WorldWideScience

Sample records for agricultural commodities opportunities

  1. 75 FR 8909 - Funding Opportunity Title: Commodity Partnerships for Small Agricultural Risk Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... Agricultural Risk Management Education Sessions (Commodity Partnerships Small Sessions Program) Announcement... accepted. SUMMARY: The Federal Crop Insurance Corporation (FCIC), operating through the Risk Management...) for Commodity Partnerships for Small Agricultural Risk Management Education Sessions (the...

  2. Shade-grown coffee in Puerto Rico: Opportunities to preserve biodiversity while reinvigorating a struggling agricultural commodity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkhataria, R.; Collazo, J.A.; Groom, M.J.; Jordan-Garcia, A.

    2012-01-01

    Shade-grown coffee contributes to biodiversity conservation and has many ecological benefits. We reviewed historical trends in coffee production and interviewed 100 coffee growers in 1999 to determine current management practices and attitudes toward the cultivation of sun and shade coffee in Puerto Rico. We discuss the outlook for the coffee industry in the 21st century and implications for biodiversity conservation, hoping lessons from Puerto Rico will apply to the international coffee industry. Throughout the 20th century, government intervention, including subsidies and technical assistance, supported coffee farming in Puerto Rico. In an effort to modernize coffee production and increase yields, the conversion from shade to sun coffee plantations was encouraged. Despite government support, the amount of land devoted to this once dominant agricultural commodity declined markedly between 1982 and 2007 (84%), due to labor shortages, low income, and catastrophic hurricanes. We found that a return to shaded plantations would be embraced by most farmers. Growers of shaded coffee were generally happier with their cultivation practices (89.3% satisfied) than growers of sun coffee (60.9% satisfied), valued biodiversity, and were willing to cultivate coffee under shade if given similar incentives to those received for farming sun coffee. The future of the coffee industry in Puerto Rico may depend on government programs that capitalize upon emerging markets for sustainably produced, shade-grown coffee. We conclude that where governments have close ties to the coffee industry, they should strive to wed economic development with the conservation of biodiversity and associated ecological services by providing support and incentives for the production of shade coffee. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  3. Do Agricultural Commodity Firm Stock Price and Agricultural Commodity Price Move Together?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Declerck

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The research aims at explaining stock performance of processing companies as a function of commodity performance on commodity markets. The results show that stock prices of food companies do not significantly depend on agricultural market prices. So, risks of agricultural market price volatility cannot be hedged using foodfirm stocks, whose markets are more liquid.

  4. 7 CFR 65.205 - Perishable agricultural commodity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Perishable agricultural commodity. 65.205 Section 65... COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.205 Perishable agricultural commodity. Perishable agricultural commodity means fresh and frozen fruits and vegetables of...

  5. Radiation processing of food and agricultural commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reducing post-harvest food losses is becoming increasingly important for sustaining food supplies. Appropriate post-harvest processing, handling, storage and distribution practices are as important as the efforts to increase productivity for improving food security, food safety and international trade in agricultural commodities. Preservation of food by ionizing radiation involves controlled application of energy of ionizing radiation such as gamma rays, X-rays, and accelerated electrons to agricultural commodities, food products and ingredients, for improving their storage life, hygiene and safety. The process employs either gamma rays emitted by radioisotopes such as cobalt-60 or high-energy electrons or X-rays generated from machine sources

  6. 76 FR 6095 - Commodity Options and Agricultural Swaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ....'' See 75 FR 65586, Oct. 26, 2010. In addition to the provisions on swaps in an agricultural commodity... related to the price of one or more commodities.'' (See 72 FR 66099, note 7, Nov. 27, 2007). As discussed... Agricultural Commodity Definition, 75 FR 65586, Oct. 26, 2010. \\18\\ ``The term `exempt commodity' means...

  7. 15 CFR 740.18 - Agricultural commodities (AGR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agricultural commodities (AGR). 740.18... EXCEPTIONS § 740.18 Agricultural commodities (AGR). (a) Eligibility requirements. License Exception AGR permits the export of agricultural commodities to Cuba, as well as the reexport of U.S....

  8. Overview of plant dosimetry in agricultural commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive research carried out for more than three decades at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay and other laboratories in India had conclusively established application of radiation processing of food for catering to the domestic and export market. A major milestone of food irradiation was reached in the country when Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology, a constituent unit of Department of Atomic Energy had set up 'SPICE PLANT' at Vashi, Navi Mumbai in the year 2000. It was first demonstration plant for radiation processing of spices for hygienisation purpose. For expanding scope of applications in agricultural sector, the next step in this direction was taken by BARC for setting up 'KRUSHAK' plant at Lasalgaon, Nashik. This was the first plant for low dose application of gamma radiation in agricultural commodities i.e. for sprout inhibition in onion and potatoes

  9. 49 CFR 1313.6 - Contract summary for agricultural commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract summary for agricultural commodities... FOR THE TRANSPORTATION OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS § 1313.6 Contract summary for agricultural commodities. (a) Summary information. The summary of a contract for the transportation of agricultural...

  10. Export Market Development for Agricultural Commodity Promotion Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Spatz, Karen J.

    1989-01-01

    Export market development activities are an integral part of today's agricultural marketing due to increasing competition worldwide. Marketing activities include promotion, advertising, and research financed by private and government-supported commodity groups. Cooperatives and private industry primarily market brand products but they also support generic promotion through legislated commodity programs. Federal and State agricultural commodity promotion programs are supported by growers and/o...

  11. 75 FR 15403 - Information Collection, Procurement of Agricultural Commodities for Foreign Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation Information Collection, Procurement of Agricultural Commodities for Foreign... information collection associated with procurement of agricultural commodities for foreign donation. The Kansas City Commodity Office (KCCO) issues a public invitation soliciting bids for the sale...

  12. Effects of Trade Liberalization on Agriculture in Malaysia: Commodity Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Tengku Ahmad, Tengku Mohd Ariff; Tawang, Ariffin

    1999-01-01

    This book analyzes commodity aspects of the effects of trade liberalization on agriculture in Malaysia. The study describes the effects of trade liberalization on selected commodities namely palm oil, rice, and tobacco at the national level and farm level. The analysis included ex-ante and ex-post welfare gain and loss at the national level and profitability at the farm level.

  13. World oil and agricultural commodity prices: Evidence from nonlinear causality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing co-movements between the world oil and agricultural commodity prices have renewed interest in determining price transmission from oil prices to those of agricultural commodities. This study extends the literature on the oil-agricultural commodity prices nexus, which particularly concentrates on nonlinear causal relationships between the world oil and three key agricultural commodity prices (corn, soybeans, and wheat). To this end, the linear causality approach of Toda-Yamamoto and the nonparametric causality method of Diks-Panchenko are applied to the weekly data spanning from 1994 to 2010. The linear causality analysis indicates that the oil prices and the agricultural commodity prices do not influence each other, which supports evidence on the neutrality hypothesis. In contrast, the nonlinear causality analysis shows that: (i) there are nonlinear feedbacks between the oil and the agricultural prices, and (ii) there is a persistent unidirectional nonlinear causality running from the oil prices to the corn and to the soybeans prices. The findings from the nonlinear causality analysis therefore provide clues for better understanding the recent dynamics of the agricultural commodity prices and some policy implications for policy makers, farmers, and global investors. This study also suggests the directions for future studies. - Research highlights: → This study determines the price transmission mechanisms between the world oil and three key agricultural commodity prices (corn, soybeans, and wheat). → The linear and nonlinear cointegration and causality methods are carried out. → The linear causality analysis supports evidence on the neutrality hypothesis. → The nonlinear causality analysis shows that there is a persistent unidirectional causality from the oil prices to the corn and to the soybeans prices.

  14. Effects of Trade Liberalization on Agriculture in Thailand: Commodity Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Itharattana, Kajonwan

    1999-01-01

    This book analyzes commodity aspects of the effects of trade liberalization on agriculture in Thailand. The study describes the effects of trade liberalization on selected commodities namely rice, maize, soybean, milk and milk products, at the national level and the farm level. The analysis includes ex-ante and ex-post welfare gain and loss at the national level and profitability at the farm level.

  15. Agricultural Commodity Futures Market Volatility: A Case for Punctuated Equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Apperson, George P.

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural commodity futures markets have experienced dramatic price swings since 2007 as compared to previous periods. Applied economic research has not reached a consensus as to whether market fundamentals or speculative participation has been the cause of the increased volatility. Policy research has concentrated on the legislative intent of the law and how recent financial and commodity market regulation should revert back to the successful policies of the twentieth century. Policy scho...

  16. Effects of Trade Liberalization on Agriculture in China: Commodity Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Jikun; Chen, Chunlai

    1999-01-01

    This book analyzes commodity aspects of the effects of trade liberalization on agriculture in China. The study describes the effects of trade liberalization on selected commodities namely rice, wheat, maize, soybean, sweet potato, potato, other grains, pork, beef, mutton, poultry, egg, milk and fish at the national level and farm level. The analysis included ex-ante and ex-post welfare gain and loss at the national level and profitability at the farm level.

  17. Why does Colombia lack agricultural commodity futures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Moreno-Alemay

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the reasons why futures contracts are not traded as an alternative to price hedging for agricultural goods in Colombia. Based on surveys, interviews and statistical analysis, this study identified that conceptual gaps in contract negotiation, lack of consensus in the agricultural sector regarding the use of financial mechanisms and the sector’s infrequent contact with Colombia’s financial institutions, are the main reasons why a futures contracts market has not emerged.

  18. Commodity exchange and institutional changes: Case of Iranian agricultural commodity exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Soltanpour, Yazdan

    2010-01-01

    In this study, an attempt is to figure out the institutional changes that initiate the agricultural commodity exchange (ACE). To assess the affecting factors, new institutional economics approach has been chosen. The framework consisting of four levels of social analysis introduced by Oliver E.Williamson is used to analyze the social environment, institutional rules, institutional arrangements and finally the agency level economics (Neo-classical economics). Regarding this framework, the inst...

  19. 29 CFR 780.116 - Commodities included by reference to the Agricultural Marketing Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Marketing Act. 780.116 Section 780.116 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR... Commodities § 780.116 Commodities included by reference to the Agricultural Marketing Act. (a) Section 3(f... defined as agricultural commodities in section 15(g) of the Agricultural Marketing Act, as amended (12...

  20. Ideological Challenges to Changing Strategic Orientation in Commodity Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Press, Melea; Arnould, Eric; Murray, Jeff;

    2014-01-01

    orientations may be thought of as ideologies; and second, that such ideologies are likely to contend with each other. Taking such a perspective may be helpful in thinking about why transitioning to more sustainable strategic orientations is challenging even in the presence of financial incentives to make such...... changes. In assessing the transition to organic production and marketing in a commodity agriculture context we find that contending ideologies restrict its adoption. In addition, we suggest that strategic orientations are not adopted or contested solely within firms but also among them. We find that...

  1. 31 CFR 560.533 - Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.533 Section 560.533 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices, provided that the sale and exportation...

  2. 31 CFR 538.526 - Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 538.526 Section 538.526 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Brokering sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for... agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices to the Government of Sudan, to any individual or...

  3. 49 CFR 1039.10 - Exemption of agricultural commodities except grain, soybeans, and sunflower seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exemption of agricultural commodities except grain... REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS § 1039.10 Exemption of agricultural commodities except grain, soybeans, and sunflower seeds. The rail transportation of the commodities listed below is exempt from the provisions of...

  4. 78 FR 54199 - Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Exportation of Agricultural Commodities, Medicine, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control 31 CFR Parts 538 and 560 Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Exportation of Agricultural Commodities, Medicine, and Medical Devices to Sudan and Iran; Comment Request... effectiveness of OFAC's licensing procedures for the exportation of agricultural commodities, medicine,...

  5. 76 FR 22339 - Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Exportation of Agricultural Commodities, Medicine, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... effectiveness of OFAC's licensing procedures for the export of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical... Office of Foreign Assets Control 31 CFR Parts 538 and 560 Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Exportation of Agricultural Commodities, Medicine, and Medical Devices to Sudan and Iran; Comment...

  6. Balancing detail and scale in assessing transparency to improve the governance of agricultural commodity supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godar, Javier; Suavet, Clément; Gardner, Toby A.; Dawkins, Elena; Meyfroidt, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    To date, assessments of the sustainability of agricultural commodity supply chains have largely relied on some combination of macro-scale footprint accounts, detailed life-cycle analyses and fine-scale traceability systems. Yet these approaches are limited in their ability to support the sustainability governance of agricultural supply chains, whether because they are intended for coarser-grained analyses, do not identify individual actors, or are too costly to be implemented in a consistent manner for an entire region of production. Here we illustrate some of the advantages of a complementary middle-ground approach that balances detail and scale of supply chain transparency information by combining consistent country-wide data on commodity production at the sub-national (e.g. municipal) level with per shipment customs data to describe trade flows of a given commodity covering all companies and production regions within that country. This approach can support supply chain governance in two key ways. First, enhanced spatial resolution of the production regions that connect to individual supply chains allows for a more accurate consideration of geographic variability in measures of risk and performance that are associated with different production practices. Second, identification of key actors that operate within a specific supply chain, including producers, traders, shippers and consumers can help discriminate coalitions of actors that have shared stake in a particular region, and that together are capable of delivering more cost-effective and coordinated interventions. We illustrate the potential of this approach with examples from Brazil, Indonesia and Colombia. We discuss how transparency information can deepen understanding of the environmental and social impacts of commodity production systems, how benefits are distributed among actors, and some of the trade-offs involved in efforts to improve supply chain sustainability. We then discuss the challenges and

  7. Energy prices and agricultural commodity prices: Testing correlation using copulas method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The linear relationships between energy prices and prices for agricultural commodities such as corn and soybeans may have been affected, over the last several years, by policy legislations in the farm sector, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, and the Renewable Fuel Standard Program for 2014. Using high-frequency data and newer methodology, this study investigates dependence between agricultural commodity futures prices and energy futures prices. Results reveal that agricultural commodity and energy future prices are highly correlated and exhibit positive and significant relationship. Findings from this study highlight that an increase in energy price increases the price of agricultural commodities. - Highlights: • Energy policy mandates production of 15 billion gallons of corn ethanol by 2015. • Energy-intensive agriculture has a link between energy sector and crop production costs. • We investigate correlation between energy prices and agricultural commodity prices. • Agricultural commodity and energy future prices are highly correlated. • Increase in energy price increases the price of agricultural commodity

  8. Agri-Commodity Price Dynamics: The Relationship Between Oil and Agricultural Market

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Franco; Vasciaveo, Michela

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the interactions among the prices of some agricultural commodities in Italy and United States by using the time series analysis method. After a general overview of the world and European agri-markets, the agricultural commodity and oil prices are investigated in order to analyze the cross-market interactions and test the hypothesis that the increased volatility in agricultural prices is caused by the exogenous crude oil prices. For the analysis the data abo...

  9. 29 CFR 780.112 - General meaning of “agriculture or horticultural commodities.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mineral wealth or other natural resources, or by uncultivated natural growth. For example, peat humus or peat moss is not an agricultural commodity. Wirtz v. Ti Ti Peat Humus Co., 373 f(2d) 209 (C.A.4)....

  10. Tips for Organizing an Educational Agricultural Commodity Trading Club

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, John

    2011-01-01

    Educational commodity marketing clubs have been an effective tool for producers to develop their grain and livestock marketing skills. These groups are further enhanced when the participants engage in "actual trading" versus "paper trading" techniques. When a club chooses to try actual trading, it becomes more complicated than pooling monies…

  11. Evidence on trends in the single factoral terms of trade in African agricultural commodity production

    OpenAIRE

    Fleming, Euan M.; Fleming, Pauline

    2007-01-01

    The ability of African countries to achieve sustained improvements in agricultural incomes depends on their ability to generate total factor productivity (TFP) change in their agricultural sectors and adjust to movements in agricultural output and input prices. The single factoral terms of trade index measures these changes, calculated as changes in the product of TFP and the agricultural terms of trade. Estimates of the single factoral terms of trade index for the selected commodities over t...

  12. 31 CFR 560.532 - Payment for and financing of exports and reexports of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and reexports of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical devices. 560.532 Section 560.532... commodities, medicine, and medical devices. (a) General license for payment terms. The following payment terms for sales of agricultural commodities and products, medicine, and medical equipment pursuant to §§...

  13. 31 CFR 538.525 - Payment for and financing of commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... commercial sales of agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical equipment. 538.525 Section 538.525 Money... commodities, medicine, and medical equipment. (a) General license for payment terms. The following payment terms for sales, pursuant to § 538.523(a)(1), of agricultural commodities and products, medicine,...

  14. Agricultural commodity prices and oil prices: mutual causation

    OpenAIRE

    McFarlane, Ian

    2016-01-01

    The world market price of many commodities including US corn (maize) peaked sharply in 2008. The US Energy Policy Act (2005) led to a rapid rise in demand for corn ethanol as a partial substitute for gasoline in the USA. In this paper we report analysis of weekly prices of corn, wheat, sugar and crude oil, together with monthly series derived from those and other weekly prices, for two consecutive seven year periods: 1999-2005 and 2006-2012. We find strong evidence of cointegration between pr...

  15. Evaluating Quality Improvement in Nonhomogeneous Agricultural Commodities: The Case of Australian Beef

    OpenAIRE

    Voon, Thomas Jan P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper develops conceptual and empirical frameworks for assessing the economic benefits from agricultural research which enhances the amount of a desirable characteristic in each unit of a heterogeneous commodity. The commodity is assumed to comprise two or more joint products accruable in fixed proportion. Quality improvement is perceived as an increase in the proportion of a joint product with more of a more-valued characteristic and, as such, is modelled as a shift in the supply curve ...

  16. Agricultural and oil commodities: price transmission and market integration between US and Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Franco Rosa; Michela Vasciaveo; Weaver, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of this article it to get some evidences of market interaction between United States and Italy using the time series analysis of spot prices spanning from January 1999 to May 2012 for crude oil and three ag-commodities: wheat, corn and soybean. These crops have been selected for their relevance in ag-commodity exchanges between US and Italy markets. The integration between US and Italy agricultural markets is hypothesized for the consistent volume of crop traded between these two coun...

  17. Agricultural and oil commodities: price transmission and market integration between US and Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Rosa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this article it to get some evidences of market interaction between United States and Italy using the time series analysis of spot prices spanning from January 1999 to May 2012 for crude oil and three ag-commodities: wheat, corn and soybean. These crops have been selected for their relevance in ag-commodity exchanges between US and Italy markets. The integration between US and Italy agricultural markets is hypothesized for the consistent volume of crop traded between these two countries while the price transmission is related to the leading price signals of the CBT (Chicago Board of Trade. The integration between oil and ag-commodity markets is suggested both by the large use of energy intensive inputs, (fertilizer, seed, machinery in production of these ag-commodities, and their use in biofuel production. The results suggest: a for US market the evidence of market integration between crude oil and US ag-commodities; b for Italy the integration with US ag-commodity markets and less evidence of integration with the oil market. These results are valuable information both for the agents and policy makers contributing to improve the information accuracy to predict the price movements used by marketing operators for their strategies and policy makers to set up policies to re-establish conditions of market efficiency and allocate these ag-commodities in alternative market channels.

  18. Is there co-movement of agricultural commodities futures prices and crude oil?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even though significant attempts have appeared in literature, the current perception of co-movement of commodity prices appear inadequate and static. In particular we focus on price movements between crude oil futures and a series of agricultural commodities and gold futures. A comparative framework is applied to identify changes in relationships through time and various cointegration methodologies and causality tests are employed. Our results indicate that co-movement is a dynamic concept and that some economic and policy development may change the relationship between commodities. Furthermore we show that biofuel policy buffers the co-movement of crude oil and corn futures until the crude oil prices surpass a certain threshold. - Highlights: → We show that co-movement of commodity futures is a temporal concept. → A variation in parallel movement between 2 large periods occurs. → Biofuel policy buffers parallel movement of corn and crude oil futures

  19. 75 FR 32306 - Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act: Impact of Post-Default Agreements on Trust Protection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... the regulations under the Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act (PACA) in response to concerns... rule. Additional Information or Comments: You may submit written or electronic comments to PACA Trust Post-Default Comments, AMS, F&V Programs, PACA Branch, 1400 Independence Avenue SW., Room 2095-S,...

  20. 75 FR 51693 - Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act: Impact of Post-Default Agreements on Trust Protection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... published on June 8, 2010 (75 FR 32306). The proposed amendment to the regulations under the Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act (PACA) would allow a seller, supplier, or agent who has met the eligibility... comments to PACA Trust Post-Default Comments, AMS, F&V Programs, PACA Branch, 1400 Independence Avenue,...

  1. 75 FR 51917 - Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act: Increase in License Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... rule to amend PACA regulations was published in the Federal Register on March 11, 2010 (75 FR 11472... (USDA) is amending the regulations issued under the Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act (PACA or Act... effective on October 1, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jeffrey F. Davis, Office of the Chief,...

  2. 75 FR 11472 - Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act: Increase in License Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... Amendments (61 FR 47674, September 10, 1996), it noted that the next fee increase would need to be... Agricultural Commodities Act (PACA or Act) to increase license fees. Current annual license fees of $550 would... rule. ADDRESSES: You may submit written or electronic comments to: (1) PACA License Fee Comments,...

  3. 31 CFR 560.530 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Commodity Classification of EAR 99 from BIS for medicines and submit a copy to OFAC. See 15 CFR 745.3 for..., 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1, and that fall within the term “agricultural commodity” as defined... the Commerce Control List in the Export Administration Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement no....

  4. Agricultural commodity price shocks and their effect on growth in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Addison, Tony; Ghoshray, Atanu

    2013-01-01

    Commodity price shocks are an important type of external shock and are often cited as a problem for economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa. This paper quantifies the impact of agricultural commodity price shocks using a near vector autoregressive model. The novel aspect of this model is that we define an auxiliary variable that can potentially capture the definition of a price shock that allows us to determine whether the response of per capita Gross domestic product (GDP) growth in sub-Sahara...

  5. Oil Prices, Exchange Rate and Prices for Agricultural Commodities: Empirical Evidence from Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Burakov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate long and short-term impact of changes in oil prices and the exchange rate on prices of seven groups of agricultural products in Russia (buckwheat, grain crops, potatoes, oat, wheat, rye, barley. In this paper, Granger causality approach is applied to test long-run interlinkages with monthly data from January 1999 to October 2015. For testing the response of agricultural prices to sudden shocks in oil prices and exchange rate in the short run, we use impulse-response techniques. The results of impulse response analysis show that agricultural prices are not particularly sensitive to changes in oil prices and the exchange rate of Russian ruble in the short term, except for imported commodities. In the long run, Granger causal relationship between agricultural prices and oil prices is missing, and with exchange rate is observed only in case of imported agricultural goods.

  6. Non-destructive radio-frequency and microwave measurement of moisture content in agricultural commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of moisture content in agricultural commodities, the usefulness of the dielectric properties of such products for sensing moisture content by radiofrequency and microwave measurements, and factors affecting these properties are briefly discussed. Recent developments in the understanding of principles for online moisture sensing and the sensing of individual kernel, seed, nut and fruit moisture contents by radiofrequency and microwave techniques are reviewed. A brief discussion is included on aspects of practical application

  7. The competitive advantage of velvet beans as an economic agricultural commodity / Edward James Daniel de Villiers

    OpenAIRE

    De Villiers, Edward James Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The competitive advantage of velvet beans as an economic agricultural commodity. In the past 40 years, although food insecurity, poverty and environmental degradation persist, worldwide farmers have made considerable progress in increasing per capita food production whilst better understanding natural-resource management. Literature indicates that — in the decades to come — food demand will both grow and change for three reasons, namely increased numbers of people, increased income (people wi...

  8. Modelling the marginal revenue of water in selected agricultural commodities: A panel data approach

    OpenAIRE

    Moolman, C.E.; Blignaut, J.N.; van Eyden, R.

    2006-01-01

    South Africa is a water-stressed country where water availability is an important constraint to economic and social development, and will become even more so in the future if this scarce resource is not managed effectively. In order to manage this scarce supply of water, we need to value it. This study focuses on the value of water in the agricultural sector, in particular the marginal revenue of water for six irrigation commodities namely avocados, bananas, grapefruit, mangoes, oranges and s...

  9. Modeling the Marginal Revenue of Water in Selected Agricultural Commodities: A Panel Date Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Moolman, C.E.; Blignaut, J.N.; van Eyden, R.

    2006-01-01

    South Africa is a water-stressed country where water availability is an important constraint to economic and social development, and will become even more so in the future if this scarce resource is not managed effectively. In order to manage this scarce supply of water, we need to value it. This study focuses on the value of water in the agricultural sector, in particular the marginal revenue of water for six irrigation commodities namely avocados, bananas, grapefruit, mangoes, oranges and s...

  10. The Effects of the Internet on U.S. Bilateral Trade in Agricultural and Horticultural Commodities

    OpenAIRE

    Wheatley, W. Parker; Roe, Terry L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the reasons why the Internet might have a positive effect on the international trade in agricultural and horticultural commodities between the United States and its partners. It provides some simple econometric tests which differentiate the export and import effects of Internet infrastructure and cost. It also shows that the effect may be dependent on product heterogeneity/perishability. Given the growth of the Internet over the past decade, coming to terms and me...

  11. Addressing biodiversity loss when international markets of agricultural commodities are oligopolistic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Esteban May

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence shows that international markets of agricultural commodities are oligopolistic. This article uses a theoretical framework to identify the effects of adopting either unilateral (i.e. non-cooperative or cooperative environmental policies on localbiodiversity when countries compete in this market structure. The results reveal that unilateral environmental policies can negatively affect local biodiversity in foreign countries. This suggests that protection of natural habitats can only be achieved by means of international cooperation.

  12. Addressing biodiversity loss when international markets of agricultural commodities are oligopolistic

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Esteban May

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence shows that international markets of agricultural commodities are oligopolistic. This article uses a theoretical framework to identify the effects of adopting either unilateral (i.e. non-cooperative) or cooperative environmental policies on local biodiversity when countries compete in this market structure. The results reveal that unilateral environmental policies can negatively affect local biodiversity in foreign countries. This suggests that protection of natural habitats ca...

  13. Study on the Perceived Risk about the Online Shopping for Fresh Agricultural Commodities and Customer Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lingling; HUANG; Juan; FENG; Fengxian; YAN

    2014-01-01

    Fresh agricultural commodities have been entering the era of network marketing. However,the coverage population is still relatively small. In this paper,more than 400 online shopping customer survey data are statistically analyzed based on perceived risk multidimensional model by factor analysis method to classify the potential customers’ perceived risk,concluding that food safety risks,mental health risk,relative convenience risk,liquidity risk,privacy risk and time risk are the most important risk factors that impact potential customers online shopping of fresh agricultural commodities. By using customers prediction model which is based on the classification and prediction methods to mining potential customers,it comes to the conclusion that men are more likely to purchase fresh agricultural commodities online,specifically,in the male sample,those whose average monthly net purchase cost equals to or is higher than 51 yuan or whose online shopping time equals to or is longer than 3 years and at the same time whose age is younger than 30 are the most potential customers. Finally,it puts forward corresponding countermeasures and suggestions from the perspectives of risk control and effective customer acquisition.

  14. Speculation and volatility spillover in the crude oil and agricultural commodity markets: A Bayesian analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper assesses factors that potentially influence the volatility of crude oil prices and the possible linkage between this volatility and agricultural commodity markets. Stochastic volatility models are applied to weekly crude oil, corn, and wheat futures prices from November 1998 to January 2009. Model parameters are estimated using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. Speculation, scalping, and petroleum inventories are found to be important in explaining the volatility of crude oil prices. Several properties of crude oil price dynamics are established, including mean-reversion, an asymmetry between returns and volatility, volatility clustering, and infrequent compound jumps. We find evidence of volatility spillover among crude oil, corn, and wheat markets after the fall of 2006. This can be largely explained by tightened interdependence between crude oil and these commodity markets induced by ethanol production.

  15. Challenges and Opportunities in Developing Beijing Modern Urban Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    We analyze development situations of Beijing modern urban agriculture from agricultural distribution,agricultural foundation and agricultural industrial system.Our research on challenges and opportunities of Beijing modern urban agriculture indicates that challenges include short of resources,deterioration of environment,and high production cost,and opportunities include large market space,advanced agricultural industrial experience and many other development opportunities.On the basis of these,we put forward development thought of Beijing modern urban agriculture in " the Twelfth Five Plan" period.We must improve foundation,integration and demonstration of agriculture;orient towards market and satisfy medium and high end market demands;actively cultivate and strengthen agricultural industrial level;create unique product brand;and raise added value of agricultural products.

  16. Price transmission for agricultural commodities in Uganda: An empirical vector autoregressive analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen Kaspersen, Line; Føyn, Tullik Helene Ystanes

    This paper investigates price transmission for agricultural commodities between world markets and the Ugandan market in an attempt to determine the impact of world market prices on the Ugandan market. Based on the realization that price formation is not a static concept, a dynamic vector autoregr...... thus indicates that rising food prices (of little-traded crops) on world markets will not have a direct effect on food prices in Uganda.......This paper investigates price transmission for agricultural commodities between world markets and the Ugandan market in an attempt to determine the impact of world market prices on the Ugandan market. Based on the realization that price formation is not a static concept, a dynamic vector...... autoregressive (VAR) model is presented. The prices of Robusta coffee and sorghum are examined, as both of these crops are important for the domestic economy of Uganda – Robusta as a cash crop, mainly traded internationally, and sorghum for consumption at household level. The analysis focuses on the spatial...

  17. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment against mites, pests of agricultural commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agricultural commodities are often infested by acarid mites (Acari: Acaridae). When mite infestations occur, trade of these products is seriously hampered. The acarid mites may be controlled by using chemicals, but irradiation appears to offer promise. To meet quarantine requirements, two methods using ionizing radiation have been proposed: (a)irradiation of the infested product with high levels of radiation to kill the pests, and (b) irradiation of the infested product with lower doses to product sterility in the mites. A dose as high as 1.8 kGy did not cause the immediate mortality of treated males and females of Tyrophagus neiswanderi Johnston et Bruce. All mites were dead during the first week post-treatment. Use of high doses of ionizing radiation is expensive. The complete sterility of T. neiswanderi mites occurs for gamma radiation applied at 0.4 kGy, and this dosage is suggested for quarantine treatment of agricultural commodities infested by T. neiswanderi mites. (author)

  18. THE IMPACT OF THE RECENT FEDERAL RESERVE LARGESCALE ASSET PURCHASES ON THE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITY PRICES: A HISTORICAL DECOMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed H. Saghaian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluate the effects of the recent Federal Reserve’s purchases of longterm assets on prices of agricultural commodities. The first large-scale asset purchases began at the end of 2008, after the Great Recession, and the second purchases began in November of 2010. The commodities included in this analysis are meats (beef, pork, and broilers, cereal grains (corn, soybeans, wheat, and rice, and softs (sugar, coffee, cocoa, and cotton. Using historical decompositions, we find significant increases in the nominal agricultural prices of ten out of 12 agricultural commodities under investigation from the second large-scale asset purchases (in 2010 but the first set large-scale asset purchases had only two positive effects.

  19. The Predictability of GARCH-Type Models on the Returns Volatility of Primary Indonesian Exported Agricultural Commodities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saarce Elsye Hatane

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural sector plays an important role in Indonesia‟s economy; especially for the plantation sub-sector contributing high revenues to Indonesia‟s exporting sectors. The primary agricultural commodities in Indonesian export discussed in this study would be Crude Palm Oil (CPO, Natural Rubber TSR20, Arabica Coffee, Robusta Coffee, Cocoa, White Pepper and Black Pepper. Meanwhile, the returns volatility nature of agricultural commodity is famous. The volatility refers to heteroscedasticity nature of the returns which can be modeled by GARCH-type models. The returns volatility can be describe by the residual of the mean equation and volatility of error variances in the previous periods. The aims of this study are to examine the predictability of GARCH-type models on the returns volatility of those seven agricultural commodities and to determine the best GARCH-type models for each commodity based on the traditional symmetric evaluation statistics. The results find that the predictability of ARCH, GARCH, GARCH-M, EGACRH and TGARCH, as type of GARCH models used in this study, are different for each commodity.

  20. Agricultural Education: Key to Providing Broader Opportunities for Third World Women in Production Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelle, Mark A.; Holt, Barbara A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors focus on providing opportunities for women in Third World countries in agriculture. A review of the body of knowledge in agricultural development and of the issues surrounding current world food crises is included. (CH)

  1. INDIAN AGRICULTURE: FOOD PROCESSING BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Atul H. Salunke

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture has always been the backbone of the Indian economy, contributing about 15 per cent of national Gross Domestic Product.Indian agriculture has been the source of supply of raw materials to our leading industries. Sugar industries, cotton & jute textile industries, flour mills, herbal industries, oil industries, fast food industries, dry fruits industries and plantations all these depend on agriculturethe importance of food processing industries is being increasingly recognized both ...

  2. Irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment of food and agricultural commodities. Proceedings of a final research coordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    World trade in fresh horticultural produce, durables and ornamentals continues to grow. Accompanying increased trade in agricultural products is the increased risk for inadvertently transporting quarantine pests to countries or regions where they do not occur. Quarantined pests, including insects such as fruit flies, beetles, moths, scales, mealybugs, thrips, and mites, can seriously disrupt marketing of fresh agricultural products not only between countries, but also between geographical areas within countries (e.g. Florida to California; Hawaii to mainland USA; Queensland to Victoria, Australia; Okinawa to Japan) unless accepted postharvest quarantine treatments are available. Quarantine or phytosanitary treatments (such as fumigation, heat, cold or irradiation) disinfest host commodities of insect pests before they are moved through market channels to areas where the pests do not occur. Among the phytosanitary treatments, irradiation is recognized as a versatile treatment with broadspectrum activity against arthropod pests at dose levels that have minimal adverse effects on the quality of most commodities. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, initiated in 1998 a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Irradiation as a Phytosanitary Treatment of Food and Agricultural Commodities. This CRP included 16 participants from Australia, Brazil, Chile, China (2), India, Islamic Republic of Iran, Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, Poland, Syrian Arab Republic, Thailand, Turkey and the USA (2). Research coordination meetings were held in Bangkok, Thailand, 29 March - 2 April 1999; Fresno, California, 13-16 November 2001; and Vienna, 2-4 November 2002. This CRP built on the achievements of two previous CRPs on Irradiation as a Quarantine Treatment of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables, (1986-1990), and Irradiation as a Quarantine Treatment of Mites, Nematodes and Insects other than Fruit Flies(1992-1997). This publication presents the research results

  3. Prices of agricultural commodities, biofuels and fossil fuels in long-run relationships: a comparative study for the USA and Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Tanja; Bentzen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Time-series data for the USA and Europe representing prices of agricultural commodities, biofuels and fossil fuels are used for a comparative analysis of long-run price relationships. There is some evidence for cointegration between ethanol and gasoline, especially for the USA, and in the case of...... biodiesel, stronger evidence of cointegration between biodiesel, diesel and soya oil for both the USA and Europe. Finally, biofuel prices do not seem to influence agricultural commodity prices or fossil fuel prices....

  4. 76 FR 20217 - Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act: Impact of Post-Default Agreements on Trust Protection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... / Tuesday, April 12, 2011 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing... Protection Eligibility AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The... any judicial challenge to the provisions of this final rule. Effects on Small Businesses Pursuant...

  5. Co-ordinated research programme on use of irradiation as a quarantine treatment of food and agricultural commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This brief article summarizes the reports presented at the Final Research Co-ordination Meeting on the use of irradiation as a quarantine treatment of food and agricultural commodities. The results show that irradiation is a viable alternative to ethylene dibromide fumigation of food, and that neither the radiation dose required for fruit fly disinfestation (0.15 kGy) nor that required to provide quarantine security against other arthropod pests (0.3 kGy) causes significant changes in the physicochemical or organoleptic properties of most fruits and vegetables. 1 ref

  6. Summary report on the use of irradiation as a quarantine treatment of agricultural commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considerable data are available to demonstrate that gamma irradiation is an effective quarantine treatment for papaya infested with fruit fly species found in Hawaii. These data are acceptable to the USDA-APHIS as a quarantine treatment for this commodity. However, its practical application can be realized only when FDA approves the use of irradiation, either for this purpose alone or as a process of food preservation. Additional data are needed to develop quarantine treatment schedules for irradiation of other commodities such as citrus, stone fruits, tropical fruits, etc., against these and other insect species. For this reason, a Consultant Meeting was convened at the East-West Center, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii from 21 to 23 November, 1983, to evaluate existing data and to define future activities to establish the possible use of irradiation as an acceptable quarantine treatment

  7. Empirical research on spatial and time series properties of agricultural commodity prices

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xing

    2012-01-01

    The integration of European agriculture into the world economy has also accelerated price interaction between member states and the rest of the world during last decades. Consequently, the fluctuation in world market prices was more quickly transmitted to European member states, including Finland. Increasing price uncertainty and price volatility in agricultural products became more evident. The openness of regional agriculture such as EU and Finnish to the world is irreversible, and the int...

  8. Co-location opportunities for renewable energy and agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Sujith; Macknick, Jordan; Lobell, David; Field, Christopher; Elchinger, Michael; Stoltenberg, Blaise

    2015-04-01

    Solar energy installations in arid and semi-arid regions are rapidly increasing, due to technological advances and policy changes. Large-scale expansion of solar infrastructure can adversely impact land and water resources. A major challenge is how to meet the ever-expanding energy demand with limited land and water resources, in the context of increasing competition from agricultural and domestic consumption. We explored opportunities to co-locate solar infrastructures and agricultural crops or biofuel feedstocks to maximize the efficiency of land and water use. We considered energy inputs/outputs, water use, greenhouse gas emissions and economics of solar installations in comparison to location-specific agricultural /biofuel crops in different arid regions of the world. The life cycle analyses show that co-located systems are economically viable in some areas and may provide opportunities for electrification and stimulate economic growth in rural areas. The water inputs for cleaning solar panels (photo voltaic) or mirrors (concentrated solar) and dust suppression are similar to amounts required for the desert-adapted crops (e.g. agave, aloe) considered in the study, suggesting the possibility of integrating the two systems to maximize water and land use efficiency. A life-cycle analysis of a hypothetical co-location indicated higher returns per m3 of water used than either system alone. Arid and semi arid regions of the world are experiencing high population growth, creating additional demand for land and water resources. In these water limited areas, coupled solar infrastructure and agriculture could be established on marginal lands, thus minimizing the socioeconomic and environmental issues resulting from cultivation of high value non-food crops in prime agricultural lands.

  9. Processing of food and agricultural commodities with electron beam from microtron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A microtron machine source installed by the Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT), Indore, at Mangalore University, was used in the study. The machine was operated at a beam power of 1.8 W, beam energy of 8.6 MeV, and a beam current of 20 mA. After initial standardization, the irradiation of commodities was carried out. The doses employed were 0.06 kGy for onion, 0.10 kGy for potato, 0.25 kGy for rawa, and 8 kGy for spices. The desired dose was delivered by exposing the samples from the two opposite sides of the box. The microbial load in spice samples was determined immediately after the experiment, as well as after six months of storage at the ambient temperature (26±2 degC). Onion and potato samples were stored for a six months period both at ambient temperature and 15 degC for observing the effect of electron beam irradiation on sprouting in these commodities. Rawa samples were stored at ambient temperature for observing the effect of electron beam irradiation on insect disinfestation. The electron beam irradiation at the recommended doses was found to be as effective as gamma radiation in bringing down the microbial load of the tested spices to the desired level, disinfestations of rawa, and inhibition of sprouting in onion. In the case of potato even four-side irradiation of the product box did not inhibit the sprouting completely. This indicated the necessity of standardization of machine parameters for uniform dose distribution in the product box for each commodity. These lab-scale studies showed that electron beam could in principle be used for processing of various food products after standardizing the machine parameters and ensuring uniform dose distribution in the product. Use of this technology on commercial scale would need standardization on larger machines

  10. Flavone-rich maize: an opportunity to improve the nutritional value of an important commodity crop

    OpenAIRE

    Casas, María I.; Duarte, Silvia; Doseff, Andrea I.; Grotewold, Erich

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural outputs have resulted in food production continuously expanding. To satisfy the needs of a fast growing human population, higher yields, more efficient food processing, and food esthetic value, new crop varieties with higher caloric intake have and continue to be developed, but which lack many phytochemicals important for plant protection and adequate human nutrition. The increasing incidence of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, combined with...

  11. Supplement: Commodity Index Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Commodity Futures Trading Commission — Shows index traders in selected agricultural markets. These traders are drawn from the noncommercial and commercial categories. The noncommercial category includes...

  12. SUSTAINABLE ORGANIC AGRICULTURE: OPPORTUNITY FOR THAI-RURAL FARMER DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waripas Jiumpanyarach

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed an opportunity of rural farmers in north of Thailand by interviewing 124 households which were 59 families from Tumbon-Santa Aumpor- Narnoi Nan province, 23 families from Tumbon-Banlao Aumpor-Mayjai Prayao Province, 22 families from Tumbon-Sritoi Aumpor-Mayjai Prayao Province, and 20 families from Tumbon-Parfak Aumpor-Mayjai Prayao Province during January 2012 – October 2012. Probit model was developed to answer some factors that impacted farm’s income. The results showed that the relationships between both organic and inorganic land and income level are positive. Most of the farmers were willing to change from conventional agricultures to organic agriculture but they did not have enough information and extension from government and private sectors. Comparing benefits and cost between conventional and organic agriculture found that organic agricultures provided better price and farmers will have better quality of live. Systems of knowledge and policies need to be developed and apply for peasants and farmers in north rural area in Thailand.

  13. Economic feasibility studies using radiation for the preservation of some agricultural commodities in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilot-scale experiments on irradiation and storage of onions, garlic and mangoes were carried out using commercial storage facilities. The benefits of irradiation in terms of loss reduction and cost were calculated. The results showed that the percentage of marketable weight of irradiated onions was significantly higher than that of untreated samples after 5 months of storage. Cost analyses showed that irradiation exhibits incremental benefit for treating the commodity. Irradiated garlic kept under commercial cold storage had a higher marketable weight than the non-treated sample which was stored at ambient condition after 7 months. The incremental benefit of irradiation plus cold storage was Peso 4350 per ton for this duration of storage. A comparison of treatment costs of mangoes by fumigation, irradiation and hot-water dip plus irradiation was made. Irradiation cost was calculated to be Peso 9325/ton as compared to Peso 18785/ton for fumigation and Peso 9625/ton for hot water dip plus irradiation

  14. Processing of food and agricultural commodities with electron beam from microtron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A microtron machine source installed by the Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT), Indore, at Mangalore University, was used to study effects of irradiation on onion, potato, rava, and spices. The microbial load in spice samples was determined immediately after the experiment, as well as after six months of storage at the ambient temperature (26±2 deg C). Onion and potato samples were stored for a six months period both at ambient temperature and 15 deg C for observing the effect of electron beam irradiation on sprouting in these commodities. Rawa samples were stored at ambient temperature for observing the effect of electron beam irradiation on insect disinfestation. The results are discussed in detail in this paper. These lab-scale studies showed that electron beam could in principle be used for processing of various food products after standardizing the machine parameters and ensuring uniform dose distribution in the product. (author)

  15. Irradiation as a quarantine treatment of agricultural commodities against arthropod pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of quarantine treatments is to eliminate, as far as possible, the risks of introduction or establishment of exotic pests in countries or regions where they do not already occur. Treatments may be applied to host commodities traded commercially or carried by travellers. Ionizing radiation is very effective when used as a quarantine treatment to disinfest fresh, dried or processed fruits, grains and other plant materials. It is highly effective in killing or inactivating arthropod pests, leaves no residues, and at the low doses required it can be used on most commodities without affecting the quality. The most important single pest group of quarantine importance internationally is arguably fruit flies in fresh fruits and vegetables. More than thirty species of fruit flies are recognized as serious quarantine pests. Dose-mortality studies with irradiation have shown that doses of 75-150 Gy prevent adult emergence. At two Task Force Meetings on Irradiation as a Quarantine Treatment convened by the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation, a generic dose of 150 Gy was recommended against any fruit, based on extensive research data for these pests. Most fruits are relatively unaffected by quarantine disinfestation treatments of 100-300 Gy but some, for example avocado, appear to be intolerant. Other pests of quarantine importance for which irradiation is an appropriate disinfestation treatment include certain moths (Lepidoptera), beetles (Coleoptera), bugs (Homoptera), flies (Diptera), thrips (Thysanoptera) and mites (Acarina). The Task Force Group also recommended that a generic treatment of 300 Gy, based on the inability to perpetuate the species, would be appropriate for any pest other than fruit fly. This was derived from extensive research on the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and the mango seed weevil, Sternochaetus mangiferae (Fabricius), with supporting results on eleven other pests from six orders. (author). 54 refs, 2 tabs

  16. Using irradiation for preservation of foods and agricultural commodities in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Agricultural Policy was formulated to draw the guideline for the development of Malaysian agriculture until 2000. The most important aspect of the policy is to encourage the agricultural sector to increase productivity in order to attain self-sufficiency and to promote export. To increase agricultural and food production, it is necessary to upgrade the quality and to reduce postharvest loss. The food preservation during handling, processing and storage is important, and the current preservation methods emphasize the improvement in handling, drying, chilling, freezing and the use of chemicals. The technology of food irradiation was introduced only at the research level in Malaysia in 1974. Presently, UTN (Unit Tenaga Nuklear) has a semi-commercial Co-60 facility suitable for the research and development of food irradiation. The commercial use of irradiation and the marketing of treated agricultural and food products are still prohibited. The objective of this paper is to review briefly the possibility of the practical application of food irradiation in Malaysia. The irradiation of rice, black and white pepper, frozen shrimps, cocoa, fruits and vegetables is discussed. (K.I.)

  17. 31 CFR 538.523 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 99 from BIS for medicines and submit a copy to OFAC. See 15 CFR 745.3 for instructions for obtaining... Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1, and that fall within the term “agricultural commodity” as... on the Commerce Control List in the Export Administration Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement...

  18. Postradiation mortality of the mold mite, Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) (Acarida: Acaridae), infesting agricultural commodities and used packagings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postradiation mortality of deutonymphs and adults of the mold mite, Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) , the most resistant stages to gamma irradiation, was studied. Mites were irradiated with doses of gamma radiation within a wide range (0.26 - 2.11 kGy). Survival time of irradiated adults decreased with increasing dose. Females irradiated with higher doses lived longer than males. A dose in the range of 1.5 - 2.1 kGy would be sufficient if mortality of the mold mite within a 10-day period is the aim of radiation disinfestation of used packagings. However, the use of such high doses of gamma radiation for direct killing the acarid mites within a commodity may adversely affect many agricultural products, and it would require more shielding and would be expensive. Therefore, lower doses of gamma radiation (≥ 0.26 kGy), causing the sterility in mites, are suggested for irradiation of these products. (author)

  19. Flavone-rich maize: An opportunity to improve the nutritional value of an important commodity crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel Casas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural outputs have resulted in food production continuously expanding. Satisfying the needs of a fast growing human population, higher yields, more efficient food processing, and food esthetic value, resulted in crop varieties with higher caloric intake but lacking many phytochemicals important for plant protection and adequate human nutrition. The increasing incidence of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, combined with social disparity worldwide prompted the interest in developing enhanced crops that can simultaneously address the two sides of the current malnutrition sword, increasing yield while providing added nutritional value. Flavones, phytochemicals associated with the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet, have potent anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic activities. However, many Mediterranean diet-associated vegetables are inaccessible, or lowly consumed, in many parts of the world. Maize is the most widely grown cereal crop, yet most lines used for hybrid maize production lack flavones. As a first step towards a sustainable strategy to increasing the nutritional value of maize-based diets, we investigated the accumulation and chemical properties of flavones in maize seeds of defined genotypes. We show that the pericarps of the P1-rr genotype accumulate flavones at levels comparable to those present in some flavone-rich vegetables, and are mostly present in their C- and O-glycosylated forms. Some of these glycosides can be readily converted into the corresponding more active health beneficial aglycones during food processing. Our results provide evidence that nutritionally beneficial flavones could be re-introduced into elite lines to increase the dietary benefits of maize.

  20. Flavone-rich maize: an opportunity to improve the nutritional value of an important commodity crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, María I; Duarte, Silvia; Doseff, Andrea I; Grotewold, Erich

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural outputs have resulted in food production continuously expanding. To satisfy the needs of a fast growing human population, higher yields, more efficient food processing, and food esthetic value, new crop varieties with higher caloric intake have and continue to be developed, but which lack many phytochemicals important for plant protection and adequate human nutrition. The increasing incidence of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, combined with social disparity worldwide prompted the interest in developing enhanced crops that can simultaneously address the two sides of the current malnutrition sword, increasing yield while providing added nutritional value. Flavones, phytochemicals associated with the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet, have potent anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic activities. However, many Mediterranean diet-associated vegetables are inaccessible, or lowly consumed, in many parts of the world. Maize is the most widely grown cereal crop, yet most lines used for hybrid maize production lack flavones. As a first step toward a sustainable strategy to increasing the nutritional value of maize-based diets, we investigated the accumulation and chemical properties of flavones in maize seeds of defined genotypes. We show that the pericarps of the P1-rr genotype accumulate flavones at levels comparable to those present in some flavone-rich vegetables, and are mostly present in their C- and O-glycosylated forms. Some of these glycosides can be readily converted into the corresponding more active health beneficial aglycones during food processing. Our results provide evidence that nutritionally beneficial flavones could be re-introduced into elite lines to increase the dietary benefits of maize. PMID:25250036

  1. Modeling agricultural commodity prices and volatility in response to anticipated climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobell, D. B.; Tran, N.; Welch, J.; Roberts, M.; Schlenker, W.

    2012-12-01

    Food prices have shown a positive trend in the past decade, with episodes of rapid increases in 2008 and 2011. These increases pose a threat to food security in many regions of the world, where the poor are generally net consumers of food, and are also thought to increase risks of social and political unrest. The role of global warming in these price reversals have been debated, but little quantitative work has been done. A particular challenge in modeling these effects is that they require understanding links between climate and food supply, as well as between food supply and prices. Here we combine the anticipated effects of climate change on yield levels and volatility with an empirical competitive storage model to examine how expected climate change might affect prices and social welfare in the international food commodity market. We show that price level and volatility do increase over time in response to decreasing yield, and increasing yield variability. Land supply and storage demand both increase, but production and consumption continue to fall leading to a decrease in consumer surplus, and a corresponding though smaller increase in producer surplus.

  2. The accountancy implications of commodity derivatives in the agricultural sector / Susanna Levina Middelberg

    OpenAIRE

    Middelberg, Susanna Levina

    2011-01-01

    Food security is a global topic of discussion and agricultural sectors play a vital role in the provision thereof. In South Africa the agribusinesses are some of the key players in providing financing, risk management and market advisory services to producers. Since the deregulation of the grain industry during 1996, many of these agribusinesses have converted their business form from cooperative to company and therefore adhere to International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). These agri...

  3. Recent trends and prospects for agricultural commodity exports in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Takamasa Akiyama; Larson, Donald F

    1989-01-01

    Sub - Sahran African (SSA) countries have seen sharp declines in their shares of agricultural export markets. But their export dependence on the most important crops - coffee and cocoa - has increased. Comparisons in the region and with countries outside the region show the importance of appropriate exchange rates and producer pricing policies, as well as support for technological advancement, for good performance in these sectors. Some countries have successfully introduced changes in these ...

  4. Stopping the spread of agricultural pests with radiation: Quarantine commodity treatments and eradication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almost 60 yr ago, E. F. Knipling, a young U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) entomologist, proposed that it might be economically feasible to eradicate the newly introduced screwworm from Florida if a way could be found to sterilize the males. He believed that the male screwworm fly's strong mating instinct would cause released sterile males to seek out and mate with native screwworm females, interrupting the normal reproductive cycle. Knipling thought this was possible because another USDA scientist, R. C. Bushland, had recently found a way to rear this animal parasite cheaply and in large numbers in the laboratory, making possible the rearing and release of large numbers of sterile male flies into the native population. Some 13 yr would pass before research showed that radiation-induced dominant lethal mutations offered an efficient, practical way to render screwworm flies sterile

  5. Opportunities and challenges of sustainable agricultural development in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Jingzhu; Luo, Qishan; Deng, Hongbing; Yan, Yan

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces the concepts and aims of sustainable agriculture in China. Sustainable agricultural development comprises sustainability of agricultural production, sustainability of the rural economy, ecological and environmental sustainability within agricultural systems and sustainability of rural society. China's prime aim is to ensure current and future food security. Based on projections of China's population, its economy, societal factors and agricultural resources and inputs bet...

  6. Comparing Critical Capitalist Commodity Chains in the Early Twenty-first Century: Opportunities For and Constraints on Labor and Political Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Sowers

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There have been a number of critical historical opportunities for labor to exert power by interrupting long distance flows of commodities at the extraction, processing, and transport stages. This vulnerability has been used by workers in these industries to gain higher wages and better working conditions and to achieve political goals in national and international arenas. In this paper, we compare two commodity chains that are critical components of the global economy. The first, which we describe as transport, is a broad category involving a range of manufactured goods, whose delivery to customers around the world was fundamentally changed in the past fifty years via "containerization" and "the logistics revolution." The second is oil and gas, which also has experienced recently dramatic changes in both extraction (via "tar sands" and "[racking" and transportation. In each case, we discuss possibilities and challenges for labor and political organizing to disrupt capital in these key commodity chains. We identify the "stakes" in each commodity chain by demonstrating the vulnerabilities on which labor and political organizations/movements could capitalize, which usually stem from the capital intensity and global integration of each critical commodity chain. These vulnerabilities are the factors which form the most basic opportunities for organizing in these sectors. Our analysis further suggests that while transport and raw materials remain vulnerable nodes in capitalist commodity chains, there are also constraints and challenges to be faced by labor and social movement organizations (SMOs that might attempt to leverage power over these circuits of the world-economy.

  7. Agriculture in Brazil and China : challenges and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Sawaya Jank; Shunli Yao; Carter, Colin A.; Mário Queiroz de Monteiro Jales

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the asymmetries and complementarities between Brazil's and China's agricultural sectors. Brazil and China are key players in world agriculture. Both countries are among the world's top five producers and exporters of agricultural products and have a significant portion of their population working in agriculture. However, four significant facts profoundly differentiate Brazilian and Chinese agriculture. First, while Brazil has one of the world's most liberal agricultural se...

  8. Missouri Agricultural Energy Saving Team-A Revolutionary Opportunity (MAESTRO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntosh, Jane [MDA; Schumacher, Leon [University of Missouri

    2014-10-23

    The Missouri Agricultural Energy Saving Team-A Revolutionary Opportunity (MAESTRO) program brought together a team of representatives from government, academia, and private industry to enhance the availability of energy efficiency services for small livestock producers in the State of Missouri. The Missouri Department of Agriculture (MDA) managed the project via a subcontract with the University of Missouri (MU), College of Agriculture Food and Natural Resources, MU Extension, the MU College of Human Environmental Sciences, the MU College of Engineering, and the Missouri Agricultural and Small Business Development Authority (MASBDA). MU teamed with EnSave, Inc, a nationally-recognized expert in agricultural energy efficiency to assist with marketing, outreach, provision of farm energy audits and customer service. MU also teamed with independent home contractors to facilitate energy audits of the farm buildings and homes of these livestock producers. The goals of the project were to: (1) improve the environment by reducing fossil fuel emissions and reducing the total energy used on small animal farms; (2) stimulate the economy of local and regional communities by creating or retaining jobs; and (3) improve the profitability of Missouri livestock producers by reducing their energy expenditures. Historically, Missouri scientists/engineers conducted programs on energy use in agriculture, such as in equipment, grain handling and tillage practices. The MAESTRO program was the first to focus strictly on energy efficiency associated with livestock production systems in Missouri and to investigate the applicability and potential of addressing energy efficiency in animal production from a building efficiency perspective. A. Project Objectives The goal of the MAESTRO program was to strengthen the financial viability and environmental soundness of Missouri's small animal farms by helping them implement energy efficient technologies for the production facility, farm

  9. Harmonisation of food consumption data format for dietary exposure assessments of chemicals analysed in raw agricultural commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Polly E; Ruprich, Jiri; Petersen, Annette; Moussavian, Shahnaz; Debegnach, Francesca; van Klaveren, Jacob D

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, we present an approach to format national food consumption data at raw agricultural commodity (RAC) level. In this way, the data is both formatted in a harmonised way given the comparability of RACs between countries, and suitable to assess the dietary exposure to chemicals analysed in RACs at a European level. In this approach, consumption data needs to be converted to edible part of RAC (e-RAC) level using a RAC conversion database. To subsequently use this data in exposure assessments, both e-RACs and RACs analysed in chemical control programmes should be classified via a uniform system. Furthermore, chemical concentrations in RACs may need to be converted to e-RAC level using processing factors. To illustrate the use of this approach, we describe how the Dutch RAC conversion database was used to convert consumption data of four national consumption surveys to e-RAC level, and the use of the FAO/WHO Codex Classification system of Foods and Animal Feeds to harmonise the classification. We demonstrate that this approach works well for pesticides and glycoalkaloids, and is an essential step forward in the harmonisation of risk assessment procedures within Europe when addressing chemicals analysed in RACs by all national food control systems. PMID:19682531

  10. 29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wild commodities. 780.114 Section 780.114 Labor Regulations... AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Agricultural Or Horticultural Commodities § 780.114 Wild commodities. Employees engaged in the gathering...

  11. A method for calculating a land-use change carbon footprint (LUC-CFP) for agricultural commodities - applications to Brazilian beef and soy, Indonesian palm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, U Martin; Henders, Sabine; Cederberg, Christel

    2014-11-01

    The world's agricultural system has come under increasing scrutiny recently as an important driver of global climate change, creating a demand for indicators that estimate the climatic impacts of agricultural commodities. Such carbon footprints, however, have in most cases excluded emissions from land-use change and the proposed methodologies for including this significant emissions source suffer from different shortcomings. Here, we propose a new methodology for calculating land-use change carbon footprints for agricultural commodities and illustrate this methodology by applying it to three of the most prominent agricultural commodities driving tropical deforestation: Brazilian beef and soybeans, and Indonesian palm oil. We estimate land-use change carbon footprints in 2010 to be 66 tCO2 /t meat (carcass weight) for Brazilian beef, 0.89 tCO2 /t for Brazilian soybeans, and 7.5 tCO2 /t for Indonesian palm oil, using a 10 year amortization period. The main advantage of the proposed methodology is its flexibility: it can be applied in a tiered approach, using detailed data where it is available while still allowing for estimation of footprints for a broad set of countries and agricultural commodities; it can be applied at different scales, estimating both national and subnational footprints; it can be adopted to account both for direct (proximate) and indirect drivers of land-use change. It is argued that with an increasing commercialization and globalization of the drivers of land-use change, the proposed carbon footprint methodology could help leverage the power needed to alter environmentally destructive land-use practices within the global agricultural system by providing a tool for assessing the environmental impacts of production, thereby informing consumers about the impacts of consumption and incentivizing producers to become more environmentally responsible. PMID:24838193

  12. Comparison of production-phase environmental impact metrics derived at the farm- and national-scale for United States agricultural commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agricultural production is critical for human survival and simultaneously contributes to ecosystem degradation. There is a need for transparent, rapid methods for evaluating the environmental impacts of agricultural production at the system-level in order to develop sustainable food supplies. We have developed a method for estimating the greenhouse gas (GHG), land use and reactive nitrogen inputs associated with the agricultural production phase of major crop and livestock commodities produced in the United States (US). Materials flow analysis (MFA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) techniques were applied to national inventory datasets. The net anthropogenic nitrogen inputs (NANI) toolbox served as the primary accounting tool for LCA and MFA. NANI was updated to create links between nitrogen fertilizer and nitrogen fixation associated with feed crops and animal food commodities. Results for the functional units kilogram (kg) of product and kg of protein for 2002 data fall within ranges of published LCA results from farm-scale studies across most metrics. Exceptions include eutrophication potential for milk and GHGs for chicken and eggs, these exceptions arise due to differing methods and boundary assumptions; suggestions for increasing agreement are identified. Land use for livestock commodities are generally higher than reported by other LCA studies due to the inclusion of all land identified as pasture or grazing land in the US in this study and given that most of the estimates from other LCAs were completed in Europe where land is less abundant. The method provides a view of the entire US agricultural system and could be applied to any year using publically available data. Additionally, utilizing a top-down approach reduces data collection and processing time making it possible to develop environmental inventory metrics rapidly for system-level decision-making. (letter)

  13. Comparison of production-phase environmental impact metrics derived at the farm- and national-scale for United States agricultural commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Christine; Xue, Xiaobo; Howarth, Robert W.

    2015-11-01

    Agricultural production is critical for human survival and simultaneously contributes to ecosystem degradation. There is a need for transparent, rapid methods for evaluating the environmental impacts of agricultural production at the system-level in order to develop sustainable food supplies. We have developed a method for estimating the greenhouse gas (GHG), land use and reactive nitrogen inputs associated with the agricultural production phase of major crop and livestock commodities produced in the United States (US). Materials flow analysis (MFA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) techniques were applied to national inventory datasets. The net anthropogenic nitrogen inputs (NANI) toolbox served as the primary accounting tool for LCA and MFA. NANI was updated to create links between nitrogen fertilizer and nitrogen fixation associated with feed crops and animal food commodities. Results for the functional units kilogram (kg) of product and kg of protein for 2002 data fall within ranges of published LCA results from farm-scale studies across most metrics. Exceptions include eutrophication potential for milk and GHGs for chicken and eggs, these exceptions arise due to differing methods and boundary assumptions; suggestions for increasing agreement are identified. Land use for livestock commodities are generally higher than reported by other LCA studies due to the inclusion of all land identified as pasture or grazing land in the US in this study and given that most of the estimates from other LCAs were completed in Europe where land is less abundant. The method provides a view of the entire US agricultural system and could be applied to any year using publically available data. Additionally, utilizing a top-down approach reduces data collection and processing time making it possible to develop environmental inventory metrics rapidly for system-level decision-making.

  14. A Perspective on Organic Agriculture in China - Opportunities and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Fusuo; Qiao, Yuhui; Wang, Fanghao; Zhang, Weifeng

    2007-01-01

    With the rapid development of international production and trade in organic food, organic agriculture is also boosting in China. The milestone of Chinese organic agri-culture was set in 1990 with the first export of a certified organic product (tea) from Lin’an county of Zhejiang Province, China, which marked the launch of organic pro-duction in China. By the end of 2005, there had been about 4.384 million ha organic land, including 1.694 million ha organic, 0.61 million ha conversion as well...

  15. Eco-efficient Agriculture: Concepts, Challenges, and Opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keating, B.A.; Carberry, P.S.; Bindraban, P.S.; Asseng, S.; Meinke, H.B.; Dixon, J.

    2010-01-01

    Eco-efficiency in the simplest of terms is about achieving more with less—more agricultural outputs, in terms of quantity and quality, for less input of land, water, nutrients, energy, labor, or capital. The concept of eco-efficiency encompasses both the ecological and economic dimensions of sustain

  16. Educational and Training Opportunities in Sustainable Agriculture. 5th Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Jane Potter

    This directory lists 151 programs in alternative farming systems (systems that aim at maintaining agricultural productivity and profitability, while protecting natural resources, especially sustainable, low-input, regenerative, biodynamic or organic farming and gardening). It includes programs conducted by colleges and universities, research…

  17. Challenges and opportunities in supporting sustainable agriculture and food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 2014 IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry (San Francisco, August, 2014) included a symposium on “Challenges Associated with Global Adoption of Agricultural Biotechnology” to review current obstacles in promoting GM crops. Challenges identified by symposium presenters included i) ...

  18. 7 CFR 65.135 - Covered commodity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Covered commodity. 65.135 Section 65.135 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.135 Covered commodity. (a) Covered...

  19. New opportunities for agricultural digestate valorization: current situation and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Monlau, Florian; Sambusiti, Cécilia; Ficara, Elena; Aboulkas, A.; Barakat, Abdellatif; Carrère, Hélène

    2015-01-01

    In the agricultural sector of many European countries, biogas production through anaerobic digestion (AD) is becoming a very fast-growing market. Anaerobic digestion is a simple and robust process that biologically converts an organic matrix into biogas and digestate, the latter corresponding to the anaerobically non-degraded fraction. So far, digestate has been mostly used at farm-scales for improving soils or as fertilizer. However, its ever-increasing production induces problems related to...

  20. African Land Ecology: Opportunities and Constraints for Agricultural Development

    OpenAIRE

    R. L. Voortman; Sonneveld, B. G. J. S.; M.A. Keyzer

    2000-01-01

    Current agriculture in Sub-Sahara Africa is undeveloped and the Green Revolution has left the continent largely untouched. Poor performance is often related to a number of socio-economic factors. In this paper we argue that there are also some specifities of natural resources, namely local homogeneity and spatial diversity of the pre-dominant Basement Complex soils, that imply that simple fertilizer strategies may not produce the yield increases obtained elsewhere. Keywords: Sub-Sahara Africa...

  1. Working while travelling: Tourism development opportunities for agricultural regions

    OpenAIRE

    Ruhanen, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    While the backpacker visitor has received increasing attention over the past several decades, the notion of backpackers who work during their travels, despite some exceptions, has not been considered in such detail. Therefore, this paper examines the concept of the working backpacker and considers the opportunities this market subset can offer rural and regional areas. Utilising an Australian case study where 234 working backpacker visitors were surveyed; a preliminary analysis of this market...

  2. Development of hazard analysis by critical control points (HACCP) procedures to control organic chemical hazards in the agricultural production of raw food commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropkins, Karl; Ferguson, Andrew; Beck, Angus J

    2003-01-01

    Hazard Analysis by Critical Control Points (HACCP) is a systematic approach to the identification, assessment, and control of hazards in the food chain. Effective HACCP requires the consideration of all chemical microbiological, and physical hazards. However, current procedures focus primarily on microbiological and physical hazards, while chemical aspects of HACCP have received relatively little attention. In this article we discuss the application of HACCP to organic chemical contaminants and the problems that are likely to be encountered in agriculture. We also present generic templates for the development of organic chemical contaminant HACCP procedures for selected raw food commodities, that is, cereal crops,raw meats, and milk. PMID:12822674

  3. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in California Agricultural Irrigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Daniel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Aghajanzadeh, Arian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKane, Aimee [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Pumping water for agricultural irrigation represents a significant share of California’s annual electricity use and peak demand. It also represents a large source of potential flexibility, as farms possess a form of storage in their wetted soil. By carefully modifying their irrigation schedules, growers can participate in demand response without adverse effects on their crops. This report describes the potential for participation in demand response and automated demand response by agricultural irrigators in California, as well as barriers to widespread participation. The report first describes the magnitude, timing, location, purpose, and manner of energy use in California. Typical on-­farm controls are discussed, as well as common impediments to participation in demand response and automated demand response programs. Case studies of demand response programs in California and across the country are reviewed, and their results along with overall California demand estimates are used to estimate statewide demand response potential. Finally, recommendations are made for future research that can enhance the understanding of demand response potential in this industry.

  4. METHOD OF ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND EVALUATION OF THE OPPORTUNITY OF BANKRUPTCY IN AGRICULTURAL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhminko N. S.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of research is the development of the existing approaches to the development of rapid methods of financial analysis and the creation of an improved algorithm based on the modeling of a new express courier model for assessing the financial condition and bankruptcy forecasting organizations of the agricultural sector, which allows a high degree of reliability to classify agricultural organizations with the level of financial state and identifies potential opportunities for economic insolvency of businesses

  5. DETERMINANTS OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITY MARKET SUPPLY: A CASE STUDY IN THE UPPER WATERSHED OF THE BLUE NILE, NORTHWESTERN ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amare Tesfaw

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was initiated to achieve the specific objectives as identification of factors that affect market participation decision of households and identification of factors that determine the volume of market supply of pepper. In order to acquire the relevant data, formal and informal methods of data collection were accomplished. To differentiate factors affecting the market participation and the amount of pepper sold, the Heckman Two-Stage econometric model was employed. The result revealed that market participation decision of households and amount of pepper sold were significantly affected by many of the variables hypothesized to have impact on the explained variable. In order to settle price fluctuations and to strengthen the bargaining power of producers, there should be product grading for market standardization. Furthermore, market competitiveness, structure and efficiency can be improved through facilitating pepper market strategies training as it helps producers and other interested bodies better involve in the commodity market. 

  6. 75 FR 34973 - Notice of Opportunity To Submit Content Request for the Agricultural Energy Program Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Opportunity To Submit Content Request for the... currently accepting stakeholder feedback on future energy related topics and questionnaire content for.../ or via mail to: USDA-NASS, Energy Content Team, P.O. Box 27767, Raleigh, NC 27611; or fax to:...

  7. From the USDA: Educating the Next Generation: Funding Opportunities in Food, Agricultural, Natural Resources, and Social Sciences Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Joyce E; Wagner, David J

    2016-01-01

    The National Institute of Food and Agriculture within the U.S. Department of Agriculture provides leadership, capacity, and funds to support the continuing development of a safe and competitive agricultural system. Many of the agency's educational programs are led by the Division of Community and Education (DOCE). These programs span agricultural education, enhancing agricultural literacy through both formal and nonformal education. Here, we have highlighted funding opportunities within DOCE that enhance agricultural education and literacy by supporting the improvement of students' critical communication, leadership skills, and experiential learning opportunities. Some of these programs include opportunities for which students can apply, while others focus on faculty applications. Opportunities faculty can apply for may support student-recruitment and student-retention techniques, curriculum development, innovative teaching methods, and institutional capacity-building programs. Overall, these programs foster a diverse workforce in agricultural science that matches the increasing diversity of the country. PMID:27587851

  8. From the USDA: Educating the Next Generation: Funding Opportunities in Food, Agricultural, Natural Resources, and Social Sciences Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Joyce E.; Wagner, David J.

    2016-01-01

    The National Institute of Food and Agriculture within the U.S. Department of Agriculture provides leadership, capacity, and funds to support the continuing development of a safe and competitive agricultural system. Many of the agency’s educational programs are led by the Division of Community and Education (DOCE). These programs span agricultural education, enhancing agricultural literacy through both formal and nonformal education. Here, we have highlighted funding opportunities within DOCE that enhance agricultural education and literacy by supporting the improvement of students’ critical communication, leadership skills, and experiential learning opportunities. Some of these programs include opportunities for which students can apply, while others focus on faculty applications. Opportunities faculty can apply for may support student-recruitment and student-retention techniques, curriculum development, innovative teaching methods, and institutional capacity-building programs. Overall, these programs foster a diverse workforce in agricultural science that matches the increasing diversity of the country. PMID:27587851

  9. Opportunities for Demand Response in California Agricultural Irrigation: A Scoping Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, Gary; Wilcox, Edmund; Olsen, Daniel; Goli, Sasank

    2013-01-02

    California agricultural irrigation consumes more than ten billion kilowatt hours of electricity annually and has significant potential for contributing to a reduction of stress on the grid through demand response, permanent load shifting, and energy efficiency measures. To understand this potential, a scoping study was initiated for the purpose of determining the associated opportunities, potential, and adoption challenges in California agricultural irrigation. The primary research for this study was conducted in two ways. First, data was gathered and parsed from published sources that shed light on where the best opportunities for load shifting and demand response lie within the agricultural irrigation sector. Secondly, a small limited survey was conducted as informal face-to-face interviews with several different California growers to get an idea of their ability and willingness to participate in permanent load shifting and/or demand response programs. Analysis of the data obtained from published sources and the survey reveal demand response and permanent load shifting opportunities by growing region, irrigation source, irrigation method, grower size, and utility coverage. The study examines some solutions for demand response and permanent load shifting in agricultural irrigation, which include adequate irrigation system capacity, automatic controls, variable frequency drives, and the contribution from energy efficiency measures. The study further examines the potential and challenges for grower acceptance of demand response and permanent load shifting in California agricultural irrigation. As part of the examination, the study considers to what extent permanent load shifting, which is already somewhat accepted within the agricultural sector, mitigates the need or benefit of demand response for agricultural irrigation. Recommendations for further study include studies on how to gain grower acceptance of demand response as well as other related studies such as

  10. Challenges and Opportunities for Developing Capacity in Earth Observations for Agricultural Monitoring: The GEOGLAM Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcraft, A. K.; Di Bella, C. M.; Becker Reshef, I.; Deshayes, M.; Justice, C. O.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2011, the Group on Earth Observations Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) Initiative has been working to strengthen the international community's capacity to use Earth observation (EO) data to derive timely, accurate, and transparent information on agriculture, with the goals of reducing market volatility and promoting food security. GEOGLAM aims to develop capacity for EO-based agricultural monitoring at multiple scales, from national to regional to global. This is accomplished through training workshops, developing and transferring of best-practices, establishing networks of broad and sustainable institutional support, and designing or adapting tools and methodologies to fit localized contexts. Over the past four years, capacity development activities in the context of GEOGLAM have spanned all agriculture-containing continents, with much more work to be done, particularly in the domains of promoting access to large, computationally-costly datasets. This talk will detail GEOGLAM's experiences, challenges, and opportunities surrounding building international collaboration, ensuring institutional buy-in, and developing sustainable programs.

  11. Agricultural Sector of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Climate Change—Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognjen Zurovec

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Half of Bosnia and Herzegovina’s (BH population lives in rural areas. Agricultural production is a backbone of the rural economy and generates significant economic value for the country. BH is highly vulnerable to climate change, which poses a significant development challenge given the climate-sensitivity of the agricultural sector, the share of agriculture in the total economy, the number of people employed in the sector, and the closely related socio-economic issues of food security. BH has experienced serious incidences of extreme weather events over the past two decades, causing severe economic losses. Based on available data and currently available climate projections, exposure to threats from climate change will continue to increase. The review paper presents the current state of the BH agricultural sector and the impact of potential climate change on agricultural systems. It proposes policy options to optimize opportunities and mitigate consequences of possible climate change in the agricultural sector. Development of policy and research capacity should include harmonisation and centralisation of domestic agricultural policies, carrying out a vulnerability assessment and strengthening the public and private extension systems. Further technological development should include improvements in weather and climate information systems, crop development, irrigation and water management.

  12. 7 CFR 46.39 - Inspection of commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection of commodities. 46.39 Section 46.39..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING OF PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES REGULATIONS (OTHER THAN RULES OF PRACTICE) UNDER THE PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES ACT, 1930...

  13. Online Web portal of competence-based training opportunities for Organic Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Thanopoulos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A number of Information and Communication Technology (ICT tools such as web portals, learning portals and course management platforms have been developed and used in order to support EU-funded research and training projects in the area of Organic Agriculture (OA. This tools transfer the technological infrastructure needed in order to facilitate specific tasks, such as the organization of educational, research and information content, like the competences, learning opportunities, certificates and vocational opportunities. This paper presents the case of the CerOrganic Web portal (http://portal.cerorganic.eu, which is used for providing access to resources related to vocational education and training in the context of OA.

  14. Ranking of States and Commodities by Cash Receipts, 1991

    OpenAIRE

    Strickland, Roger P., Jr.; Johnson, Cheryl; Williams, Robert P.

    1992-01-01

    This publication identifies the 25 leading agricultural commodities produced in each State and the United States, ranked by the value of cash receipts. The major producing States, ranked by cash receipts, for each of the 25 leading commodities in the United States and for several major commodity groups are also identified. The information is derived from U.S. Department of Agriculture's cash receipts statistics for the marketing of agricultural commodities within States. The ranking of commod...

  15. PROVIDING AGRICULTURAL RISKS IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA: TRENDS, PROBLEMS AND OPPORTUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia CAPRIAN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author presents results of scientific researches on the problems which farmers of the Republic of Moldova are facing in the field of risk management and insurance. In conclusion, the author formulates recommendations on farm managers’ opportunities to benefit from subsidized insurance, but also some recommendations resulting from the research of the experience of other countries from the European Union aimed to ensure the entrepreneurial risks in agricultural entities.

  16. 7 CFR 868.32 - Who shall inspect commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Who shall inspect commodities. 868.32 Section 868.32... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES Regulations Inspection Methods and Procedures § 868.32 Who shall inspect commodities. Official commodity inspections shall be performed only by official personnel....

  17. 7 CFR 247.28 - Storage and inventory of commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Storage and inventory of commodities. 247.28 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.28 Storage and inventory of commodities. (a) What are the requirements for storage of commodities? State and local...

  18. Estimation Of Demand System In An Aids Model:The Opportunity For Exporting Thai Agricultural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waripas Jiumpanyarach

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of the estimation of Almost Ideal Demand System(AIDS model is developed to estimate quantity respond based on price. Five major export agricultural products data from the office of Agricultural Economics, Thailand and Biofuel policy from the office of the National Economic and Social Development Broad were used. The AIDS model estimatesdemand of palm, cassava, and sugar are highly response to changed price. Rubber and rice has less response to the changed price. All of major agricultural products are affect expenditure of Thailand export. This result suggest that the opportunity for increasing supply of energy plants, which benefits to Thai farmer communities for expanding market share in energy plants in domestic and global market.

  19. Development and application of modern agricultural biotechnology in Botswana: the potentials, opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batlang, Utlwang; Tsurupe, Gorata; Segwagwe, Amogelang; Obopile, Motshwari

    2014-07-01

    In Botswana, approximately 40% of the population live in rural areas and derive most of their livelihood from agriculture by keeping livestock and practising arable farming. Due to the nature of their farming practises livestock and crops are exposed to diseases and environmental stresses. These challenges offer opportunities for application of biotechnology to develop adaptable materials to the country's environment. On the other hand, the perceived risk of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has dimmed the promise of the technology for its application in agriculture. This calls for a holistic approach to the application of biotechnology to address issues of biosafety of GMOs. We have therefore assessed the potentials, challenges and opportunities to apply biotechnology with specific emphasis on agriculture, taking cognisance of requirement for its research, development and application in research and teaching institutions. In order to achieve this, resource availability, infrastructure, human and laboratory requirements were analyzed. The analysis revealed that the country has the capacity to carry out research in biotechnology in the development and production of genetically modified crops for food and fodder crops. These will include gene discovery, genetic transformation and development of systems to comply with the world regulatory framework on biosafety. In view of the challenges facing the country in agriculture, first generation biotech crops could be released for production. Novel GM products for development may include disease diagnosis kits, animal disease vaccines, and nutrient use efficiency, drought, and pest and disease resistant food and fodder crops. PMID:25437237

  20. UNCTAD commodity yearbook 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Commodity Yearbook is intended to provide disaggregated data at the world, regional and country levels for trade and consumption in selected agricultural primary commodities and minerals, ores and metals. Production series have been included for the latter group of commodities, since comprehensive diaggregated data are unavailable elsewhere. Basic tables have been designed, from both the commodity and the country point of view, to serve as background material to international commodity discussions and negotiations in the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. The classification of countries and territories by region has been adopted for statistical convenience only, and follows that employed by the Statistical Office of the United Nations. Four main regions are defined: Developed market economy countries, Countries of Eastern Europe, Socialist countries of Asia and Developing countries and territories. For developed and developing countries and territories, the main regions have been further subdivided (e.g., EEC, EFTA, Africa, etc.) to provide additional information. The exact composition of each region is shown in section V of the general notes

  1. 44 CFR 206.151 - Food commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Food commodities. 206.151... Food commodities. (a) The Administrator will assure that adequate stocks of food will be ready and... section, the Administrator may direct the Secretary of Agriculture to purchase food commodities...

  2. Quantitative analysis of dicamba residues in raw agricultural commodities with the use of ion-pairing reagents in LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongyue; Riter, Leah S; Wujcik, Chad E; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2016-03-01

    A sensitive and selective HPLC-MS/MS method was developed for the quantitative analysis of dicamba residues in raw agricultural commodities (RACs). Instead of analysis in the traditionally used negative electrospray ionization (ESI) mode, these anionic compounds were detected in positive ESI with the use of ion-pairing reagents. In this approach, only a small amount (60µM) of a commercially available dicationic ion-pairing reagent was introduced into the post-column sample stream. This method has been validated in six different types of RACs including corn grain, corn stover, cotton seed, soybean, soy forage and orange with satisfactory quantitative accuracy and precision. The limits of quantitation (LOQ) values for these analytes were 1.0 to 3.0µg/kg. The standard curves were linear over the range of the tested concentrations (3.0 to 500µg/kg), with correlation coefficient (r) values≥0.999. Evaluation of ionization effects in RAC matrix extracts using diluent blanks for comparison showed no significant matrix effects were present. PMID:26717820

  3. Water Resources and Sustainable Agriculture in 21st Century: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrar, G.

    2008-05-01

    Global agriculture faces some unique challenges and opportunities for the rest of this century. The need for food, feed and fiber will continues to grow as the world population continue to increase in the future. Agricultural ecosystems are also expected to be the source of a significant portion of renewable energy and fuels around the world, without further compromising the integrity of the natural resources base. How can agriculture continue to provide these services to meet the growing needs of world population while sustaining the integrity of agricultural ecosystems and natural resources, the very foundation it depends on? In the last century, scientific discoveries and technological innovations in agriculture resulted in significant increase in food, feed and fiber production globally, while the total amount of water, energy, fertilizers and other input used to achieve this growth remained the same or even decreased significantly in some parts of the world. Scientific and technical advances in understanding global and regional water and energy cycles, water resources management, soil and water conservation practices, weather prediction, plant breeding and biotechnology, and information and communication technologies contributed to this tremendous achievement. The projected increase in global population, urbanization, and changing lifestyles will continue the pressure on both agriculture and other managed and natural ecosystems to provide necessary goods and services for the rest of this century. To meet these challenges, we must obtain the requisite scientific and technical advances in the functioning of Earth's water, energy, carbon and biogeochemical cycles. We also need to apply the knowledge we gain and technologies we develop in assessing Earth's ecosystems' conditions, and their management and stewardship. In agricultural ecosystems, management of soil and water quality and quantity together with development of new varieties of plants based on advances

  4. Constellation Commodities Studies Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirschka, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Constellation program was NASA's long-term program for space exploration. The goal of the commodities studies was to solicit industry expertise in production, storage, and transportation required for future use and to improve efficiency and life cycle cost over legacy methods. Objectives were to consolidate KSC, CCAFS and other requirements; extract available industry expertise; identify commercial opportunities; and establish synergy with State of Florida partnerships. Study results are reviewed.

  5. 7 CFR 1499.8 - Entry and handling of commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Entry and handling of commodities. 1499.8 Section 1499.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT....8 Entry and handling of commodities. (a) The participant shall make all necessary arrangements...

  6. Co-location opportunities for renewable energy and agriculture in Northwestern India: Tradeoffs and Synergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, S.; Macknick, J.; Lobell, D. B.; Field, C. B.; Ganesan, K.; Jain, R.; Elchinger, M.; Stoltenberg, B.

    2014-12-01

    Solar energy installations in arid and semi-arid regions of India are rapidly increasing, due to technological advances and policy support. Even though solar energy provides several benefits such as reduction of greenhouse gases, reclamation of degraded land, and improving the quality of life, the deployment of large-scale solar energy infrastructure can adversely impact land and water resources. A major challenge is how to meet the ever-expanding energy demand with limited land and water resources, in the context of increasing competition from agricultural and domestic consumption. We investigated whether water consumption for solar energy development in northwestern India could impact other water and land uses, and explored opportunities to co-locate solar infrastructures and agricultural crops to maximize the efficiency of land and water use. We considered energy inputs/outputs, water use, greenhouse gas emissions and economics of solar installations in northwestern India in comparison to Aloe vera cultivation, a widely promoted land use in the region. The life cycle analyses show that co-located systems are economically viable in some rural areas and may provide opportunities for rural electrification and stimulate economic growth. The water inputs for cleaning solar panels and dust suppression are similar to amounts required for aloe, suggesting the possibility of integrating the two systems to maximize water and land use efficiency. A life-cycle analysis of a hypothetical co-location indicated higher returns per m3 of water used than either system alone. The northwestern region of India is experiencing high population growth, creating additional demand for land and water resources. In these water limited areas, coupled solar infrastructure and agriculture could be established on marginal lands, thus minimizing the socioeconomic and environmental issues resulting from cultivation of non-food crops (e.g. Aloe) in prime agricultural lands.

  7. DETECTING MYCOTOXINS IN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is difficult to obtain precise and accurate estimates of the true mycotoxin concentration of a bulk lot when using a mycotoxin-sampling plan that measures the concentration in a small portion of the bulk lot. A mycotoxin-sampling plan is defined by a mycotoxin test procedure and a defined accept/...

  8. Oil Spills on Other Commodities

    OpenAIRE

    Baffes, John

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of crude oil prices on the prices of 35 internationally traded primary commodities for the 1960-2005 period. It finds that the pass-through of crude oil price changes to the overall non-energy commodity index is 0.16. At a more disaggregated level, the fertilizer index had the highest pass-through (0.33), followed by agriculture (0.17), and metals (0.11). The...

  9. Commodity team motivation and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englyst, Linda; Jørgensen, Frances; Johansen, John;

    2007-01-01

    In this article, an in-depth single case study is presented in order to explore and discuss the functioning of commodity teams in a global sourcing context. Specifically the study aimed at identifying factors that may influence team members' motivation to participate in activities consistent with a...... commodity team's objective of creating opportunities for synergy and coordination of purchasing. In the teams studied, motivation appeared to be influenced to some degree by a number of factors, including rewards, leadership behaviors, goal setting, and the career goals of the commodity team members. In...

  10. Agricultural biogas plants – A systematic analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we discuss the prospects of agricultural biogas plants. We conducted an integrated SWOT–AHP analysis for such plants in Austria in order to identify strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT factors), and to weight the factors identified based on expert judgments, calculated according to the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. The results show that financial aspects are dominant in three of the four SWOT categories. Technological aspects and issues regarding utilization seem to play a relatively minor role. Factors that are not directly under the control of plant operators are currently perceived as crucial for the success of agricultural biogas plants. We conclude that such plants will only succeed in contributing to sustainable energy supply goals when economic and political conditions are favorable over the long term. - Highlights: • Integrated SWOT–AHP analysis for agricultural biogas plants in Austria. • Quantification of weighting factors based on expert judgments. • Financial aspects dominate over technological and environmental aspects. • Sophisticated and flexible subsidy schemes are crucial for the further diffusion of the technology

  11. Incorporating Agroforestry Approaches into Commodity Value Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Edward

    2011-08-01

    The productivity of tropical agricultural commodities is affected by the health of the ecosystem. Shade tolerant crops such as coffee and cocoa benefit from environmental services provided by forested landscapes, enabling landscape design that meets biodiversity conservation and economic needs. What can motivate farmers to apply and maintain such landscape approaches? Rather than rely on a proliferation of externally funded projects new opportunities are emerging through the international market that buys these commodities. As part of their growing commitment to sustainable supply chains, major companies are supporting agroforestry approaches and requiring producers and traders to demonstrate that the source of their commodities complies with a set of principles that conserves forested landscapes and improves local livelihoods. The paper presents examples of international companies that are moving in this direction, analyzes why and how they are doing it and discusses the impact that has been measured in coffee and cocoa communities in Latin America and Africa. It particularly considers the role of standards and certification systems as a driver of this commitment to promote profitable operations, environmental conservation and social responsibility throughout the coffee and cocoa value chains. Such approaches are already being taken to scale and are no longer operating only in small niches of the market but the paper also considers the limitations to growth in this market-based approach.

  12. Towards a Gendered Agro-Commodity Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primrose Nakazibwe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Commodity or value chains are the dominant means to channel agro-food products from cultivators to consumers. Direct open markets are either non-existent or insignificant . These chains are also the main mechanisms for integrating underprivileged groups into the world economy. Why do global value chains generate sorrow for many and joy for a few, and why are these outcomes heavily gender biased? To look for answers this article critically reviews the post-2000 and earlier gender literature by proponents and opponents of the mainstream value chain approach. The purpose is to provide a methodological contribution on the integration of gender into the commodity chain approach. Most studies have fo cused on the economic effects of chain dynamics on women in agricultural product and labor markets. Some have extended this reasoning with social and cultural effects. Despite these advances, analytical gaps still exist as most existing research has concentrated on the agricultural nodes of modern, high value chains and lacks a gendered conceptual foundation. Scarce attention has been given to traditional staple crops, non-agricultural nodes, and feed back effects of gender relations on the chain. Our results indicate that an appropriate GCC approach should also consider the gendered impacts of the interaction between the governance structure and the institutiona l embeddedness, as well as the consequences of intra-household division of resources and labor in all stages of the chain. These two conceptual complements will be needed to explain the opportunities and constraints to improve gender equity in traditional and modern agro-commodity chains.

  13. 7 CFR 251.4 - Availability of commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of commodities. 251.4 Section 251.4... Availability of commodities. (a) General. The Department shall make commodities available for distribution and... receiving commodities under this part shall not diminish their normal expenditures for food because...

  14. ASSET STORABILITY AND HEDGING EFFECTIVENESS IN COMMODITY FUTURES MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jian; Awokuse, Titus O.

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines risk minimization hedging effectiveness for major storable and nonstorable agricultural commodity futures markets. Based on the error correction model bivariate GARCH frameworks, some evidence is found that the hedging effectiveness is stronger for storable commodities than nonstorable commodities under consideration. The finding illustrates an important difference between storable and nonstorable commodities with regard to their hedging function.

  15. 7 CFR 65.125 - Commingled covered commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commingled covered commodities. 65.125 Section 65.125... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.125 Commingled covered commodities....

  16. 7 CFR 226.5 - Donation of commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Donation of commodities. 226.5 Section 226.5... of commodities. (a) USDA foods available under section 6 of this Act, section 416 of the Agricultural... the Department shall be made available to each State. (b) The value of such commodities donated...

  17. 7 CFR 1499.9 - Damage to or loss of commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Damage to or loss of commodities. 1499.9 Section 1499.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION... or loss of commodities. (a) FAS will be responsible for the donated commodities prior to the...

  18. 7 CFR 1499.11 - Use of commodities and sale proceeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of commodities and sale proceeds. 1499.11 Section 1499.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT....11 Use of commodities and sale proceeds. (a) A participant must use the donated commodities...

  19. The impact of commodity price and conservation policy scenarios on deforestation and agricultural land use in a frontier area within the Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, R.W.; Rodrigues Filho, S.; Lindoso, D.; Debortoli, N.; Litre, G.; Bursztyn, M.

    2014-01-01

    Deforestation in the Amazon is caused by the complex interplay of different drivers. Price of commodities such as beef and soya, and incoming migration are paramount factors. Construction of new highways is a key aspect, as they enable a growing flow of people and economic activities, provoking an i

  20. EFICIÊNCIA DOS MERCADOS FUTUROS DE COMMODITIES AGRÍCOLAS APLICANDO-SE O TESTE DE COINTEGRAÇÃO./ EFFICIENCY OF THE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITY FUTURES MARKET BY APPLYING THE COINTEGRATION TEST.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Harry Harzer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem o objetivo de testar a forma fraca de eficiência do mercado futuro brasileiro dacommoditie agrícola café arábica, usando a técnica de cointegração a fim de verificar se os preços futuroscorrentes são estimadores não viesados dos preços à vista esperados para o futuro. Para isso, utiliza asséries históricas de janeiro de 2005 a maio de 2011 dos preços futuros, que foram coletados na Bolsa deMercadorias e Futuros – BM&F, e os preços à vista calculados pelo CEPEA/ESALQ/USP. As métricas utilizadassão os testes ADF de Dickey e Fuller para detectar a presença de raiz unitária e o teste de cointegraçãode Johansen para verificar a existência de um relacionamento de longo prazo. Os resultados indicaram anão estacionariedade das séries de preços e a presença de cointegração. Porém, o teste dos parâmetrosα = 0 e β = 1 da regressão que comprovam a eficiência fraca e não viés encontraram indícios estatísticosde não eficiência de mercado, bem como da presença de um viés indicando a existência de um prêmioassociado ao risco./ This article aims at testing the weak form of efficiency of the commodity futures market in Arabicacoffee farming using the cointegration technique in order to check if the current futures prices arebiased estimators of spot prices expected for the future. Thereto it uses the futures prices time seriesfrom January 2005 to May 2011, which were collected in the Commodities and Futures Exchange - BM &F and spot prices, calculated by CEPEA / ESALQ / USP. Dickey and Fuller’s ADF tests are the metrics usedto detect the presence of unit root and Johansen’s cointegration test is used to verify the existence ofa long term relationship. The results indicated the non-stationarity of price series besides the presenceof cointegration. However, regression parameters testing α = 0 e β = 1 proves that weak efficiency andnon-biased found statistical evidence of non-market efficiency

  1. The links between agriculture and health: an intersectoral opportunity to improve the health and livelihoods of the poor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Hawkes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture and health are linked in many ways. First, agriculture is essential for good health: it produces the world's food, fibre and materials for shelter; in many countries it is also an important source of livelihood among the poor. At the same time, agriculture can be linked with poor health, including malnutrition, malaria, foodborne illnesses, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS, livestock-related diseases, chronic diseases and occupational ill-health. Health also affects agriculture: people's health status influences the demand for agricultural outputs, and in agricultural communities, poor health reduces work performance, reducing income and productivity and perpetuating a downward spiral into ill-health. This paper presents an overview of the bidirectional links between agriculture and health with a focus on the developing world. It develops a conceptual framework that brings together the various links between agriculture and health into a single broad framework. The framework comprises the core components of the agricultural supply chain (producers, systems and outputs, key health concerns and the mechanisms of common interaction between the agricultural and health components: income, labour, environment and access - all key social determinants of health. These links between agriculture and health present an opportunity for the two sectors to work together to find solutions to each other's problems. Yet the health and agricultural sectors remain poorly coordinated. Leadership from global health and agricultural institutions is needed to build policies and good governance to facilitate integration, while capacity building is needed at all levels to help translate the conceptual links into comprehensive action on the ground. Health and agricultural researchers likewise need to work more closely together to achieve common goals.

  2. Price volatility forecasts for agricultural commodities: an application of volatility models, option implieds and composite approaches forfutures prices of corn and wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Benavides Perales

    2009-01-01

    There has been substantial research effort aimed to forecast futures price return volatilities of financial and commodity assets. Some part of this research focuses on the performance of time-series models (in particular ARCH models) versus option implied volatility models. A significant part of the literature related to this topic shows that volatility forecast accuracy is not easy to estimate regardless of the forecasting model applied. This paper examines the volatility accuracy of volatil...

  3. Commodity Team Motivation and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englyst, Linda; Jørgensen, Frances; Johansen, John;

    2008-01-01

    In this article, an in-depth single case study is presented in order to explore and discuss the functioning of commodity teams in a global sourcing context. Specifically, the study aimed at identifying factors that may influence team members' motivation to participate in activities that create...... opportunities for synergy and coordination of purchasing. In the teams studied, motivation appeared to be influenced to some degree by a number of factors, including rewards, leadership behaviours, goal setting, and the career goals of the commodity team members. In some cases, inconsistencies between these...

  4. Commodity team motivation and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englyst, Linda; Jørgensen, Frances; Johansen, John;

    2008-01-01

    In this article, an in-depth single case study is presented in order to explore and discuss the functioning of commodity teams in a global sourcing context. Specifically, the study aimed at identifying factors that may influence team members' motivation to participate in activities that create...... opportunities for synergy and coordination of purchasing. In the teams studied, motivation appeared to be influenced to some degree by a number of factors, including rewards, leadership behaviours, goal setting, and the career goals of the commodity team members. In some cases, inconsistencies between these...

  5. 29 CFR 780.151 - Particular operations on commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Particular operations on commodities. 780.151 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Preparation for Market § 780.151 Particular operations on...

  6. 7 CFR 247.10 - Distribution and use of CSFP commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distribution and use of CSFP commodities. 247.10... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.10 Distribution and use of CSFP commodities. (a) What are the requirements for distributing CSFP commodities...

  7. Study of Agricultural Market in India with Illustration of Business Opportunity

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Mr. Tushar; Joshi, Saurabh Arvind; Bhatia, Dipti Kiran; Rajendran, Santosh

    2010-01-01

    The role of agriculture in India has been not just to produce food but to sustain and contribute towards overall socio-economic development in rural societies. Overregulation of agriculture along with lack of infrastructural facilities and small fragmented unproductive landholdings has increased costs, price risks and uncertainty. The agricultural system has traditionally been unfair to farmers as well as the end consumers. This study will analyze the agricultural marketing system in India...

  8. 7 CFR 253.3 - Availability of commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of commodities. 253.3 Section 253.3... FOR HOUSEHOLDS ON INDIAN RESERVATIONS § 253.3 Availability of commodities. (a) Conditions for... commodities to households under the authority of any law, except that distribution may be made (1) on...

  9. 7 CFR 1599.8 - Entry and handling of commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Entry and handling of commodities. 1599.8 Section... PROGRAM § 1599.8 Entry and handling of commodities. (a) The participant shall make all necessary arrangements for receiving the donated commodities in the targeted country, including obtaining...

  10. Opportunities, constraints and challenges to the introduction of ICT services for sustainable agricultural development in West Bengal, India

    OpenAIRE

    Kendall, Linus

    2015-01-01

    The application of information and communication technology (ICT) in socioeconomic development often referred to as “ICT for development” (ICT4D) is an increasingly relevant concern both academically as well as within development organisations on all levels.   This master thesis project has explored opportunities, constraints and challenges to designing and implementing mobile phone based ICT services for an organisation working with sustainable agricultural development in West Bengal, India....

  11. Western Balkans: state of agriculture and its opportunities on the eve of EU accession

    OpenAIRE

    Tamás Mizik

    2011-01-01

    The Western Balkan countries can be characterised by their shared goal, which is the quickest possible accession to the European Union. Agriculture is an important obstacle to achieving this goal. The role of agriculture differs widely among the analysed countries but is more important than the average of the EU. This study gives a comprehensive overview of the most important agricultural indicators related to both crop and livestock production. These indicators present a precise picture of t...

  12. Western Balkans: State of Agriculture and its Opportunities on the Eve of EU Accession - II

    OpenAIRE

    Tamás Mizik

    2011-01-01

    The Western Balkan countries can be characterized by their shared goal, which is the quickest possible accession to the European Union. Agriculture is an important obstacle to achieving this goal. The role of agriculture differs widely among the analyzed countries but is more important than the average of the EU. This study gives a comprehensive overview of the most important agricultural indicators related to both crop and livestock production. These indicators present a precise picture of t...

  13. Agricultural Sector of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Climate Change—Challenges and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Ognjen Zurovec; Pål Olav Vedeld; Bishal Kumar Sitaula

    2015-01-01

    Half of Bosnia and Herzegovina’s (BH) population lives in rural areas. Agricultural production is a backbone of the rural economy and generates significant economic value for the country. BH is highly vulnerable to climate change, which poses a significant development challenge given the climate-sensitivity of the agricultural sector, the share of agriculture in the total economy, the number of people employed in the sector, and the closely related socio-economic issues of food security. BH...

  14. Agriculture as the opportunity for sustainable development of Slovene rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Lampič

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of agriculture in rural areas has changed significantly, it has even increased, since having been attributed numerous new functions, from social to ecologic. Also Slovene agriculture, its direction, intensity level, size and proprietal structure was subject to considerable changes as a result of inclusion of Slovenia in the EU and implementation of the Common Agricultural Policy. However it should be considered whether the direction of development of Slovene agriculture corresponds to protection and conservation of our major natural resources?

  15. International portfolio diversification : commodities

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Khawar; Alija, Lulzim

    2013-01-01

    We study whether Norwegian Investors should include commodities in their portfolios. Firstly, we discuss the correlation and dispersion between commodities and international equity markets, in addition to possible time trends in the correlation and dispersion between the commodity and the equity market. Secondly, we analyze the return-to-risk tradeoff and the mean-variance efficiency when adding commodities to traditional portfolios. We find no added improvement to the mean-variance efficienc...

  16. COFFEE COMMODITY CHAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Tine Olsen; Brett Inder

    2008-01-01

    To explain the value added along the coffee commodity chain we propose and estimate a theoretical model of the coffee commodity chain. The theoretical model consists of four markets and five agents in the coffee commodity chain and predicts that prices in the coffee commodity chain move together but are also influenced by income, technology and production. A vector error correction model is used to test the theoretical predictions. In addition to the theoretical conclusions the empirical mode...

  17. EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR WEED SCIENTISTS IN THE USDA AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agricultural Research Service (ARS) is the agency that conducts in-house research within the United States Department of Agriculture. ARS conducts a broad research portfolio covering over 1200 projects at over 100 locations across the country. Weed science research is conducted on a range of t...

  18. Choke Points and Opportunities in the Supply Chain of ASEAN Agricultural Products: A Philippine Country Study

    OpenAIRE

    Israel, Danilo C.; Roehlano M. Briones

    2014-01-01

    This study identifies and examines "choke points" in the supply chain of two selected commodity groups that are of interest to the region of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations: crude coconut oil (which belongs to the HS15 group), and fish and crustacean, mollusks, and other aquatic invertebrates (which belong to the HS03 group). For crude coconut oil, no major choke points were identified from mill site to export stages, but cost and delay factors were found at the farm-to-mill stage,...

  19. Western Balkans: State of Agriculture and its Opportunities on the Eve of EU Accession - I

    OpenAIRE

    Tamás Mizik

    2011-01-01

    The Western Balkan countries can be characterised by their shared goal, which is thequickest possible accession to the European Union. Agriculture is an important obstacle to achievingthis goal. The role of agriculture differs widely among the analysed countries but is more importantthan the average of the EU. This study gives a comprehensive overview of the most importantagricultural indicators related to both crop and livestock production. These indicators present aprecise picture of the se...

  20. Food Supply Chain Management in Indian Agriculture: Issues, Opportunities and Further Research

    OpenAIRE

    Parwez, Sazzad

    2013-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to explore the problems faced by Indian agriculture for food security in terms of inadequate infrastructure and highly inefficient supply chain in context of information technology. Due to lack of efficient infrastructure and food processing industry about 30-35 percent of all foods produced in India are wasted. This paper examines the critical issues at each sub-system of agriculture supply chain, starting from the input to the consumer, with a view to integrating th...

  1. Opportunities and constraints of organic agriculture in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Arpaphan Pattanapant; Ganesh P. Shivakoti

    2009-01-01

    The application of chemicals in conventional agriculture to increase productivity can result in environmental degradation, bring about economic problems and cause harmful effects on farmers, labourers and consumers. Responding to these problems, a number of nongovernmental organizations and government agencies have been promoting organic agriculture in the province of Chiang Mai in order to assure food safety and at the same time alleviate the poverty of farmers. The present study discusses t...

  2. Profitability and opportunity of conservation agriculture in acid savannah grasslands of Laos

    OpenAIRE

    Lienhard, P.; Panyasiri, K.; Sayphoummie, S.; Leudphanane, B.; Lestrelin, Guillaume; Seguy, L.; Tivet, F.

    2014-01-01

    In north-eastern Laos, the savannah grasslands of the Plain of Jars cover vast areas of potentially cultivable land. However, soil acidity, low inherent fertility, and the absence of alternatives to tillage represent significant constraints to the development of sustainable smallholder agriculture. Our objective was to evaluate the potential for conservation agriculture (CA) to enhance soil productivity and farming system profitability. A three-year rotation of rice/maize/soybean was tested u...

  3. Conservation agriculture for small holder rainfed farming: Opportunities and constraints of new mechanized seeding systems

    OpenAIRE

    Johansen, C; Haque, M.E.; R. W. Bell; Thierfelder, Christian; Esdaile, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    In the past, development and dissemination of conservation agriculture technologies, such as mechanized seeders and herbicides, has suited large-scale agricultural operations. Recent innovations specifically designed for smallholders have been developed in Brazil and introduced in Africa. These include animal-drawn rippers and direct seeders, which have produced equal yields to conventional tillage and seed broadcasting. However, more research is needed concerning weed management and place-ba...

  4. COMMODITY PRICES AND UNIT ROOT TESTS

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Dabin; Tomek, William G.

    2004-01-01

    Endogenous variables in structural models of agricultural commodity markets are typically treated as stationary. Yet, tests for unit roots have rather frequently implied that commodity prices are not stationary. This seeming inconsistency is investigated by focusing on alternative specifications of unit root tests. We apply various specifications to Illinois farm prices of corn, soybeans, barrows and gilts, and milk for the 1960 through 2002 time span. The preponderance of the evidence sugges...

  5. An assessment of the opportunities and challenges of a bio-based economy for agriculture and food research in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    A study was conducted to examine the feasibility of using biomass from within the agriculture and food sectors to develop bio-based products such as biofuels, bioplastics, bioadhesives, natural fibres, biolubricants, and biobased platform chemicals. In addition to providing new economic opportunities to farmers and rural communities, the use of biomass as an energy source can reduce greenhouse gas emissions and reduce our reliance on fossil fuels. Since biofuels hold the greatest potential for major impact on both the agricultural economy and on greenhouse gas reduction, this paper includes a special section on the potential role for biofuels, including ethanol, biodiesel, methane and other bioenergy sources. The report focused mainly on research in biological sciences and the application of biorefineries to develop renewable end products from raw materials. The need to develop human capital to meet the growing demands of a bio-based economy was also emphasized. refs., tabs.

  6. Strategic pricing of commodities

    OpenAIRE

    Jörnsten, Kurt; Ubøe, Jan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we will consider a setting where a large number of agents are trading commodity bundles. Assuming that agents of the same type have a certain utility attached to each transaction, we construct a statistical equilibrium which in turn implies prices on the different commodities. Our basic question is then the following: Assume that some commodities come out with prices that are socially unacceptable. Is it possible to change these prices systematically if a new type of agents is p...

  7. Commodities Inventory Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Carpantier, Jean-Francois; DUFAYS, Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    Does commodity price volatility increase when inventories are low? We are the first ones to document this relationship. To that aim, we estimate asym- metric volatility models for a large set of commodities over 1994-2011. Since inventories are hard to measure, especially for high frequency data, we use positive return shocks as a new original proxy for inventories and find that asymmetric GARCH models reveal a significant inventory effect for many commodities. The results look robust. They h...

  8. Food, water, and fault lines: Remote sensing opportunities for earthquake-response management of agricultural water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jenna; Ustin, Susan; Sandoval-Solis, Samuel; O'Geen, Anthony Toby

    2016-09-15

    Earthquakes often cause destructive and unpredictable changes that can affect local hydrology (e.g. groundwater elevation or reduction) and thus disrupt land uses and human activities. Prolific agricultural regions overlie seismically active areas, emphasizing the importance to improve our understanding and monitoring of hydrologic and agricultural systems following a seismic event. A thorough data collection is necessary for adequate post-earthquake crop management response; however, the large spatial extent of earthquake's impact makes challenging the collection of robust data sets for identifying locations and magnitude of these impacts. Observing hydrologic responses to earthquakes is not a novel concept, yet there is a lack of methods and tools for assessing earthquake's impacts upon the regional hydrology and agricultural systems. The objective of this paper is to describe how remote sensing imagery, methods and tools allow detecting crop responses and damage incurred after earthquakes because a change in the regional hydrology. Many remote sensing datasets are long archived with extensive coverage and with well-documented methods to assess plant-water relations. We thus connect remote sensing of plant water relations to its utility in agriculture using a post-earthquake agrohydrologic remote sensing (PEARS) framework; specifically in agro-hydrologic relationships associated with recent earthquake events that will lead to improved water management. PMID:27241204

  9. Graduate Education in Risk Analysis for Food, Agriculture, and Veterinary Medicine: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Ana-Paula; Wolt, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    The notion of risk in relation to food and food production has heightened the need to educate students to effectively deal with risk in relation to decision making from a science-based perspective. Curricula and related materials were developed and adopted to support graduate learning opportunities in risk analysis and decision making as applied…

  10. Namibia specific climate smart agricultural land use practices: Challenges and opportunities for enhancing ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Talamondjila Naanda, Martha; Bloemertz, Lena

    2015-04-01

    Agriculture is a backbone for many African economies, with an estimated 70% of Africans active in agricultural production. The sector often does not only directly contribute to, but sustains food security and poverty reduction efforts. Sustaining this productivity poses many challenges, particularly to small scale subsistence farmers (SSF) in dry land areas and semi-arid countries like Namibia. SSF in northern central Namibia mix crop and livestock production on degraded semi-arid lands and nutrient-poor sandy soils. They are fully dependent on agricultural production with limited alternative sources of income. Mostly, their agricultural harvests and outputs are low, not meeting their livelihood needs. At the same time, the land use is often not sustainable, leading to degradation. The Namibia case reveals that addressing underlying economic, social and environmental challenges requires a combination of farm level-soil management practices with a shift towards integrated landscape management. This forms the basis for SSF to adopt sustainable land management practices while building institutional foundations, like establishing SSF cooperatives. One way in which this has been tested is through the concept of incentive-based motivation, i.e. payment for ecosystem services (PES), in which some of the beneficiaries pay, for instance for farmers or land users, who provide the services. The farmers provide these services by substituting their unsustainable land and soil management and adopting new (climate smart agricultural) land use practices. Climate Smart Agricultural land use practices (CSA-LUP) are one way of providing ecosystem services, which could be fundamental to long-term sustainable soil and land management solutions in Africa. There are few PES cases which have been systematically studied from an institutional development structure perspective. This study presents lessons evolving from the notion that direct participation and involvement of local people

  11. The Principles and the Specifics of Trading in Commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Dušan; Herbacsková, Anita

    2012-12-01

    In the present period of instability on financial markets, investments in commodities are the solution for elimination of the consequences of inflation and ensure the yield. When investing in commodities, the use of specifics of commodities compared to other assets. The distribution of commodities we can interpret for agricultural commodities, commodities of energy, precious and other metals, and weather. Therefore, in the framework of the investment portfolio are the commodities. This is the reason why one of the most popular types of investment assets now become commodities. In the interpretation of particular commodities we talk about commodity futures. The reason is that the spot market with commodities is limited storage facilities. The growth of the popularity, which allows a wide range of commodities, has caused that in addition to from institutional investors and speculators for trade may involve even small investors. This development will be supplemented by interpretation of the charts and figers, which will be commented and used for generalization of knowledge. Finally, the article will be interpreted by the further development of the market for commodities as it by article assumes from the results of research.

  12. Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on agriculture describes how climate change will affect primary agriculture production in Canada with particular focus on potential adaptation options, and vulnerability of agriculture at the farm level. Agriculture is a vital part of the Canadian economy, although only 7 per cent of Canada's land mass is used for agricultural purposes due to the limitations of climate and soils. Most parts of Canada are expected to experience warmer conditions, longer frost-free seasons and increased evapotranspiration. The impacts of these changes on agriculture will vary depending on precipitation changes, soil conditions, and land use. Northern regions may benefit from longer farming seasons, but poor soil conditions will limit the northward expansion of agricultural crops. Some of the negative impacts associated with climate change on agriculture include increased droughts, changes in pest and pathogen outbreaks, and moisture stress. In general, it is expected that the positive and negative impacts of climate change would offset each other. 74 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  13. Assessment of environmental exposures from agricultural pesticides in childhood leukaemia studies: Challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesticides are ubiquitous in environments of many rural communities due to drift from agricultural applications and home/garden use. Studies of childhood leukaemia predominantly relied on retrospective pesticide exposure assessment and parental recall of use or proximity to fields or pesticide applications. Sample size requirements mostly preclude the collection of individual-level exposure information, bio-markers or environmental measurements of pesticides prospectively in cohorts. Yet such measures can be used in nested case-control approaches or for validating exposure models that can be applied to large populations. Recently developed models incorporate geographic information system technology and environmental databases of pesticide and/or crop data to assess exposure. Models developed in California to estimate residential exposures are presented by linking addresses to agricultural pesticide application data and land-use maps. Results from exposure validation and simulation studies and exposure measurement error issues are discussed. (authors)

  14. Analyzing climate change adaptation in the agriculture and water sectors: screening risks and opportunities.

    OpenAIRE

    Varela Ortega, Consuelo; Blanco Gutiérrez, Irene; Esteve Bengoechea, Paloma; Bharwani, S.; Downing, Thomas E; Fronzek, S.

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Mediterranean area, the Guadiana basin in Spain is particularly exposed to increasing water stress due to climate change. Future warmer and drier climate will have negative implications for the sustainability of water resources and irrigation agriculture, the main socio- economic sector in the region. This paper illustrates a systematic analysis of climate change impacts and adaptation in the Guadiana basin based on a two-stage modeling approach. First, an int...

  15. Western Balkans: State of Agriculture and its Opportunities on the Eve of EU Accession - II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Mizik

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Western Balkan countries can be characterised by their shared goal, which is thequickest possible accession to the European Union. Agriculture is an important obstacle to achievingthis goal. The role of agriculture differs widely among the analysed countries but is more importantthan the average of the EU. This study gives a comprehensive overview of the most importantagricultural indicators related to both crop and livestock production. These indicators present aprecise picture of the sector’s relevance, production structure, efficiency and international relations.After demonstrating changes in input use, production structure, prices, terms of trade and agriculturalpolicies, the next section identifies some of the reasons for these changes. The time horizon of theanalysis goes back to the early nineties and tries to capture some transition effects. The consequencesof the Yugoslav war can be easily recognised in every country involved. However, since the end ofthe war Serbia became the leading producer and the only net exporter of agricultural goods in theregion. Nevertheless, the current situation is endangered by several issues, such as imbalancedsectoral production, fragmented production structure, relatively low yields, unfavourable exportcomposition, and poor food hygiene and quality control, which anticipate painful and hard actionsneed to be carried out.

  16. Western Balkans: State of Agriculture and its Opportunities on the Eve of EU Accession - I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Mizik

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The Western Balkan countries can be characterised by their shared goal, which is thequickest possible accession to the European Union. Agriculture is an important obstacle to achievingthis goal. The role of agriculture differs widely among the analysed countries but is more importantthan the average of the EU. This study gives a comprehensive overview of the most importantagricultural indicators related to both crop and livestock production. These indicators present aprecise picture of the sector’s relevance, production structure, efficiency and international relations.After demonstrating changes in input use, production structure, prices, terms of trade and agriculturalpolicies, the next section identifies some of the reasons for these changes. The time horizon of theanalysis goes back to the early nineties and tries to capture some transition effects. The consequencesof the Yugoslav war can be easily recognised in every country involved. However, since the end ofthe war Serbia became the leading producer and the only net exporter of agricultural goods in theregion. Nevertheless, the current situation is endangered by several issues, such as imbalancedsectoral production, fragmented production structure, relatively low yields, unfavourable exportcomposition, and poor food hygiene and quality control, which anticipate painful and hard actionsneed to be carried out.

  17. Evaluating Food Commodity Procurement Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Kraig M.; Whipple, Judith M.; Raper, Kellie Curry; Mollenkopf, Diane A.

    2004-01-01

    We use a case study approach to determine the primary factors affecting food manufacturers' commodity procurement decisions, as well as to examine the strategic nature of commodity procurement departments. The research fills a gap in both the commodity and procurement literature. A large literature exists on commodity marketing; however, very little exists on the topic of commodity procurement. Existing procurement literature tends to focus on non-commodity products rather than commodity prod...

  18. Opportunities within the Revised EU Common Agricultural Policy to Address the Decline of Farmland Birds: An Irish Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daire Ó hUallacháin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The loss of global biological diversity continues despite on-going conservation efforts. Agriculture is the major terrestrial land use in Europe and any conservation efforts to protect biological diversity must address sustainable use of these food production systems. Using Ireland, within the European Union policy framework, as an example, the declines in farmland birds are discussed. The opportunities afforded to farmland bird conservation as a result of the recent reform to the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP are outlined. The potential for revised and refined CAP, specifically agri-environment schemes, to deliver benefits for biodiversity and for farmland bird species within Irish agricultural ecosystems is explored. Despite all the efforts to date and the significant resources invested in implementing agri-environment measures and schemes, few attempts have been made to collect monitoring and surveillance data with which to quantitatively assess the effectiveness of schemes, and measures that are designed to assist in the recovery of farmland biodiversity, including bird species, in Ireland.

  19. 我国农产品新品种期货市场效率实证研究%Empirical Research on the Efficiency of New Products of Agriculture Commodity Futures Markets in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周蓓; 齐中英

    2013-01-01

    Empirical research on the efficiency of futures markets is the hot research field in futures markets. This paper examines the efficiency of random walk hypothesis for the new products of agriculture commodity futures markets in China:palm oil, colza oil and early long-grain rice futures which all come into the market after 2007. The random walk hypothesis is tested with Lo-MacKinlay variance ratio test and unit root test. We found that these three new products futures markets all follow the random walk hypothesis and therefore all reach the weak-form efficiency. This result shows although new products futures enter the market not long, but they are under the normal operation and steady development in the many joint efforts. Moreover, the successful coming into the market and effective operation of these new products futures must provide valuable experiences for the new products of agriculture commodity futures which will come into the market later.%  期货市场效率的实证研究是期货市场的一个热点研究领域。本文采用方差比方法并结合单位根方法,对我国07年以后上市的农产品期货新品种棕榈油、菜籽油及早籼稻期货市场的效率进行了随机游走检验,结果表明:这3个农产品新品种期货市场均满足随机游走假设,全部达到了信息弱式有效。这一实证结果说明,农产品期货新品种上市时间虽然不长,但是在多方的共同努力下,市场整体运行规范,稳步发展,在扶持现代农业发展中发挥了积极作用;并且农产品期货新品种的成功上市、有效运行,无疑为进一步农产品期货新品种的推出提供了值得借鉴的宝贵经验。

  20. The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 3: Intensive use of living resources, agriculture. Part 3: The integrated impact of improved (ERS) information on US agricultural commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, A. D.

    1974-01-01

    The economic value of information produced by an assumed operational version of an earth resources survey satellite of the ERTS class is assessed. The theoretical capability of an ERTS system to provide improved agricultural forecasts is analyzed and this analysis is used as a reasonable input to the econometric methods derived by ECON. An econometric investigation into the markets for agricultural commodities is summarized. An overview of the effort including the objectives, scopes, and architecture of the analysis, and the estimation strategy employed is presented. The results and conclusions focus on the economic importance of improved crop forecasts, U.S. exports, and government policy operations. Several promising avenues of further investigation are suggested.

  1. 7 CFR 1412.31 - Direct payment yields for covered commodities, except pulse crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for covered commodities at part 1412 of this chapter in effect on January 1, 2008 (see 7 CFR part 1412... pulse crops. 1412.31 Section 1412.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... commodities, except pulse crops. (a) The direct payment yield for each covered commodity, except pulse...

  2. South America's neoliberal agricultural frontiers: places of environmental sacrifice or conservation opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannstrom, Christian

    2009-05-01

    Neoliberal agricultural frontiers, defined as export-oriented farming areas motivated more by global demand and land privatization than by government subsidies, present at least two major challenges for environmental researchers: estimating land change and understanding governance types and outcomes. Environmental governance, the "filter" between human and biophysical systems, is considered in terms of two models in light of empirical evidence from a neoliberal frontier in the Brazilian Cerrado (savanna) ecoregion. Land-change analysis indicates that agricultural land uses increased from 12% of the study region in 1986 to 44% in 2000 and 55% in 2005, with a corresponding loss of native Cerrado. A prominent farming organization formed in 1990 has participated in or led several environmental policy initiatives. Evidence of both governance models is found, and dilemmas facing environmental activists and managers, as well as the farming sector, are presented. For organizations representing large commercial farmers, compliance with environmental regulations may be seen as both a cost to be borne by the farming sector and as a means to establish environmental credentials. Suggestions are made for future longitudinal work on compliance, information, agenda-setting, and discursive strategies of nonstate actors in neoliberal frontiers. PMID:19580031

  3. Returns in commodities futures markets and financial speculation: a multivariate GARCH approach

    OpenAIRE

    Manera, Matteo; Nicolini, Marcella; Vignati, Ilaria

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses futures prices for four energy commodities (light sweet crude oil, heating oil, gasoline and natural gas) and five agricultural commodities (corn, oats, soybean oil, soybeans and wheat), over the period 1986-2010. Using CCC and DCC multivariate GARCH models, we find that financial speculation is poorly significant in modelling returns in commodities futures while macroeconomic factors help explaining returns in commodities futures. Moreover, spillovers between commodities ...

  4. Biodiversity conservation in agricultural landscapes: challenges and opportunities of coffee agroforests in the Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Claude A; Bhagwat, Shonil A; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Nath, Cheryl D; Nanaya, Konerira M; Kushalappa, Chepudira G; Raghuramulu, Yenugula; Nasi, Robert; Vaast, Philippe

    2010-04-01

    The new approaches advocated by the conservation community to integrate conservation and livelihood development now explicitly address landscape mosaics composed of agricultural and forested land rather than only protected areas and largely intact forests. We refer specifically to a call by Harvey et al. (2008) to develop a new approach based on six strategies to integrate biodiversity conservation with sustainable livelihoods in Mesoamerican landscape mosaics. We examined the applicability of this proposal to the coffee agroforests of the Western Ghats, India. Of the six strategies, only one directly addresses livelihood conditions. Their approach has a clear emphasis on conservation and, as currently formulated risks repeating the failures of past integrated conservation and development projects. It fails to place the aspirations of farmers at the core of the agenda. Thus, although we acknowledge and share the broad vision and many of the ideas proposed by this approach, we urge more balanced priority setting by emphasizing people as much as biodiversity through a careful consideration of local livelihood needs and aspirations. PMID:20028413

  5. Financialization of commodities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Falkowski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic theory of price formation tells us how the price of a particular asset will change based on the adjustment to its supply and demand. However, values of assets are also determined by other business fundamentals, company’s and world events, human psychology, and investors’ belief about the possible future profit. In recent history that lead to an increase of individual and institutional investors’ interest in allocating their resources in commodity markets. With a large inflow of capital commodities’ prices started to rise making them attractive components to effective investment portfolios. The presented paper addresses the issue of so called commodities ‘financialization’ process. It looks at the main factors standing behind commodities’ price movements and to what extent financial market participants contributed to commodities price volatility in recent years. Based on the data examined it distinguishes the involvement of both commercial and non-commercial traders in short and long term periods of time. As well as explaining the impact of growing investors’ interest in commodity markets it defines other market forces - like currency appreciations and emerging markets - as being part of increased volatility in raw and soft commodity markets. Along with market examination the paper focuses on possible future outcomes in attempts to regulate commodities derivatives markets and potential effects of those efforts.

  6. High-Resolution Biogeochemical Simulation Identifies Practical Opportunities for Bioenergy Landscape Intensification Across Diverse US Agricultural Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, J.; Adler, P. R.; Evans, S.; Paustian, K.; Marx, E.; Easter, M.

    2015-12-01

    The sustainability of biofuel expansion is strongly dependent on the environmental footprint of feedstock production, including both direct impacts within feedstock-producing areas and potential leakage effects due to disruption of existing food, feed, or fiber production. Assessing and minimizing these impacts requires novel methods compared to traditional supply chain lifecycle assessment. When properly validated and applied at appropriate spatial resolutions, biogeochemical process models are useful for simulating how the productivity and soil greenhouse gas fluxes of cultivating both conventional crops and advanced feedstock crops respond across gradients of land quality and management intensity. In this work we use the DayCent model to assess the biogeochemical impacts of agricultural residue collection, establishment of perennial grasses on marginal cropland or conservation easements, and intensification of existing cropping at high spatial resolution across several real-world case study landscapes in diverse US agricultural regions. We integrate the resulting estimates of productivity, soil carbon changes, and nitrous oxide emissions with crop production budgets and lifecycle inventories, and perform a basic optimization to generate landscape cost/GHG frontiers and determine the most practical opportunities for low-impact feedstock provisioning. The optimization is constrained to assess the minimum combined impacts of residue collection, land use change, and intensification of existing agriculture necessary for the landscape to supply a commercial-scale biorefinery while maintaining exiting food, feed, and fiber production levels. These techniques can be used to assess how different feedstock provisioning strategies perform on both economic and environmental criteria, and sensitivity of performance to environmental and land use factors. The included figure shows an example feedstock cost-GHG mitigation tradeoff frontier for a commercial-scale cellulosic

  7. Feeding the Corn Belt: Opportunities for phosphorus recycling in U.S. agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metson, Geneviève S; MacDonald, Graham K; Haberman, Daniel; Nesme, Thomas; Bennett, Elena M

    2016-01-15

    The supply of phosphorus (P) is a critical concern for food security. Concentrated mineral P deposits have been the source of almost all new P entering the biosphere. However, this resource is often used inefficiently, raising concerns about both nutrient pollution and future access to fertilizers. One solution to both of these problems is to enhance our ability to capture and recycle P from waste streams. However, the efficacy of doing this has not been rigorously explored. Here, we examine the potential for recycling major P sources in the United States to supply the necessary P for domestic corn (maize) production. Using 2002 population and agricultural census data, we examine the distribution of three key recyclable P sources (human food waste, human excreta, and animal manure) and P demand from grain and silage corn across the country to determine the distance P would need to be transported from sources to replenish P removed from soils in harvested corn plants. We find that domestic recyclable P sources, predominantly from animal manures, could meet national corn production P demands with no additional fertilizer inputs. In fact, only 37% of U.S. sources of recyclable P would be required to meet all P demand from U.S. corn harvested annually. Seventy-four percent of corn P demand could be met by recyclable P sources in the same county. Surplus recyclable P sources within-counties would then need to travel on average 302 km to meet the largest demand in and around the center of the 'Corn Belt' region where ~50% of national corn P demand is located. We find that distances between recyclable sources and crop demands are surprisingly short for most of the country, and that this recycling potential is mostly related to manure. This information can help direct where recycling efforts should be most-effectively directed. PMID:26453407

  8. 78 FR 16189 - Transportation of Agricultural Commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... Executive Order 13563 (76 FR 3821, January 18, 2011), and DOT regulatory policies and procedures (44 FR 1103... Flexibility, Small Business, and Job Creation'' (76 FR 3827). Federalism (Executive Order 13132) A rule has... Procedures and Policy for Considering Environmental Impacts, Order 5610.1 (FMCSA Order), March 1, 2004 (69...

  9. The Need for Transparency in Commodity and Commodity Derivatives Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Cinquegrana, Piero

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues that transparency-boosting measures specifically tailored to commodity and commodity derivatives markets are much needed. In particular, encouraging the creation of a clearing infrastructure for OTC commodity and commodity derivatives markets would be desirable. Moreover, EU regulators should consider setting up a new, more effective market abuse regime aimed at preventing manipulation in both the physical and financial commodities markets. Finally, in cooperation with the G...

  10. Extension’s Role in Commodity Marketing Education: Past, Present, and Future

    OpenAIRE

    Riley, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, market situation and outlook has often included some form of price forecast. Recent volatility in agricultural commodity markets is making price forecasts challenging and at times less reliable. In addressing this price volatility, changes in agricultural markets are highlighted along with price forecasts: pre- and post-increased market volatility. Given these recent challenges, the future of Extension agricultural commodity marketing is discussed.

  11. Cross-commodity hedges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy risk management is the principal topic of this paper. Four major subjects are examined: cross-commodity trading objectives (reduce the risk of an underlying exposure in another commodity); portfolio risk reduction (an Alberta power distributor exposed to high pool prices could protect against high pool prices through a fixed price purchase of Alberta natural gas); tailoring pricing to customer needs (sell power to the gas producer indexed to the price of gas); and (4) reducing insurance costs (rather than purchasing downside protection (puts) individually against oil and gas prices, a producer could purchase a basket option). Since the key issue in cross-commodity transactions is the estimation of correlation, it is important to be prepared to alter correlation assumptions. 1 tab., 2 figs

  12. Commodity Market Development in Europe - Outlook. Proceedings of the November 2009 Workshop

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    These proceedings consist of presentations and a summary of a workshop on "Commodity Market Development in Europe - Outlook" held in November 2009 in Brussels. The workshop discussed short- and medium-term commodity baseline projections of agricultural markets in Europe. Policy makers, market and modelling experts from the EU and abroad also discussed emerging factors of EU agricultural market developments, especially volatile agricultural commodity prices, stock levels, biofuels, asynchronou...

  13. Uranium: The recalcitrant commodity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium is analysed as a special market commodity and compared with other metals like copper. The supply-demand balance, production costs and the special form of pricing are discussed. The likely evaluation of inventories and the future capacity utilization are also discussed and commented. (author). 2 refs, 8 figs

  14. CHAOS IN ECONOMY (COMMODITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bonatto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chaos is based on nonlinear phenomena occurring everywhere, but it brings stability and its own structure. Many are the linear realities, but there are phenomena to which mathematical systems do not describe acceptably. Charting these relationships is challenging to obtain a representative model of reality. In the chaos, a small disturbance will amplify, and initially close trajectories diverge. The instability leads to new aspects. This helps in the process of modeling for the study of simulations that are applied in the financial and economic fields, showing that the market continues to disorder in an organized manner. Research in the last 25 years focus on the risk and volatility of the behavior of commodity prices. The analysis and forecast of price behavior in commodity markets are relevant both for producers, cooperatives and industries and for global financial markets. These applications aim to enable projections of future commodity prices, improving decision-making in the future. In modeling commodity time series we must take into account several factors such as seasonality in prices due to fluctuations in supply and demand during periods of crop and season. The analysis of the behavior of prices of an asset is important for predicting future revenue, past behavior analysis of a series of prices and study of the historical price of a product. That's one reason the applicability of chaos theory: the ability to identify and explain fluctuations in the markets that appear to be random, but actually are not.

  15. 7 CFR 917.22 - Nomination of Peach Commodity Committee members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nomination of Peach Commodity Committee members. 917... FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Administrative Bodies § 917.22 Nomination of Peach Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the Peach Commodity...

  16. 7 CFR 917.18 - Nomination of commodity committee members of the Control Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nomination of commodity committee members of the... Administrative Bodies § 917.18 Nomination of commodity committee members of the Control Committee. Nominations... following manner: (a) A nomination for one member shall be made by each commodity committee...

  17. 7 CFR 917.121 - Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee... Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the Pear Commodity Committee shall be made by the growers of pears in the respective representation areas as...

  18. 7 CFR 917.21 - Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. 917.21... AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Administrative Bodies § 917.21 Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the Pear Commodity Committee shall...

  19. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2008-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2008 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2007 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. National reserves and reserve base information for most mineral commodities found in this report, including those for the United States, are derived from a variety of sources. The ideal source of such information would be comprehensive evaluations that apply the same criteria to deposits in different geographic areas and report the results by country. In the absence of such evaluations, national reserves and reserve base estimates compiled by countries for selected mineral commodities are a primary source of national reserves and reserve base information. Lacking national assessment information by governments, sources such as academic articles, company reports, common business practice, presentations by company representatives, and trade journal articles, or a combination of these, serve as the basis for national reserves and reserve base information reported in the mineral commodity sections of this publication. A national estimate may be assembled from the following: historically reported reserves and reserve base information carried for years without alteration because no new information is available; historically reported reserves and reserve base reduced by the amount of historical production; and company reported reserves. International minerals availability studies conducted by the U.S. Bureau of Mines, before 1996, and estimates of identified resources by an international collaborative effort (the International Strategic Minerals

  20. THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS OF AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Bromley, Daniel W.

    1996-01-01

    There are three general classes of environmental implications from agriculture: (1) amenity implications; (2) habitat implications; and (3) ecological implications. Environmental "benefits" or "costs" from agriculture require a prior specification of the norm against which the status quo is to be compared. Agriculture is no longer simply an activity that produces commodities for local, regional, national, or international markets. Indeed, in the OECD countries, commodity abundance, not commod...

  1. Reconciling biofuels, sustainability and commodities demand. Pitfalls and policy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing fossil fuel prices, energy security considerations and environmental concerns, particularly concerning climate change, have motivated countries to explore alternative energy sources including biofuels. Global demand for biofuels has been rising rapidly due to biofuel support policies established in many countries. However, proposed strong links between biofuels demand and recent years' high food commodity prices, and notions that increasing biofuels production might bring about serious negative environmental impacts, in particularly associated with the land use change to biofuel crops, have shifted public enthusiasm about biofuels. In this context, the ELOBIO project aims at shedding further light to these aspects of biofuel expansion by collecting and reviewing the available data, and also developing strategies to decrease negative effects of biofuels while enabling their positive contribution to climate change, security of supply and rural development. ELOBIO considers aspects associated with both 1st and 2nd generation biofuels, hence analyses effects on both agricultural commodity markets and lignocellulosic markets. This project, funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe programme, consists of a review of current experiences with biofuels and other renewable energy policies and their impacts on other markets, iterative stakeholder-supported development of low-disturbing biofuels policies, model supported assessment of these policies' impacts on food, feed and lignocellulosic markets, and finally an assessment of the effects of selected optimal policies on biofuels costs and potentials. Results of the ELOBIO study show that rapid biofuel deployment without careful monitoring of consequences and implementation of mitigating measures risks leading to negative consequences. Implementing ambitious global biofuel targets for 2020, based on current 1st generation technologies, can push international agricultural commodity prices upwards and increase crop

  2. OPTIMAL COMMODITY PROMOTION IN IMPERFECTLY COMPETITIVE MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Mingxia; Sexton, Richard J.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the optimal collection and expenditure of funds for agricultural commodity promotion in markets where the processing and distribution sectors may exhibit oligopoly and/or oligopsony power. The conditions that characterize optimal advertising intensity under perfect competition for funds generated from either per-unit or lump-sum taxes do not, in general, hold when marketing is imperfectly competitive. Simulation analyses show that imperfect competition always reduces farmers' o...

  3. Mass Retailers' Advertising Strategies Against Commodity Stores.

    OpenAIRE

    Fabian Bergès; Sylvette Monier-Dilhan

    2013-01-01

    A retailer has different opportunities to advertise in the media: emphasizing the store image or promoting specifically its private label (PL). In the first option, advertising benefits all products sold, whereas in the alternative, only store brands are concerned by image improvement. We analyze the retailer's advertising campaign strategies when its competitor's format is a small commodity store. PL quality is endogenous and chosen according to the competitor's product range. We show the re...

  4. Do irrelevant commodities matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Fleurbaey, Marc; Tadenuma, Koichi

    2007-01-01

    We study how to evaluate allocations independently of individual preferences over unavailable commodities. We prove impossibility results suggesting that such evaluations encounter serious difficulties. This is related to the well-known problem of performing international comparisons of standard of living across countries with different consumption goods. We show how possibility results can be retrieved with restrictions on the domain of preferences, on the application of the independence axi...

  5. Child Labor in Agriculture: Changes Needed To Better Protect Health and Educational Opportunities. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    In a response to a Congressional request, this report presents information and statistics on child labor in agriculture. Specifically, the report examines: (1) the extent and prevalence of child labor in agriculture, (2) the legislative protections available to children working in agriculture, (3) the enforcement of these protections as they apply…

  6. Mineral commodity summaries 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2013-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2013 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2012 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2013 are welcomed.

  7. Mineral commodity summaries 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2014-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2014 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2013 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2014 are welcomed.

  8. Commodity-Free Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Commodity-free calibration is a reaction rate calibration technique that does not require the addition of any commodities. This technique is a specific form of the reaction rate technique, where all of the necessary reactants, other than the sample being analyzed, are either inherent in the analyzing system or specifically added or provided to the system for a reason other than calibration. After introduction, the component of interest is exposed to other reactants or flow paths already present in the system. The instrument detector records one of the following to determine the rate of reaction: the increase in the response of the reaction product, a decrease in the signal of the analyte response, or a decrease in the signal from the inherent reactant. With this data, the initial concentration of the analyte is calculated. This type of system can analyze and calibrate simultaneously, reduce the risk of false positives and exposure to toxic vapors, and improve accuracy. Moreover, having an excess of the reactant already present in the system eliminates the need to add commodities, which further reduces cost, logistic problems, and potential contamination. Also, the calculations involved can be simplified by comparison to those of the reaction rate technique. We conducted tests with hypergols as an initial investigation into the feasiblility of the technique.

  9. Multiple pathways of commodity crop expansion in tropical forest landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commodity crop expansion, for both global and domestic urban markets, follows multiple land change pathways entailing direct and indirect deforestation, and results in various social and environmental impacts. Here we compare six published case studies of rapid commodity crop expansion within forested tropical regions. Across cases, between 1.7% and 89.5% of new commodity cropland was sourced from forestlands. Four main factors controlled pathways of commodity crop expansion: (i) the availability of suitable forestland, which is determined by forest area, agroecological or accessibility constraints, and land use policies, (ii) economic and technical characteristics of agricultural systems, (iii) differences in constraints and strategies between small-scale and large-scale actors, and (iv) variable costs and benefits of forest clearing. When remaining forests were unsuitable for agriculture and/or policies restricted forest encroachment, a larger share of commodity crop expansion occurred by conversion of existing agricultural lands, and land use displacement was smaller. Expansion strategies of large-scale actors emerge from context-specific balances between the search for suitable lands; transaction costs or conflicts associated with expanding into forests or other state-owned lands versus smallholder lands; net benefits of forest clearing; and greater access to infrastructure in already-cleared lands. We propose five hypotheses to be tested in further studies: (i) land availability mediates expansion pathways and the likelihood that land use is displaced to distant, rather than to local places; (ii) use of already-cleared lands is favored when commodity crops require access to infrastructure; (iii) in proportion to total agricultural expansion, large-scale actors generate more clearing of mature forests than smallholders; (iv) property rights and land tenure security influence the actors participating in commodity crop expansion, the form of land use displacement

  10. Multiple pathways of commodity crop expansion in tropical forest landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyfroidt, Patrick; Carlson, Kimberly M.; Fagan, Matthew E.; Gutiérrez-Vélez, Victor H.; Macedo, Marcia N.; Curran, Lisa M.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Dyer, George A.; Gibbs, Holly K.; Lambin, Eric F.; Morton, Douglas C.; Robiglio, Valentina

    2014-07-01

    Commodity crop expansion, for both global and domestic urban markets, follows multiple land change pathways entailing direct and indirect deforestation, and results in various social and environmental impacts. Here we compare six published case studies of rapid commodity crop expansion within forested tropical regions. Across cases, between 1.7% and 89.5% of new commodity cropland was sourced from forestlands. Four main factors controlled pathways of commodity crop expansion: (i) the availability of suitable forestland, which is determined by forest area, agroecological or accessibility constraints, and land use policies, (ii) economic and technical characteristics of agricultural systems, (iii) differences in constraints and strategies between small-scale and large-scale actors, and (iv) variable costs and benefits of forest clearing. When remaining forests were unsuitable for agriculture and/or policies restricted forest encroachment, a larger share of commodity crop expansion occurred by conversion of existing agricultural lands, and land use displacement was smaller. Expansion strategies of large-scale actors emerge from context-specific balances between the search for suitable lands; transaction costs or conflicts associated with expanding into forests or other state-owned lands versus smallholder lands; net benefits of forest clearing; and greater access to infrastructure in already-cleared lands. We propose five hypotheses to be tested in further studies: (i) land availability mediates expansion pathways and the likelihood that land use is displaced to distant, rather than to local places; (ii) use of already-cleared lands is favored when commodity crops require access to infrastructure; (iii) in proportion to total agricultural expansion, large-scale actors generate more clearing of mature forests than smallholders; (iv) property rights and land tenure security influence the actors participating in commodity crop expansion, the form of land use displacement

  11. 7 CFR 253.10 - Commodity control, storage and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in relation to population density of eligible households. (10) Days and hours of distribution are... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commodity control, storage and distribution. 253.10... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION ADMINISTRATION...

  12. Water scarcity in the Jordan Valley; Impacts on Agriculture and Rural livelihoods : Threaths and opportunities to local sustainable agriculture; the case of al-Auja, Jordan River Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Dobricic, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    Palestine has during the last two decades suffered from increasing water scarcity. This is particularlyvisible in the agricultural sector and in farming communities. These are heavily dependent on water as primaryirrigation source. Lack of water and investments has resulted in the destruction of the agricultural sector inPalestine. This thesis is focused as a case study in al-Auja, Jordan Valley that was once well-known for itsagricultural productivity and abundance of water resources. The ai...

  13. Outlook '98 - Commodity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canadian oil and natural gas producers'' participation in commodity and foreign exchange markets to alter the pricing characteristics of their commodity portfolios was reviewed. It was concluded that through the various risk management structures available from financial and physical market participants, Canadian oil and gas producers retain the ongoing ability to design, pro-actively, their desired exposure to oil and gas prices. Various industry-wide re-examination of risk management programs have taken place during the past two years. Based on these studies, the industry anticipates material volatility in West Texas Intermediate (WTI) oil and Alberta natural gas prices throughout 1998. Furthermore, there is considerable uncertainty surrounding the price differentials between WTI crude and Canadian oil streams, and between Alberta gas prices and other North American regional gas markets. Against this background of uncertainty, it is reasonable to predict that companies will use risk management strategies in an effort to outperform industry average prices, thereby ensuring that pro-active risk management activity will continue throughout 1998

  14. Enhancing Supply Chain Connectivity and Competitiveness of ASEAN Agricultural Products: Identifying Choke Points and Opportunities for Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Israel, Danilo C.; Roehlano M. Briones

    2014-01-01

    This study examines "choke points" in the supply chain of two selected commodity groups that are of interest to the ASEAN region; within the HS15 group the study focuses on crude coconut oil (CNO); for HS03 the study covers fish and crustacean, mollusks, and other aquatic invertebrates (HS 03). For CNO, no major choke points have been identified from mill site to export stages; cost and delay factors can be found at the farm to mill stage, namely low farm productivity, poor postharvest practi...

  15. Radiation technology for value addition to food and agro commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assuring adequate food security to citizens of the country requires deployment of strategies for augmenting agricultural production while reducing post-harvest losses. Appropriate post-harvest processing, handling, storage and distribution practices are as important as the efforts to increase productivity for sustained food security, food safety and international trade in agricultural commodities. Nuclear energy has played a significant role both in the improvement of crop productivity, as well as, in the preservation and hygienization of agricultural produce

  16. Commodities, energy and environmental finance

    CERN Document Server

    Ludkovski, Michael; Sircar, Ronnie

    2015-01-01

    This volume is a collection of chapters covering the latest developments in applications of financial mathematics and statistics to topics in energy, commodity financial markets and environmental economics. The research presented is based on the presentations and discussions that took place during the Fields Institute Focus Program on Commodities, Energy and Environmental Finance in August 2013. The authors include applied mathematicians, economists and industry practitioners, providing for a multi-disciplinary spectrum of perspectives on the subject. The volume consists of four sections: Electricity Markets; Real Options; Trading in Commodity Markets; and Oligopolistic Models for Energy Production. Taken together, the chapters give a comprehensive summary of the current state of the art in quantitative analysis of commodities and energy finance. The topics covered include structural models of electricity markets, financialization of commodities, valuation of commodity real options, game-theory analysis of ...

  17. Negotiating commodity price risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the negotiations that led to PrimeWest's acquisition of Northstar's Grand Forks property at the end of 1997 was presented as an example of dealing with commodity price risk in an asset purchase. The paper described the pricing environment at the time of negotiations, the oil price collar, and the closing results. In 1998 PrimeWest drilled nine out of ten successful wells which are currently producing at an average production rate of 2776 bpd. In the event, PrimeWest has been able to maintain good value in its Grand Forks property acquisition, despite low oil prices. It is believed that the oil price collar was the main component of value retention. The oil price collar was the mechanism to protect PrimeWest, should oil prices remain below the field price. It is believed that this transaction would not have occurred without the price collar. 5 tabs., 12 figs

  18. The Commodity and its Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines fishing quota as a commodity in both a conceptual perspective and through ethnographic examples. Inspired by Marx’s ideas of the commodity, use-value, exchange-value, and ground rent, the chapter combines a theoretical approach with ethnographic material. The different aspects...

  19. Wavelet Transforms and Commodity Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Connor Jeff; Rossiter Rosemary

    2005-01-01

    Traders in commodity markets may have different time horizons. This paper uses a scale analysis to investigate heterogeneous trading in such markets. Estimates are presented for price correlations by scale and long memory in the volatility of commodity prices. Wavelet variance is estimated using non-decimated wavelet transforms. Wavelets have the potential to be a useful tool for scale analysis in economics.

  20. FORECASTING FUTURE EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR FOOD, AGRICULTURE, AND NATURAL RESOURCES HIGHER EDUCATION GRADUATES USING ADJUSTED BUREAU OF LABOR FORECASTS

    OpenAIRE

    Bullock, K. Wayne; Litzenberg, Kerry K.

    2002-01-01

    Forecasts of the number of future professionals required for an ongoing safe, efficient US food system are highly important. The demand for adequately prepared higher education graduates must be met by the US Food, Agriculture, and Natural Resources Education System. Without accurate forecasts of the human resource needs of the food sector of the economy, adequate professionals may not be available when needed. This research effort makes use of Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) forecasted empl...

  1. Identifying agricultural research and development investment opportunities in sub-Saharan Africa: A global, economy-wide analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ehui, Simeon K.; Tsigas, Marinos E.

    2006-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is the most important development challenge of the 21st century. Poverty is higher in most African countries than elsewhere in the developing world. According to the recently published Report of the Commission for Africa, economic growth in Africa is necessary for substantially reducing poverty. Among three proposed policy options, the Commission recommends that African countries invest significantly in agriculture. But policy makers in the region face a dilemma: whic...

  2. Exploring the organic agriculture practice in Mexico: an opportunity for small-scale farmers to feed themselves

    OpenAIRE

    Juarez Hernandez, Isabel; Hernandez Cervantes, Tania

    2009-01-01

    We examine how organic farming practiced by small farmers in rural zones in Mexico could build a self-sufficient food system. We hold the hypothesis that the promotion of the local consumption of organic produce is an alternative to strengthen the local economy needed to sustain food self-sufficiency. The hypothesis stands against export oriented market and high external input technology of industrial agriculture that erodes small-scale farmers’ ability for self-sufficient food. Firstly, a de...

  3. Is the Share of Agricultural Maintenance Research Rising?

    OpenAIRE

    Sparger, John Adam; Heisey, Paul W.; Alwang, Jeffrey Roger; Norton, George W.

    2010-01-01

    This study measures the amount of agricultural research engaged in maintenance research for commodities and non-commodities. The percentage of commodity based maintenance research has risen from roughly 35% in 1986 to 41% in 2008. The percentage of non-commodity based agricultural research is roughly 29%. Additionally, an empirical model is developed to explain maintenance research expenditures. The influences of agricultural research funding, climatic conditions, pest and pathogen control, a...

  4. THE 2002 FARM ACT: PROVISIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR COMMODITY MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Westcott, Paul C.; Young, C. Edwin; Price, J. Michael

    2002-01-01

    The Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (2002 Farm Act), which governs agricultural programs through 2007, was signed into law in May 2002. This report presents an initial evaluation of the new legislation's effects on agricultural commodity markets, based on sectorwide model simulations under alternative policy assumptions. The analysis shows that loan rate changes under the marketing assistance loan program of the 2002 Farm Act initially result in an increase in total planted acr...

  5. Commodity Markets, Risk and Poverty: A Case of Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Malunda, Dickson

    2011-01-01

    For most low developed economies in Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA), agriculture has been the main source of livelihood contributing 34% to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and 64% to employment, either directly or indirectly. Dependence on agricultural commodities for exports has been accompanied by a high degree of price risk in terms of both volatile and declining prices, a phenomenon which has not only affected the way households allocate their resources but also affected their welfare in terms of c...

  6. Segmentation of the industrial market for food commodities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2001-01-01

    by the appearance of changing demands and technological opportunities, which potentially can lead to differentiation possibilities. The article describes a framework for the study of industrial buying of food commodities and the results of a conjoint study based on interviews with oil purchasers in the margarine...

  7. Quarterly Web Interfaced Commodity Reporting

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — QWICR is a secure, online Title II commodity reporting system accessible to USAID Missions, PVO Cooperating Sponsors and Food for Peace Officers. QWICR provides PVO...

  8. Processing Trade Banned Commodities announced

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The new catalogue of processing trade-banned commodities was announced recently. The announcement was executed since November 22 of 2006. The Catalogue will be adjusted according to related policies of the state.

  9. Identifying the Barriers and Opportunities for Enhanced Coherence between Agriculture and Public Health Policies: Improving the Fat Supply in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Shauna M; Thow, Anne Marie; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna; Leeder, Stephen R

    2015-01-01

    The national Government of India has published draft regulation proposing a 5% upper limit of trans fat in partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVOs). Global recommendations are to replace PHVOs with unsaturated fat but it is not known whether this will be feasible in India. We systematically identified policy options to address the three major underlying agricultural sector issues that influence reformulation with healthier oils: the low productivity of domestically produced oilseeds leading to a reliance on palm oil imports, supply chain wastage, and the low availability of oils high in unsaturated fats. Strengthening domestic supply chains in India will be necessary to maximize health gains associated with product reformulation. PMID:25879914

  10. "退耕还林工程"实施后安塞县商品型生态农业建设成效%Effect of constructing ecological agriculture with commodities after launching “Grain for Green Project” in Ansai County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李奇睿; 王继军

    2011-01-01

    以安塞县为例,分析了该县商品型生态农业的建设成效,探讨了商品型生态农业建设对区域农业生态经济系统演替过程产生的影响.结果表明:在退耕还林还草工程实施的背景下,安塞县商品型生态农业建设取得了明显的生态、经济和社会效益;2007年与1999年相比,全县林草覆盖率提高了12.6%,水土流失治理程度提高了14%;高效设施农业已成为安塞县主干道周围农业生产的主要模式,其产值占农林牧渔总产值的72%;农民人均纯收入较1999年增长了83.51%,其中工副业、种植业和果业收入占农民总收入的77.28%;农业生产稳定指数同比提高了51.61%,粮食稳定性指数同比增加了17.07%,二、三产业发展稳定性指数同比下降了77.91%.%Taking Ansai County as an example, the effect of constructing ecological agriculture with commodities was analyzed, and its impact on the suocession process of regional agricultural eeo-economic system was discussed. The results indicated that: in the context of launching Grain for Green Project, there were significant ecological, economic and social benefits from constructing ecological agriculture with commodities in Ansai County. Compared to that of 1999,the vegetation coverage rate in Ansai County increased by 12.6%, and soil-water erosion rehabilitation rate increased by14% in 2007. Efficient facility farming had become the main mode of agricultural production, which was near the arterial roads in Ansai County and took up 72% of GAP (the gross agricultural product). Compared to the figure of 1999,net income per peasant increased by 83.51 %. Especially, the income of sideline, crop farming and fruit accounted for 77.28% of the total revenue. The stability index of agricultural production had increased by 51.61% year on year,while the food stability index had grown by 17.07% annually. Meanwhile, the development stability index of secondary and tertiary econo.mie sectors

  11. Unconventional Commodities – Future Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Ion Schileru

    2005-01-01

    The author of this work reveals a few of the processes from contemporary economy which require the reorganization of commodities offer. The globalism, the free trade, the buyer’s emancipation and other processes, they all generate conditions for the unconventional’s affirmation within the reality - „commodities”. Situations where unconventional appears are presented along with implications and exemplifications. The research of the unconventional regarding the trade-commodity presents a large ...

  12. 77 FR 20353 - United States Warehouse Act; Export Food Aid Commodities Licensing Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... commodities to be stored. On March 15, 2011 (76 FR 13972-13973), FSA published a notice in the Federal...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Farm Service Agency United States Warehouse Act; Export Food Aid Commodities... agreement offered by the Farm Service Agency (FSA) under the United States Warehouse Act...

  13. 75 FR 16719 - Agricultural Water Enhancement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation Agricultural Water Enhancement Program AGENCY: Commodity Credit Corporation and... Service (NRCS), who is Vice President of the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC). NRCS is an agency of the... is not a grant program to partners, and all Federal funding offered through this authority will...

  14. 7 CFR 46.48 - Procedure for investigating complaints involving commodities of a unique nature or coming from a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedure for investigating complaints involving commodities of a unique nature or coming from a distinct geographic area. 46.48 Section 46.48 Agriculture... Procedure for investigating complaints involving commodities of a unique nature or coming from a...

  15. 17 CFR 32.13 - Exemption from prohibition of commodity option transactions for trade options on certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., covering transactions, and all written or electronic customer solicitation materials. Agricultural trade... Commission by facsimile, telegraphic or other similar electronic notice; and (ii) Within five business days... commodity option transactions for trade options on certain agricultural commodities. 32.13 Section...

  16. Coupling relationship of ecological agricultural system of commodities in Ansai county based on structural equation model%基于结构方程模型的安塞县商品型生态农业系统耦合关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李奇睿; 王继军; 郭满才

    2012-01-01

    依据农户调查数据,运用结构方程模型分析了安塞县及其南、中、北商品型生态农业系统耦合关系,结果表明:农业资源与农业产业是商品型生态农业系统耦合的核心,但由于生态环境改善未对系统耦合起到基础或支撑作用,使得资源与产业局部相悖.从安塞县整体而言,生态环境直接影响系统耦合,但其标准化系数却是-0.11,导致农业资源与产业态势标准化相关系数只有0.46,使系统耦合对经济效益的影响强度较弱,即退耕还林还草工程的实施改善了生态环境,但环境改善所增加的农业资源量并未得到相关产业的有效利用,系统耦合效果不显著;就安塞县南-中-北而言,其商品型生态农业系统耦合模式类型分别为“林区养殖业-果业-设施农业”、“经济林-果业-设施农业”和“畜牧业-特色农产品-经济林”,由于养殖业与林草资源未形成有效产业链,相比较北部耦合效果较好.针对农业资源利用率低的现实,在商品型生态农业建设过程中需要强化草畜业,发展优质果业及精、细、密型种植业,完善商品裂生态农业系统链网结构,实现农业产业与资源的优化耦合.%To investigate possible differences in the coupling relationship of EASC (ecological agro-system of commodities) due to location, the coupling relationship of EASC in Ansai county and its south, north, and central section based on data from household surveys was analyzed using the structural equation model. Results showed that agricultural practices and agricultural resources were the core of the coupling relationship of EASC. When agricultural resources were utilized with low efficiency, agricultural practices did not advance in the same speed with environmental amelioration and agricultural resources accumulation, which hampered the optimization of the coupling relationship of EASC and also the advance of the regional economy. At the county

  17. 7 CFR 1599.11 - Use of commodities and sale proceeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE McGOVERN-DOLE INTERNATIONAL FOOD FOR EDUCATION AND CHILD NUTRITION... sell the donated commodities at a reasonable market price in the economy where the sale occurs....

  18. 75 FR 29307 - Web Based Supply Chain Management Commodity Offer Form, Paperwork Collection Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Web Based Supply Chain Management Commodity Offer Form, Paperwork Collection... Based Supply Chain Management (WBSCM) that will allow respondents to submit information electronically... CONTACT: David Tuckwiller, Project Manager, Web Based Supply Chain Management System, phone (202)...

  19. A future Demand Side Management (DSM) opportunity for utility as variable renewable penetrate scale up using agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ines, A.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Modi, V.; Robertson, A. W.; Lall, U.; Kocaman Ayse, S.; Chaudhary, S.; Kumar, A.; Ganapathy, A.; Kumar, A.; Mishra, V.

    2015-12-01

    Energy demand management, also known as demand side management (DSM), is the modification of consumer demand for energy through various methods such as smart metering, incentive based schemes, payments for turning off loads or rescheduling loads. Usually, the goal of demand side management is to encourage the consumer to use less power during periods of peak demand, or to move the time of energy use to off-peak times. Peak demand management does not necessarily decrease total energy consumption, but could be expected to reduce the need for investments in networks and/or power plants for meeting peak demands. Electricity use can vary dramatically on short and medium time frames, and the pricing system may not reflect the instantaneous cost as additional higher-cost that are brought on-line. In addition, the capacity or willingness of electricity consumers to adjust to prices by altering elasticity of demand may be low, particularly over short time frames. In the scenario of Indian grid setup, the retail customers do not follow real-time pricing and it is difficult to incentivize the utility companies for continuing the peak demand supply. A question for the future is how deeper penetration of renewable will be handled? This is a challenging problem since one has to deal with high variability, while managing loss of load probabilities. In the case of managing the peak demand using agriculture, in the future as smart metering matures with automatic turn on/off for a pump, it will become possible to provide an ensured amount of water or energy to the farmer while keeping the grid energized for 24 hours. Supply scenarios will include the possibility of much larger penetration of solar and wind into the grid. While, in absolute terms these sources are small contributors, their role will inevitably grow but DSM using agriculture could help reduce the capital cost. The other option is of advancing or delaying pump operating cycle even by several hours, will still ensure

  20. What Drives Commodity Prices More: Oil Demand or Supply Shocks?

    OpenAIRE

    Mutuc, Maria Erlinda M.; Pan, Suwen; Hudson, Darren

    2010-01-01

    This paper shows that the response of agricultural commodity prices in the U.S. related to fluctuations in oil prices in the international market may differ greatly depending on whether the increase is driven by demand or supply shocks in the crude oil market. In the long-run, around 2-7 percent of the variability in grains, oilseeds, and cotton prices can be attributed to shocks to aggregate demand for industrial commodities while none can be traced to oil supply shocks. This paper improves ...

  1. 48 CFR 8.715 - Replacement commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Replacement commodities. 8... Are Blind or Severely Disabled 8.715 Replacement commodities. When a commodity on the Procurement List is replaced by another commodity which has not been previously acquired, and a qualified...

  2. Strengthening the Competitive Position of Commodity Marketers Two Case Study Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    McLaughlin, Edward W.; Perosio, Debra J.

    1993-01-01

    Producers and marketers of agricultural commodities are often beset with a similar set of problems that generally may be reduced to the following question: "how can we modify our product or program in such a way as to gain a competitive edge on our competition?" As every commodity marketer knows, there is, unfortunately, no easy answer to this question. Obtaining higher prices and returns for agricultural products is possible, but requires commitment, vision and attention to the ever-changing...

  3. Identifying the spatial and temporal variability of economic opportunity costs to promote the adoption of alternative land uses in grain growing agricultural areas: an Australian example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, G; Bryan, B A; Ostendorf, B

    2015-05-15

    Grain growers face many future challenges requiring them to adapt their land uses to changing economic, social and environmental conditions. To understand where to make on ground changes without significant negative financial repercussions, high resolution information on income generation over time is required. We propose a methodology which utilises high resolution yield data collected with precision agriculture (PA) technology, gross margin financial analysis and a temporal standardisation technique to highlight the spatial and temporal consistency of farm income. On three neighbouring farms in Western Australia, we found non-linear relationships between income and area. Spatio-temporal analysis on one farm over varying seasons found that between 37 and 49% (1082-1433ha) of cropping area consistently produced above the selected income thresholds and 43-32% (936-1257ha) regularly produced below selected thresholds. Around 20% of area showed inconsistent temporal variation in income generation. Income estimated from these areas represents the income forgone if a land use change is undertaken (the economic opportunity cost) and the average costs varied spatially from $190±114/ha to $560±108/ha depending on what scenario was chosen. The interaction over space and time showed the clustering of areas with similar values at a resolution where growers make input decisions. This new evidence suggests that farm area could be managed with two strategies: (a) one that maximises grain output using PA management in temporally stable areas which generate moderate to high income returns and (b) one that proposes land use change in low and inconsistent income returning areas where the financial returns from an alternative land use may be comparable. The adoption of these strategies can help growers meet the demand for agricultural output and offer income diversity and adaptive capacity to deal with the future challenges to agricultural production. PMID:25836353

  4. Transmission of World Commodity Prices to Domestic Commodity Prices in India and China

    OpenAIRE

    Katsushi Imai; Raghav Gaiha; Ganesh Thapa

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the extent to which changes in global agricultural commodity price are transmitted to domestic prices in India and China. The focus is on short and medium-run adjustment processes using an error correction specification. In particular, we show that the extent of adjustment in the short and medium- run (from 0 to 3 years) is generally larger in China than in India. Second, the adjustment is larger for wheat, maize and rice than for fruits and vegetables in both India and Ch...

  5. 78 FR 52426 - Retail Commodity Transactions Under Commodity Exchange Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... Transactions Under Commodity Exchange Act, 76 FR 77670 (Dec. 14, 2011). II. Summary of Comments A. Comments... factors set forth in the Interpretation. \\19\\ 76 FR 77670, 77672 (Dec. 14, 2011). \\20\\ Id. 2. When the 28...)(ii). \\24\\ See, e.g., Statutory Interpretation Concerning Forward Transactions, 55 FR 39188 (Sept....

  6. Index Investment and Financialization of Commodities

    OpenAIRE

    Ke Tang; Wei Xiong

    2010-01-01

    This paper finds that, concurrent with the rapid growing index investment in commodities markets since early 2000s, futures prices of different commodities in the US became increasingly correlated with each other and this trend was significantly more pronounced for commodities in the two popular GSCI and DJ-UBS commodity indices. This finding reflects a financialization process of commodities markets and helps explain the synchronized price boom and bust of a broad set of seemingly unrelated ...

  7. Papaya Development Model As A Competitive Local Superior Commodity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reny Sukmawani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study the comparative advantage and papaya competitive and to design its development model by using the approach of local base agriculture development. This research uses survey method. The resulting research shows that papaya is a base commodity that has comparative advantage and competitive. The development papaya in the district of Sukabumi is quite good bases on eight superior creations. But in order to be the main sector in economic development and has a competition, the development of papaya must concern to its influence factors. In supporting papaya development as a competitive local superior commodity, it needs to be done some efforts are as follows: (1 increase a skillful worker; (2 improve business management; (3 increase papaya productivity by using technology and study papaya planted technology in specific local superior commodity; (4 develop the involvement of the business relation; (5 provide market information and information technology network; and (6 improve infrastructures.

  8. A Study on Market Efficiency of Selected Commodity Derivatives Traded on NCDEX During 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajipriya, N.

    2012-10-01

    The study aims at testing the weak form of Efficient Market Hypothesis in the context of an emerging commodity market - National Commodity Derivatives Exchange (NCDEX), which is considered as the prime commodity derivatives market in India. The study considered daily spot and futures prices of five selected commodities traded on NCDEX over 12 month period (the futures contracts originating and expiring during the period January 2011 to December 2011) The five commodities chosen are Pepper, Crude palm Oil, steel silver and Chana as they account for almost two-thirds of the value of agricultural commodity derivatives traded on NCDEX. The results of Run test indicate that both spot and futures prices are weak form efficient

  9. GATT and the Thai Agricultural Economy

    OpenAIRE

    C.D. Gingrich

    1994-01-01

    Thailand has experienced steady economic growth over the last 20 years, in part because of its productive agricultural sector. The primary agricultural commodities produced in Thailand are rice, maize, cassava, poultry, and sugar. Thailand exports significant amounts of these commodities compared to its total agricultural production and the world export market. Thailand's internal and external agricultural policies are basically market oriented, with the exception of sugar and soybean program...

  10. Commodity hardware and software summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolbers, S.

    1997-04-01

    A review is given of the talks and papers presented in the Commodity Hardware and Software Session at the CHEP97 conference. An examination of the trends leading to the consideration of PC`s for HEP is given, and a status of the work that is being done at various HEP labs and Universities is given.

  11. "Pricing Average Options on Commodities"

    OpenAIRE

    Kenichiro Shiraya; Akihiko Takahashi

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a new approximation formula for pricing average options on commodities under a stochastic volatility environment. In particular, it derives an option pricing formula under Heston and an extended lambda-SABR stochastic volatility models (which includes an extended SABR model as a special case). Moreover, numerical examples support the accuracy of the proposed average option pricing formula.

  12. Commodity hardware and software summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given of the talks and papers presented in the Commodity Hardware and Software Session at the CHEP97 conference. An examination of the trends leading to the consideration of PC's for HEP is given, and a status of the work that is being done at various HEP labs and Universities is given

  13. Agricultural Minerals Operations - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes agricultural minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  14. Budget Constraints Affect Male Rats’ Choices between Differently Priced Commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenscher, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Demand theory can be applied to analyse how a human or animal consumer changes her selection of commodities within a certain budget in response to changes in price of those commodities. This change in consumption assessed over a range of prices is defined as demand elasticity. Previously, income-compensated and income-uncompensated price changes have been investigated using human and animal consumers, as demand theory predicts different elasticities for both conditions. However, in these studies, demand elasticity was only evaluated over the entirety of choices made from a budget. As compensating budgets changes the number of attainable commodities relative to uncompensated conditions, and thus the number of choices, it remained unclear whether budget compensation has a trivial effect on demand elasticity by simply sampling from a different total number of choices or has a direct effect on consumers’ sequential choice structure. If the budget context independently changes choices between commodities over and above price effects, this should become apparent when demand elasticity is assessed over choice sets of any reasonable size that are matched in choice opportunities between budget conditions. To gain more detailed insight in the sequential choice dynamics underlying differences in demand elasticity between budget conditions, we trained N=8 rat consumers to spend a daily budget by making a number of nosepokes to obtain two liquid commodities under different price regimes, in sessions with and without budget compensation. We confirmed that demand elasticity for both commodities differed between compensated and uncompensated budget conditions, also when the number of choices considered was matched, and showed that these elasticity differences emerge early in the sessions. These differences in demand elasticity were driven by a higher choice rate and an increased reselection bias for the preferred commodity in compensated compared to uncompensated budget

  15. Budget Constraints Affect Male Rats' Choices between Differently Priced Commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wingerden, Marijn; Marx, Christine; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Demand theory can be applied to analyse how a human or animal consumer changes her selection of commodities within a certain budget in response to changes in price of those commodities. This change in consumption assessed over a range of prices is defined as demand elasticity. Previously, income-compensated and income-uncompensated price changes have been investigated using human and animal consumers, as demand theory predicts different elasticities for both conditions. However, in these studies, demand elasticity was only evaluated over the entirety of choices made from a budget. As compensating budgets changes the number of attainable commodities relative to uncompensated conditions, and thus the number of choices, it remained unclear whether budget compensation has a trivial effect on demand elasticity by simply sampling from a different total number of choices or has a direct effect on consumers' sequential choice structure. If the budget context independently changes choices between commodities over and above price effects, this should become apparent when demand elasticity is assessed over choice sets of any reasonable size that are matched in choice opportunities between budget conditions. To gain more detailed insight in the sequential choice dynamics underlying differences in demand elasticity between budget conditions, we trained N=8 rat consumers to spend a daily budget by making a number of nosepokes to obtain two liquid commodities under different price regimes, in sessions with and without budget compensation. We confirmed that demand elasticity for both commodities differed between compensated and uncompensated budget conditions, also when the number of choices considered was matched, and showed that these elasticity differences emerge early in the sessions. These differences in demand elasticity were driven by a higher choice rate and an increased reselection bias for the preferred commodity in compensated compared to uncompensated budget conditions

  16. Budget Constraints Affect Male Rats' Choices between Differently Priced Commodities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijn van Wingerden

    Full Text Available Demand theory can be applied to analyse how a human or animal consumer changes her selection of commodities within a certain budget in response to changes in price of those commodities. This change in consumption assessed over a range of prices is defined as demand elasticity. Previously, income-compensated and income-uncompensated price changes have been investigated using human and animal consumers, as demand theory predicts different elasticities for both conditions. However, in these studies, demand elasticity was only evaluated over the entirety of choices made from a budget. As compensating budgets changes the number of attainable commodities relative to uncompensated conditions, and thus the number of choices, it remained unclear whether budget compensation has a trivial effect on demand elasticity by simply sampling from a different total number of choices or has a direct effect on consumers' sequential choice structure. If the budget context independently changes choices between commodities over and above price effects, this should become apparent when demand elasticity is assessed over choice sets of any reasonable size that are matched in choice opportunities between budget conditions. To gain more detailed insight in the sequential choice dynamics underlying differences in demand elasticity between budget conditions, we trained N=8 rat consumers to spend a daily budget by making a number of nosepokes to obtain two liquid commodities under different price regimes, in sessions with and without budget compensation. We confirmed that demand elasticity for both commodities differed between compensated and uncompensated budget conditions, also when the number of choices considered was matched, and showed that these elasticity differences emerge early in the sessions. These differences in demand elasticity were driven by a higher choice rate and an increased reselection bias for the preferred commodity in compensated compared to

  17. Opportunities and Challenges for O2O Agricultural Produce E-businesses%O2O农产品电子商务的机遇与挑战

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张则岭

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduced the connotation of the O2O e-commerce, analyzed the current status of the development of the O2O agricultural produce e-businesses in China, summarized the opportunities and challenges this mode faced in China, and at the end, proposed the countermeasures for its better development.%阐述了O2O电子商务的内涵,分析了我国O2O农产品电子商务的发展现状,总结了O2O农产品电子商务面临的政府推动、通信技术和智能手机出现、移动支付技术成熟、网购快速增长等发展机遇,指出其也面临物流配送体系不完善、农产品质量标准不一、资源整合困难、O2O消费市场急需培育、人才和资金匮乏等诸多问题,最后提出了发展O2O农产品电子商务的对策建议。

  18. Is women's labor a commodity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Elizabeth S

    1990-01-01

    ...A commercial surrogate mother is anyone who is paid money to bear a child for other people and terminate her parental rights, so that the others may raise the child as exclusively their own. The growth of commercial surrogacy has raised with new urgency a class of concerns regarding the proper scope of the market. Some critics have objected to commercial surrogacy on the ground that it improperly treats children and women's reproductive capacities as commodities. The prospect of reducing children to consumer durables and women to baby factories surely inspires revulsion. But are there good reasons behind the revulsion? And is this an accurate description of what commercial surrogacy implies? This article offers a theory about what things are properly regarded as commodities which supports the claim that commercial surrogacy constitutes an unconscionable commodification of children and of women's reproductive capacities. PMID:11651966

  19. Aromatherapy Oils: Commodities, Materials, Essences

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth Barcan

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the essential oils that are the central tools of aromatherapy and uses them as a case study for different approaches to material culture. It considers the conceptual and political implications of thinking of essential oils as, in turn, commodities, materials and essences. I argue that both cultural studies and aromatherapy have something to learn from each other. Classic materialist approaches might do well to focus more attention on the material properties and effects o...

  20. Commodity futures and market efficiency

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krištoufek, Ladislav; Vošvrda, Miloslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 1 (2014), s. 50-57. ISSN 0140-9883 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/0965 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GAP402/11/0948 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : commodities * efficiency * entropy * long-term memory * fractal dimension Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.708, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/kristoufek-0420811.pdf

  1. GLOBAL CHALLENGES FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalana Bartosova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the evaluation of economic, social and environmental challenges of sustainable agriculture. The selected indicators of the economic challenges of sustainable agriculture imply that agriculture in Slovakia is not in long term be able to ensure competitiveness in the European market, gross agricultural output is characterized by a faster decline in animal production than in crop production and the value of import of agri-food commodities is higher than the value of export. According to selected indicators of social challenges of sustainable agriculture the number of persons working in agriculture has decreasing tendency in last years. The evaluation of selected indicators of environmental challenges of sustainable agriculture implies that area of organic agriculture is the most widely applied sub-measure within the measure agri-environmental payments. For ensuring the balance of the three mentioned dimensions of sustainable agriculture is necessary to increase of local production and consumption of local products, to ensure the protection of nature and landscape, to ensure rural development and to increase the employment opportunities in countryside.

  2. Innovations in urban agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, van der J.W.; Renting, Henk; Veenhuizen, Van René

    2014-01-01

    This issuehighlights innovations in urban agriculture. Innovation and the various forms of innovations are of particular importance because urban agriculture is adapted to specific urban challenges and opportunities. Innovation is taking place continuously, exploring the multiple fundions of urban a

  3. Founding Digital Currency on Imprecise Commodity

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Zimu; Xu, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    Current digital currency schemes provide instantaneous exchange on precise commodity, in which "precise" means a buyer can possibly verify the function of the commodity without error. However, imprecise commodities, e.g. statistical data, with error existing are abundant in digital world. Existing digital currency schemes do not offer a mechanism to help the buyer for payment decision on precision of commodity, which may lead the buyer to a dilemma between having to buy and being unconfident....

  4. What explains the growth in commodity derivatives ?

    OpenAIRE

    Basu, P.; Gavin, W.T.

    2010-01-01

    This article documents the massive increase in trading in commodity derivatives over the past decade—growth that far outstrips the growth in commodity production and the need for derivatives to hedge risk by commercial producers and users of commodities. During the past decade, many institutional portfolio managers added commodity derivatives as an asset class to their portfolios. This addition was part of a larger shift in portfolio strategy away from traditional equity invest...

  5. 22 CFR 228.51 - Commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commodities. 228.51 Section 228.51 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES ON SOURCE, ORIGIN AND NATIONALITY FOR COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY USAID Waivers § 228.51 Commodities. (a) Waiver criteria. Any waiver must be based...

  6. Regime shift in fertilizer commodities indicates more turbulence ahead for food security.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J Elser

    Full Text Available Recent human population increase has been enabled by a massive expansion of global agricultural production. A key component of this "Green Revolution" has been application of inorganic fertilizers to produce and maintain high crop yields. However, the long-term sustainability of these practices is unclear given the eutrophying effects of fertilizer runoff as well as the reliance of fertilizer production on finite non-renewable resources such as mined phosphate- and potassium-bearing rocks. Indeed, recent volatility in food and agricultural commodity prices, especially phosphate fertilizer, has raised concerns about emerging constraints on fertilizer production with consequences for its affordability in the developing world. We examined 30 years of monthly prices of fertilizer commodities (phosphate rock, urea, and potassium for comparison with three food commodities (maize, wheat, and rice and three non-agricultural commodities (gold, nickel, and petroleum. Here we show that all commodity prices, except gold, had significant change points between 2007-2009, but the fertilizer commodities, and especially phosphate rock, showed multiple symptoms of nonlinear critical transitions. In contrast to fertilizers and to rice, maize and wheat prices did not show significant signs of nonlinear dynamics. From these results we infer a recent emergence of a scarcity price in global fertilizer markets, a result signaling a new high price regime for these essential agricultural inputs. Such a regime will challenge on-going efforts to establish global food security but may also prompt fertilizer use practices and nutrient recovery strategies that reduce eutrophication.

  7. 7 CFR 1210.505 - Department of Agriculture costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Department of Agriculture costs. 1210.505 Section 1210.505 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  8. Analysis of Interregional Commodity Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirach Hirun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Commodity Flow Survey (CFS was launched to collect comprehensive freight flow data throughout the kingdom of Thailand. The survey’s database is the most complete collection of commodity flow data in Thailand. The need to reveal interregional freight characteristics using available data from the CFS led to the objectives of this research. Approach: An origin destination matrix based on province was calibrated using a flexible Box-Cox function form. It used maximum likelihood and the backward method for calibration and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE and Mean Relative Error (MRE to verify the model’s performance. Independent variables were classified into three groups: origin variable, destination variable and geographic variable. The origin variable represented the behavior of the trip as generated at the place of origin. Some consumption occurred at the origin. The employment and the average plant size variables were selected for potential productivity while personal income per capita and total populations were included to explain consumption behavior at the origin. Personal income per capita and total populations were selected for destination variables which act as proxy for final demand at the destination. The third category, distance, was the most conventional friction variable for geographical variables. Results: The calibrated model revealed that origin income, origin average plant size and origin population performed poorly. Therefore these variables were eliminated. The best developed model included four strongly significant variables at a 5% level: origin employment, destination population, destination income per capita and distance. Conclusion: The results showed that the selected variables and the Box-Cox functional form were successful in explaining behavior of interregional freight transportation in Thailand. The developed model was the first interregional freight transportation model to be

  9. 77 FR 71773 - Mandatory Country of Origin Labeling of Covered Commodities: Notice of Request for Revision of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Mandatory Country of Origin Labeling of Covered Commodities: Notice of Request... the currently approved information collection of the Mandatory Country of Origin Labeling (COOL) of... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Mandatory Country of Origin Labeling of Covered Commodities. OMB Number:...

  10. Commodity Team Motivation and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englyst, Linda; Jørgensen, Frances; Johansen, John;

    2007-01-01

    This article explores factors influencing the motivation and performance of commodity teams in a global sourcing context. Several challenges are related to the classical dilemma of matrix organization, but with particular implications in this specific context of purchasing. We report on a reward...... system which was intended to support collective team effort, yet enhanced conflicts of interest in the matrix structure, discuss leadership, goal alignment and career tracks, and debate when and whether a team structure is appropriate in the pursuit of corporate purchasing synergies. The article is based...

  11. Commodity Markets Outlook, January 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    The World Bank is lowering its 2016 forecast for crude oil prices to $37 per barrel in its latest Commodity Markets Outlook report from $51 per barrel in its October projections. The lower forecast reflects a number of supply and demand factors. These include sooner-than-anticipated resumption of exports by the Islamic Republic of Iran, greater resilience in U.S. production due to cost cuts and efficiency gains, a mild winter in the Northern Hemisphere, and weak growth prospects in major ...

  12. Commodity Tracker: Mobile Application for Food Security Monitoring in Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, M. T.; Huang, X.; Baird, J.; Gourley, J. R.; Morelli, R.; de Lanerolle, T. R.; Haiti Food Security Monitoring Mobile App Team

    2011-12-01

    Megan Chiu, Jason Baird, Xu Huang, Trishan de Lanerolle, Ralph Morelli, Jonathan Gourley Trinity College, Computer Science Department and Environmental Science Program, 300 Summit Street, Hartford, CT 06106 megan.chiu@trincoll.edu, Jason.baird@trincoll.edu, xu.huang@trincoll.edu, trishan.delanerolle@trincoll.edu, ralph.morelli@trincoll.edu, jonathan.gourley@trincoll.edu Price data for Haiti commodities such as rice and potatoes have been traditionally recorded by hand on paper forms for many years. The information is then entered onto computer manually, thus making the process a long and arduous one. With the development of the Haiti Commodity Tracker mobile app, we are able to make this commodity price data recording process more efficient. Officials may use this information for making inferences about the difference in commodity prices and for food distribution during critical time after natural disasters. This information can also be utilized by governments and aid agencies on their food assistance programs. Agronomists record the item prices from several sample sites in a marketplace and compare those results from other markets across the region. Due to limited connectivity in rural areas, data is first saved to the phone's database and then retransmitted to a central server via SMS messaging. The mobile app is currently being field tested by an international NGO providing agricultural aid and support in rural Haiti.

  13. Trading Forests: Quantifying the Contribution of Global Commodity Markets to Emissions from Tropical Deforestation

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Martin; Henders, Sabine; Kastner, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to improve our understanding of how and where global supply-chains linkconsumers of agricultural and forest commodities across the world to forest destruction in tropicalcountries. A better understanding of these linkages can help inform and support the design ofdemand-side interventions to reduce tropical deforestation. To that end, we map the link betweendeforestation for four commodities (beef, soybeans, palm oil, and wood products) in eight casecountries (Argentina, Bolivi...

  14. The Ivorian pineapple : social action within the international pineapple commodity network

    OpenAIRE

    Willems, S.

    2006-01-01

    Today, a significant part of the agricultural commodities that we find at markets in the West are cultivated in developing countries. Many of these products are shipped around the world, passing through a complex network of actors involved in production, distribution and marketing activities. Who are the actors involved in these processes? What shapes their realities? And, in turn, how do they respond to and act upon factors related to the part they play within increasing globalized commodity...

  15. Education: Commodity, Come-On, or Commitment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    2000-07-01

    July 4, and the glass art shown on pages 812-816, remind us that freedom is fragile. Through their governments, citizens of democracies have traditionally made strong commitments to education on grounds that without it individuals would not be able to act responsibly and to make wise decisions in voting booths and public meetings. All citizens have a stake in everyone's education, because a better-educated citizenry benefits all of society. In this country such a commitment has produced a system of public schools and public universities that offers opportunities to many who otherwise could not afford a level of education commensurate with their talents. But there are signs that this commitment to public education is flagging. Many students, teachers, and administrators view education as merely a way to enhance personal prosperity. How often have you heard the statistic that a college education pays for itself through increased earning power, even if it costs $20,000-30,000 per year? Investing in education pays off just as investing in the stock market does, provided you wait long enough. Attending a better school gets you a better job and a better income. In other words, a certified level of education is a commodity-something that is useful and can be turned to commercial advantage. Viewing education as a commodity has several consequences. First, if education is a means to better employment rather than better citizenship, why should anyone pay for it other than the person who benefits? Why should I pay taxes to help someone else get a better job when I could be spending the money for my own benefit? Education as a commodity makes such attitudes reasonable, though not commendable, and the result is lessened support for public education. Second, those who supply education as an economic good should be rewarded, and those who are much better at educating should be rewarded much more. Hence the fear of Arthur Levine, president of Teachers College, Columbia University

  16. 31 CFR Appendix B to Part 560 - Bulk Agricultural Commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....91 Sugar Beets, fresh, chilled, frozen or dried 1212.92 Sugar Cane, fresh, chilled, frozen or dried 1701.11 Cane Sugar, raw, solid form 1701.12 Beet Sugar, raw, solid form 1701.91 Cane or Beet Sugar, solid form, containing added coloring or flavoring 1701.99 Cane or Beet Sugar, other, not...

  17. 31 CFR Appendix A to Part 538 - Bulk Agricultural Commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....91 Sugar Beets, fresh, chilled, frozen or dried 1212.92 Sugar Cane, fresh, chilled, frozen or dried 1701.11 Cane Sugar, raw, solid form 1701.12 Beet Sugar, raw, solid form 1701.91 Cane or Beet Sugar, solid form, containing added coloring or flavoring 1701.99 Cane or Beet Sugar, other, not...

  18. Commodities and Switzerland: Development Policy Challenges and Policy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Thut

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EDITOR’S NOTEThis paper, written in December 2012, is a contribution to the ‘Policy Debate’ section of the International Development Policy. In this section, academics, policy makers and practitioners engage in a dialogue on global development challenges. Papers are copy-edited but not peer-reviewed. Instead, an initial thematic contribution is followed by critical comments and reactions from different stakeholders. This paper by Werner Thut is followed by reactions and analysis from a non-profit policy institute (Alexandra Gillies, Revenue Watch Institute, New York, ‘Crafting a Strategic Response to the Commodity-Development Conundrum’, a Southern scholar (Prof. Humberto Campodonico, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima ‘Going Beyond Transparency and Good Governance’ | ‘Más allá de la transparencia y una buena gobernanza’ and a representative of the trading sector (Stéphane Graber, Secretary General of Geneva Trading & Shipping Association – ‘Reassessing the Merchants’ Role in a Globalized Economy’.PAPER’S ABSTRACTSwitzerland is one of the world’s largest commodity trading hub. The author, senior policy adviser at the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC, reviews experiences and policy options related to commodity trading from a development policy perspective. While this sector has become of strategic importance to Switzerland’s economy, it also entails a number of risks. On the other hand, Swiss development cooperation efforts focus on several resource-rich countries, whose mineral and agricultural commodities are traded via Switzerland. How can Switzerland assist these countries to reap the benefits of their natural resource wealth? This paper looks at development policy aspects of commodity trading in relation to Swiss foreign and domestic policy. It examines ongoing policy debates in Switzerland and discusses development policy options.

  19. Parallel supercomputing with commodity components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, M.S.; Goda, M.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Becker, D.J. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)] [and others

    1997-09-01

    We have implemented a parallel computer architecture based entirely upon commodity personal computer components. Using 16 Intel Pentium Pro microprocessors and switched fast ethernet as a communication fabric, we have obtained sustained performance on scientific applications in excess of one Gigaflop. During one production astrophysics treecode simulation, we performed 1.2 x 10{sup 15} floating point operations (1.2 Petaflops) over a three week period, with one phase of that simulation running continuously for two weeks without interruption. We report on a variety of disk, memory and network benchmarks. We also present results from the NAS parallel benchmark suite, which indicate that this architecture is competitive with current commercial architectures. In addition, we describe some software written to support efficient message passing, as well as a Linux device driver interface to the Pentium hardware performance monitoring registers.

  20. Aromatherapy Oils: Commodities, Materials, Essences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Barcan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the essential oils that are the central tools of aromatherapy and uses them as a case study for different approaches to material culture. It considers the conceptual and political implications of thinking of essential oils as, in turn, commodities, materials and essences. I argue that both cultural studies and aromatherapy have something to learn from each other. Classic materialist approaches might do well to focus more attention on the material properties and effects of things. Aromatherapy, on the other hand, could benefit from the enriched political understanding associated with classic materialist critique. New materialist strains of cultural studies may also find the vibrancy of matter that underpins many CAM/New Age practices worthy of examination.

  1. Lattice QCD with commodity hardware and software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large scale QCD Monte Carlo calculations have typically been performed on either commercial supercomputers or specially built massively parallel computers such as Fermilab's ACPMAPS. Commodity computer systems offer impressive floating point performance-to-cost ratios which exceed those of commercial supercomputers. As high performance networking components approach commodity pricing, it becomes reasonable to assemble a massively parallel supercomputer from commodity parts. The authors describe the work and progress to date of a collaboration working on this problem

  2. A new departure in international commodities policies?

    OpenAIRE

    Maennig, Wolfgang

    1988-01-01

    In the course of the last United Nations' World Trade Conference (UNCTAD) the Soviet Union, Ivory Coast and Bulgaria signed the agreement on the Common Fund for Commodities. The Fund, which was conceived as the cornerstone of a new international commodities policy, will thus come into effect in the near future, probably in the course of 1988. Will this leadt o a new departure for international commodities policies?

  3. Variance risk premia in energy commodities

    OpenAIRE

    Trolle, Anders; Eduardo S. Schwartz

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates variance risk premia in energy commodities, particularly crude oil and natural gas, using a robust model-independent approach. Over a period of 11 years, we find that the average variance risk premia are significantly negative for both energy commodities. However, it is difficult to explain the level and variation in energy variance risk premia with systematic or commodity specific factors. The return profile of a natural gas variance swap resembles that of a call opti...

  4. Assessing Price Forecasting Models for Organic Commodities

    OpenAIRE

    Gubanova, Tatiana; Escalante, Cesar; Lohr, Luanne; Timothy PARK

    2005-01-01

    This project develops price forecasting models to guide organic commodity marketing decisions. Forecasting models for organic commodity prices at the farm level are specified and tested using a comprehensive national farm price series data set collected for organic commodities in the United States. A framework for testing the predictive ability of competing models using conditional predictive ability is developed. Forecast performance is evaluated using the root mean squared error (RMSE) a...

  5. Managing Commodity Risk: Can Sovereign Funds Help?

    OpenAIRE

    Briere, Marie

    2010-01-01

    A number of countries have recently responded to high and volatile commodity prices by setting up commodity funds. In several cases, these funds have proved effective in stabilising government spending and boosting savings, but on the whole they have unfortunately not achieved the hoped-for results. In many cases, resources initially allocated to sovereign funds were later commandeered by the government and ultimately squandered. In this paper we review past experiences with commodity funds a...

  6. Testing aggregation consistency across geography and commodities

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qinghua; Shumway, C. Richard

    2004-01-01

    Consistent aggregation of production data across commodities and states was tested using Lewbel's generalized composite commodity theorem (GCCT). This was the first empirical GCCT test for consistent geographic aggregation and was applied to two groups of states. Consistent commodity aggregation was tested in all states for two output groups and three input groups and in one state for a larger number of groups. Using a more powerful test procedure than previously applied to production data, m...

  7. Success Essentials of Yiwu Small Commodity Market

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Yu

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to find the success factors of Yiwu Small Commodity Market. Beside this main objective, the historical reasons of Yiwu Small Commodity Market’s formation also have been analyzed. The purpose was to integrate the historical reasons and internal reasons together to get more comprehensive analysis results of Yiwu market. During the process of research, interviews of five shopkeepers in Yiwu Small Commodity Market were done. The interviews were held in April 2...

  8. Education: Commodity, Come-On, or Commitment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    2000-07-01

    July 4, and the glass art shown on pages 812-816, remind us that freedom is fragile. Through their governments, citizens of democracies have traditionally made strong commitments to education on grounds that without it individuals would not be able to act responsibly and to make wise decisions in voting booths and public meetings. All citizens have a stake in everyone's education, because a better-educated citizenry benefits all of society. In this country such a commitment has produced a system of public schools and public universities that offers opportunities to many who otherwise could not afford a level of education commensurate with their talents. But there are signs that this commitment to public education is flagging. Many students, teachers, and administrators view education as merely a way to enhance personal prosperity. How often have you heard the statistic that a college education pays for itself through increased earning power, even if it costs $20,000-30,000 per year? Investing in education pays off just as investing in the stock market does, provided you wait long enough. Attending a better school gets you a better job and a better income. In other words, a certified level of education is a commodity-something that is useful and can be turned to commercial advantage. Viewing education as a commodity has several consequences. First, if education is a means to better employment rather than better citizenship, why should anyone pay for it other than the person who benefits? Why should I pay taxes to help someone else get a better job when I could be spending the money for my own benefit? Education as a commodity makes such attitudes reasonable, though not commendable, and the result is lessened support for public education. Second, those who supply education as an economic good should be rewarded, and those who are much better at educating should be rewarded much more. Hence the fear of Arthur Levine, president of Teachers College, Columbia University

  9. Cambodian Agriculture in Transition

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This report seeks to understand the successes, challenges and opportunities of Cambodia’s agricultural transformation over the past decade to derive lessons and insights on how to maintain future agricultural growth, and particularly on the government’s role in facilitating it. It is prepared per the request of the Supreme National Economic Council and the Ministry of Agriculture Forestry ...

  10. The changing dynamics between biofuels and commodity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent development of the biofuel industries coincides with significant increases in prices of basic commodities such as food and feed. Against popular perception, it appears that there is not a straightforward causal relationship between the two; there are a number of factors that determine the level and strength of the impact of the biofuels sector on other commodities. For the case of markets of agricultural raw material these factors include the amount of feedstock claimed by the biofuels industry, its relative purchasing power, the responsiveness of the agricultural sector to price incentives and availability of substitutes. For consumer food markets we must additionally consider the relative share of agricultural input costs in the retail food price and the demand elasticity. Based on the analysis of these factors and estimates of other studies that attempted to quantify the price impacts of biofuels on crop prices, we conclude that the impact of biofuels is relatively small, especially when compared with other causes that triggered the recent price increases. We end the paper with a recommendation for future efforts in curbing food price inflations while keeping ambitious biofuel targets and suggest a shift in focus of the debate around the social costs of biofuels

  11. The changing dynamics between biofuels and commodity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bole, T.; Londo, H.M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-06-15

    The recent development of the biofuel industries coincides with significant increases in prices of basic commodities such as food and feed. Against popular perception, it appears that there is not a straightforward causal relationship between the two; there are a number of factors that determine the level and strength of the impact of the biofuels sector on other commodities. For the case of markets of agricultural raw material these factors include the amount of feedstock claimed by the biofuels industry, its relative purchasing power, the responsiveness of the agricultural sector to price incentives and availability of substitutes. For consumer food markets we must additionally consider the relative share of agricultural input costs in the retail food price and the demand elasticity. Based on the analysis of these factors and estimates of other studies that attempted to quantify the price impacts of biofuels on crop prices, we conclude that the impact of biofuels is relatively small, especially when compared with other causes that triggered the recent price increases. We end the paper with a recommendation for future efforts in curbing food price inflations while keeping ambitious biofuel targets and suggest a shift in focus of the debate around the social costs of biofuels.

  12. 44 CFR 402.2 - Restricted commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Positive List (15 CFR part 399) (as amended from time to time) of the Comprehensive Export Schedule of the... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restricted commodities. 402.2... SHIPMENTS ON AMERICAN FLAG SHIPS AND AIRCRAFT (T-1, INT. 1) § 402.2 Restricted commodities. The...

  13. Pricing of commodities futures: an empirical study

    OpenAIRE

    Τάσσης, Δημήτριος Κ.

    2014-01-01

    In the current thesis, methods and models for pricing commodities contracts are presented and studied. More specifically, a model which was created by Gibson and Schwartz (1990) is studied in depth, analysed and implemented using Matlab. Moreover, results of implementation are presented and analysed. Implementation is based on a large data set of more than 20 years futures prices of crude oil commodities.

  14. Global Economic Prospects : Commodity Markets Outlook, October 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Baffes, John

    2014-01-01

    Commodity prices are expected to remain weak for the remainder of 2014 and, perhaps through much of 2015. Crude oil has seen one of the sharpest declines, down more than 20 percent to $83/barrel (bbl) on October 15 from this year’s high of $108/bbl in mid-June. Agricultural prices have weakened as well, down 6 percent since June. Metal prices remained relatively stable, from the sharp declines seen in 2011. A slowdown in the Euro area and emerging economies, a strong US dollar, increased oil ...

  15. Scientific Research: Commodities or Commons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeir, Koen

    2013-10-01

    Truth is for sale today, some critics claim. The increased commodification of science corrupts it, scientific fraud is rampant and the age-old trust in science is shattered. This cynical view, although gaining in prominence, does not explain very well the surprising motivation and integrity that is still central to the scientific life. Although scientific knowledge becomes more and more treated as a commodity or as a product that is for sale, a central part of academic scientific practice is still organized according to different principles. In this paper, I critically analyze alternative models for understanding the organization of knowledge, such as the idea of the scientific commons and the gift economy of science. After weighing the diverse positive and negative aspects of free market economies of science and gift economies of science, a commons structured as a gift economy seems best suited to preserve and take advantage of the specific character of scientific knowledge. Furthermore, commons and gift economies promote the rich social texture that is important for supporting central norms of science. Some of these basic norms might break down if the gift character of science is lost. To conclude, I consider the possibility and desirability of hybrid economies of academic science, which combine aspects of gift economies and free market economies. The aim of this paper is to gain a better understanding of these deeper structural challenges faced by science policy. Such theoretical reflections should eventually assist us in formulating new policy guidelines.

  16. Assessing Post-Conflict Challenges and Opportunities of the Animal-Agriculture System in the Alpine Region of Uvira District in Sud-Kivu Province, D. R. Congo

    OpenAIRE

    M. M. D. Katunga; J.-B. Muhigwa

    2014-01-01

    The Alpine region of Uvira District in South-Kivu Province faces low agricultural productivity challenges largely due to human population pressure on the natural resource base. During the dry season, conflicts between crop farmers and livestock breeders are common. This region is located 2500 - 3020 m a.s.l. and is almost inaccessible due to poor road infrastructure. To understand the interactions between natural resources (forests, pastures, soils) and sedentary agriculture, and to propose s...

  17. Agriculture and Energy: Implications for Food Security, Water, and Land Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokgoz, S.; Zhang, W.; Msangi, S.; Bhandary, P.

    2011-12-01

    Sustainable production of agricultural commodities and growth of international trade in these goods are challenged as never before by supply-side constraints (such as climate change, water and land scarcity, and environmental degradation) and by demand-side dynamics (volatility in food and energy markets, the strengthening food-energy linkage, population growth, and income growth). On the one hand, the rapidly expanding demand can potentially create new market opportunities for agriculture. On the other hand, there are many threats to a sufficient response by the supply side to meet this growing and changing demand. Agricultural production systems in many countries are neither resource-efficient, nor producing according to their full potential. The stock of natural resources such as land, water, nutrients, energy, and genetic diversity is shrinking relative to demand, and their use must become increasingly efficient in order to reduce environmental impacts and preserve the planet's productive capacity. World energy prices have increased rapidly in recent years. At the same time, agriculture has become more energy-intensive. Higher energy costs have pushed up the cost of producing, transporting and processing agricultural commodities, driving up commodity prices. Higher energy costs have also affected water use and availability through increased costs of water extraction, conveyance and desalinization, higher demand for hydroelectric power, and increased cost of subsidizing water services. In the meantime, the development of biofuels has diverted increasing amounts of agricultural land and water resources to the production of biomass-based renewable energy. This more "intensified" linkage between agriculture and energy comes at a time when there are other pressures on the world's limited resources. The related high food prices, especially those in the developing countries, have led to setbacks in the poverty alleviation effort among the global community with more

  18. TWO-COMMODITY PERISHABLE INVENTORY SYSTEM WITH BULK DEMAND FOR ONE COMMODITY

    OpenAIRE

    V.S.S. Yadavalli; Adetunji, O.; Sivakumar, B.; Arivarignan, G.

    2012-01-01

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This article considers a two-commodity continuous review inventory system in which the arriving customers belong to any one of three types, such that type 1 customers demand a single item of the first commodity, type 2 customers demand bulk items of the second commodity, and type 3 customers demand one item of the first commodity and bulk items of the second commodity. The arrivals of all three types of customers are assumed to be a Markovian arrival process (MAP). ...

  19. 22 CFR 211.4 - Availability and shipment of commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Availability and shipment of commodities. 211.4 Section 211.4 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT TRANSFER OF FOOD COMMODITIES FOR FOOD... commodities. (a) Shipment, distribution and use of commodities. Commodities shall be available for...

  20. 17 CFR 31.6 - Registration of leverage commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Registration of leverage commodities. 31.6 Section 31.6 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION LEVERAGE TRANSACTIONS § 31.6 Registration of leverage commodities. (a) Registration of leverage...

  1. 17 CFR 37.3 - Requirements for underlying commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for underlying commodities. 37.3 Section 37.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DERIVATIVES TRANSACTION EXECUTION FACILITIES § 37.3 Requirements for underlying commodities. (a)...

  2. A two-commodity perishable inventory system

    OpenAIRE

    Sivakumar, B.; N.Anbazhagan; Arivarignan, G.

    2005-01-01

    We present a two-commodity perishable stochastic inventory system under continuous review at a service facility with a finite waiting room. The maximum storage capacity for the i–th item is fixed as Si (i = 1, 2). We assume that a demand for the i–th commodity is of unit size. The arrival instants of customers to the service station constitutes a Poisson process with parameter lambda. The customer demands for these commodities are assumed to be in the ratio p1:p2. An individual customer is is...

  3. Radiation technology in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Atomic Energy through its research, development and deployment activities in nuclear science and technology, has been contributing towards enhancing the production of agricultural commodities and their preservation. Radiations and radioisotopes are used in agricultural research to induce genetic variability in crop plants to develop improved varieties, to manage insect pests, monitor fate and persistence of pesticides, to study fertilizer use efficiency and plant micronutrient uptake and also to preserve agricultural produce. Use of radiation and radioisotopes in agriculture which is often referred to as nuclear agriculture is one of the important fields of peaceful applications of atomic energy for societal benefit and BARC has contributed significantly in this area. 41 new crop varieties developed at BARC have been released and Gazette notified by the MoA, GOI for commercial cultivation and are popular among the farming community and grown through out the country

  4. 76 FR 13972 - United States Warehouse Act; Export Food Aid Commodities Licensing Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... Farm Service Agency United States Warehouse Act; Export Food Aid Commodities Licensing Agreement AGENCY... warehouse licenses may be issued under the United States ] Warehouse Act (USWA). Through this notice, FSA is... licenses for agricultural products include grain, cotton, nuts, cottonseed, and dry beans....

  5. Commodity derivatives pricing with inventory effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Christian; Dziubinski, Matt P.

    We introduce tractable models for commodity derivatives pricing with inventory and volatility eects, and illustrate with applications to the oil market. We contribute to the existing literature in several respects. First, whereas the previous literature uses futures data for investigating...

  6. 22 CFR 120.4 - Commodity jurisdiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... uniquely characterize the item, component or assembly. For software, form denotes language, language level... Commerce of the initiation and conclusion of each case. (g) A person may appeal a commodity...

  7. Accelerating semantic graph databases on commodity clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morari, Alessandro; Castellana, Vito G.; Haglin, David J.; Feo, John T.; Weaver, Jesse R.; Tumeo, Antonino; Villa, Oreste

    2013-10-06

    We are developing a full software system for accelerating semantic graph databases on commodity cluster that scales to hundreds of nodes while maintaining constant query throughput. Our framework comprises a SPARQL to C++ compiler, a library of parallel graph methods and a custom multithreaded runtime layer, which provides a Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) programming model with fork/join parallelism and automatic load balancing over a commodity clusters. We present preliminary results for the compiler and for the runtime.

  8. Regional integration and commodity tax harmonization

    OpenAIRE

    De Bonis, Valeria

    1997-01-01

    In a closed economy, a commodity tax drives a wedge between the producer price and the consumer price. In open economies, intercountry differences in commodity taxation can induce two additional distortions: (1) Cross-country differences in consumer marginal rates of substitution (which result in an inefficient allocation of world consumption), which arise when countries levy taxes on goods and services consumed within their borders (the destination principle). (2) Cross-country differences i...

  9. Evaluating Transmission Prices between Global Agricultural Markets and Consumers' Food Price Indices in the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-German, Sol; Garrido, Alberto; Bardaji, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The rise of price levels and volatility of world agricultural commodities since 2006-2008 was followed by increased and more volatile food price inflation around the world. Using error correction models, this paper evaluates the velocity and extent to which world agricultural commodity price movements affect consumer food prices in the 28 EU's Member States. Results show a significant long run relationship between world agricultural commodity prices and food consumer prices in over half of th...

  10. Socioeconomic comparison of biological and conventional agriculture businesses in Aragon, Spain: Problems and opportunities Comparación socioeconómica de las empresas agrarias de producción ecológica y convencional en Aragón, España: Problemas y oportunidades

    OpenAIRE

    Estrella Bernal Cuenca

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents problems and opportunities of ecological agriculture in Aragón, Spain. With this aim ecological and conventional agricultures are compared as regards their socioeconomic as well as their environmental aspects. As a basis for this comparison, some basic fundaments of ecological agriculture are presented, as well as its accounting cost structure (obtained through field work in Aragón and official databases, as well as data about its consume and distribution; finally, some pu...

  11. Managing commodity markets: the case of OPEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since primary commodity producers first took control of their natural resources, they have attempted to utilize production/price management with varying degrees of success. As a tool aimed at regulating, rather than controlling, commodity markets, this type of resource management is an essential means of achieving realistic economic returns, which, in the long run, serves the interests of the producer of the commodity in question, as well as its consumer. By regulating commodity markets in times of stable prices producing countries would benefit from a steady and constant level of export earnings, thus allowing them to achieve a sustainable level of economic development. As far as the oil market is concerned, stable prices, set in a range favourable to both producers and consumers, would give investors the confidence needed for long-term exploration. This is particularly important for a commodity such as oil, at a time when the lead time between exploration starting and actual production getting under way is increasing. Not only would producers benefit from stable export earnings, which are an essential requirement for the planning of their development process, but consuming countries would at the same time benefit in two ways: first, they would gain security of supply; and second, as fluctuations in their expenditure for this commodity are reduced, they would be a position to manage their economies more efficiently. (author)

  12. The changing relationship between commodity prices and equity prices in commodity exporting

    OpenAIRE

    ROSSI, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    We explore the linkage between equity and commodity markets, focusing in particular on its evolution over time. We document that a country's equity market value has significant out-of-sample predictive ability for the future global commodity price index for several primary commodity-exporting countries. The out-of-sample predictive ability of the equity market appears around 2000s. The results are robust to using several control variables as well as firm-level equity data. Fi...

  13. 29 CFR 780.611 - Workweek exclusively in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Workweek exclusively in agriculture. 780.611 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption...

  14. TWO-COMMODITY PERISHABLE INVENTORY SYSTEM WITH BULK DEMAND FOR ONE COMMODITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S.S. Yadavalli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This article considers a two-commodity continuous review inventory system in which the arriving customers belong to any one of three types, such that type 1 customers demand a single item of the first commodity, type 2 customers demand bulk items of the second commodity, and type 3 customers demand one item of the first commodity and bulk items of the second commodity. The arrivals of all three types of customers are assumed to be a Markovian arrival process (MAP. It is also assumed that the number of items demanded for the second commodity is a random variable. The ordering policy is to place orders for both commodities when the inventory levels are below prefixed levels for both commodities. The lead time is assumed to have a phase type distribution, and the demands that occur during stock out period are assumed to be lost. The joint probability distribution for both commodities is obtained in the steady state case. Various measures of system performance and the total expected cost rate in the steady state are derived. The results are illustrated with numerical examples.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: ’n Tweeprodukstelsel se voorraad vir klante word kontinu hersien. Die vraag na die produktipes word gekenmerk deur klantvoorkeure. Die versoektempo van klante vir voorraad word aanvaar as ’n Markovproses. Aannames word gemaak oor vraaghoeveelhede en aanlooptyd. Die resultate van die ondersoek word voorgehou via syfervoorbeelde.

  15. Global Drivers of Agricultural Demand and Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Sands, Ronald; Jones, Carol; Marshall, Elizabeth P.

    2014-01-01

    Recent volatility in agricultural commodity prices and projections of world population growth raise concerns about the ability of global agricultural production to meet future demand. This report explores the potential for future agricultural production to 2050, using a model-based analysis that incorporates the key drivers of agricultural production, along with the responses of producers and consumers to changes to those drivers. Model results show that for a percentage change in population,...

  16. How New York State's agriculture industry is staying competitive

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Deitz; Margaret Cowell

    2005-01-01

    We examine some of the challenges facing New York's agriculture industry and outline some innovative responses. We distinguish between two types of agriculture: commodities and value-added consumer foods. We show that commodities are a small fraction of the agriculture industry in New York State and are not a growing market segment, while value-added goods are the primary products of New York farms and represent a market segment that is growing significantly. We then briefly discuss important...

  17. Finance for Small-Scale Commodity Processing: From Micro to Meso Finance - Summary of presentations and discussions

    OpenAIRE

    Seibel, Hans Dieter

    2005-01-01

    The main focus of the Workshop was on sustainable financial services for the first stages of commodity processing to support small-scale producers to move up the value-added chain and increase their efficiency and earnings in commodity production. In this regard, the Workshop carried out an assessment of investment opportunities and financing needs at the producer level. It further considered whether there is a lack of financial services in the middle-range or meso-credit category around USD ...

  18. Occurrence of ochratoxin A in commodities and processed food - A review of EU occurrence data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    EU project reports from the activity initiated by the European Commission: Scientific cooperation on questions relating to food (SCOOP). The most important commodities contaminated with ochratoxin A are known and the amount of occurrence data is in most cases comprehensive. However, gaps of knowledge...... exist, e.g. possible year-to-year variations for wine, dried vine fruits and grape juice are not well investigated. In addition, a follow-up on possible improvements in agricultural and processing practices is needed for some of the commodities recently discovered as being contaminated with ochratoxin A...

  19. A two-commodity perishable inventory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Sivakumar

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a two-commodity perishable stochastic inventory system under continuous review at a service facility with a finite waiting room. The maximum storage capacity for the i–th item is fixed as Si (i = 1, 2. We assume that a demand for the i–th commodity is of unit size. The arrival instants of customers to the service station constitutes a Poisson process with parameter lambda. The customer demands for these commodities are assumed to be in the ratio p1:p2. An individual customer is issued a demanded item after a random time of service with a negative exponential distribution. The items are perishable in nature and the life time of items of each commodity is assumed to be exponentially distributed. Both commodities are supposed to be substitutable in the sense that at the instant of any zero-stock, the other item may be used to meet the demand. A joint reordering policy is adopted with a random lead time for orders with exponential distribution. The joint probability distribution of the number of customers in the system and the inventory levels are obtained in both the transient and steady states. We also derive some stationary performance measures. The results are illustrated by means of a numerical example.

  20. 22 CFR 201.63 - Maximum prices for commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum prices for commodities. 201.63 Section... COMMODITY TRANSACTIONS FINANCED BY USAID Price Provisions § 201.63 Maximum prices for commodities. (a) U.S. prevailing market price—U.S. source. The purchase price for a commodity, the source of which is the...

  1. 22 CFR 228.14 - Nationality of suppliers of commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nationality of suppliers of commodities. 228.14... NATIONALITY FOR COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY USAID Conditions Governing Source and Nationality of Commodity Procurement Transactions for USAID Financing § 228.14 Nationality of suppliers of commodities....

  2. 22 CFR 228.11 - Source and origin of commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Source and origin of commodities. 228.11... NATIONALITY FOR COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY USAID Conditions Governing Source and Nationality of Commodity Procurement Transactions for USAID Financing § 228.11 Source and origin of commodities. (a)...

  3. 22 CFR 228.52 - Suppliers of commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suppliers of commodities. 228.52 Section 228.52... COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY USAID Waivers § 228.52 Suppliers of commodities. Geographic code changes authorized by waiver with respect to the source of commodities automatically apply to the nationality...

  4. 41 CFR 51-6.13 - Replacement and similar commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... commodities. 51-6.13 Section 51-6.13 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... PROCEDURES § 51-6.13 Replacement and similar commodities. (a) When a commodity on the Procurement List is replaced by another commodity which has not been recently procured, and a nonprofit agency can furnish...

  5. Biofuel and Food-Commodity Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Zilberman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes key findings of alternative lines of research on the relationship between food and fuel markets, and identifies gaps between two bodies of literature: one that investigates the relationship between food and fuel prices, and another that investigates the impact of the introduction of biofuels on commodity-food prices. The former body of literature suggests that biofuel prices do not affect food-commodity prices, but the latter suggests it does. We try to explain this gap, and then show that although biofuel was an important contributor to the recent food-price inflation of 2001–2008, its effect on food-commodity prices declined after the recession of 2008/09. We also show that the introduction of cross-price elasticity is important when explaining soybean price, but less so when explaining corn prices.

  6. ENDOGENOUS QUALITY AND AGRICULTURAL POLICY ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    James, Jennifer S.

    1999-01-01

    The typical analysis of agricultural policy assumes that the commodity of interest is homogeneous, and that it does not change as a result of policy implementation. This paper develops a model of agricultural policy analysis when the restriction of product homogeneity is relaxed and policy-induced quality responses are incorporated.

  7. Expected commodity returns and pricing models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stochastic models of commodity prices have evolved considerably in terms of their structure and the number and interpretation of the state variables that model the underlying risk. Using multiple factors, different specifications and modern estimation techniques, these models have gained wide acceptance because of their success in accurately fitting the observed commodity futures' term structures and their dynamics. It is not well emphasized however that these models, in addition to providing the risk neutral distribution of future spot prices, also provide their true distribution. While the parameters of the risk neutral distribution are estimated more precisely and are usually statistically significant, some of the parameters of the true distribution are typically measured with large errors and are statistically insignificant. In this paper we argue that to increase the reliability of commodity pricing models, and therefore their use by practitioners, some of their parameters — in particular the risk premium parameters — should be obtained from other sources and we show that this can be done without losing any precision in the pricing of futures contracts. We show how the risk premium parameters can be obtained from estimations of expected futures returns and provide alternative procedures for estimating these expected futures returns. - Highlights: • Simple methodology to improve the performance of commodity pricing models • New information about commodity futures expected return is added to the estimation. • No significant effect in pricing futures contracts is observed. • More reliable commodity pricing model's expected returns are obtained. • Methodology is open to any expected futures return model preferred by practitioner

  8. Strategic analysis of Swedish agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Fogelfors, Håkan; Wivstad, Maria; Eckersten, Henrik; Holstein, Fredrik; Johansson, Susanne; Verwijst, Theo

    2009-01-01

    This strategic analysis of Swedish agriculture – production systems and agricultural landscapes in a time of change – focuses on climate change, future availability of natural resources and economic regulation in a global food market. The background to the project was that the Faculty of Natural Resources and Agriculture of the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences identified an urgent need to explore the implications and opportunities of coming changes for agricultural production syste...

  9. Industrialization and the demand for mineral commodities

    OpenAIRE

    Stuermer, Martin

    2013-01-01

    What drives the long-term demand for mineral commodities? This paper provides empirical evidence on the long-run demand for mineral commodities since 1840. I extend the partial adjustment model to account for country-specific structures and technological change. I find that a one percent increase in manufacturing output leads to a 1.5 percent increase in the demand for aluminum and a one percent increase in the demand for copper. The estimated manufacturing output elasticities of demand for l...

  10. The Simple Economics of Commodity Price Speculation

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher R. Knittel; Robert S. Pindyck

    2013-01-01

    The price of crude oil in the U.S. never exceeded $40 per barrel until mid-2004. By 2006 it reached $70, and in July 2008 it peaked at $145. By late 2008 it had plummeted to about $30 before increasing to $110 in 2011. Are speculators at least partly to blame for these sharp price changes? We clarify the effects of speculators on commodity prices. We focus on crude oil, but our approach can be applied to other commodities. We explain the meaning of "oil price speculation," how it can occur, a...

  11. Broker-dealer risk appetite and commodity returns

    OpenAIRE

    Etula, Erkko

    2010-01-01

    This paper shows that the risk-bearing capacity of U.S. securities brokers and dealers is a strong determinant of risk premia in commodity markets. Commodity derivatives are the principal instrument used by producers and consumers of commodities to hedge against commodity price risk. Broker-dealers play an important role in this hedging process because commodity derivatives are traded primarily over the counter. I capture the limits of arbitrage in this market in a simple asset-pricing model ...

  12. 17 CFR 4.41 - Advertising by commodity pool operators, commodity trading advisors, and the principals thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising by commodity pool operators, commodity trading advisors, and the principals thereof. 4.41 Section 4.41 Commodity and... advertise in a manner which: (1) Employs any device, scheme or artifice to defraud any participant or...

  13. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapagain, A. K.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2006-06-01

    Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. The paper analyses the consequences of international virtual water flows on the global and national water budgets. The assessment shows that the total amount of water that would have been required in the importing countries if all imported agricultural products would have been produced domestically is 1605 Gm3/yr. These products are however being produced with only 1253 Gm3/yr in the exporting countries, saving global water resources by 352 Gm3/yr. This saving is 28 per cent of the international virtual water flows related to the trade of agricultural products and 6 per cent of the global water use in agriculture. National policy makers are however not interested in global water savings but in the status of national water resources. Egypt imports wheat and in doing so saves 3.6 Gm3/yr of its national water resources. Water use for producing export commodities can be beneficial, as for instance in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Brazil, where the use of green water resources (mainly through rain-fed agriculture) for the production of stimulant crops for export has a positive economic impact on the national economy. However, export of 28 Gm3/yr of national water from Thailand related to rice export is at the cost of additional pressure on its blue water resources. Importing a product which has a relatively high ratio of green to blue virtual water content saves global blue water resources that generally have a higher opportunity cost than green water.

  14. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Chapagain

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. The paper analyses the consequences of international virtual water flows on the global and national water budgets. The assessment shows that the total amount of water that would have been required in the importing countries if all imported agricultural products would have been produced domestically is 1605 Gm3/yr. These products are however being produced with only 1253 Gm3/yr in the exporting countries, saving global water resources by 352 Gm3/yr. This saving is 28% of the international virtual water flows related to the trade of agricultural products and 6% of the global water use in agriculture. National policy makers are however not interested in global water savings but in the status of national water resources. Egypt imports wheat and in doing so saves 3.6 Gm3/yr of its national water resources. Water use for producing export commodities can be beneficial, as for instance in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Brazil, where the use of green water resources (mainly through rain-fed agriculture for the production of stimulant crops for export has a positive economic impact on the national economy. However, export of 28 Gm3/yr of national water from Thailand related to rice export is at the cost of additional pressure on its blue water resources. Importing a product which has a relatively high ratio of green to blue virtual water content saves global blue water resources that generally have a higher opportunity cost than green water.

  15. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Chapagain

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. The paper analyses the consequences of international virtual water flows on the global and national water budgets. The assessment shows that the total amount of water that would have been required in the importing countries if all imported agricultural products would have been produced domestically is 1605 Gm3/yr. These products are however being produced with only 1253 Gm3/yr in the exporting countries, saving global water resources by 352 Gm3/yr. This saving is 28 per cent of the international virtual water flows related to the trade of agricultural products and 6 per cent of the global water use in agriculture. National policy makers are however not interested in global water savings but in the status of national water resources. Egypt imports wheat and in doing so saves 3.6 Gm3/yr of its national water resources. Water use for producing export commodities can be beneficial, as for instance in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Brazil, where the use of green water resources (mainly through rain-fed agriculture for the production of stimulant crops for export has a positive economic impact on the national economy. However, export of 28 Gm3/yr of national water from Thailand related to rice export is at the cost of additional pressure on its blue water resources. Importing a product which has a relatively high ratio of green to blue virtual water content saves global blue water resources that generally have a higher opportunity cost than green water.

  16. Recognizing risk in global agriculture: a summary of the 2011 Agricultural Symposium

    OpenAIRE

    Jason Henderson

    2011-01-01

    Historically, record profits in the agriculture industry have been fleeting - farm booms have been followed by busts. Recent profitability suggests agriculture has entered a new "golden era." Still the glint of banner profits could turn out to be fool's gold amid soaring market risks and volatile commodity prices. ; Henderson reports on the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City's agriculture symposium- "Recognizing Risk in Global Agriculture"-July 19 and 20, 2011, in Kansas City. About 200 agri...

  17. Rheological and commodity properties of petroleum mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of researches of rheological and commodity characteristics of prognosis petroleum mixtures, pumping on an Western Kazakhstan-Kumkol petroleum pipe-line are presented. It is shown, that petroleum mixtures are low viscous, low solidifying and have not viscosity anomaly at positive temperatures. (author)

  18. Commodities Trading: An Essential Economic Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This issue focuses on commodities trading as an essential economic tool. Activities include critical thinking about marketing decisions and discussion on how futures markets and options are used as important economic tools. Discussion questions and a special student project are included. (EH)

  19. FRACTAL CHARACTERISTICS OF WORLD MARKET COMMODITY DERIVATIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Oksana Mihajlovsky

    2014-01-01

    The fractal properties of some segments of the global commodity derivatives market have been investigated in the present article. The fractal nature of segments of oil and copper derivatives markets has been determined. The presence of speculative reference groups of investors on given segments has been substantiated.

  20. Bitcoin: a Money-like Informational Commodity

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstra, Jan A.; Weijland, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The question "what is Bitcoin" allows for many answers depending on the objectives aimed at when providing such answers. The question addressed in this paper is to determine a top-level classification, or type, for Bitcoin. We will classify Bitcoin as a system of type money-like informational commodity (MLIC).

  1. Gambier : Indonesia Leading Commodities in The Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamda Fauza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gambier is one of Indonesia's small holder plantation commodities with a high economic value and has a commercial prospective for the future regard to the various usefulness. Gambier terms, in addition, to use as the name of the plant, is also the trade name of the product produced by the plant, extract of the leaves and young branches of the gambier plant.  In Indonesia, gambier have been subsisted in a golden era and be the prominent commodity.  In the early 19th century, gambier has become one of the commodities traded in Europe.  After World War II, gambier is no longer an important export products that are traded in the international market.  Further, development of gambier plantations in Indonesia are not so obvious information.  At this time in Indonesia, West Sumatra is the center of gambier production, moreover gambier also called as a specific plants of West Sumatra.  Mostly, gambier is produced by small home industries with the traditional tools and use more human labor.  Gambier is cultivated and processed in a unique method, therefore, gambier plant development become complicated. However, gambier development in Indonesia especially in West Sumatera for the future is still promising, considering its various usefulness and the role of Indonesia as the world's major producer.  Along with to the all contributing factors, there are numerous challenges and obstacles in the development for various aspects of this commodity.  Furthermore, intense participation from the stakeholders; government, farmers, researchers, investors, and traders in management ranging from farming techniques, processing, trade, and institutions are necessary. Thus, it could be expected, gambier would be turn around as a foremost commodity in the future.

  2. Canola – Where to for WA Agriculture?

    OpenAIRE

    Pluske, Johanna M.; Lindner, Robert K.

    2001-01-01

    Canola may be marketed as oilseed, oil or meal. Supply and demand of each of the commodities is influenced by, physical factors associated with land and weather, substitute commodity competition, land-use competition, production indirectly associated with canola such as that within the livestock industry and the effects of technology and more specifically plant breeding. Furthermore, domestic agricultural and international trade policies, standard of living, and political stability of countri...

  3. Constraints and opportunities for implementing nutrition-specific, agricultural and market-based approaches to improve nutrient intake adequacy among infants and young children in two regions of rural Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotz, Christine; Pelto, Gretel; Armar-Klemesu, Margaret; Ferguson, Elaine F; Chege, Peter; Musinguzi, Enock

    2015-12-01

    Several types of interventions can be used to improve nutrient intake adequacy in infant and young child (IYC) diets, including fortified foods, home fortification, nutrition education and behaviour change communication (BCC) in addition to agricultural and market-based strategies. However, the appropriate selection of interventions depends on the social, cultural, physical and economic context of the population. Derived from two rural Kenyan populations, this analysis combined information from: (1) a quantitative analysis to derive a set of food-based recommendations (FBRs) to fill nutrient intake gaps in IYC diets and identify 'problem nutrients' for which intake gaps require solutions beyond currently available foods and dietary patterns, and (2) an ethnographic qualitative analysis to identify contextual factors posing opportunities or constraints to implementing the FBRs, including perceptions of cost, convenience, accessibility and appropriateness of the recommended foods for IYC diets and other social or physical factors that determine accessibility of those foods. Opportunities identified included BCC to increase the acceptability and utilisation of green leafy vegetables (GLV) and small fish and agronomic interventions to increase the productivity of GLV and millet. Value chains for millet, beans, GLV, milk and small fish should be studied for opportunities to increase their accessibility in local markets. Processor-level interventions, such as partially cooked fortified dry porridge mixes or unfortified cereal mixes incorporating millet and beans, may increase the accessibility of foods that provide increased amounts of the problem nutrients. Multi-sectoral actors and community stakeholders should be engaged to assess the feasibility of implementing these locally appropriate strategies. PMID:26778801

  4. Techniques for Analyzing the Attractiveness of International Commodity Markets Under Conditions of Economic Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olha Pryhara

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines existing techniques and proposes its own for analyzing the attractiveness of international commodity markets in light of the globalization of world economic processes. Taking into account the supranational nature of the world economic environment when examining categories in the attractiveness of international commodity markets, the author introduces a multilevel system of indicators: market attractiveness at the mega-level – global level; market attractiveness at the macro-level national level; market attractiveness at the mezo-level – level of an individual sector. The attractiveness of international commodity markets is considered to be the degree of conformity between market environment factors and the mega-, macro- and mezo-levels of the economic interests of enterprises concerning the entry into and strategies for their activity on the international commodity markets in the short-, medium- and long-term. The author designs a stage-by-stage technique for strategically analyzing the attractiveness of international commodity markets in order to frame efficient market strategies of enterprises. Relying on the proposed techniques, she rates the integrated indicators of market accessibility and the possibility of realizing the economic interests of enterprises in target markets, bringing the index data into a matrix of «market accessibility – opportunity for realizing the economic interests of enterprises.» The analysis of a country’s position in the matrix makes it possible to frame efficient market strategies for enterprises.

  5. US Forest Service Recreation Opportunities

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting the recreation opportunity information that the Forest Service collects through the Recreation Portal and shares with the public...

  6. 77 FR 11251 - Commodity Pool Operators and Commodity Trading Advisors: Compliance Obligations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... delegated much of its direct oversight activities relating to CPOs, CTAs, and commodity pools. See, 75 FR... limits for excluded commodity transactions. \\47\\ 7 U.S.C. 6a(c); 76 FR 71626, 71643 (Nov. 18, 2011). \\48...\\ See H.R. Rep. No. 93-975, 93d Cong., 2d Sess. (1974), p. 20. \\20\\ See 68 FR 47231 (Aug. 8, 2003)....

  7. Co-movement between Commodity Market and Equity Market: Does Commodity Market Change?

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This paper, using Japanese market data, finds that although the correlation between equity markets and commodity market used to be negative or almost zero before around 2006, it has increased significantly after the global financial crisis in Autumn of 2008. In this sense, the commodity market lost its character as an alternative asset. However, the author argues that it is too early to conclude so because of several reasons.

  8. Opportunity Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise Møller; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Tollestrup, Christian; Nielsen, Suna Løwe

    2012-01-01

    development oriented, the act of ‘recognition’ is still a central part of the definition. Recently the term “Opportunity Design” has been introduced, suggesting that opportunities can be proactively and intentionally designed. However, the relatedness between the opportunity recognition process and...... opportunity design is not clear. Furthermore, there is still a lack of approaches, methods and tools, which can support entrepreneurs in designing the entrepreneurial opportunities. In this paper, we take steps towards defining opportunity design in respect to the opportunity recognition process, and identify...... some of the specific approaches applicable to the design of opportunities. By looking at industrial designers working with entrepreneurial opportunities, it becomes evident that there is a set of approaches, which can turn the opportunity recognition process into an intentional and proactive process....

  9. UNCERTAINTY AND THE REGULATION OF NITRATE POLLUTION FROM AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahams, Nii Adote; Shortle, James S.

    1997-01-01

    A simulation of U.S. corn production compares four environmental policies for controlling agricultural nitrate pollution. Public uncertainty about key economic parameters are considered. Results indicate that policy choice is sensitive to commodity programs and the public information structure. Agricultural research benefits are also sensitive to agricultural environmental policy choices.

  10. Development assessment of leisure agriculture in Henan province of China based on SWOT-AHP method

    OpenAIRE

    Yichuan Zhang; Lei Feng

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The development of leisure agriculture is an important means of agricultural industry structure adjustment of Henan province, China, to realize the transition from traditional agriculture to modern agriculture. Design/methodology/approach: The SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, Threat) analysis of Henan leisure agriculture will contribute to the sustainable development of Henan leisure agriculture. The strength, weakness, opportunity and threat of developing leisure agriculture ...

  11. Limitations of Certification and Supply Chain Standards for Environmental Protection in Commodity Crop Production

    OpenAIRE

    Kurt B. Waldman; John M. Kerr

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by recent increases in water pollution in major US agricultural watersheds and by the shortcomings of government programs to control non–point source pollution, this paper examines the prospects for using product certification (ecolabeling) and business-to-business supply chain standards for environmental protection in commodity crop production. We introduce the sources of demand for certification and supply chain standards and the political and economic context in which they have e...

  12. Commodity Market Development in Europe – Outlook. Proceedings of the November 2010 Workshop

    OpenAIRE

    FELLMANN THOMAS; M'BAREK Robert; GAY Stephan

    2011-01-01

    This report contains a summary and the presentations of the expert workshop 'Commodity Market Development in Europe – Outlook', held in October 2010 in Brussels. The workshop was held in order to present and discuss the preliminary results of the European Commission's outlook on EU agricultural market developments. The workshop gathered high-level policy makers, modelling and market experts and provided a forum to present and discuss recent and projected developments on the EU agricultura...

  13. Commodity Market Development in Europe – Outlook Proceedings of the October 2011 Workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Fellmann, Thomas; Helaine, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    This report contains a summary and the presentations of the expert workshop 'Commodity Market Development in Europe – Outlook', held in October 2011 in Brussels. The workshop was held in order to present and discuss the preliminary results of the European Commission's outlook on EU agricultural market developments. The workshop gathered high-level policy makers, modelling and market experts and provided a forum to present and discuss recent and projected developments on the EU agricultura...

  14. Valuing embryos as both commodities and singularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legge, Michael; Fitzgerald, Ruth

    2016-03-11

    An argument put forward against gamete and embryo donation, sale and research, is that to do so would treat the gametes or embryos as objects with no intrinsic value as human. Instead, gametes and embryos created and used for donation, sale or research, can be considered more like a commodity created and traded for economic exchange--something that is valuable only for the amount of money or other goods and services that others are willing to exchange. While Kant asserts that humans have dignity rather than object worth, the provision of human gametes and embryos are progressively becoming utilities for resolving childlessness and for certain research investigations. In this paper we discuss the commodity market and the relationship to human reproduction material. PMID:27005877

  15. Aflatoxin contamination in food commodities in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Monika; Harris, Julie; Afreen, Sadia; Deak, Eszter; Gade, Lalitha; Balajee, S Arunmozhi; Park, Benjamin; Chiller, Tom; Luby, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    During September 2009, we performed a rapid cross-sectional study to investigate the extent of aflatoxin contamination among common Bangladeshi foods. We collected eight common human food commodities (rice, lentils, wheat flour, dates, betelnut, red chili powder, ginger and groundnuts) and poultry feed samples from two large markets in each of three cities in Bangladesh. We quantified aflatoxin levels from pooled subsamples using fluorescence high-performance liquid chromatography. Aflatoxin levels were highest in dates and groundnuts (maximum 623 and 423 ng/g), respectively. Samples of betelnut (mean 30.6 ng/g), lentils (mean 21.2 ng/g) and red chili powder (>20 ng/g) also had elevated levels. The mean aflatoxin level among poultry feed samples was 73.0 ng/g. Aflatoxin levels were above the US maximum regulatory levels of 20 ng/g in five of eight commonly ingested human food commodities tested. PMID:24786620

  16. Commons/Commodity: Peer Production Caught in the Web of the Commercial Market

    OpenAIRE

    B. Meng; Wu, F.

    2013-01-01

    The development of digital technology and computer networks has enabled many kinds of online collaboration. This article examines Zimuzu, a Chinese case of online peer production that produces and distributes online Chinese subtitles of foreign media content. Zimuzu provides an opportunity to extend our understanding of how the tensions between the commodity and commons production models are being articulated in an online setting. Using empirical evidence collected from faceto- face interview...

  17. GENERIC COMMODITY PROMOTION AND PRODUCT DIFFERENTIATION

    OpenAIRE

    John M Crespi

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers whether generic promotion lowers the differentiation among competing brands as claimed in the 1997 Supreme Court case (Wileman et al. v. Glickman). Commodity promotion is modeled as a multi-stage game where products are vertically differentiated. Analytical results show that if the benefits of generic advertising from increased demand are outweighed by the costs from lower product differentiation then high-quality producers will not benefit from generic promotion but prod...

  18. Securitization and Commodity Contingency in International Lending

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald W. Anderson; Gilbert, Christopher L.

    1989-01-01

    Securitization of LDC debt would significantly aid the international debt problem by increasing liquidity and expanding the range of investors. Securitization is problematic, however, in large part due to sovereign risks involved. At present sovereign risks, commodity price risks and currency risks remain unbundled in general obligation loan contracts. Using a game theoretic model we illustrate the need to separate sovereign risks from other risks and associate the sovereign default with a th...

  19. LNG: a commodity in the making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although still far from being a commodity, LNG is undoubtedly emerging as an essential vector for world gas expansion. The flexibility it procures in terms of supply is of prime importance for future market equilibrium. Despite a number of uncertainties and constraints liable to thwart the realisation of the most optimistic growth prospects, the LNG trade remains wedded to rapid growth of about 7%/year by 2020, boosting its share of world gas trade to some 38% by that horizon. (author)

  20. The Macroeconomic Effects of Individual Commodity Tax

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuki Hiraga

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the condition which raising individual consumption tax raises output and private consumption in general equilibrium model. In many of the neoclassical papers, the government expenditure decreases consumption because the government expenditure causes the negative wealth shock. On the other hand, the many empirical results are contrary. This contradiction is called "Fiscal Policy Puzzle". But, if the substitution effect of levying on additive ad-valorem commodity tax of ...

  1. Pricing commodity outpatient procedures assessing the impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleverley, William O

    2015-10-01

    Hospitals should carefully consider all relevant factors before choosing to lower prices and payments for certain outpatient commodity services in an effort to remain competitive in their market. Key steps to take in the evaluation process include: Determining current profitability. Assessing profitability by payer class. Understanding overall cost positions. Assessing the relative payment terms of current commercial contracts. Determining the net revenue effect of proposed changes. PMID:26595979

  2. Food Safety. Commodity Science Point of View

    OpenAIRE

    Romuald I. Zalewski; Skawinska, Eulalia

    2006-01-01

    The paper addresses "food safety" and 'food quality' from the position of commodity and food science rather than economy. The various descriptions of both terms in literature are reviewed in connection with customer/supplier ability to evaluate food safety and quality by examination of various characteristics. Food safety has been described as opposite to food risk. Differences in perception of food risk by customer, producer/supplier and official agencies are discussed in this paper. The obj...

  3. Sustaining Competitiveness in a Commodity Market

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Fonn Hwee Beng

    2006-01-01

    In this research project, a study on how Sasol, an oil and chemicals producers, evaluate the issues that the company could consider as precursors to sustain its competitiveness in the commodity market. Six independent variables being; Price Competitiveness, Customer Satisfaction, Service Efficiency, Relationship Management, Customer loyalty, Technology have been used to determine its relation with sustainability. In this project, a measurement of the intangibility of resources, customer loyal...

  4. Optimal Fiscal Management of Commodity Price Shocks

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model is used to study the optimal fiscal response to commodity price shocks in a small open low-income country. The model accounts for imperfect access to world capital markets and a variety of externalities associated with public infrastructure, including utility benefits, a direct complementarity effect with private investment, and reduced distribution costs. However, public capital is also subject to congestion and absorption constraints, with the ...

  5. 7 CFR 35.15 - Opportunity for hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES AND PLUMS Withholding Certificates § 35.15 Opportunity for hearing. The person... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Opportunity for hearing. 35.15 Section 35.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE...

  6. Application of bulk material commodity code in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text details the signification and current status and difficulty of commodity code in the nuclear power engineering. By the applying condition of Ling Ao Phrase 2 Nuclear Power Plant there are several ways to create commodity code. Detail how to make commodity code structure and commodity code rule. And define material style, commodity code prefix, size and thickness etc. Then create commodity code. The other way is by user define to create commodity code. Next register specification in VPRM, make size range, thickness and branch fitting consolidation in the specification, select commodity code to create part number. And introduce how the interface of VPRM and PDMS, how import the weight data, and how make owner part number press in the drawing conveniently. The part numbers are applied in the drawings of LingAo Phrase 2 Nuclear Power Plant, owner accepts them. (authors)

  7. 75 FR 30364 - Information Collection; Outreach Opportunity Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Information Collection; Outreach Opportunity Questionnaire AGENCY... Opportunity Questionnaire. DATES: Comments must be received in writing on or before August 2, 2010 to be... Friday. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Outreach Opportunity Questionnaire. OMB Number:...

  8. LDC commodity risk analysis and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the current operation of the new competitive electricity market in Ontario, local distribution companies (LDCs) are required to pay the monthly invoice of the Independent Market Operator (IMO) before they collect from end-users for the consumption period covered by the invoice, with no clear guarantee that the recovery will occur. This situation creates a major cash flow problem and financial risk for LDCs and threatens the integrity and stability of the electricity market. This paper described 3 features of Ontario's competitive electricity market that create financial and commodity risk. The first problem is that there is no limit on how high prices can rise. Increases in wholesale commodity prices can result in a situation where the amount of the IMO's invoice is greater than the LDC's ability to pay at the time of receipt. Secondly, the LDC bears a 100 per cent payment obligation to the IMO administrator of the wholesale market. The third problem is that LDCs bear payment default risk from all consumers in the Ontario market, including electricity retailers. This paper presents some specific policy solutions that can protect the market from this threat. It was suggested that in order to protect the integrity of Ontario's electricity market during high prices, a policy must be drafted to address the commodity price financing risk (CPFR) issue. The policy must also define what happens if prices increase past the LDCs financing obligation limit. tabs., figs

  9. Real Options and Merchant Operations of Energy and Other Commodities

    OpenAIRE

    Secomandi, Nicola; Seppi, Duane J.

    2014-01-01

    The value chain for energy and other commodities entails physical conversions through refineries, power plants, storage facilities, and transportation and other capital-intensive infrastructure. When the operation of such commodity conversion assets occurs alongside liquid markets for the input and output commodities, the operating flexibility of conversion assets can be managed as real options on the underlying commodity prices. Merchant operations is an integrated trading and operations app...

  10. Multifractal Properties of Price Fluctuations of Stocks and Commodities

    OpenAIRE

    Kaushik Matia; Yosef Ashkenazy; H. Eugene Stanley

    2003-01-01

    We analyze daily prices of 29 commodities and 2449 stocks, each over a period of $\\approx 15$ years. We find that the price fluctuations for commodities have a significantly broader multifractal spectrum than for stocks. We also propose that multifractal properties of both stocks and commodities can be attributed mainly to the broad probability distribution of price fluctuations and secondarily to their temporal organization. Furthermore, we propose that, for commodities, stronger higher orde...

  11. Do commodities offer diversification benefits in multi-asset portfolios?

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen-Tangen, Nicoline Heier; Overaae, Mats

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade commodities have increased in popularity as an alternative asset class. Previous research reports the diversification benefits when adding individual commodity indices or futures to a traditional portfolio of stocks and bonds, due to low correlation to traditional asset classes. Hence, a major motive of commodity investments is to increase the performance of the portfolio. More recent research report that commodities have been financialized and that the benefits of addi...

  12. COMMODITY PRICE DYNAMICS AND DERIVATIVE VALUATION: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    JANIS BACK; MARCEL PROKOPCZUK

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews extant research on commodity price dynamics and commodity derivative pricing models. In the first half, we provide an overview of key characteristics of commodity price behavior that have been explored and documented in the theoretical and empirical literature. In the second half, we review existing derivative pricing models and discuss how the peculiarities of commodity markets have been integrated in these models. We conclude the paper with a brief outlook on various impo...

  13. Improving the energy efficiency of freight in the United States through commodity-based analysis: justification and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efforts to reduce energy use in freight transportation usually center around ''mode-based'' approaches, namely improving the energy efficiency of energy intensive modes, such as truck, and shifting more freight to energy efficient modes, such as rail. In the first part of this paper we review the recent trends and future prospects for these mode-based approaches, finding that despite substantial improvement in the technological efficiency of freight modes and robust growth in the use of intermodal rail since 1980, total freight energy use across all modes in the US has grown by approximately 33%, with proportional growth in carbon emissions. In the second part of the paper we propose use of a ''commodity-based'' approach, in which freight energy use is disaggregated by contribution of major commodity groups, in order to support efficiency improvement at the commodity level. Two potential applications of the commodity based approach, namely (1) life cycle analysis of energy use for major commodity groups and (2) spatial analysis of freight patterns, are demonstrated using the 1993 US Commodity Flow Survey data. Results of these preliminary findings suggest that commodity groups vary widely in the ratio of energy use in production to energy use in transport, and that for many commodity groups, there may be substantial opportunities for saving energy by redistributing flow patterns. Through development of the commodity-based approach, we also identify the collaborative involvement of shippers and carriers as a key point in improving energy efficiency, since it can be used to both make the mode-based approach more effective and address new issues such as the underlying growth in tonne-km. Benefits for air quality and other transportation issues are also discussed. (author)

  14. Effectiveness of conventional commodity treatments (heat, refrigeration, chemical, others) to satisfy quarantine regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quarantine treatments other than irradiation are discussed and examples given. Because of public concern about the use of chemicals to control insect pests in fruits and vegetables, more research emphasis by Agricultural Research Service, Untied States Department of Agriculture, scientists involved with developing quarantine treatments has been directed towards temperature manipulation and ways of eliminating the need for treatment. Single treatments include fumigation, temperature manipulation (heat/refrigeration), a modified atmosphere, physical barriers and an insecticide dip. Commodity quarantine treatment/certification research is concerned with killing pests and minimizing or eliminating the need for treatment. Future quarantine treatment research should be carried out along these lines. (author). 30 refs

  15. 22 CFR 211.6 - Processing, repackaging, and labeling commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... commodities. 211.6 Section 211.6 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT TRANSFER OF FOOD COMMODITIES FOR FOOD USE IN DISASTER RELIEF, ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND OTHER ASSISTANCE § 211.6 Processing, repackaging, and labeling commodities. (a) Commercial processing and repackaging. Cooperating sponsors...

  16. 44 CFR 402.5 - Forwarding commodities previously shipped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forwarding commodities... commodities previously shipped. Order T-1 applies to transportation on or discharge from ships documented... ship or aircraft, before the issuance of Order T-1, had transported restricted commodities...

  17. 46 CFR 531.10 - Excepted and exempted commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excepted and exempted commodities. 531.10 Section 531.10... ARRANGEMENTS Exceptions and Implementation § 531.10 Excepted and exempted commodities. (a) Statutory exceptions... or paper waste. (b) Commission exemptions. The following commodities and/or services are not...

  18. 41 CFR 51-6.4 - Military resale commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... commodities. 51-6.4 Section 51-6.4 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... PROCEDURES § 51-6.4 Military resale commodities. (a) Purchase procedures for ordering military resale commodities are available from the central nonprofit agencies. Authorized resale outlets (military...

  19. 31 CFR 560.526 - Commodities trading and related transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commodities trading and related... Licenses, Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.526 Commodities trading and related transactions. (a) Trading in Iranian-origin commodities. With respect to § 560.206, specific licenses may...

  20. 49 CFR 1248.1 - Freight commodity statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freight commodity statistics. 1248.1 Section 1248... STATISTICS § 1248.1 Freight commodity statistics. All class I railroads, as described in § 1240.1 of this... statistics on the basis of the commodity codes named in § 1248.101. Carriers shall report quarterly on...

  1. Trade in water and commodities as adaptations to global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, R. B.; Hertel, T. W.; Prousevitch, A.; Baldos, U. L. C.; Frolking, S. E.; Liu, J.; Grogan, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    The human capacity for altering the water cycle has been well documented and given the expected change due to population, income growth, biofuels, climate, and associated land use change, there remains great uncertainty in both the degree of increased pressure on land and water resources and in our ability to adapt to these changes. Alleviating regional shortages in water supply can be carried out in a spatial hierarchy through i) direct trade of water between all regions, ii) development of infrastructure to improve water availability within regions (e.g. impounding rivers), iii) via inter-basin hydrological transfer between neighboring regions and, iv) via virtual water trade. These adaptation strategies can be managed via market trade in water and commodities to identify those strategies most likely to be adopted. This work combines the physically-based University of New Hampshire Water Balance Model (WBM) with the macro-scale Purdue University Simplified International Model of agricultural Prices Land use and the Environment (SIMPLE) to explore the interaction of supply and demand for fresh water globally. In this work we use a newly developed grid cell-based version of SIMPLE to achieve a more direct connection between the two modeling paradigms of physically-based models with optimization-driven approaches characteristic of economic models. We explore questions related to the global and regional impact of water scarcity and water surplus on the ability of regions to adapt to future change. Allowing for a variety of adaptation strategies such as direct trade of water and expanding the built water infrastructure, as well as indirect trade in commodities, will reduce overall global water stress and, in some regions, significantly reduce their vulnerability to these future changes.

  2. Brazil Agriculture Policy Review

    OpenAIRE

    Quiroga, Jose; Brooks, Jonathan; Melyukhina, Olga

    2005-01-01

    In June 2005, OECD members met with senior government officials from Brazil to discuss Brazilian agricultural policies and future directions, as a part of a comprehensive agricultural policy review. Ongoing dialogue with Brazil on policy issues is important to fostering a better understanding of global challenges and opportunities that lie ahead. Results of the review will be published by the OECD in 2005. This policy note provides a preview of key findings.

  3. Facing the globalization of China's agricultural development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Rui; LIU Chang

    2007-01-01

    This article discussed what economic globalization had brought to China's agricultural development and how to deal with the globalization of China's agricultural development after China's entry into WTO. This study expounded our opportunities and challenges under the new circumstance of China's accession to WTO on the agriculture and gave some measures to reduce the unfavorable impacts on the agriculture.

  4. Factor Structure in Commodity Futures Return and Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Lunde, Asger; Olesen, Kasper Vinther

    Using data on more than 750 million futures trades during 2004-2013, we analyze eight stylized facts of commodity price and volatility dynamics in the post financialization period. We pay particular attention to the factor structure in returns and volatility and to commodity market integration with...... the equity market. We find evidence of a factor structure in daily commodity futures returns. However, the factor structure in daily commodity futures volatility is even stronger than in returns. When computing model-free realized commodity betas with the stock market we find that they were high...... during 2008-2010 but have since returned to the pre-crisis level close to zero. The common factor in commodity volatility is nevertheless clearly related to stock market volatility. We conclude that, while commodity markets appear to again be segmented from the equity market when only returns are...

  5. The stochastic seasonal behavior of energy commodity convenience yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper contributes to the commodity pricing literature by consistently modeling the convenience yield with its empirically observed properties. Specifically, in this paper, we show how a four-factor model for the stochastic behavior of commodity prices, with two long- and short-term factors and two additional seasonal factors, may accommodate some of the most important empirically observed characteristics of commodity convenience yields, such as the mean reversion and stochastic seasonality. Based on this evidence, a theoretical model is presented and estimated to characterize the commodity convenience yield dynamics that are consistent with previous findings. We also show that commodity price seasonality is better estimated through convenience yields than through futures prices. - Highlights: • Energy commodity convenience yields exhibit mean reversion and stochastic seasonality. • We present a model for convenience yields accounting for their observed characteristics. • Commodity price seasonality is better estimated through convenience yields

  6. Kinetic market models with single commodity having price fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, A.; Chakrabarti, B. K.

    2006-12-01

    We study here numerically the behavior of an ideal gas like model of markets having only one non-consumable commodity. We investigate the behavior of the steady-state distributions of money, commodity and total wealth, as the dynamics of trading or exchange of money and commodity proceeds, with local (in time) fluctuations in the price of the commodity. These distributions are studied in markets with agents having uniform and random saving factors. The self-organizing features in money distribution are similar to the cases without any commodity (or with consumable commodities), while the commodity distribution shows an exponential decay. The wealth distribution shows interesting behavior: gamma like distribution for uniform saving propensity and has the same power-law tail, as that of the money distribution, for a market with agents having random saving propensity.

  7. Kinetic market models with single commodity having price fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, A; Chakrabarti, Bikas K.; Chatterjee, Arnab

    2006-01-01

    We study here numerically the behavior of an ideal gas like model of markets having only one non-consumable commodity. We investigate the behavior of the steady-state distributions of money, commodity and total wealth, as the dynamics of trading or exchange of money and commodity proceeds, with local (in time) fluctuations in the price of the commodity. These distributions are studied in markets with agents having uniform and random saving factors. The self-organizing features in money distribution are similar to the cases without any commodity (or with consumable commodities), the commodity distribution shows an exponential decay. The wealth distribution shows interesting behavior: Gamma like distribution for uniform saving propensity and has the same power-law tail, as that of the money distribution for a market with agents having random saving propensity.

  8. organic agriculture in Syria : policy options

    OpenAIRE

    Santucci, Fabio M.

    2010-01-01

    The author analyses present difficulties of conventional agriculture in Syria. Market opportunities, in Syria and abroad, are illustrated. Possible actions and participatory approach are thus covered.

  9. Airships for transporting highly volatile commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonstegaard, M.

    1975-01-01

    Large airships may prove feasible as carriers of commodities that move as gases or cryogenic liquids; buoyant gaseous cargo could be ballasted with liquid cargo. Airships are compact in shape, operate in a rarified medium, and hence can be fast and perhaps economic carriers of costly cryogenic tanks. The high-pressure gas pipeline has excessive surface area when carrying hydrogen and excessive fluid density when carrying natural gas, while the cryogenic ocean tanker runs in a dense medium and makes gravity waves. But the airship, despite its fluid dynamic advantages, faces problems of safety, weather, and altitude control.

  10. A strong argument for using non-commodities to generate electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An optimal control approach towards generating electricity is used to analyze the trade-off between using of primary sources which are regarded as commodities, such as fossil fuels, biomass and water to generate electricity, and exploiting these sources for their other economic uses (for example, in the petrochemical industry, in the production of fuels, in agriculture, in steelmaking, and so forth). In order to do so, a dynamic model is presented which establishes relationships between economic growth, the fossil fuel, water and biomass sectors, and energy policies, based on the application of the Pontryagin Maximum Principle. Among other results, the analysis establishes that, under the optimal path, the price of commodities for non-energy uses should be twice the price of the energy assets. This indicates that sources which are not commodities such as solar energy, wind energy, and geothermal energy, should be used to generate electricity. - Highlights: • We used an optimal control approach to analyze the trade-off between the multiple uses of energy resource. • We used a dynamic model which establishes relationships between economic growth, the fossil fuel, water and biomass sectors. • The analysis establishes that the price of commodities for non-energy uses should be twice the price of the energy assets

  11. Indian Agricultural Marketing- A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel-Ul-Rehman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture in India has directly or indirectly continued to be the source of livelihood to majority of the population. Indian agriculture has seen a lot of changes in its structure. India, predominantly an agricultural economy, has healthy signs of transformation in agriculture and allied activities. India has seen agriculture as a precious tool of economic development as other sectors of production depend on it. Efficient backward and forward integration with agriculture has led to globally competitive production system in terms of cost and quality. Cooperatives seem to be well positioned to coordinate product differentiation at the farm level and to integrate forward into value added processing activities.. Indian agriculture can be balanced and made efficient through proper and better management practices. The present study brings out past and present scenario of agricultural marketing prevailing in India, its challenges and future recommendations. Moreover the opportunities provide by agricultural marketing should be tapped effectively by the marketers.

  12. 29 CFR 780.210 - The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.210 The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.” As stated in § 780.127, the typical...

  13. 29 CFR 780.405 - Exemption is direct and does not mean activities are agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... agriculture. 780.405 Section 780.405 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture or Irrigation That Is Exempted From the Overtime...

  14. 29 CFR 780.607 - “Primarily employed” in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âPrimarily employedâ in agriculture. 780.607 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption...

  15. 29 CFR 780.128 - General statement on “secondary” agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General statement on âsecondaryâ agriculture. 780.128... APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Practices Exempt Under âsecondaryâ Meaning of...

  16. 29 CFR 780.104 - How modern specialization affects the scope of agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How modern specialization affects the scope of agriculture... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Introductory § 780.104 How modern...

  17. 29 CFR 780.200 - Inclusion of forestry or lumbering operations in agriculture is limited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... agriculture is limited. 780.200 Section 780.200 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR... REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Forestry...

  18. 29 CFR 780.606 - Interpretation of term “agriculture.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for Exemption § 780.606 Interpretation of term “agriculture.” Section 3(f) of the Act, which...

  19. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Laws and Regulations Organic Agriculture Outreach Plant Health Research and Science Rural and Community Development Rural Opportunities ... Promise Zones StrikeForce for Rural Growth EDUCATION AND RESEARCH Agricultural Research Agricultural Statistics Economic Research Food and ...

  20. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Marketing and Trade Organic Agriculture Outreach Plant Health Research and Science Rural and Community Development Rural Opportunities ... People's Garden StrikeForce for Rural Growth EDUCATION AND RESEARCH Agricultural Research Agricultural Statistics Economic Research Food and ...

  1. 交情行为与创业机会:基于农业创业的多案例研究%Jiaoqing Behaviors and Entrepreneurial Opportunity:A Multi-case Study on Agricultural Entrepreneurship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘安成; 李鹏飞

    2014-01-01

    在中国情理文化背景下,创业者在社会交往中注重人际情感交流,这种交情行为对把握创业机会具有重要作用。选取央视《致富经》栏目中20个农业创业故事作为研究样本,运用扎根理论方法对数据进行编码,探析创业者如何在创业实践中运用交情行为获取创业机会。研究结果表明,创业者采用面子、人情和关系等社会技巧,向创业资源所有者寻求情感交汇以获得对方的社会认同,以此揭示创业者运用交情行为塑造创业导向性社会情境的行为机理;通过构建创业网络和激活创业资源,交情行为促进创业者对创业机会的探索和利用,具体表现为交情行为能够促进创业者从社会网络关系中构建创业网络、提高从创业网络中调用创业资源的效率、强化将社会资源激活为创业资源的机会。%Entrepreneurs emphasize emotional communication with others in social interaction under the background of Chinese culture .Entrepreneurs′jiaoqing behaviors play an important role in grasping entrepreneurial opportunity .This study coded twenty agricultural entrepreneurship stories from “Zhi Fu Jing” in CCTV-7 by the method of grounded theory , investigating how entre-preneurs take use of jiaoqing behaviors to seize entrepreneurial opportunity in entrepreneurial practice .The findings revealed that entrepreneurs adopt the social skills (e.g., renqing, guanxi and mianzi) to seek emotional convergence, thereby gaining social identification from entrepreneurial resource owners .This process showed the behavioral mechanism of how entrepreneurs take use of Jiaoqing behaviors to shape entrepreneurial oriented social context .Further, with constructing entrepreneurial network and tak-ing of entrepreneurial resources , jiaoqing behaviors stimulate entrepreneurs to explore and exploit entrepreneurial opportunity by①promoting entrepreneurs to construct entrepreneurial network

  2. 76 FR 11701 - Amendments to Commodity Pool Operator and Commodity Trading Advisor Regulations Resulting From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... and Commodity Trading Advisors: Amendments to Compliance Obligations, 76 FR 7976 (Feb. 11, 2011); and Swap Data Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements; Proposed Rule, 75 FR 76574 (Dec. 8, 2010). II. The... would establish business conduct standards for swap dealers and major swap participants. See 75 FR...

  3. GLOBAL CHALLENGES FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN SLOVAKIA

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalana Bartosova; Stefan Buday

    2013-01-01

    The paper is focused on the evaluation of economic, social and environmental challenges of sustainable agriculture. The selected indicators of the economic challenges of sustainable agriculture imply that agriculture in Slovakia is not in long term be able to ensure competitiveness in the European market, gross agricultural output is characterized by a faster decline in animal production than in crop production and the value of import of agri-food commodities is higher than the value of...

  4. Opportunity Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løwe Nielsen, Suna; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Nielsen, Louise Møller;

    2013-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is about transforming novel ideas into future business, but it requires an entrepreneurial opportunity to be exploited via an effective strategic and organizational design. While the entrepreneurship literature says much about how to implement and organize new opportunities in a...... market setting (the back-end of entrepreneurial processes), it pays less attention to how entrepreneurs purposely design opportunities (the front-end of entrepreneurial processes). Drawing on methods and processes from the creative design literature, the paper introduces a framework of “opportunity...... design”. The framework explains how opportunities intentionally and pro-actively can be designed from methods and processes of moving-in and moving-out. An illustrative case of opportunity design within the area of sustainable energy and electric cars is presented to link the theoretical discussion to...

  5. Sustainability of biofuels in Latin America: Risks and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several Latin American countries are setting up biofuel programmes to establish alternative markets for agricultural commodities. This is mainly triggered by the current success of Brazilian bioethanol production for the domestic market and for export. Furthermore, the global biofuel market is expected to increase due to ambitious biofuel programmes in the EU and in the USA. Colombia, Venezuela, Costa Rica and Guatemala are focusing on bioethanol production from sugarcane whereas biofuel production in Argentina is based on soy biodiesel. Recent developments of the biofuel sector take place extremely rapid especially in Argentina, which became one of the five largest biodiesel producers in the world in 2008. Till date no specific biofuel sustainability certification systems have been implemented in Latin American, as well as on global level. This fact and the predominant use of food crops for biofuel production raise concerns about the sustainability of biofuel production related to environmental and social aspects. This paper provides an overview of the hotspots of conflicts in biofuel production in Latin America. It investigates presently available sustainability tools and initiatives to ensure sustainable biofuel production in Latin America. Finally, it provides an outlook on how to integrate sustainability in the Latin American biofuel sector. - Research Highlights: → This study investigates risks and opportunities of biofuels in Latin America. → Latin American countries are setting up programmes to promote biofuel development. → Strong biofuel sectors provide opportunities for economic development. → Potential negative impact includes deforestation and effects on food security. → Sustainability initiatives exist to minimise negative impact.

  6. 17 CFR 4.14 - Exemption from registration as a commodity trading advisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... a commodity trading advisor. 4.14 Section 4.14 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS General Provisions, Definitions and Exemptions § 4.14 Exemption from registration as a commodity trading advisor. This section...

  7. The Impact of the Global Commodity and Financial Crises on Poverty in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thurlow, James; Tarp, Finn; McCoy, Simon;

    Economic growth in Vietnam has been fairly resilient to the global commodity and financial crises, but it is unclear why. In addition, the impact of the crises on employment and poverty is in dispute. We develop a dynamic computable general equilibrium model to decompose impacts and estimate...... distributional outcomes. Our results indicate that the 2008 commodity crisis increased employment and reduced poverty by favouring labour-intensive exports, especially in agriculture. The 2009 financial crisis reversed these gains. It pushed more than a million workers into unemployment and about 3 million...... people below the US$2-a-day poverty line, with the vast majority of these being rural dwellers. The net effect of the crises left Vietnam.....

  8. Indonesia Export, Import, and Demand for Domestic Commodities under Economics Liberalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Irawan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to identify the behaviour of export, import and domestic commoditiesdemand in liberalization era both in the long run and the short run. This researchapplies the Vector Error Correction Model, Johansen Cointegration Test, Impulse ResponseAnalysis and Granger Causality Test. The data range from 1993:01 to 2002:12. The resultshows that in the long run the cross-price elasticity of imported non agricultural goods withrespect to demand for domestically produced goods have lower magnitudes than own priceelasticity of domestically produced goods. The demand elasticity of import commodities iselastic but that of domestic commodities is inelastic.Keywords: Import, Export, Economic Liberalization, Vector Error Correction Model

  9. Agriculture Beyond Food: Experiences from Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loffler, H.J.M.; Afiff, S.; Burgers, P.P.M.; Govers, C.; Heeres, H.J.; Karyanto, O.; Manurung, R.; Vel, J.A.C.; Visscher, S.; Zwaagstra, T.; Widyarani, R.

    2014-01-01

    The ABF programme addresses one of today’s major societal challenges, how to achieve a sustainable and inclusive biobased economy, with high-level scientific research on the thin lines between food and non-food, commodities and waste products, livelihood opportunities and risks, and local and global

  10. From creation to consumption: objects and commodities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Bautista López

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Objects, persons and ideas are all merely merchandise in a world that is highly industrialised and utterly superficial. Consumer societies produce a profusion of merchandise. In strictly economic terms, merchandise is whatever has an exchange-value, in  a world where objects are valued for their utility. So goods are whatever is useful, where use can be measured in monetary terms. This perspective impoverishes social relations. People relate only insofar as their value dictates, and that value is merely utilitarian. Moreover, this commercialisation reaches up to impoverish society as a whole. All this is the result of a long process of objectification which, seeing the world as the exchange of goods, ends up treating people just like any other tradable commodity. This article takes a critical look at the processes involved, and proposes an explanation in terms of the social construction of 'utility''.

  11. Caos en el mercado de commodities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinosa Méndez Christian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo aplica seis técnicas y herramientas (análisis gráfico, gráfico de recurrencia, entropía de espacio temporal, coeficiente de Hurst, exponente de Lyapunov y dimensión de correlación, a las series de retornos del cobre, oro, petróleo, plata, zinc, aluminio, plomo y níquel, con el fin de corroborar la existencia de un comportamiento caótico en el mercado de commodities. Se encuentra evidencia de que los mercados financieros se comportan de forma caótica en contra de la hipótesis de aleatoriedad. Se contrasta, igualmente, no-normalidad, no-aleatoriedad y no-linealidad. Los resultados encontrados contradicen algunos de los supuestos básicos de la teoría financiera moderna.

  12. ICTs for Agriculture in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Zyl, Omri Van; Alexander, Trish; Graaf, Liezl De; Mukherjee, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    The strategic application of information and communications technology (ICT) to the agricultural industry, the largest economic sector in most African countries, offers the best opportunity for economic growth and poverty alleviation on the continent. Food security is paramount for the survival of individuals, families, and ultimately nations, yet Africa's agriculture sector has been in de...

  13. Zambia : Smallholder Agricultural Commercialization Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    This report focuses on the potential and opportunities for smallholder commercialization in Zambia. The paper discusses the framework for Zambia's smallholder commercialization strategy, the current state of smallholder agriculture in Zambia, key issues, support from agribusiness to smallholders, and development of potential and opportunities for smallholder commercialization. The paper co...

  14. Global commodity cycles and linkages a FAVAR approach

    OpenAIRE

    Lombardi, Marco J.; Osbat, Chiara; Schnatz, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we examine linkages across non-energy commodity price developments by means of a factor-augmented VAR model (FAVAR). From a set of non-energy commodity price series, we extract two factors, which we identify as common trends in metals and a food prices. These factors are included in a FAVAR model together with selected macroeconomic variables, which have been associated with developments in commodity prices. Impulse response functions confirm that exchange rates and of economic ...

  15. A GENERAL APPROACH TO VALUING COMMODITY-LINKED BONDS

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Yufei; Turvey, Calum G.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a general approach to valuing commodity-linked bonds (CLBs) based on the Heath-Jarrow-Morton (HJM) framework. The model deals with four dimensions of uncertainty: prices of the underlying commodity, the value of firm that issues bonds, interest rates, and convenience yields. A mathematical formula for the price of a commodity-linked bond is derived. The previous results in Black and Scholes (1973), Merton (1973), Schwartz (1982), and Atta-Mensah (1992) ...

  16. Futures trading and the excess comovement of commodity prices

    OpenAIRE

    Le Pen, Yannick; Sévi, Benoît

    2013-01-01

    We empirically reinvestigate the issue of excess comovement of commodity prices initially raised in Pindyck and Rotemberg (1990) and show that excess comovement, when it exists, can be related to hedging and speculative pressure in commodity futures markets. Excess comovement appears when commodity prices remain correlated even after adjusting for the impact of common factors. While Pindyck and Rotemberg and following c ontributions examine this issue using a relevant but arbitrary set of con...

  17. The present value model of rational commodity pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Robert S. Pindyck

    1991-01-01

    The present value model relates an asset's price to the sum of its discounted expected future payoffs. I explore the limits of the model by testing its ability to explain the pricing of storable commodities. For commodities the payoff stream is the convenience yield that accrues from holding inventories, and it can be measured directly from spot and futures prices. Hence the model imposes restrictions on the joint dynamics of spot and futures prices, which I test for four commodities. I find ...

  18. Portfolio Diversification with Commodity Futures: Properties of Levered Futures

    OpenAIRE

    Woodard, J.D.; Egelkraut, T.M.; Garcia, P.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2005-01-01

    Portfolio Diversification with Commodity Futures: Properties of Levered Futures This study extends previous work on the impact of commodity futures on portfolio performance by explicitly incorporating levered futures into the portfolio optimization problem. Using data on nine individual commodity futures and one aggregate index from 1994-2003, we find that collateralized and levered futures strategies perform similarly in an ex-post context. Significant differences between the approaches emer...

  19. Two-Commodity Markovian Inventory System with Set of Reorders

    OpenAIRE

    N.Anbazhagan; B. Vigneshwaran

    2010-01-01

    This article examines a two commodity substitutable inventory system—two different brands of super computers under continuous review. The demand points for each commodity are assumed to form independent Poisson processes. The reordering policy is to place orders for both the commodities when the total net inventory level drops to any one of the prefixed levels with prescribed probability distribution. Lost sales are assumed during the stock out period. The lead time for a reorder is exponen...

  20. Commodity Tax Competition Under Destination and Origin Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Lockwood, Ben

    1992-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of switching from the destination to the origin principle of taxation on non-cooperative commodity tax equilibrium. When taxes are constrained to uniformity across commodities, the switch has no effect. When differentiated taxes are allowed, the effects of the switch depend on whether countries are small or large. In both cases the switch imposes the requirement that taxes must be uniform across commodities within each country. In the second case there are two fu...

  1. Can't get no satisfaction : commodity culture in fiction

    OpenAIRE

    Lindner, Christoph Perrin

    2002-01-01

    Drawing on recent thinking in critical and cultural theory, this thesis examines the representation of commodity culture in a selected body of nineteenth and twentieth century fiction. In so doing, it explains how the commodity, as capitalism's representational agent, created and sustained a culture of its own in the nineteenth century, and how that culture, still with us today, has persisted and evolved over the course of the twentieth century. It follows the commodity and the...

  2. Impact of commodity index rolls on the futures term structure

    OpenAIRE

    Roslander, Risto-Matti

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: In this thesis, I study the effects of commodity index rolls on nearby commodity futures returns and futures term structure. More specifically, I examine the impact of commodity index investors' and speculators' positions on roll yields of nearby futures contracts during the "Goldman roll". In addition, I study the futures returns in the post-rolling period. Furthermore, by employing daily dollar volumes, my objective is to calculate the effect of liquidity in the...

  3. Can the environmental benefits of biomass support agriculture? - The case of cereals for electricity and bioethanol production in Northern Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent policy documents, such as the EC Communication on an Energy Policy for Europe (January 2007) make emphasis on the opportunities that energy applications can offer certain agricultural commodities, especially in the framework of a progressive dismantling of the Common Agricultural Policy. This paper analyses whether this can be true for wheat and barley farmers, using the real example of a straw-based power plant in Northern Spain and a theoretical factory for bioethanol production fed with cereal grain. The outcomes of such an exercise, in which their relative environmental benefits vis-a-vis fossil fuel alternatives are worked out with the aid of a simplified life-cycle approach, show that the characteristics of the electricity and biomass markets, the baseline scenario and the fuel prices are crucial for the future of the sector. (author)

  4. 78 FR 2453 - Credit Suisse Opportunity Funds, et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... (``Opportunity Funds''), Credit Suisse Commodity Strategy Funds (``Commodity Strategy Funds''), Credit Suisse... Strategy Funds are organized as Delaware statutory trusts. Each is an open-end management investment... investment company. The Applicant Investing Funds invest or will invest in a variety of debt and/or...

  5. 7 CFR 652.34 - Opportunity to contest decertification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Opportunity to contest decertification. 652.34 Section 652.34 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES... Decertification § 652.34 Opportunity to contest decertification. To contest decertification, the technical...

  6. Return of the Gentleman Farmer?: Conceptualising Gentrification in UK Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Lee-Ann

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, processes of gentrification are assessed in relation to non-commercial farming: the production of agricultural commodities without the intent of earning a living. The author argues that due to the connection between residence and productive assets (particularly land) inherent in farming, agricultural gentrification represents a…

  7. 26 CFR 31.3121(g)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., orchards, and such greenhouses and other similar structures as are used primarily for the raising of agricultural or horticultural commodities. Greenhouses and other similar structures used primarily for other... agricultural labor: (i) The cultivation of the soil; (ii) The raising, shearing, feeding, caring for,...

  8. An Introduction to Nutrition-Agriculture Linkages

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural development is now expected to proceed in a way that maximizes opportunities to improve health and nutrition. Accordingly, the term “nutrition-agriculture linkages” describes the set of relationships that shows the mutual dependence of nutrition, health and agriculture. Changes in nutrition or health status are expected to affect agricultural production; conversely changes in the agricultural sector can have significant effects on individual health and nutritional status. Most de...

  9. Commodity prices, financial markets, and development: Effects of the financialisation of commodity markets and necessary policy reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Staritz, Cornelia; HEUMESSER Christine; Küblböck, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Given the far-reaching implications of commodity prices for developing countries an understanding of the factors behind recent commodity price developments is crucial. ÖFSE research shows that besides structural changes in fundamental supply and demand conditions, the increasing presence of financial investors on commodity derivative markets has impacted on price dynamics and the microstructure of these markets. This questions to what extent these markets still fulfill their fundamental roles...

  10. Alcohol as international commodity; Alcool como 'commodity' internacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negrao, Luiz Celso Parisi [Ministerio do Desenvolvimento, Industria e Comercio Exterior, Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Secretaria de Tecnologia Industrial]. E-mail: luiz.negrao@desenvolvimento.gov.br; Urban, Maria Lucia de Paula

    2004-12-15

    The ethanol is able to reduce the gas emissions, mainly in CO2 balance which gives a strong contribution for this fact. Using the alcohol rather than fossil fuels is a natural choice as a important renewable energy source. Also, to have the alcohol as international environmental commodity is the goal of all interested in this matter, since the entry into force the Kyoto protocol, with the Russian approval.

  11. Electronic Commodity Market System for Food Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Fomina, Julia; Fomin, Eduard

    2011-01-01

    On the agricultural market, like any other market, there are transaction costs such as “discovering what the relevant prices are, the costs of negotiating and concluding a separate contract for each exchange transaction1”, and others. According to our research the average level of transaction costs in Russia for small and medium-sized enterprises is about 28% of the total cost. If the transaction costs of agricultural market are high, in order to reduce them entrepreneurs can arrange the addi...

  12. Genetically Modified Crops: Towards Agricultural Growth, Agricultural Development, or Agricultural Sustainability?

    OpenAIRE

    Azadi, Hossein; Ghanian, Mansour; Ghuchani, Omid M.; Rafiaani, Parisa; Taning, Clauvis N. T.; Hajivand, Roghaye Y.; Dogot, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The present debate on how to increase global food production in a sustainable way has focused on arguments over the pros and cons of genetically modified (GM) crops. Scientists in both public and private sectors clearly regard GM technology as a major new set of tools, whereas industry sees it as an opportunity for increased profits. However, it remains questionable whether GM crops can contribute to agricultural growth, agricultural development, and agricultural sustainability. This review p...

  13. International Commodity Markets, Local Food Prices and Environment in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. E.; Hintermann, B.; Higgins, N.

    2008-12-01

    The recent massive increase in food and energy prices in the past five years, coupled with the awareness of the long term challenges of climate change to small holder agriculture in Africa has brought the issue of food security for the world's poorest people to the forefront once again. Asymmetric and limited integration of local commodity markets in West Africa highlights the weak position of Africa's rural countries in the face of climate change and demographic expansion. This paper will describe the functioning of local informal food markets in West African over the past twenty years and evaluate the impact of their limited integration with each other and with global commodity markets. Satellite remote sensing of vegetation has been used as a proxy for agricultural production in economic models to improve prediction of large swings in prices from year to year due to differences in supply. As demand increases, improvements in market functioning will be necessary to counter likely increases in production variability. Increasing Africa's stability in the face of climate change will require investment in agricultural production and transportation infrastructure in order to ensure an affordable flow of food to people in these extremely poor, landlocked countries.

  14. Applications of GARCH models to energy commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, H. Brett

    This thesis uses GARCH methods to examine different aspects of the energy markets. The first part of the thesis examines seasonality in the variance. This study modifies the standard univariate GARCH models to test for seasonal components in both the constant and the persistence in natural gas, heating oil and soybeans. These commodities exhibit seasonal price movements and, therefore, may exhibit seasonal variances. In addition, the heating oil model is tested for a structural change in variance during the Gulf War. The results indicate the presence of an annual seasonal component in the persistence for all commodities. Out-of-sample volatility forecasting for natural gas outperforms standard forecasts. The second part of this thesis uses a multivariate GARCH model to examine volatility spillovers within the crude oil forward curve and between the London and New York crude oil futures markets. Using these results the effect of spillovers on dynamic hedging is examined. In addition, this research examines cointegration within the oil markets using investable returns rather than fixed prices. The results indicate the presence of strong volatility spillovers between both markets, weak spillovers from the front of the forward curve to the rest of the curve, and cointegration between the long term oil price on the two markets. The spillover dynamic hedge models lead to a marginal benefit in terms of variance reduction, but a substantial decrease in the variability of the dynamic hedge; thereby decreasing the transactions costs associated with the hedge. The final portion of the thesis uses portfolio theory to demonstrate how the energy mix consumed in the United States could be chosen given a national goal to reduce the risks to the domestic macroeconomy of unanticipated energy price shocks. An efficient portfolio frontier of U.S. energy consumption is constructed using a covariance matrix estimated with GARCH models. The results indicate that while the electric

  15. The output effects of commodity price volatility: Evidence from exporting countries

    OpenAIRE

    Hachula, Michael; Hoffmann, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Empirical evidence indicates that high oil price volatility has a dampening effect on output in countries that import commodities. Many countries, however, gain important revenues from commodity exports. This paper investigates the output effects of commodity price volatility in commodity exporting countries accounting for both oil and non-oil commodities. To that aim, we construct country specific commodity price indices for a sample of oil and non-oil commodity exporters. We find a signific...

  16. WARP Does Not Imply SARP for More Than Two Commodities

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Hans

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe only examples available in the literature to show that the Weak Axiom of Revealed Preference does not imply the Strong Axiom of Revealed Preference, the examples of Gale and Shafer, apply only to the case of three commodities. This paper constructs examples for four or more commodities.

  17. Crisis of financial system and evolution of commodities market

    OpenAIRE

    Varshavsky , Leonid

    2010-01-01

    The main stages and history of the current financial crisis are studied. The evolution of commodities market over the last decade is analyzed, as well as measures on strengthening regulation and control of the markets. Some problems of applied econometric modeling and forecasting development of commodities market are considered

  18. 22 CFR 201.11 - Eligibility of commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Department Foreign Assets, Sanctions, Transactions and Funds Control Regulations published in 31 CFR parts... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligibility of commodities. 201.11 Section 201... COMMODITY TRANSACTIONS FINANCED BY USAID Conditions Governing the Eligibility of Procurement...

  19. 7 CFR 1425.17 - Eligible commodity and pooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... eligibility for commingled commodities stored on a farm or in a warehouse may be transferred to an approved warehouse. (j) Commodities pledged as collateral for CCC loans shall be free and clear of all liens and encumbrances based on a CMA's financial agreements or the CMA shall obtain a completed form CCC-679,...

  20. Opportunities and constraints for using gene-based technologies in animal agriculture in developing countries and possible role of international donor agencies in promoting R and D in this field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gene-based technologies for livestock are in varying stages of development and implementation mainly focussed on analysis of individual components of complex animal system. Most of these technologies, evolved through International initiatives in the developed countries, have found limited application for the livestock of developing world. Several genes and traits of excellence have been associated with livestock of developing countries of Asia and Africa. High milk fat in buffaloes, protein quality for mozzarella cheese in buffalo milk, the fiber of 'Pashmina' and 'Toos' in the hair coat of goats in cold dry regions, the high prolificacy gene in Black Bengal goats, twinning genes in Garole sheep, high salt tolerance of Andaman goats, high altitude mountain adaptability of Yak and Mithun, high lignin content feed utilization in tropical arid ecology by camel, sheep and goat and disease as well as stress resistance by different species are examples where livestock of developing world has a global advantage. Efficient epidemiology, disease surveillance and monitoring, value addition in meat, leather and diary industry, economic biopharmaceutical production from transgenic livestock and developing of comprehensive data base, are other areas in which gene-based technologies are directly involved and hold great prospect in developing economies. Animal owners in the developing world are resource poor, small scale operators, mostly landless or with marginal lands, having limited animal holdings, dependent on agro-ecology of temperate climate, with limited purchasing power and having little opportunity to access resources or make resource allocation decisions for animal production. This situation, for the poorest of the poor who live on livestock, is fast deteriorating mainly due to fragmentation of limited holdings, exhaustion of land resource, fatiguing of green revolution and increasing human and animal population pressure. Biotechnologies in the developing world have to

  1. Live HDR video streaming on commodity hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamee, Joshua; Hatchett, Jonathan; Debattista, Kurt; Chalmers, Alan

    2015-09-01

    High Dynamic Range (HDR) video provides a step change in viewing experience, for example the ability to clearly see the soccer ball when it is kicked from the shadow of the stadium into sunshine. To achieve the full potential of HDR video, so-called true HDR, it is crucial that all the dynamic range that was captured is delivered to the display device and tone mapping is confined only to the display. Furthermore, to ensure widespread uptake of HDR imaging, it should be low cost and available on commodity hardware. This paper describes an end-to-end HDR pipeline for capturing, encoding and streaming high-definition HDR video in real-time using off-the-shelf components. All the lighting that is captured by HDR-enabled consumer cameras is delivered via the pipeline to any display, including HDR displays and even mobile devices with minimum latency. The system thus provides an integrated HDR video pipeline that includes everything from capture to post-production, archival and storage, compression, transmission, and display.

  2. Commodity chemical growth to slow in 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In their latest chemical outlook, DRI/McGraw-Hill economists characterize 1992 as a peak year for U.S. commodity chemical demand growth, at 4.2%, tapering off to a compound 2.2% between 1993 and 1995. Just as operating rates begin to reach higher levels in 1995, however, DRI forecasts slowing GNP growth. DRI's Ramunas J. Svarcas expects a decline in exports. Those plastics promising the rosiest consumption outlook include melamine-formaldehyde resin, up 9.9% in 1992, from 155 million lbs in 1991, and projected to grow 8.6%/year through 1995; styrene acrylonitrile resin, up 23% this year, from 58 million lbs last year, and growing 8.2%/year through 1995; and unsaturated polyester, up 11.7% this year, from 1.07 billion lbs in 1991, and increasing at 6.5%/year. Methanol is a bright spot, with consumption growing 4.7%, from 11.2 billion lbs in 1991 and 12%/year thereafter. Ortho-xylene managed an impressive 21% rebound from a depressed 1991 level of 783 million lbs, and is expected to continue its recovery at 7.7%/year

  3. Natural gas : a highly lucrative commodity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exploration and production of natural gas has become highly profitable as natural gas is becoming a leading future commodity. With new technology, high demand and environmental benefits, natural gas is the preferred choice over petroleum as the leading source of energy to heat home and businesses. Canada is the world's third largest producer of natural gas with its Sable Offshore Energy Project being the fourth largest producing natural gas basin in North America. The basin will produce high quality sweet natural gas from 28 production wells over the course of the next 20 to 25 years. The gas will be transported to markets through Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and into the Northeastern United States via the Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline. The 1051 kilometer underground gas pipeline is currently running laterals to Halifax, Nova Scotia and Saint John, New Brunswick. Market studies are being conducted to determine if additional lines are needed to serve Cape Breton, Prince Edward Island and northern New Brunswick. A recent survey identified the following 5 reasons to convert to natural gas: (1) it is safe, (2) it is reliable, (3) it is easy to use, (4) it is cleaner burning and environmentally friendly compared to other energy sources, and (5) it saves the consumer money

  4. OPEC and other commodity cartels: a comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic literature provides specific characteristics for cartels. Although the theory of international cartels in not well developed in the literature, and every cartel is unique, some of these characteristics exist in each cartel. This study investigates the existence of these characteristics in six known commodity cartels including OPEC. In addition, it compares the oil companies' cartel, 'the Seven Sisters', to OPEC, and summarizes the findings of OPEC econometric models developed in the literature in the last 25 years and concludes that the results do not support cartel or competitive models for OPEC. Although other cartels are more successful than OPEC, many books and articles in economics use OPEC as a cartel example. Neither statistical tests nor theory support the popular use of OPEC as a cartel example. Indeed, this article concludes that OPEC is composed of Saudi Arabia, the dominant world producer, plus several distinct sub-groups and that separate models are required to explain the behavior of each. Assigning the power of some OPEC members to OPEC has caused confusion about its behavior. Recent OPEC success is attributed to political, natural, and technical capacity limitations in the oil fields that prevented countries from cheating on their quota. In other words, OPEC adherence to the quota, except for Saudi Arabia, is anything but voluntary. (author)

  5. Commodity-Based Computing Clusters at PPPL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wah, Darren; Davis, Steven L.; Johansson, Marques; Klasky, Scott; Tang, William; Valeo, Ernest

    2002-11-01

    In order to cost-effectively facilitate mid-scale serial and parallel computations and code development, a number of commodity-based clusters have been built at PPPL. A recent addition is the PETREL cluster, consisting of 100 dual-processor machines, both Intel and AMD, interconnected by a 100Mbit switch. Sixteen machines have an additional Myrinet 2000 interconnect. Also underway is the implementation of a Prototype Topical Computing Facility which will explore the effectiveness and scaling of cluster computing for larger scale fusion codes, specifically including those being developed under the SCIDAC auspices. This facility will consist of two parts: a 64 dual-processor node cluster, with high speed interconnect, and a 16 dual-processor node cluster, utilizing gigabit networking, built for the purpose of exploring grid-enabled computing. The initial grid explorations will be in collaboration with the Princeton University Institute for Computational Science and Engineering (PICSciE), where a 16 processor cluster dedicated to investigation of grid computing is being built. The initial objectives are to (1) grid-enable the GTC code and an MHD code, making use of MPICH-G2 and (2) implement grid-enabled interactive visualization using DXMPI and the Chromium API.

  6. Agricultural market integration: price transmission and policy intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Vasciaveo, M.; Rosa, F.; Weaver, R

    2013-01-01

    The increasing co-movements between world oil and food prices in the 2000s has prompted interest in the transmission mechanism among markets. This research investigates integration and price transmission of some important agricultural commodities traded in market area that includes United States and Italy for a period spanning from January 1999 to May 2012. The hypothesis of market integration is verified for crude oil and three agri-commodities wheat, corn and soybean in Italy and US. They a...

  7. Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-12-01

    In support of the Obama Administration's Climate Action Plan, the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Department of Agriculture jointly released the Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report, updating the federal government's progress to reduce methane emissions through biogas systems since the Biogas Opportunities Roadmap was completed by the three agencies in July 2014. The report highlights actions taken, outlines challenges and opportunities, and identifies next steps to the growth of a robust biogas industry.

  8. 75 FR 27338 - NASDAQ OMX Commodities Clearing-Contract Merchant LLC; NASDAQ OMX Commodities Clearing-Delivery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission NASDAQ OMX Commodities Clearing--Contract Merchant LLC; NASDAQ OMX.... Take notice that, on May 3, 2010, NASDAQ OMX Commodities Clearing-- Contract Merchant LLC, NASDAQ...

  9. IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL PROTECTION IN OECD-COUNTRIES ON SOUTH AFRICAN AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Pustovit, Nataliya; Schmitz, P. Michael

    2003-01-01

    Agricultural protection in industrialized countries and price distortions in developing countries are accused to hamper economic and agricultural development and are partly responsible for poverty and hunger in the Third World. A multi-commodity multi-country comparative static trade model is used to simulate the impact of different policy scenarios in this typical second best world for the case of South Africa. Special emphasis is given to the disincentive effect of production and to endogen...

  10. Linkages among commodity futures prices in the recent financial crisis: An application of cointegration tests with a structural break

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichi Tsuchiya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate the existence of long-term co-movements among the prices of commodity futures contracts. We use a cointegration test, which accounts for the presence of a structural break. We show that while there is a long-term relationship among agricultural and among non-agricultural commodity futures prices when a structural break is taken into account, there is no such relationship without allowing for a structural break. We also show that these break points, in fact, occur a few months before the recent global financial crisis. Although the previous literature broadly casts doubt on such price co-movements, our results confirm that market performance improved during the sample period.

  11. Agricultural Statistics of Egypt, 1970-84

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, George R.; Parker, John B.

    1985-01-01

    Egypt is one of the world's largest foad importers, annually consuming over $4 billion worth of imported agricultural commodities to feed a population of 48 million. The import bill is growing rapidly as population and consumption ~rowth rates exceed that of agricultural production. Egypt was the 10th largest market for U.S. agricultural exports in 1984. The U.S. market share is about 25 percent, with wheat, wheat flour, and corn making up the bulk of the shipments. This report consists of 90...

  12. 17 CFR 37.4 - Election to trade excluded and exempt commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election to trade excluded and exempt commodities. 37.4 Section 37.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING... commodities. A board of trade that is or elects to become a registered derivatives transaction...

  13. 22 CFR 201.44 - Vesting in USAID of title to commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vesting in USAID of title to commodities. 201... APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY TRANSACTIONS FINANCED BY USAID General Provisions Relating to USAID Financing of Commodities and Commodity-Related Services § 201.44 Vesting in USAID of title to commodities. (a) Vesting...

  14. 22 CFR 201.42 - Reexport of USAID-financed commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reexport of USAID-financed commodities. 201.42... COMMODITY TRANSACTIONS FINANCED BY USAID General Provisions Relating to USAID Financing of Commodities and Commodity-Related Services § 201.42 Reexport of USAID-financed commodities. Unless specifically...

  15. 75 FR 54794 - Commodity Pool Operators: Relief From Compliance With Certain Disclosure, Reporting and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... Independent Directors or Trustees of These Commodity Pools AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission... Registration Relief for Independent Directors or Trustees of Commodity ETFs As directed by the Sarbanes-Oxley... commodity interests in an active manner, such Commodity ETFs must have independent directors (or...

  16. 17 CFR 33.10 - Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions. 33.10 Section 33.10 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION REGULATION OF DOMESTIC EXCHANGE-TRADED COMMODITY OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 33.10 Fraud...

  17. 17 CFR 32.9 - Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions. 32.9 Section 32.9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION REGULATION OF COMMODITY OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 32.9 Fraud in connection with...

  18. Land use and agriculture sustainability: does landscape matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, Sylvie

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on showing how landscape can play a role in the sustainability of agricultural activities and what conditions have to be required to consider landscape as a sustainable output in this way. Nowadays, agricultural policies in Europe attach a growing importance to the direct management by agricultural producers of the countryside. This actual trend emphasizes the role of non-commodity outputs in the production process, with respect to the multifunctional nature of agricul...

  19. Agricultural Production Restrictions and Market Power: An Antitrust Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bolotova, Yuliya

    2015-01-01

    During the recent decade the organizations of agricultural producers in the national dairy, potato, egg and mushroom industries implemented various pre-production and production restriction practices with the primary objective of agricultural output price stabilization. The buyers of the affected agricultural commodities have challenged the legal status of production restrictions in a number of recent and current antitrust lawsuits, arguing that the Capper-Volstead Act, a limited antitrust ex...

  20. Global Agricultural Performance : Past Trends and Future Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Wik, Mette; Pingali, Prabhu; Brocai, Sumiter

    2008-01-01

    How the production of crops and livestock products has evolved in the different regions over the past 45 years is studied. The paper focuses on how the increased supply of and demand for agricultural commodities have affected terms of agricultural trade and the sources of agricultural growth. While significant progress has been made in raising food consumption per capita (in developing countries consumption increased from an average of 2100 kcal/person/day in 1970 to almost 2700 kcal/person/d...

  1. Trading forests: land-use change and carbon emissions embodied in production and exports of forest-risk commodities

    OpenAIRE

    Henders, Sabine; Persson, U. Martin; Kastner, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Production of commercial agricultural commodities for domestic and foreign markets is increasingly driving land clearing in tropical regions, creating links and feedback effects between geographically separated consumption and production locations. Such teleconnections are commonly studied through calculating consumption footprints and quantifying environmental impacts embodied in trade flows, e.g., virtual water and land, biomass, or greenhouse gas emissions. The extent to which land-use cha...

  2. Examining consumer response to commodity-specific and broad-based promotion programs for fruits and vegetables using experimental economics

    OpenAIRE

    Rickard, Bradley J.; Liaukonyte, Jura; Kaiser, Harry M.; Richards, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    Generic promotion and advertising activities have traditionally been used to promote individual agricultural commodities. However, there is renewed interest in implementing a mandatory ―broad-based‖ promotion program for all fruits and vegetables, and this idea is highly controversial among those in the horticultural industry. Here we use data from an experiment that introduces subjects to various promotional efforts for fruits and vegetables to estimate the direct and indirect effects of adv...

  3. The Effects of Agricultural Research and Farm Subsidy Policies on Human Nutrition and Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Alston, Julian M.; Sumner, Daniel A.; Stephen A Vosti

    2005-01-01

    Agricultural policies including farm programs and R&D are said to have contributed to obesity by making food commodities cheaper and thereby encouraging consumption. This paper explores the links from agricultural policy to food prices and consumption and suggests that contribution of agricultural policy to obesity is not so clear.

  4. Prebiotic carbohydrate-related research within the USDA Agricultural Research Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture is interested in the development of prebiotic carbohydrates for a number of reasons. Many of the novel carbohydrates used or proposed for use as prebiotics are made from agricultural commodities such as milk, cornstarch, sugar,...

  5. Promotion of Agricultural Products Competitive Power in Heilongjiang Province with Modern Logistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The paper studied the competitive power of agricultural products in Heilongjiang Province by analyzing the revealed comparative advantage,and drew the conclution that agricultural products' competitive power was decreasing in Heilongjiang Province.There were three main reasons for this status: firstly,the cost of circulation of agricultural products was increasing;secondly,the commodity rate of agricultural products was low;thirdly,the marketing power of agricultural product was weak because of lacking the ...

  6. Financing Agriculture through Islamic Modes And Instruments: Practical Scenarios And Applicability (Research Paper)

    OpenAIRE

    A. Gulaid, Mahmoud

    1995-01-01

    The paper examines the functional and operational activities done during production and marketing of agricultural commodities and contemporary Islamic modes that Islamic banks use to finance them and assesses the possibility of financing them through Islamic instruments.

  7. Industrial commodity statistics yearbook 1994. Production and consumption statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This edition of the Yearbook consists of two parts. Part one contains annual quantity data on production of industrial commodities by country, geographical region, economic grouping and for the world. A standard list of about 530 commodities (about 590 statistical series) has been adopted for the publication. Most of the statistics refer to the ten-year period 1985-1994 for about 200 countries and areas. Part two presents data by country on apparent consumption of about 200 industrial commodities for 1986-1994

  8. FORMATING OF THE INDICATORS FOR SYSTEM ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITY PRODUCERS Формирование показателей для целей системного анализа оборотных средств сельскохозяйственных товаропроизводителей

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebrishev I. N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The separate questions of the modern economic state of affairs of increase of efficiency of the use of circulating assets of agricultural commodity producers are investigated in the article, including the extra sources of forming of property. The order of forming of data and information about financially-economic activity is offered with the use of information of another managing subjects, order of settling of summary index, and similarly chart of construction of another indexes on the meaningfulness for an analysis

  9. Agriculture et politiques agricoles aux États-Unis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devienne Sophie

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The new Farm Bill has just been voted, after difficult negotiations between the White House and Congress. Since the beginning of the commodity-based programs in the 1930s, the agricultural policies in United States were aimed at supporting farm commodity markets and stabilizing farmers incomes. These commodity support policies have been an important contributor to the growth of agricultural productivity and commodity surplus. In the 1950s it became apparent that export demand was capable of creating farm prosperity and became important for the surplus disposal. The US agricultural policies aimed at expanding agricultural exports, and became more offensive as the export competition grew keener. For the first time in 1996, as the market estimates were optimistic, the Fair Act raised the possibility of an end to price support activities as a mean of farm income support. But in 1998 and 1999 weakened export demand led to marked reductions in the prices of the main crops. The 2002 Farm Bill restored the safety net for the farm income. Despite high prices and expansion of demand, and in contradiction with US commitments at the WTO, the new Farm Bill keep on aiming at providing a strong safety net for farm income, which allows the growth of agricultural productivity and the increase in US agriculture competitiveness, and at expanding trade.

  10. TRENDS AND ISSUES IN FINANCING AGRICULTURE: A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE AND LOOK AT TURKISH CASE

    OpenAIRE

    TAŞÇI, Celal

    2015-01-01

    Recent statistics reveal that by 2050 a minimum 70% increase in agricultural production is to be achieved to feed the steadily growing world population. Climate change, frequent natural disasters, soil degradation and urbanisation reduce cultivable land areas and result in imbalance between supply and demand of food commodities. As a consequence, higher agricultural commodity prices and food shortages require more support to increase food production and to combat poverty. Lack of access to fi...

  11. Can the environmental benefits of biomass support agriculture?-The case of cereals for electricity and bioethanol production in Northern Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent policy documents, such as the EC Communication on an Energy Policy for Europe (January 2007) make emphasis on the opportunities that energy applications can offer certain agricultural commodities, especially in the framework of a progressive dismantling of the Common Agricultural Policy. This paper analyses whether this can be true for wheat and barley farmers, using the real example of a straw-based power plant in Northern Spain and a theoretical factory for bioethanol production fed with cereal grain. The outcomes of such an exercise, in which their relative environmental benefits vis-a-vis fossil fuel alternatives are worked out with the aid of a simplified life-cycle approach, show that the characteristics of the electricity and biomass markets, the baseline scenario and the fuel prices are crucial for the future of the sector

  12. Modeling Multi-commodity Trade Information Exchange Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Traczyk, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Market mechanisms are entering into new fields of economy, in which some constraints of physical world, e.g. Kirchoffs Law in power grid, must be taken into account during trading. On such markets, some of commodities, like telecommunication bandwidth or electrical energy, appear to be non-storable, and must be exchanged in real-time. On the other hand, the markets tend to react at shortest possible time, so an idea to delegate some competency to autonomous software agents is very attractive. Multi-commodity mechanism addresses the aforementioned requirements. Modeling the relationships between the commodities allows to formulate new, more sophisticated models and mechanisms, which reflect decision situations in a better manner. Application of multi-commodity approach requires solving several issues related to data modeling, communication, semantics aspects of communication, reliability, etc. This book answers some of the questions and points out promising paths for implementation and development. Presented s...

  13. Monetary policy and world commodity markets: 2000-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Askari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Expansionary monetary policy in key industrial countries and a rapidly depreciating US dollar sent commodity prices soaring at unprecedented rates during 2003–2007. In contrast, consumer price indices in major OECD countries, a leading indicator for monetary policy, showed almost no inflation. This twin development is a puzzle as the evolution of consumer prices were not responsive to record low interest rates, doubledigit commodity inflation, and a sharp depreciation of the dollar. A common trend, identified as a monetary shock, drives commodity prices. Policymakers face a policy dilemma: maintain expansionary monetary policy stance with persistent commodity price inflation, subsequent severe world recession, and financial disorder, or tighten monetary policy with subsequent sustained economic growth and financial and price stability.

  14. AN EVALUATION OF FOOD COMMODITY PROCUREMENT STRATEGIES: INSIGHTS FROM CASE STUDIES

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Kraig M.

    2003-01-01

    This research focuses on evaluating the main characteristics that are considered in commodity procurement decisions used by food manufacturers. The research contributes to the literature by filling a gap in both the commodity and procurement literature. There is a large literature on commodity selling, but very little on commodity procurement. Further, much of the literature on procurement focuses on non-commodity products, not commodity products. A case study approach was used to determine t...

  15. The normal mycoflora of commodities from Thailand. 2. Beans, rice, small grains and other commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, J I; Hocking, A D; Bhudhasamai, K; Miscamble, B F; Wheeler, K A; Tanboon-Ek, P

    1994-09-01

    Part of a comprehensive study of fungi occurring in commodities in Thailand, this paper reports results from 276 samples of mung beans, rice, sorghum and soybeans as well as other minor crops. Samples for major commodities were taken from farmers' stocks, middlemen and retail outlets, while those for minor crops were mostly from retail. Each sample was divided into two portions, one being examined in Bangkok and the second at North Ryde. Mycological examinations were carried out by direct plating after surface disinfection in chlorine. Media used were dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar, dichloran 18% glycerol agar, Aspergillus flavus and parasiticus agar and dichloran chloramphenicol peptone agar. Fungi were identified to species level and percentage infection of samples calculated. The dominant fungus found in mung beans was Fusarium semitectum, which was present in 40% of samples and at a high level (18% of all seeds) overall. Aspergillus flavus was also found in 40% of samples, but only in 2% of seeds overall. Lasiodiplodia theobromae was the only other fungus exceeding 1% total infection. The major fungi found in soybeans were A. flavus (67% of samples; 6% overall) and Cladosporium cladosporioides (49% of samples; 9% overall). Storage fungi were more common in soybeans than the other commodities, indicating longer or adverse storage. Paddy rice contained high levels of a wide variety of field fungi, notably Fusarium semitectum, Bipolaris oryzae, and Curvularia, Phoma and Colletotrichum species. However, probably due to the heat generated by milling, milled rice contained very few fungi, which were mostly of storage origin. Only 3% of particles examined contained internal fungi. Infection in sorghum was typical of oilseeds, dominated by Aspergillus flavus, which was present in 86% of samples, with an overall infection rate of 12%. Beans other than soybeans were infected by a wide range of field fungi, but at low levels, with less than half of seeds

  16. Seizing Opportunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    After the remarkable progress of the past five years, China has entered its new five-year plan period, starting from 2006, aiming to further its economic and social development. Though some are still talking about "China threat," many others consider the country's growth a huge opportunity. In an interview with People's Daily, Bill Fischer, former President of the Sino-European International Business School in Shanghai, comments on China's current development and also talks about problems the country fac...

  17. Pricing in Economies with a Variable Number of Commodities

    OpenAIRE

    Gilles, Robert P.; Dimitrios Diamantaras

    1997-01-01

    We present a general equilibrium model that encompasses the endogenous selection of a set of tradeable commodities. At its foundation we introduce the notion of a trade infrastructure as a set of social institutions describing the trade and production technologies available to the agents in the economy. Our model bridges the analyses of economies with a finite number of commodities and those with an infinite number, and it provides a general framework for investigating a very large class of p...

  18. Mineral Industry in Egypt-Part I: Metallic Mineral Commodities

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Zaher M. Abouzeid; Abdel-Aziz M. Khalid

    2011-01-01

    This The mineral potential in Egypt is quite high. Almost all sorts of industrial minerals such as metallic and non-metallic commodities exist in commercial amounts. However, Egypt imports many of the mineral commodities needed for the local mineral industries. The main reason for this is that the investors, either the governmental or the private sectors, refrain from investing into the mineral industry for prospecting, evaluation, and developing the mining and mineral processing technologies...

  19. Industrial commodity statistics yearbook 1998. Production statistics (1989-1998)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This, the thirty-second in a series of annual compilation of statistics on world industry, contains annual quantity data on production of industrial commodities by country, geographical region, economic grouping and the world. A standard list of about 530 commodities (about 590 statistical series) has been adopted for the publication. Most of the statistics refer to the ten-year period 1989-1998 for about 200 countries and areas

  20. What does Marx mean by the "fetishism of commodities" ?

    OpenAIRE

    Dobra, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    The present paper aims to analyse Marx’s concept of “fetishism of commodities” by explaining the mechanism of a social genesis of determined illusions, arising in the sphere of production and circulation of commodities. It highlights the existence of an auto-sustained autarkic system of 4 variables – reification, objectification, duplicity and habit - sustaining and leading to the fetishism of commodities.

  1. Book review: Racist trademarks: slavery, orient, colonialism and commodity culture

    OpenAIRE

    Bezirgan, Bengi

    2013-01-01

    "Racist Trademarks: Slavery, Orient, Colonialism and Commodity Culture." Malte Hinrichsen. LIT Verlag. January 2013. --- Since the beginning of commodity culture, products have been marketed with images reflecting racist concepts of otherness. Using the prominent examples of three companies – Uncle Ben’s, Sarotti and Banania – Malte Hinrichsen examines how racist trademark figures were established in the U.S., Germany and France and built on nation-specific processes of racial stereotyping...

  2. Purpose and potential for commodity exchanges in African economies:

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid, Shahidur; Winter-Nelson, Alex; Garcia, Philip

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the purpose and potential of commodity exchanges in Africa. Drawing from the existing literature and using indicative empirics, it examines the conditions that enable successful exchanges, highlights the special challenges to setting up exchanges in Africa, and reviews alternatives to domestic exchanges. We argue that many critical preconditions for the successful establishment of commodity exchanges in Africa remain binding in the short to medium term. The development of c...

  3. Empirical evidence for nonlinearity and irreversibility of commodity futures prices

    OpenAIRE

    Karapanagiotidis, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Theory suggests that commodity futures price levels and returns data may exhibit both nonlinear and nonreversible features. This paper attempts to provide a thorough empiri- cally investigation of these claims. The data set is composed of 25 individual continuous contract commodity futures series which fall within a number of industry sectors including softs, precious metals, energy, and livestock. Employing both time-domain and frequency- domain tests examining the higher order cumulan...

  4. A scoping study on the functioning of commodity markets

    OpenAIRE

    Burnett, Duncan; Greenhalgh, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Commodity production, whether for export or for domestic and subsistence consumption, plays a dominant role in sustaining the livelihoods of many millions of small producers throughout the developing world, as well as greatly influencing the incomes received by intermediaries, processors and governments. Over the past fifteen years, the liberalisation of commodity markets in many countries has had a major impact on smallholder operations and created many new challenges. While market liberalis...

  5. Increasing Trends in the Excess Comovement of Commodity Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Ohashi, Kazuhiko; OKIMOTO, Tatsuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate whether excess correlations among seemingly unrelated commodity returns have increased recently, and if so, how they were achieved. To this end, we generalize the model of excess comovement, originated by Pindyck and Rotemberg (1990) and extended by Deb, Trivedi, and Varangis (1996), to develop the smooth-transition dynamic conditional correlation (STDCC) model that can capture long-run trends and short-run dynamics in excess comovements. Using commodity returns ...

  6. Commodity Markets: Rational Expectations in Markets With Irrational Investors

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Teddy T.; Smith, Aaron D.

    2010-01-01

    The "financialization" of commodity markets have become a concern for policy makers and market participants. What was once a market for the hedging of holding physical commodities has expanded to become a market for the diversification of financial assets. When financial assets diversification goals are decoupled from the fundamental factors that affect producers and consumers of physical goods futures markets may not be as efficient in aggregating information concerning the economics of the ...

  7. Optimal Commodity Taxation with Varying Quality of Goods

    OpenAIRE

    Bastani, Spencer; Blomquist, Sören; Micheletto, Luca

    2015-01-01

    A standard result in the optimal taxation literature is that, when agents differ in market ability and the government aims at redistributing from high- to low-skilled agents by means of an optimal nonlinear labor income tax and a set of commodity taxes, an optimally designed commodity tax structure should encourage (discourage) the consumption of goods/services that are complement with labor (leisure). In this paper we highlight that, when agents can choose both the quality and the quantity o...

  8. Statistical microeconomics and commodity prices: theory and empirical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaquie, Belal E

    2016-01-13

    A review is made of the statistical generalization of microeconomics by Baaquie (Baaquie 2013 Phys. A 392, 4400-4416. (doi:10.1016/j.physa.2013.05.008)), where the market price of every traded commodity, at each instant of time, is considered to be an independent random variable. The dynamics of commodity market prices is given by the unequal time correlation function and is modelled by the Feynman path integral based on an action functional. The correlation functions of the model are defined using the path integral. The existence of the action functional for commodity prices that was postulated to exist in Baaquie (Baaquie 2013 Phys. A 392, 4400-4416. (doi:10.1016/j.physa.2013.05.008)) has been empirically ascertained in Baaquie et al. (Baaquie et al. 2015 Phys. A 428, 19-37. (doi:10.1016/j.physa.2015.02.030)). The model's action functionals for different commodities has been empirically determined and calibrated using the unequal time correlation functions of the market commodity prices using a perturbation expansion (Baaquie et al. 2015 Phys. A 428, 19-37. (doi:10.1016/j.physa.2015.02.030)). Nine commodities drawn from the energy, metal and grain sectors are empirically studied and their auto-correlation for up to 300 days is described by the model to an accuracy of R(2)>0.90-using only six parameters. PMID:26621991

  9. Portfolio Diversification with Commodities in Times of Financialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Zaremba

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study concentrates on the benefits of passive commodity investments in the context of the phenomenon of financialization. The research investigates the implications of increase in the correlation coefficients between equity and commodity investments for investors in financial markets. The paper is composed of several parts. First, the attributes of commodity investments and their benefits in the portfolio optimization are explored. Second, the phenomenon of the financialization is described and the research hypothesis is developed. Next, an empirical analysis is performed. I simulate the mean-variance spanning tests to examine the benefits of commodity investments before and after accounting for the impact of financialization. I proceed separate analysis for pre- and post-financialization period. The empirical research is based on asset classes’ returns and other related variables from years 1991-2012. The performed investigations indicate that the market financialization may have significant implications for commodity investors. Due to increase in correlation coefficients, the inclusion of the commodity futures in the traditional stock-bond portfolio appears to be no longer reasonable.

  10. Monitoring Particulate Matter with Commodity Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstius, David

    correlation with 1h data from a Federal Equivalent Method (FEM) beta-attenuation data, prototype instruments performed as well as commercially available equipment costing considerably more, and as well as another reference instrument under similar conditions at the same timescale (R2 = 0.6). Correlations were stronger when 24 h integrating times were used instead (R2 = 0.72). Chapter 4 replicates and extends the results of Chapter 3, showing that similar calibrations may be reasonably exchangeable between near-roadway and background monitoring sites. Chapter 4 also employs triplicate sensors to obtain data consistent with near-field (transport, and may also facilitate timely and empirical verification of interventions to reduce emissions and exposures, in many important contexts (e.g., the provision of improved cookstoves; congestion pricing; mitigation policies attached to infill development; etc.). They also demonstrate that calibrations against continuous reference monitoring equipment could be remotely transferred, within practical tolerances, to reasonably sized and adequately resourced participatory monitoring campaigns, with minimal risk of disruption to existing monitoring infrastructure (i.e., established monitoring sites). Given a collaborator with a short window of access to a reference monitoring site, this would overcome a nominally important barrier associated with non-gravimetric, in-situ calibration of continuous PM2.5 monitors. Progressive and disruptive prospects linked to a proliferation of comparable sensing technologies based on commodity hardware are discussed in Chapter 5.

  11. GCAM 3.0 Agriculture and Land Use: Data Sources and Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyle, G. Page; Luckow, Patrick; Calvin, Katherine V.; Emanuel, William R.; Nathan, Mayda; Zhou, Yuyu

    2011-12-12

    This report presents the data processing methods used in the GCAM 3.0 agriculture and land use component, starting from all source data used, and detailing all calculations and assumptions made in generating the model inputs. The report starts with a brief introduction to modeling of agriculture and land use in GCAM 3.0, and then provides documentation of the data and methods used for generating the base-year dataset and future scenario parameters assumed in the model input files. Specifically, the report addresses primary commodity production, secondary (animal) commodity production, disposition of commodities, land allocation, land carbon contents, and land values.

  12. Evaluating Opportunities to Improve Material and Energy Impacts in Commodity Supply Chains.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanes, Rebecca J.; Carpenter, Alberta

    2016-06-28

    When evaluated at the process level, next-generation technologies may be more energy and emissions intensive than current technology. However, many advanced technologies have the potential to reduce material and energy consumption in upstream or downstream processing stages. In order to fully understand the benefits and consequences of technology deployment, next-generation technologies should be evaluated in context, as part of a supply chain. This work presents the Material Flows through Industry (MFI) scenario modeling tool. The MFI tool is a cradle-to-gate linear network model of the U.S. industrial sector that can model a wide range of manufacturing scenarios, including changes in production technology, increases in industrial energy efficiency, and substitution between functionally equivalent materials. The MFI tool was developed to perform supply chain scale analyses in order to quantify the impacts and benefits of next-generation technologies and materials at that scale. For the analysis presented in this paper, the MFI tool is utilized to explore a case study comparing a steel supply chain to the supply chains of several functionally equivalent materials. Several of the alternatives to the baseline steel supply chain include next-generation production technologies and materials. Results of the case study show that aluminum production scenarios can out-perform the steel supply chain by using either an advanced smelting technology or an increased aluminum recycling rate. The next-generation material supply chains do not perform as well as either aluminum or steel, but may offer additional use phase reductions in energy and emissions that are outside the scope of the MFI tool. Future work will combine results from the MFI tool with a use phase analysis.

  13. Agricultural Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Francis; AKSOY, M. Ataman

    2008-01-01

    Recent increases in food and other commodity prices have highlighted concerns that many poor countries are net food importers and higher food prices would worsen their trade balances. In this article, we analyze the changes in food trade balances associated with the 32% increase in food prices from 2000/2001 to 2004/2005. We find a small deterioration in food trade balances of low-income countries and an improvement in middle-income countries. The deterioration is most severe for countries in...

  14. Redesigning Urban Carbon Cycles: from Waste Stream to Commodity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabander, D. J.; Fitzstevens, M. G.

    2013-12-01

    supporting urban agriculture. We are now extending this approach to additional large U.S. and European urban centers where different philosophical and technological approaches to managing urban waste carbon have resulted in a range of infrastructures, from highly distributed systems (Germany) to centralized mega facilities (London). Ultimately, this research will lead to a decision-making matrix model that will permit cities to customize their urban carbon waste stream facilities and transform this waste into a usable commodity.

  15. Risk and Equity in Agricultural Cooperatives

    OpenAIRE

    Parliament, Claudia; Lerman, Zvi

    1993-01-01

    This research examines the effect of risk on the proportion of equity held by agricultural cooperatives. The measured components of risk are business risk and the financial risk that is dependent on the proportion of debt in the cooperative's capital structure. The empirical results indicate the proportion of equity is inversely related to financial risk and positively related to business risk. These risk effects are estimated to differ based on the commodity handled by the cooperative. No Si...

  16. Agricultural Finance Statistics, 1960-83

    OpenAIRE

    Amols, George; Kaiser, Wilson

    1984-01-01

    This bulletin presents farm financial statistics, including outstanding farm 4ebt by State and lender and average interest rates for agricultural loans charged by selected lenders for 1960-83. Farm debt includes both real estate and nonrea1 estate debt. Lenders include Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), Federal land banks, production credit associations, Federal intermediate credit banks, commercial banks, life insurance companies, Farmers Home Administration, and individuals and others.

  17. Agriculture Beyond Food: Experiences from Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Loffler, H.J.M.; Afiff, S.; Burgers, P.P.M.; Govers, C.; Heeres, H. J.; O. Karyanto; Manurung, R.; Vel, J.A.C.; Visscher, S; Zwaagstra, T.; Widyarani, R.

    2014-01-01

    The ABF programme addresses one of today’s major societal challenges, how to achieve a sustainable and inclusive biobased economy, with high-level scientific research on the thin lines between food and non-food, commodities and waste products, livelihood opportunities and risks, and local and global economy. This book provides insights into the main issues and key questions relating to the biobased economy, reflects on the objectives of the ABF programme, and offers policy recommendations. It...

  18. Industrial commodity statistics yearbook 1999. Production statistics (1990-1999)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the thirty-third In a series of annual compilations of statistics on world industry designed to meet both the general demand for information of this kind and the special requirements of the United Nations and related international bodies. Beginning with the 1992 edition, the title of the publication was changed to industrial Commodity Statistics Yearbook as the result of a decision made by the United Nations Statistical Commission at its twenty-seventh session to discontinue, effective 1994, publication of the Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume I, General Industrial Statistics by the Statistics Division of the United Nations. The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) has become responsible for the collection and dissemination of general industrial statistics while the Statistics Division of the United Nations continues to be responsible for industrial commodity production statistics. The previous title, Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume II, Commodity Production Statistics, was introduced in the 1982 edition. The first seven editions in this series were published under the title The Growth of World industry and the next eight editions under the title Yearbook of Industrial Statistics. This edition of the Yearbook contains annual quantity data on production of industrial commodities by country, geographical region, economic grouping and for the world. A standard list of about 530 commodities (about 590 statistical series) has been adopted for the publication. Most of the statistics refer to the ten-year period 1990-1999 for about 200 countries and areas

  19. Industrial commodity statistics yearbook 2000. Production statistics (1991-2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the thirty-third in a series of annual compilations of statistics on world industry designed to meet both the general demand for information of this kind and the special requirements of the United Nations and related international bodies. Beginning with the 1992 edition, the title of the publication was changed to industrial Commodity Statistics Yearbook as the result of a decision made by the United Nations Statistical Commission at its twenty-seventh session to discontinue, effective 1994, publication of the Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume I, General Industrial Statistics by the Statistics Division of the United Nations. The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) has become responsible for the collection and dissemination of general industrial statistics while the Statistics Division of the United Nations continues to be responsible for industrial commodity production statistics. The previous title, Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume II, Commodity Production Statistics, was introduced in the 1982 edition. The first seven editions in this series were published under the title The Growth of World industry and the next eight editions under the title Yearbook of Industrial Statistics. This edition of the Yearbook contains annual quantity data on production of industrial commodities by country, geographical region, economic grouping and for the world. A standard list of about 530 commodities (about 590 statistical series) has been adopted for the publication. Most of the statistics refer to the ten-year period 1991-2000 for about 200 countries and areas

  20. Industrial commodity statistics yearbook 2003. Production statistics (1994-2003)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the thirty-seventh in a series of annual compilations of statistics on world industry designed to meet both the general demand for information of this kind and the special requirements of the United Nations and related international bodies. Beginning with the 1992 edition, the title of the publication was changed to industrial Commodity Statistics Yearbook as the result of a decision made by the United Nations Statistical Commission at its twenty-seventh session to discontinue, effective 1994, publication of the Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume I, General Industrial Statistics by the Statistics Division of the United Nations. The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) has become responsible for the collection and dissemination of general industrial statistics while the Statistics Division of the United Nations continues to be responsible for industrial commodity production statistics. The previous title, Industrial Statistics Yearbook, volume II, Commodity Production Statistics, was introduced in the 1982 edition. The first seven editions in this series were published under the title 'The Growth of World industry' and the next eight editions under the title 'Yearbook of Industrial Statistics'. This edition of the Yearbook contains annual quantity data on production of industrial commodities by country, geographical region, economic grouping and for the world. A standard list of about 530 commodities (about 590 statistical series) has been adopted for the publication. The statistics refer to the ten-year period 1994-2003 for about 200 countries and areas