WorldWideScience

Sample records for agricultural commodities irradiator

  1. Irradiation of northwest agricultural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakin, D. E.; Tingey, G. I.

    1985-02-01

    Irradiation of food for disinfestation and preservation is increasing in importance because of increasing restrictions on various chemical treatments. Irradiation treatment is of particular interest in the Northwest because of a growing supply of agricultural products and the need to develop new export markets. Several products have, or could potentially have, significant export markets if stringent insect ocntrol procedures are developed and followed. Due to the recognized potential benefits of irradiation, this program was conducted to evaluate the benefits of using irradiation on Northwest agricultural products. Commodities currently included in the program are cherries, apples, asparagus, spices, hay, and hides.

  2. Direction of Exports of Commercial Agricultural Commodities

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Agricultural commodities like tea, coffee, spices, oilseeds, cotton and cashew can be grouped under cash crops. They are traditional export items, which aggregate to 50% of total agricultural exports by India. These items are ready for consumption after some value addition. They are used as raw material in food and other industries. The commodities can be ranked high in hierarchy of demands after food items like wheat and rice. The economic status of the consumer plays a significant role in t...

  3. Hemp as an Agricultural Commodity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-08

    hemp oil , true hemp yarn, true hemp fabric, true hemp raw or processed but not spun, and true hemp raw other. 13 USDA, Foreign Agricultural Service...Poland, Romania, Canada, and India. The leading exporters of hemp oil have been the Netherlands, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, the Republic of South

  4. A brief essay on the financialization of agricultural commodity markets

    OpenAIRE

    Girardi, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    During the 2000s agricultural commodity derivatives markets were flooded by a “wall of money” coming from financial investors. In this essay I outline the main facts about the increasing presence and impact of financial investors in agricultural commodity markets and I discuss the main empirical works that tried to assess whether financial investors have affected agricultural prices in recent years.

  5. Shadow Prices of Selected Agricultural Commodities – The Czech Case

    OpenAIRE

    Patrik Sieber; Karina Pohlová; Ondřej Chaloupka

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of the paper is to contribute to practical applicability of the CBA in the agricultural sector by exploring the chances to estimate Czech social values of selected agricultural commodities using available statistical data. More specifically, we try to analyse for which commodities secondary data sets are available from which we may deduce the estimates of shadow price ratios, then to estimate SPRs for selected agricultural commodities and to analyse and discuss the ap...

  6. Data Cubes Integration in Spatial OLAP for Agricultural Commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, A. I.; Sitanggang, I. S.

    2017-03-01

    Ministry of Agriculture Indonesia collects data of agricultural commodities in Indonesia in the annual period. Agricultural commodities data include food crops, horticulture, plantations, and livestock. The data are available in the spreadsheet format. This study developed data cubes for food crops, plantations, and livestock using the galaxy schema of data warehouse and integrated the data cubes into the SOLAP Horticulture using SpagoBI. SOLAP is useful for data analysis and data visualization. The application displays agricultural commodities data in form of crosstab and chart. This study also developed the location intelligence module that visualizes agricultural commodities data on the map. The system was tested using the black box approach. The result showed that main functions including roll up, drill down, slice, dice, and pivot work properly. This application is expected to enable users to easily obtain data summaries of agricultural commodities.

  7. 15 CFR 740.18 - Agricultural commodities (AGR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... permits the export of agricultural commodities to Cuba, as well as the reexport of U.S. origin... cedar and live horses before you submit a notification under this license exception. See § 748.3 of the... commodity containing more than 10% U.S.-origin content. Such U.S.-owned or controlled foreign firms require...

  8. 75 FR 65586 - Agricultural Commodity Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... no obligation, to review, pre-screen, filter, redact, refuse or remove any or all of your submission... follows: ``A swap is a privately negotiated exchange of one asset or cash flow for another asset or cash flow. In a commodity swap , at least one of the assets or cash flows is related to the price of one or...

  9. Marketing of irradiated commodities in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Plessis, TA; Stevens, RCB

    Although the industrial exploitation of radiation processing in the medical and allied fields has been successfully marketed and applied for the past two decades in South Africa, the introduction of food radurisation on an industrial level adds a completely new dimension to the marketing of this processing technique. Extensive research into the use of radiation for the treatment of various foodstuffs has been carried out by the Nuclear Development Corporation of South Africa for more than a decade, resulting in South Africa being one of the first countries where a commercial irradiator dedicated to this branch of radiation processing, was established. The marketing of this process is especially difficult due to the emotive aspects associated with radiation and man's sensitive reaction to anything pertaining to his food. This situation was made even more difficult by the general public's apprehension towards nuclear activities throughout the world. In an attempt to transform the unfavourable public image associated with this process, an important first step was to form a National Steering Committee for the Marketing of Radurised Food, the members of which were drawn from various agricultural controlling bodies, the Department of Health, and other controlling bodies held in high esteem by the public, such as the Consumer Council and representatives from commerce and industry. This approach proved to be very successful and greatly assisted in creating a climate whereby the public in South Africa today generally has a favourable attitude towards the radurisation of foodstuffs. The development of this marketing strategy for food radurisation in South Africa is discussed in detail.

  10. World oil and agricultural commodity prices: Evidence from nonlinear causality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazlioglu, Saban, E-mail: snazlioglu@pau.edu.t [Department of Econometrics, Pamukkale University, Denizli (Turkey)

    2011-05-15

    The increasing co-movements between the world oil and agricultural commodity prices have renewed interest in determining price transmission from oil prices to those of agricultural commodities. This study extends the literature on the oil-agricultural commodity prices nexus, which particularly concentrates on nonlinear causal relationships between the world oil and three key agricultural commodity prices (corn, soybeans, and wheat). To this end, the linear causality approach of Toda-Yamamoto and the nonparametric causality method of Diks-Panchenko are applied to the weekly data spanning from 1994 to 2010. The linear causality analysis indicates that the oil prices and the agricultural commodity prices do not influence each other, which supports evidence on the neutrality hypothesis. In contrast, the nonlinear causality analysis shows that: (i) there are nonlinear feedbacks between the oil and the agricultural prices, and (ii) there is a persistent unidirectional nonlinear causality running from the oil prices to the corn and to the soybeans prices. The findings from the nonlinear causality analysis therefore provide clues for better understanding the recent dynamics of the agricultural commodity prices and some policy implications for policy makers, farmers, and global investors. This study also suggests the directions for future studies. - Research highlights: {yields} This study determines the price transmission mechanisms between the world oil and three key agricultural commodity prices (corn, soybeans, and wheat). {yields} The linear and nonlinear cointegration and causality methods are carried out. {yields} The linear causality analysis supports evidence on the neutrality hypothesis. {yields} The nonlinear causality analysis shows that there is a persistent unidirectional causality from the oil prices to the corn and to the soybeans prices.

  11. Commodity Agriculture, Civic Agriculture and the Future of U.S. Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyson, Thomas A.; Guptill, Amy

    2004-01-01

    Commodity agriculture and civic agriculture represent two distinct types of farming found in the U.S. today. Commodity agriculture is grounded on the belief that the primary objectives of farming should be to produce as much food/fiber as possible for the least cost. It is driven by the twin goals of productivity and efficiency. Civic…

  12. 76 FR 6095 - Commodity Options and Agricultural Swaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... legislative history discussing ``agricultural commodity'' as used in CEA section 2(g). \\21\\ ``Enumerated... Agricultural Trade Option Merchant (``ATOM''), who must first register with the Commission as such pursuant to CFTC rule 3.13. Since its 1998 adoption and one amendment in 1999,\\39\\ the ATOM registration scheme...

  13. 75 FR 15403 - Information Collection, Procurement of Agricultural Commodities for Foreign Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... Donation AGENCY: Commodity Credit Corporation, USDA ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: In... information collection associated with procurement of agricultural commodities for foreign donation. The.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Procurement of Agricultural Commodities for Foreign Donation. OMB Number:...

  14. Black bear depredation on agricultural commodities in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, S.A.; Parkhurst, J.A.; Field, R.; Fuller, T.K.

    1998-01-01

    We used response to a mail survey (n = 848) to evaluate the extent and severity of depredation by black bears (Ursus americanus) on agricultural commodities in Massachusetts and to assess producers' attitudes toward and tolerance of bear depredation. Damage abatement techniques were ranked for effectiveness by producers of corn, bees and honey, and livestock and dairy products. Results showed differences in perception of effects of bear depredation among commodity groups. Producers of corn and livestock and dairy products considered bear damage to be low to moderate in severity whereas beekeepers thought their losses were substantial or severe. Most estimates of economic loss were depredations for each affected commodity group.

  15. Shadow Prices of Selected Agricultural Commodities – The Czech Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Sieber

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the paper is to contribute to practical applicability of the CBA in the agricultural sector by exploring the chances to estimate Czech social values of selected agricultural commodities using available statistical data. More specifically, we try to analyse for which commodities secondary data sets are available from which we may deduce the estimates of shadow price ratios, then to estimate SPRs for selected agricultural commodities and to analyse and discuss the applicability of such estimates in practical appraisal with respect to theoretically ideal measures and resulting available measures as well as with respect to the situation in which the CBA analyst typically is. We selected the following commodities: poultry, pigs, bulls, milk, rapeseed, maize, barley and wheat as items more suitable for SPR estimates mostly because of the data availability and the internal homogeneity of the items, which was closer to the theoretically required values than for other commodities. Under additional simplifying assumptions, we estimated SPR proxies for the particular commodities and finally summarized the pros and cons for application of SPR alternatives.

  16. Why does Colombia lack agricultural commodity futures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Moreno-Alemay

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the reasons why futures contracts are not traded as an alternative to price hedging for agricultural goods in Colombia. Based on surveys, interviews and statistical analysis, this study identified that conceptual gaps in contract negotiation, lack of consensus in the agricultural sector regarding the use of financial mechanisms and the sector’s infrequent contact with Colombia’s financial institutions, are the main reasons why a futures contracts market has not emerged.

  17. Infusing Commodity Marketing into the Agriculture Curriculum. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northeast Arkansas Educational Cooperative, Strawberry.

    A project was conducted in Arkansas to infuse commodity marketing content into the agriculture curriculum. Thirty-three schools were selected to participate in the program; teachers from those schools attended a 2-day inservice program presented by a state coordinator for the project. The state coordinator also provided supervision and technical…

  18. Modelling Long Memory Volatility in Agricultural Commodity Futures Returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); R. Tansuchat (Roengchai)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis paper estimates a long memory volatility model for 16 agricultural commodity futures returns from different futures markets, namely corn, oats, soybeans, soybean meal, soybean oil, wheat, live cattle, cattle feeder, pork, cocoa, coffee, cotton, orange juice, Kansas City wheat, rubbe

  19. Modelling Long Memory Volatility in Agricultural Commodity Futures Returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Tansuchat (Roengchai); C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper estimates the long memory volatility model for 16 agricultural commodity futures returns from different futures markets, namely corn, oats, soybeans, soybean meal, soybean oil, wheat, live cattle, cattle feeder, pork, cocoa, coffee, cotton, orange juice, Kansas City wheat, rub

  20. Commodity exchange and institutional changes: Case of Iranian agricultural commodity exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Soltanpour, Yazdan

    2010-01-01

    In this study, an attempt is to figure out the institutional changes that initiate the agricultural commodity exchange (ACE). To assess the affecting factors, new institutional economics approach has been chosen. The framework consisting of four levels of social analysis introduced by Oliver E.Williamson is used to analyze the social environment, institutional rules, institutional arrangements and finally the agency level economics (Neo-classical economics). Regarding this framework, the inst...

  1. 29 CFR 780.116 - Commodities included by reference to the Agricultural Marketing Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Commodities § 780.116 Commodities included by reference to the Agricultural Marketing Act. (a) Section 3(f... defined as agricultural commodities in section 15(g) of the Agricultural Marketing Act, as amended (12 U.S...) of the Agricultural Marketing Act is that derived from a living tree, the production of...

  2. An analysis of the role of financialisation, China and stockholding in agricultural commodity price movements

    OpenAIRE

    Pfuderer, Simone

    2014-01-01

    A wide range of commodity prices experienced a large peak in 2007/08, including many agricultural commodities. Since then agricultural commodity prices have remained at relatively high levels compared to the recent past and several agricultural commodities (e.g. maize and sugar) have experienced further, although smaller peaks. Studies of the recent commodity price movements have focused on financialisation, China, low stocks and biofuels. This thesis explores the role of three of these facto...

  3. 75 FR 32306 - Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act: Impact of Post-Default Agreements on Trust Protection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 46 Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act: Impact of Post-Default Agreements on Trust Protection Eligibility AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing..., Acting Administrator, Agricultural Marketing. BILLING CODE P...

  4. Manufacturing process design for multi commodities in agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyawan, Yudha; Santosa, Andrian Henry

    2017-06-01

    High-potential commodities within particular agricultural sectors should be accompanied by maximum benefit value that can be attained by both local farmers and business players. In several cases, the business players are small-medium enterprises (SMEs) which have limited resources to perform added value process of the local commodities into the potential products. The weaknesses of SMEs such as the manual production process with low productivity, limited capacity to maintain prices, and unattractive packaging due to conventional production. Agricultural commodity is commonly created into several products such as flour, chips, crackers, oil, juice, and other products. This research was initiated by collecting data by interview method particularly to obtain the perspectives of SMEs as the business players. Subsequently, the information was processed based on the Quality Function Deployment (QFD) to determine House of Quality from the first to fourth level. A proposed design as the result of QFD was produced and evaluated with Technology Assessment Model (TAM) and continued with a revised design. Finally, the revised design was analyzed with financial perspective to obtain the cost structure of investment, operational, maintenance, and workers. The machine that performs manufacturing process, as the result of revised design, was prototyped and tested to determined initial production process. The designed manufacturing process offers IDR 337,897, 651 of Net Present Value (NPV) in comparison with the existing process value of IDR 9,491,522 based on similar production input.

  5. 78 FR 32227 - Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act; Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act; Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice and... 35), this document announces the Agricultural Marketing Service's (AMS) intention to request...

  6. Ideological Challenges to Changing Strategic Orientation in Commodity Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Press, Melea; Arnould, Eric; Murray, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    orientations may be thought of as ideologies; and second, that such ideologies are likely to contend with each other. Taking such a perspective may be helpful in thinking about why transitioning to more sustainable strategic orientations is challenging even in the presence of financial incentives to make...... such changes. In assessing the transition to organic production and marketing in a commodity agriculture context we find that contending ideologies restrict its adoption. In addition, we suggest that strategic orientations are not adopted or contested solely within firms but also among them. We find...... that ideological contestation among firms in this context takes the form of a marketplace drama between a chemical, productonist and an organic orientation in which several forms of legitimacy are mobilized by protagonists....

  7. Fast Drying of Agriculture Commodities by Using Microwave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ode Ngkoimani, La; Megawati; Purwana Saputra, Gde; Cahyono, Edi; Aripin, Haji; Gde Suastika, Komang; Nyoman Sudiana, I.

    2017-05-01

    Some progress has been made and reported previously due to investigate microwave effects to materials. The microwave applications for material processing by using wide range microwave frequencies such as in sintering, chemical reaction, and drying have been performed. Microwave drying is based on a unique volumetric heating mode with electromagnetic radiation at 2,450 MHz. However, the quest for a what a true microwave effect is still plagued with difficulties. This paper provides a experimental and theoretical analysis of drying materials using microwave. For drying experiments, in this investigation, we were using a domestic microwave oven which operated at three power levels for drying chamber. The samples are agriculture commodity collected from local farmers. The experimental results show that microwave accelerate drying in most materials. The experimental data were analyzed by using an available model constructed from fundamental physics by other scholars. The model has been applied to more understanding the behavior of the microwave drying material.

  8. Shadow Prices of Selected Agricultural Commodities – The Czech Case

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patrik Sieber; Karina Pohlová; Ondřej Chaloupka

    2016-01-01

    ... commodities using available statistical data. More specifically, we try to analyse for which commodities secondary data sets are available from which we may deduce the estimates of shadow price ratios, then to estimate SPRs for selected...

  9. The Influence of Agricultural Commodity on F&B Company’s Performance in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rofikoh Rokhim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This research examines the influence of agricultural commodity price movements on stock price and gross profit of food and beverage companies in Indonesia, as well as the effect of volatility prices of agricultural commodities. Using time series data of food and beverages (F&B companies that are listed at the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX, this research calculating the event studies to find the abnormal returns. The results showed that the movement of agricultural commodity prices has a positive effect on stock prices of F&B companies, with the dominant influence of commodity prices of corn and sugar. Agricultural commodity prices also affect positively on gross profit F&B companies, with the dominant influence of commodity prices of corn and palm oil. The increase in prices of agricultural commodities simultaneously affect the value of a positive cumulative abnormal return for stocks of F&B companies. The results also showed that the decline of agricultural commodities simultaneously affect the value of negative cumulative abnormal return for stocks of F&B companies.

  10. Determinants of prices increase of agricultural commodities in a global context1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borychowski Michał

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to present the determinants of increase in agricultural commodity prices after 2006. The other specific aim is to show the factors affecting agricultural raw materials and food prices in the global context. This article is a review paper of the determinants of recent commodity and food prices spikes. However, it provides an outlook on these determinants that were the most important for the increases in the last decade. The last part of the article (conclusions to some extent is a synthesis of considerations and includes the authors’ opinions concerning determinants and an attempt to identify which ones were the most important in the growth of agricultural commodity prices. These increases in agricultural commodity prices resulted from many factors and it is very difficult to separate the individual impact of each of them, because they occurred in parallel. However, it is possible to indicate several main reasons for these price increases, which are: adverse changes in supply-demand relations in agricultural markets, increases in oil prices (and increases of the volatility of those prices, development of biofuel production from agricultural commodities (the first generation biofuels, dollar depreciation, an increase in operations of a speculative nature on commodity markets and improper economic policy that created an environment for the growth of prices of agricultural products.

  11. 29 CFR 780.112 - General meaning of “agriculture or horticultural commodities.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mineral wealth or other natural resources, or by uncultivated natural growth. For example, peat humus or peat moss is not an agricultural commodity. Wirtz v. Ti Ti Peat Humus Co., 373 f(2d) 209 (C.A.4)....

  12. Determinants of prices increase of agricultural commodities in a global context1

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this article is to present the determinants of increase in agricultural commodity prices after 2006. The other specific aim is to show the factors affecting agricultural raw materials and food prices in the global context. This article is a review paper of the determinants of recent commodity and food prices spikes. However, it provides an outlook on these determinants that were the most important for the increases in the last decade. The last part of the article (conclu...

  13. Tips for Organizing an Educational Agricultural Commodity Trading Club

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, John

    2011-01-01

    Educational commodity marketing clubs have been an effective tool for producers to develop their grain and livestock marketing skills. These groups are further enhanced when the participants engage in "actual trading" versus "paper trading" techniques. When a club chooses to try actual trading, it becomes more complicated than pooling monies…

  14. Tips for Organizing an Educational Agricultural Commodity Trading Club

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, John

    2011-01-01

    Educational commodity marketing clubs have been an effective tool for producers to develop their grain and livestock marketing skills. These groups are further enhanced when the participants engage in "actual trading" versus "paper trading" techniques. When a club chooses to try actual trading, it becomes more complicated than pooling monies…

  15. Agricultural commodity prices and oil prices: mutual causation

    OpenAIRE

    McFarlane, Ian

    2016-01-01

    The world market price of many commodities including US corn (maize) peaked sharply in 2008. The US Energy Policy Act (2005) led to a rapid rise in demand for corn ethanol as a partial substitute for gasoline in the USA. In this paper we report analysis of weekly prices of corn, wheat, sugar and crude oil, together with monthly series derived from those and other weekly prices, for two consecutive seven year periods: 1999-2005 and 2006-2012. We find strong evidence of cointegration between pr...

  16. Pricing European options on agriculture commodity prices using mean-reversion model with jump diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmawan, Komang

    2017-03-01

    It has been claimed in many literatures that the prices of some agriculture commodities tend to follow mean reversion. However, when dealing with the prices of agriculture commodities, is mean-reversion realistic enough without incorporating seasonality and jump diffusion? This research tries to answer the question. The combination between mean-reversion feature, jump and seasonal components are applied to model the behavior of agriculture commodity prices. A jump and seasonal components are added to the standard mean-reverting process in order to reproduce the spiky or jump behaviors. This model has been well applied on simulating the electricity prices but it has not been applied to investigate the behavior of agriculture commodity prices yet. This paper discusses the performance of the model when it is used to price European call options. First, the deterministic seasonality part is calibrated using the least square method. The second stage is to calibrate the stochastic part based on historical prices. The parameters are calibrated by discretizing the model. Hence, the discretized model allows us to perform Monte Carlo simulation on the commodity price under real-word probability. The analysis is conducted using 2 future price of Crude Palm Oil and Coffee Bean on standard payoff functions, a Basket, a Spread, Best of Call, and Worst of Call Options.

  17. Agricultural Commodity Exchanges and the Development of Grain Markets and Trade in Africa: A Review of Recent Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Jayne, T.S.; Sturgess, Chris; Kopicki, Ron; Sitko, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Vibrant agricultural commodity exchanges will greatly enhance the performance of Africa’s agricultural sectors and contribute to overall economic development. Yet specific conditions in grain markets are required for agricultural commodity exchanges to develop.1 The absence or short-lived nature of many of these conditions explains why commodity exchanges for staple grains have remained stunted in Sub-Saharan Africa despite strong interest in their development by the international donor commu...

  18. Agricultural and oil commodities: price transmission and market integration between US and Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Rosa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this article it to get some evidences of market interaction between United States and Italy using the time series analysis of spot prices spanning from January 1999 to May 2012 for crude oil and three ag-commodities: wheat, corn and soybean. These crops have been selected for their relevance in ag-commodity exchanges between US and Italy markets. The integration between US and Italy agricultural markets is hypothesized for the consistent volume of crop traded between these two countries while the price transmission is related to the leading price signals of the CBT (Chicago Board of Trade. The integration between oil and ag-commodity markets is suggested both by the large use of energy intensive inputs, (fertilizer, seed, machinery in production of these ag-commodities, and their use in biofuel production. The results suggest: a for US market the evidence of market integration between crude oil and US ag-commodities; b for Italy the integration with US ag-commodity markets and less evidence of integration with the oil market. These results are valuable information both for the agents and policy makers contributing to improve the information accuracy to predict the price movements used by marketing operators for their strategies and policy makers to set up policies to re-establish conditions of market efficiency and allocate these ag-commodities in alternative market channels.

  19. Is there co-movement of agricultural commodities futures prices and crude oil?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natanelov, Valeri, E-mail: valeri.natanelov@ugent.be [Department of Agricultural Economics, Ghent University, Coupure links 653, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Alam, Mohammad J. [Department of Agricultural Economics, Ghent University, Coupure links 653, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Department of Agribusiness and Marketing, Bangladesh Agricultural University (Bangladesh); McKenzie, Andrew M. [Department of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness, University of Arkansas, AR (United States); Van Huylenbroeck, Guido [Department of Agricultural Economics, Ghent University, Coupure links 653, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2011-09-15

    Even though significant attempts have appeared in literature, the current perception of co-movement of commodity prices appear inadequate and static. In particular we focus on price movements between crude oil futures and a series of agricultural commodities and gold futures. A comparative framework is applied to identify changes in relationships through time and various cointegration methodologies and causality tests are employed. Our results indicate that co-movement is a dynamic concept and that some economic and policy development may change the relationship between commodities. Furthermore we show that biofuel policy buffers the co-movement of crude oil and corn futures until the crude oil prices surpass a certain threshold. - Highlights: > We show that co-movement of commodity futures is a temporal concept. > A variation in parallel movement between 2 large periods occurs. > Biofuel policy buffers parallel movement of corn and crude oil futures

  20. Indian agricultural commodity derivatives market – In conversation with S Sivakumar, Divisional Chief Executive, Agri Business Division, ITC Ltd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabina Rajib

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Though the agricultural sector contributes significantly to the Indian economy, it faces several bottlenecks, one of those being the antiquated laws governing agricultural marketing and price discovery, leading to low price realization by Indian farmers. In India, six national level exchanges offer commodity derivatives contracts on commodities, with some having electronic spot exchanges to facilitate spot trading of commodities. However, farmers' participation in these exchanges has been poor. ITC-ABD, one of the largest aggregators and exporters of Indian agri-commodities, has started using these exchange platforms to hedge price risk. With experience of over three decades in the agricultural sector, Mr. S. Sivakumar has a deep understanding of the commodity markets and the needs of Indian farmers. This interview aims to get an insight into his views on increasing farmers' participation in commodity derivatives trading and more importantly, to understand ITC-ABD's commodity hedging strategy.

  1. Price transmission for agricultural commodities in Uganda: An empirical vector autoregressive analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen Kaspersen, Line; Føyn, Tullik Helene Ystanes

    This paper investigates price transmission for agricultural commodities between world markets and the Ugandan market in an attempt to determine the impact of world market prices on the Ugandan market. Based on the realization that price formation is not a static concept, a dynamic vector...

  2. Ethiopian agricultural cooperatives in an era of global commodity exchange: Does organisational form matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francesconi, G.N.; Heerink, N.

    2011-01-01

    In Ethiopia, agricultural cooperatives are expected to play a key role in linking smallholder farmers to the recently established commodity exchange system. Recent research has found, however, that the commercialisation levels of cooperative members do not differ significantly from those of

  3. Agricultural Commodity Price Shocks and their Effect on Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Addison, Tony; Ghoshray, Atanu

    2014-01-01

    Commodity price shocks are an important type of external shock and are often cited as a problem for economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa. This paper quantifies the impact of agricultural commodity price shocks using a near vector autoregressive model. The novel aspect of this model is that we define an auxiliary variable that can potentially capture the definition of a price shock that allows us to determine whether the response of per capita Gross domestic product (GDP) growth in sub-Sahara...

  4. Oil Prices, Exchange Rate and Prices for Agricultural Commodities: Empirical Evidence from Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Burakov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate long and short-term impact of changes in oil prices and the exchange rate on prices of seven groups of agricultural products in Russia (buckwheat, grain crops, potatoes, oat, wheat, rye, barley. In this paper, Granger causality approach is applied to test long-run interlinkages with monthly data from January 1999 to October 2015. For testing the response of agricultural prices to sudden shocks in oil prices and exchange rate in the short run, we use impulse-response techniques. The results of impulse response analysis show that agricultural prices are not particularly sensitive to changes in oil prices and the exchange rate of Russian ruble in the short term, except for imported commodities. In the long run, Granger causal relationship between agricultural prices and oil prices is missing, and with exchange rate is observed only in case of imported agricultural goods.

  5. Location, Planting Decisions, and the Marketing of Quality-Differentiated Agricultural Commodities

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander E. Saak

    2003-01-01

    In a marketing environment, the demand conditions, the costs of shipping and storing grain varieties, the interest rate on farm loans, and the distribution of cropland in the area are important determinants of growers' planting decisions. In this article, I focus on a market for two quality-differentiated agricultural commodities: one produced with the use of biotechnology and the other, without. I develop a model for analyzing the equilibrium planting and marketing decisions made by geograph...

  6. Amylolytic enzyme production byRhizopus oryzae grown on agricultural commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, R C; Hang, Y D

    1990-03-01

    The amylolytic enzyme production byRhizopus oryzae NRRL 395 grown on different agricultural commodities was datermined. The mould produced much higher enzyme activity from barley, corn, bats, and rice than from cassava. The optimal temperature for enzyme production was 30°C. Neutralization with CaCO3 greatly enhanced the rate of enzyme production. Nitrogen supplementation of cassava resulted in higher enzyme yields.

  7. Study on the Perceived Risk about the Online Shopping for Fresh Agricultural Commodities and Customer Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lingling; HUANG; Juan; FENG; Fengxian; YAN

    2014-01-01

    Fresh agricultural commodities have been entering the era of network marketing. However,the coverage population is still relatively small. In this paper,more than 400 online shopping customer survey data are statistically analyzed based on perceived risk multidimensional model by factor analysis method to classify the potential customers’ perceived risk,concluding that food safety risks,mental health risk,relative convenience risk,liquidity risk,privacy risk and time risk are the most important risk factors that impact potential customers online shopping of fresh agricultural commodities. By using customers prediction model which is based on the classification and prediction methods to mining potential customers,it comes to the conclusion that men are more likely to purchase fresh agricultural commodities online,specifically,in the male sample,those whose average monthly net purchase cost equals to or is higher than 51 yuan or whose online shopping time equals to or is longer than 3 years and at the same time whose age is younger than 30 are the most potential customers. Finally,it puts forward corresponding countermeasures and suggestions from the perspectives of risk control and effective customer acquisition.

  8. Bayesian Networks to Compare Pest Control Interventions on Commodities Along Agricultural Production Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, J; Leach, A W; Johnson, S; Tu, D M; Nhu, D T; Anh, N T; Quinlan, M M; Whittle, P J L; Mengersen, K; Mumford, J D

    2017-07-13

    The production of an agricultural commodity involves a sequence of processes: planting/growing, harvesting, sorting/grading, postharvest treatment, packing, and exporting. A Bayesian network has been developed to represent the level of potential infestation of an agricultural commodity by a specified pest along an agricultural production chain. It reflects the dependency of this infestation on the predicted level of pest challenge, the anticipated susceptibility of the commodity to the pest, the level of impact from pest control measures as designed, and any variation from that due to uncertainty in measure efficacy. The objective of this Bayesian network is to facilitate agreement between national governments of the exporters and importers on a set of phytosanitary measures to meet specific phytosanitary measure requirements to achieve target levels of protection against regulated pests. The model can be used to compare the performance of different combinations of measures under different scenarios of pest challenge, making use of available measure performance data. A case study is presented using a model developed for a fruit fly pest on dragon fruit in Vietnam; the model parameters and results are illustrative and do not imply a particular level of fruit fly infestation of these exports; rather, they provide the most likely, alternative, or worst-case scenarios of the impact of measures. As a means to facilitate agreement for trade, the model provides a framework to support communication between exporters and importers about any differences in perceptions of the risk reduction achieved by pest control measures deployed during the commodity production chain. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. Speculation and volatility spillover in the crude oil and agricultural commodity markets: A Bayesian analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Xiaodong, E-mail: xdu23@wisc.ed [Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI (United States); Yu, Cindy L., E-mail: cindyyu@iastate.ed [Department of Statistics, Iowa State University, IA (United States); Hayes, Dermot J., E-mail: dhayes@iastate.ed [Department of Economics and Department of Finance, Iowa State University, IA (United States)

    2011-05-15

    This paper assesses factors that potentially influence the volatility of crude oil prices and the possible linkage between this volatility and agricultural commodity markets. Stochastic volatility models are applied to weekly crude oil, corn, and wheat futures prices from November 1998 to January 2009. Model parameters are estimated using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. Speculation, scalping, and petroleum inventories are found to be important in explaining the volatility of crude oil prices. Several properties of crude oil price dynamics are established, including mean-reversion, an asymmetry between returns and volatility, volatility clustering, and infrequent compound jumps. We find evidence of volatility spillover among crude oil, corn, and wheat markets after the fall of 2006. This can be largely explained by tightened interdependence between crude oil and these commodity markets induced by ethanol production.

  10. Balancing detail and scale in assessing transparency to improve the governance of agricultural commodity supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godar, Javier; Suavet, Clément; Gardner, Toby A.; Dawkins, Elena; Meyfroidt, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    To date, assessments of the sustainability of agricultural commodity supply chains have largely relied on some combination of macro-scale footprint accounts, detailed life-cycle analyses and fine-scale traceability systems. Yet these approaches are limited in their ability to support the sustainability governance of agricultural supply chains, whether because they are intended for coarser-grained analyses, do not identify individual actors, or are too costly to be implemented in a consistent manner for an entire region of production. Here we illustrate some of the advantages of a complementary middle-ground approach that balances detail and scale of supply chain transparency information by combining consistent country-wide data on commodity production at the sub-national (e.g. municipal) level with per shipment customs data to describe trade flows of a given commodity covering all companies and production regions within that country. This approach can support supply chain governance in two key ways. First, enhanced spatial resolution of the production regions that connect to individual supply chains allows for a more accurate consideration of geographic variability in measures of risk and performance that are associated with different production practices. Second, identification of key actors that operate within a specific supply chain, including producers, traders, shippers and consumers can help discriminate coalitions of actors that have shared stake in a particular region, and that together are capable of delivering more cost-effective and coordinated interventions. We illustrate the potential of this approach with examples from Brazil, Indonesia and Colombia. We discuss how transparency information can deepen understanding of the environmental and social impacts of commodity production systems, how benefits are distributed among actors, and some of the trade-offs involved in efforts to improve supply chain sustainability. We then discuss the challenges and

  11. Implications of Climate Volatility for Agricultural Commodity Markets in the Presence of Biofuel Mandates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, M.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.; Hertel, T. W.; Beckman, J.

    2011-12-01

    In presence of bio-fuels, link between energy and agricultural commodity markets has become more complex. An increase in ethanol production to minimum 15bn gallons a year - Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) and current technically permissible maximum 10% blending limit - Blend Wall (BW); make the link even stronger. If oil prices in future do not rise significantly from their current levels, this minimum production requirement would likely be binding. In such a scenario any fluctuation in crop production will have to be absorbed by the non-ethanol usage of the crop and would translate into crop prices adjusting to clear the markets and therefore the commodity prices will be more volatile. At high oil prices it is possible that the BW may become binding, severing the link between oil prices and commodity prices as well, potentially leading to higher price volatility. Hertel and Beckman (2010) find that, with both RFS and BW simultaneously binding, corn price volatility due to supply side shocks (which could arise from extreme climate events) could be more than 50% as large as in the absence of bio-fuel policies. So energy markets are important determinants of agricultural commodity price volatility. This proposal intends to introduce the increased supply side volatility on account of climate change and volatility, in the framework. Global warming on account of increased GHG concentrations is expected to increase the intensity and frequency of hot extremes in US (Diffenbaugh et al. 2008) and therefore affect corn yields. With supply shocks expected to increase, binding RFS and BW will exacerbate the volatility, while if they are non-binding then the price changes could be cushioned. We propose to model the impacts of climate changes and volatility on commodity prices by linking three main components - a. Projections for change in temperature and precipitation using climate model b. A statistical model to predict impacts of change in climate variable on corn yields in US

  12. THE IMPACT OF THE RECENT FEDERAL RESERVE LARGESCALE ASSET PURCHASES ON THE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITY PRICES: A HISTORICAL DECOMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed H. Saghaian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluate the effects of the recent Federal Reserve’s purchases of longterm assets on prices of agricultural commodities. The first large-scale asset purchases began at the end of 2008, after the Great Recession, and the second purchases began in November of 2010. The commodities included in this analysis are meats (beef, pork, and broilers, cereal grains (corn, soybeans, wheat, and rice, and softs (sugar, coffee, cocoa, and cotton. Using historical decompositions, we find significant increases in the nominal agricultural prices of ten out of 12 agricultural commodities under investigation from the second large-scale asset purchases (in 2010 but the first set large-scale asset purchases had only two positive effects.

  13. The Predictability of GARCH-Type Models on the Returns Volatility of Primary Indonesian Exported Agricultural Commodities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saarce Elsye Hatane

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural sector plays an important role in Indonesia‟s economy; especially for the plantation sub-sector contributing high revenues to Indonesia‟s exporting sectors. The primary agricultural commodities in Indonesian export discussed in this study would be Crude Palm Oil (CPO, Natural Rubber TSR20, Arabica Coffee, Robusta Coffee, Cocoa, White Pepper and Black Pepper. Meanwhile, the returns volatility nature of agricultural commodity is famous. The volatility refers to heteroscedasticity nature of the returns which can be modeled by GARCH-type models. The returns volatility can be describe by the residual of the mean equation and volatility of error variances in the previous periods. The aims of this study are to examine the predictability of GARCH-type models on the returns volatility of those seven agricultural commodities and to determine the best GARCH-type models for each commodity based on the traditional symmetric evaluation statistics. The results find that the predictability of ARCH, GARCH, GARCH-M, EGACRH and TGARCH, as type of GARCH models used in this study, are different for each commodity.

  14. The water footprints of Morocco and the Netherlands: Global water use as a result of domestic consumption of agricultural commodities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Chapagain, Ashok

    2007-01-01

    The volume of international trade in agricultural commodities is increasing faster than the global volume of production, which is an indicator of growing international dependencies in the area of food supply. Although less obvious, it also implies growing international dependencies in the field of

  15. The water footprints of Morocco and the Netherlands: Global water use as a result of domestic consumption of agricultural commodities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Y.; Chapagain, Ashok K.

    2007-01-01

    The volume of international trade in agricultural commodities is increasing faster than the global volume of production, which is an indicator of growing international dependencies in the area of food supply. Although less obvious, it also implies growing international dependencies in the field of w

  16. Price transmission for agricultural commodities in Uganda: An empirical vector autoregressive analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen Kaspersen, Line; Føyn, Tullik Helene Ystanes

    This paper investigates price transmission for agricultural commodities between world markets and the Ugandan market in an attempt to determine the impact of world market prices on the Ugandan market. Based on the realization that price formation is not a static concept, a dynamic vector autoregr...... indicates that rising food prices (of little-traded crops) on world markets will not have a direct effect on food prices in Uganda....... price relations, i.e. the price variations between geographically separated markets in Uganda and the world markets. Our analysis indicates that food markets in Uganda, based on our study of sorghum price transmission, are not integrated into world markets, and that oil prices are a very determining...... factor for price transmission within the country. However, the case is a bit different for the cash crop, Robusta coffee. In the period in the 1990’s with high coffee prices on the world market, prices in Uganda were strongly connected to world prices, and did not depend on the oil price. This indicates...

  17. The analysis of return on speculative trading with futures contracts of agriculture commodities in the context of the currency risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oldřich Šoba

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on analysis of return on speculative operations with futures contracts from the view of participators not undertaking and undertaking the currency risk. The currency risk is determined by unexpected change of relevant exchange rate (currency denomination of futures contracts / domestic currency of participator. The paper analyses the basic factors influencing the profitability of these operations such as relative change of futures contract value, leverage incidence and relative change of relevant exchange rate. The paper is focused on futures contracts of the world most important agricultural commodities. The conclusion of the paper for participators not undertaking the currency risk is following: The relative change of futures contract is main factor for the calculation of return on speculative operation. This change is multiplied by leverage incidence finally. The conclusion of the paper for participators undertaking the currency risk is following: The relative change of relevant exchange rate is not usually relevant for the calculation of return on speculative operation. Main factor is the relative change of futures contract because this change is multiplied by leverage incidence finally but the relative change of relevant exchange rate isn’t.Neverthless the conclusions of this paper are not valid only for futures contracts of agricultural commodities but generally also for other commodity futures contracts and futures contracts where underlying assets are not commodities but for example financial assets.

  18. 76 FR 20217 - Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act: Impact of Post-Default Agreements on Trust Protection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... / Tuesday, April 12, 2011 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing... Protection Eligibility AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The.... * * * * * Dated: April 5, 2011. Ellen King, Acting Administrator, Agricultural Marketing Service. BILLING...

  19. Prices of agricultural commodities, biofuels and fossil fuels in long-run relationships: a comparative study for the USA and Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Tanja; Bentzen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Time-series data for the USA and Europe representing prices of agricultural commodities, biofuels and fossil fuels are used for a comparative analysis of long-run price relationships. There is some evidence for cointegration between ethanol and gasoline, especially for the USA, and in the case of...... of biodiesel, stronger evidence of cointegration between biodiesel, diesel and soya oil for both the USA and Europe. Finally, biofuel prices do not seem to influence agricultural commodity prices or fossil fuel prices....

  20. 75 FR 51917 - Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act: Increase in License Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... / Tuesday, August 24, 2010 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing... AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Department of Agriculture... marketing of fresh and frozen fruits and vegetables in interstate and foreign commerce. The PACA...

  1. Is voluntary certification of tropical agricultural commodities achieving sustainability goals for small-scale producers? A review of the evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFries, Ruth S.; Fanzo, Jessica; Mondal, Pinki; Remans, Roseline; Wood, Stephen A.

    2017-03-01

    Over the last several decades, voluntary certification programs have become a key approach to promote sustainable supply chains for agricultural commodities. These programs provide premiums and other benefits to producers for adhering to environmental and labor practices established by the certifying entities. Following the principles of Cochrane Reviews used in health sciences, we assess evidence to evaluate whether voluntary certification of tropical agricultural commodities (bananas, cocoa, coffee, oil palm, and tea) has achieved environmental benefits and improved economic and social outcomes for small-scale producers at the level of the farm household. We reviewed over 2600 papers in the peer-review literature and identified 24 cases of unique combinations of study area, certification program, and commodity in 16 papers that rigorously analyzed differences between treatment (certified households) and control groups (uncertified households) for a wide range of response variables. Based on analysis of 347 response variables reported in these papers, we conclude that certification is associated on average with positive outcomes for 34% of response variables, no significant difference for 58% of variables, and negative outcomes for 8% of variables. No significant differences were observed for different categories of responses (environmental, economic and social) or for different commodities (banana, coffee and tea), except negative outcomes were significantly less for environmental than other outcome categories (p = 0.01). Most cases (20 out of 24) investigated coffee certification and response variables were inconsistent across cases, indicating the paucity of studies to conduct a conclusive meta-analysis. The somewhat positive results indicate that voluntary certification programs can sometimes play a role in meeting sustainable development goals and do not support the view that such programs are merely greenwashing. However, results also indicate that

  2. The case for a generic phytosanitary irradiation dose of 400 Gy for Lepidoptera that infest shipped commodities as pupae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Guy J; Parker, Andrew C; Blackburn, Carl M

    2013-04-01

    The pros and cons of a generic phytosanitary irradiation dose against all Lepidoptera pupae on all commodities are discussed. The measure of efficacy is to prevent the F1 generation from hatching (F1 egg hatch) when late pupae are irradiated. More data exist for this measure than for others studied, and it is also commercially tenable (i.e., prevention of adult emergence would require a high dose not tolerated by fresh commodities). The dose required to prevent F1 egg hatch provides a liberal margin of security for various reasons. A point at issue is that correctly irradiated adults could be capable of flight and thus be found in survey traps in importing countries resulting in costly and unnecessary regulatory action. However, this possibility would be rare and should not be a barrier to the adoption of this generic treatment. The literature was thoroughly examined and only studies that could reasonably satisfy criteria of acceptable irradiation and evaluation methodology, proper age of pupae, and adequate presentation of raw data were accepted. Based on studies with 34 species in nine families, we suggest an efficacious dose of 400 Gy. However, large-scale confirmatory testing (> or = 30,000 individuals) has only been reported for one species. A dose as low as 350 Gy might suffice if results of more large-scale studies were available or the measure of efficacy were extended beyond prevention of F1 egg hatch, but data to defend measures of efficacy beyond F1 egg hatch are scarce and more would need to be generated.

  3. 75 FR 8909 - Funding Opportunity Title: Commodity Partnerships for Small Agricultural Risk Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... the availability of risk management tools; and (c) inform producers and agribusiness leaders in the... informational opportunities to agricultural producers and agribusiness professionals in the designated RMA... directed primarily to agricultural producers, but may include those agribusiness professionals that...

  4. Empirical research on spatial and time series properties of agricultural commodity prices

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xing,

    2012-01-01

    The integration of European agriculture into the world economy has also accelerated price interaction between member states and the rest of the world during last decades. Consequently, the fluctuation in world market prices was more quickly transmitted to European member states, including Finland. Increasing price uncertainty and price volatility in agricultural products became more evident. The openness of regional agriculture such as EU and Finnish to the world is irreversible, and the int...

  5. Supplement: Commodity Index Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Commodity Futures Trading Commission — Shows index traders in selected agricultural markets. These traders are drawn from the noncommercial and commercial categories. The noncommercial category includes...

  6. Marketing patterns of agricultural commodities in an upland area of Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M. van Ommeren

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the uplands of Central Java a wide variety of dry cultivated crops are produced for subsistence as well as for cash. The marketing channels for these crops are also diverse. The producers can choose between selling at the market place or at their farms; either to consumers or traders; or they can sell their products to wholesalers in the towns. However, this freedom of choice is not absolute and is determined by the quantity of the merchandise. Farmers/who can sell large amounts of produce are able to bypass some steps in the hierarchical order of market places or traders. Thus, producers with relatively large farmlands can sell their commodities in more profitable ways compared to those with /smaller farms. Moreover, the latter are often forced to sell their produce below market value to traders who provided them with advance or who bought the crop before harvest (tebasan, because of their need for cash

  7. Harmonisation of food consumption data format for dietary exposure assessments of chemicals analysed in raw agricultural commodities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boon, Polly E.; Ruprich, Jiri; Petersen, Annette

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present an approach to format national food consumption data at raw agricultural commodity (RAC) level. In this way, the data is both formatted in a harmonised way given the comparability of RACs between countries, and suitable to assess the dietary exposure to chemicals analysed...... in RACs at a European level. In this approach, consumption data needs to be converted to edible part of RAC (e-RAC) level using a RAC conversion database. To subsequently use this data in exposure assessments, both e-RACs and RACs analysed in chemical control programmes should be classified via a uniform...... system. Furthermore, chemical concentrations in RACs may need to be converted to e-RAC level using processing factors. To illustrate the use of this approach, we describe how the Dutch RAC conversion database was used to convert consumption data of four national consumption surveys to e-RAC level...

  8. Recent trends and prospects for agricultural commodity exports in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Takamasa Akiyama; Larson, Donald F.

    1989-01-01

    Sub - Sahran African (SSA) countries have seen sharp declines in their shares of agricultural export markets. But their export dependence on the most important crops - coffee and cocoa - has increased. Comparisons in the region and with countries outside the region show the importance of appropriate exchange rates and producer pricing policies, as well as support for technological advancement, for good performance in these sectors. Some countries have successfully introduced changes in these ...

  9. 7 CFR 46.39 - Inspection of commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING OF PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES REGULATIONS (OTHER THAN RULES OF PRACTICE) UNDER THE PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES ACT, 1930...

  10. THE ANALYSIS OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCT IN PINEAPPLE COMMODITIES IN NGANCAR DISTRICT, KEDIRI REGENCY, EAST JAVA PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risdiana Himmati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present research has the purpose to analyze factors affecting the production of pineapple in Ngancar District, Kediri Regency, East Java Province. The research took place in Ngancar District, Kediri Regency, East Java Province, employing secondary data derived from Central Bureau of Statistics (Kediri Regency and Agricultural Extension Agency (Ngancar District and primary data consisted of farming production data, land area, amount of seeds, and amount of fertilizer usage, pesticide and workforce. The analysis technique used in this research was Cobb-Douglas production function. The completion upon Cobb-Douglas production functions used Ordinary Least Square (OLS method with Eviews 9 program tool. The sampling technique employed in this research was simple random sampling method. The results demonstrate that the pineapple total production in Ngancar District is affected by land area, amount of seeds, molasses, and urea. The research concludes that pineapple production in Ngancar District is affected by all the factors of production, except the usage of pesticide and workforce.

  11. A method for calculating a land-use change carbon footprint (LUC-CFP) for agricultural commodities - applications to Brazilian beef and soy, Indonesian palm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, U Martin; Henders, Sabine; Cederberg, Christel

    2014-11-01

    The world's agricultural system has come under increasing scrutiny recently as an important driver of global climate change, creating a demand for indicators that estimate the climatic impacts of agricultural commodities. Such carbon footprints, however, have in most cases excluded emissions from land-use change and the proposed methodologies for including this significant emissions source suffer from different shortcomings. Here, we propose a new methodology for calculating land-use change carbon footprints for agricultural commodities and illustrate this methodology by applying it to three of the most prominent agricultural commodities driving tropical deforestation: Brazilian beef and soybeans, and Indonesian palm oil. We estimate land-use change carbon footprints in 2010 to be 66 tCO2 /t meat (carcass weight) for Brazilian beef, 0.89 tCO2 /t for Brazilian soybeans, and 7.5 tCO2 /t for Indonesian palm oil, using a 10 year amortization period. The main advantage of the proposed methodology is its flexibility: it can be applied in a tiered approach, using detailed data where it is available while still allowing for estimation of footprints for a broad set of countries and agricultural commodities; it can be applied at different scales, estimating both national and subnational footprints; it can be adopted to account both for direct (proximate) and indirect drivers of land-use change. It is argued that with an increasing commercialization and globalization of the drivers of land-use change, the proposed carbon footprint methodology could help leverage the power needed to alter environmentally destructive land-use practices within the global agricultural system by providing a tool for assessing the environmental impacts of production, thereby informing consumers about the impacts of consumption and incentivizing producers to become more environmentally responsible. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Shade-grown coffee in Puerto Rico: Opportunities to preserve biodiversity while reinvigorating a struggling agricultural commodity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkhataria, R.; Collazo, J.A.; Groom, M.J.; Jordan-Garcia, A.

    2012-01-01

    Shade-grown coffee contributes to biodiversity conservation and has many ecological benefits. We reviewed historical trends in coffee production and interviewed 100 coffee growers in 1999 to determine current management practices and attitudes toward the cultivation of sun and shade coffee in Puerto Rico. We discuss the outlook for the coffee industry in the 21st century and implications for biodiversity conservation, hoping lessons from Puerto Rico will apply to the international coffee industry. Throughout the 20th century, government intervention, including subsidies and technical assistance, supported coffee farming in Puerto Rico. In an effort to modernize coffee production and increase yields, the conversion from shade to sun coffee plantations was encouraged. Despite government support, the amount of land devoted to this once dominant agricultural commodity declined markedly between 1982 and 2007 (84%), due to labor shortages, low income, and catastrophic hurricanes. We found that a return to shaded plantations would be embraced by most farmers. Growers of shaded coffee were generally happier with their cultivation practices (89.3% satisfied) than growers of sun coffee (60.9% satisfied), valued biodiversity, and were willing to cultivate coffee under shade if given similar incentives to those received for farming sun coffee. The future of the coffee industry in Puerto Rico may depend on government programs that capitalize upon emerging markets for sustainably produced, shade-grown coffee. We conclude that where governments have close ties to the coffee industry, they should strive to wed economic development with the conservation of biodiversity and associated ecological services by providing support and incentives for the production of shade coffee. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Improved (ERTS) information and its impact on U.S. markets for agricultural commodities: A quantitiative economic investigation of production, distribution and net export effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    An econometric investigation into the markets for agricultural commodities is summarized. An overview of the effort including the objectives, scope, and architecture of the analysis and the estimation strategy employed is presented. The major empirical results and policy conclusions are set forth. These results and conclusions focus on the economic importance of improved crop forecasts, U.S. exports, and government policy operations. A number of promising avenues of further investigation are suggested.

  14. Nonlinear bivariate dependency of price-volume relationships in agricultural commodity futures markets: A perspective from Multifractal Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ling-Yun; Chen, Shu-Peng

    2011-01-01

    Nonlinear dependency between characteristic financial and commodity market quantities (variables) is crucially important, especially between trading volume and market price. Studies on nonlinear dependency between price and volume can provide practical insights into market trading characteristics, as well as the theoretical understanding of market dynamics. Actually, nonlinear dependency and its underlying dynamical mechanisms between price and volume can help researchers and technical analysts in understanding the market dynamics by integrating the market variables, instead of investigating them in the current literature. Therefore, for investigating nonlinear dependency of price-volume relationships in agricultural commodity futures markets in China and the US, we perform a new statistical test to detect cross-correlations and apply a new methodology called Multifractal Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis (MF-DCCA), which is an efficient algorithm to analyze two spatially or temporally correlated time series. We discuss theoretically the relationship between the bivariate cross-correlation exponent and the generalized Hurst exponents for time series of respective variables. We also perform an empirical study and find that there exists a power-law cross-correlation between them, and that multifractal features are significant in all the analyzed agricultural commodity futures markets.

  15. Comparison of production-phase environmental impact metrics derived at the farm- and national-scale for United States agricultural commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Christine; Xue, Xiaobo; Howarth, Robert W.

    2015-11-01

    Agricultural production is critical for human survival and simultaneously contributes to ecosystem degradation. There is a need for transparent, rapid methods for evaluating the environmental impacts of agricultural production at the system-level in order to develop sustainable food supplies. We have developed a method for estimating the greenhouse gas (GHG), land use and reactive nitrogen inputs associated with the agricultural production phase of major crop and livestock commodities produced in the United States (US). Materials flow analysis (MFA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) techniques were applied to national inventory datasets. The net anthropogenic nitrogen inputs (NANI) toolbox served as the primary accounting tool for LCA and MFA. NANI was updated to create links between nitrogen fertilizer and nitrogen fixation associated with feed crops and animal food commodities. Results for the functional units kilogram (kg) of product and kg of protein for 2002 data fall within ranges of published LCA results from farm-scale studies across most metrics. Exceptions include eutrophication potential for milk and GHGs for chicken and eggs, these exceptions arise due to differing methods and boundary assumptions; suggestions for increasing agreement are identified. Land use for livestock commodities are generally higher than reported by other LCA studies due to the inclusion of all land identified as pasture or grazing land in the US in this study and given that most of the estimates from other LCAs were completed in Europe where land is less abundant. The method provides a view of the entire US agricultural system and could be applied to any year using publically available data. Additionally, utilizing a top-down approach reduces data collection and processing time making it possible to develop environmental inventory metrics rapidly for system-level decision-making.

  16. Development of hazard analysis by critical control points (HACCP) procedures to control organic chemical hazards in the agricultural production of raw food commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropkins, Karl; Ferguson, Andrew; Beck, Angus J

    2003-01-01

    Hazard Analysis by Critical Control Points (HACCP) is a systematic approach to the identification, assessment, and control of hazards in the food chain. Effective HACCP requires the consideration of all chemical microbiological, and physical hazards. However, current procedures focus primarily on microbiological and physical hazards, while chemical aspects of HACCP have received relatively little attention. In this article we discuss the application of HACCP to organic chemical contaminants and the problems that are likely to be encountered in agriculture. We also present generic templates for the development of organic chemical contaminant HACCP procedures for selected raw food commodities, that is, cereal crops,raw meats, and milk.

  17. Is the interest rate more important than inventories? The case of agricultural commodities in the context of the financialization process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Thomasz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En el marco del “milagro” de las economías asiáticas , la evolución de los precios de commodities entre 2004 y 2014 pudo haber sido influenciada por la entrada de inversores de cartera como nuevos participantes del mercado , incorporando índices de commodities y otros productos financieros asociados en sus portfolios de inversión . Esto genera el interrogante de si la tasa de interés ha tenido mayores efectos en los precios en comparación con variables fundamentales como los inventarios . Consecuentemente , el objetivo de este trabajo es testear si los precios del grano de soja y del maíz han sido más sensibles a cambios en la tasa de interés en comparación con cambios en los inventarios . A partir de un sistema de vectores auto-regresivos , se observ a que durante el período 2004-2010 hay una relación más sensible entre los cambios en la tasa de interés y los precios de los contratos de futur o de grano de soja y del maíz que en el período 1990-2003. Esta evidencia empírica resulta especialmente relevante para algunos países de Latinoamérica dependientes de la exportación de tales commodities .

  18. Assessing Nutrients Availability of Irradiated and Non-Irradiated Biosolids for the Agriculture Re-use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnavacca, Cecilia; Sanchez, Monica

    2003-07-01

    Irradiation provides a fast and reliable means to disinfect biosolids generated by municipal wastewater treatment processes. The chemical integrity of some substances may be altered thus change the availability of plant nutrients. Chemical analyses on the biosolids showed a release of mineral forms of Nitrogen while Phosphorus chemical forms were not altered. Higher amounts of mineralized N were indirectly demonstrated in soils with irradiated biosolids by a respiration experiment, and higher nitrate concentrations were measured in the irradiated biosolids amended soils at field experiments. Crop field experiments (lettuce and sugarcane) confirmed that irradiated biosolids have higher fertilizing capability than equal amounts of non-irradiated biosolids. Maximum dose rate had no additive effect but a depleted result, thus marking the importance of the use of moderate biosolids rates. (author)

  19. Bio-energy utilizes surplusses at the agricultural commodity markets. Large potentials of the biomass; Bioenergie verwertet Ueberschuesse an den Agrarmaerkten. Grosse Potenziale der Biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-03-19

    At the beginning of spring in the northern hemisphere, the situation in agricultural markets relaxes visibly. After the year 2012 was characterized by periods of drought in the United States and some Eastern European countries, in recent months good harvests in major producing countries in the southern hemisphere have provided that the stocks of major agricultural commodities are grown again. Thus, enough resources are still available for the supply of food and energy. There still exists land potential in Europe and on other continents for the use of bio-energy. In addition to new power plant crops, known arable crop cultures contribute to the exploration of such a potential: An example of this is the sugar beet. The view on the global supply balance in agricultural goods inter alia the major staple food rice shows that there exist large surpluses on the food markets. However, these surpluses do not benefit the hungry persons in the world. Hunger is a problem of distribution which is not associated with the growth of bio-energy.

  20. Ranking of States and Commodities by Cash Receipts, 1991

    OpenAIRE

    Strickland, Roger P.; Johnson, Cheryl; Williams, Robert P.

    1992-01-01

    This publication identifies the 25 leading agricultural commodities produced in each State and the United States, ranked by the value of cash receipts. The major producing States, ranked by cash receipts, for each of the 25 leading commodities in the United States and for several major commodity groups are also identified. The information is derived from U.S. Department of Agriculture's cash receipts statistics for the marketing of agricultural commodities within States. The ranking of commod...

  1. Quarantine treatment of agricultural products for export and import by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Joong Ho; Roh, M.J.; Chung, H.W.; Lee, J.E.; Park, N.Y.; Kwon, Y.J.; Seo, S.J. [Kyungbuk National University, Taegu (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    To pre-establish an alternative technique to the toxic fumigant, methyl bromide which is the current quarantine measure of agricultural products for export and import, some selected agricultural products, such as chestnut, acorn, red bean and mung bean, were subjected to a preliminary study to confirm the comparative effects of gamma irradiation and MBr fumigant on their disinfestation and quality, thereby preparing the basic data for the practical approach. Current quarantine activities were examined and the related limitations were investigated. Quarantine-related pests were investigated on their radiosensitivity and disinfestation effects by both treatments. The pests in chestnut and acorn, Curculio skkimensis Heller, Curculio dentipes Roelofs, and Dichocrocis punctiferalis Guenee showed an increased mortality when exposed to above 0.5 kGy irradiation, resulting in 100% of mortality three weeks later. Callosobruchus chinensis Linne from both red and mung beans revealed a apparent mortality at around 10 days after irradiation of 1 to 3 kGy. Current fumigation was perfect in its disinfesting capability, but it caused the detrimental effects on physical quality of agricultural produce. Whereas, irradiation doses suitable for controlling the pests did not induce any significant changes in the quality of the samples. (author). 53 refs., 74 figs., 138 tabs.

  2. Ranking of States and Commodities by Cash Receipts, 1992

    OpenAIRE

    Strickland, Roger P.; Steele, Cheryl J.; Williams, Robert P.

    1993-01-01

    This publication presents two types of ranking information derived from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's cash receipts statistics for the marketing of agricultural commodities within States. One type is the 25 leading commodities for each State and the Nation, ranked according to the estimated value of receipts. The second is the ranking of States by receipts from each of the 25 leading U.S. commodities and by several major commodity groups. The ranking of commodities produced in a State ...

  3. Commodity Price Volatility: The Impact of Commodity Index Traders

    OpenAIRE

    Getu, Hailu; Weersink, Alfons

    2010-01-01

    Over the years, critics have argued that futures market prices have been either too low or too high. Speculators have often been the target for the wrath of those feeling the futures price does not properly reflect market fundamentals. Recently, the criticism has been vented toward a new type of speculator that has been blamed for the dramatic changes in agricultural commodity prices experienced over the last several years. Commodity index traders (CITs) and other large institutional traders ...

  4. 7 CFR 250.57 - Commodity schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION DONATION OF FOODS FOR USE IN THE UNITED STATES, ITS... Child Nutrition Programs § 250.57 Commodity schools. (a) Categorization of commodity schools....

  5. 7 CFR 46.48 - Procedure for investigating complaints involving commodities of a unique nature or coming from a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING OF PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES REGULATIONS (OTHER... Commodities Act, 1930; (2) Subject to a federal marketing order under the Agricultural Marketing Agreement...

  6. Hemp as an Agricultural Commodity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-14

    refers to industrial hemp, “marijuana” (or “ marihuana ” as it is spelled in the older statutes) refers to the psychotropic drug (whether used for...fibre-type from drug-type plants,” UNODC Bulletin on Narcotics, January 1985; C. W. Waller, “Chemistry Of Marihuana ,” Pharmacological Reviews, vol. 23...passed laws restricting legal production to medicinal and industrial purposes only.42 The 1937 Marihuana Tax Act defined hemp as a narcotic drug

  7. Botswana's Beef Global Commodity Chain: Explaining the Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    In an era of increasing global agricultural trade, many firms and farms seek to upgrade their agricultural commodity chains to become better integrated into global markets. Utilizing a global commodity chain (GCC) approach, this analysis unravels the challenges to and the potential consequences of upgrading Botswana's beef commodity chain.…

  8. Botswana's Beef Global Commodity Chain: Explaining the Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    In an era of increasing global agricultural trade, many firms and farms seek to upgrade their agricultural commodity chains to become better integrated into global markets. Utilizing a global commodity chain (GCC) approach, this analysis unravels the challenges to and the potential consequences of upgrading Botswana's beef commodity chain.…

  9. Venetian Commodities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Anna Marie

    2017-01-01

    and jewellery but also by transferring Asian and Egyptian technology in cane sugar production and processing. For years sugar was a major product, and using techniques borrowed from Syria, Venice established plantation agriculture and processing facilities with slave labour in Crete and Cyprus where Venetian...

  10. The impact of commodity price and conservation policy scenarios on deforestation and agricultural land use in a frontier area within the Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, R.W.; Rodrigues Filho, S.; Lindoso, D.; Debortoli, N.; Litre, G.; Bursztyn, M.

    2014-01-01

    Deforestation in the Amazon is caused by the complex interplay of different drivers. Price of commodities such as beef and soya, and incoming migration are paramount factors. Construction of new highways is a key aspect, as they enable a growing flow of people and economic activities, provoking an

  11. The impact of commodity price and conservation policy scenarios on deforestation and agricultural land use in a frontier area within the Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, R.W.; Rodrigues Filho, S.; Lindoso, D.; Debortoli, N.; Litre, G.; Bursztyn, M.

    2014-01-01

    Deforestation in the Amazon is caused by the complex interplay of different drivers. Price of commodities such as beef and soya, and incoming migration are paramount factors. Construction of new highways is a key aspect, as they enable a growing flow of people and economic activities, provoking an i

  12. The impact of commodity price and conservation policy scenarios on deforestation and agricultural land use in a frontier area within the Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, R.W.; Rodrigues Filho, S.; Lindoso, D.; Debortoli, N.; Litre, G.; Bursztyn, M.

    2014-01-01

    Deforestation in the Amazon is caused by the complex interplay of different drivers. Price of commodities such as beef and soya, and incoming migration are paramount factors. Construction of new highways is a key aspect, as they enable a growing flow of people and economic activities, provoking an i

  13. EFICIÊNCIA DOS MERCADOS FUTUROS DE COMMODITIES AGRÍCOLAS APLICANDO-SE O TESTE DE COINTEGRAÇÃO./ EFFICIENCY OF THE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITY FUTURES MARKET BY APPLYING THE COINTEGRATION TEST.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Harry Harzer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem o objetivo de testar a forma fraca de eficiência do mercado futuro brasileiro dacommoditie agrícola café arábica, usando a técnica de cointegração a fim de verificar se os preços futuroscorrentes são estimadores não viesados dos preços à vista esperados para o futuro. Para isso, utiliza asséries históricas de janeiro de 2005 a maio de 2011 dos preços futuros, que foram coletados na Bolsa deMercadorias e Futuros – BM&F, e os preços à vista calculados pelo CEPEA/ESALQ/USP. As métricas utilizadassão os testes ADF de Dickey e Fuller para detectar a presença de raiz unitária e o teste de cointegraçãode Johansen para verificar a existência de um relacionamento de longo prazo. Os resultados indicaram anão estacionariedade das séries de preços e a presença de cointegração. Porém, o teste dos parâmetrosα = 0 e β = 1 da regressão que comprovam a eficiência fraca e não viés encontraram indícios estatísticosde não eficiência de mercado, bem como da presença de um viés indicando a existência de um prêmioassociado ao risco./ This article aims at testing the weak form of efficiency of the commodity futures market in Arabicacoffee farming using the cointegration technique in order to check if the current futures prices arebiased estimators of spot prices expected for the future. Thereto it uses the futures prices time seriesfrom January 2005 to May 2011, which were collected in the Commodities and Futures Exchange - BM &F and spot prices, calculated by CEPEA / ESALQ / USP. Dickey and Fuller’s ADF tests are the metrics usedto detect the presence of unit root and Johansen’s cointegration test is used to verify the existence ofa long term relationship. The results indicated the non-stationarity of price series besides the presenceof cointegration. However, regression parameters testing α = 0 e β = 1 proves that weak efficiency andnon-biased found statistical evidence of non-market efficiency

  14. 7 CFR 917.22 - Nomination of Peach Commodity Committee members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nomination of Peach Commodity Committee members. 917.22 Section 917.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... Nomination of Peach Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the Peach Commodity...

  15. Commodity Markets Outlook, October 2015

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Ample supplies and weak demand, especially for industrial commodities, contributed to the continued slide in most commodity prices in the third quarter of 2015. Annual price forecasts are revised down for 2015 and 2016. Only a modest recovery is expected in 2016. This issue briefly analyzes the implications of the ongoing El Niño episode and the recent Nuclear Agreement with Iran for agricultural and energy markets, respectively. Although El Niño could be the strongest on record, its impac...

  16. Standard Guide for Irradiation of Fresh Agricultural Produce as a Phytosanitary Treatment

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This guide provides procedures for the radiation processing of fresh agricultural produce, for example, fruits, vegetables, and cut flowers, as a phytosanitary treatment. This guide is directed primarily toward the treatment needed to control regulated pests commonly associated with fresh agricultural produce. 1.2 The typical absorbed dose range used for phytosanitary treatments is between 150 gray (Gy) and 600 gray (Gy). The practical minimum or maximum dose of a treatment may be higher or lower than this range, depending on the type of pest to be controlled and the radiation tolerance of a particular type of fruit. If the minimum effective dose necessary to achieve the desired phytosanitary effect is greater than the radiation tolerance of the produce, then irradiation is not an appropriate treatment (see ). This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and hea...

  17. Commodity market reform in Africa : some recent experience

    OpenAIRE

    Takamasa AKIYAMA; Baffes, John; Larson, Donald F.; Varangis, Panos

    2003-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, dramatic changes in export commodity markets, shocks associated with resulting price declines, and changing views on the role of the state have ushered in widespread reforms to agricultural commodity markets in Africa. The reforms significantly reduced government participation in the marketing and pricing of commodities. Akiyama, Baffes, Larson, and Varangis examine ...

  18. 7 CFR 1421.110 - Commodity certificate exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commodity certificate exchanges. 1421.110 Section... Loans § 1421.110 Commodity certificate exchanges. (a) For any outstanding marketing assistance loan for the 2008 and 2009 crop years, a producer may purchase a commodity certificate and exchange that...

  19. 7 CFR 1427.22 - Commodity certificate exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commodity certificate exchanges. 1427.22 Section 1427... Deficiency Payments § 1427.22 Commodity certificate exchanges. (a) For any outstanding marketing assistance loan provided for upland cotton, a producer may purchase a commodity certificate and exchange that...

  20. 7 CFR 1412.31 - Direct payment yields for covered commodities, except pulse crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Direct payment yields for covered commodities, except pulse crops. 1412.31 Section 1412.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... commodities, except pulse crops. (a) The direct payment yield for each covered commodity, except pulse...

  1. Commodity Markets Outlook, April 2015

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The decline in commodity prices that began with metals and agriculture four years ago—joined by crude oil in mid-2014—continued in 2015Q1 (Figure 1). Energy, metals, and agricultural prices were down 28, 11, and 5 percent, respectively, from the previous quarter. Increasing supplies, bumper harvests, weak demand and a stronger U.S. dollar contributed to the declines. The weakness is expected to continue for the rest of the year. All key price indices are projected to decline in 2015 before re...

  2. COMMODITY MARKET MATH MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris V. Mednikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes enterprise mathmodels, its interactions with environment in commodity market and quantitativeconditions for its success and the crisis in such kind of interaction. Showed: the number of commodity market successfulparticipants should be certain, regardless of market size; any size commodity market, including monopolistic, is assuccessful as producers’ average activity dynamics is balanced with consumers’average activity dynamics.

  3. 29 CFR 780.151 - Particular operations on commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT... 3(f): (a) Grain, seed, and forage crops. Weighing, binning, stacking, drying, cleaning, grading, shelling, sorting, packing, and storing. (b) Fruits and vegetables. Assembling, ripening, cleaning,...

  4. Commodity Price Volatility: Causes, Effects and Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Mugera, Harriet Kasidi

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural commodities experienced substantial increases in prices over the most recent decade with major surges in both 2007-08 and again in 2010-11. These price movements coincided with sharp rises in energy prices, in particular crude oil. Sharp increases in agricultural prices were not uncommon, but it is the short period between the recent two price surges that has drawn concerns and raised questions. What were the causes of the increase in world agricultural prices and what are the pr...

  5. Study on food preservation by irradiation of agricultural and marine products from Cheju island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.H.; Kim, S.H.; Choung, C.C.; Cho, H.O. (Jeju Univ. (Republic of Korea))

    1984-01-01

    Salted dry yellow sea bream were vaccum packed in a plastic bags and irradiated at differents levels (0,0.5,1.0,1.5, and 2.0 Mrad) using sup(60)Co source. The irradiated samples were stored at room temperature 5degC. Physical and chemical properties were examined during storage. The total bacterial count was depressed according to level of irradiation applied. It was noted that cold storage after irradiation was more effective than room temperature. TMA contents slowly increased with higher dosage rates up to 1.5 Mrad but there was a gradual decrease of TMA at the 2.0 Mrad level. It was observed that there was a rapid decrease of TMAO 20 days after irradiation irrespective of storage temperature. The reduction of total nitrogen content was highest in the control but to a lesser degree when irradiation was applied. VBN content increased in all treatments 30 days after irradiation but it was also noted that there was a tendency toward depression of VBN by irradiation. The shelf life of salted dry sea bream was extended by 20 days with irradiation plus room temperature, and by 40 days with irradiation plus cold storage. To extend shelf life of salted dry sea bream, the most effective dosage rate was 1.0 Mrad based on tenderness, bacterial count and rancidity.

  6. Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA Agriculture Resource Directory offers comprehensive, easy-to-understand information about environmental stewardship on farms and ranches; commonsense, flexible approaches that are both environmentally protective and agriculturally sound.

  7. A Study on Producing and Marketing Docking Innovation Path and Mechanism of Agricultural Commodity in China%我国农产品产销对接的创新路径与机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寇光涛; 卢凤君; 王文海

    2016-01-01

    The low efficiency of the market environment and the low value of information in the circulation of agri-cultural commodities lead to the emergy of the contradiction in supply and demand of agricultural commodities. Based on literature review and survey,we classify the model of agricultural products trade as" one-stop"," two stops" and " multi station",and analyze the problems in different modes of trade. According to the mutual needs between production and marketing members,the article designs the innovation path of producing and marketing docking,which is a kind of cooperation mode of" strong enterprises + service platform +production area alliance and the leading enterprise + consumption regional alliance and leading enterprise". In order to ensure the develop-ment of the trade subject and the smooth implementation of the innovation path,the mechanism design is carried out from the perspective of value -added symbiosis,incentive constraint and scale enlargement. Finally,the corre-sponding suggestions are put forward to the transformation and upgrading of producing and marketing docking modes in China.%针对我国农产品销售市场环境有效性差、农产品流通过程信息价值低等引致的农产品“卖难”和“买贵”等现象,基于文献查阅和实际调研等方式,将目前我国的产销对接模式分为“一站式”“二站式”及“多站式”,且分别剖析了不同模式运行中亟需解决的问题。从我国产销经营主体之间的彼此需求入手,设计了“涉农强企大企+服务平台+产区联盟与龙头企业+销区联盟与龙头企业”共同参与的产销对接创新路径,并从增值共生、激励约束和推广放大等角度进行了机制设计,保障参与成员的互利共赢与创新路径的顺利实施。最后提出了相应的建议,为我国农产品产销对接模式的转型升级提供决策思考。

  8. The Principles and the Specifics of Trading in Commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Dušan; Herbacsková, Anita

    2012-12-01

    In the present period of instability on financial markets, investments in commodities are the solution for elimination of the consequences of inflation and ensure the yield. When investing in commodities, the use of specifics of commodities compared to other assets. The distribution of commodities we can interpret for agricultural commodities, commodities of energy, precious and other metals, and weather. Therefore, in the framework of the investment portfolio are the commodities. This is the reason why one of the most popular types of investment assets now become commodities. In the interpretation of particular commodities we talk about commodity futures. The reason is that the spot market with commodities is limited storage facilities. The growth of the popularity, which allows a wide range of commodities, has caused that in addition to from institutional investors and speculators for trade may involve even small investors. This development will be supplemented by interpretation of the charts and figers, which will be commented and used for generalization of knowledge. Finally, the article will be interpreted by the further development of the market for commodities as it by article assumes from the results of research.

  9. Relationship between eae and stx virulence genes and Escherichia coli in an agricultural watershed: implications for irrigation water standards and leafy green commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Daniel R; Karns, Jeffrey S; Coppock, Cary; Patel, Jitu; Sharma, Manan; Pachepsky, Yakov A

    2011-01-01

    The California Leafy Greens Marketing Agreement (LGMA) was adopted in an effort to minimize the risk of contamination of leafy greens with enteric pathogens from a variety of sources, including ground and surface irrigation waters. The LGMA contains standards similar to those established for recreational waters, based on Escherichia coli concentrations. However, no correlation between E. coli and any specific waterborne pathogen(s) has been reported. We conducted this monitoring study in an agricultural watershed to (i) evaluate spatial and temporal fluctuations in E. coli populations and virulence genes associated with pathogenic E. coli and (ii) investigate whether a relationship could be established between E. coli and virulence genes. The virulence genes targeted for analysis were the eae and stx genes, encoding for intimin and Shiga-like toxins, respectively; they were detected with PCR methods. E. coli concentrations and eae and stx prevalence varied both spatially and temporally. In general, both were higher in agricultural than in forested areas and were higher in the summer and fall seasons than in winter. The eae and stx genes were prevalent throughout the watershed. However, in the absence of actual isolates, no conclusions could be drawn regarding the prevalence of specific pathogenic E. coli. No correlation was observed between E. coli concentrations and virulence genes; lower E. coli concentrations were not necessarily associated with decreased prevalence of eae and stx genes. These results suggest that the LGMA standards might not adequately address the issue of waterborne contamination, and that alternative criteria might be required.

  10. 7 CFR 226.5 - Donation of commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Donation of commodities. 226.5 Section 226.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT CARE FOOD PROGRAM Assistance to States § 226.5...

  11. Effect of irradiation on queen survivorship and reproduction in the invasive fire ant Solenopsis invicta,(Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and a generic phytosanitary irradiation dose for ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ants are common hitchhiker pests on traded agricultural commodities that could be controlled by postharvest irradiation treatment. We studied radiation tolerance in queens of the red imported fire ant Solenopsis invicta Buren to determine the dose sufficient for its control. Virgin or fertile queens...

  12. Gamma irradiation of municipal sludge for safe disposal and agricultural use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Satyendra; Shah, Mahesh R; Sabharwal, Sunil; Sharma, Arun

    2005-01-01

    Gamma radiation was found to be an effective tool for hygienization of municipal wastewater sludge. The sludge received from the primary settling tank of a municipal wastewater treatment plant was gamma irradiated using a cobalt-60 source in a sludge hygienization research irradiator. The process parameters were adjusted to effectively eliminate coliform bacteria in the sludge and to prevent their regrowth. Irradiated sludge was found to be free of fecal coliform and could be directly disposed after drying in a landfill or used as manure. It could also be used as a medium for growth of Rhizobium sp for obtaining a bio-fertilizer.

  13. 我国农产品新品种期货市场效率实证研究%Empirical Research on the Efficiency of New Products of Agriculture Commodity Futures Markets in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周蓓; 齐中英

    2013-01-01

    Empirical research on the efficiency of futures markets is the hot research field in futures markets. This paper examines the efficiency of random walk hypothesis for the new products of agriculture commodity futures markets in China:palm oil, colza oil and early long-grain rice futures which all come into the market after 2007. The random walk hypothesis is tested with Lo-MacKinlay variance ratio test and unit root test. We found that these three new products futures markets all follow the random walk hypothesis and therefore all reach the weak-form efficiency. This result shows although new products futures enter the market not long, but they are under the normal operation and steady development in the many joint efforts. Moreover, the successful coming into the market and effective operation of these new products futures must provide valuable experiences for the new products of agriculture commodity futures which will come into the market later.%  期货市场效率的实证研究是期货市场的一个热点研究领域。本文采用方差比方法并结合单位根方法,对我国07年以后上市的农产品期货新品种棕榈油、菜籽油及早籼稻期货市场的效率进行了随机游走检验,结果表明:这3个农产品新品种期货市场均满足随机游走假设,全部达到了信息弱式有效。这一实证结果说明,农产品期货新品种上市时间虽然不长,但是在多方的共同努力下,市场整体运行规范,稳步发展,在扶持现代农业发展中发挥了积极作用;并且农产品期货新品种的成功上市、有效运行,无疑为进一步农产品期货新品种的推出提供了值得借鉴的宝贵经验。

  14. The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 3: Intensive use of living resources, agriculture. Part 3: The integrated impact of improved (ERS) information on US agricultural commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, A. D.

    1974-01-01

    The economic value of information produced by an assumed operational version of an earth resources survey satellite of the ERTS class is assessed. The theoretical capability of an ERTS system to provide improved agricultural forecasts is analyzed and this analysis is used as a reasonable input to the econometric methods derived by ECON. An econometric investigation into the markets for agricultural commodities is summarized. An overview of the effort including the objectives, scopes, and architecture of the analysis, and the estimation strategy employed is presented. The results and conclusions focus on the economic importance of improved crop forecasts, U.S. exports, and government policy operations. Several promising avenues of further investigation are suggested.

  15. Commodities and Stock Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Jawad Hussain Shahzad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is a multivariate analysis of commodities and stock investment in a newly established market scenario. Return distribution asymmetry is examined with higher order movements. Skewness in commodity future’s return is largely insignificant, whereas kurtosis is highly significant for both stock and commodity future contracts. Correlation analysis is done with Pearson’s and Kendall’s tau measures. Commodities provide significant diversification benefits when added in a portfolio of stocks. Compared with stocks, commodity future’s returns show stronger correlation with unexpected inflation. The volatility is measured through Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle - Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (GJR-GARCH model and reflects that commodities have inverted asymmetric behavior, that is, more impact from the upward shocks compared with downward. Stocks have asymmetric volatility, that is, more impact from negative shocks compared with positive. Gold has highest inverted asymmetric volatility. Tail dependence, measured through Student’s t copula, shows no combined downside movement. In conclusion, commodity investments provide diversification and inflation protection.

  16. Commodity Administrative Manual. Public and Private Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This manual was developed for agencies receiving food commodities distributed to eligible schools and noneducational organizations by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) through the California State Department of Education's Office of Surplus Property. It covers rules, regulations, and forms for recipients who are public or private schools…

  17. Assessment Index System of Construction of Commodity-oriented Ecological Agriculture in Ansai County%安塞县商品型生态农业建设效果评价指标体系初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉峰; 王继军; 高亮; 李奇睿

    2011-01-01

    Commodity-oriented ecological agriculture(CEA) results from the coupling of agro-ecological system and agro-economic system under the market economy background,which can be represented by ecological environment,agricultural resources,industry trend and economic benefit.The assessment system of construction of CEA in Ansai County was built first with 16 specific indices chosen by the evolution and constructing effect of CEA.Using the entropy method and the expert consultation method,the weight of each index in the index system was determined by the data from 1998 to 2009 and the evolution of agricultural eco-economic system in Ansai County.%商品型生态农业是市场经济背景下农业生态经济系统相耦合的结果,可以通过生态环境、农业资源、产业态势、经济效益来表征;文章首次依据其演变过程和效果选择其中的16个具体指标,构建了安塞县商品型生态农业建设效果评价指标体系;基于安塞县1998-2009年相关数据和农业生态经济系统演变特征,运用熵值法和专家咨询相结合的方法确定了指标体系中各个指标的权重。

  18. Preliminary investigations into the bioconversion of gamma irradiated agricultural waste by Pleurotus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbedemah, C. M.; Obodai, M.; Sawyerr, L. C.

    1998-06-01

    The application of gamma irradiation for pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials for their hydrolysis and to increase their digestibility for rumen animal have been reported in the literature. Gamma irradiation of corn stover in combination with sodium hydroxide for bioconversion of polysaccharide into protein by Pleurotus spp has also been reported. In this study experiments were designed to find out whether gamma radiation could serve both as a decontaminating agent as well as hydrolytic agent of sawdust for the bioconversion of four varieties of Pleurotus spp. Preliminary results indicate that a dose of 20kGy of gamma irradiation increase the yield of Pleurotus eous var ET-8 whilst decreasing the yield of other varieties.

  19. Financialization of commodities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Falkowski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic theory of price formation tells us how the price of a particular asset will change based on the adjustment to its supply and demand. However, values of assets are also determined by other business fundamentals, company’s and world events, human psychology, and investors’ belief about the possible future profit. In recent history that lead to an increase of individual and institutional investors’ interest in allocating their resources in commodity markets. With a large inflow of capital commodities’ prices started to rise making them attractive components to effective investment portfolios. The presented paper addresses the issue of so called commodities ‘financialization’ process. It looks at the main factors standing behind commodities’ price movements and to what extent financial market participants contributed to commodities price volatility in recent years. Based on the data examined it distinguishes the involvement of both commercial and non-commercial traders in short and long term periods of time. As well as explaining the impact of growing investors’ interest in commodity markets it defines other market forces - like currency appreciations and emerging markets - as being part of increased volatility in raw and soft commodity markets. Along with market examination the paper focuses on possible future outcomes in attempts to regulate commodities derivatives markets and potential effects of those efforts.

  20. 78 FR 16189 - Transportation of Agricultural Commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ....15(e) dealing with disqualification for violating a prohibition on texting while driving a CMV... person who drives only a commercial motor vehicle that is--(1) controlled and operated by a farmer as a... 391 a ``farm vehicle driver,'' as defined in Sec. 390.5, who drives a straight truck (but not...

  1. 76 FR 41048 - Agricultural Commodity Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... under category two. For example, ``fats and oils'' would include plant-based oils, such as tung oil and linseed oil, which are used solely for industrial purposes (and thus would not fall within category two). Section 1a(4)'s reference to ``oils'' would not, however, extend to petroleum products.\\37\\ \\37\\ Petroleum...

  2. 我国农产品期货与现货市场之间的信息传递效应%Information Transmission Effect between Agricultural Commodity Futures Market and Spot Market in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晨辉; 刘新梅; 魏振祥

    2011-01-01

    The information transmission effect between agricultural commodity futures markets and spot markets are examined by constructing ECM and bivariate EC-GARCH(1,1) model based on the student-t distribution with daily data in corn and sugar spot-futures market. The research results show that the spot and futures markets have long-run equilibrium relationship and bidirectional price leading relationship as well as bidirectional volatility spillover effect. Moreover, the volatility spillover effect from futures markets to spot markets is greater. The spillover effect of the volume is significant and the open interest's is insignificant.%通过构建误差修正项模型和基于t分布的双变量EC-EGARCH(1,1)模型,选取玉米和白糖期货作为研究样本对我国农产品期货市场和现货市场之间的的信息传递效应进行了实证研究.结论表明:农产品期、现货市场之间存在长期均衡关系、相互引导关系和相互波动溢出效应,并且期货市场对现货市场的波动溢出效应大于现货市场对期货市场的波动溢出效应;检验了期货市场交易量和持仓量的信息传递效应,发现只有交易量对现货市场有显著的正反馈信息传递效应.

  3. Phytosanitary irradiation - Development and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Guy J.; Loaharanu, Paisan

    2016-12-01

    Phytosanitary irradiation, the use of ionizing radiation to disinfest traded agricultural commodities of regulated pests, is a growing use of food irradiation that has great continued potential for increase in commercial application. In 2015 approximately 25,000 t of fresh fruits and vegetables were irradiated globally for phytosanitary purposes. Phytosanitary irradiation has resulted in a paradigm shift in phytosanitation in that the final burden of proof of efficacy of the treatment has shifted from no live pests upon inspection at a port of entry (as for all previous phytosanitary treatments) to total dependence on certification that the treatment for target pests is based on adequate science and is commercially conducted and protected from post-treatment infestation. In this regard phytosanitary irradiation is managed more like a hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) approach more consistent with food safety than phytosanitation. Thus, phytosanitary irradiation offers a more complete and rigorous methodology for safeguarding than other phytosanitary measures. The role of different organizations in achieving commercial application of phytosanitary irradiation is discussed as well as future issues and applications, including new generic doses.

  4. 7 CFR 917.21 - Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. 917.21... AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Administrative Bodies § 917.21 Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the Pear Commodity Committee shall...

  5. 7 CFR 917.121 - Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee... Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the Pear Commodity Committee shall be made by the growers of pears in the respective representation areas as...

  6. 7 CFR 917.18 - Nomination of commodity committee members of the Control Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nomination of commodity committee members of the... Administrative Bodies § 917.18 Nomination of commodity committee members of the Control Committee. Nominations... following manner: (a) A nomination for one member shall be made by each commodity committee...

  7. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation - Quarantine treatment of agricultural products for export and import by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Joong Ho; Kang, H. J.; Chung, H. W.; Roh, M. J. [Kyungbuk National University, Taegu (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    To pre-establish an alternative technique to the toxic fumigant, methyl bromide which is the current quarantine measure of agricultural products for export, some selected agricultural products, such as apple and pear, were subjected to a preliminary study to confirm the comparative effects of gamma irradiation and MeBr fumigant on their disinfestation and quality, thereby preparing the basic data for the practical approach. Current quarantine activities were examined and the related limitations were investigated. Quarantine-related pests were investigated on their radiosensitivity and disinfestation effects by both treatments. The pests in apple and pear, Tetranychus urticae Koch, Panonychus ulmis Koch revealed a 100% mortality at around 17 days after irradiation of 3 kGy but it was too high dose for apple and pear. Tetranychus urticae Koch, Panonychus ulmi Koch from both apple and pear showed an increased mortality when exposed to 1 {approx} 2 kGy irradiation, resulting in apparent mortality 1 month later. 1 {approx} 2 kGy irradiation could be recommended for apple and pear. Current fumigation was perfect in its disinfesting capability, but it caused the detrimental effects on physical quality of agricultural produce. Whereas, irradiation doses suitable for controlling the pests did not induce any significant changes in the quality of the samples. 40 refs., 64 figs., 160 tabs. (Author)

  8. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2008 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2007 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. National reserves and reserve base information for most mineral commodities found in this report, including those for the United States, are derived from a variety of sources. The ideal source of such information would be comprehensive evaluations that apply the same criteria to deposits in different geographic areas and report the results by country. In the absence of such evaluations, national reserves and reserve base estimates compiled by countries for selected mineral commodities are a primary source of national reserves and reserve base information. Lacking national assessment information by governments, sources such as academic articles, company reports, common business practice, presentations by company representatives, and trade journal articles, or a combination of these, serve as the basis for national reserves and reserve base information reported in the mineral commodity sections of this publication. A national estimate may be assembled from the following: historically reported reserves and reserve base information carried for years without alteration because no new information is available; historically reported reserves and reserve base reduced by the amount of historical production; and company reported reserves. International minerals availability studies conducted by the U.S. Bureau of Mines, before 1996, and estimates of identified resources by an international collaborative effort (the International Strategic Minerals

  9. 78 FR 52426 - Retail Commodity Transactions Under Commodity Exchange Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 1 RIN 3038-AD64 Retail Commodity Transactions Under Commodity Exchange Act AGENCY... (``Interpretation'') regarding the meaning of the term ``actual delivery,'' as set forth in the Commodity Exchange... the statutory language. In response to the comments received, the Commission has determined to...

  10. 76 FR 77670 - Retail Commodity Transactions Under Commodity Exchange Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 1 RIN 3038-AD64 Retail Commodity Transactions Under Commodity Exchange Act AGENCY... ``actual delivery'' as set forth in section 2(c)(2)(D)(ii)(III)(aa) of the Commodity Exchange Act (``CEA... requests comment on whether this interpretation accurately construes the statutory language. In the...

  11. Multiple pathways of commodity crop expansion in tropical forest landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyfroidt, Patrick; Carlson, Kimberly M.; Fagan, Matthew E.; Gutiérrez-Vélez, Victor H.; Macedo, Marcia N.; Curran, Lisa M.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Dyer, George A.; Gibbs, Holly K.; Lambin, Eric F.; Morton, Douglas C.; Robiglio, Valentina

    2014-07-01

    Commodity crop expansion, for both global and domestic urban markets, follows multiple land change pathways entailing direct and indirect deforestation, and results in various social and environmental impacts. Here we compare six published case studies of rapid commodity crop expansion within forested tropical regions. Across cases, between 1.7% and 89.5% of new commodity cropland was sourced from forestlands. Four main factors controlled pathways of commodity crop expansion: (i) the availability of suitable forestland, which is determined by forest area, agroecological or accessibility constraints, and land use policies, (ii) economic and technical characteristics of agricultural systems, (iii) differences in constraints and strategies between small-scale and large-scale actors, and (iv) variable costs and benefits of forest clearing. When remaining forests were unsuitable for agriculture and/or policies restricted forest encroachment, a larger share of commodity crop expansion occurred by conversion of existing agricultural lands, and land use displacement was smaller. Expansion strategies of large-scale actors emerge from context-specific balances between the search for suitable lands; transaction costs or conflicts associated with expanding into forests or other state-owned lands versus smallholder lands; net benefits of forest clearing; and greater access to infrastructure in already-cleared lands. We propose five hypotheses to be tested in further studies: (i) land availability mediates expansion pathways and the likelihood that land use is displaced to distant, rather than to local places; (ii) use of already-cleared lands is favored when commodity crops require access to infrastructure; (iii) in proportion to total agricultural expansion, large-scale actors generate more clearing of mature forests than smallholders; (iv) property rights and land tenure security influence the actors participating in commodity crop expansion, the form of land use displacement

  12. Food commodities from microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draaisma, René B; Wijffels, René H; Slegers, P M Ellen; Brentner, Laura B; Roy, Adip; Barbosa, Maria J

    2013-04-01

    The prospect of sustainable production of food ingredients from photoautotrophic microalgae was reviewed. Clearly, there is scope for microalgal oils to replace functions of major vegetable oils, and in addition to deliver health benefits to food products. Furthermore, with a limited production surface, a substantial portion of the European Union market could be supplied with edible oils and proteins from microalgae. Yet, before microalgal ingredients can become genuinely sustainable and cost effective alternatives for current food commodities, major breakthroughs in production technology and in biorefinery approaches are required. Moreover, before market introduction, evidence on safety of novel microalgal ingredients, is needed. In general, we conclude that microalgae have a great potential as a sustainable feedstock for food commodities.

  13. Price Volatility of Main Food Commodity in Banyumas Regency Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Hayati Putri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural product is commodity which tends to fluctuate. Price volatility is caused by the change of agricultural production due to climate change as well as pest and disease. Furthermore, it is also caused by the change of agricultural land and high demand of agricultural products on religious holidays. This study was conducted to examine how volatile some of main food commodities in Banyumas Regency. Secondary data analysis method with quantitative approach was used in this research. Time series data of some food commodity prices (rice IR 64, local soybean, maize, chili red peppers, onion and garlic from January 2008 – December 2013 were utilized. The coefficient of variation was calculated to determine price volatility. The result showed that the price of red chili pepper, onion and garlic was tending to volatile. The coefficient of variation ratio of those commodities was about 20% - 35%. While the price of rice, local soybean and maize was stable. The coefficient of variation ratio of those commodities was less than 9%. This study also includes some policies that can be suggested to prevent price volatility.

  14. Commodities, energy and environmental finance

    CERN Document Server

    Ludkovski, Michael; Sircar, Ronnie

    2015-01-01

    This volume is a collection of chapters covering the latest developments in applications of financial mathematics and statistics to topics in energy, commodity financial markets and environmental economics. The research presented is based on the presentations and discussions that took place during the Fields Institute Focus Program on Commodities, Energy and Environmental Finance in August 2013. The authors include applied mathematicians, economists and industry practitioners, providing for a multi-disciplinary spectrum of perspectives on the subject. The volume consists of four sections: Electricity Markets; Real Options; Trading in Commodity Markets; and Oligopolistic Models for Energy Production. Taken together, the chapters give a comprehensive summary of the current state of the art in quantitative analysis of commodities and energy finance. The topics covered include structural models of electricity markets, financialization of commodities, valuation of commodity real options, game-theory analysis of ...

  15. Agricultural Minerals Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes agricultural minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  16. The food irradiation and perspectives for installing irradiation facilities in Minas Gerais State, Brazil; A irradiacao de alimentos e suas perspectivas de implantacao em Minas Gerais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladeira, Luiz C.D.; Campos, Luiz; Pinto, Fausto C. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1996-04-01

    Joint studies on the use of the radiation process for the treatment of foods and agricultural commodities are under way at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear-CDTN, Universidade Federal de Lavras and Secretaria de Estado da Agricultura, Pecuaria e Abastecimento, aiming to collect information needed for a feasibility analysis. The analysis will allow the business manager to evaluate benefits and risks in order to estimate the profitability of a contemplated venture on risks food irradiation. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. 75 FR 34434 - Request To Amend an Existing Order Under Section 4(c) of the Commodity Exchange Act Permitting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... COMMISSION Request To Amend an Existing Order Under Section 4(c) of the Commodity Exchange Act Permitting...) of the Commodity Exchange Act (``Act'') \\1\\ to certain over-the-counter (``OTC'') agricultural swaps... Commodity Exchange Act (``Act'') and subject to the conditions below, hereby: (a) Permits eligible swap...

  18. Towards a Gendered Agro-Commodity Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primrose Nakazibwe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Commodity or value chains are the dominant means to channel agro-food products from cultivators to consumers. Direct open markets are either non-existent or insignificant . These chains are also the main mechanisms for integrating underprivileged groups into the world economy. Why do global value chains generate sorrow for many and joy for a few, and why are these outcomes heavily gender biased? To look for answers this article critically reviews the post-2000 and earlier gender literature by proponents and opponents of the mainstream value chain approach. The purpose is to provide a methodological contribution on the integration of gender into the commodity chain approach. Most studies have fo cused on the economic effects of chain dynamics on women in agricultural product and labor markets. Some have extended this reasoning with social and cultural effects. Despite these advances, analytical gaps still exist as most existing research has concentrated on the agricultural nodes of modern, high value chains and lacks a gendered conceptual foundation. Scarce attention has been given to traditional staple crops, non-agricultural nodes, and feed back effects of gender relations on the chain. Our results indicate that an appropriate GCC approach should also consider the gendered impacts of the interaction between the governance structure and the institutiona l embeddedness, as well as the consequences of intra-household division of resources and labor in all stages of the chain. These two conceptual complements will be needed to explain the opportunities and constraints to improve gender equity in traditional and modern agro-commodity chains.

  19. Commodity Currencies and the Real Exchange Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Cashin; Luis Felipe Céspedes; Ratna Sahay

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines whether the real exchange rates of commodity-exporting countries and the real prices of their commodity exports move together over time. Using IMF data on the world prices of 44 commodities and national commodity export shares, we construct new monthly indices of national commodity export prices for 58 commodity-exporting countries over 1980-2002. Evidence of a longrun relationship between national real exchange rate and real commodity prices is found for about onethird of...

  20. The Commodity and its Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines fishing quota as a commodity in both a conceptual perspective and through ethnographic examples. Inspired by Marx’s ideas of the commodity, use-value, exchange-value, and ground rent, the chapter combines a theoretical approach with ethnographic material. The different aspec...

  1. Commodity team motivation and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englyst, Linda; Jørgensen, Frances; Johansen, John

    2007-01-01

    In this article, an in-depth single case study is presented in order to explore and discuss the functioning of commodity teams in a global sourcing context. Specifically the study aimed at identifying factors that may influence team members' motivation to participate in activities consistent...... with a commodity team's objective of creating opportunities for synergy and coordination of purchasing. In the teams studied, motivation appeared to be influenced to some degree by a number of factors, including rewards, leadership behaviors, goal setting, and the career goals of the commodity team members....... In some cases, inconsistencies between these factors and the objectives of the commodity teams were associated with lower performance. The paper contributes theoretically by providing a rich description of commodity functioning, and to practice by bringing attention to a number of managerial issues...

  2. Commodity team motivation and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englyst, Linda; Jørgensen, Frances; Johansen, John

    2007-01-01

    . In some cases, inconsistencies between these factors and the objectives of the commodity teams were associated with lower performance. The paper contributes theoretically by providing a rich description of commodity functioning, and to practice by bringing attention to a number of managerial issues......In this article, an in-depth single case study is presented in order to explore and discuss the functioning of commodity teams in a global sourcing context. Specifically the study aimed at identifying factors that may influence team members' motivation to participate in activities consistent...... with a commodity team's objective of creating opportunities for synergy and coordination of purchasing. In the teams studied, motivation appeared to be influenced to some degree by a number of factors, including rewards, leadership behaviors, goal setting, and the career goals of the commodity team members...

  3. Incorporating agroforestry approaches into commodity value chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Edward

    2011-08-01

    The productivity of tropical agricultural commodities is affected by the health of the ecosystem. Shade tolerant crops such as coffee and cocoa benefit from environmental services provided by forested landscapes, enabling landscape design that meets biodiversity conservation and economic needs. What can motivate farmers to apply and maintain such landscape approaches? Rather than rely on a proliferation of externally funded projects new opportunities are emerging through the international market that buys these commodities. As part of their growing commitment to sustainable supply chains, major companies are supporting agroforestry approaches and requiring producers and traders to demonstrate that the source of their commodities complies with a set of principles that conserves forested landscapes and improves local livelihoods. The paper presents examples of international companies that are moving in this direction, analyzes why and how they are doing it and discusses the impact that has been measured in coffee and cocoa communities in Latin America and Africa. It particularly considers the role of standards and certification systems as a driver of this commitment to promote profitable operations, environmental conservation and social responsibility throughout the coffee and cocoa value chains. Such approaches are already being taken to scale and are no longer operating only in small niches of the market but the paper also considers the limitations to growth in this market-based approach.

  4. Incorporating Agroforestry Approaches into Commodity Value Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Edward

    2011-08-01

    The productivity of tropical agricultural commodities is affected by the health of the ecosystem. Shade tolerant crops such as coffee and cocoa benefit from environmental services provided by forested landscapes, enabling landscape design that meets biodiversity conservation and economic needs. What can motivate farmers to apply and maintain such landscape approaches? Rather than rely on a proliferation of externally funded projects new opportunities are emerging through the international market that buys these commodities. As part of their growing commitment to sustainable supply chains, major companies are supporting agroforestry approaches and requiring producers and traders to demonstrate that the source of their commodities complies with a set of principles that conserves forested landscapes and improves local livelihoods. The paper presents examples of international companies that are moving in this direction, analyzes why and how they are doing it and discusses the impact that has been measured in coffee and cocoa communities in Latin America and Africa. It particularly considers the role of standards and certification systems as a driver of this commitment to promote profitable operations, environmental conservation and social responsibility throughout the coffee and cocoa value chains. Such approaches are already being taken to scale and are no longer operating only in small niches of the market but the paper also considers the limitations to growth in this market-based approach.

  5. Non-food radiation technology applications of food commodities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastro, N.L. Del [Center of Radiation Technology, Energy and Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Travessa R, 400 Cidade Universitaria, 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. E-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br

    2004-07-01

    At present food irradiation is considered an effective, broad-spectrum, residue-free, mature technology. Expertise in irradiation processing exists in a network of centers around the world, some of them in developing countries like Brazil and Argentina South American region. The use of renewable resources coming from crops products is becoming attractive also for non-food applications. In this sense, a complete new approach of higher aggregated value of some commodities like soy and maize, for example, is as renewable resources to create functional polymers, mainly for innovative biodegradable packaging solutions. There is a need of innovative approaches to produce edible/biodegradable materials from natural polymeric macromolecules with adequate properties. Incipient researches pointed to the successful use of irradiation processing to obtain or modify different types of biodegradable/edible plastic materials. This new radiation technology application is particularly important for countries that are leading producers of soybean and other commodities. (Author)

  6. Measuring the Influence of Commodity Fund Trading on Soybean Price Discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Plato, Gerald E.; Hoffman, Linwood A.

    2007-01-01

    The increase in commodity fund trading in the agricultural commodity futures markets has raised concern that this trading is degrading the price discovery performance of these markets. We used the Beveridge-Nelson Decomposition procedure to estimate the price discovery performance of the soybean futures and spot markets. We found that the price discovery performance of the soybean futures market has improved along with the increased commodity fund trading. Our results indicated that a portion...

  7. Commodity Markets, Risk and Poverty: A Case of Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Malunda, Dickson

    2011-01-01

    For most low developed economies in Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA), agriculture has been the main source of livelihood contributing 34% to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and 64% to employment, either directly or indirectly. Dependence on agricultural commodities for exports has been accompanied by a high degree of price risk in terms of both volatile and declining prices, a phenomenon which has not only affected the way households allocate their resources but also affected their welfare in terms of c...

  8. 7 CFR 1425.17 - Eligible commodity and pooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to generally accepted accounting principles. (l) A CMA shall not apply marketing losses from a..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COOPERATIVE MARKETING ASSOCIATIONS § 1425.17... marketing proceeds from the commodity in accordance with § 1425.18; and (5) Members agreed to accept...

  9. Forecasting Exchange Rates with Commodity Convenience Yields

    OpenAIRE

    Beutler, Toni

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates whether commodity convenience yields - the yields that accrue to the holders of physical commodities - can predict the exchange rate of commodity-exporters' currencies. Predictability is a consequence of the fact that i) convenience yields are useful predictors for commodity prices and ii) commodity currencies have a strong relationship with commodity prices. The empirical evidence indicates that there is a significant relationship between aggregate measures of conveni...

  10. Food and Feed Commodity Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food and Feed Vocabulary was developed to consolidate all the major OPP Commodity Vocabularies into one standardized vocabulary. The EPA-preferred term is the only term that can be used in setting tolerances.

  11. Processing Trade Banned Commodities announced

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The new catalogue of processing trade-banned commodities was announced recently. The announcement was executed since November 22 of 2006. The Catalogue will be adjusted according to related policies of the state.

  12. Quarterly Web Interfaced Commodity Reporting

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — QWICR is a secure, online Title II commodity reporting system accessible to USAID Missions, PVO Cooperating Sponsors and Food for Peace Officers. QWICR provides PVO...

  13. Commodity team motivation and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englyst, Linda; Jørgensen, Frances; Johansen, John

    2008-01-01

    these factors and the objectives of the commodity teams were associated with lower performance. The paper contributes theoretically by providing a rich description of how commodity teams function, and to practice by bringing attention to a number of managerial issues that should be considered when implementing......In this article, an in-depth single case study is presented in order to explore and discuss the functioning of commodity teams in a global sourcing context. Specifically, the study aimed at identifying factors that may influence team members' motivation to participate in activities that create...... opportunities for synergy and coordination of purchasing. In the teams studied, motivation appeared to be influenced to some degree by a number of factors, including rewards, leadership behaviours, goal setting, and the career goals of the commodity team members. In some cases, inconsistencies between...

  14. Commodity Team Motivation and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englyst, Linda; Jørgensen, Frances; Johansen, John

    2008-01-01

    these factors and the objectives of the commodity teams were associated with lower performance. The paper contributes theoretically by providing a rich description of how commodity teams function, and to practice by bringing attention to a number of managerial issues that should be considered when implementing......In this article, an in-depth single case study is presented in order to explore and discuss the functioning of commodity teams in a global sourcing context. Specifically, the study aimed at identifying factors that may influence team members' motivation to participate in activities that create...... opportunities for synergy and coordination of purchasing. In the teams studied, motivation appeared to be influenced to some degree by a number of factors, including rewards, leadership behaviours, goal setting, and the career goals of the commodity team members. In some cases, inconsistencies between...

  15. Energy and Food Commodity Prices Linkage: An Examination with Mixed-Frequency Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trujillo Barrera, A.A.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Is the relationship between energy and agricultural commodities an important factor in the increasing price variability of food commodities? Findings from the literature appear to be mixed and highly influenced by the data frequency used in those analysis. A recurrent task in time series

  16. Energy and Food Commodity Prices Linkage: An Examination with Mixed-Frequency Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trujillo Barrera, A.A.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Is the relationship between energy and agricultural commodities an important factor in the increasing price variability of food commodities? Findings from the literature appear to be mixed and highly influenced by the data frequency used in those analysis. A recurrent task in time series ap

  17. "退耕还林工程"实施后安塞县商品型生态农业建设成效%Effect of constructing ecological agriculture with commodities after launching “Grain for Green Project” in Ansai County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李奇睿; 王继军

    2011-01-01

    以安塞县为例,分析了该县商品型生态农业的建设成效,探讨了商品型生态农业建设对区域农业生态经济系统演替过程产生的影响.结果表明:在退耕还林还草工程实施的背景下,安塞县商品型生态农业建设取得了明显的生态、经济和社会效益;2007年与1999年相比,全县林草覆盖率提高了12.6%,水土流失治理程度提高了14%;高效设施农业已成为安塞县主干道周围农业生产的主要模式,其产值占农林牧渔总产值的72%;农民人均纯收入较1999年增长了83.51%,其中工副业、种植业和果业收入占农民总收入的77.28%;农业生产稳定指数同比提高了51.61%,粮食稳定性指数同比增加了17.07%,二、三产业发展稳定性指数同比下降了77.91%.%Taking Ansai County as an example, the effect of constructing ecological agriculture with commodities was analyzed, and its impact on the suocession process of regional agricultural eeo-economic system was discussed. The results indicated that: in the context of launching Grain for Green Project, there were significant ecological, economic and social benefits from constructing ecological agriculture with commodities in Ansai County. Compared to that of 1999,the vegetation coverage rate in Ansai County increased by 12.6%, and soil-water erosion rehabilitation rate increased by14% in 2007. Efficient facility farming had become the main mode of agricultural production, which was near the arterial roads in Ansai County and took up 72% of GAP (the gross agricultural product). Compared to the figure of 1999,net income per peasant increased by 83.51 %. Especially, the income of sideline, crop farming and fruit accounted for 77.28% of the total revenue. The stability index of agricultural production had increased by 51.61% year on year,while the food stability index had grown by 17.07% annually. Meanwhile, the development stability index of secondary and tertiary econo.mie sectors

  18. 76 FR 37766 - Specified Commodities Imported Into the United States, Exempt From Import Regulations; Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Specified Commodities Imported Into the United States, Exempt From Import... Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3501), this document announces the Agricultural Marketing Service's (``AMS... information collection. Abstract: Section 8e of the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937 as amended...

  19. Mineral commodity profiles: Silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterman, W.C.; Hilliard, Henry E.

    2005-01-01

    United States, about 30 companies accounted for more than 90 percent of the silver fabricated. The consumption of silver for all fabrication uses is expected to grow slowly through the decade ending in 2010 at about 1.3 percent per year for the world and 2.4 percent per year for the United States. World and U.S. reserves and reserve bases are more than adequate to satisfy the demand for newly mined silver through 2010. The other components of supply will be silver recovered from scrap, silver from industrial stocks, and silver bullion that is sold into the market from commodity exchange and private stocks.

  20. Mineral commodity profiles: Silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterman, W.C.; Hilliard, Henry E.

    2005-01-01

    United States, about 30 companies accounted for more than 90 percent of the silver fabricated. The consumption of silver for all fabrication uses is expected to grow slowly through the decade ending in 2010 at about 1.3 percent per year for the world and 2.4 percent per year for the United States. World and U.S. reserves and reserve bases are more than adequate to satisfy the demand for newly mined silver through 2010. The other components of supply will be silver recovered from scrap, silver from industrial stocks, and silver bullion that is sold into the market from commodity exchange and private stocks.

  1. 7 CFR 1599.11 - Use of commodities and sale proceeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE McGOVERN-DOLE INTERNATIONAL FOOD FOR EDUCATION AND CHILD NUTRITION... sell the donated commodities at a reasonable market price in the economy where the sale occurs. The...

  2. 75 FR 29307 - Web Based Supply Chain Management Commodity Offer Form, Paperwork Collection Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Web Based Supply Chain Management Commodity Offer Form, Paperwork Collection... Based Supply Chain Management (WBSCM) that will allow respondents to submit information electronically... CONTACT: David Tuckwiller, Project Manager, Web Based Supply Chain Management System, phone (202)...

  3. Commodities into food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, J; Fewell, A

    1985-09-12

    It is not surprising that past predictions of the extent of adoption of new technology by the food and agricultural industries have only been partly realized. This is a result of the difficulty of forecasting the take-up of technology that is capable of being transferred from other industries, for example, process control methods and the advent of new packaging materials. Most technology that is adopted is normally incremental over the existing technology and forecasting of this type is best done by specific experts within the industry. Factors which influence uptake of technology in the food industry include not only the available technology, but also the supply of raw materials, economics and disposable income, food habits, health and nutrition and market requirements. In addition to these there is legislation, which imposes compositional, labelling and trade requirements on grower, processor and retailer. New products and processes are determined by all these factors, the overriding influence being the consumer's requirement for palatable and nutritious foods that provide value for money. In the cereals-processing industry significant developments have taken place in the provision of U.K. wheat varieties for breadmaking. The U.K. is now in the position where the bulk of its breadmaking wheats are homegrown. Further advances can be make by investing in applied research into those characteristics of bread wheats which are determinants of good bread flours, that in turn will help in the provision of suitable bread wheat varieties. A less traditional area is that of flour fractionation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Perceived Contribution of Agricultural Transformation Agenda to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    (NIRSAL), transformation action plan for some priority agricultural commodities, ... Guarantee Minimum Price, mechanization support and repositioning of agricultural .... Trading. 3.9. Fashion design. 1.0. Panel fitting. 1.0. Soothsaying. 1.0.

  5. A Study on Market Efficiency of Selected Commodity Derivatives Traded on NCDEX During 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajipriya, N.

    2012-10-01

    The study aims at testing the weak form of Efficient Market Hypothesis in the context of an emerging commodity market - National Commodity Derivatives Exchange (NCDEX), which is considered as the prime commodity derivatives market in India. The study considered daily spot and futures prices of five selected commodities traded on NCDEX over 12 month period (the futures contracts originating and expiring during the period January 2011 to December 2011) The five commodities chosen are Pepper, Crude palm Oil, steel silver and Chana as they account for almost two-thirds of the value of agricultural commodity derivatives traded on NCDEX. The results of Run test indicate that both spot and futures prices are weak form efficient

  6. Multifractal behavior of commodity markets: Fuel versus non-fuel products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbianco, Fernando; Tohmé, Fernando; Stosic, Tatijana; Stosic, Borko

    2016-09-01

    We investigate multifractal properties of commodity time series using multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA). We find that agricultural and energy-related commodities exhibit very similar behavior, while the multifractal behavior of daily and monthly commodity series is rather different. Daily series demonstrate overall uncorrelated behavior, lower degree of multifractality and the dominance of small fluctuations. On the other hand, monthly commodity series show overall persistent behavior, higher degree of multifractality and the dominance of large fluctuations. After shuffling the series, we find that the multifractality is due to a broad probability density function for daily commodities series, while for monthly commodities series multifractality is caused by both a broad probability density function and long term correlations.

  7. Phosphate: are we squandering a scarce commodity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Charles J; Ritz, Eberhard; Townend, Jonathan N

    2015-02-01

    Phosphorus is an essential element for life but is a rare element in the universe. On Earth, it occurs mostly in the form of phosphates that are widespread but predominantly at very low concentration. This relative rarity has resulted in a survival advantage, in evolutionary terms, to organisms that conserve phosphate. When phosphate is made available in excess it becomes a cause for disease, perhaps best recognized as a potential cardiovascular and renal risk factor. As a reaction to the emerging public health issue caused by phosphate additives to food items, there have been calls for a public education programme and regulation to bring about a reduction of phosphate additives to food. During the Paleoproterzoic era, an increase in the bioavailability of phosphate is thought to have contributed significantly to the oxygenation of our atmosphere and a dramatic increase in the evolution of new species. Currently, phosphate is used poorly and often wasted with phosphate fertilizers washing this scarce commodity into water bodies causing eutrophication and algal blooms. Ironically, this is leading to the extinction of hundreds of species. The unchecked exploitation of phosphate rock, which is an increasingly rare natural resource, and our dependence on it for agriculture may lead to a strange situation in which phosphate might become a commodity to be fought over whilst at the same time, health and environmental experts are likely to recommend reductions in its use.

  8. Commodity Team Motivation and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englyst, Linda; Jørgensen, Frances; Johansen, John

    2008-01-01

    In this article, an in-depth single case study is presented in order to explore and discuss the functioning of commodity teams in a global sourcing context. Specifically, the study aimed at identifying factors that may influence team members' motivation to participate in activities that create...... opportunities for synergy and coordination of purchasing. In the teams studied, motivation appeared to be influenced to some degree by a number of factors, including rewards, leadership behaviours, goal setting, and the career goals of the commodity team members. In some cases, inconsistencies between...

  9. The Commodity and its Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines fishing quota as a commodity in both a conceptual perspective and through ethnographic examples. Inspired by Marx’s ideas of the commodity, use-value, exchange-value, and ground rent, the chapter combines a theoretical approach with ethnographic material. The different aspects...... and the value of the quota are examined through the concrete exchange of fishing rights, and it is explained why quota trade can give rise to speculation and monopolies. In the final part of the chapter, it is argued that the value of transferable fishing quotas rely on a social relation between owners...

  10. Agricultural Minerals Operations - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes agricultural minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  11. Commodity Team Motivation and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englyst, Linda; Jørgensen, Frances; Johansen, John

    2007-01-01

    This article explores factors influencing the motivation and performance of commodity teams in a global sourcing context. Several challenges are related to the classical dilemma of matrix organization, but with particular implications in this specific context of purchasing. We report on a reward...

  12. Aflatoxins in selected Thai commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansakul, Natthasit; Limsuwan, Sasithorn; Böhm, Josef; Hollmann, Manfred; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxin (AF) B1, B2, G1 and G2 were determined in 120 samples of selected Thai commodities including unpolished rice, unpolished glutinous rice, chilli powder, whole dried chilli pods and raw peanut. The mean concentrations of the total AFs for analysed samples were 0.16, 25.43, 14.18, 6.62 and 1.43 µg kg(-1) with positive incidences of 4%, 20%, 97%, 37% and 30%, respectively. Quantitative analysis was performed using HPLC equipped with post-column derivatisation and fluorescence detection. Sample clean-up was carried out using immunoaffinity columns for selective enrichment of AFs. The method was validated by using certified reference material, which showed recoveries over 85%. The limit of detections (LODs) and limit of quantifications (LOQs) were in a range between 0.01-0.11 µg kg(-1) and 0.03-0.38 µg kg(-1), respectively. The results clearly demonstrated that AFs were detectable in different matrices. Chilli powder was found to have the highest level of AFs contamination followed by chilli pods, peanut and rice, respectively. However, among the selected commodities, unpolished rice contained only trace levels of AFB1 and AFB2. With regard to the fact that AFs are a natural contaminant in commodities, this report calls to attention the regular monitoring and effective control of food commodities to prevent health hazards.

  13. Impact assessment of commodity standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruben, Ruerd

    2017-01-01

    Voluntary commodity standards are widely used to enhance the performance of tropical agro-food chains and to support the welfare and sustainability of smallholder farmers. Different methods and approaches are used to assess the effectiveness and impact of these certification schemes at

  14. Global Economic Prospects : Commodity Markets Outlook, January 2014

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    With the exception of energy, all the key commodity price indices declined significantly in 2013. Fertilizer prices led the decline, down 17.4 percent from 2012, followed by precious metals (down almost 17 percent), agriculture (-7.2 percent), and metals (-5.5 percent). Crude oil prices (World Bank average), which have been remarkably stable during the past three years, averaged $104/barrel ...

  15. Commodity Markets Outlook, July 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    Most commodity price indexes rebounded in the second quarter of 2016, continuing their upward climb from January lows on improved market sentiment and tapering supplies. Oil prices jumped by more than a third due to supply outages and strong demand. Given this rebound and expected reduction in inventories during the second half of the year, the crude oil price forecast for 2016 is being ra...

  16. Commodity Markets Outlook, July 2016

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Most commodity price indexes rebounded in the second quarter of 2016, continuing their upward climb from January lows on improved market sentiment and tapering supplies. Oil prices jumped by more than a third due to supply outages and strong demand. Given this rebound and expected reduction in inventories during the second half of the year, the crude oil price forecast for 2016 is being ra...

  17. Regime shift in fertilizer commodities indicates more turbulence ahead for food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elser, James J; Elser, Timothy J; Carpenter, Stephen R; Brock, William A

    2014-01-01

    Recent human population increase has been enabled by a massive expansion of global agricultural production. A key component of this "Green Revolution" has been application of inorganic fertilizers to produce and maintain high crop yields. However, the long-term sustainability of these practices is unclear given the eutrophying effects of fertilizer runoff as well as the reliance of fertilizer production on finite non-renewable resources such as mined phosphate- and potassium-bearing rocks. Indeed, recent volatility in food and agricultural commodity prices, especially phosphate fertilizer, has raised concerns about emerging constraints on fertilizer production with consequences for its affordability in the developing world. We examined 30 years of monthly prices of fertilizer commodities (phosphate rock, urea, and potassium) for comparison with three food commodities (maize, wheat, and rice) and three non-agricultural commodities (gold, nickel, and petroleum). Here we show that all commodity prices, except gold, had significant change points between 2007-2009, but the fertilizer commodities, and especially phosphate rock, showed multiple symptoms of nonlinear critical transitions. In contrast to fertilizers and to rice, maize and wheat prices did not show significant signs of nonlinear dynamics. From these results we infer a recent emergence of a scarcity price in global fertilizer markets, a result signaling a new high price regime for these essential agricultural inputs. Such a regime will challenge on-going efforts to establish global food security but may also prompt fertilizer use practices and nutrient recovery strategies that reduce eutrophication.

  18. Regime shift in fertilizer commodities indicates more turbulence ahead for food security.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J Elser

    Full Text Available Recent human population increase has been enabled by a massive expansion of global agricultural production. A key component of this "Green Revolution" has been application of inorganic fertilizers to produce and maintain high crop yields. However, the long-term sustainability of these practices is unclear given the eutrophying effects of fertilizer runoff as well as the reliance of fertilizer production on finite non-renewable resources such as mined phosphate- and potassium-bearing rocks. Indeed, recent volatility in food and agricultural commodity prices, especially phosphate fertilizer, has raised concerns about emerging constraints on fertilizer production with consequences for its affordability in the developing world. We examined 30 years of monthly prices of fertilizer commodities (phosphate rock, urea, and potassium for comparison with three food commodities (maize, wheat, and rice and three non-agricultural commodities (gold, nickel, and petroleum. Here we show that all commodity prices, except gold, had significant change points between 2007-2009, but the fertilizer commodities, and especially phosphate rock, showed multiple symptoms of nonlinear critical transitions. In contrast to fertilizers and to rice, maize and wheat prices did not show significant signs of nonlinear dynamics. From these results we infer a recent emergence of a scarcity price in global fertilizer markets, a result signaling a new high price regime for these essential agricultural inputs. Such a regime will challenge on-going efforts to establish global food security but may also prompt fertilizer use practices and nutrient recovery strategies that reduce eutrophication.

  19. 7 CFR 917.119 - Procedure for nominating members for various Commodity Committees; meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Committees; meetings. 917.119 Section 917.119 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Bodies § 917.119 Procedure for nominating members for various Commodity Committees; meetings. (a) The nomination procedures that appear in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section apply to both the Peach and...

  20. Assessment of Implementation Effects of Ecological Agriculture with Commodity in An′sai County%安塞县商品型生态农业实施效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉峰; 王继军; 普琼

    2012-01-01

    Referring to the data of statistical yearbooks and peasant household questionnaires,the effects of ecological agriculture with commodity(EAC) implemented in southern,central,northern An′sai County were evaluated by using the evaluating indicator system and the weights.Results showed that in last 10 years,the EAC in An′sai County experienced 3 stages: economic system recession and ecosystem smooth transition stage,economic system recovery and ecosystem rapid development stage,and economic system quick growth and ecosystem sound wave stage.The EAC development state was in the "fair" grade in 1998—2001,which evolved into the "good" grade in 2002—2009 and is expected to achieve the "superior" grade by 2015.During this process,the EAC system tended to be a coordinated development state,but there were also some uncoordinated problems in parts,such as resource-shortage in livestock husbandry and resource-waste in vegetation,which constrains the EAC advancement in An′sai County.%以统计年鉴数据和农户调查问卷数据为基础,运用已建立的评价指标体系和所确定的权重对陕西省安塞县及其南、中、北不同区位的商品型生态农业实施效果进行了评估。结果表明,10a余来,安塞县商品型生态农业建设经历了3个阶段:经济系统衰退生态系统平稳过渡阶段,经济系统复苏生态系统高速发展阶段和经济系统快速增长生态系统良性波动阶段。其发展状况由1998—2001年的"中等"等级演变到2002—2009年的"良好"等级,预计到2015年将达到"优异"等级,系统总体趋于协调发展状态。但该区局部也存在如草畜业资源不足与林草资源闲置等问题,制约了安塞县商品型生态农业系统整体水平的提高。

  1. 7 CFR 1210.505 - Department of Agriculture costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Department of Agriculture costs. 1210.505 Section 1210.505 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON...

  2. 国际大宗商品期货价格与中国农产品批发市场价格关系研究%Relationship Between International Bulk Commodity Futures Price and Chinese Agricultural Products Wholesale Market Price

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭晶荣; 邓强; 王瑞

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses Johansen co-integration test and tiranger causality test to anatyze tne relationship between Commodity Research Bureau Futures Price (CRB) and agricultural products wholesale market price (AWPI) from January 2005 to September 2011. The results show that: 1) CRB (or through CPI ) has a direct effect on AWPI, the longer the lag period, the more significant performance shows, and long-term equilibrium relationship exists; 2) VEC model reflects that deviates from the long-term equilibrium between CRB and AWPI can be modified in the short-term. In addition, the study finds that CRB plays a warning role for domestic agricultural wholesale market prices. enlightenments from the study. Finally, the paper puts forwards some policy%本文通过Johansen协整和Granger因果关系检验,分析了2005年1月至2011年9月国际大宗商品期货价格指数(CRB)与批发价格指数(AWPI)之间的关系,结果表明:CRB对AwPI具有直接或通过CPI的间接传导作用,滞后期越长,表现越显著,并存在长期均衡关系;VEC模型结果表明短期对CRB与AwPI之间长期均衡偏离可以加以修正。此外,研究发现CRB对批发价格具有预警作用,并从中得出政策性启示。

  3. Cargill’s corporate growth in times of crises : How agro-commodity traders are increasing profits in the midst of volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salerno, T.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes two interrelated arguments: first, it is argued that agro-commodity traders are uniquely placed at the crossroads of agricultural trade to benefit from agricultural commodity speculation; and second, that the networks constituting their operations are central to their hedging

  4. Commodity Tracker: Mobile Application for Food Security Monitoring in Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, M. T.; Huang, X.; Baird, J.; Gourley, J. R.; Morelli, R.; de Lanerolle, T. R.; Haiti Food Security Monitoring Mobile App Team

    2011-12-01

    Megan Chiu, Jason Baird, Xu Huang, Trishan de Lanerolle, Ralph Morelli, Jonathan Gourley Trinity College, Computer Science Department and Environmental Science Program, 300 Summit Street, Hartford, CT 06106 megan.chiu@trincoll.edu, Jason.baird@trincoll.edu, xu.huang@trincoll.edu, trishan.delanerolle@trincoll.edu, ralph.morelli@trincoll.edu, jonathan.gourley@trincoll.edu Price data for Haiti commodities such as rice and potatoes have been traditionally recorded by hand on paper forms for many years. The information is then entered onto computer manually, thus making the process a long and arduous one. With the development of the Haiti Commodity Tracker mobile app, we are able to make this commodity price data recording process more efficient. Officials may use this information for making inferences about the difference in commodity prices and for food distribution during critical time after natural disasters. This information can also be utilized by governments and aid agencies on their food assistance programs. Agronomists record the item prices from several sample sites in a marketplace and compare those results from other markets across the region. Due to limited connectivity in rural areas, data is first saved to the phone's database and then retransmitted to a central server via SMS messaging. The mobile app is currently being field tested by an international NGO providing agricultural aid and support in rural Haiti.

  5. Trading Forests: Quantifying the Contribution of Global Commodity Markets to Emissions from Tropical Deforestation

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Martin; Henders, Sabine; Kastner, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to improve our understanding of how and where global supply-chains linkconsumers of agricultural and forest commodities across the world to forest destruction in tropicalcountries. A better understanding of these linkages can help inform and support the design ofdemand-side interventions to reduce tropical deforestation. To that end, we map the link betweendeforestation for four commodities (beef, soybeans, palm oil, and wood products) in eight casecountries (Argentina, Bolivi...

  6. Constraints to the Development of Commodity Exchanges in Africa: A Case Study of ZAMACE

    OpenAIRE

    Sitko, Nicholas J.; Jayne, Thomas S.

    2011-01-01

    The development of agricultural commodity exchanges in Africa has become an increasingly popular strategy for addressing some of the ills plaguing African food markets, including poorly developed risk management systems, high transaction costs, and limited price discovery. However, despite substantial support from donors and, in some cases, national governments, commodity exchanges in most African countries are having difficulties getting off the ground. While previous studies (Rashid, Winter...

  7. Analysis of Interregional Commodity Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirach Hirun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Commodity Flow Survey (CFS was launched to collect comprehensive freight flow data throughout the kingdom of Thailand. The survey’s database is the most complete collection of commodity flow data in Thailand. The need to reveal interregional freight characteristics using available data from the CFS led to the objectives of this research. Approach: An origin destination matrix based on province was calibrated using a flexible Box-Cox function form. It used maximum likelihood and the backward method for calibration and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE and Mean Relative Error (MRE to verify the model’s performance. Independent variables were classified into three groups: origin variable, destination variable and geographic variable. The origin variable represented the behavior of the trip as generated at the place of origin. Some consumption occurred at the origin. The employment and the average plant size variables were selected for potential productivity while personal income per capita and total populations were included to explain consumption behavior at the origin. Personal income per capita and total populations were selected for destination variables which act as proxy for final demand at the destination. The third category, distance, was the most conventional friction variable for geographical variables. Results: The calibrated model revealed that origin income, origin average plant size and origin population performed poorly. Therefore these variables were eliminated. The best developed model included four strongly significant variables at a 5% level: origin employment, destination population, destination income per capita and distance. Conclusion: The results showed that the selected variables and the Box-Cox functional form were successful in explaining behavior of interregional freight transportation in Thailand. The developed model was the first interregional freight transportation model to be

  8. 77 FR 71773 - Mandatory Country of Origin Labeling of Covered Commodities: Notice of Request for Revision of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Mandatory Country of Origin Labeling of Covered Commodities: Notice of Request for Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service... of 1995 (44 U.S.C. Chapter 35), this notice announces the Agricultural Marketing Service's...

  9. Commodity Markets Outlook, April 2016

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Most commodity price indexes rebounded in February-March from their January lows on improved market sentiment and a weakening dollar. Still, average prices for the first quarter fell compared to the last quarter of 2015, with energy prices down 21 percent and non-energy prices lower by 2 percent. Given the recent rebound in oil prices and expected supply tightening in the second half of the year, the crude oil price forecast for 2016 has been raised to $41 per barrel (bbl), up fro...

  10. Commodity Team Motivation and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englyst, Linda; Jørgensen, Frances; Johansen, John

    2007-01-01

    This article explores factors influencing the motivation and performance of commodity teams in a global sourcing context. Several challenges are related to the classical dilemma of matrix organization, but with particular implications in this specific context of purchasing. We report on a reward...... system which was intended to support collective team effort, yet enhanced conflicts of interest in the matrix structure, discuss leadership, goal alignment and career tracks, and debate when and whether a team structure is appropriate in the pursuit of corporate purchasing synergies. The article is based...

  11. Changes in the Relationship between Currencies and Commodities

    OpenAIRE

    Haruko Kato

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between so-called commodity currencies and commodity prices in recent years. Commodity prices have fluctuated significantly during this time period. Commodity currencies -- the currencies of large commodity exporters such as Australia, Canada, Chile, and South Africa -- have experienced large swings together with commodity prices. The paper identifies the basis of the co-movements between commodity currencies and commodity prices, and checks the statistica...

  12. ESTOQUES DE COMMODITIES: ANÃ LISE DO VALOR SOB A ÓTICA DA TEORIA DO CUSTO CORRENTE

    OpenAIRE

    Leo Sabadin, Anderson; Gallon, Alessandra Vasconcelos; Grunow, Aloisio

    2008-01-01

    Due to the volatility of commodity prices, the application of the current cost theory in the evaluation of stocks is essential for providing information on the performance of agricultural cooperatives. The objective of this work was to check the economies and diseconomies in the stock cost of three commodities (soye, wheat and corn) in an agricultural cooperative in the state of Paraná. A descriptive and quantitative research was carried out, including a case study demonstrating the use of ma...

  13. Irradiation as an alternative post harvest treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satin, M. [Agricultural Industries and Post-harvest Management Service, FAO, Rome (Italy); Loaharanu, P. [Head, Food Preservation Section, Joint FAO/ IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    including fresh fruits and vegetables for consumption. It is anticipated that the USDA will soon allow irradiation to be used as a quarantine treatment against major species of fruit flies regardless of commodities on a routine basis. The interest in using irradiation as a quarantine treatment of fresh and stored food products has increased recently because methyl bromide (MB), the most widely used fumigant to control insects in food and agricultural commodities, is being phased-out globally under the international treaty for the regulation of ozone depleting substances (Montreal Protocol). Thus, the potential application of ionizing irradiation as a quarantine treatment appears to be very promising. (Author)

  14. Food irradiation in the United States: irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment for fresh fruits and vegetables and for the control of microorganisms in meat and poultry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Ralph T. E-mail: Ralph.T.Ross@usda.gov; Engeljohn, Dan

    2000-03-01

    Recently there has been a renewed focus on food irradiation in the United States (US) for the disinfestation of fresh fruits and vegetables to eliminate pests from imported agricultural commodities that could threaten the economic viability of American agriculture and for the control of bacterium E. coli 0157:H7 in beef, a pathogen that threatens the safety of the US domestic food supply. In January 1999 USDA/APHIS published in the Federal Register a rule which authorized irradiation as a guarantee treatment for papayas for movement from Hawaii to the US mainland. This treatment was never used for a number of reasons. However, in December, 1993, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published its final rule to terminate production and consumption of methyl bromide, the only remaining broad spectrum fumigant for disinfesting agricultural commodities for pests of quarantine significance on imported and exported commodities. With increased global trade pressures and the possible loss of methyl bromide as a fumigant for regulatory pests treatment made it imperative that practical treatment options be explored including irradiation. In May 1996, USDA/APHIS published a Notice of Policy which sets forth a policy statement that share positions and policies of USDA concerning the use of irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment. Subsequently in July, 1997, USDA/APHIS amended its Hawaiian regulation by increasing the dose required for papayas intended for interstate movement and by allowing carambolas and litchis also to move interstate as well. Fruits from Hawaii to the US mainland are currently being irradiated and distributed in commerce throughout the US Irradiation treatments now afford movement of many exotic fruits to the US mainland that could not be done earlier due to the lack of available treatment methods. To help combat this potential public health problem, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved treating red meat products. This process has been

  15. Commodities and Switzerland: Development Policy Challenges and Policy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Thut

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EDITOR’S NOTEThis paper, written in December 2012, is a contribution to the ‘Policy Debate’ section of the International Development Policy. In this section, academics, policy makers and practitioners engage in a dialogue on global development challenges. Papers are copy-edited but not peer-reviewed. Instead, an initial thematic contribution is followed by critical comments and reactions from different stakeholders. This paper by Werner Thut is followed by reactions and analysis from a non-profit policy institute (Alexandra Gillies, Revenue Watch Institute, New York, ‘Crafting a Strategic Response to the Commodity-Development Conundrum’, a Southern scholar (Prof. Humberto Campodonico, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima ‘Going Beyond Transparency and Good Governance’ | ‘Más allá de la transparencia y una buena gobernanza’ and a representative of the trading sector (Stéphane Graber, Secretary General of Geneva Trading & Shipping Association – ‘Reassessing the Merchants’ Role in a Globalized Economy’.PAPER’S ABSTRACTSwitzerland is one of the world’s largest commodity trading hub. The author, senior policy adviser at the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC, reviews experiences and policy options related to commodity trading from a development policy perspective. While this sector has become of strategic importance to Switzerland’s economy, it also entails a number of risks. On the other hand, Swiss development cooperation efforts focus on several resource-rich countries, whose mineral and agricultural commodities are traded via Switzerland. How can Switzerland assist these countries to reap the benefits of their natural resource wealth? This paper looks at development policy aspects of commodity trading in relation to Swiss foreign and domestic policy. It examines ongoing policy debates in Switzerland and discusses development policy options.

  16. [Food irradiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migdał, W

    1995-01-01

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by Codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and the World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19MeV, 1 kW) and an industrial unit Elektronika (10MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permission for irradiation for: spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables.

  17. Adaptive market efficiency of agricultural commodity futures contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semei Coronado Ramírez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este documento se investiga la eficiencia del mercado adaptativo del mercado de futuros de productos básicos agrícolas, utilizando una muestra de ocho contratos de futuros. Se utiliza una batería de pruebas no lineales para descubrir la dependencia no lineal en la serie de retornos. Aplicamos el estadístico Hinich portmanteau bicorrelación para descubrir los momentos de dependencia no lineal en las series, y por lo tanto se encuentra que cuatro productos del mercado tienen adaptable eficiencia. Derechos reservados © 2015 Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Contaduría y Administración. Este es un artículo de acceso abierto distribuido bajo los términos de la Licencia Creative Commons CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.

  18. 49 CFR 1313.6 - Contract summary for agricultural commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... corporate names of all carriers that are parties to the contract, and their addresses for service of... description in the contract. (3) Shipper identity. The specific identity of the shipper party to the...

  19. 31 CFR Appendix B to Part 560 - Bulk Agricultural Commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., whether or not polished or glazed 1006.40 Broken Rice 1102.30 Rice Flour 1103.14 Rice Groats, Meal and....90 Cottonseed oil, hydrogenated 1508.10 Peanut (ground-nut) oil, crude 1508.90 Peanut (ground-nut...

  20. 31 CFR Appendix A to Part 538 - Bulk Agricultural Commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., whether or not polished or glazed 1006.40 Broken Rice 1102.30 Rice Flour 1103.14 Rice Groats, Meal and....90 Cottonseed oil, hydrogenated 1508.10 Peanut (ground-nut) oil, crude 1508.90 Peanut (ground-nut...

  1. Lattice QCD with commodity hardware and software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmgren, D.J. [and others

    2000-01-25

    Large scale QCD Monte Carlo calculations have typically been performed on either commercial supercomputers or specially built massively parallel computers such as Fermilab's ACPMAPS. Commodity computer systems offer impressive floating point performance-to-cost ratios which exceed those of commercial supercomputers. As high performance networking components approach commodity pricing, it becomes reasonable to assemble a massively parallel supercomputer from commodity parts. The authors describe the work and progress to date of a collaboration working on this problem.

  2. Success Essentials of Yiwu Small Commodity Market

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Yu

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to find the success factors of Yiwu Small Commodity Market. Beside this main objective, the historical reasons of Yiwu Small Commodity Market’s formation also have been analyzed. The purpose was to integrate the historical reasons and internal reasons together to get more comprehensive analysis results of Yiwu market. During the process of research, interviews of five shopkeepers in Yiwu Small Commodity Market were done. The interviews were held in April 2...

  3. Aromatherapy Oils: Commodities, Materials, Essences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Barcan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the essential oils that are the central tools of aromatherapy and uses them as a case study for different approaches to material culture. It considers the conceptual and political implications of thinking of essential oils as, in turn, commodities, materials and essences. I argue that both cultural studies and aromatherapy have something to learn from each other. Classic materialist approaches might do well to focus more attention on the material properties and effects of things. Aromatherapy, on the other hand, could benefit from the enriched political understanding associated with classic materialist critique. New materialist strains of cultural studies may also find the vibrancy of matter that underpins many CAM/New Age practices worthy of examination.

  4. 44 CFR 206.151 - Food commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Food commodities. 206.151 Section 206.151 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Food commodities. (a) The Administrator will assure that adequate stocks of food will be ready...

  5. How to time the commodities markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Basu; R. Oomen; A. Stremme

    2010-01-01

    In this article we construct and investigate the performance of elementary trading strategies that allow an investor to time between equities and commodities. Our strategies appear to capture time-varying risk premiums in the equity and commodity markets, enabling them to successfully time the marke

  6. 77 FR 25319 - Commodity Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... agricultural producers and the agribusinesses with which they work to develop marketing strategies and market...,'' ``Security-Based Swap,'' and ``Security-Based Swap Agreement''; Mixed Swaps; Security-Based Swap Agreement... Corporation marketing loan program would not be considered swaps.\\25\\ \\25\\ After CFTC staff reviewed the...

  7. Trends in economic scarcity of U. S. timber commodities. Forest Service Resource Bulletin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skog, K.; Risbrudt, C.

    1982-04-01

    Scarcity of natural resources has been of concern to industrial societies since Malthus developed his theory of population growth and resource use in the late 18th century. Barnett and Morse, in 1963, tested the widely held premise that natural resource commodities are becoming more economically scarce. They concluded that of all major natural resource commodities-agricultural, mineral, and timber-only timber commodities were increasing in economic scarcity. In particular, sawlogs have shown consistent increases in economic scarcity since the late 1800's. Data were prepared for the Barnett and Morse study by Potter and Christy and subsequently updated by Potter and Christy and subsequently updated by Manthy to 1973. This paper extends and expands these data series on timber commodities. Specifically, information will be presented on one indicator of economic scarcity-trends in real prices (prices deflated by the general producer price index).

  8. Trends and volatility in sub Saharan Africa’s key primary commodity exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Ocran

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Using a GARCH model the paper sought to test the hypothesis that price volatility of key Sub Saharan Africa primary commodity exports, have not changed over the past four decades. Whilst crude oil, aluminium, cocoa and six others have not experienced significant change in price volatility over the period, nine other major commodities recorded changes. Efforts need to be made to extensively diversify the portfolio of agricultural commodity exports by including new products of which price volatilities in the past decades have been reduced. This is crucial for countries that depend on up to three primary commodities for the bulk of their foreign exchange earnings. Other measures such as value addition can also help in reducing impacts of unfavourable price movements.

  9. Scientific Research: Commodities or Commons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeir, Koen

    2013-10-01

    Truth is for sale today, some critics claim. The increased commodification of science corrupts it, scientific fraud is rampant and the age-old trust in science is shattered. This cynical view, although gaining in prominence, does not explain very well the surprising motivation and integrity that is still central to the scientific life. Although scientific knowledge becomes more and more treated as a commodity or as a product that is for sale, a central part of academic scientific practice is still organized according to different principles. In this paper, I critically analyze alternative models for understanding the organization of knowledge, such as the idea of the scientific commons and the gift economy of science. After weighing the diverse positive and negative aspects of free market economies of science and gift economies of science, a commons structured as a gift economy seems best suited to preserve and take advantage of the specific character of scientific knowledge. Furthermore, commons and gift economies promote the rich social texture that is important for supporting central norms of science. Some of these basic norms might break down if the gift character of science is lost. To conclude, I consider the possibility and desirability of hybrid economies of academic science, which combine aspects of gift economies and free market economies. The aim of this paper is to gain a better understanding of these deeper structural challenges faced by science policy. Such theoretical reflections should eventually assist us in formulating new policy guidelines.

  10. Effects of gamma irradiation on different stages of mealybug Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The, Doan Thi, E-mail: doanthithe@yahoo.com [Research and Development Center for Radiation Technology, Vietnam Atomic Energy Institute, 202A Street 11, Linh Xuan Ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Khanh, Nguyen Thuy; Lang, Vo Thi Kim; Van Chung, Cao [Research and Development Center for Radiation Technology, Vietnam Atomic Energy Institute, 202A Street 11, Linh Xuan Ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); An, Tran Thi Thien; Thi, Nguyen Hoang Hanh [Agriculture and Forestry University, Linh Trung Ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2012-01-15

    Utilization of phytosanitary irradiation as a potential treatment to disinfest agricultural commodities in trade has expanded rapidly in the recent years. Cobalt-60 gamma ray target doses of 100, 150, 200 and 250 Gy were used to irradiate immatures and adults of Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Beardsley) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) infesting dragon fruits to find the most tolerant stage and the most optimal dose range for quarantine treatment. In general, irradiation affected significantly all life stages of D. neobrevipes mortality and adult reproduction. The pattern of tolerance to irradiation in D. neobrevipes was 1st instars<2nd instars<3rd instarsirradiation, predicted doses for 100% mortality of each different development stage in the above mentioned pattern were 224.6, 241.3, 330.9 and 581.5 Gy, respectively. No survived female adult produced offspring at 200 and 250 Gy. Dose range between 200 and 250 Gy could be efficient to prevent the reproduction of this mealybug. - Highlights: > Gamma Co-60 irradiation as a potential phytosanitary for quarantine treatments. > Reproduction ability of D. neobrevipes has been efficiently inhibited at low dose. > Pattern of tolerance to irradiation was 1st<2nd<3rd instars Doses from 200 to 250 Gy could be efficient to prevent the reproduction of mealybug.

  11. The Price of Commodity Risk in Stock and Futures Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Boons (Martijn); F.A. de Roon (Frans); M. Szymanowska (Marta)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractWe find that commodity risk is priced in the cross-section of US stock returns. Following the financialization of commodities, investors hedge commodity price risk directly in the futures market, primarily via commodity index investments, whereas before they gained commodity exposure

  12. 17 CFR 14.4 - Violation of Commodity Exchange Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Violation of Commodity Exchange Act. 14.4 Section 14.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES RELATING TO SUSPENSION OR DISBARMENT FROM APPEARANCE AND PRACTICE § 14.4 Violation of Commodity...

  13. Irradiation as a quarantine treatment for the solenopsis mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fang; Li, Weidi; Li, Xiuqiong; Bei, Yawei; Lin, Wencai; Lu, Yaobin; Wang, Bingkui

    2014-03-01

    Phenacoccus solenopsis is an aggressively invasive species that targets agricultural and ornamental plants, thereby threatening the world cotton industry and other crops. P. solenopsis has been listed as a quarantine insect in Europe and China. The utilization of phytosanitary irradiation as a potential treatment for disinfesting agricultural commodities in trade has expanded rapidly in recent years. A reasonable dose of radiation to eliminate P. solenopsis needs to be determined, taking into account the side effects of radiation on agricultural products and the species-specific tolerance of the insect to radiation. We applied radiation ranging from 50 to 200 Gy to P. solenopsis to determine the optimal dose. Both the radiation dose and the developmental stage of the insect were independent variables. Higher doses of radiation or lesser mature insect stages provided more effective treatment. In nymphs, a radiation dose of 100 Gy caused extinction of the irradiated population by disrupting ovary development, while 150 Gy caused 100% mortality. In adults, all tested doses of irradiation did not affect longevity, but we were able to prevent reproduction with high (150 and 200 Gy) doses. In P. solenopsis, a 100 Gy dose of radiation could eliminate the irradiated population in two generations. The mortality curve showed a steep slope beyond 150 Gy; thus, if killing all of the insects in a shorter amount of time is necessary, 200 Gy may be a reasonable dose for the quarantine treatment of the solenopsis mealybug.

  14. Clustering of agricultural enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Beranová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural business is a very specific branch which is characterized by very low financial performance while this characteristic is given mainly by external factors as market pricing of agricultural commodities on one side, and production costs of agricultural commodities on the other side. This way, agricultural enterprises recognize negative values of gross margin in the Profit and Loss Statement but positive value of operating profit after even there are items of costs which are deducted. These results are derived from agricultural production subsidies which are recognized as income in the P/L Statement. In connection with this fact, the government subsidies are a substantial component of financial performance of agricultural enterprises.Primary research proceeded on the statistical sample of one hundred agricultural companies, has shown that also other specifics influencing financial performance of these businesses exist here. In order to determine the influences, the cluster analysis has been applied at using more than 10 variables. This approach has led to construction of clusters (groups of agricultural business entities with different characteristics of the group. The objective of this paper is to identify the main determinants of financial performance of agricultural enterprises and to determine their influences under different economic characteristics of these business entities. For this purpose, the regression analysis has been subsequently applied on the groups of companies coming out from the cluster analysis. Besides the operating profit which is the main driving force of financial performance measured with the economic value added (EVA in agricultural enterprises, also capital structure and cost of capital have been observed as very strong influences on financial performance but these factors have different directions of their influence on the economic value added under different financial characteristics of agricultural

  15. Sorption of sulfuryl fluoride by food commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriranjini, Venkata-rao; Rajendran, Somiahnadar

    2008-08-01

    The use of sulfuryl fluoride, a structural fumigant for termite and woodborer control, has recently been expanded to treating stored food commodities and food facilities. There is, however, a lack of data on the sorption of sulfuryl fluoride by food commodities. Knowledge about sorption is important in the context of effective treatment and residues. When sulfuryl fluoride was applied at a dose of 50 g m(-3) to various food commodities (total 68) with 300 g per replicate in 0.75 L gas wash bottles (fumigation chambers) at 25 +/- 1 degrees C, in most cases (81%) the gas concentrations in the free space of the commodities exceeded 50 g m(-3) (range 51-80 g m(-3)) at the end of 24 h exposure. In chambers without the substrate, an average concentration of 49.7 g m(-3) was recorded. About 54% of the commodities showed low-level ( 50%). The latter include white oats (terminal gas concentration 17.8 g m(-3)), some of the decorticated split pulses (24.0-29.3 g m(-3)), chickpea flour (26.3 g m(-3)), dried ginger (29.0 g m(-3)), refined wheat flour (30.3 g m(-3)) and coriander powder (40.5 g m(-3)). In unfumigated control commodities, owing to interfering volatiles, Fumiscope readings in the range 0-13 were noted. Sulfuryl fluoride has the advantage of a low or moderate level of sorption with the majority of the food commodities.

  16. Pairs trading the commodity futures curve

    OpenAIRE

    Nikkanen, A. (Antti)

    2013-01-01

    I create a pairs trade on the commodity futures curve, which captures the roll returns of commodity futures and minimizes the standard deviation of the returns. The end results is a strategy that has an annualized arithmetic return of 6,04% and an annualized standard deviation of 2,01%. Transaction costs and liquidity are also accounted for. The goal was to create and backtest a trading strategy that tries to capture the roll return component of commodity futures returns. In order to redu...

  17. The Ivorian pineapple : social action within the international pineapple commodity network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, S.

    2006-01-01

    Today, a significant part of the agricultural commodities that we find at markets in the West are cultivated in developing countries. Many of these products are shipped around the world, passing through a complex network of actors involved in production, distribution and marketing activities. Who

  18. Description of historical crop calendar data bases developed to support foreign commodity production forecasting project experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, W. L., III (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The content, format, and storage of data bases developed for the Foreign Commodity Production Forecasting project and used to produce normal crop calendars are described. In addition, the data bases may be used for agricultural meteorology, modeling of stage sequences and planting dates, and as indicators of possible drought and famine.

  19. The Ivorian pineapple : social action within the international pineapple commodity network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, S.

    2006-01-01

    Today, a significant part of the agricultural commodities that we find at markets in the West are cultivated in developing countries. Many of these products are shipped around the world, passing through a complex network of actors involved in production, distribution and marketing activities. Who ar

  20. 77 FR 20353 - United States Warehouse Act; Export Food Aid Commodities Licensing Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Farm Service Agency United States Warehouse Act; Export Food Aid Commodities... agreement offered by the Farm Service Agency (FSA) under the United States Warehouse Act (USWA... voluntary program. Warehouse operators that apply for USWA licensing agree to be licensed, comply with...

  1. 76 FR 13972 - United States Warehouse Act; Export Food Aid Commodities Licensing Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... Farm Service Agency United States Warehouse Act; Export Food Aid Commodities Licensing Agreement AGENCY... warehouse licenses may be issued under the United States ] Warehouse Act (USWA). Through this notice, FSA is... licenses for agricultural products include grain, cotton, nuts, cottonseed, and dry beans....

  2. The Ivorian pineapple : social action within the international pineapple commodity network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, S.

    2006-01-01

    Today, a significant part of the agricultural commodities that we find at markets in the West are cultivated in developing countries. Many of these products are shipped around the world, passing through a complex network of actors involved in production, distribution and marketing activities. Who ar

  3. 7 CFR 1499.11 - Use of commodities and sale proceeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS FOOD FOR PROGRESS PROGRAM § 1499... of donated commodities on the basis of political affiliation, geographic location, or the ethnic, tribal or religious identity or affiliation of the potential consumers or beneficiaries. (c)...

  4. Farmers, traders and a commodity exchange: institutional change in Ethiopian sesame markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, G.W.

    2014-01-01

    Farmers, traders and a commodity exchange - institutional change in Ethiopian sesame markets Gerdien W. Meijerink When one thinks of Ethiopia, sesame is not the first that comes to mind. Sesame, however, is Ethiopia’s second most important agricultural export, and an important income source

  5. Preservation of foodstuffs by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sielaff, H.; Thiemig, F.; Schleusener, H. (Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Nahrungsgueterwirtschaft und Lebensmitteltechnologie)

    1985-03-01

    Application and experimental testing of irradiation in foodstuff processing are accomplished in more than 20 countries. Radiation treatment of foodstuffs and commodities with doses between 0.5 - 50 kGy is licensed in the GDR, too. Examples of application of ionizing radiation in food processing are discussed.

  6. Portfolio Diversification with Commodity Futures: Properties of Levered Futures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woodard, J.D.; Egelkraut, T.M.; Garcia, P.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2005-01-01

    Portfolio Diversification with Commodity Futures: Properties of Levered Futures This study extends previous work on the impact of commodity futures on portfolio performance by explicitly incorporating levered futures into the portfolio optimization problem. Using data on nine individual commodity

  7. Portfolio Diversification with Commodity Futures: Properties of Levered Futures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woodard, J.D.; Egelkraut, T.M.; Garcia, P.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2005-01-01

    Portfolio Diversification with Commodity Futures: Properties of Levered Futures This study extends previous work on the impact of commodity futures on portfolio performance by explicitly incorporating levered futures into the portfolio optimization problem. Using data on nine individual commodity fu

  8. Food commodity price volatility and food insecurity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alexander Sarris

    2013-01-01

      The paper first reviews several issues relevant to global food commodity market volatility as it pertains to food security, and food importing developing countries, and then discusses international...

  9. 29 CFR 780.611 - Workweek exclusively in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Workweek exclusively in agriculture. 780.611 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements...

  10. Accelerating semantic graph databases on commodity clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morari, Alessandro; Castellana, Vito G.; Haglin, David J.; Feo, John T.; Weaver, Jesse R.; Tumeo, Antonino; Villa, Oreste

    2013-10-06

    We are developing a full software system for accelerating semantic graph databases on commodity cluster that scales to hundreds of nodes while maintaining constant query throughput. Our framework comprises a SPARQL to C++ compiler, a library of parallel graph methods and a custom multithreaded runtime layer, which provides a Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) programming model with fork/join parallelism and automatic load balancing over a commodity clusters. We present preliminary results for the compiler and for the runtime.

  11. How New York State's agriculture industry is staying competitive

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Deitz; Margaret Cowell

    2005-01-01

    We examine some of the challenges facing New York's agriculture industry and outline some innovative responses. We distinguish between two types of agriculture: commodities and value-added consumer foods. We show that commodities are a small fraction of the agriculture industry in New York State and are not a growing market segment, while value-added goods are the primary products of New York farms and represent a market segment that is growing significantly. We then briefly discuss important...

  12. TWO-COMMODITY PERISHABLE INVENTORY SYSTEM WITH BULK DEMAND FOR ONE COMMODITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S.S. Yadavalli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This article considers a two-commodity continuous review inventory system in which the arriving customers belong to any one of three types, such that type 1 customers demand a single item of the first commodity, type 2 customers demand bulk items of the second commodity, and type 3 customers demand one item of the first commodity and bulk items of the second commodity. The arrivals of all three types of customers are assumed to be a Markovian arrival process (MAP. It is also assumed that the number of items demanded for the second commodity is a random variable. The ordering policy is to place orders for both commodities when the inventory levels are below prefixed levels for both commodities. The lead time is assumed to have a phase type distribution, and the demands that occur during stock out period are assumed to be lost. The joint probability distribution for both commodities is obtained in the steady state case. Various measures of system performance and the total expected cost rate in the steady state are derived. The results are illustrated with numerical examples.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: ’n Tweeprodukstelsel se voorraad vir klante word kontinu hersien. Die vraag na die produktipes word gekenmerk deur klantvoorkeure. Die versoektempo van klante vir voorraad word aanvaar as ’n Markovproses. Aannames word gemaak oor vraaghoeveelhede en aanlooptyd. Die resultate van die ondersoek word voorgehou via syfervoorbeelde.

  13. Approaches for Making High Performance Polymer Materials from Commodity Polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Xi

    2004-01-01

    A brief surrey of ongoing research work done for improving and enhancing the properties of commodity polymers by the author and author's colleagues is given in this paper. A series of high performance polymers and polymer nanomaterials were successfully prepared through irradiation and stress-induced reactions of polymers and hydrogen bonding. The methods proposed are viable, easy in operation, clean and efficient.1. The effect of irradiation source (UV light, electron beam, γ -ray and microwave), irradiation dose, irradiation time and atmosphere etc. on molecular structure of polyolefine during irradiation was studied. The basic rules of dominating oxidation, degradation and cross-linking reactions were mastered. Under the controlled conditions, cross-linking reactions are prevented, some oxygen containing groups are introduced on the molecular chain of polyolefine to facilitate the interface compatibility of their blends. A series of high performance polymer materials: u-HDPE/PA6,u-HDPE/CaCO3, u-iPP/STC, γ-HDPE/STC, γ-LLDPE/ATH, e-HDPE, e-LLDPE and m-HDPEfilled system were prepared (u- ultraviolet light irradiated, γ- γ-ray irradiated, e- electron beam irradiated, m- microwave irradiated)2. The effect of ultrasonic irradiation, jet and pan-milling on structure and changes in properties of polymers were studied. Imposition of critical stress on polymer chain can cause the scission of bonds to form macroradicals. The macroradicals formed in this way may recombine or react with monomer or other radicals to form linear, branched or cross-linked polymers or copolymers. About 20 kinds of block/graft copolymers have been synthesized from polymer-polymer or polymer-monomer through ultrasonic irradiation.Through jet-milling, the molecular weight of PVC is decreased somewhat, the intensity of its crystalline absorption bonds becomes indistinct. The processability, the yield strength, strength at break and elongation at break of PVC get increased quite a lot after

  14. Risk Modelling of Agricultural Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugrahani, E. H.

    2017-03-01

    In the real world market, agricultural commodity are imposed with fluctuating prices. This means that the price of agricultural products are relatively volatile, which means that agricultural business is a quite risky business for farmers. This paper presents some mathematical models to model such risks in the form of its volatility, based on certain assumptions. The proposed models are time varying volatility model, as well as time varying volatility with mean reversion and with seasonal mean equation models. Implementation on empirical data show that agricultural products are indeed risky.

  15. The Impact of the Global Commodity and Financial Crises on Poverty in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thurlow, James; Tarp, Finn; McCoy, Simon

    Economic growth in Vietnam has been fairly resilient to the global commodity and financial crises, but it is unclear why. In addition, the impact of the crises on employment and poverty is in dispute. We develop a dynamic computable general equilibrium model to decompose impacts and estimate...... distributional outcomes. Our results indicate that the 2008 commodity crisis increased employment and reduced poverty by favouring labour-intensive exports, especially in agriculture. The 2009 financial crisis reversed these gains. It pushed more than a million workers into unemployment and about 3 million...

  16. The Impact of the Global Commodity and Financial Crises on Poverty in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thurlow, James; Tarp, Finn; McCoy, Simon;

    Economic growth in Vietnam has been fairly resilient to the global commodity and financial crises, but it is unclear why. In addition, the impact of the crises on employment and poverty is in dispute. We develop a dynamic computable general equilibrium model to decompose impacts and estimate...... distributional outcomes. Our results indicate that the 2008 commodity crisis increased employment and reduced poverty by favouring labour-intensive exports, especially in agriculture. The 2009 financial crisis reversed these gains. It pushed more than a million workers into unemployment and about 3 million...

  17. Reconciling biofuels, sustainability and commodities demand. Pitfalls and policy options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uslu, A.; Bole, T.; Londo, M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Pelkmans, L. [VITO, Mol (Belgium); Berndes, G. [Chalmers University, Gothenburg (Sweden); Prieler, S.; Fischer, G. [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis IIASA, Laxenburg (Austria); Cueste Cabal, H. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-06-15

    Increasing fossil fuel prices, energy security considerations and environmental concerns, particularly concerning climate change, have motivated countries to explore alternative energy sources including biofuels. Global demand for biofuels has been rising rapidly due to biofuel support policies established in many countries. However, proposed strong links between biofuels demand and recent years' high food commodity prices, and notions that increasing biofuels production might bring about serious negative environmental impacts, in particularly associated with the land use change to biofuel crops, have shifted public enthusiasm about biofuels. In this context, the ELOBIO project aims at shedding further light to these aspects of biofuel expansion by collecting and reviewing the available data, and also developing strategies to decrease negative effects of biofuels while enabling their positive contribution to climate change, security of supply and rural development. ELOBIO considers aspects associated with both 1st and 2nd generation biofuels, hence analyses effects on both agricultural commodity markets and lignocellulosic markets. This project, funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe programme, consists of a review of current experiences with biofuels and other renewable energy policies and their impacts on other markets, iterative stakeholder-supported development of low-disturbing biofuels policies, model supported assessment of these policies' impacts on food, feed and lignocellulosic markets, and finally an assessment of the effects of selected optimal policies on biofuels costs and potentials. Results of the ELOBIO study show that rapid biofuel deployment without careful monitoring of consequences and implementation of mitigating measures risks leading to negative consequences. Implementing ambitious global biofuel targets for 2020, based on current 1st generation technologies, can push international agricultural commodity prices upwards and

  18. 78 FR 12933 - Proceedings Before the Commodity Futures Trading Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... / Tuesday, February 26, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 10, 12 and 171 Proceedings Before the Commodity Futures Trading Commission AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Commodity Futures Trading...

  19. On the market value of information commodities. I. The nature of information and information commodities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mowshowitz, A. (Abbe)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThis article lays the conceptual foundations for the study of the market value of information commodities. The terms “information” and “commodity” are given precise definitions in order to characterize “information commodity,” and thus to provide a sound basis for examining questions of

  20. ENDOGENOUS QUALITY AND AGRICULTURAL POLICY ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    James, Jennifer S.

    1999-01-01

    The typical analysis of agricultural policy assumes that the commodity of interest is homogeneous, and that it does not change as a result of policy implementation. This paper develops a model of agricultural policy analysis when the restriction of product homogeneity is relaxed and policy-induced quality responses are incorporated.

  1. The application of irradiation to phyto sanitary problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, R.T. [USDA/APHIS/PPQ. Department of Agriculture, Room 1630 Soagribg, 1400 Independence Ave. Sw. Mail Code Stop 3438, 20250 Washington D.C. (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The first formally adopted regulatory policy for irradiation as a phyto sanitary treatment in the United States was issued in 1989 and was based on Title 7 of the Code of Federal Regulations. These regulations authorized irradiation as a quarantine treatment for papayas intended for movement from the State of Hawaii to the continental United States (U.S.), Guam, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. This authorization was specific for commodity, place of origin, and program, but was designed for a complex of three fruit flies rather than a single pest. Routine commercial shipments were never realized under this regulation due to the lack of a treatment facility in Hawaii. However, the authorization has proven useful from the standpoint of beginning to establish policies for irradiation as a phyto sanitary treatment in the United States. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) remains dedicated to using the most up-to-date, appropriate and least intrusive technology to provide quarantine security. The need for alternative treatments for pests mitigation systems is greater than ever. Global trade pressures and the possible loss of methyl bromide make it imperative that all practical treatment options be explored. Since 1989 irradiation treatment concepts have matured significantly. Technological advances, greater experience, and an increasingly larger body of research indicate that irradiation has important potential as a treatment for quarantine pest problems. It is in this light that PPQ is expanding its regulatory framework, is addressing irradiation treatment options, and is developing comprehensive policy statements intended to facilitate the development and formalization of new treatments for phyto sanitary applications. (Author)

  2. Biofuel and Food-Commodity Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Zilberman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes key findings of alternative lines of research on the relationship between food and fuel markets, and identifies gaps between two bodies of literature: one that investigates the relationship between food and fuel prices, and another that investigates the impact of the introduction of biofuels on commodity-food prices. The former body of literature suggests that biofuel prices do not affect food-commodity prices, but the latter suggests it does. We try to explain this gap, and then show that although biofuel was an important contributor to the recent food-price inflation of 2001–2008, its effect on food-commodity prices declined after the recession of 2008/09. We also show that the introduction of cross-price elasticity is important when explaining soybean price, but less so when explaining corn prices.

  3. 17 CFR 4.41 - Advertising by commodity pool operators, commodity trading advisors, and the principals thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising by commodity pool... ADVISORS Advertising § 4.41 Advertising by commodity pool operators, commodity trading advisors, and the... advertise in a manner which: (1) Employs any device, scheme or artifice to defraud any participant or client...

  4. Occurrence of ochratoxin A in commodities and processed food - A review of EU occurrence data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    A brief review on the occurrence of ochratoxin A in commodities and processed food on the European market (meat and meat products, cereal and cereal products, spices, beer, cocoa and derived products, coffee, wine, dried vine fruits, grape juice) is given in an historical perspective based on two...... EU project reports from the activity initiated by the European Commission: Scientific cooperation on questions relating to food (SCOOP). The most important commodities contaminated with ochratoxin A are known and the amount of occurrence data is in most cases comprehensive. However, gaps of knowledge...... exist, e.g. possible year-to-year variations for wine, dried vine fruits and grape juice are not well investigated. In addition, a follow-up on possible improvements in agricultural and processing practices is needed for some of the commodities recently discovered as being contaminated with ochratoxin A...

  5. Asset Market Linkages in a Regime Switching Environment: Evidence from Commodity and Stock Markets in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Singhal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Time series models investigating the linkages between various asset markets (Commodity and Equity in India have assumed a symmetric and linear relationship between them. They examine these interrelationships by assuming the presence of a uniform economic state. However the returns from commodity futures and stock market do not show a continuous trend but exhibit time varying behaviour i.e. the returns of stocks might be higher in a certain economic condition and it may fall as the economic environment changes due to financial crises, oil price rise, rupee depreciation etc. Similarly the return of commodities is also subject to variation with the changing economic conditions due to which the basic assumptions of stationary and linearity of time series models gets refuted. Therefore, this paper empirically examines the interrelationships between commodity futures (Energy, Metal and Agriculture and stock markets in dynamic economic states by employing Markov Regime Switching model proposed by Hamilton (2005 which has the capability of capturing temporal asymmetries and nonlinear dynamics of time series. For each market a composite index indicating the overall movement and performance of a particular investment asset has been considered. In order to provide robust results this paper uses daily data from 2006 to 2014 which significantly represents different states in the Indian Economy. The result of the study confirms the impact of economic environment on Indian commodity and stock markets and validates the presence of two distinct regimes: a “tranquil regime” representing the state of economic expansion and a “crisis regime” representing the state of economic decline. Additionally, the result confirms that commodities and stock markets oscillate between high and low volatility regimes and this movement is different across different commodity class (Energy, Metal and Agriculture. In a portfolio, when commodity futures are combined with stock

  6. 29 CFR 780.128 - General statement on “secondary” agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General statement on âsecondaryâ agriculture. 780.128... APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Practices Exempt Under âsecondaryâ Meaning of Agriculture...

  7. 22 CFR 120.4 - Commodity jurisdiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commodity jurisdiction. 120.4 Section 120.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS... and media. The fit of the item is its ability to physically interface or interconnect with or...

  8. Commodity chemicals from forest biomass - Bioforest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granstrom, T. [Aalto University, Espoo (Finland)], email: tom.granstrom@aalto.fi

    2012-07-01

    To develop an economic process for production of commodity chemicals from mixed forest biomass (tree tops, limbs, twigs and stumps from softwoods and hardwoods) and recycled fibers within an integrated forest products complex. The chemicals that will be produced are: butanol, isopropanol and ethanol.

  9. Commodity Sourcing Strategies: Supply Management in Action

    OpenAIRE

    Rendon, Rene G.

    2005-01-01

    Proceedings Paper (for Acquisition Research Program) This research report discusses the transformation occurring in the procurement and purchasing function, specifically as it applies to developing procurement strategies and the implementation of commodity strategies as an application of strategic sourcing. The literature review presents the theoretical framework surrounding the transformation of purchasing to supply management along with its major developments such as integrated supplier...

  10. Commodities: ¿fundamentos o burbuja especulativa?

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    ¿Son los especuladores del mercado de commodities, o son los fundamentos, ante el crecimiento de la demanda y la escasa oferta, los factores que están detrás del boom de los precios de los metales? Este análisis responde esta interrogante.

  11. 7 CFR 1421.5 - Eligible commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... extraction of oil, wheat, and other commodities designated by CCC, the determination of eligibility will be... oats, mustard seed, rapeseed, safflower seed, flaxseed, and sunflower seed used for a purpose other than to extract oil, the determination of eligibility will be based on quality requirements...

  12. Global Histories, Imperial Commodities, Local Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curry Machado, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The history of the modern world can be described through the history of the commodities that were produced, traded and consumed, on an increasingly global scale. The papers presented in this book show how in this process borders were transgressed, local agents combined with metropolitan representati

  13. Commodities Trading: An Essential Economic Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This issue focuses on commodities trading as an essential economic tool. Activities include critical thinking about marketing decisions and discussion on how futures markets and options are used as important economic tools. Discussion questions and a special student project are included. (EH)

  14. Natural Resources Management: The Effect of the Commodity Boom on Indonesia’s Industrial Development and Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Monica Wihardja

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The end of the commodity boom in 2012 once again exposed Indonesia to the vulnerability of the commodity price shocks. This article reviews how Indonesia managed its natural resources in 2001–12 and when the commodity boom ends. What are the lessons learned? Indonesia’s experience is similar to that of other countries rich in natural resources, including the crowding-out of non-commodity sectors, protectionist trade regimes, fiscal inefficiency, slow skill accumulation, rising inequality and environmental damages. In the aftermath of the global financial crisis of 2008–09, the early trade -policy response at the end of the commodity boom is inward-looking and protective of domestic markets and industries and aims to increase the added value of commodities by downstreaming. This trend is clearly reflected in the 2014 Trade Law, the 2014 Industry Law and the mineral export ban, which was introduced in 2009 through the 2009 Law on Mining of Coal and Minerals and took effect in 2014. Indonesia should learn from other countries in managing its resource revenues, such as through a commodity fund designed to fit its domestic specificity. Reindustrializing, increasing agricultural productivity beyond palm oil and tapping the country’s potential in the services sector including tourism and creative industries are also necessary to promote diversification in production and trade. Resource management policy should also include stronger environmental regulations.

  15. (12) A blueprint for agricultural development in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adeyinka Odunsi

    Nigerian economic development and revealed that foreign .... Table 3 Population and Output of major Agricultural Commodities (2000-2012). Year ... interested in farming while the aged farmers who ..... from all companies operating in Nigeria.

  16. Deforestation risk due to commodity crop expansion in sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordway, Elsa M.; Asner, Gregory P.; Lambin, Eric F.

    2017-04-01

    Rapid integration of global agricultural markets and subsequent cropland displacement in recent decades increased large-scale tropical deforestation in South America and Southeast Asia. Growing land scarcity and more stringent land use regulations in these regions could incentivize the offshoring of export-oriented commodity crops to sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We assess the effects of domestic- and export-oriented agricultural expansion on deforestation in SSA in recent decades. Analyses were conducted at the global, regional and local scales. We found that commodity crops are expanding in SSA, increasing pressure on tropical forests. Four Congo Basin countries, Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Côte d’Ivoire were most at risk in terms of exposure, vulnerability and pressures from agricultural expansion. These countries averaged the highest percent forest cover (58% ± 17.93) and lowest proportions of potentially available cropland outside forest areas (1% ± 0.89). Foreign investment in these countries was concentrated in oil palm production (81%), with a median investment area of 41 582 thousand ha. Cocoa, the fastest expanding export-oriented crop across SSA, accounted for 57% of global expansion in 2000-2013 at a rate of 132 thousand ha yr-1. However, cocoa only amounted to 0.89% of foreign land investment. Commodity crop expansion in SSA appears largely driven by small- and medium-scale farmers rather than industrial plantations. Land-use changes associated with large-scale investments remain to be observed in many countries. Although domestic demand for commodity crops was associated with most agricultural expansion, we provide evidence of a growing influence of distant markets on land-use change in SSA.

  17. Farmer groups enterprises and the marketing of staple food commodities in Africa:

    OpenAIRE

    Coulter, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    "There are some apparently successful cases of collective marketing with staple food commodities (grains and root crops), but these are less common than cases involving higher value agricultural products. These can be attributed to the benefit/cost ratio to participants being generally higher for collective marketing of the higher-value crops. Some of the costs are ‘hidden', in the sense that they are borne by individuals in time spent in attending meetings, and not shown in the financial sta...

  18. Factor Structure in Commodity Futures Return and Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Lunde, Asger; Olesen, Kasper Vinther

    Using data on more than 750 million futures trades during 2004-2013, we analyze eight stylized facts of commodity price and volatility dynamics in the post financialization period. We pay particular attention to the factor structure in returns and volatility and to commodity market integration...... with the equity market. We find evidence of a factor structure in daily commodity futures returns. However, the factor structure in daily commodity futures volatility is even stronger than in returns. When computing model-free realized commodity betas with the stock market we find that they were high during 2008......-2010 but have since returned to the pre-crisis level close to zero. The common factor in commodity volatility is nevertheless clearly related to stock market volatility. We conclude that, while commodity markets appear to again be segmented from the equity market when only returns are considered, commodity...

  19. Are shocks to commodity prices persistent?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayan, Paresh Kumar; Liu, Ruipeng [School of Accounting, Economics and Finance, Deakin University (Australia)

    2011-01-15

    This paper considers the issue of whether shocks to ten commodity prices (gold, silver, platinum, copper, aluminum, iron ore, lead, nickel, tin, and zinc) are persistent or transitory. We use two recently developed unit root tests, namely the Narayan and Popp (NP) test and the Liu and Narayan (LN) test. Both tests allow for two structural breaks in the data series. Using the NP test, we are able to reject the unit root null for iron ore and tin. Using the GARCH-based unit root test of LN, we are able to reject the unit root null for five commodity prices (iron ore, nickel, zinc, lead, and tin). Our findings, thus, suggest that only shocks to gold, silver, platinum, aluminum, and copper are persistent. (author)

  20. Crunching Large Graphs with Commodity Processors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Jacob E; Myers, Brandon D; Hunter, Andrew H; Briggs, Preston; Ceze, Luis; Ebeling, William C; Grossman, Dan; Kahan, Simon H; Oskin, Mark

    2011-05-26

    Crunching large graphs is the basis of many emerging appli- cations, such as social network analysis and bioinformatics. Graph analytics algorithms exhibit little locality and therefore present significant performance challenges. Hardware multi- threading systems (e.g, Cray XMT) show that with enough concurrency, we can tolerate long latencies. Unfortunately, this solution is not available with commodity parts. Our goal is to develop a latency-tolerant system built out of commodity parts and mostly in software. The proposed system includes a runtime that supports a large number of lightweight contexts, full-bit synchronization and a memory manager that provides a high-latency but high-bandwidth global shared memory. This paper lays out the vision for our system, and justifies its feasibility with a performance analysis of the run- time for latency tolerance.

  1. Hedging Cash Flows from Commodity Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlgran, Roger A.

    2005-01-01

    Agribusinesses make long-term plant-investment decisions based on discounted cash flow. It is therefore incongruous for an agribusiness firm to use cash flow as a plant-investment criterion and then to completely discard cash flow in favor of batch profits as an operating objective. This paper assumes that cash flow and its stability is important to commodity processors and examines methods for hedging cash flows under continuous processing. Its objectives are (a) to determine how standard he...

  2. Mass Retailers' Advertising Strategies Against Commodity Stores.

    OpenAIRE

    Fabian Bergès; Sylvette Monier-Dilhan

    2013-01-01

    A retailer has different opportunities to advertise in the media: emphasizing the store image or promoting specifically its private label (PL). In the first option, advertising benefits all products sold, whereas in the alternative, only store brands are concerned by image improvement. We analyze the retailer's advertising campaign strategies when its competitor's format is a small commodity store. PL quality is endogenous and chosen according to the competitor's product range. We show the re...

  3. GENERIC COMMODITY PROMOTION AND PRODUCT DIFFERENTIATION

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers whether generic promotion lowers the differentiation among competing brands as claimed in the 1997 Supreme Court case (Wileman et al. v. Glickman). Commodity promotion is modeled as a multi-stage game where products are vertically differentiated. Analytical results show that if the benefits of generic advertising from increased demand are outweighed by the costs from lower product differentiation then high-quality producers will not benefit from generic promotion but prod...

  4. LNG: a commodity in the making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabrelie, M.F

    2006-07-01

    Although still far from being a commodity, LNG is undoubtedly emerging as an essential vector for world gas expansion. The flexibility it procures in terms of supply is of prime importance for future market equilibrium. Despite a number of uncertainties and constraints liable to thwart the realisation of the most optimistic growth prospects, the LNG trade remains wedded to rapid growth of about 7%/year by 2020, boosting its share of world gas trade to some 38% by that horizon. (author)

  5. Food Safety. Commodity Science Point of View

    OpenAIRE

    Romuald I. Zalewski; Skawinska, Eulalia

    2006-01-01

    The paper addresses "food safety" and 'food quality' from the position of commodity and food science rather than economy. The various descriptions of both terms in literature are reviewed in connection with customer/supplier ability to evaluate food safety and quality by examination of various characteristics. Food safety has been described as opposite to food risk. Differences in perception of food risk by customer, producer/supplier and official agencies are discussed in this paper. The obj...

  6. Real Exchange Rate and Commodity Prices in a Neoclassical Model

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhart, Carmen

    1988-01-01

    This paper represents a neoclassical model that explains the observed empirical relationship between government spending and world commodity supplies and the real exchange rate and real commodity prices. It is shown that fiscal expansion and increasing world commodity supplies simultaneously lead to an appreciation of the real exchange rate and a decline in relative commodity prices. The structural model is estimated and its forecasting performance is compared to a variety of models. We fin...

  7. Do Exchange Rates Really Help Forecasting Commodity Prices?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, Lasse; Kaltwasser, Pablo Rovira; Sercu, Piet

    Chen et al. (2010) report that for ‘commodity currencies’, the exchange rate predicts the country’s commodity index but not vice versa. The commodity currency hypothesis is consistent with the Engle and West (2005) exchange rate model if the fundamental is chosen to be the country’s key export pr...

  8. 49 CFR 1248.1 - Freight commodity statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freight commodity statistics. 1248.1 Section 1248... STATISTICS § 1248.1 Freight commodity statistics. All class I railroads, as described in § 1240.1 of this... statistics on the basis of the commodity codes named in § 1248.101. Carriers shall report quarterly on...

  9. A handbook of primary commodities in the global economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Radetzki, Marian

    2008-01-01

    ... of economics, Marian Radetzki introduces and explains pertinent issues surrounding international commodity markets such as the global geography of raw materials, price formation, price trends, the role of commodity exchanges, the threat of depletion, cartel action, state ownership and the new commodity nationalism. marian radetzki is Professor of Economics at ...

  10. Value Chains of Carrot Commodity on Suthomadansih Agropolitan Area in Karanganyar Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Feri Yatnanto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, Central Java Government has been starting the implementation of agropolitanprogram in some regency that has the potential in the agriculture sector, Karanganyar Regency one of them. Through this program, SuthomadansihAgropolitan Area was established. One of the leading commodities from Suthomadansih is carrot commodity. Carrot commodity is then taken into consideration in the implementation of agropolitan program, in the form of provision of infrastructure and community development programs. The objectives of the research study are to investigate the value chain of carrot in Suthomadansih, as well as to analyze how the implementation of agropolitan program supports the value chain of carrot. Meanwhile, in order to investigate how the implementation of agropolitan program in suthomadansih supports to value chain of carrot, there are three indicators that will be identified; the development of supporting infrastructure, agribusiness system, and development of human resource (Iqbal and Iwan, 2009. Both of qualitative and quantitative analysis has been applied into the study with the performance table of the implementation of agropolitan program and value chain analysis as tool to conduct the analysis. Based on the value chain of carrot in Suthomadansih, some development programs from Local Government through the agropolitan program has been conducted from upstream to downstream of carrot commodity. However, some programs are failed to support the value chain of carrot so that the improvement of value chain of carrot could not be optimized. Those programs are Agribusiness Sub Terminal, Worta Cluster, Vitmaka, and Farm Road Improvement Program.The implementation of agropolitan program is not sustainable because of the absence of the budgets of local governments. The program is only implemented for 3 years (2007-2009 so that there are no significant effects of the program on the agricultural sector, especially for carrot commodity.

  11. Trade in water and commodities as adaptations to global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, R. B.; Hertel, T. W.; Prousevitch, A.; Baldos, U. L. C.; Frolking, S. E.; Liu, J.; Grogan, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    The human capacity for altering the water cycle has been well documented and given the expected change due to population, income growth, biofuels, climate, and associated land use change, there remains great uncertainty in both the degree of increased pressure on land and water resources and in our ability to adapt to these changes. Alleviating regional shortages in water supply can be carried out in a spatial hierarchy through i) direct trade of water between all regions, ii) development of infrastructure to improve water availability within regions (e.g. impounding rivers), iii) via inter-basin hydrological transfer between neighboring regions and, iv) via virtual water trade. These adaptation strategies can be managed via market trade in water and commodities to identify those strategies most likely to be adopted. This work combines the physically-based University of New Hampshire Water Balance Model (WBM) with the macro-scale Purdue University Simplified International Model of agricultural Prices Land use and the Environment (SIMPLE) to explore the interaction of supply and demand for fresh water globally. In this work we use a newly developed grid cell-based version of SIMPLE to achieve a more direct connection between the two modeling paradigms of physically-based models with optimization-driven approaches characteristic of economic models. We explore questions related to the global and regional impact of water scarcity and water surplus on the ability of regions to adapt to future change. Allowing for a variety of adaptation strategies such as direct trade of water and expanding the built water infrastructure, as well as indirect trade in commodities, will reduce overall global water stress and, in some regions, significantly reduce their vulnerability to these future changes.

  12. Do Exchange Rates Really Help Forecasting Commodity Prices?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, Lasse; Kaltwasser, Pablo Rovira; Sercu, Piet

    Chen et al. (2010) report that for ‘commodity currencies’, the exchange rate predicts the country’s commodity index but not vice versa. The commodity currency hypothesis is consistent with the Engle and West (2005) exchange rate model if the fundamental is chosen to be the country’s key export...... prices and if the latter are exogenous to the exchange rate dynamics. In our view, however, commodity prices are essentially financial asset prices that are set in a forward-looking way, exactly like exchange rates. If both the exchange rate and the commodity prices are based on discounted future...

  13. Kinetic market models with single commodity having price fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, A; Chakrabarti, Bikas K.; Chatterjee, Arnab

    2006-01-01

    We study here numerically the behavior of an ideal gas like model of markets having only one non-consumable commodity. We investigate the behavior of the steady-state distributions of money, commodity and total wealth, as the dynamics of trading or exchange of money and commodity proceeds, with local (in time) fluctuations in the price of the commodity. These distributions are studied in markets with agents having uniform and random saving factors. The self-organizing features in money distribution are similar to the cases without any commodity (or with consumable commodities), the commodity distribution shows an exponential decay. The wealth distribution shows interesting behavior: Gamma like distribution for uniform saving propensity and has the same power-law tail, as that of the money distribution for a market with agents having random saving propensity.

  14. Multiple commodities in statistical microeconomics: Model and market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Yu, Miao; Du, Xin

    2016-11-01

    A statistical generalization of microeconomics has been made in Baaquie (2013). In Baaquie et al. (2015), the market behavior of single commodities was analyzed and it was shown that market data provides strong support for the statistical microeconomic description of commodity prices. The case of multiple commodities is studied and a parsimonious generalization of the single commodity model is made for the multiple commodities case. Market data shows that the generalization can accurately model the simultaneous correlation functions of up to four commodities. To accurately model five or more commodities, further terms have to be included in the model. This study shows that the statistical microeconomics approach is a comprehensive and complete formulation of microeconomics, and which is independent to the mainstream formulation of microeconomics.

  15. International trade in livestock and livestock products: the need for a commodity-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, G R; Tambi, E N; Hargreaves, S K; Leyland, T J; Catley, A P; van 't Klooster, G G M; Penrith, M L

    2004-10-02

    International animal health standards designed to facilitate safe trade in livestock and livestock products are set by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) under the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and documented in the OIE's Terrestrial Animal Health Code. A core principle of the Code is the need for countries to eradicate important transboundary animal diseases (TADs) to reduce the risk of exporting disease to trading partners. International food safety standards are set by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, administered jointly by the World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The goal of global eradication of most TADs is unachievable for the foreseeable future, other than in the case of rinderpest, and this prevents many countries, especially developing nations, from engaging in international trade under WTO rules. This paper proposes an alternative, commodity-based approach to the formulation of international animal health and food safety standards, based on the fact that different commodities pose very different risks when it comes to the spread of human and animal pathogens. Therefore, the risk mitigation strategies required are equally commodity-dependent. The authors conclude that more focused commodity standards would improve access to international markets for all countries, especially those in the developing world. For this objective to be realised, credible and independent certification is required.

  16. 29 CFR 780.606 - Interpretation of term “agriculture.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for Exemption § 780.606 Interpretation of term “agriculture.” Section 3(f) of the Act, which defines...

  17. 29 CFR 780.607 - “Primarily employed” in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âPrimarily employedâ in agriculture. 780.607 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements...

  18. 29 CFR 780.405 - Exemption is direct and does not mean activities are agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... agriculture. 780.405 Section 780.405 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture or Irrigation That Is Exempted From the Overtime Pay...

  19. 29 CFR 780.210 - The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.210 The typical hatchery operations constitute “agriculture.” As stated in § 780.127, the typical hatchery...

  20. Consumption Pattern of Different Commodities in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina Amir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze the “Consumption Pattern of Different Commodities in Pakistan” using the cross-sectional data taken from the household integrated Economic survey. This paper aims to analyze that what is the impact of per capita consumption on different household income group in Pakistan. In particular, per capita consumption of eleven (11 different variables with respect to different income groups. Ordinary least square method was used for the estimation of each equation for each variable. in the purpose of estimating this, different income groups were taken and identified the exact relationship between average incomes per household to the average expenditures per household since in the estimation of equations per capita consumption of each income group calculated respect to per capita income, so the formation of different equations were determined. Per capita income (PCY becomes independent of the unit of observation. Since, each household faces the same commodity prices prevailing at the time of household survey, for the purpose of analysis, total consumption expenditure has been disaggregated in to 11 commodity groups listed in table. The table indicates that value of R- squared is high and the co-efficient have correct signs and are significant at 1 percent level of significance, at 5 percent level of significance and at 10 percent level of significance. Overall results explain that with the increase in income expenditure increase for luxuries and decrease for necessities, but it will differ in rich and poor. Finally it is found that poor people consume more on necessities and rich people consume on luxuries as their income increase.

  1. Disinfestation of agricultural products with electron beams and their radiation tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Toru [National Food Research Inst., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Some agricultural products contaminated with insect pests are fumigated with methyl bromide for quarantine purposes. However, the use of methyl bromide is preferably restricted because of its ozone depleting effect. Therefore, establishing alternative quarantine techniques is highly desirable; one such technique is exposure to ionizing radiation. Few data are available on the effects of radiation on insect pests other than fruit flies and stored-product insects and on the radiation tolerance of host commodities. Radiation technology as an alternative to methyl bromide fumigation will be used to inactivate not only insects but also mites, spider mites, thrips, nematodes, scales, mealybugs and thrips contaminating fruits, grains, cut flowers, vegetables, timbers, seedlings and seeds. In order to collect data on the effects of irradiation on pests and host commodities, IAEA and FAO have conducted an international project, `FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Programme on Irradiation as a Quarantine Treatment of Mites, Nematodes and Insects other than Fruit Fly` since 1992. The project determines the minimum doses necessary to inactivate pests and the maximum doses host commodities tolerate. All pests except nematodes can be inactivated at doses 400Gy or lower. Various varieties of cut flowers and herbs are tolerant to 400Gy of radiation, although some flowers and herbs such as chrysanthemum, rose, lily, calla, anthurium, sweet pea, iris, dill, basil and arugula are intolerant to 200Gy of radiation. Japanese research project on treatment of cut flowers with electron beams carried out mainly by Yokohama Plant Protection Station greatly contributes to these conclusions. Aqueous solution (2%) of sucrose, glucose, fructose or maltose prevents radiation-induced detrimental effects of radiation on chrysanthemums. Sugars reduce radiation-induced physiological deterioration of chrysanthemums. (author)

  2. Improved performance of agriculture in Africa South of the Sahara: Taking off or bouncing back?

    OpenAIRE

    Nin-Pratt, Alejandro; Johnson, Michael E.; Yu, Bingxin

    2012-01-01

    The improved performance of the agricultural sector in Africa south of the Sahara during the most recent decade (2000–2010) has raised questions about the drivers behind the growth. Skeptics argue that rising commodity prices, as world markets experience a commodity boom, are the main cause of the agricultural growth. Others point to improvements in the policy environment and increased investments in agriculture at a time when African governments and donors have been rallying to increase th...

  3. 76 FR 11701 - Amendments to Commodity Pool Operator and Commodity Trading Advisor Regulations Resulting From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... reserves the right, but shall have no obligation, to review, pre-screen, filter, redact, refuse or remove... of the pool's assets that will be used to trade commodity interests, securities and other types of...) or from an investment of pool assets in investee pools or funds or other investments. * * * * * (l...

  4. Retail Commodity Intakes: Mean Amounts of Retail Commodities per Individual, 2003-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    The table set includes national estimates in terms of mean gram amounts of retail commodities consumed per person estimated from the day 1 dietary intake data of 8,272 individuals, ages 2 years and over, in What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2004 and Food ...

  5. Retail Commodity Intakes: Mean Amounts of Retail Commodities per Individual, 2005-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    The table set includes national estimates in terms of mean gram amounts of retail commodities consumed per person estimated from the day 1 dietary intake data of 8,549 individuals, ages 2 years and over, in What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2006 and Food ...

  6. Retail Commodity Intakes: Mean Amounts of Retail Commodities per Individual, 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    The table set includes national estimates in terms of mean gram amounts of retail commodities consumed per person estimated from the day 1 dietary intake data of 8,528 individuals, ages 2 years and over, in What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008 and Food ...

  7. Phytosanitary irradiation of Diatraea saccharalis, D. grandiosella, and Eoreuma loftini (Lepidoptera: Crambinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytosanitary irradiation (PI) is increasingly being used to disinfest horticultural commodities of invasive quarantine pests. Most disinfestation is done with generic treatments, where one dose is scheduled for a group of pests and/or commodities. The current generic treatment that USDA-APHIS uses...

  8. 17 CFR 32.9 - Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions. 32.9 Section 32.9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION REGULATION OF COMMODITY OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 32.9 Fraud in connection with commodity...

  9. 17 CFR 4.14 - Exemption from registration as a commodity trading advisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... a commodity trading advisor. 4.14 Section 4.14 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS General Provisions, Definitions and Exemptions § 4.14 Exemption from registration as a commodity trading advisor. This section...

  10. Indonesia Export, Import, and Demand for Domestic Commodities under Economics Liberalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Irawan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to identify the behaviour of export, import and domestic commoditiesdemand in liberalization era both in the long run and the short run. This researchapplies the Vector Error Correction Model, Johansen Cointegration Test, Impulse ResponseAnalysis and Granger Causality Test. The data range from 1993:01 to 2002:12. The resultshows that in the long run the cross-price elasticity of imported non agricultural goods withrespect to demand for domestically produced goods have lower magnitudes than own priceelasticity of domestically produced goods. The demand elasticity of import commodities iselastic but that of domestic commodities is inelastic.Keywords: Import, Export, Economic Liberalization, Vector Error Correction Model

  11. Education: Commodity, Come-On, or Commitment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    2000-07-01

    July 4, and the glass art shown on pages 812-816, remind us that freedom is fragile. Through their governments, citizens of democracies have traditionally made strong commitments to education on grounds that without it individuals would not be able to act responsibly and to make wise decisions in voting booths and public meetings. All citizens have a stake in everyone's education, because a better-educated citizenry benefits all of society. In this country such a commitment has produced a system of public schools and public universities that offers opportunities to many who otherwise could not afford a level of education commensurate with their talents. But there are signs that this commitment to public education is flagging. Many students, teachers, and administrators view education as merely a way to enhance personal prosperity. How often have you heard the statistic that a college education pays for itself through increased earning power, even if it costs $20,000-30,000 per year? Investing in education pays off just as investing in the stock market does, provided you wait long enough. Attending a better school gets you a better job and a better income. In other words, a certified level of education is a commodity-something that is useful and can be turned to commercial advantage. Viewing education as a commodity has several consequences. First, if education is a means to better employment rather than better citizenship, why should anyone pay for it other than the person who benefits? Why should I pay taxes to help someone else get a better job when I could be spending the money for my own benefit? Education as a commodity makes such attitudes reasonable, though not commendable, and the result is lessened support for public education. Second, those who supply education as an economic good should be rewarded, and those who are much better at educating should be rewarded much more. Hence the fear of Arthur Levine, president of Teachers College, Columbia University

  12. Child mortality, commodity price volatility and the resource curse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhlouf, Yousef; Kellard, Neil M; Vinogradov, Dmitri

    2017-04-01

    Given many developing economies depend on primary commodities, the fluctuations of commodity prices may imply significant effects for the wellbeing of children. To investigate, this paper examines the relationship between child mortality and commodity price movements as reflected by country-specific commodity terms-of-trade. Employing a panel of 69 low and lower-middle income countries over the period 1970-2010, we show that commodity terms-of-trade volatility increases child mortality in highly commodity-dependent importers suggesting a type of 'scarce' resource curse. Strikingly however, good institutions appear able to mitigate the negative impact of volatility. The paper concludes by highlighting this tripartite relationship between child mortality, volatility and good institutions and posits that an effective approach to improving child wellbeing in low to lower-middle income countries will combine hedging, import diversification and improvement of institutional quality. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Option Valuation, Optimization and Excursions of Commodity Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Hollstein, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with the solution of special problems arising in financial engineering or financial mathematics. The main focus lies on commodity indices. Chapter 1 addresses the important issue for the financial engineering practice of developing well-suited models for certain assets (here: commodity indices). Descriptive analysis of the Dow Jones-UBS commodity index compared to the Standard & Poor 500 stock index provides us with first insights of some features of the corresponding distri...

  14. From creation to consumption: objects and commodities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Bautista López

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Objects, persons and ideas are all merely merchandise in a world that is highly industrialised and utterly superficial. Consumer societies produce a profusion of merchandise. In strictly economic terms, merchandise is whatever has an exchange-value, in  a world where objects are valued for their utility. So goods are whatever is useful, where use can be measured in monetary terms. This perspective impoverishes social relations. People relate only insofar as their value dictates, and that value is merely utilitarian. Moreover, this commercialisation reaches up to impoverish society as a whole. All this is the result of a long process of objectification which, seeing the world as the exchange of goods, ends up treating people just like any other tradable commodity. This article takes a critical look at the processes involved, and proposes an explanation in terms of the social construction of 'utility''.

  15. Commodity derivatives pricing with inventory effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Christian; Dziubinski, Matt P.

    We introduce tractable models for commodity derivatives pricing with inventory and volatility eects, and illustrate with applications to the oil market. We contribute to the existing literature in several respects. First, whereas the previous literature uses futures data for investigating...... the relationship between inventory and volatility, we use the information available in options traded on futures. Second, performance assessment in the previous literature has primarily evolved around explaining moments of data or forecasting prices of futures. Instead, we asses the performance of our model...... limit the number of parameters to calibrate. We introduce a new, maturity-wise calibration method compatible with this modeling methodology. Fourth, we use actual data on inventories rather than a proxy. Fifth, our model is very exible and allows for testing several dierent types of relationships...

  16. Caos en el mercado de commodities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinosa Méndez Christian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo aplica seis técnicas y herramientas (análisis gráfico, gráfico de recurrencia, entropía de espacio temporal, coeficiente de Hurst, exponente de Lyapunov y dimensión de correlación, a las series de retornos del cobre, oro, petróleo, plata, zinc, aluminio, plomo y níquel, con el fin de corroborar la existencia de un comportamiento caótico en el mercado de commodities. Se encuentra evidencia de que los mercados financieros se comportan de forma caótica en contra de la hipótesis de aleatoriedad. Se contrasta, igualmente, no-normalidad, no-aleatoriedad y no-linealidad. Los resultados encontrados contradicen algunos de los supuestos básicos de la teoría financiera moderna.

  17. Does Monetary Policy Respond to Commodity Price Shocks?

    OpenAIRE

    Ano Sujithan, Kuhanathan; Koliai, Lyes; Avouyi-Dovi, Sanvi

    2013-01-01

    Commodity prices, especially oil prices, peaked in the aftermath of the financial crisis of 2007 and they have remained highly volatile. All things being equal, the increase in commodity prices may induce a similar tendency of inflation and hence become a monetary policy issue. However, the impact of the changes of commodity prices on inflation is not clear. In this paper, by using Markov-switching models we show that there is an implicit impact of commodity markets on short-term interest rat...

  18. Integrating ICT in Agriculture for Knowledge-Based Economy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    agriculture. Already projects such as Agriculture Management Information System ... Eradicating extreme poverty and hunger, as the very first Millennium. Development ..... alert about the commodity will also be supplied, which will facilitate the .... such as weather forecasting, crop prices, information on sowing seeds in a.

  19. Return of the Gentleman Farmer?: Conceptualising Gentrification in UK Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Lee-Ann

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, processes of gentrification are assessed in relation to non-commercial farming: the production of agricultural commodities without the intent of earning a living. The author argues that due to the connection between residence and productive assets (particularly land) inherent in farming, agricultural gentrification represents a…

  20. Food irradiation; Napromieniowanie zywnosci

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migdal, W. [Instytut Chemii i Techniki Jadrowej, Doswiadczalna Stacja Radiacyjnego Utrwalania Plodow Rolnych, Warsaw (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and The World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19 MeV, 1 kW) and industrial unit Electronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for irradiation for; spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables. (author) 14 refs, 3 tabs

  1. Alcohol as international commodity; Alcool como 'commodity' internacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negrao, Luiz Celso Parisi [Ministerio do Desenvolvimento, Industria e Comercio Exterior, Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Secretaria de Tecnologia Industrial]. E-mail: luiz.negrao@desenvolvimento.gov.br; Urban, Maria Lucia de Paula

    2004-12-15

    The ethanol is able to reduce the gas emissions, mainly in CO2 balance which gives a strong contribution for this fact. Using the alcohol rather than fossil fuels is a natural choice as a important renewable energy source. Also, to have the alcohol as international environmental commodity is the goal of all interested in this matter, since the entry into force the Kyoto protocol, with the Russian approval.

  2. International Commodity Markets, Local Food Prices and Environment in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. E.; Hintermann, B.; Higgins, N.

    2008-12-01

    The recent massive increase in food and energy prices in the past five years, coupled with the awareness of the long term challenges of climate change to small holder agriculture in Africa has brought the issue of food security for the world's poorest people to the forefront once again. Asymmetric and limited integration of local commodity markets in West Africa highlights the weak position of Africa's rural countries in the face of climate change and demographic expansion. This paper will describe the functioning of local informal food markets in West African over the past twenty years and evaluate the impact of their limited integration with each other and with global commodity markets. Satellite remote sensing of vegetation has been used as a proxy for agricultural production in economic models to improve prediction of large swings in prices from year to year due to differences in supply. As demand increases, improvements in market functioning will be necessary to counter likely increases in production variability. Increasing Africa's stability in the face of climate change will require investment in agricultural production and transportation infrastructure in order to ensure an affordable flow of food to people in these extremely poor, landlocked countries.

  3. AQSIQ Builds an Import & Export Commodity Inspection & Quarantine Information Database

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ To comprehensively strengthen the quality of work and ensure the safe processing of import and export commodities, the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of China (AQSIQ) recently initiated the establishment of a China import and export commodity inspection and quarantine information database.

  4. 22 CFR 228.11 - Source and origin of commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... being purchased is a kit (e.g., scientific instruments, tools, or medical supplies packaged as a single... case of a Commodity Import Program, shall inform the supplier of any system determination. (f) In order... (c), (d), or (e) of this section, the total cost (to the system supplier) of the commodities...

  5. On the market value of information commodities. II. Supply price

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mowshowitz, A. (Abbe)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractInformation commodities make use of storage, processing, and communication capabilities in varying degrees to acquire market value. We have identified five major value‐adding dimensions of information commodities: (1) kernel; (2) storage; (3) processing; (4) distribution; and (5)

  6. Factor Structure in Commodity Futures Return and Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Lunde, Asger; Olesen, Kasper Vinther

    Using data on more than 750 million futures trades during 2004-2013, we analyze eight stylized facts of commodity price and volatility dynamics in the post financialization period. We pay particular attention to the factor structure in returns and volatility and to commodity market integration...... volatility indicates a nontrivial degree of market integration....

  7. On the market value of information commodities. III. Demand price

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mowshowitz, A. (Abbe)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThe derived‐demand price of an information commodity depends on the commodity's cost impact on a user's production process. We model an arbitrary production process as a collection of interrelated tasks which can be represented in the form of a production digraph. The nodes of the digrap

  8. 41 CFR 51-6.4 - Military resale commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... potential of military resale commodities. (4) Establish policies and procedures which reserve to its agency... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Military resale... PROCEDURES § 51-6.4 Military resale commodities. (a) Purchase procedures for ordering military...

  9. Sorting out commodity and macroeconomic risk in expected stock returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boons, M.F.

    2014-01-01

    The dissertation consists of three essays in asset pricing. Chapter I is motivated by the recent surge in institutional investment in commodity futures markets. The chapter studies how commodity risk is priced in stock and futures markets and asks whether this risk premium is time-varying with these

  10. Applications of GARCH models to energy commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, H. Brett

    This thesis uses GARCH methods to examine different aspects of the energy markets. The first part of the thesis examines seasonality in the variance. This study modifies the standard univariate GARCH models to test for seasonal components in both the constant and the persistence in natural gas, heating oil and soybeans. These commodities exhibit seasonal price movements and, therefore, may exhibit seasonal variances. In addition, the heating oil model is tested for a structural change in variance during the Gulf War. The results indicate the presence of an annual seasonal component in the persistence for all commodities. Out-of-sample volatility forecasting for natural gas outperforms standard forecasts. The second part of this thesis uses a multivariate GARCH model to examine volatility spillovers within the crude oil forward curve and between the London and New York crude oil futures markets. Using these results the effect of spillovers on dynamic hedging is examined. In addition, this research examines cointegration within the oil markets using investable returns rather than fixed prices. The results indicate the presence of strong volatility spillovers between both markets, weak spillovers from the front of the forward curve to the rest of the curve, and cointegration between the long term oil price on the two markets. The spillover dynamic hedge models lead to a marginal benefit in terms of variance reduction, but a substantial decrease in the variability of the dynamic hedge; thereby decreasing the transactions costs associated with the hedge. The final portion of the thesis uses portfolio theory to demonstrate how the energy mix consumed in the United States could be chosen given a national goal to reduce the risks to the domestic macroeconomy of unanticipated energy price shocks. An efficient portfolio frontier of U.S. energy consumption is constructed using a covariance matrix estimated with GARCH models. The results indicate that while the electric

  11. Legal status and organizational structure of commodities excange in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Petričević

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Commodities exchange is an important element of market economy of a country. Being an organized commodities and capital market, it goes beyond the trade in a trade fair and particular trade in real commodities. It includes trading in exchangeable goods by standard label. As foundation of commodities exchange is expected in Croatia, the paper will explicate its status and operation in Slovakia, an EU member state that is similar to our country. The paper will focus on the legal status and organizational structure of consumer goods market in Bratislava. Although it has existed for just over 15 years, it is important to note that it actually goes back to the pre-Second World War Czechoslovakia. Also, to provide better understanding of its functioning, regulations defining the foundation and functioning of the commodities market will also be presented as well as the profile, method and types of operations, together with its positive effects.

  12. Speculation on commodities futures markets and destabilization of global food prices: exploring the connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Jayati; Heintz, James; Pollin, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In December 2010, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization's Food Price Index surpassed its previous peak of June 2008, and prices remained at this level through September 2011. This pattern is creating justified fears of a renewal or intensification of the global food crisis. This paper reviews arguments and evidence to inform debates on how to regulate commodity futures markets in the face of such price volatility and sustained high prices. We focus on the relationship between market liquidity and price patterns in asset markets in general and in commodities futures markets in particular, as well as the relationship between spot and futures market prices for food. We find strong evidence supporting the need to limit huge increases in trading volume on futures markets through regulations. We find that arguments opposing regulation are not supported. We find no support for the claim that liquidity in futures markets stabilizes prices at "fundamental" values or that spot market prices are free of any significant influence from futures markets. Given these results, the most appropriate position for regulators is precautionary: they should enact and enforce policies capable of effectively dampening excessive speculative trading on the commodities markets for food.

  13. Live HDR video streaming on commodity hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamee, Joshua; Hatchett, Jonathan; Debattista, Kurt; Chalmers, Alan

    2015-09-01

    High Dynamic Range (HDR) video provides a step change in viewing experience, for example the ability to clearly see the soccer ball when it is kicked from the shadow of the stadium into sunshine. To achieve the full potential of HDR video, so-called true HDR, it is crucial that all the dynamic range that was captured is delivered to the display device and tone mapping is confined only to the display. Furthermore, to ensure widespread uptake of HDR imaging, it should be low cost and available on commodity hardware. This paper describes an end-to-end HDR pipeline for capturing, encoding and streaming high-definition HDR video in real-time using off-the-shelf components. All the lighting that is captured by HDR-enabled consumer cameras is delivered via the pipeline to any display, including HDR displays and even mobile devices with minimum latency. The system thus provides an integrated HDR video pipeline that includes everything from capture to post-production, archival and storage, compression, transmission, and display.

  14. Emergence of Commodity Derivatives as Defensive Instrument in Portfolio Risk Hedging: A Case of Indian Commodity Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singhal Shelly

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines whether commodity derivatives can be used as an alternative investment asset in India where commodity markets are at emerging state and provides the same diversification benefit as they provide in developed commodity markets. In India only commodity futures are prevalent so various commodity indices representing various sectors has been used in the study. Diversification aspect of commodity derivatives has been tested initially by using correlation analysis. Compounded Daily Growth rate and Relative Standard deviation has been used as a measure of calculating risk and return of daily data of SENSEX, BOND and four Commodity Indices (MCX Comdex, MCX AGRI, MCX Metal, MCX Energy. Markowitz Efficient Frontier theory has been used to calculate portfolio risk return and Sharpe risk adjusted ratio has been used to evaluate the various portfolios. Optimal portfolio has been obtained for the combination of equity, bond and commodity and overall results of the study indicate that an investor who is risk averse will prefer to invest in combination of SENSEX, BOND & MCX Energy whereas an investor who gets utility by taking more risk for more returns will prefer to invest in combination of SENSEX, BOND & MCX Metal. Investor having inclination towards moderate risk return would tend to invest in MCX AGRI along with SENSEX and BOND.

  15. 17 CFR 33.10 - Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fraud in connection with commodity option transactions. 33.10 Section 33.10 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION REGULATION OF DOMESTIC EXCHANGE-TRADED COMMODITY OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 33.10 Fraud in...

  16. 17 CFR 1.70 - Notification of State enforcement actions brought under the Commodity Exchange Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notification of State enforcement actions brought under the Commodity Exchange Act. 1.70 Section 1.70 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION GENERAL REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT...

  17. Inventory transparency for agricultural produce through IOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, S. P.; Sorna Shanthi, D.; Anand, Aashish V.

    2017-06-01

    Re-structuring the practices of traditional inventory management is becoming more essential to optimize the supply chain transparency and accuracy of agricultural produce. A flexible and transparent inventory management system is becoming the need of any agricultural commodity. It was noticed that the major setback for the farmers who are the suppliers of the farm produce is due to poor supply chain integration. The recent advent technologies and IT explosion can bring up a greater impact in the process of storing, tracking, distributing and monitoring perishable agriculture produce of day to day life. The primary focus of this paper is to integrate IoT into inventory management and other inbound logistics management of agriculture produce. The unique features of agricultural produce like a prediction of supply, demand, the location of warehouses, distribution and tracking of inventory can be integrated through IoT. This paper proposes a conceptual framework for inventory management transparency involved in the supply chain of agriculture produce.

  18. Financing Agriculture through Islamic Modes And Instruments: Practical Scenarios And Applicability (Research Paper)

    OpenAIRE

    A. Gulaid, Mahmoud

    1995-01-01

    The paper examines the functional and operational activities done during production and marketing of agricultural commodities and contemporary Islamic modes that Islamic banks use to finance them and assesses the possibility of financing them through Islamic instruments.

  19. Promotion of Agricultural Products Competitive Power in Heilongjiang Province with Modern Logistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The paper studied the competitive power of agricultural products in Heilongjiang Province by analyzing the revealed comparative advantage,and drew the conclution that agricultural products' competitive power was decreasing in Heilongjiang Province.There were three main reasons for this status: firstly,the cost of circulation of agricultural products was increasing;secondly,the commodity rate of agricultural products was low;thirdly,the marketing power of agricultural product was weak because of lacking the ...

  20. Agriculture: Newsroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agriculture Newsroom. News releases, reports, and other documents from around EPA that are of interest or direct importance to the environmental management or compliance efforts of the agricultural community.

  1. Agriculture et politiques agricoles aux États-Unis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devienne Sophie

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The new Farm Bill has just been voted, after difficult negotiations between the White House and Congress. Since the beginning of the commodity-based programs in the 1930s, the agricultural policies in United States were aimed at supporting farm commodity markets and stabilizing farmers incomes. These commodity support policies have been an important contributor to the growth of agricultural productivity and commodity surplus. In the 1950s it became apparent that export demand was capable of creating farm prosperity and became important for the surplus disposal. The US agricultural policies aimed at expanding agricultural exports, and became more offensive as the export competition grew keener. For the first time in 1996, as the market estimates were optimistic, the Fair Act raised the possibility of an end to price support activities as a mean of farm income support. But in 1998 and 1999 weakened export demand led to marked reductions in the prices of the main crops. The 2002 Farm Bill restored the safety net for the farm income. Despite high prices and expansion of demand, and in contradiction with US commitments at the WTO, the new Farm Bill keep on aiming at providing a strong safety net for farm income, which allows the growth of agricultural productivity and the increase in US agriculture competitiveness, and at expanding trade.

  2. A Marketing Approach to Commodity Futures Exchanges : A Case Study of the Dutch Hog Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes a marketing strategic approach to commodity futures exchanges to optimise the (hedging) services offered. First, the environment of commodity futures exchanges is examined. Second, the threats and opportunities of commodity futures exchanges are analysed. Our analysis demonstrate

  3. A STUDY ON MARKET OPPORTUNITIES IN NATURAL GAS IN MULTI COMMODITY EXCHANGE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    S Saranya; K Kumutha Devi

    2016-01-01

      Commodity markets are where raw or primary products are exchanged. These raw commodities are traded on regulated commodities exchanges, in which they are bought and sold in standardized contracts...

  4. Fiscal policy, the real exchange rate and commodity prices: A global framework

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhart, Carmen

    1990-01-01

    The role of the international commodity market in transmitting disturbances is considered in a model that incorporates commodities as an input in production. The analysis employs a three-country framework: a liquidity-constrained commodity supplier and two industrial countries that import the commodity, export differentiated manufactured goods and hold the outstanding debt of the commodity exporter. In this setting the impact of changes in fiscal policy, commodity supplies, and the real inter...

  5. Development of data base on food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Kume, Tamikazu; Hashimoto, Shoji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Izumi, Fumio

    1995-12-01

    For the exact understanding on food irradiation in Japan, it is important to provide information of food irradiation to consumers, industries and government offices. However, many of information on food irradiation are only restricted in a few experts or institutes relating to this field. For this reason, data base of food irradiation has been completed together with the systems necessary for input the data using computer. In this data base, about 630 data with full reports were inputted in computer in the field of wholesomeness studies, irradiation effects on food, radiation engineering, detection methods of irradiated food and Q and A of food irradiation for easy understanding. Many of these data are inputted by Japanese language. Some English reports on wholesomeness studies are also included which were mainly obtained from international projects of food irradiation. Many of data on food irradiation are responsible in the fields of food science, dietetics, microbiology, radiation biology, molecular biology, medical science, agricultural science, radiation chemistry, radiation engineering and so on. Data base of food irradiation contains many useful data which can apply to many other fields of radiation processing not only on food irradiation but also on sterilization of medical equipments, upgrading of agricultural wastes and others. (author).

  6. Monetary policy and world commodity markets: 2000-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Askari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Expansionary monetary policy in key industrial countries and a rapidly depreciating US dollar sent commodity prices soaring at unprecedented rates during 2003–2007. In contrast, consumer price indices in major OECD countries, a leading indicator for monetary policy, showed almost no inflation. This twin development is a puzzle as the evolution of consumer prices were not responsive to record low interest rates, doubledigit commodity inflation, and a sharp depreciation of the dollar. A common trend, identified as a monetary shock, drives commodity prices. Policymakers face a policy dilemma: maintain expansionary monetary policy stance with persistent commodity price inflation, subsequent severe world recession, and financial disorder, or tighten monetary policy with subsequent sustained economic growth and financial and price stability.

  7. Commodity Alliance Model – An Option for Advancing Private and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commodity Alliance Model – An Option for Advancing Private and Commercial ... being tried in Nigeria, arable croppers' productivity has been consistently low. ... them in terms of fair price determination, information flow and issues resolution.

  8. proposal for a lean commodity management process for the south ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    a change in the command structure. The method of provisioning ... “companies increasingly are organising their activities around processes, which are relevant for their ... commodity process. This will be presented in the four levels of authority:.

  9. Methyl Bromide Commodity Fumigation Buffer Zone Lookup Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Product labels for methyl bromide used in commodity and structural fumigation include requirements for buffer zones around treated areas. The information on this page will allow you to find the appropriate buffer zone for your planned application.

  10. Modeling Multi-commodity Trade Information Exchange Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Traczyk, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Market mechanisms are entering into new fields of economy, in which some constraints of physical world, e.g. Kirchoffs Law in power grid, must be taken into account during trading. On such markets, some of commodities, like telecommunication bandwidth or electrical energy, appear to be non-storable, and must be exchanged in real-time. On the other hand, the markets tend to react at shortest possible time, so an idea to delegate some competency to autonomous software agents is very attractive. Multi-commodity mechanism addresses the aforementioned requirements. Modeling the relationships between the commodities allows to formulate new, more sophisticated models and mechanisms, which reflect decision situations in a better manner. Application of multi-commodity approach requires solving several issues related to data modeling, communication, semantics aspects of communication, reliability, etc. This book answers some of the questions and points out promising paths for implementation and development. Presented s...

  11. GCAM 3.0 Agriculture and Land Use: Data Sources and Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyle, G. Page; Luckow, Patrick; Calvin, Katherine V.; Emanuel, William R.; Nathan, Mayda; Zhou, Yuyu

    2011-12-12

    This report presents the data processing methods used in the GCAM 3.0 agriculture and land use component, starting from all source data used, and detailing all calculations and assumptions made in generating the model inputs. The report starts with a brief introduction to modeling of agriculture and land use in GCAM 3.0, and then provides documentation of the data and methods used for generating the base-year dataset and future scenario parameters assumed in the model input files. Specifically, the report addresses primary commodity production, secondary (animal) commodity production, disposition of commodities, land allocation, land carbon contents, and land values.

  12. Monetary policy and world commodity markets: 2000-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Askari; Noureddine Krichene

    2010-01-01

    Expansionary monetary policy in key industrial countries and a rapidly depreciating US dollar sent commodity prices soaring at unprecedented rates during 2003–2007. In contrast, consumer price indices in major OECD countries, a leading indicator for monetary policy, showed almost no inflation. This twin development is a puzzle as the evolution of consumer prices were not responsive to record low interest rates, doubledigit commodity inflation, and a sharp depreciation of the dollar. A commo...

  13. Upon Further Review: A Commodity Chemist on Green Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, William F.

    2016-09-01

    Green chemistry is most often thought of in the context of specialty or pharmaceutical chemicals where many synthetic chemistry approaches are in play. However, principles similar to those of green chemistry and engineering were employed over the years in reducing cost and increasing volume of chemicals that became commodities. This paper considers some of those principles, their impact, and some perspectives on the potential and limits associated with green chemistry for commodity chemicals.

  14. Export Competitiveness of Textile Commodities: A Panel Data Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Tarun

    2015-01-01

    The Paper assesses the export competitiveness of top fifteen textile products (different for each export destination) at 6 digit level of HS classification exported by India to top seven textile export destinations by using both price and income export elasticities. The export elasticities are estimated using dynamic panel data approach for each country separately. Commodity specific elasticities are further estimated to forecast the exports of commodities exported to respective export destin...

  15. Purpose and potential for commodity exchanges in African economies:

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid, Shahidur; Winter-Nelson, Alex; Garcia, Philip

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the purpose and potential of commodity exchanges in Africa. Drawing from the existing literature and using indicative empirics, it examines the conditions that enable successful exchanges, highlights the special challenges to setting up exchanges in Africa, and reviews alternatives to domestic exchanges. We argue that many critical preconditions for the successful establishment of commodity exchanges in Africa remain binding in the short to medium term. The development of c...

  16. Market structure and its interactions in beer commodity chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edita Veselská

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to contribute to deeper knowledge of the economics of the beer commodity chain, focused on the formation of the market structure and its interactions with the price development within analysed commodity chain. The results of the economic analysis have proved, that czech brewery is high concentrated and that between concentration ratio and breweries’s margin exists a positive interdependence.

  17. Irradiation damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, L.M

    2000-07-01

    There is considerable interest in irradiation effects in intermetallic compounds from both the applied and fundamental aspects. Initially, this interest was associated mainly with nuclear reactor programs but it now extends to the fields of ion-beam modification of metals, behaviour of amorphous materials, ion-beam processing of electronic materials, and ion-beam simulations of various kinds. The field of irradiation damage in intermetallic compounds is rapidly expanding, and no attempt will be made in this chapter to cover all of the various aspects. Instead, attention will be focused on some specific areas and, hopefully, through these, some insight will be given into the physical processes involved, the present state of our knowledge, and the challenge of obtaining more comprehensive understanding in the future. The specific areas that will be covered are: point defects in intermetallic compounds; irradiation-enhanced ordering and irradiation-induced disordering of ordered alloys; irradiation-induced amorphization.

  18. Statistical microeconomics and commodity prices: theory and empirical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaquie, Belal E

    2016-01-13

    A review is made of the statistical generalization of microeconomics by Baaquie (Baaquie 2013 Phys. A 392, 4400-4416. (doi:10.1016/j.physa.2013.05.008)), where the market price of every traded commodity, at each instant of time, is considered to be an independent random variable. The dynamics of commodity market prices is given by the unequal time correlation function and is modelled by the Feynman path integral based on an action functional. The correlation functions of the model are defined using the path integral. The existence of the action functional for commodity prices that was postulated to exist in Baaquie (Baaquie 2013 Phys. A 392, 4400-4416. (doi:10.1016/j.physa.2013.05.008)) has been empirically ascertained in Baaquie et al. (Baaquie et al. 2015 Phys. A 428, 19-37. (doi:10.1016/j.physa.2015.02.030)). The model's action functionals for different commodities has been empirically determined and calibrated using the unequal time correlation functions of the market commodity prices using a perturbation expansion (Baaquie et al. 2015 Phys. A 428, 19-37. (doi:10.1016/j.physa.2015.02.030)). Nine commodities drawn from the energy, metal and grain sectors are empirically studied and their auto-correlation for up to 300 days is described by the model to an accuracy of R(2)>0.90-using only six parameters.

  19. Portfolio Diversification with Commodities in Times of Financialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Zaremba

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study concentrates on the benefits of passive commodity investments in the context of the phenomenon of financialization. The research investigates the implications of increase in the correlation coefficients between equity and commodity investments for investors in financial markets. The paper is composed of several parts. First, the attributes of commodity investments and their benefits in the portfolio optimization are explored. Second, the phenomenon of the financialization is described and the research hypothesis is developed. Next, an empirical analysis is performed. I simulate the mean-variance spanning tests to examine the benefits of commodity investments before and after accounting for the impact of financialization. I proceed separate analysis for pre- and post-financialization period. The empirical research is based on asset classes’ returns and other related variables from years 1991-2012. The performed investigations indicate that the market financialization may have significant implications for commodity investors. Due to increase in correlation coefficients, the inclusion of the commodity futures in the traditional stock-bond portfolio appears to be no longer reasonable.

  20. Competitiveness of Slovak agri-food commodities in third country markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Ubrežiová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The impression of a single “European” market is gradually generated mainly due to action of the Common Agricultural Policy. Most of the agro-food complex enterprises see opportunities especially in the internationalization, globalization and regionalization in the agri-food sector, in pursuance of this, they are gradually smouldering innovative activities and trying to work on their competitive advantages. Based on the written we can say, that the issue of the competitiveness of enterprises, as well as of various commodities is in the current period highly current and adequate. The importance of the trade with so-called third countries is still increasing. This increase is mainly caused by the enlargement of the European Union in the term of foreign trade and it can be also confirmed from the results of the research. As the results of the research shows, the most important customers of the Slovak agri-food commodities are the Commonwealth of Independent States, where in the followed four-year period went within third countries at the average of 32.9% of the total Slovak agriculture export, also countries of EUROMED, where this proportion was 18.4%, and Croatia, with the proportion of 19.1%. These countries are the largest buyers of such Slovak agri-food commodities as are for example malt, chocolate and live cattle. On the other hand, Slovak republic is in agri-food import mostly dependent on such countries as are for example MERCOSUR countries, Mediterranean countries EUROMED, the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP, China, ASEAN and the U.S., which are the major suppliers of so-called „irreplaceable“ items, which Slovak republic can not produce.Results of the research also shows that while the importance of the trade with those countries (note- third countries is still increasing, Slovak export to third countries, in the contrast to its import, is still decreasing and that the most competitive agri-food commodities are for example live

  1. Agricultural Finance Statistics, 1960-83

    OpenAIRE

    Amols, George; Kaiser, Wilson

    1984-01-01

    This bulletin presents farm financial statistics, including outstanding farm 4ebt by State and lender and average interest rates for agricultural loans charged by selected lenders for 1960-83. Farm debt includes both real estate and nonrea1 estate debt. Lenders include Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), Federal land banks, production credit associations, Federal intermediate credit banks, commercial banks, life insurance companies, Farmers Home Administration, and individuals and others.

  2. Budget Constraints Affect Male Rats’ Choices between Differently Priced Commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenscher, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Demand theory can be applied to analyse how a human or animal consumer changes her selection of commodities within a certain budget in response to changes in price of those commodities. This change in consumption assessed over a range of prices is defined as demand elasticity. Previously, income-compensated and income-uncompensated price changes have been investigated using human and animal consumers, as demand theory predicts different elasticities for both conditions. However, in these studies, demand elasticity was only evaluated over the entirety of choices made from a budget. As compensating budgets changes the number of attainable commodities relative to uncompensated conditions, and thus the number of choices, it remained unclear whether budget compensation has a trivial effect on demand elasticity by simply sampling from a different total number of choices or has a direct effect on consumers’ sequential choice structure. If the budget context independently changes choices between commodities over and above price effects, this should become apparent when demand elasticity is assessed over choice sets of any reasonable size that are matched in choice opportunities between budget conditions. To gain more detailed insight in the sequential choice dynamics underlying differences in demand elasticity between budget conditions, we trained N=8 rat consumers to spend a daily budget by making a number of nosepokes to obtain two liquid commodities under different price regimes, in sessions with and without budget compensation. We confirmed that demand elasticity for both commodities differed between compensated and uncompensated budget conditions, also when the number of choices considered was matched, and showed that these elasticity differences emerge early in the sessions. These differences in demand elasticity were driven by a higher choice rate and an increased reselection bias for the preferred commodity in compensated compared to uncompensated budget

  3. Budget Constraints Affect Male Rats' Choices between Differently Priced Commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wingerden, Marijn; Marx, Christine; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Demand theory can be applied to analyse how a human or animal consumer changes her selection of commodities within a certain budget in response to changes in price of those commodities. This change in consumption assessed over a range of prices is defined as demand elasticity. Previously, income-compensated and income-uncompensated price changes have been investigated using human and animal consumers, as demand theory predicts different elasticities for both conditions. However, in these studies, demand elasticity was only evaluated over the entirety of choices made from a budget. As compensating budgets changes the number of attainable commodities relative to uncompensated conditions, and thus the number of choices, it remained unclear whether budget compensation has a trivial effect on demand elasticity by simply sampling from a different total number of choices or has a direct effect on consumers' sequential choice structure. If the budget context independently changes choices between commodities over and above price effects, this should become apparent when demand elasticity is assessed over choice sets of any reasonable size that are matched in choice opportunities between budget conditions. To gain more detailed insight in the sequential choice dynamics underlying differences in demand elasticity between budget conditions, we trained N=8 rat consumers to spend a daily budget by making a number of nosepokes to obtain two liquid commodities under different price regimes, in sessions with and without budget compensation. We confirmed that demand elasticity for both commodities differed between compensated and uncompensated budget conditions, also when the number of choices considered was matched, and showed that these elasticity differences emerge early in the sessions. These differences in demand elasticity were driven by a higher choice rate and an increased reselection bias for the preferred commodity in compensated compared to uncompensated budget conditions

  4. Budget Constraints Affect Male Rats' Choices between Differently Priced Commodities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijn van Wingerden

    Full Text Available Demand theory can be applied to analyse how a human or animal consumer changes her selection of commodities within a certain budget in response to changes in price of those commodities. This change in consumption assessed over a range of prices is defined as demand elasticity. Previously, income-compensated and income-uncompensated price changes have been investigated using human and animal consumers, as demand theory predicts different elasticities for both conditions. However, in these studies, demand elasticity was only evaluated over the entirety of choices made from a budget. As compensating budgets changes the number of attainable commodities relative to uncompensated conditions, and thus the number of choices, it remained unclear whether budget compensation has a trivial effect on demand elasticity by simply sampling from a different total number of choices or has a direct effect on consumers' sequential choice structure. If the budget context independently changes choices between commodities over and above price effects, this should become apparent when demand elasticity is assessed over choice sets of any reasonable size that are matched in choice opportunities between budget conditions. To gain more detailed insight in the sequential choice dynamics underlying differences in demand elasticity between budget conditions, we trained N=8 rat consumers to spend a daily budget by making a number of nosepokes to obtain two liquid commodities under different price regimes, in sessions with and without budget compensation. We confirmed that demand elasticity for both commodities differed between compensated and uncompensated budget conditions, also when the number of choices considered was matched, and showed that these elasticity differences emerge early in the sessions. These differences in demand elasticity were driven by a higher choice rate and an increased reselection bias for the preferred commodity in compensated compared to

  5. Redesigning Urban Carbon Cycles: from Waste Stream to Commodity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabander, D. J.; Fitzstevens, M. G.

    2013-12-01

    supporting urban agriculture. We are now extending this approach to additional large U.S. and European urban centers where different philosophical and technological approaches to managing urban waste carbon have resulted in a range of infrastructures, from highly distributed systems (Germany) to centralized mega facilities (London). Ultimately, this research will lead to a decision-making matrix model that will permit cities to customize their urban carbon waste stream facilities and transform this waste into a usable commodity.

  6. From forest residue to energy commodities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guido, R. [DynaMotive Energy Systems Corp., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    A business overview of DynaMotive Energy Systems Corp. was presented. The company's main focus is to convert biomass to energy. Demand for renewables has been increasing steadily since the 1980 and will continue to do so for the next several decades. The DynaMotive process involves fast pyrolysis in a fluidized bed reactor. This is the rapid heating of biomass in the absence of oxygen. BioOil, one product of fast pyrolysis, is a condensed volatile, free flowing liquid fuel that is not derived from petroleum. It is an oxygenated organic compound and is miscible with ethanol. More than 70 different biomass materials have been tested and the results indicate that any biomass is suitable for this waste free process. The initial focus has been on problematic wood residues such as bark, sawdust, and branches, or agricultural residues such as sugar can bagasse or wheat straw. The environmental advantage of biotherm technology is that it reduces undesirable emissions to the atmosphere and promotes the use of renewable energy, and waste product utilization. BioOils can be used as an industrial fuel for boilers, kilns and for district heating. They can also be used for power generation in turbines. In time, BioOils can be used as a transportation fuel and in chemical refining. Canada's biomass reserves include 18 million tonnes each year from sawmill residue alone. 2 tabs., 16 figs.

  7. Food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, T.

    1986-01-01

    The proposed use of gamma radiation from cobalt 60 and cesium 137 for food irradiation in the United Kingdom is discussed, with particular reference to the possible dangers and disadvantages to the safety and wholesomeness of the food.

  8. Monitoring Particulate Matter with Commodity Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstius, David

    infrastructure (i.e., established monitoring sites). Given a collaborator with a short window of access to a reference monitoring site, this would overcome a nominally important barrier associated with non-gravimetric, in-situ calibration of continuous PM2.5 monitors. Progressive and disruptive prospects linked to a proliferation of comparable sensing technologies based on commodity hardware are discussed in Chapter 5.

  9. Policy Dilemmas in India - The Impact of Changes in Agricultural Prices on Rural and Urban Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Trade policy reforms which lead to changes in world prices of agricultural commodities or domestic policies aimed at affecting agricultural prices are often seen as causing a policy dilemma : a fall in agricultural prices benefits poor urban consumers but hurts poor rural producers, while a rise yields the converse. Poor countries have argued that they need to be able to use import protection and/or price support policies to protect themselves against volatility in world agricultural prices i...

  10. Policy dilemmas in India: The Impact of changes in agricultural prices on rural and urban poverty

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Trade policy reforms which lead to changes in world prices of agricultural commodities or domestic policies aimed at affecting agricultural prices are often seen as causing a policy dilemma: a fall in agricultural prices benefits poor urban consumers but hurts poor rural producers, while a rise yields the converse. Poor countries have argued that they need to be able to use import protection and/or price support policies to protect themselves against volatility in world agricultural prices in...

  11. 76 FR 4569 - Implementing the Whistleblower Provisions of Section 23 of the Commodity Exchange Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... the Commodity Exchange Act Correction In proposed rule document 2010-29022, beginning on page 75728 in... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING... Part II, the agency name ``Commodity Futures Trading Corporation'' should read ``Commodity Futures...

  12. A study on the systematization of commodity classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tae, Jae Woong; Shin, Dong Hoon [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    International community is trying to prevent the spread of WMD (Weapons of Mass Destruction), especially nuclear weapons. These efforts result in the declaration of UNSC Resolution 1540 in 2004, which made export controls the international norms for all nations in the world. Korea enacted Foreign Trade Act in 1989 to adhere to the export control standards worldwide. Export control system in Korea consists of commodity classification system and export license system. The commodity classification system is used to identify strategic commodity. The Export License system is used to verify that exports have met the conditions required by the international export control system. NSG guidelines, the NSG handbook and Public Notice on Trade of Strategic Items are used to classify items and technology However, some items or technology in NSG guidelines should be especially designed or prepared (EDP). It is difficult to determine which items or technology is strategic commodity because EDP criteria are qualitative. NSG or participant states don't provide clear criteria to classify items and technology but recommend establishing standards autonomously. Hence the result of deliberation on the same items and technology may be different by reviewer's experience, knowledge and governmental policy. It causes confusion of reviewers and export companies In this research, commodity classification systematization by EDP criteria's clarification was performed to increase consistency and efficiency.

  13. COMPETITIVENESS OF LEADING COMMODITIES TO SUPPORT DEVELOPING REGION OF AGROTOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murwatiningsih Murwatiningsih

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe aim of the research is to seek the competitiveness of the leading commodity in Semarang city which supports the development of centre commodity in agrotourism area. The method of analysis is leading sector, scoring analysis and capacity asessment through FGD. The result of the research reveals that leading commodities are Durian, Longan, Water Apple, and Rambutan. It is found that subdistrict Gunungpati and Mangunsari are ready to be the centre of horticulture commodity because its strategic location. It is located nearby Jatibarang reservoir (potential to be a tourism village, its cultivation is relatively successful, accessable transportation, and good management. Hence, it can be the pilot project area.Key words: competitiveness, centre, commodity, horticultureJEL Classification: O20, Q10AbstrakKesejahteraan petani tidak meningkat karena daya saingnya rendah dan pengelolannya tidak optimal. Tujuan penelitian, untuk melihat daya saing komoditas unggulan Kota Semarang untuk mendukung pengembangan sentra komoditas di kawasan agrowisata. Metode analisis yaitu sektor basis, analisis scoring serta capacity assessment melalui FGD. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan komoditas yang diunggulkan di Gunungpati adalah durian, klengkeng, jambu air dan rambutan. Kelurahan Gunungpati dan Mangunsari siap dijadikan sentra komoditas hortikultura di Kecamatan Gunungpati karena letaknya strategis- dekat dengan waduk Jatibarang (dapat menjadi desa wisata, budidaya relatif lebih berhasil, transportasi dan akseptibilitas lebih mudah, pengelolaannya bagus sehingga sudah menjadi daerah percontohan.Kata Kunci: daya saing, sentra, komoditas, hortikulturJEL Classification: O20, Q10

  14. 17 CFR 1.54 - Contract market rules submitted to and approved or not disapproved by the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... submitted to and approved or not disapproved by the Secretary of Agriculture. 1.54 Section 1.54 Commodity... Secretary of Agriculture. Notwithstanding any provision of these rules, any bylaw, rule, regulation, or resolution of a contract market that was submitted to the Secretary of Agriculture pursuant or § 1.38(a)...

  15. Trading forests: land-use change and carbon emissions embodied in production and exports of forest-risk commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henders, Sabine; Persson, U. Martin; Kastner, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Production of commercial agricultural commodities for domestic and foreign markets is increasingly driving land clearing in tropical regions, creating links and feedback effects between geographically separated consumption and production locations. Such teleconnections are commonly studied through calculating consumption footprints and quantifying environmental impacts embodied in trade flows, e.g., virtual water and land, biomass, or greenhouse gas emissions. The extent to which land-use change (LUC) and associated carbon emissions are embodied in the production and export of agricultural commodities has been less studied. Here we quantify tropical deforestation area and carbon emissions from LUC induced by the production and the export of four commodities (beef, soybeans, palm oil, and wood products) in seven countries with high deforestation rates (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Papua New Guinea). We show that in the period 2000-2011, the production of the four analyzed commodities in our seven case countries was responsible for 40% of total tropical deforestation and resulting carbon losses. Over a third of these impacts was embodied in exports in 2011, up from a fifth in 2000. This trend highlights the growing influence of global markets in deforestation dynamics. Main flows of embodied LUC are Latin American beef and soybean exports to markets in Europe, China, the former Soviet bloc, the Middle East and Northern Africa, whereas embodied emission flows are dominated by Southeast Asian exports of palm oil and wood products to consumers in China, India and the rest of Asia, as well as to the European Union. Our findings illustrate the growing role that global consumers play in tropical LUC trajectories and highlight the need for demand-side policies covering whole supply chains. We also discuss the limitations of such demand-side measures and call for a combination of supply- and demand-side policies to effectively limit tropical

  16. Mitigation potential and global health impacts from emissions pricing of food commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springmann, Marco; Mason-D'Croz, Daniel; Robinson, Sherman; Wiebe, Keith; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Rayner, Mike; Scarborough, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The projected rise in food-related greenhouse gas emissions could seriously impede efforts to limit global warming to acceptable levels. Despite that, food production and consumption have long been excluded from climate policies, in part due to concerns about the potential impact on food security. Using a coupled agriculture and health modelling framework, we show that the global climate change mitigation potential of emissions pricing of food commodities could be substantial, and that levying greenhouse gas taxes on food commodities could, if appropriately designed, be a health-promoting climate policy in high-income countries, as well as in most low- and middle-income countries. Sparing food groups known to be beneficial for health from taxation, selectively compensating for income losses associated with tax-related price increases, and using a portion of tax revenues for health promotion are potential policy options that could help avert most of the negative health impacts experienced by vulnerable groups, whilst still promoting changes towards diets which are more environmentally sustainable.

  17. Agriculture Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agriculture sectors comprise establishments primarily engaged in growing crops, raising animals, and harvesting fish and other animals. Find information on compliance, enforcement and guidance on EPA laws and regulations on the NAICS 111 & 112 sectors.

  18. Agricultural Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  19. Building and managing high performance, scalable, commodity mass storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekashman, John

    1998-01-01

    The NAS Systems Division has recently embarked on a significant new way of handling the mass storage problem. One of the basic goals of this new development are to build systems at very large capacity and high performance, yet have the advantages of commodity products. The central design philosophy is to build storage systems the way the Internet was built. Competitive, survivable, expandable, and wide open. The thrust of this paper is to describe the motivation for this effort, what we mean by commodity mass storage, what the implications are for a facility that performs such an action, and where we think it will lead.

  20. Historical global statistics for mineral and material commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Grecia R.; Miller, Lisa D.; Barry, James J.; Matos, Grecia R.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides information on the current use and flow of minerals and mineral-based materials in the U.S. and world economies. This Data Series report on “Historical Global Statistics for Mineral and Material Commodities” contains information on the production of selected commodities from 1990 to the most current year. The data may be used in the analysis of socioeconomic developments and trends and in the study of environmental issues associated with the extraction and processing of the selected commodities.

  1. Agricultural Trade Liberalization and the Least Developed Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, N.B.J.; Pinstrup-Andersen, P.

    2007-01-01

    Although the current round of international trade negotiations was called a `Development Round¿, very little was accomplished before the negotiations stalled in mid-2006. Developing countries as a group stand to gain very substantially from trade reform in agricultural commodities. It is less clear

  2. Agriculture: About EPA's National Agriculture Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's National Agriculture Center (Ag Center), with the support of the United States Department of Agriculture, serves growers, livestock producers, other agribusinesses, and agricultural information/education providers.

  3. 77 FR 55183 - Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Agricultural Commodities to Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... Cuba AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security, Commerce. ACTION: Request for comments. SUMMARY: The... Cuba. BIS will include a description of these comments in its biennial report to the Congress, as... 772 of the Export Administration Regulations (EAR), to Cuba. Requirements and procedures...

  4. 75 FR 54594 - Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Agricultural Commodities to Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... Cuba AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security, Commerce. ACTION: Request for comments. SUMMARY: The... Cuba. BIS will include a description of these comments in its biennial report to the Congress, as... of the Export Administration Regulations (EAR), to Cuba. Requirements and procedures associated...

  5. Drought Stress and Preharvest Aflatoxin Contamination in Agricultural Commodity: Genetics, Genomics and Proteomics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baozhu Guo; Zhi-Yuan Chen; R. Dewey Lee; Brian T. Scully

    2008-01-01

    Throughout the world, aflatoxin contamination is considered one of the most serious food safety issues concerning health. Chronic problems with preharvest aflatoxin contamination occur in the southern US, and are particularly troublesome in corn, peanut, cottonseed, and tree nuts. Drought stress is a major factor to contribute to preharvest afiatoxin contamination. Recent studies have demonstrated higher concentration of defense or stress-related proteins in corn kernels of resistant genotypes compared with susceptible genotypes, suggesting that preharvest field condition (drought or not drought) influences gene expression differently In different genotypes resulting in different levels of "end products": PR(pathogenesis-related) proteins in the mature kernels. Because of the complexity of Aspergillus-plant interactions, better understanding of the mechanisms of genetic resistance will be needed using genomics and proteomics for crop improvement. Genetic Improvement of crop resistance to drought stress is one component and will provide a good perspective on the efficacy of control strategy. Proteomic comparisons of corn kernel proteins between resistant or susceptible genotypes to Aspergillus flavus infection have identified stress-related proteins along with antifungal proteins as associated with kernel resistance. Gene expression studies in developing corn kernels are In agreement with the proteomic studies that defense-related genes could be upregulated or downregulated by abiotic stresses.

  6. 49 CFR 1039.10 - Exemption of agricultural commodities except grain, soybeans, and sunflower seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... meat. 20-15 Fresh dressed poultry. 20-17 Processed poultry. 20-21 Creamery Butter. 20-23 Condensed, Evaporated or Dried Milk. 20-25 Cheese and Special Dairy Products. 20-26 Processed Whole Milk. 20-141...

  7. 31 CFR 560.530 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... any entity or individual in Iran promoting international terrorism. Executory contracts entered into..., obtaining of insurance, and arrangement of financing (consistent with § 560.532) for the exportation...

  8. 31 CFR 538.523 - Commercial sales, exportation, and reexportation of agricultural commodities, medicine, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... promoting international terrorism, to any narcotics trafficking entity designated pursuant to Executive..., the arrangement of financing and payment, the entry into executory contracts, and the provision of... making of shipping arrangements, cargo inspection, obtaining of insurance, and arrangement of...

  9. Recent developments in marketing and pricing systems for agricultural export commodities in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Varangis, Panos; Takamasa AKIYAMA; Thigpen, Elton

    1990-01-01

    This paper documents the difficulties various countries in sub - Saharan Africa have had with marketing and pricing systems, and shows how these systems have been caused or exacerbated by government controls. It documents the steps several countries have taken toward relaxing those controls and allowing more participation by private enterprise. Some general conclusions are drawn about the kinds of changes in parastatal marketing organizations that most effectively improve their ability to mar...

  10. 48 CFR 470.201 - Acquisition of commodities and freight shipment for Foreign Agricultural Service programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the existence of inadequate or unsanitary warehouse and other supporting facilities; (C) The total... that efficiency and cost-savings justify use of types of ocean service that would not involve...

  11. 75 FR 11472 - Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act: Increase in License Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... commission merchants, brokers, and dealers (other than grocery wholesalers and retailers) the annual license... out license fees by retailers and grocery wholesalers and the provisions to phase in triennial license renewal for retailers and grocery wholesalers as these processes have already occurred. We also propose...

  12. Export diversification in Uganda : developments in non-traditional agricultural exports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Tjalling

    2001-01-01

    Over the last two decades agricultural export diversification has been pushed as an economic development strategy for sub-Saharan Africa. This paper looks at Uganda, where nontraditional agricultural export commodities have been (re)-introduced since Museveni came to power in 1986. The most importan

  13. Agricultural investments in Mozambique : An analysis of investment trends, business models and social and environmental conduct

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    di Matteo, F.; Schoneveld, G.C.

    2016-01-01

    The recent influx of agricultural investment to Africa is increasingly equated with land grabbing by investors from emerging and Northern economies seeking to produce commodities to serve the needs of their own food and energy markets. This paper reflects on this discourse by unpacking agricultural

  14. The Global Society will need commodities; how do we prepare for the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, P. Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The global population currently stands at approximately 7 billion and is expected to increase to between 8.3 and 10.9 billion by 2050. To put this into perspective, today's global population is triple what it was in 1950. Commodities are required for healthy societies, for robust economies and to raise living standards in the developing world. With major increases the population particularly in nations with emerging economies, the demand for commodities such as water, energy and minerals will significantly increase during the next several decades. Among the concerns are clean and available freshwater, expanded energy sources from natural gas and nuclear to renewable energy, and emerging needs for specialty materials that are needed for advanced technology to expanded use of more conventional minerals for agriculture and commerce. The developing world may have the greatest need for these commodities and also be the source of many of them. At the conclusion of the International Year of Planet Earth, a small group was formed to assess the need for a major scientific effort in the geosciences. Under the auspices of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), the strategic initiatives group met and a broad initiative entitled 'Resourcing Future Generations' (RFG) that was designed to implement a scientific strategy to address the increasing demand for commodities over the next 25 years. The initiative focused on water resources, energy and minerals. The group felt strongly that the minerals component should be the initial emphasis and hoped that other global scientific organizations like IUGS would embrace the water and energy themes. Since this initial effort a number of workshops and presentations have been made including China, the International Geological Congress in Brisbane, the Davos Summit, Berlin, and Namibia amongst others. The strategic initiative planning group identifies 4 challenges to meeting future global mineral needs which are improved

  15. Our Cyberbodies, Ourselves: Conceptual Grounds for Teaching Commodities To Write.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Stanley D.

    2002-01-01

    Argues for a pedagogy of the posthuman that meets the needs of student writers in computer classrooms. Suggests that educators now fail to serve the needs of posthuman students whose subjectivities emerge at the conjuncture of consumer culture and cyberspace and emerge as commodities. Proposes that critically oriented compositionists should design…

  16. 22 CFR 211.6 - Processing, repackaging, and labeling commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Processing, repackaging, and labeling commodities. 211.6 Section 211.6 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT TRANSFER OF FOOD... containers as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, and banners, posters, or similar media which...

  17. 22 CFR 228.14 - Nationality of suppliers of commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 228.14 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES ON SOURCE, ORIGIN AND NATIONALITY FOR COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY USAID Conditions Governing Source and Nationality of... laws of a country or area included in the authorized geographic source code and with a place of...

  18. History of the Lviv commodity and stock exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Z. Moshenskyi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article shows importance of Lviv as a major financial center. Revealed specific features of Lviv commodity and stock exchange. Author reviews the history of securities in Galicia and Bukovina from bankozettels and Austrian government bonds to the so called «indemnization» bonds and first shares.

  19. Complexities in moving from commodity to vehicular flows

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Joubert, JW

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available different agents can be added to the transport model’s commuter population. Shipper agents are those wanting to convey goods (commodity perspective), and assign the shipments in a market-environment to logistic service providers and, ultimately, Carriers...

  20. 22 CFR 201.31 - Suppliers of commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY... CFR parts 500 through 599, as from time to time amended, are complied with; and (6) The purchase price... customs of the trade shall be made by the supplier in the form of a dollar payment to USAID. Any...

  1. 22 CFR 201.11 - Eligibility of commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Department Foreign Assets, Sanctions, Transactions and Funds Control Regulations published in 31 CFR parts 500 through 599, as from time to time amended. (h) Commodities shipped out of a free port or bonded... shipped to the cooperating country shall be insured against marine risks and that such insurance shall...

  2. The Export Tax Rates Adjustments on Metals Commodities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>Approved by China’s State Council, the Ministry of Finance, the General Administration of Taxation and the General Administration of Customs published the newly adjusted export tax rates on the metals commodities, which came into effect on January 1, 2005. These ad-

  3. Cycle-preserving extension of demand functions to new commodities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.M. Peters (Hans); P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractA method is given to extend demand functions to new commodities under preservation of the cycle number, i.e. the minimal length of a preference cycle revealed by the demand function. Thus, Gale's (Economica, N.S., 1960, 27, 348–354) demand function that shows that the weak axiom of revea

  4. Cycle-Preserving Extension of Demand Functions to New Commodities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, H.J.M.; Wakker, P.P.

    1996-01-01

    A method is given to extend demand functions to new commodities under preservation of the cycle number, i.e., the minimal length of a preference cycle revealed by the demand function. Thus Gale's (Economica, N.S., 1960, 27, 348-354) demand function that shows that the weak axiom of revealed preferen

  5. Conceptualizing Culture as Commodity: The Problem of Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Eileen R.

    1986-01-01

    Claims that most television research ignores the connections between its symbolic and economic influences. Argues for an integrated approach that views television as both a commodity and an artifact. Describes five analytical categories that researchers could use to provide information illuminating these relations to the public. (JD)

  6. Cooperation with Commodity Groups and Hands-On Demonstrations Improve the Effectiveness of Commodity-Focused Educational Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Herman J.; Ransom, Joel K.; Torgerson, David A.; Wiersma, Jochum J.

    2010-01-01

    Wheat and soybean producers pay a small amount per bushel produced as a check-off. Funds are used for research, outreach, and crop promotion. Commodity organizations and Extension joined forces to develop multi-state educational outreach on spring wheat and soybean production. Participatory planning involved producers in developing these…

  7. An industry perspective on the use of seasonal forecasts and weather information for evaluating sensitivities in traded commodity supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domeisen, Daniela; Slavov, Georgi

    2015-04-01

    Weather information on seasonal timescales is crucial to various end users, from the level of subsistence farming to the government level. Also the financial industry is ever more aware of and interested in the benefits that early and correctly interpreted forecast information provides. Straight forward and often cited applications include the estimation of rainfall and temperature anomalies for drought - prone agricultural areas producing traded commodities, as well as some of the rather direct impacts of weather on energy production. Governments, weather services, as well as both academia and private companies are working on tailoring climate and weather information to a growing number of customers. However, also other large markets, such as coal, iron ore, and gas, are crucially dependent on seasonal weather information and forecasts, while the needs are again very dependent on the direction of the predicted signal. So far, relatively few providers in climate services address these industries. All of these commodities show a strong seasonal and weather dependence, and an unusual winter or summer can crucially impact their demand and supply. To name a few impacts, gas is crucially driven by heating demand, iron ore excavation is dependent on the available water resources, and coal mining is dependent on winter temperatures and rainfall. This contribution will illustrate and provide an inside view of the type of climate and weather information needed for the various large commodity industries.

  8. HESTIA Commodities Exchange Pallet and Sounding Rocket Test Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, Javier

    2013-01-01

    During my Spring 2016 internship, my two major contributions were the design of the Commodities Exchange Pallet and the design of a test stand for a 100 pounds-thrust sounding rocket. The Commodities Exchange Pallet is a prototype developed for the Human Exploration Spacecraft Testbed for Integration and Advancement (HESTIA) program. Under the HESTIA initiative the Commodities Exchange Pallet was developed as a method for demonstrating multi-system integration thru the transportation of In-Situ Resource Utilization produced oxygen and water to a human habitat. Ultimately, this prototype's performance will allow for future evaluation of integration, which may lead to the development of a flight capable pallet for future deep-space exploration missions. For HESTIA, my main task was to design the Commodities Exchange Pallet system to be used for completing an integration demonstration. Under the guidance of my mentor, I designed, both, the structural frame and fluid delivery system for the commodities pallet. The fluid delivery system includes a liquid-oxygen to gaseous-oxygen system, a water delivery system, and a carbon-dioxide compressors system. The structural frame is designed to meet safety and transportation requirements, as well as the ability to interface with the ER division's Portable Utility Pallet. The commodities pallet structure also includes independent instrumentation oxygen/water panels for operation and system monitoring. My major accomplishments for the commodities exchange pallet were the completion of the fluid delivery systems and the structural frame designs. In addition, parts selection was completed in order to expedite construction of the prototype, scheduled to begin in May of 2016. Once the commodities pallet is assembled and tested it is expected to complete a fully integrated transfer demonstration with the ISRU unit and the Environmental Control and Life Support System test chamber in September of 2016. In addition to the development of

  9. Effects of health-care services and commodities cost on the patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of health-care services and commodities cost on the patients at the primary ... the monthly income of the clients and the experience of financial stress and a ... Commodities, National Health Act, primary health care, regulation, services ...

  10. Segmentation of the industrial market for food commodities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the study presented in this article is to examine whether the cconcepts developed in the area of industrial buying behavior can add to the understanding of commodity markets. The industrial market for vegetable oil was chosen as the outset of the study, because it is characterized...... by the appearance of changing demands and technological opportunities, which potentially can lead to differentiation possibilities. The article describes a framework for the study of industrial buying of food commodities and the results of a conjoint study based on interviews with oil purchasers in the margarine...... and mayonnaise industries in Denmark, Sweden, Germany, the United Kingdom and Switzerland. The main result of the study is that the price is an omnipotent decision criterion, when vegetable fats and mayonnaise producers buy vegetable oil, but also that product and supplier criteria can be used to segment...

  11. The Role of Incompleteness in Commodity Futures Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi eKanamura

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a convenience yield-based pricing for commodity futures, which embeds incompleteness of commodity futures markets in convenience yields. By using the pricing method, we conduct empirical analyses of the prices of WTI crude oil, heating oil, and natural gas futures traded on the NYMEX in order to assess the incompleteness of energy futures markets. We show that the fluctuation from the incompleteness is partly driven by the fluctuation from convenience yields. In addition, it is shown that the incompleteness of natural gas futures market is more highlighted than the incompleteness of WTI crude oil and heating oil futures markets. We apply the implied market price of risk from the NYMEX data to pricing an Asian call option written on WTI crude oil futures. Finally, we try to apply the market incompleteness analysis to the post-crisis periods after 2009.

  12. 1990 Nationwide Truck Activity and Commodity Survey selected tabulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    The Nationwide Truck Activity and Commodity Survey (NTACS) provides detailed activity data for a sample of trucks covered in the 1987 Truck Inventory and Use Survey (TIUS) for days selected at random over a 12-month period ending in 1990. The NTACS was conducted by the US Bureau of the Census for the US Department of Transportation (DOT). A Public Use File for the NTACS was developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under a reimbursable agreement with the DOT. The content of the Public Use File and the detailed design of the NTACS are described in the ORNL Report [open quotes]Technical Documentation for the 1990 Nationwide Truck Activity and Commodity Survey Public Use File[close quotes]. (1992). ORNL Technical Report No. TM-12188, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831. The main purpose of this summary report is to provide selected tables based on the public use file.

  13. South African Agricultural Research and Development: A Century of Change

    OpenAIRE

    Liebenberg, Frikkie; Pardey, Philip G.; Kahn, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The 20th Century saw substantive shifts in the structure of agriculture and agricultural production in South Africa. Farm size grew, farm numbers eventually declined, and production increasingly emphasized higher-valued commodities, notably a range of horticultural crops. The real gross value of agricultural output grew steadily (by 3.32 percent per year) from 1910-1981, but declined thereafter (by 0.21 percent per year from 1982-2008). These long-run sectoral changes provide a context to pre...

  14. Latin America: population, food supply and agricultural dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, A

    1985-01-01

    The relationships among population growth, food supply, and agricultural dependency in Latin America since World War II are examined. The author notes that in the recent past, population growth and agricultural growth have kept pace with each other. However, "most countries appear to be caught in a dilemma common to the underdeveloped world: either increasing emphasis on basic foodstuffs to satisfy a growing population and increased per capita demand for food or increasing output of export agricultural commodities in order to earn the necessary foreign exchange for imports and development."

  15. Foreign Agricultural Trade of the United States November?December 1990

    OpenAIRE

    Warden, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    U.S. agricultural exports totaled $40 billion during FY 1991, just about unchanged from a year earlier ... Imports of FY 1990 agricultural products " rose 5 percent to $22.5 billion, led by an II-percent gain for competitive items, such as cattle, beef, cheeses, fruit, fruit juices, fresh vegetables, and sugar ... U.S. agricultural exports under the Commodity Credit Corporation's I export credit guarantee programs increased 29 percent in FY 1989 to $4.77 billion.

  16. Bacterial and yeast counts in Brazilian commodities and spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freire Francisco das Chagas Oliveira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of thirteen genera of bacteria and two genera of yeasts were detected in surface sterilized and unsterilized Brazilian commodities and spices such as cashew kernels, Brazil nut kernels, black and white pepper. The genus Bacillus with eight species was by far the most common. The yeasts isolated were Pichia sp., P. guillermondii and Rhodotorula sp. Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in cashew and Brazil nut kernels.

  17. Valuation of commodity derivatives with an unobservable convenience yield

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Anh Ngoc; Mellios, Constantin

    2016-01-01

    International audience; This paper extends the existing literature on commodity derivatives to account for an unobservable stochastic convenience yield. Investors operate in an economy with incomplete information. In contrast to other incomplete information models, analytical formulas for forward and futures prices, as well as for European options on forward and futures contracts are obtained. These formulas reveal the important role played by the initial values of the estimator of the conven...

  18. Strategic contracting practices to improve procurement of health commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arney, Leslie; Yadav, Prashant; Miller, Roger; Wilkerson, Taylor

    2014-08-01

    Public-sector entities responsible for procurement of essential medicines and health commodities in developing countries often lack the technical capacity to efficiently ensure supply security. Under strict public scrutiny and pressures to be transparent, many agencies continue to use archaic procurement methods and to depend on inflexible forecasts and cumbersome tendering processes. On the basis of semi-structured literature reviews and interviews, we identified framework agreements as a strategic procurement practice used by the U.S. federal government that may also be suitable for global health supply chains. Framework agreements are long-term contracts that provide the terms and conditions under which smaller repeat purchasing orders may be issued for a defined period of time. Such agreements are common in U.S. and United Nations procurement systems and in other developed countries and multilateral organizations. In contrast, framework agreements appear to be seldom used in procurement of health commodities in countries of sub-Saharan Africa. The current practice of floating tenders multiple times a year contributes to long lead times and stock-outs, and it hampers the manufacturer's or supplier's ability to plan and respond to the government's needs. To date, government's use of strategic contracting practices in public procurement of health commodities has not received much attention in most developing countries. It may present an opportunity for substantial improvements in procurement efficiency and commodity availability. Enabling legislation and strengthened technical capacity to develop and manage long-term contracts could facilitate the use of framework contracts in sub-Saharan Africa, with improved supply security and cost savings likely to result.

  19. The predictive performance of commodity futures risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Shamim; Tsvetanov, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the time-series predictability of commodity futures excess returns from factor models that exploit two risk factors – the equally weighted average excess return on long positions in a universe of futures contracts and the return difference between the high- and low-basis portfolios. Adopting a standard set of statistical evaluation metrics, we find weak evidence that the factor models provide out-of-sample forecasts of monthly excess returns significantly better than t...

  20. EPAs and the Demise of the Commodity Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Matthews

    2008-01-01

    With the entry into force of Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) between the EU and African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries at the beginning of 2008, the three commodity protocols attached, first, to the Lomé Conventions and, subsequently, the Cotonou Agreement which benefited ACP exporters of sugar, bananas and beef have been terminated or shortly will be. This paper reviews the reasons for the termination of these protocols, and investigates whether EPAs help to maintain the econo...

  1. Exchange Rates and Commodity Prices : Measuring Causality at Multiple Horizons

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Jun ZHANG; Dufour, Jean-Marie; Galbraith, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding and measuring the relative roles of different causal channels between commodity prices and exchange rates has important implications in financial decision making, especially for market participants with short horizons. From a macroeconomic perspective, this can also be useful for interpreting exchange rate movements, financial market monitoring and monetary policy. Basic economic reasoning on currency demand suggests that the currencies of countries whose exports depend heavily ...

  2. Global stocks of selected mineral-based commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, David R.; Bleiwas, Donald I.; Karl, Nick A.

    2016-12-05

    IntroductionThe U.S. Geological Survey, National Minerals Information Center, analyzes mineral and metal supply chains by identifying and describing major components of mineral and material flows from ore extraction, through intermediate forms, to a final product. This report focuses on an important component of the world’s supply chain: the amounts and global distribution of major consumer, producer, and exchange stocks of selected mineral commodities. In this report, the term “stock” is used instead of “inventory” and refers to accumulations of mined ore, intermediate products, and refined mineral-based commodities that are in a form that meets the agreed-upon specifications of a buyer or processor of intermediate products. These may include certain ores such as bauxite, concentrates, smelter products, and refined metals. Materials sometimes referred to as inventory for accounting purposes, such as ore contained in a deposit or in a leach pile, or materials that need to be further processed before they can be shipped to a consumer, are not considered. Stocks may be held (owned) by consumers, governments, investors, producers, and traders. They may serve as (1) a means to achieve economic, social, and strategic goals through government policies; (2) a secure source of supply to meet demand and to mitigate potential shortages in the supply chain; (3) a hedge to mitigate price volatility; and (4) vehicles for speculative investment.The paucity and uneven reliability of data for stocks of ores and concentrates and for material held by producers, consumers, and merchants hinder the accurate estimating of the size and distribution of this portion of the supply chain for certain commodities. This paper reviews the more visible stocks held in commodity exchange warehouses distributed throughout the world.

  3. DYNAMICS AND NEW CHALLENGES IN THE GLOBAL COMMODITY MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA CARTAS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Global economy and particularly the world production of goods depends to a large extent on the supply of raw materials, of resource inputs extracted from the environment as well as an easy access to them. Commodities play an important part in the growth of global production and in the world trade in goods and services. The access to raw materials is vital for sustaining the productive capacity of the economy and also for satisfying domestic demand for industrial goods. On the other side, increasing demand for commodities and the need for assuring a sustainable supply pose great challenges on the world economy. The issue of raw materials supply represents a high - priority theme in the political agenda of the European Union. The Raw Materials Initiative launched in 2008 by the European Commission is based on three main pillars: - to ensure the access to raw materials on world market at undistorted conditions; - to foster sustainable supply of raw materials from European sources; - to reduce the EU's consumption of primary raw materials. (EC, 2008. To this end, EC has started to take action in order to ensure access to resources and avoid supply shortages. A great deal of attention is being paid to the study of recent developments in the global and particular commodity markets, taking into consideration fundamental aspects as supply concentration, governance of producing countries, the pressure of demand and its impact on prices, material's substitutability, stressing the role of resource consumption efficiency, recycling and substitution of vital raw materials and thus providing policy makers and industry with reliable information on how to efficiently manage resource inputs. This paper is dealing with the main developments which occurred during the past decade or so in the global commodity market, a major driver of the world economy, with particular reference to selected key -markets - as: aluminium, copper, nickel; cotton; corn, meat - swine

  4. ORION: Orientation Estimation Using Commodity Wi-Fi

    OpenAIRE

    Mahfoudi, Mohamed Naoufal; Turletti, Thierry; Parmentelat, Thierry; FERRERO, Fabien; Lizzi, Leonardo; Staraj, Robert; Dabbous, Walid

    2017-01-01

    International audience; With MIMO, Wi-Fi led the way to the adoption of antenna array signal processing techniques for fine-grained localization using commodity hardware. These techniques, previously exclusive to specific domains of applications, will spur interest to reach beyond localization, and now allow to consider estimating the device’s orientation in space, that once required other sources of information. Wi-Fi’s popularity and the availability of metrics related to channel propagatio...

  5. Liberalisation of tropical commodity market and adding-up problem: A Bound test approach

    OpenAIRE

    Dhanya, V.

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines the effect of commodity market liberalisation on developing countries by taking the case of tropical products. This issue assumes importance in the context of developing countries characterised as they are by heavy dependence on commodity exports. Theoretically, commodity market liberalisation could adversely affect the terms of trade of exporting countries, as the price and income elasticity of demand for the commodities are relatively low. The problem arises as the welfar...

  6. China Silk Commodities: Exports Down by 5.05% in Q1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yan

    2007-01-01

    @@ According to statistics promulgated by China Customs, total export value of silk commodities was 1.776 billion USD from January to March of 2007, down by 5.05% compared with the same period of last year. Among the export commodities, pure silk commodities export was 803 million USD, a decrease of 10.17% year-on-year; man-made silk commodities export was 972 million USD, descended by 0.35%.

  7. China Silk Commodities:Exports Down by 5.05% in Q1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    According to statistics promulgated by China Customs, total export value of silk commodities was 1.776 billion USD from January to March of 2007,down by 5.05% compared with the same period of last year.Among the export commodities,pure silk commodities export was 803 million USD,a decrease of 10.17% year-on-year;man-made silk commodities export was 972 million USD,descended by 0.35%.

  8. Agricultural Productivity Forecasts for Improved Drought Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, Ashutosh; McNider, Richard; Moss, Donald; Alhamdan, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Water stresses on agricultural crops during critical phases of crop phenology (such as grain filling) has higher impact on the eventual yield than at other times of crop growth. Therefore farmers are more concerned about water stresses in the context of crop phenology than the meteorological droughts. However the drought estimates currently produced do not account for the crop phenology. US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have developed a drought monitoring decision support tool: The U.S. Drought Monitor, which currently uses meteorological droughts to delineate and categorize drought severity. Output from the Drought Monitor is used by the States to make disaster declarations. More importantly, USDA uses the Drought Monitor to make estimates of crop yield to help the commodities market. Accurate estimation of corn yield is especially critical given the recent trend towards diversion of corn to produce ethanol. Ethanol is fast becoming a standard 10% ethanol additive to petroleum products, the largest traded commodity. Thus the impact of large-scale drought will have dramatic impact on the petroleum prices as well as on food prices. USDA's World Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) serves as a focal point for economic intelligence and the commodity outlook for U.S. WAOB depends on Drought Monitor and has emphatically stated that accurate and timely data are needed in operational agrometeorological services to generate reliable projections for agricultural decision makers. Thus, improvements in the prediction of drought will reflect in early and accurate assessment of crop yields, which in turn will improve commodity projections. We have developed a drought assessment tool, which accounts for the water stress in the context of crop phenology. The crop modeling component is done using various crop modules within Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT). DSSAT is an agricultural crop

  9. Market Structure and Price Transmission of Eggs Commodity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Aziz Ahmad

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purposes of this research are to determine some characteristics of distribution channel, market structure, and price maker transmission in purebred chicken egg commodity in Banyumas District, Central Java Province. Primary data applied on this research is from all channel distribution levels; from producers to final consumers. Meanwhile secondary data is collected from government official sources, such as BPS-Statistic of Banyumas Disrict, Banyumas Department of Industry, Trading and Cooperation, and previous researches which has been made by researcher team. Sample determining is directed by proportional random sampling methods. Some measurements are applied to this research, including to; Herfindahl Index (HI, Concentration Ratio (CF, and Minimum Efficiency Scale (MES to investigate market structure; and Asymmetric Price Transmission (APT to determine price transmission mechanism model. This research finds that (1 the distribution channel of egg commodity is spitted to different channel, the first channel: egg producer – retail traders – final consumers, and second channel: egg producers – whole seller – retail traders – final consumers; (2 market structure which is created to this farming specific commodity is perfect market; (3 price transmission mechanism analysis statistically shows that there is almost no existence of dominant power in price formation.

  10. Network structure impacts global commodity trade growth and resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovenskaya, Elena; Fath, Brian D.

    2017-01-01

    Global commodity trade networks are critical to our collective sustainable development. Their increasing interconnectedness pose two practical questions: (i) Do the current network configurations support their further growth? (ii) How resilient are these networks to economic shocks? We analyze the data of global commodity trade flows from 1996 to 2012 to evaluate the relationship between structural properties of the global commodity trade networks and (a) their dynamic growth, as well as (b) the resilience of their growth with respect to the 2009 global economic shock. Specifically, we explore the role of network efficiency and redundancy using the information theory-based network flow analysis. We find that, while network efficiency is positively correlated with growth, highly efficient systems appear to be less resilient, losing more and gaining less growth following an economic shock. While all examined networks are rather redundant, we find that network redundancy does not hinder their growth. Moreover, systems exhibiting higher levels of redundancy lose less and gain more growth following an economic shock. We suggest that a strategy to support making global trade networks more efficient via, e.g., preferential trade agreements and higher specialization, can promote their further growth; while a strategy to increase the global trade networks’ redundancy via e.g., more abundant free-trade agreements, can improve their resilience to global economic shocks. PMID:28207790

  11. Alternative Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Will the popularization of bioenergy, a new source for powering China, trigger another agricultural revolution? Skyrocketing energy prices, especially the oil shock in the first half of 2005, are pushing China to seek more substitutes for gasoline. A number of cities are turning to ethanol-blended gas made from com. Starting this month, the sale of regular gasoline will be brought to an end in nine of China's

  12. China Cancels 23 Textile Machinery Commodities under Automatic Import Licensing Administration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Yan

    2007-01-01

    @@ In accordance with Measures for Administration on Commodities of Automatic Import Licensing, Ministry of Commerce adjusted List of Commodities under Automatic Import Licensing Administration of 2007, on March 10, canceling automatic import licensing administration of 338 tax items including 23 textile machinery commodities.

  13. 78 FR 25416 - Information Collection Request: Web-Based Supply Chain Management Commodity Offer Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... invitations, however, are issued throughout the month. Web-Based Supply Chain Management (WBSCM) allows... Farm Service Agency Commodity Credit Corporation Information Collection Request: Web-Based Supply Chain Management Commodity Offer Forms AGENCY: Farm Service Agency and Commodity Credit Corporation, USDA....

  14. Sustainable Systems Analysis of Production and Transportation Scenarios for Conventional and Bio-based Energy Commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, E. M.; Golden, J. S.; Nowacek, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    International commerce places unique pressures on the sustainability of water resources and marine environments. System impacts include noise, emissions, and chemical and biological pollutants like introduction of invasive species into key ecosystems. At the same time, maritime trade also enables the sustainability ambition of intragenerational equity in the economy through the global circulation of commodities and manufactured goods, including agricultural, energy and mining resources (UN Trade and Development Board 2013). This paper presents a framework to guide the analysis of the multiple dimensions of the sustainable commerce-ocean nexus. As a demonstration case, we explore the social, economic and environmental aspects of the nexus framework using scenarios for the production and transportation of conventional and bio-based energy commodities. Using coupled LCA and GIS methodologies, we are able to orient the findings spatially for additional insight. Previous work on the sustainable use of marine resources has focused on distinct aspects of the maritime environment. The framework presented here, integrates the anthropogenic use, governance and impacts on the marine and coastal environments with the natural components of the system. A similar framework has been highly effective in progressing the study of land-change science (Turner et al 2007), however modification is required for the unique context of the marine environment. This framework will enable better research integration and planning for sustainability objectives including mitigation and adaptation to climate change, sea level rise, reduced dependence on fossil fuels, protection of critical marine habitat and species, and better management of the ocean as an emerging resource base for the production and transport of commodities and energy across the globe. The framework can also be adapted for vulnerability analysis, resilience studies and to evaluate the trends in production, consumption and

  15. Equity in Whom Gets Studied: A Systematic Review Examining Geographical Region, Gender, Commodity, and Employment Context in Research of Low Back Disorders in Farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trask, Catherine; Khan, Muhammad Idress; Adebayo, Olugbenga; Boden, Catherine; Bath, Brenna

    2015-01-01

    Farmers are at high risk of having low back disorders (LBDs). Agriculture employs half the global workforce, but it is unclear whether all farming populations are represented equitably in the LBD literature. This systematic review quantifies the number and quality of research studies by geographical region, agricultural commodity, and farmer characteristics. MEDLINE, Web of Science, CINAHL, Scopus, and Embase databases were searched using conceptual groups of search terms: "farming" and "LBD." Screening and extraction were performed by two researchers in parallel, then reconciled through discussion. Extracted study characteristics included location of study; commodity produced; worker sex, ethnicity, and migration status; type of employment; and study quality. These were compared with agricultural employment statistics from the International Labour Organization and World Bank. From 125 articles, roughly half (67) did not specify the employment context of the participants in terms of migration status or subsistence versus commercial farming. Although in many regions worldwide women make up the bulk of the workforce, only a minority of low back disorder studies focus on women. Despite the predominance of the agricultural workforce in developing nations, 91% of included studies were conducted in developed nations. There was no significant difference in study quality by geographic region. The nature of the world's agricultural workforce is poorly represented by the literature when it comes to LBD research. If developing nations, female sex, and migrant work are related to increased vulnerability, then these groups need more representation to achieve equitable occupational health study.

  16. Transport of solid commodities via freight pipeline: demand analysis methodology. Volume IV. First year final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, W.B.; Plaut, T.

    1976-07-01

    In order to determine the feasibility of intercity freight pipelines, it was necessary to determine whether sufficient traffic flows currently exist between various origins and destinations to justify consideration of a mode whose operating characteristics became competitive under conditions of high-traffic volume. An intercity origin/destination freight-flow matrix was developed for a large range of commodities from published sources. A high-freight traffic-density corridor between Chicago and New York and another between St. Louis and New York were studied. These corridors, which represented 18 cities, had single-direction flows of 16 million tons/year. If trans-shipment were allowed at each of the 18 cities, flows of up to 38 million tons/year were found in each direction. These figures did not include mineral or agricultural products. After determining that such pipeline-eligible freight-traffic volumes existed, the next step was to determine the ability of freight pipeline to penetrate such markets. Modal-split models were run on aggregate data from the 1967 Census of Transportation. Modal-split models were also run on disaggregate data specially collected for this study. The freight pipeline service characteristics were then substituted into both the aggregate and disaggregate models (truck vs. pipeline and then rail vs. pipeline) and estimates of pipeline penetration into particular STCC commodity groups were made. Based on these very preliminary results, it appears that freight pipeline has market penetration potential that is consistent with high-volume participation in the intercity freight market.

  17. The Poverty Impacts of Global Commodity Trade Liberalization

    OpenAIRE

    Hertel, Thomas W.; Keeney, Roman

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the poverty impacts of global merchandise trade reform by looking at a wide range of developing countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Overall, we find that trade reform tends to reduce poverty primarily through the inclusion of agricultural components. The majority of our developing country sample experiences small poverty increases from non-agricultural reforms. We explore the relative poverty-friendliness of agricultural trade reforms in detail, examining the diff...

  18. Sustainable agricultural practices: energy inputs and outputs, pesticide, fertilizer and greenhouse gas management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue-Wen

    2009-01-01

    The food security issue was addressed by the development of "modern agriculture" in the last century. But food safety issues and environment degradation were the consequences suffered as a result. Climate change has been recognized as the result of release of stored energy in fossil fuel into the atmosphere. Homogeneous crop varieties, machinery, pesticides and fertilizers are the foundation of uniform commodities in modern agriculture. Fossil fuels are used to manufacture fertilizers and pesticides as well as the energy source for agricultural machinery, thus characterizes modern agriculture. Bio-fuel production and the possibility of the agriculture system as a form of energy input are discussed.

  19. Measuring Export Competitiveness of Yarn Commodities and Textile Industry of Central Java in World Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hertiana Ikasari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Yarn commodities and textile industries are the main export commodities of Central Java. Nevertheless, there are still some problems to face. The purpose of this research is to analyze the market share and competitive advantages position of the yarn commodities and the textile industries of Central Java in the world market. The Acceleration Ratio (AR and Trade Specialization Index (TSI are used to analyze the export competitiveness of the yarn commodities and the textile industries. The results obtained indicates that AR of the export of yarn commodities and textile industries of Central Java is greater than 1 (AR> 1. TSI of yarn commodities and textile industries in Central Java is 0.45 and has positive value. These results indicates that Central Java has a strong market share and tends to be a regional exporter of yarn and textile commodities in the world market.

  20. Segmentation of the industrial market for food commodities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the study presented in this article is to examine whether the cconcepts developed in the area of industrial buying behavior can add to the understanding of commodity markets. The industrial market for vegetable oil was chosen as the outset of the study, because it is characterized...... and mayonnaise industries in Denmark, Sweden, Germany, the United Kingdom and Switzerland. The main result of the study is that the price is an omnipotent decision criterion, when vegetable fats and mayonnaise producers buy vegetable oil, but also that product and supplier criteria can be used to segment...... the market, if the price premium is held within limits....

  1. Status of food irradiation in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, O.K. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    Research on food irradiation in Brazil started in 1968 at the Center of Nuclear Energy for Agriculture (CENA), Piracicaba, Sao Paulo. At the Institute of Nuclear and Energy Research (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, research on detection of irradiated foods is in progress. In 1973, the Brazilian government established a regulation about food irradiation. Nowadays, the products authorized to be irradiated are: rice, poultry, fish and fish products, potatoes, onions, avocados, persimmons, pineapples, wheat flour, maize, beans, spices, tomatoes, guavas, oranges, lemons, strawberries, mangoes, melons and papayas. The other recommended products to be approved in the future are: acerolas, apples, beans (dose > 1 kGy), beef, blueberries, cherries, cheeses, coffee, figs, fresh guaranas, garlics, grapefruits, grapes, mushrooms, nuts and pork. Today, there is only one commercial facility for irradiation services in the country, the Empresa Brasileira de Radiacoes Ltda. (EMBRARAD). This company operates a Nordion JS-7500 irradiator, with a present activity of about 1,000 kCi, designed for sterilizing medical devices. It also irradiates spices, dried foods, gemstones, cosmetics, wood and raw materials for pharmaceuticals. The plant operates 24 hours a day and the spices and dried foods represent 15% of the business. Powder of guarana seeds is irradiated also for exportation. There are two other commercial facilities for radiation sterilization in Brazil, operating exclusively for their own production. (J.P.N.)

  2. The case for a generic phytosanitary irradiation dose of 250 Gy for Lepidoptera eggs and larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Guy J.; Arthur, Valter; Blackburn, Carl M.; Parker, Andrew G.

    2013-08-01

    The literature on ionizing irradiation of Lepidoptera is critically examined for a dose that could serve as a generic phytosanitary treatment for all eggs and larvae of that order, which contains many quarantine pests that inhibit trade in fresh agricultural commodities. The measure of efficacy used in deriving this dose is the prevention of emergence of normal-looking adults that are assumed not able to fly. A dose of 250 Gy is supported by many studies comprising 34 species in 11 lepidopteran families, including those of significant quarantine importance. Two studies with two different species found that doses >250 Gy were necessary, but both of these are contradicted by other studies showing that 10,000 individuals) testing for families other than Tortricidae (the most important quarantine family in the Lepidoptera). Because several large-scale studies have been done with tortricids a dose of 250 Gy could be justifiable for Tortricidae if it is not acceptable for the entire Lepidoptera at this time.

  3. THEORETICAL ASPECT OF INTERNATIONAL COMMODITY & LOGISTIC FLOW MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishkhanov A. V.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The reasons for the transformation of logistics systems of international trading companies are becoming the processes of integration of national economies into the world economy now, which contribute to the expansion of trading companies at the expense of the foreign markets development. In this regard, especially updated become theoretical developments in the field of commodity flows on an international caliber. The article analyzes the interpretations of scholars of various economic scientists of the concept of "commodity flow" explores theoretical approaches for building goods distribution management at the level of international companies. Particular attention is paid to the risks assessment in the process of changing the output of trading companies at the international level. The role of the international net brokers is determining in the logistic system of goods distribution. The front most methods of risk management of major trade companies are highly investigating. The authors conclude that in entering the international markets trading companies are often unable to develop an effective risk management system due to lack of information, difficulty adapting to the new business environment. Many aspects of international goods distribution require further study with the aim of improving the efficiency of inventory management and logistics network trade flows of businesses

  4. Balancing Acts: Culture as Commodity Among Business Consultants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Mellander

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors intend to analyze how the concept of culture is packaged, sold and delivered as a commodity. It is based on an ethnographic study of a Swedish consultancy in the field of cross-cultural communication and the relationship between the company and its clients. The clients were primarily foreign executives working in Sweden or Swedish expatriates, preparing for life abroad. The significance of culture-as-commodity will be explored from the perspective of the company as well as its clients in order to shed light on how the concept of culture can be communicated and what happens to it in the process. The study shows how the company combines theoretical perspectives from anthropology and intercultural communication with the aim to deliver a complex yet accessible understanding of culture to its clients. The analysis shows that these perspectives both clash and synergize, creating contradictions as well as turning culture into an accessible and useful tool for clients. The authors argue that researchers in the field of applied cultural analysis can learn from the example put forth by the balancing act between these two perspectives on culture performed by the company. The authors conclude that although the commodification process reduces and simplifies the meaning(s of culture, the company still manages to put culture on the agenda, demonstrating to its clients how, why, and in what ways it matters to them.

  5. Rambutan Commodity Development Strategy as Regional Potential Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Pujiati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential product of a region needs to be developed in order to improve the social welfare. Commonly, at harvest time, there is abundant horticulture commodity. Unluckily, the price of the commodity drops significantly. In other words, it costs extremely cheap. The purpose of research is analyzing the internal and external factors and determining an appropriate strategy for developing rambutan in Central Java, especially at Gunungpati District, Semarang, Central Java Province. The primary data of this research is obtained from 58 rambutan farmers that have been interviewed and have filled out the questionnaire forms. The secondary data is taken from the Central Bureau of Statistics, the monograph of the village and the internet by implementing the literature study method. Then, SWOT analysis is implemented for analizing the data. The internal factors that become the strengths are fertilized land for rambutan to grow and the farmers’ hereditary experiences in cultivating rambutan. Further, the lack of absorbing power of knowledge and technologies and the low existence of rambutan business are the weaknesses. Next, the external factor that becomes opportunity is the continuous increasing market demand, while the threat is the young generations having no interest in rambutan business. Finally, the stability (hold and maintain strategy should be implemented for developing rambutan business

  6. Survey of Alternative Feedstocks for Commodity Chemical Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Robinson, Sharon M [ORNL

    2008-02-01

    The current high prices for petroleum and natural gas have spurred the chemical industry to examine alternative feedstocks for the production of commodity chemicals. High feedstock prices have driven methanol and ammonia production offshore. The U.S. Chemical Industry is the largest user of natural gas in the country. Over the last 30 years, alternatives to conventional petroleum and natural gas feedstocks have been developed, but have limited, if any, commercial implementation in the United States. Alternative feedstocks under consideration include coal from unconventional processing technologies, such as gasification and liquefaction, novel resources such as biomass, stranded natural gas from unconventional reserves, and heavy oil from tar sands or oil shale. These feedstock sources have been evaluated with respect to the feasibility and readiness for production of the highest volume commodity chemicals in the United States. Sources of organic compounds, such as ethanol from sugar fermentation and bitumen-derived heavy crude are now being primarily exploited for fuels, rather than for chemical feedstocks. Overall, government-sponsored research into the use of alternatives to petroleum feedstocks focuses on use for power and transportation fuels rather than for chemical feedstocks. Research is needed to reduce cost and technical risk. Use of alternative feedstocks is more common outside the United States R&D efforts are needed to make these processes more efficient and less risky before becoming more common domestically. The status of alternative feedstock technology is summarized.

  7. Commodity clusters: Performance comparison between PC`s and workstations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, R.; Laroco, J.; Armstrong, R.

    1996-03-01

    Workstation clusters were originally developed as a way to leverage the better cost basis of UNIX workstations to perform computations previously handled only by relatively more expensive supercomputers. Commodity workstation clusters take this evolutionary process one step further by replacing equivalent proprietary workstation functionality with less expensive PC technology. As PC technology encroaches on proprietary UNIX workstation vendor markets, these vendors will see a declining share of the overall market. As technology advances continue, the ability to upgrade a workstations performance plays a large role in cost analysis. For example, a major upgrade to a typical UNIX workstation means replacing the whole machine. As major revisions to the UNIX vendor`s product line come out, brand new systems are introduced. IBM compatibles, however, are modular by design, and nothing need to be replaced except the components that are truly improved. The DAISy cluster, for example, is about to undergo a major upgrade from 90MHz Pentiums to 200MHz Pentium Pros. All of the memory -- the system`s largest expense -- and disks, power supply, etc., can be reused. As a result, commodity workstation clusters ought to gain an increasingly large share of the distributed computing market.

  8. Rambutan Commodity Development Strategy as Regional Potential Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Pujiati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential product of a region needs to be developed in order to improve the social welfare. Commonly, at harvest time, there is abundant horticulture commodity. Unluckily, the price of the commodity drops significantly. In other words, it costs  extremely cheap. The purpose of research is analyzing the internal and external factors and determining an appropriate strategy for developing rambutan in Central Java, especially at Gunungpati District, Semarang, Central Java Province. The primary data of this research is obtained from 58 rambutan farmers that have been interviewed and have filled out the questionnaire forms. The secondary data is taken from the Central Bureau of Statistics, the monograph of the village and the internet by implementing the literature study method. Then, SWOT analysis is implemented for analizing the data. The internal factors that become the strengths are fertilized land for rambutan to grow and the farmers’ hereditary experiences in cultivating rambutan. Further, the lack of absorbing power of knowledge and technologies and the low existence of rambutan business are the weaknesses. Next, the external factor that becomes opportunity is the continuous increasing market demand, while the threat is the young generations having no interest in rambutan business. Finally, the stability (hold and maintain strategy should be implemented for developing rambutan business

  9. Current Status of Agriculture and Plant Protection in Malaysia (Original papers in Kobe Symposium on Agriculture, Food and Environment in Asia : Towards the 21st Century)

    OpenAIRE

    Khew, K. l.

    1997-01-01

    Malaysia with the warm (21-32℃) and humid (200-250cm annual rainfall) climate, is a tropical wonderland for plants, conducive to the growth of a number of agricultural crops. The major agricultural commodities include oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), cocoa (Theobroma cacao), pepper (Piper nigrum) rice (Oryza sativus) and together with fruits, vegetables and floriculture which play a less dominant role. Malaysia is currently the world's largest producer and exporter o...

  10. 17 CFR 14.7 - Finding of violation of Commodity Exchange Act or Federal securities laws in another proceeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finding of violation of Commodity Exchange Act or Federal securities laws in another proceeding. 14.7 Section 14.7 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES RELATING TO SUSPENSION OR DISBARMENT FROM...

  11. Demand for non-commodity outputs from mountain olive groves

    OpenAIRE

    Arriaza Balmón, Manuel; Gomez-Limon, Jose Antonio; KALLAS, Zein; Nekhay, Olexandr

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural multifunctionality is the recognition of the joint exercise of economic, environmental and social functions by this sector. In order to make this concept operative to support the design of public policies, it is necessary to estimate the social demand for such functions. The main objective of this article is to present an empirical application in this line. For this purpose we have adopted the agricultural system of mountain olive groves in Andalusia (Southern Spain) at risk of a...

  12. Sources of contraceptive commodities for users in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boniface A Oye-Adeniran

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding the sources of contraceptive commodities is an important aspect of the delivery of family planning services and is required by planning programme managers for strategic planning purposes. Findings from the 2003 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey have previously showed that the private sector was the most frequently reported source of contraceptive supply, providing contraception to two and a half times as many women as the public sector. We conducted a community-based study to examine further the sources of contraceptive commodity for users in Nigeria with a view to identifying their preferences for distribution centres. This information would be useful to improve commodity distribution and to build the necessary capacity for satisfactory delivery of contraceptives. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A multi-stage random sampling technique was used. A state was randomly selected to represent each of the four health zones in Nigeria. Two local government areas (LGAs were then selected representing both urban and rural areas. Ten enumeration areas were subsequently selected from each LGA. Of the 2,001 respondents aged 15-49 years, 1,647 (82.3% were sexually active, out of which 244 were found to be using contraceptive methods at the time of the study, giving a contraceptive prevalence of 14.8%. The commonest source of information on contraceptives was through friends (34%, followed by the radio (11.5% and husbands (10.2%. Most respondents procured their contraceptives from chemist/patent medicine shops (19.7%, while only 0.8% obtained them from designated family planning clinics. The younger groups in this study (15-24 years, single people, Catholics, and Muslims, showed a greater preference for chemist/patent medicine shops for their sources of contraceptives. The older groups and married respondents, however, made use of government and private hospitals to obtain their contraceptives. CONCLUSION: Strategies to increase

  13. Optimal commodity taxes for Brazil based on AIDS preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seki Asano

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we calculate optimal commodity taxes for Brazil. Simulations are based on the Almost Ideal Demand System , estimated using Brazilian household data. The trade off between equity and efficiency is taken into account by introducing a government aversion to inequality parameter into a social welfare function, which is maximized subject to a balanced government budget requirement. Our results show that the optimal commodity tax structure is characterized by selective tax rates when the only tax policy instrument available is commodity taxation. We extend the analysis by allowing for a uniform poll payment to be made by the government. In this case tax rates are regressive and poll transfer levels are unreasonably high. When we cap transfers with a binding ceiling the former pattern is restored. Comparing with Siqueira (1998, we have also observed a relative robustness of optimal tax rates to household preferences forms.O presente estudo tem como objetivo calcular a estrutura ótima da tributação sobre o consumo no Brasil. As simulações baseiam-se no sistema de demanda Almost Ideal Demand System estimados com dados da POF/IBGE. O trade off entre eqüidade e eficiência é incorporado no modelo com a introdução de um coeficiente de aversão à desigualdade social na função de bem-estar social, sujeita à restrição de receita do governo. Além da hipótese de que o único instrumento de política tributária disponível seja a tributação sobre o consumo, nosso modelo também admite a concessão de uma transferência uniforme lump sum de renda per capita do governo para todos os agentes econômicos. Os resultados mostram que a estrutura tributária sobre o consumo caracteriza-se pela seletividade das alíquotas, que se torna mais significativa para valores altos do parâmetro de aversão à desigualdade. Este resultado é revertido para uma estrutura tributária regressiva com a introdução de uma transferência uniforme lump

  14. Agriculture ideas and modernization of agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Kangmin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of agriculture has its own history from primitive agriculture, traditional agriculture to modem agriculture. Is it a historical road we must follow?Human being had experienced a long history of living on collection and hunting for about 2,000 to 3,000 millenniums since human being appeared on earth. After we settled down, another 10 millenniums passed. Human being began to cultivate crops and raise animals. Thus, we entered the primitive agriculture stage. The primitive agriculture lasted for 7,000 years to get our food security on primitive crop cultivation and animal raising.

  15. Establishment and Application of Assessment Indicator System of Agricultural Catastrophe Vulnerability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    To give play to the role of agricultural catastrophe risk fund in spreading agricultural catastrophe risk,we select natural conditions,economic conditions,social conditions,as the external vulnerability assessment indicators;select commodity rate of agricultural products,substitutability of agricultural products,the extent of agricultural products being related to the national economy and the people’s livelihood,as the internal vulnerability assessment indicators.We assign weight to indicators using Analytic Hierarchy Process,and establish assessment indicator system of agricultural catastrophe vulnerability,to analyze the compensation for losses of different agricultural products arising from agricultural catastrophe in different regions.And we take the case of rice in Sichuan Province,to demonstrate the role this indicator system.

  16. The Effects of Oil and Mineral Taxation on Non-commodity Fiscal Revenues

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, Guillermo; Bustos, Sebastián

    2012-01-01

    This paper shows, first, that non-commodity revenues are more volatile in oil- and mineral-rich countries and that quality of institutions is associated with lower volatility. We investigate the channels through which oil and mineral revenue volatility lead to non-commodity revenues volatility, and find that when oil and fiscal revenues increase (decrease), non-commodity revenues are reduced (increased) discretionally, and that this substitution effect is larger and faster than an indirect po...

  17. Commodity Money Equilibrium in a Convex Trading Post Economy with Transaction Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Ross M. Starr

    2007-01-01

    Existence and efficiency of general equilibrium with commodity money is investigated in an economy where N commodities are traded at N(N-1)/2 commodity-pairwise trading posts. Trade is a resource-using activity recovering transaction costs through the spread between bid (wholesale) and ask (retail) prices. Budget constraints, enforced at each trading post separately, imply demand for a carrier of value between trading posts. Existence of general equilibrium is established under conventiona...

  18. Approximator: Predicting Interruptibility in Software Development with Commodity Computers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tell, Paolo; Jalaliniya, Shahram; Andersen, Kristian S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the presence and availability of a remote colleague is key in coordination in global software development but is not easily done using existing computer-mediated channels. Previous research has shown that automated estimation of interruptibility is feasible and can achieve a precision...... laptops. Experimental results show that the information aggregated from several activity monitors (i.e., Key-logger, mouse-logger, and face-detection) provide useful data, which, once combined with machine learning techniques, can automatically estimate the interruptibility of users with a 78% accuracy...... closer to, or even better than, human judgment. However, existing approaches to assess interruptibility have been designed to rely on external sensors. In this paper, we present Approximator, a system that estimates the interruptibility of a user based exclusively on the sensing ability of commodity...

  19. Lattice QCD Production on a Commodity Cluster at Fermilab

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.Holmgren; P.Mackenzie; 等

    2001-01-01

    Large scale QCD Monte Carlo calculations have typically been performed on either commercial supercomputers or specially built massively parallel computers such as Fermilab's ACPMAPS.Commodity clusters equipped with high performance networking equipment present an attractive alternative,achieving superior performance to price ratios and offering clear upgrade paths.We describe the construction and results to date of Fermilab's prototype production cluster,which consists of 80 dual Pentium Ⅲsystems interconnected with Myrinet networking hardware.We describe software tools and techniques we have developed for operating system installation and administration.We discuss software optimizations using the Pentium's built-in parallel computation facilities(SSE),Finally,we present short and long term plans for the construction of larger facilities.

  20. Metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria for the synthesis of commodity products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermayr, S Andreas; Gorchs Rovira, Aleix; Hellingwerf, Klaas J

    2015-06-01

    Through metabolic engineering cyanobacteria can be employed in biotechnology. Combining the capacity for oxygenic photosynthesis and carbon fixation with an engineered metabolic pathway allows carbon-based product formation from CO(2), light, and water directly. Such cyanobacterial 'cell factories' are constructed to produce biofuels, bioplastics, and commodity chemicals. Efforts of metabolic engineers and synthetic biologists allow the modification of the intermediary metabolism at various branching points, expanding the product range. The new biosynthesis routes 'tap' the metabolism ever more efficiently, particularly through the engineering of driving forces and utilization of cofactors generated during the light reactions of photosynthesis, resulting in higher product titers. High rates of carbon rechanneling ultimately allow an almost-complete allocation of fixed carbon to product above biomass.

  1. Modeling phytosanitary risk of unintended commodity use: the example of U.S. potato exports to Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Glenn; Erikson, Lottie; Caton, Barney; Gutierrez, Walter; Griffin, Robert

    2014-09-01

    Diversion of commodities from their intended use to an unintended use, e.g., when commodities intended for consumption are used as seed for planting, is an important issue in agricultural trade that has implications for the establishment of pests and pathogens in an importing country and for the appropriate strength of plant health measures. Consequently, understanding and accurately characterizing the risk of diversion from intended use is highly relevant to policymakers, trading partners, and in trade dispute arbitration. To our knowledge, no risk assessments have ever accounted for the likelihood of diversion from intended use. Here we present an approach to analyzing this risk using diversion of U.S. table stock potatoes to seed for planting by Mexican potato producers as a case study. We use probabilistic pathway models to characterize the movement of white, yellow, and russet potatoes from the United States into Mexico at current and double export volumes. We then model the likelihood of these potatoes being diverted for seed and the subsequent establishment of bacteria, nematode, and virus pests in Mexico. Our approach demonstrates how diversion from intended use can be quantified in one scenario and, in particular, how it can be analyzed to estimate the magnitude of diversion required to produce a high risk of pest establishment.

  2. Land use changes after the period commodities rising price in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Celestino Pires Silveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: At the end of the 20th and early 21st century, agricultural systems incorporated definitively a new mission: to generate goods for a world population that continues to grow and whose way of life demand food with low environmental impact. Soybean is the main raw material for the production of biodiesel in Brazil, accountably responsible for 82.4% of the total produced between 2006 and 2013. The Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, which is formed by the Pampa and the Atlantic forest biomes, was responsible for 35.7% of the country's biodiesel production in the referred period. The aim of this paper was to verify the impact of the increased area of soybean cultivation in land use in Rio Grande do Sul State, in the period between 1990 and 2015, considering separately its two biomes (Pampa and Atlantic Forest original areas, using both census dataset and satellite images. We used the period from 1990 to 2000 as before commodity rising price (BCRP and the period from 2000 to 2013 as commodity rising price (CRP. The 505,162 ha from Atlantic Forest biome and 1,192,115ha from Pampa biome were added to soybean production in the CRP period. In the Atlantic Forest, this enlargement occurred in the border of the main production area, while in Pampa biome conversion of natural grassland to crop land was the main reason for the large increment in the cultivated area.

  3. 15 CFR 740.17 - Encryption commodities, software and technology (ENC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (NOC) command and infrastructure, public safety radio, and digital forensics/computer forensics; (B...) Encryption commodities and software that have been modified or customized for computers classified under...

  4. Modelling the rand and commodity prices: A Granger causality and cointegration analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xolani Ndlovu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the ‘commodity currency’ hypothesis of the Rand, that is, the postulate that the currency moves in line with commodity prices, and analyses the associated causality using nominal data between 1996 and 2010. We address both the short run and long run relationship between commodity prices and exchange rates. We find that while the levels of the series of both assets are difference stationary, they are not cointegrated. Further, we find the two variables are negatively related, with strong and significant causality running from commodity prices to the exchange rate and not vice versa, implying exogeneity in the determination of commodity prices with respect to the nominal exchange rate. The strength of the relationship is significantly weaker than other OECD commodity currencies. We surmise that the relationship is dynamic over time owing to the portfolio-rebalance argument and the Commodity Terms of Trade (CTT effect and, in the absence of an error correction mechanism, this disconnect may be prolonged. For commodity and currency market participants, this implies that while futures and forward commodity prices may be useful leading indicators of future currency movements, the price risk management strategies may need to be recalibrated over time.

  5. Current and potential trade in horticultural products irradiated for phytosanitary purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos-Griffin, Emilia; Hallman, Guy J.; Griffin, Robert L.

    2012-08-01

    The current status of trade in horticultural products irradiated for phytosanitary purposes is examined, including trends, strengths and weaknesses. A strategy is proposed to take advantage of the best future opportunities for increasing trade in irradiated horticultural products by identifying best possibilities for expanding both the number and volume of commodities for irradiation and then applying appropriate business criteria in a general analysis of the commodities, commercial scenarios, and geographic regions where the greatest potential exists for expansion. The results show that fresh fruits such as mango, papaya, citrus, grapes, and vegetables such as tomatoes, onions, asparagus, garlic, and peppers from Asia and the Americas show the greatest potential. Substantial opportunities for additional growth exist, especially as regulatory conditions become more favorable.

  6. Horizontal Price Transmission in Agricultural Markets: Fundamental Concepts and Open Empirical Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Listorti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Following the dramatic changes experienced by the prices of agricultural commodities in 2007-2008, the analysis of horizontal price transmission mechanisms in agricultural markets has attracted renewed interest. In particular, this has led to the emergence of new challenges for the empirical analysis. How to model the increasing volatility and non linear behaviour of prices, to assess the impact of the policy responses to market turbulence, and how to account for the increasing interconnections between agricultural and non-agricultural commodity markets are amongst the most investigated issues. Building on a common analytical framework, this paper discusses and reviews the most recent methodological developments and empirical contributions in the field.

  7. BIODYNAMIC AGRICULTURE - ECO-FRIENDLY AGRICULTURAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselka Vlahova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodynamic agriculture is undoubtedly the oldest organized agricultural movement in the world. It is considered as an organic agricultural farming approach and determined as the oldest organized alternative agricultural movement in the world. In 1924 Rudolf Steiner – an Austrian natural scientist and philosopher, carried out a series of eight lectures in Koberwitz, currently Kobierzyce- Poland, where he formulated his visions on changes in agriculture and revealed his spiritual and scientific concepts about the connection between nature and agriculture by determining the important role of agriculture for the future of humanity and thus he became known as “the father of anthroposophy”. The great ecological effect of the application of the biodynamic agriculture is expressed in soil preservation and preservation of the living organisms in the soil, as well as maintenance of the natural balance in the vegetable and animal kingdom.

  8. Agricultural Tariff Tracker

    Data.gov (United States)

    Foreign Agricultural Service, Department of Agriculture — The Agricultural Tariff Tool is a web application that queries tariff schedules and rate information resulting from Free Trade Agreements (FTAs). All...

  9. Agricultural Education at Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Donald E.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses educational reform in the context of agricultural education. Covers a recent report on agricultural education reform by the National Academy of Sciences, state legislative initiatives, and several recommendations for the future of agricultural education. (CH)

  10. Urban Agriculture Guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.J.; Jansma, J.E.; Dekking, A.J.G.; Klieverik, M.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The Urban Agriculture Guide describes the experiences, learning moments, tips and tricks of those involved in the initiatives of urban agriculture and an indication is provided of what is required to develop urban agriculture further in the Netherlands

  11. Agricultural SWOT analysis and wisdom agriculture design of chengdu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Chen, Xiangyu; Du, Shaoming; Yin, Guowei; Yu, Feng; Liu, Guicai; Gong, Jin; Han, Fujun

    2017-08-01

    According to the status of agricultural information, this paper analyzed the advantages, opportunities and challenges of developing wisdom agriculture in Chengdu. By analyzed the local characteristics of Chengdu agriculture, the construction program of Chengdu wisdom agriculture was designed, which was based on the existing agricultural informatization. The positioning and development theme of Chengdu agriculture is leisure agriculture, urban agriculture and quality agriculture.

  12. Exploring Agricultural and Biotechnical Engineering through Hands-On Integrated STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preble, Brian C.

    2015-01-01

    The manipulation of the natural world in the form of plant materials to design, control, and grow desirable agricultural commodities was central to the establishment and advancement of civilization. Modern developments in genetically modified organisms (GMOs or biologically engineered foods) can trace their origins to macro practices developed and…

  13. Volatility Spillovers Between Energy and Agricultural Markets: A Critical Appraisal of Theory and Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); Y. Li (Y); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Energy and agricultural commodities and markets have been examined extensively, albeit separately, for a number of years. In the energy literature, the returns, volatility and volatility spillovers (namely, the delayed effect of a returns shock in one asset on the subse

  14. Volatility Spillovers between Energy and Agricultural Markets: A Critical Appraisal of Theory and Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); Y. Li (Y); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Energy and agricultural commodities and markets have been examined extensively, albeit separately, for a number of years. In the energy literature, the returns, volatility and volatility spillovers (namely, the delayed effect of a returns shock in one asset on the subse

  15. Exploring Agricultural and Biotechnical Engineering through Hands-On Integrated STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preble, Brian C.

    2015-01-01

    The manipulation of the natural world in the form of plant materials to design, control, and grow desirable agricultural commodities was central to the establishment and advancement of civilization. Modern developments in genetically modified organisms (GMOs or biologically engineered foods) can trace their origins to macro practices developed and…

  16. Climate Variability is Influencing Agricultural Expansion and Output in a Key Agricultural Region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, S. A.; Cohn, A.; VanWey, L.; Mustard, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last decade, the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso has both expanded and intensified its agricultural production to become the country's leading producer of soy, corn, and cotton. Yet this increase in agricultural production may be threatened due to changes in the region's climate stemming from deforestation caused by the agricultural expansion itself. The sensitivity of Mato Grosso's agriculture to climate variability has important implications for both climate change mitigation and climate adaptation. The vast bulk of research on the drivers of land use change in the region has examined economic and institutional drivers. Leveraging a novel remote sensing-derived dataset classifying shifts between single (cultivating one commercial crop per growing season) and double cropping (cultivating two commercial crops per growing season), we investigated the influence of climate variability on land use change during the period 2000 to 2011. Over the past decade, over half of Mato Grosso's farm area transitioned from single cropping to double cropping. We used regression analysis (controlling for space and time fixed effects) to show monthly rainfall, monthly temperature, agricultural commodity prices, and agricultural revenue to be the main drivers of adoption of double cropping and reversion to single cropping in the region. The influence of climate varies as much as five orders of magnitude across these outcomes, with both temperature and precipitation exhibiting the largest climatic influence on the transition from single to double cropping. Temperature consistently proves to be more important, explaining three times more of the variance than precipitation for each outcome. Months at the beginning of a given first crop season, the end of that first crop season, and middle of the subsequent second crop season are particularly important for planting decisions in the subsequent growing year. Fitting our land transition models using remote-sensing derived

  17. Advanced Manufacturing and Value-added Products from US Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villet, Ruxton H.; Child, Dennis R.; Acock, Basil

    1992-01-01

    An objective of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agriculture Research Service (ARS) is to develop technology leading to a broad portfolio of value-added marketable products. Modern scientific disciplines such as chemical engineering are brought into play to develop processes for converting bulk commodities into high-margin products. To accomplish this, the extremely sophisticated processing devices which form the basis of modern biotechnology, namely, genes and enzymes, can be tailored to perform the required functions. The USDA/ARS is a leader in the development of intelligent processing equipment (IPE) for agriculture in the broadest sense. Applications of IPE are found in the production, processing, grading, and marketing aspects of agriculture. Various biotechnology applications of IPE are discussed.

  18. Irradiation, microwave and alternative energy-based treatments for low water activity foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is an increasing recognition of low water activity foods as vectors for human pathogens. Partially or fully dried agricultural commodities, along with modern formulated dried food products, are complex, and designed to meet a variety of nutritional, sensory, and market-oriented goal. This comp...

  19. Irradiation to control insects in fruits and vegetables for export from Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follett, P.A. E-mail: pfollett@pbarc.ars.usda.gov

    2004-10-01

    Phytosanitary or quarantine treatments are often required to disinfest host commodities of economically important arthropod pests before they are moved through market channels to areas where the pest does not occur. Irradiation is an accepted treatment to control quarantine pests in 10 fruits and five vegetables for export from Hawaii to the US mainland. Irradiation is the ideal technology for developing generic quarantine treatments because it is effective against most insect and mite pests at dose levels that do not affect the quality of most commodities. A generic dose of 150 Gy has been proposed for tephritid fruit flies. Contrary to the 150 Gy dose, approved irradiation quarantine treatment doses for Mediterranean fruit fly, melon fly, and oriental fruit fly in Hawaii are 210-250 Gy. Irradiation studies were conducted to determine if the approved doses were unnecessarily high and could be reduced. Irradiation is also a viable alternative to methyl bromide fumigation to disinfest Hawaii sweetpotatoes, and studies are in progress to identify an effective dose for two key sweetpotato insect pests. Results indicate that irradiation doses <150 Gy will control Hawaii's fruit flies, which supports the proposed generic dose. The idea of generic doses is appealing because it would greatly accelerate the process of approving irradiation quarantine treatments for specific crops, and thereby rapidly expand exports. Preliminary results show that 250-300 Gy will control Hawaii's sweetpotato pests.

  20. Agricultural Fragility Estimates Subjected to Volcanic Ash Fall Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, H. J.; Lee, S.; Choi, S. H.; Yun, W. S.

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural Fragility Estimates Subjected to Volcanic Ash Fall Hazards Hee Jung Ham1, Seung-Hun Choi1, Woo-Seok Yun1, Sungsu Lee2 1Department of Architectural Engineering, Kangwon National University, Korea 2Division of Civil Engineering, Chungbuk National University, Korea ABSTRACT In this study, fragility functions are developed to estimate expected volcanic ash damages of the agricultural sector in Korea. The fragility functions are derived from two approaches: 1) empirical approach based on field observations of impacts to agriculture from the 2006 eruption of Merapi volcano in Indonesia and 2) the FOSM (first-order second-moment) analytical approach based on distribution and thickness of volcanic ash observed from the 1980 eruption of Mt. Saint Helens and agricultural facility specifications in Korea. Fragility function to each agricultural commodity class is presented by a cumulative distribution function of the generalized extreme value distribution. Different functions are developed to estimate production losses from outdoor and greenhouse farming. Seasonal climate influences vulnerability of each agricultural crop and is found to be a crucial component in determining fragility of agricultural commodities to an ash fall. In the study, the seasonality coefficient is established as a multiplier of fragility function to consider the seasonal vulnerability. Yields of the different agricultural commodities are obtained from Korean Statistical Information Service to create a baseline for future agricultural volcanic loss estimation. Numerically simulated examples of scenario ash fall events at Mt. Baekdu volcano are utilized to illustrate the application of the developed fragility functions. Acknowledgements This research was supported by a grant 'Development of Advanced Volcanic Disaster Response System considering Potential Volcanic Risk around Korea' [MPSS-NH-2015-81] from the Natural Hazard Mitigation Research Group, Ministry of Public Safety and Security of

  1. Investigation the possibility of Aggregation fruits and nuts, vegetables, Beans and vegetable products: Using Generalized Composite Commodity Theorem (GCCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shabanzadeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fruit and nuts, all kinds of vegetables, legumes and vegetable products, including commodity baskets with high proportion of nutritive value, are of great importance for policymakers of the agricultural sector. Therefore, the study of the conditions and factors affecting the demand for these goods can be predisposing advice to control the market and other factors affecting their use. But when it comes to the country at macro level of household demand, the aggregate commodity group beomes important. In cases where it is necessary to apply the fruits or vegetables as a function of household aggregation of a group of goods to be estimated, it is necessary a group of products with the scientific method to get aggregate and form a group variable as fruits or vegetables are included in the econometric model. Therefore, due to problems such as lack of access to information on each product separately, the high cost of collecting the data, missing observations, multicollinearity problem and limited degrees of freedom, we have to use grouping and composite commodities. But it is important that the correct grouping and consistent is made because of incorrect Aggregation, as specified in the error term appears on demand system estimated and Lead to biased estimation of the values of parameters and elasticity's, Which results in an incorrect picture of consumer behavior. Study of composite conditions of Agricultural commodities, as an important topic in economics, had been considered. Because mostly, access to disaggregate of the goods is not possible, and other problems such as multicollinearity occurs by examining the separation in the econometrics model. Study of composite conditions of Agricultural commodities, as an important topic in economics, had been considered. Due to its importance in the study, condition of Aggregation fruit and nuts, all kinds of vegetables and Bean (legumes are using Generalized Composite Commodity Theorem (GCCT

  2. Sustainable agriculture: an explanation of a concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M J

    1993-01-01

    Close relationships between agriculture and many areas of human activity determine countless interlinkages with global issues of natural environment protection, human population increase, food supply, industry and world trade. This broad context promotes different perceptions of sustainable agriculture by different interest groups. Profitable diversification away from overproduction of basic commodities and satisfaction of environmental pressure groups are major preoccupations in developed countries. Elsewhere the main concerns is to maintain a trend of increasing production: food security with a future dimension. Achieving this depends essentially on protecting the agricultural resource base. Inputs and input substitution are important co-related issues but the core of sustainability is the avoidance of any attrition of the potential for future production; this demands that we guard soil, water sources, grazing lands and gene pools against loss and degradation. Though superficially biophysical or technical in nature, most problems of resource degradation and eroding potential are rooted in economic, social and political issues; few such problems will be solved unless the primacy of these issues is recognized and addressed. Sustainable agriculture will likely remain elusive until governments and other agencies accept it as arising only as the outcome of a synthesis of strategies on population, employment, economic planning, technical research and national investment.

  3. Effects of Health-Care Services and Commodities Cost on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-14

    Sep 14, 2017 ... services and commodities cost on the patients at the primary health facilities in Zaria ... the payment for health- care services is a major problem in many developing ... Standardization of prices of services and commodities and the ..... The demand for an essential service might be low not necessarily ...

  4. 40 CFR 414.60 - Applicability; description of the commodity organic chemicals subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the commodity organic chemicals subcategory. 414.60 Section 414.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals §...

  5. Value chain management for commodities: a case study from the chemical industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kannegiesser, M.; Günther, H.O.; Beek, van P.; Grunow, M.; Habla, C.

    2009-01-01

    We present a planning model for chemical commodities related to an industry case. Commodities are standard chemicals characterized by sales and supply volatility in volume and value. Increasing and volatile prices of crude oil-dependent raw materials require coordination of sales and supply

  6. 75 FR 38073 - Information Collection; Commodity Request (Food Aid Request Entry System (FARES))

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... collected and processed electronically through the FARES. The Web-Based Supply Chain Management system... Commodity Credit Corporation Farm Service Agency Information Collection; Commodity Request (Food Aid Request... individuals and organizations on an extension of a currently approved information collection for the Food...

  7. 17 CFR 4.13 - Exemption from registration as a commodity pool operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS General Provisions, Definitions... offered and sold without marketing to the public in the United States; (ii) At all times, the pool meets... market price per unit, and for each such option position by multiplying the number of contracts by...

  8. Competitive Equilibria in Economies with Multiple Divisible and Indivisible Commodities and No Money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koshevoy, G.A.; Talman, A.J.J.

    2006-01-01

    A general equilibrium model is considered with multiple divisible and multiple indivisible commodities.In models with indivisibles it is always assumed that an indivisible commodity, called money, is present that is used to transfer the value of certain amounts of indivisible goods.For these economi

  9. 22 CFR 201.68 - Maximum prices for commodity-related services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... 201.68 Section 201.68 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY TRANSACTIONS FINANCED BY USAID Price Provisions § 201.68 Maximum prices for commodity... each such service is eligible for USAID-financing under § 201.67 or § 201.68(a) of this part....

  10. 17 CFR 32.12 - Exemption from suspension of commodity option transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... any trading control with respect to such account, and (D) An indicator of whether the account is... market to such person, or suspending or revoking the registration of such person as a commodity trading... TRADING COMMISSION REGULATION OF COMMODITY OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 32.12 Exemption from suspension of...

  11. Value chain management for commodities: a case study from the chemical industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kannegiesser, M.; Günther, H.O.; Beek, van P.; Grunow, M.; Habla, C.

    2009-01-01

    We present a planning model for chemical commodities related to an industry case. Commodities are standard chemicals characterized by sales and supply volatility in volume and value. Increasing and volatile prices of crude oil-dependent raw materials require coordination of sales and supply decision

  12. Contrast and Comparison Between the Old and New Bar Code for Commodity Management Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Xiaolin; Ma Jing

    2005-01-01

    @@ With the development of socialism market economy, the former Bar Code For Commodity Management Measures (being called Old Measures for short hereafter) issued by the National Bureau of Quality and Technical Supervision can not adapt to the requirement of managing for bar code for commodity.

  13. General Equilibrium Model with a Convex Cone as the Set of Commodity Bundles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalk, S.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we present a model for an exchange economy which is an extension of the classical model as introduced by Arrow and Debreu.In the classical model, there is a nite number of commodi- ties and a nite number of consumers.The commodities are treated separately, and so a commodity bundle is

  14. Augmenting flows for the consistent migration of multi-commodity single-destination flows in SDNs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Sebastian; Förster, Klaus-Tycho; Wattenhofer, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Updating network flows in a real-world setting is a nascent research area, especially with the recent rise of Software Defined Networks. While augmenting s-t flows of a single commodity is a well-understood concept, we study updating flows in a multi-commodity setting: Given a directed network wi...

  15. Environmental Certification of Forests: The Evolution of Environmental Governance in a Commodity Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klooster, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) influence social and environmental aspects of commodity production through certification schemes like organic and forest certification. As these become mainstream, however, they are often compromised by the interests of more powerful agents. Utilizing the concept of governance in global commodity networks,…

  16. 76 FR 37797 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Freepoint Commodities, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Freepoint Commodities, LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and... authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada pursuant to section 202(e) of the... application from Freepoint Commodities requesting authority to transmit electric energy from the United...

  17. Crushing Candy: The Free-to-Play Game in Its Connective Commodity Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Nieborg

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to add a complementary perspective to the study of social network sites by surveying how the political economy of social media platforms relates to the structure of free-to-play games in their commodity form. Drawing on the theory of multisided markets and critical political economy, this article surveys the political economy of game apps and investigates how it is symbiotically related to the technological and economic logic underlying connective platforms operated by Google, Apple, Facebook, and Amazon. These social media platforms operate app stores that sustain the transformation of games as fixed, physically distributed products that follow a transaction logic, into digitally distributed, freely accessible, or “free-to-play” apps. Through a case study of the popular casual game Candy Crush Saga it is contended that the connective properties of social media platforms affect the form and format of game apps as cultural commodities. Candy Crush Saga developer King Digital Entertainment has been able to attract hundreds of millions of players and build a business model that combines the commodification of virtual items, connectivity, user attention, user data, and play. It is argued that the free-to-play commodity form comprises three commodity types: the product commodity, the “prosumer commodity,” and the player commodity. Furthermore, Candy Crush Saga’s commodity form is structured by a platformed modality of cultural production and circulation and therefore embedded in the political economy of its host platform.

  18. Information relating to the wholesomeness of irradiated food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-11-01

    Data sheets were compiled by the staff of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture for the following research projects: comparison of radappertized and heat-sterilized diets for gnotobiotic piglets; mutagenic effects of alcoholic extract of irradiated potatoes in mice; toxicological safety of feeding irradiated chicken to dogs and rats; vitamins and amino acids in irradiated chicken; wholesomeness of irradiated mushrooms and shrimp; use of radiation for elimination of Salmonellae from frozen horsemeat; radiosterilization of laboratory animal diet; effects of ionizing radiation on proteins of beef; effects of radiation on storage life of cod fillets; toxicological safety of feeding irradiated cod to mice and rats; and wholesomeness of wheat irradiated for disinfestation. (HLW)

  19. INCOME OF WORKERS IN THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR IN BRAZIL AND IN THE CENTRAL-WEST REGION: AN ANALYSIS BASED ON THE THEORY OF SEGMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Santos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate the difference in earnings of workers in the production of some agricultural commodities and workers in other crops in Brazil and in the Central-West region. It is mainly used the labor market segmentation theory, and references on the human capital theory and the agricultural labor market. Data from the National Sample Survey of Households (PNAD-IBGE of 2009 is used to present descriptive statistics on income and socioeconomic characteristics of workers, and to estimate a mincerian earnings equation, by the method of robust least squares. Soy, corn, sugar cane, and meat whore chosen to represent de agricultural commodities group. The results show that even controlling for the effect of human capital, there is differential in earnings for workers in commodity production in Brazil and in the Central-West region, indicating that the agricultural labor market is segmented.

  20. 7 CFR 1499.8 - Entry and handling of commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS FOOD FOR PROGRESS PROGRAM § 1499... until their distribution, sale or barter. (b) The participant shall, as provided in the agreement... reprocessed product; (iii) Includes a statement indicating that the reprocessed product was made...

  1. Commodity Market Inefficiencies and Inflationary Pressures - India’s Economic Policy Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar GUPTA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available With the current pace of growth, India would emerge as a major player in the international market in terms of commodity consumption, production and trade. Going by trade volume and also the possibly as an identifiable influence on the price making process on the essential commodities, the futures and spot markets have shown major variations. Increased volatility in asset prices has been a major reason behind the integration of domestic financial markets with the international financial sector accentuating the demand for the trading in the derivative market. Though organized commodity trading has been in from the nineteenth century in India, the commodity derivative markets in the new form with nationwide electronic trading and access have opened the gates for speculators, hedgers and other market participants to capitalize on the development. The robust growth of the commodity markets can be observed in terms of number of commodities trade volumes and growing number of both the market participants and the commodity exchanges. Liquidity booms reflected by loose monetary policy are responsible for major surge in commodity prices globally in addition to direct tangible impacts of oil prices especially in developing countries with heavy oil imports like India. Futures markets are created to fulfill genuine desires economic functions of hedging and price discovery. But, enormous futures trading observed on the commodity exchanges have raised a host of issues like inflation guided by the fuelling principle implying the direct relationship between volatility and inflation. Huge price volatility in futures segment on the commodity exchanges has therefore raised concerns relating to the market efficiencies, infrastructure and knowledge and also their consequential impact on cash markets. The demand and supply side of the commodity price mechanism is traditionally governed by numerous factors including the climatic conditions, availability of critical

  2. Land Policy for Sustainable Agricultural Land Development and Its Implementation: Experiences from West Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Noer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract- Agriculture development in traditions requires land to grow the commodity, either for consumption and industrial commodities. In one hand, it implies that land as resources is understood as an important and high value to attain sustainable agriculture development. In the other hand, land for agricultural use is realized as lower value than land for commercial purposes. That results on land conversion from agriculture to non-agricultural land such as land for settlement, and tends to happen increasingly at alarming rate. It dares to food supply which may not meet the demand. The paper discusses about how problematical of land competition for settlement and agriculture have been taking place in West Sumatra Province in Indonesia. How regulation on land use planning at national level is being implemented at the provincial or sub district/city level with regard to sustainable land for food and agriculture development. It is argued that land policy for agriculture and settlement development planning should be laid into an integrated and sustainable development planning thought.  Keywords: food, non-agriculture, and sustainable land 

  3. A Crosswalk of Mineral Commodity End Uses and North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, James J.; Matos, Grecia R.; Menzie, W. David

    2015-09-14

    This crosswalk is based on the premise that there is a connection between the way mineral commodities are used and how this use is reflected in the economy. Raw mineral commodities are the basic materials from which goods, finished products, or intermediate materials are manufactured or made. Mineral commodities are vital to the development of the U.S. economy and they impact nearly every industrial segment of the economy, representing 12.2 percent of the U.S. gross domestic product (GDP) in 2010 (U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, 2014). In an effort to better understand the distribution of mineral commodities in the economy, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) attempts to link the end uses of mineral commodities to the corresponding North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes.

  4. The Effect of Monetary Policy on Commodity Prices: Disentangling the Evidence for Individual Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Arteaga Cabrales

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the effect of monetary policy shocks on commodity prices. While most of the literature has found that expansionary shocks have a positive effect on aggregate price indices, we study the effect on individual prices of a sample of four commodities. This set of commodity prices is essential to understand the dynamics of the balance of payments in Colombia. The analysis is based on structural VAR models; we identify monetary policy shocks following Kim (1999, 2003 upon quarterly data for commodity prices and their fundamentals for the period from 1980q1 to 2010q3. Our results show that commodity prices overshoot their long run equilibrium in response to a contractionary shock in the US monetary policy and, in contrast with literature, the response of the individual prices considered is stronger than what has been found in aggregate indices. Additionally, it is found that the monetary policy explains a substantial share of the fluctuations in prices.

  5. Construction Method of Display Proposal for Commodities in Sales Promotion by Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumoto, Masaki

    In a sales promotion task, wholesaler prepares and presents the display proposal for commodities in order to negotiate with retailer's buyers what commodities they should sell. For automating the sales promotion tasks, the proposal has to be constructed according to the target retailer's buyer. However, it is difficult to construct the proposal suitable for the target retail store because of too much combination of commodities. This paper proposes a construction method by Genetic algorithm (GA). The proposed method represents initial display proposals for commodities with genes, improve ones with the evaluation value by GA, and rearrange one with the highest evaluation value according to the classification of commodity. Through practical experiment, we can confirm that display proposal by the proposed method is similar with the one constructed by a wholesaler.

  6. Precise Truss Assembly Using Commodity Parts and Low Precision Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komendera, Erik; Reishus, Dustin; Dorsey, John T.; Doggett, W. R.; Correll, Nikolaus

    2014-01-01

    Hardware and software design and system integration for an intelligent precision jigging robot (IPJR), which allows high precision assembly using commodity parts and low-precision bonding, is described. Preliminary 2D experiments that are motivated by the problem of assembling space telescope optical benches and very large manipulators on orbit using inexpensive, stock hardware and low-precision welding are also described. An IPJR is a robot that acts as the precise "jigging", holding parts of a local structure assembly site in place, while an external low precision assembly agent cuts and welds members. The prototype presented in this paper allows an assembly agent (for this prototype, a human using only low precision tools), to assemble a 2D truss made of wooden dowels to a precision on the order of millimeters over a span on the order of meters. The analysis of the assembly error and the results of building a square structure and a ring structure are discussed. Options for future work, to extend the IPJR paradigm to building in 3D structures at micron precision are also summarized.

  7. Modelling volatility recurrence intervals in the Chinese commodity futures market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weijie; Wang, Zhengxin; Guo, Haiming

    2016-09-01

    The law of extreme event occurrence attracts much research. The volatility recurrence intervals of Chinese commodity futures market prices are studied: the results show that the probability distributions of the scaled volatility recurrence intervals have a uniform scaling curve for different thresholds q. So we can deduce the probability distribution of extreme events from normal events. The tail of a scaling curve can be well fitted by a Weibull form, which is significance-tested by KS measures. Both short-term and long-term memories are present in the recurrence intervals with different thresholds q, which denotes that the recurrence intervals can be predicted. In addition, similar to volatility, volatility recurrence intervals also have clustering features. Through Monte Carlo simulation, we artificially synthesise ARMA, GARCH-class sequences similar to the original data, and find out the reason behind the clustering. The larger the parameter d of the FIGARCH model, the stronger the clustering effect is. Finally, we use the Fractionally Integrated Autoregressive Conditional Duration model (FIACD) to analyse the recurrence interval characteristics. The results indicated that the FIACD model may provide a method to analyse volatility recurrence intervals.

  8. Journal of Integrative Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Scope Journal of Integrative Agriculture (JIA), formerly Agricultural Sciences in China (ASC), founded in 2002, is an official publication of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS). JIA seeks to publish those papers that are influential and will significantly advance scientific understanding in agriculture fields worldwide.

  9. Theme: Agricultural Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeds, Jacquelyn P.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Six theme articles attempt to define and advocate agricultural literacy, review the status of K-8 agricultural literacy programs in states, discuss an Oklahoma study of agricultural literacy, clarify the meaning of sustainable agriculture, and describe the Future Farmers of America's Food for America program for elementary students. (SK)

  10. Sustainable agriculture - selected papers

    OpenAIRE

    Krasowicz, Stanisław; Wrzaszcz, Wioletta; Zegar, Jozef St.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of research on socially sustainable agriculture. Features of sustainable agriculture. Sustainability of private farms in the light of selected criteria. Subsistence agricultural holdings and the sustainable development of agriculture. Sustainable farms in the light of the FADN data. Description of organic holdings in Poland.

  11. Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geophysical methods continue to show great promise for use in agriculture. The term “agricultural geophysics” denotes a subdiscipline of geophysics that is focused only on agricultural applications. The Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics was compiled to include a comprehensive overview of the geoph...

  12. Identification of irradiated cashew nut by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Bhaskar; Sajilata, M G; Chatterjee, Suchandra; Singhal, Rekha S; Variyar, Prasad S; Kamat, M Y; Sharma, Arun

    2008-10-01

    Cashew nut samples were irradiated at gamma-radiation doses of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 kGy, the permissible dose range for insect disinfestation of food commodities. A weak and short-lived triplet (g = 2.004 and hfcc = 30 G) along with an anisotropic signal (g perpendicular = 2.0069 and g parallel = 2.000) were produced immediately after irradiation. These signals were assigned to that of cellulose and CO 2 (-) radicals. However, the irradiated samples showed a dose-dependent increase of the central line (g = 2.0045 +/- 0.0002). The nature of the free radicals formed during conventional processing such as thermal treatment was investigated and showed an increase in intensity of the central line (g = 2.0045) similar to that of irradiation. Characteristics of the free radicals were studied by their relaxation and thermal behaviors. The present work explores the possibility to identify irradiated cashew nuts from nonirradiated ones by the thermal behaviors of the radicals beyond the period, when the characteristic electron paramagnetic resonance spectral lines of the cellulose free radicals have essentially disappeared. In addition, this study for the first time reports that relaxation behavior of the radicals could be a useful tool to distinguish between roasted and irradiated cashew nuts.

  13. Food irradiation makes progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kooij, J. van (Joint FAO/IAEA Div. of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development, Vienna (Austria))

    1984-06-01

    In the past fifteen years, food irradiation processing policies and programmes have been developed both by a number of individual countries, and through projects supported by FAO, IAEA and WHO. These aim at achieving general acceptance and practical implementation of food irradiation through rigorous investigations of its wholesomeness, technological and economic feasibility, and efforts to achieve the unimpeded movement of irradiated foods in international trade. Food irradiation processing has many uses.

  14. Meeting the Challenges for Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Les Copeland

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring food security is an ongoing global challenge. Many forecasts point to a need to increase food production by at least 70% if we are to feed the world’s projected population of nine billion in 2050. Recent volatility in commodity prices and the general upward trend in the cost of food are indicators that global food systems are now driven by demand rather than supply. There are various reasons for this: greater demand for animal protein with economic growth in developing countries; the continuing increase in world population; competition between food and bioenergy crops for land and water; low inventories of world grain stocks; reduced investment in agricultural R&D; and unfavorable weather resulting in a succession of poor harvests around the world. Increasing production of grains, which are the foundation of the human food supply, will have to be achieved through higher crop yields without boosting inputs of land, water and energy. Meeting community expectations for environmental stewardship and sustainability, and adapting food production to increasingly variable climate, add greatly to the challenge.

  15. Food irradiation in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedekind, L.

    1986-08-01

    The paper concerns food irradiation in The People's Republic of China. Its use is envisaged to prolong storage times and to improve the quality of specific foodstuffs. Commercialisation in China, demonstration plants, seasonal shortages and losses, Shanghai irradiation centre, health and safety approval, prospects for wider applications and worldwide use of food irradiation, are all discussed.

  16. 17 CFR 4.5 - Exclusion for certain otherwise regulated persons from the definition of the term “commodity pool...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... otherwise regulated persons from the definition of the term âcommodity pool operator.â 4.5 Section 4.5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND... otherwise regulated persons from the definition of the term “commodity pool operator.” (a) Subject...

  17. Research on the Pricing of Bundling Information Commodity%信息产品的捆绑定价问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛彦妮; 王刊良; 王龙伟

    2003-01-01

    This article studies the characteristics of low marginal cost of information commodity and points out that bundling information commodity is surprisingly profitable. After an analysis of the three factors affecting the sales income of bundling information commodity, that is, marginal cost, distribution of consumer' s valuation of bundling commodity and bundling size, a marketing strategy for bundling information commodity is proposed.

  18. 76 FR 49291 - Agricultural Swaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... institutions, including Barclays Capital, Citigroup, Credit Suisse Securities (USA) LLC, JPMorgan Chase & Co... Commodity Credit Corporation marketing loan program would not be considered swaps. The Working Group of...

  19. Production in the Digital Era: Commodity or Strategic Weapon?

    OpenAIRE

    Zysman, John

    2002-01-01

    The rise of the digital economy reignites debates over the transformation of production in industrial economies. For several decades, analysts attempted to describe the central features of the next economic epoch with labels like the knowledge, information, or service economy. The conventional argument claimed that just as an agricultural economy gave way to a manufacturing economy, an industrial economy was giving way to a service economy. Hence, their arguments went, industrial productio...

  20. Agricultural Production and Trade Structure Profile in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.- P. E. Lubanda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The African region represents the weak point of the world economy. Many African countries have still not finished the process of transforming their economy. Agriculture represents only a minor portion of their economies’ performance – however it is still a key sector of the economy (especially considering the number of people working in agriculture or people representing the agricultural population. The agricultural sector in many sub-Saharan countries is extremely sensitive and its stability affects the stability of the whole region. A very good example representing sub-Saharan Africa is the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC. It is a country with a lot of potential, but it is classified among the poorest countries in the world. Its economy is extremely weak (despite its significant share in total GDP formation value, and underdeveloped. The share of agriculture in total GDP formation is over 42.5%. The number of people living in rural areas represents over 45 million out of a total of 75 million. The number of people working in agriculture is over 60% of the total economically active population. The economy of the country is extremely poor and fragile, mainly because of political instability. The aim of this paper is firstly to specify the position of agriculture in the DRC economy, and also to specify the production and trade commodity structure in relation to other African countries. The paper’s ambition is to identify the most perspective commodities (groups of commodities, both for production and also for trade, and to recommend such a production and trade profile which would allow the DRC the possibility of improving its competitiveness - not only in relation to other African countries, but also in relation to the global market. The production and trade commodity structures are analysed through the application of the BCG method and competitiveness analysis. In relation to these objectives, the paper provides the following conclusions