the real-time processing is an essential requirement. For the small start of new business, it should be achieved by flexible software without special equipments. This paper describes a novel real-time watermarking system implemented on a commodity PC. We propose the system architecture and methods to shorten watermarking time by reusing the estimated watermark imperceptibility among neighboring frames. A prototype system enables real time processing in a series of capturing NTSC signals, watermarking the video, encoding it to MPEG4 in QGVA, 1Mbps, 30fps style and storing the video for 12 hours in maximum

  14. The Global Society will need commodities; how do we prepare for the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, P. Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The global population currently stands at approximately 7 billion and is expected to increase to between 8.3 and 10.9 billion by 2050. To put this into perspective, today's global population is triple what it was in 1950. Commodities are required for healthy societies, for robust economies and to raise living standards in the developing world. With major increases the population particularly in nations with emerging economies, the demand for commodities such as water, energy and minerals will significantly increase during the next several decades. Among the concerns are clean and available freshwater, expanded energy sources from natural gas and nuclear to renewable energy, and emerging needs for specialty materials that are needed for advanced technology to expanded use of more conventional minerals for agriculture and commerce. The developing world may have the greatest need for these commodities and also be the source of many of them. At the conclusion of the International Year of Planet Earth, a small group was formed to assess the need for a major scientific effort in the geosciences. Under the auspices of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), the strategic initiatives group met and a broad initiative entitled 'Resourcing Future Generations' (RFG) that was designed to implement a scientific strategy to address the increasing demand for commodities over the next 25 years. The initiative focused on water resources, energy and minerals. The group felt strongly that the minerals component should be the initial emphasis and hoped that other global scientific organizations like IUGS would embrace the water and energy themes. Since this initial effort a number of workshops and presentations have been made including China, the International Geological Congress in Brisbane, the Davos Summit, Berlin, and Namibia amongst others. The strategic initiative planning group identifies 4 challenges to meeting future global mineral needs which are improved

  15. Commodity sourcing strategies: processes, best practices, and defense initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Rendon, Rene G.

    2005-01-01

    This research discusses the transformation occurring in the procurement and purchasing function, specifically as it applies to developing procurement strategies and the implementation of commodity strategies as an application of strategic sourcing. The literature review presents the theoretical framework surrounding the transformation of purchasing to supply management along with its major developments such as integrated supplier relationships, total ownership costs, cross-functional teams, ...

  16. Segmentation of the industrial market for food commodities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the study presented in this article is to examine whether the cconcepts developed in the area of industrial buying behavior can add to the understanding of commodity markets. The industrial market for vegetable oil was chosen as the outset of the study, because it is characterized...... the market, if the price premium is held within limits....

  17. Figuring Home: The Role of Commodities in the Transnational Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penman, Christine; Omar, Maktoba

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes to investigate the role played by material goods in the transnational experience. Previous research has shown that the movement of people across the world comes with a corollary of cultural flows which find their expression in multiple ways. This article looks more specifically at the kind of commodities that international…

  18. 22 CFR 201.11 - Eligibility of commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Department Foreign Assets, Sanctions, Transactions and Funds Control Regulations published in 31 CFR parts 500 through 599, as from time to time amended. (h) Commodities shipped out of a free port or bonded... shipped to the cooperating country shall be insured against marine risks and that such insurance shall...

  19. Supply of and demand for selected energy related mineral commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Scott F.

    2010-01-01

    In this report, subjects discussed include components of mineral supply, production, and consumption data, and information on selected mineral commodities in which the Energy Critical Elements Study Group has an interest, and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recycling studies, with some results of these studies.

  20. 22 CFR 201.31 - Suppliers of commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR parts 500 through 599, as from time to time amended, are complied with; and (6) The purchase price... brand name affixed by the producer; the emblem on each export packaging unit shall be affixed in a... of commodities shall be responsible for assuring that all export packaging, whether shipped from...