WorldWideScience

Sample records for agricultural chemistry

  1. Sulfonimidamides in Medicinal and Agricultural Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinthakindi, Praveen K; Naicker, Tricia; Thota, Niranjan; Govender, Thavendran; Kruger, Hendrik G; Arvidsson, Per I

    2016-12-13

    The synthesis and evaluation of structural analogues and isosteres are of central importance in medicinal and agricultural chemistry. The sulfonamide functional group represents one of the most important amide isosteres in contemporary drug design, and about 500 such compounds have overcome both the pharmacological and regulatory hurdles that precede studies in humans. The mono aza analogues of sulfonamides, that is, sulfonimidamides, are rapidly gaining popularity as a novel functional group among synthetic chemists involved in the design of biologically active compounds for both pharmaceutical and agrochemical applications. Herein, we review these recent developments to showcase the promise of this functional group.

  2. Compound Identification: A journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    This perspective is designed to summarize the standards that authors of manuscripts submitted to the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry are expected to follow in establishing the structures of either new or unknown compounds identified in the course of a study. It is especially important tha...

  3. Chemistry teaching in the new degrees of Agricultural Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, Augusto; Tarquis, Ana Maria; Castellanos, Maria Teresa; Requejo, Maria Isabel; Cartagena, Maria Carmen

    2013-04-01

    The academic year 2011-12 is the second one implementing Bologna process in ETSI at the subjects of Agricultural Chemistry I and Chemistry II in the new four Degrees: Graduate in Engineering and Agricultural Science, Food Engineering Graduate, Graduate Environmental and engineering Graduate in Biotechnology, for it has been necessary to design and implement new interactive methodologies in the teaching-learning process based on the use of the virtual platform of the UPM, implement new evaluation systems that promote continued participation active student and the development of educational materials to support the subjects of chemistry designed new degrees within the EEES. In addition to the above actions, an assessment test prior chemistry knowledge has been made to all students who enter into Agricultural Grades, improving laboratory practices and the comparative study of academic obtained by the students of the new grades in the subjects of chemistry during the year 2011-12 compared to the 2010-11 academic year. More than 15,000 data have showed a good correlation between the student's prior knowledge, the level test performed, test scores, the overall success rate of the course and the abandonment of the different degrees. Academic results show a higher percentage of students enrolled and presented on a greater number of passes on students enrolled in the 2011-12 academic year for students enrolled in the previous academic year. The improved results have influenced the actions taken and the level of knowledge with students entering. Finally, we propose possible solutions to fix these results in future courses, aiming to improve the degree of efficiency, success and significant absenteeism in the first year as it will condition the dropout rate of these new degrees. Acknowledgements: Proyecto de Innovación Educativa N° IE02054-11/12 UPM. 2012.

  4. Sustainable technological development in chemistry. Improving the quality of life through chemistry and agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    The importance of agricultural products, their potential conversion to energy sources and their applications for fibre-reinforced construction materials is emphasized. Another potentially important technology is the conversion of sunlight into electricity such as occurs in the leaves of plants. Parallels with nature exist, even though conversions with inorganic materials have, until now, been promising. The ability to control chemical reactions is the subject throughout all the following chapters. The goal is to achieve high reaction efficiencies and to use fewer basic materials, both of which will lead to a reduction in environmental stress. Sustainable developments in chemistry can be described by two approaches: (1) Improvements in society, with challenges for chemistry; and (2) Improvement in the chemical sector itself. Both approaches are dealt with in this report. Five areas for development have been chosen in the discussions for `DTO-Chemie`: Integrated plant conversion (IPC), in particular Valorisation of plant parts for raw materials and energy; Biomass conversion (C1 Chemistry), in particular Technologies for (among others) C1-based chemicals and energy carriers; Photovoltaic cells (PSC), in particular Technologies for the conversion of solar light into electricity; Process Technology in Fine chemistry (PFC), in particular Methodology of manufacturing processes for Fine chemicals; and Sustainable Construction Materials (FRC); in particular Techniques for using fibre-reinforced composites in construction applications. These areas can be viewed as clusters of technologies, with a strong chemistry and agricultural component, which are necessary for achieving a sustainable future. Furthermore, it is important to recognise that technology requires a progressive development (technology lifecycle). The five areas of technology development are tested against a number of criteria: (1) Sustainability / leap / volume; (2) Horizon 2050; (3) Commitment from industry

  5. One hundred years of the Division of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (AGFD)of the American Chemical Society was 100 years old in 2008. ACS grouped papers into sections at its national meetings starting in 1904, including one dealing with agricultural, biological, and sanitary chemistry. This section became AGFD on Dec...

  6. Agricultural and food chemistry: 50 years of synergy between AGFD and JAFC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiber, James N; Kleinschmidt, Loreen A

    2009-09-23

    The Division of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (AGFD) and the American Chemical Society had the foresight to launch the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry in 1953. JAFC, still closely connected with the Division, has grown to be the premier international journal in the field, providing an outlet for publishing original research articles, reviews, perspectives, and editorials, for agricultural and food chemists from many nations. JAFC has expanded coverage of current areas of intense interest, such as bioactive constituents of foods, biotechnology, and biobased products and biofuels, as well as continuing strong coverage of such mainstream categories as food chemistry/biochemistry, analytical methods, safety and toxicology, and agrochemistry. In 2008 alone, JAFC published over 1650 peer-reviewed manuscripts, several symposia (largely from AGFD symposia at ACS National Meetings), and a number of reviews. The synergy between AGFD and JAFC offers many benefits and exciting opportunities for advancing the science of agricultural and food chemistry for the future.

  7. Chemistry of subsurface drain discharge from an agricultural polder soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesterberg, D.; Vos, de B.; Raats, P.A.C.

    2006-01-01

    Protecting groundwater and surface water quality in drained agricultural lands is aided by an understanding of soil physical and chemical processes affecting leaching of plant nutrients and other chemical constituents, and discharge from subsurface drains. Our objectives were to determine which chem

  8. Micromorphology and chemistry of airborne particles in Brussels during agriculture working periods in surrounding region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderstraeten, P; Lénelle, Y; Meurrens, A; Carati, D; Brenig, L; Offer, Z Y; Zaady, E

    2008-11-01

    The main objective of our research was to compare the airborne particle micromorphology and chemistry in the Brussels environment during agriculture working periods in the surrounding farming region. We used specific methods and instrumentation that are adapted to the climate peculiarities of the Brussels region, the period of investigations (12 months) and the proposed objectives. For the agricultural works we defined the following six periods: before sowing, sowing, after sowing, before harvest, harvest and after harvest. The results indicate a possible temporal correlation between agricultural work periods and airborne particle concentration, micromorphology and chemistry in the Brabant-Brussels region. For wheat and corn plant-growth periods, the average particle size, defined as the area obtained by a planar projection of the particulate, showed important variations in time. For sugar beet and endive, the average area size variations are less important. The roughness and sphericity parameters for the growth periods of the four different plants also showed significant differences. Many of the larger particulates (> 10 microm) are aggregates of even finer particles coated with many still finer ones. The airborne particle chemistry averages (atomic percentage At%), showed that three constituents (Si, S and Fe) dominate all the samples (except for particles 3-10 microm in size, which contain a relatively large percentage of Al). Applying similar investigation methods to study the correlations between airborne particle dynamics in urban zones and the agriculture working periods in their surrounding regions could be of interest to better understand the complexity of the PM problematic.

  9. Knowledge, conservation and sustainable use of soil: agricultural chemistry aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Adamo

    Full Text Available Soil is an environmental resource and plays ecological, social and economic functions which are fundamental for the life. To guarantee its availability to future generations, soil resource needs sustainable management. The CEC Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection identifies a series of soil degradation processes or threats, which must be identified and combated. These include erosion, decline in organic matter, local and diffuse contamination, sealing, compaction, decline in biodiversity, salinisation, floods and landslides. With respect to management of contamination with potentially toxic elements, an approach based on the identification and quantification of the various forms or, at least, the main pools, in which contaminants occur in soil, is envisaged. The residence time of an element in soil depends, indeed, by the mobility of its predominant forms. Speciation studies provide information on the mobility and biological availability of contaminants, and seek to assess not simply the contamination level, but rather the risk/toxicity of a polluted soil and to predict its reduction after application of remediation techniques. Soil degradation is often associated with a decrease in the organic matter content, mainly caused by soil use change and global warming. Improving the accumulation of organic matter in soil or contrasting its reduction has positive effects on soil and water quality, crop yields, biodiversity and climate leading to a reduction of green-house gas emissions from soil to the atmosphere. In order to obtain a real accumulation of organic matter in soil, it is not sufficient to temporarily increase its total content, but it is necessary to favour the main processes which govern organic matter stabilization. This requires an approach at both molecular and multidisciplinary level. The reforestation of agricultural and highly degraded soils or conservative agronomic practices, such as the use of humified compounds characterized by

  10. Knowledge, conservation and sustainable use of soil: agricultural chemistry aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Adamo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil is an environmental resource and plays ecological, social and economic functions which are fundamental for the life. To guarantee its availability to future generations, soil resource needs sustainable management. The CEC Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection identifies a series of soil degradation processes or threats, which must be identified and combated. These include erosion, decline in organic matter, local and diffuse contamination, sealing, compaction, decline in biodiversity, salinisation, floods and landslides. With respect to management of contamination with potentially toxic elements, an approach based on the identification and quantification of the various forms or, at least, the main pools, in which contaminants occur in soil, is envisaged. The residence time of an element in soil depends, indeed, by the mobility of its predominant forms. Speciation studies provide information on the mobility and biological availability of contaminants, and seek to assess not simply the contamination level, but rather the risk/toxicity of a polluted soil and to predict its reduction after application of remediation techniques. Soil degradation is often associated with a decrease in the organic matter content, mainly caused by soil use change and global warming. Improving the accumulation of organic matter in soil or contrasting its reduction has positive effects on soil and water quality, crop yields, biodiversity and climate leading to a reduction of green-house gas emissions from soil to the atmosphere. In order to obtain a real accumulation of organic matter in soil, it is not sufficient to temporarily increase its total content, but it is necessary to favour the main processes which govern organic matter stabilization. This requires an approach at both molecular and multidisciplinary level. The reforestation of agricultural and highly degraded soils or conservative agronomic practices, such as the use of humified compounds characterized by

  11. Food bioactives research and the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. Symposium introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Somoza, Veronika; Finley, John

    2012-07-11

    The bioactive compounds in foods have been the topic of many papers over the past 20 years and are among those that have received a higher citation in agriculture and food science journals. With the occasion of the 60th anniversary of the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, a Symposium on Food Bioactives was held during the 2011 American Chemical Society meeting in Denver, CO. The symposium was organized as an overview of the state of the art in knowledge of food bioactives and the perspectives and trends for the 21st century.

  12. Changes in Soil Chemistry and Agricultural Return Flow in an Integrated Seawater Agriculture System (ISAS) Demonstration in Abu Dhabi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Q.; Matiin, W. A.; Ahmad, F.

    2012-12-01

    Growing halophytes using Integrated Seawater Agriculture Systems (ISAS) offers a sustainable solution for the generation of biomass feedstock for carbon neutral biofuels - halophytes do not enter the foodchain and they do not compete with food-crops for natural resources. A field demonstration of ISAS in the coastal regions of Abu Dhabi, UAE, scheduled to start in 2013, will likely face a number of region-specific challenges not encountered in past demonstrations of ISAS at coastal locations in Mexico and Eritrea. The arid climate, unique soil chemistry (evaporite deposits, especially gypsum), and hypersaline coastal hydrogeology of Abu Dhabi will affect long-term halophyte agricultural productivity when Arabian Gulf seawater is applied to coastal soils as part of ISAS. Therefore, the changes in irrigation return flow quality and soil chemistry must be monitored closely over time to establish transient salt and water balances in order to assess the sustainability of ISAS in the region. As an initial phase of the ISAS demonstration project, numerical modeling of different seawater loadings onto coastal soils was conducted to estimate the chemical characteristics of soil and the irrigation return flow over time. These modeling results will be validated with field monitoring data upon completion of one year of ISAS operation. The results from this study could be used to (i) determine the optimal saline water loading that the soils at the ISAS site can tolerate, (ii) potential for sodicity of the soil with saline water application, (iii) impacts of land application of saline water on underlying coastal groundwater, and (iv) develop strategies to control soil water activities in favor of halophyte agricultural productivity.

  13. Teaching Reforms and Practices of General Chemistry in Agricultural Universities%Guangzhou Chemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁厚群; 胡春燕; 李艳霞; 孙婷婷; 王义华

    2016-01-01

    General Chemistry is an important public basic course in agriculture, forestry, animal science, bioengineering, food engineering, environment engineering majors, etc, in agricultural universities. The main problems during teaching course were analyzed, and according to the curriculum characteristics and the teaching objectives, the teaching contents, patternsand methods were reformedand implemented. The students were found to be more interested in General Chemistry,and their practical handing capabilities were cultivated. The teaching qualityand teaching effect were obviously improved.%《普通化学》是面向高等农业院校农学、林学、动科、生工、食品、环工等专业的一门重要公共基础课。课程组分析课程存在的主要问题,结合本课程特点和教学目标,在教学内容、教学模式、教学方法等方面进行了教学改革与实践。通过这几年的教学改革与实践,不仅学生的学习兴趣和动手实践能力有了很大的进步,教学质量和教学效果也有了明显的提高。

  14. Proceedings of the frst joint american chemical society agricultural and food chemistry division – american chemical society international chemical sciences chapter in Thailand symposium on agricultural and food chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Proceedings is a compilation of papers from contributed oral and poster presentations presented at the first joint symposium organized by the American Chemical Society Agricultural and Food Chemistry Division and the American Chemical Society International Chemical Sciences Chapter in Thailand ...

  15. Symposium introduction: the first joint American Chemical Society Agricultural and Food Chemistry Division and the American Chemical Society International Chemical Sciences Chapter in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    The American Chemical Society (ACS) Agricultural and Food Chemistry Division (AGFD) and the ACS International Chemical Sciences Chapter in Thailand (ICSCT) worked together to stage the “1st Joint ACS AGFD - ACS ICSCT Symposium on Agricultural and Food Chemistry,” which was held in Bangkok, Thailand ...

  16. Influence of instream habitat and water chemistry on amphibians within channelized agricultural headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    The widespread use of stream channelization and subsurface tile drainage for draining agricultural fields has led to the development of numerous channelized agricultural headwater streams within agricultural watersheds of the Midwestern United States, Canada, and Europe. Channelized agricultural he...

  17. Application, chemistry, and environmental implications of contaminant-immobilization amendments on agricultural soil and water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udeigwe, Theophilus K; Eze, Peter N; Teboh, Jasper M; Stietiya, Mohammed H

    2011-01-01

    Contaminants such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), arsenic (As), heavy metals, and infectious pathogens are often associated with agricultural systems. Various soil and water remediation techniques including the use of chemical amendments have been employed to reduce the risks associated with these contaminants. This paper reviews the use of chemical amendments for immobilizing principal agricultural contaminants, the chemistry of contaminant immobilization, and the environmental consequences associated with the use of these chemical products. The commonly used chemical amendments were grouped into aluminum-, calcium-, and iron-containing products. Other products of interest include phosphorus-containing compounds and silicate clays. Mechanisms of contaminant immobilization could include one or a combination of the following: surface precipitation, adsorption to mineral surfaces (ion exchange and formation of stable complexes), precipitation as salts, and co-precipitation. The reaction pH, redox potential, clay minerals, and organic matter are potential factors that could control contaminant-immobilization processes. Reviews of potential environmental implications revealed that undesirable substances such as trace elements, fluoride, sulfate, total dissolved solids, as well as radioactive materials associated with some industrial wastes used as amendment could be leached to ground water or lost through runoff to receiving water bodies. The acidity or alkalinity associated with some of the industrial-waste amendments could also constitute a substantial environmental hazard. Chemical amendments could introduce elements capable of inducing or affecting the activities of certain lithotrophic microbes that could influence vital geochemical processes such as mineral dissolution and formation, weathering, and organic matter mineralization.

  18. Phosphorus chemistry and bacterial community composition interact in brackish sediments receiving agricultural discharges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Sinkko

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: External nutrient discharges have caused eutrophication in many estuaries and coastal seas such as the Baltic Sea. The sedimented nutrients can affect bacterial communities which, in turn, are widely believed to contribute to release of nutrients such as phosphorus from the sediment. METHODS: We investigated relationships between bacterial communities and chemical forms of phosphorus as well as elements involved in its cycling in brackish sediments using up-to-date multivariate statistical methods. Bacterial community composition was determined by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and cloning of the 16S rRNA gene. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The bacterial community composition differed along gradients of nutrients, especially of different phosphorus forms, from the estuary receiving agricultural phosphorus loading to the open sea. This suggests that the chemical composition of sediment phosphorus, which has been affected by riverine phosphorus loading, influenced on bacterial communities. Chemical and spatial parameters explained 25% and 11% of the variation in bacterial communities. Deltaproteobacteria, presumptively sulphate and sulphur/iron reducing, were strongly associated to chemical parameters, also when spatial autocorrelation was taken into account. Sulphate reducers correlated positively with labile organic phosphorus and total nitrogen in the open sea sediments. Sulphur/iron reducers and sulphate reducers linked to iron reduction correlated positively with aluminium- and iron-bound phosphorus, and total iron in the estuary. The sulphate and sulphur/iron reducing bacteria can thus have an important role both in the mineralization and mobilization of nutrients from sediment. SIGNIFICANCE: Novelty in our study is that relationships between bacterial community composition and different phosphorus forms, instead of total phosphorus, were investigated. Total phosphorus does not necessarily bring out interactions

  19. HOW AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY CAN CONTRIBUTE TO DEALING WITH PROBLEMS OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Emanuele Gessa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil is a complex heterogeneous system whose physical, chemical and biological properties regulate interactions with the chemical species which reach its surface. Soil chemistry is an essential tool for understanding and predicting these interactions. Soil is able to immobilize and transform organic and inorganic molecules by different mechanisms, such as complexing and redox reactions. This behaviour gives soil detoxifying capacities towards pollutants which accumulate in the environment. Pollution by heavy metals is regulated by their solubility in soil solution which in turn depends on soil pH and redox properties and metal speciation. Organic and inorganic colloidal soil fractions can promote the immobilisation, degradation, and diffusion of organic molecules such as agrochemicals, solvents, hydrocarbons and other chemicals which reach the soil by anthropic activities. Predicting the fate of xenobiotics in soil, water, air, and plant ecosystems, the recycling of biomass and the decontamination of polluted soils are of major concern to soil chemistry.

  20. 农科院校有机化学课程教学改革研究%Discussion on Teaching Reform of Organic Chemistry in Agriculture University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈长水; 徐胜臻; 曹秀芳; 张青叶

    2013-01-01

    以华中农业大学为例,从更新教学理念,精选课程教学内容,改进教学方法与手段,完善考核方法几方面,阐述了农科院校有机化学课程教学改革.%With Huazhong Agricultural University as example, teaching reform of organic chemistry in agricultural universities were elaborated from aspects of selecting teaching content, improving teaching method and way, perfecting assessment method.

  1. Evolution of the teachings of chemistry in the new degrees of School of Agricultural Engineering and its importance in the acquisition of competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, Augusto; Tarquis, Ana M.; Castellanos, Maria Teresa; Requejo, Maria Isabel; Cartagena, Maria Carmen

    2014-05-01

    The academic year 2012-13 is the third year of implementation of the Bologna process in ETSI Agricultural for the subjects Chemistry I and Chemistry II in the new four Degrees: Graduate in Engineering and Agricultural Science, Food Engineering Graduate, Graduate in Engineering Environmental and Biotechnology graduate. We have implemented new interactive methodologies in the teaching-learning process based on the use of the virtual platform of the UPM, and teaching support materials and new laboratory practice developing has. It has also launched new continuous assessment systems that promote active student participation. A comparative study of academic achievements by students of the new grades in the subjects of chemistry during the last three academic years was performed to correlating the results obtained, the success rate and the drop out, and compare with the level of prior knowledge to those entering students. Possible solutions to try and fix these results in future courses are proposed Finally, the general competencies that contribute this course, how they are acquired and how they should be evaluated correctly are indicated. Acknowledgments: Innovation educative projects Nº IE02054-11/12 UPM. 2012

  2. 农科有机化学教学中的几个小方法%Some Teaching Methods of Organic Chemistry in Agricultural University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵李霞; 叶非; 付颖

    2011-01-01

    The organic chemistry course in agricultural university was an important basic disciplines, involving a wide range of teaching, content and infiltration of multiple disciplines. Learning well of organic chemistry, postgraduate students could lay a solid f%农业院校中的有机化学课程是一门重要的基础学科,教学涉及范围广,内容渗透多个学科。学好有机化学,能够为学生的学习深造和工作实践打下坚实的基础,具有非常重要的意义。笔者探讨了农科有机化学教学中的几个小方法,改善课堂教学效果,提高学生学习积极性。

  3. Effect of Agricultural Practices on Hydrology and Water Chemistry in a Small Irrigated Catchment, Yakima River Basin, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Kathleen A.; Johnson, Henry M.

    2009-01-01

    The role of irrigation and artificial drainage in the hydrologic cycle and the transport of solutes in a small agricultural catchment in central Washington's Yakima Valley were explored using hydrologic, chemical, isotopic, age-dating, and mineralogical data from several environmental compartments, including stream water, ground water, overland flow, and streambed pore water. A conceptual understanding of catchment hydrology and solute transport was developed and an inverse end-member mixing analysis was used to further explore the effects of agriculture in this small catchment. The median concentrations of major solutes and nitrates were similar for the single field site and for the catchment outflow site, indicating that the net effects of transport processes for these constituents were similar at both scales. However, concentrations of nutrients were different at the two sites, suggesting that field-scale variations in agricultural practices as well as nearstream and instream biochemical processes are important components of agricultural chemical transformation and transport in this catchment. This work indicates that irrigation coupled with artificial drainage networks may exacerbate the ecological effects of agricultural runoff by increasing direct connectivity between fields and streams and minimizing potentially mitigating effects (denitrification and dilution, for example) of longer subsurface pathways.

  4. Morphology, chemistry and distribution of neoformed spherulites in agricultural land affected by metallurgical point-source pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leguedois, S.; Oort, van F.; Jongmans, A.G.; Chevalier, P.

    2004-01-01

    Metal distribution patterns in superficial soil horizons of agricultural land affected by metallurgical point-source pollution were studied using optical and electron microscopy, synchrotron radiation and spectroscopy analyses. The site is located in northern France, at the center of a former entry

  5. The research of teaching methods of organic chemistry in agricultural university%高等农业院校有机化学教学方法探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵李霞; 叶非; 付颖

    2013-01-01

      探讨了农科有机化学教学中有机合成的教学方法,引导学生在熟悉有机化合物性质的基础上绘制有机化合物化学性质框图,提高了学生学习的积极性,改善了课堂教学效果,能够为学生的学习深造和工作实践打下坚实的基础。%Discussed the teaching method of organic chemistry in agricultural university,guiding students to draw diagram of organic compounds on the basis of their chemical property,improving learning initiative of students, enhancing teaching effectiveness in classroom,laying a solid foundation for students to continue learning and work practice.

  6. Reform and Practice of Teaching on Organic Chemistry at Agricultural University%农业院校有机化学教学改革与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴苏琴; 聂旭亮; 陈金珠; 邓昌晞

    2011-01-01

    有机化学是农业院校中重要的专业基础课。随着科技的发展,有机化学课内容在不断充实,教学课时却减少,针对此现状,笔者根据多年的教学经验,从教学方法,教学内容,教学手段,成绩评价等方面提出了改革措施,实践证明,改革有效的提高了教学效果。%Organic chemistry has been an important basic course for the major of agricultural university.Based on the practices of abundant contents and short credit-hour,some reform about teaching methods,contents,means and evaluation of studying were summerized.It was proved that the effect was improved.

  7. Reform and Practice of Organic Chemical Curriculum of Applied Chemistry in Agricultural Colleges%农业院校应化专业有机化学课程改革与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽波; 徐雅琴

    2012-01-01

    针对农业院校有机化学教学特点,对教学过程中存在的问题提出改革措施,编写了有机化学教材;采用现代教学手段、理论联系实际改善课堂教学结构;注重理论课与实验课的交叉渗透,增设开放性实验,提高了教学效果。%Aimed at the teaching characteristics of organic chemistry in agricultural colleges,the paper puts forward the reform measures for the problems in the teaching process,writes teaching materials in organic chemistry;improves classroom teaching structure by modern teaching way and linking theory with practice;pays attention to the penetration of theoretical and experimental curriculum,increases open experiments,and enhances the teaching effect.

  8. The New Color of Chemistry: Green Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Zuhal GERÇEK

    2012-01-01

    Green chemistry which is the new application of chemistry rules provides solutions to problems that mankind is faced with climate changes, sustainable agriculture, energy, toxics, depletion of natural sources e.g. designing new chemicals and processes that production and utilization of hazardous matters. So, it is the indispensible tool for sustainable development. Current and future chemists should consider the human health and ecological issues in their professional life. In order to provid...

  9. The New Color of Chemistry: Green Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal GERÇEK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Green chemistry which is the new application of chemistry rules provides solutions to problems that mankind is faced with climate changes, sustainable agriculture, energy, toxics, depletion of natural sources e.g. designing new chemicals and processes that production and utilization of hazardous matters. So, it is the indispensible tool for sustainable development. Current and future chemists should consider the human health and ecological issues in their professional life. In order to provide a solution for this requirement, green chemistry rules and under standings should be primarily taken in the university curriculum and at all educational levels.

  10. An Exploration for the Green Chemistry Teaching Reform in Analytical Chemistry for Agricultural University%农业高校分析化学课程教学绿色化的改革探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白玲; 李铭芳; 吴东平; 汪小强

    2011-01-01

    In response to the current problems of analytical chmistry teaching, and taking green chemistry as main-stroke, the green chemistry teaching reform in analytical chemistry was explored. A series of reform thoughts and measures were conducted at the aspect of teaching theory concept, the teaching contents, the teaching method and means, the appraising system of courses, and so on. Better teaching results were made. It would promote development of green chemistry,and realize low carbon economy and the sustainable development of national economy.%针对农业高校分析化学课程教学的现状,以绿色化学为主线,进行了分析化学课程教学绿色化的改革探索.从教学理念、教学内容、教学方法和手段、考核手段等方面,提出了一系列改革思路和具体措施,取得了较好的教学效果.

  11. 提高农林院校有机化学教学质量的探索与实践%Exploration and Practice on Improving the Teaching quality of Organic Chemistry at Agricultural University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂旭亮; 陈金珠; 刘长相

    2012-01-01

    有机化学是高等农业院校中重要的专业基础课。针对目前农科有机化学课程教学的现状,作者从加强教学意识,注重教师教学魅力;慎重选择教学手段,钻研教学方法;精选教学教材,优化教学内容;加强实践教学等方面进行探索与尝试,以提高农学类专业有机化学教学质量.%Organic chemistry has been an important basic course for the major of agricultural university. According to the current status of the teaching of agro-organic chemistry, author made exploration and practic from enhancing teaching consciousness, pay attention to teachers' teaching charm; careful selection of teaching, research teaching method; selection of teaching materials, optimizing the teaching content; to strengthen the practice teaching, to improve the quality of the teaching of agro-organic chemistry.

  12. Should I Take French, Physics, or Vocational Agriculture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, William; Goecker, Allan

    1974-01-01

    Studies at the Purdue School of Agriculture indicated students who had completed high school vocational agriculture were more likely to complete requirements for a baccalaureate degree in agriculture than those not having vocational agriculture. Agriculture college-bound students should emphasize agriculture, biology, chemistry, mathematics, and…

  13. Hematologi dan Kimia Klinik Darah Kambing Peranakan Etawah yang Diberi Pakan Produk Sampingan Pertanian dan Enzim Optizym (HEMATOLOGY AND BLOOD CLINICAL CHEMISTRY OF ETAWAH GOAT CROSSBRED-FED AGRICULTURE BY PRODUCTS SUPPLEMENTED WITH OPTIZYM ENZYME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayan Sayang Yupardhi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia including Bali island until now, a lot of Etawah Goat Crossbred raised by farmers. Inthe island, there was  lots of  agriculture by products available which were not much used yet for animalfeed. There is an opportunity the product were supplemented with Optizym enzyme to  feed the animal.The enzyme was a cellulotic one. The objective of this experiment was to study hematology (packaged cellvolume, hemoglobin, erythrocytes, leukocytes, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, sedimentationrate and clinical chemistry of blood (creatinine, urea, serum glutamic piruvat transaminase, serum glutamicoxaloacetic transaminase, glucose, and cholesterol. The experiment was conducted for 2 months at Bukit-Jimbaran, Badung, Bali. Measurements were conducted  on the packaged cell volume with the method ofmicrohematocrite, hemoglobin with the method of Hematin (Hemoglobinometer or Hemometer Sahli,erythrocytes and leukocytes with the method of Hemocytometer (improved Neubaeur, differential ofleukocytes (neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil with the method of slide; and blood sedimentationrate with the method of Westergreen, while measurements of the creatinine, urea, serum glutamic piruvattransaminase, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glucose, and cholesterol were conducted with Reflotron Plus modified Reflovet Plus (Roch.Data were analyzed with Analysis of Variance. Results ofthe experiment showed that supplementation of the optizym for 0,25 kg and 0,50 kg in every 100 kg basaldiet of agriculture by products (unconventional were not increased significantly on the packaged cellvolume, hemoglobin, total erythrocytes, total leucocytes, neuthrophil, lymposite, monocyte and the samething was also occurred on serum glutamic piruvat transaminase, serum glutamic oxaloacetictransaminase, glucose, and cholesterol of the animals (P > 0.05 compared to the untreated one; while therest (blood sedimentation rate, creatinine, and urea

  14. Exploration on Improving Teaching Quality of Structural Chemistry in Agricultural Universities%提高农业院校结构化学课程教学质量的研究与探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东方

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at the problems of Structural Chemistry in teaching, such as huge content, concept, less teaching hour, adhering to the concept of "tamp foundation, expand frontier, active thinking, multi-disciplines fusion and educate with entertainment", several coun- termeasures for improving teaching quality of Structural Chemistry in agricultural universities were put forward, so as to innovate students' learning enthusiasm and initiative, obtaining a good teaching effect.%针对结构化学课程教学中普遍存在的课程内容多、概念抽象、头绪繁杂、教学时数少的问题,秉承“务实基础、拓展前沿、活跃思维、多学科交叉融合、寓教于乐”的教学理念,提出了提高农业院校结构化学课程教学质量的对策,以激发学生学习的兴趣和主动性,取得良好的教学效果.

  15. Colour Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, J.; Rattee, I. D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the course offerings in pure color chemistry at two universities and the three main aspects of study: dyestuff chemistry, color measurement, and color application. Indicates that there exists a constant challenge to ingenuity in the subject discipline. (CC)

  16. Chemistry Dashboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemistry Dashboard is part of a suite of dashboards developed by EPA to help evaluate the safety of chemicals. The Chemistry Dashboard provides access to a variety of information on over 700,000 chemicals currently in use.

  17. Chemistry Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Described are eight chemistry experiments and demonstrations applicable to introductory chemistry courses. Activities include: measure of lattice enthalpy, Le Chatelier's principle, decarboxylation of soap, use of pocket calculators in pH measurement, and making nylon. (SL)

  18. Biophysical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häussinger, Daniel; Pfohl, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Biophysical chemistry at the Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, covers the NMR analysis of protein-protein interaction using paramagnetic tags and sophisticated microscopy techniques investigating the dynamics of biological matter.

  19. Heterocyclic chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Hemming, Karl

    2011-01-01

    Recent progress in the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds is presented\\ud 2010 offered highlights in pericyclic chemistry, particularly 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition chemistry, asymmetric synthesis, gold catalysis, organocatalysis, hydroamination, C–H activation and multicomponent reactions.

  20. Combinatorial chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John

    1994-01-01

    An overview of combinatorial chemistry is presented. Combinatorial chemistry, sometimes referred to as `irrational drug design,' involves the generation of molecular diversity. The resulting chemical library is then screened for biologically active compounds.......An overview of combinatorial chemistry is presented. Combinatorial chemistry, sometimes referred to as `irrational drug design,' involves the generation of molecular diversity. The resulting chemical library is then screened for biologically active compounds....

  1. Positronium chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Green, James

    1964-01-01

    Positronium Chemistry focuses on the methodologies, reactions, processes, and transformations involved in positronium chemistry. The publication first offers information on positrons and positronium and experimental methods, including mesonic atoms, angular correlation measurements, annihilation spectra, and statistical errors in delayed coincidence measurements. The text then ponders on positrons in gases and solids. The manuscript takes a look at the theoretical chemistry of positronium and positronium chemistry in gases. Topics include quenching, annihilation spectrum, delayed coincidence

  2. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection.

  3. Tropical Soil Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borggaard, Ole K.

    and environmental protection. Tropical Soil Chemistry by Ole K. Borggaard provides an overview of the composition, occurrence, properties, processes, formation, and environmental vulnerability of various tropical soil types (using American Soil Taxonomy for classification). The processes and the external factors......A new book that is particularly relevant as tropical countries experience increased pressure on land resources to improve agricultural production. To ensure sustainable land use, the potentials and limitations of different kinds of tropical soils must be known in relation to crop production...... soil chemical issues are also presented to assess when, why, and how tropical soils differ from soils in other regions. This knowledge can help agricultural specialists in the tropics establish sustainable crop production. Readers are assumed to be familiar with basic chemistry, physics...

  4. Emerging Agricultural Biotechnologies for Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jennifer A; Gipmans, Martijn; Hurst, Susan; Layton, Raymond; Nehra, Narender; Pickett, John; Shah, Dilip M; Souza, Thiago Lívio P O; Tripathi, Leena

    2016-01-20

    As global populations continue to increase, agricultural productivity will be challenged to keep pace without overtaxing important environmental resources. A dynamic and integrated approach will be required to solve global food insecurity and position agriculture on a trajectory toward sustainability. Genetically modified (GM) crops enhanced through modern biotechnology represent an important set of tools that can promote sustainable agriculture and improve food security. Several emerging biotechnology approaches were discussed in a recent symposium organized at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry meeting in San Francisco, CA, USA. This paper summarizes the innovative research and several of the new and emerging technologies within the field of agricultural biotechnology that were presented during the symposium. This discussion highlights how agricultural biotechnology fits within the context of sustainable agriculture and improved food security and can be used in support of further development and adoption of beneficial GM crops.

  5. Analytical Chemistry in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotov, Yuri

    2016-09-06

    Research in Russian analytical chemistry (AC) is carried out on a significant scale, and the analytical service solves practical tasks of geological survey, environmental protection, medicine, industry, agriculture, etc. The education system trains highly skilled professionals in AC. The development and especially manufacturing of analytical instruments should be improved; in spite of this, there are several good domestic instruments and other satisfy some requirements. Russian AC has rather good historical roots.

  6. Forensic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence.

  7. Computational chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Computational chemistry has come of age. With significant strides in computer hardware and software over the last few decades, computational chemistry has achieved full partnership with theory and experiment as a tool for understanding and predicting the behavior of a broad range of chemical, physical, and biological phenomena. The Nobel Prize award to John Pople and Walter Kohn in 1998 highlighted the importance of these advances in computational chemistry. With massively parallel computers ...

  8. Organic chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-08-15

    This book with sixteen chapter explains organic chemistry on linkage isomerism such as alkane, cycloalkane, alkene, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic halogen compound, alcohol, ether, aldehyde and ketone, carboxylic acid, dicarboxylic acid, fat and detergent, amino, carbohydrate, amino acid and protein, nucleotide and nucleic acid and spectroscopy, a polymer and medical chemistry. Each chapter has introduction structure and characteristic and using of organic chemistry.

  9. Bioinorganic Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Bertini, Ivano; Gray, Harry B.; Lippard, Stephen J.; Valentine, Joan Selverstone

    1994-01-01

    This book covers material that could be included in a one-quarter or one-semester course in bioinorganic chemistry for graduate students and advanced undergraduate students in chemistry or biochemistry. We believe that such a course should provide students with the background required to follow the research literature in the field. The topics were chosen to represent those areas of bioinorganic chemistry that are mature enough for textbook presentation. Although each chapter presents material...

  10. Chemistry Technology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Chemistry technology experts at NCATS engage in a variety of innovative translational research activities, including:Design of bioactive small molecules.Development...

  11. Some advances in atmospheric chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In the recent decade, researches have been carried out by our group on some aspects of atmospheric chemistry through field observation, mechanism analysis and model simulation. Here some main results on greenhouse gas (CH4, N2O) emission from Chinese agricultural fields, aerosol, global carbon cycle and ozone variation in surface laver over China are briefly reported.

  12. Quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, John P

    1993-01-01

    Praised for its appealing writing style and clear pedagogy, Lowe's Quantum Chemistry is now available in its Second Edition as a text for senior undergraduate- and graduate-level chemistry students. The book assumes little mathematical or physical sophistication and emphasizes an understanding of the techniques and results of quantum chemistry, thus enabling students to comprehend much of the current chemical literature in which quantum chemical methods or concepts are used as tools. The book begins with a six-chapter introduction of standard one-dimensional systems, the hydrogen atom,

  13. Promoting sustainability through green chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchhoff, Mary M. [American Chemical Society, 1155 Sixteenth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036 (United States)

    2005-06-15

    Green chemistry is an important tool in achieving sustainability. The implementation of green chemistry, the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances, is essential if the expanding global population is to enjoy an increased standard of living without having a negative impact on the health of the planet. Cleaner technologies will allow the chemical enterprise to provide society with the goods and services on which it depends in an environmentally responsible manner. Green chemistry provides solutions to such global challenges as climate change, sustainable agriculture, energy, toxics in the environment, and the depletion of natural resources. A collaborative effort by industry, academia, and government is needed to promote the adoption of the green chemistry technologies necessary to achieve a sustainable society.

  14. Introductory Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Baron, Mark; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Jose; Stevens, Gary; Gray, Nathan; Atherton, Thomas; Winn, Joss

    2010-01-01

    Teaching and Learning resources for the 1st Year Introductory Chemistry course (Forensic Science). 30 credits. These are Open Educational Resources (OER), made available for re-use under a Creative Commons license.

  15. Nuclear Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)

  16. Materials Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Fahlman, Bradley D

    2011-01-01

    The 2nd edition of Materials Chemistry builds on the strengths that were recognized by a 2008 Textbook Excellence Award from the Text and Academic Authors Association (TAA). Materials Chemistry addresses inorganic-, organic-, and nano-based materials from a structure vs. property treatment, providing a suitable breadth and depth coverage of the rapidly evolving materials field. The 2nd edition continues to offer innovative coverage and practical perspective throughout. After briefly defining materials chemistry and its history, seven chapters discuss solid-state chemistry, metals, semiconducting materials, organic "soft" materials, nanomaterials, and materials characterization. All chapters have been thoroughly updated and expanded with, for example, new sections on ‘soft lithographic’ patterning, ‘click chemistry’ polymerization, nanotoxicity, graphene, as well as many biomaterials applications. The polymer and ‘soft’ materials chapter represents the largest expansion for the 2nd edition. Each ch...

  17. The Chemistry of Griseofulvin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Asger Bjørn; Rønnest, Mads Holger; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld;

    2014-01-01

    Specific synthetic routes are presented in schemes to illustrate the chemistry, and the analogs are presented in a table format to give an accessible overview of the structures. Several patents have been published regarding the properties of griseofulvin and its derivatives including synthesis......, formulation, and their medicinal and agricultural applications. The antifungal mode-of-action of griseofulvin has been the subject of considerable research efforts and some debate over the years, a discussion that is still ongoing. Griseofulvin was one of the first antifungal natural products found...

  18. Green Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, Melanie

    2011-05-15

    Green chemistry is the science of chemistry used in a way that will not use or create hazardous substances. Dr. Rui Resendes is working in this field at GreenCentre Canada, an offshoot of PARTEQ Innovations in Kingston, Ontario. GreenCentre's preliminary findings suggest their licensed product {sup S}witchable Solutions{sup ,} featuring 3 classes of solvents and a surfactant, may be useful in bitumen oil sands extraction.

  19. Cluster Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Cansisting of eight scientists from the State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces and Xiamen University, this creative research group is devoted to the research of cluster chemistry and creation of nanomaterials.After three-year hard work, the group scored a series of encouraging progresses in synthesis of clusters with special structures, including novel fullerenes, fullerene-like metal cluster compounds as well as other related nanomaterials, and their properties study.

  20. Agricultural Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  1. Polymer Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha; Roberson, Luke; Caraccio, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes new technologies in polymer and material chemistry that benefits NASA programs and missions. The topics include: 1) What are Polymers?; 2) History of Polymer Chemistry; 3) Composites/Materials Development at KSC; 4) Why Wiring; 5) Next Generation Wiring Materials; 6) Wire System Materials and Integration; 7) Self-Healing Wire Repair; 8) Smart Wiring Summary; 9) Fire and Polymers; 10) Aerogel Technology; 11) Aerogel Composites; 12) Aerogels for Oil Remediation; 13) KSC's Solution; 14) Chemochromic Hydrogen Sensors; 15) STS-130 and 131 Operations; 16) HyperPigment; 17) Antimicrobial Materials; 18) Conductive Inks Formulations for Multiple Applications; and 19) Testing and Processing Equipment.

  2. 高等农业院校有机化学精品课程建设方法初探%Establishment and Practice of Organic Chemistry Quality Course of High Agriculture University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤莉艳; 马朝红

    2011-01-01

    Organic chemistry is an important basic course.A one quality course,its construction is the key to elevate teaching quality and train person with ability.In this paper,introduces the history of constructing the quality course of organic chemistry and the goal that want to achieve.Also investigates the practice of constructing the quality course of organic chemistry by deciding teaching idea,intensifying teacher team,optimizing teaching content,composing the textbook reforming the teaching methods with multimedia technology.As a consequence,have achieved satisfying teaching results.%有机化学是一门重要的基础课,其精品课程建设是提高教学质量和培养人才的关键。本文简单介绍了有机化学课程建设的发展历程,提出了课程建设的目标。我们从精品课程建设的指导思想、师资队伍建设、教学内容改革、自编教材建设、多媒体与网络建设等方面对"有机化学"精品课程的建设进行了理论研究与实践探索,取得了良好的教学效果。

  3. Alternative Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Will the popularization of bioenergy, a new source for powering China, trigger another agricultural revolution? Skyrocketing energy prices, especially the oil shock in the first half of 2005, are pushing China to seek more substitutes for gasoline. A number of cities are turning to ethanol-blended gas made from com. Starting this month, the sale of regular gasoline will be brought to an end in nine of China's

  4. Computational chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, J. O.

    1987-01-01

    With the advent of supercomputers, modern computational chemistry algorithms and codes, a powerful tool was created to help fill NASA's continuing need for information on the properties of matter in hostile or unusual environments. Computational resources provided under the National Aerodynamics Simulator (NAS) program were a cornerstone for recent advancements in this field. Properties of gases, materials, and their interactions can be determined from solutions of the governing equations. In the case of gases, for example, radiative transition probabilites per particle, bond-dissociation energies, and rates of simple chemical reactions can be determined computationally as reliably as from experiment. The data are proving to be quite valuable in providing inputs to real-gas flow simulation codes used to compute aerothermodynamic loads on NASA's aeroassist orbital transfer vehicles and a host of problems related to the National Aerospace Plane Program. Although more approximate, similar solutions can be obtained for ensembles of atoms simulating small particles of materials with and without the presence of gases. Computational chemistry has application in studying catalysis, properties of polymers, all of interest to various NASA missions, including those previously mentioned. In addition to discussing these applications of computational chemistry within NASA, the governing equations and the need for supercomputers for their solution is outlined.

  5. Hematologi dan Kimia Klinik Darah Kambing Peranakan Etawah yang Diberi Pakan Produk Sampingan Pertanian dan Enzim Optizym (HEMATOLOGY AND BLOOD CLINICAL CHEMISTRY OF ETAWAH GOAT CROSSBRED-FED AGRICULTURE BY PRODUCTS SUPPLEMENTED WITH OPTIZYM ENZYME)

    OpenAIRE

    Wayan Sayang Yupardhi; I Gusti Lanang Oka; Ida Bagus Mantra

    2013-01-01

    In Indonesia including Bali island until now, a lot of Etawah Goat Crossbred raised by farmers. Inthe island, there was  lots of  agriculture by products available which were not much used yet for animalfeed. There is an opportunity the product were supplemented with Optizym enzyme to  feed the animal.The enzyme was a cellulotic one. The objective of this experiment was to study hematology (packaged cellvolume, hemoglobin, erythrocytes, leukocytes, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil...

  6. Theoretical chemistry periodicities in chemistry and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Eyring, Henry

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical Chemistry: Periodicities in Chemistry and Biology, Volume 4 covers the aspects of theoretical chemistry. The book discusses the stably rotating patterns of reaction and diffusion; the chemistry of inorganic systems exhibiting nonmonotonic behavior; and population cycles. The text also describes the mathematical modeling of excitable media in neurobiology and chemistry; oscillating enzyme reactions; and oscillatory properties and excitability of the heart cell membrane. Selected topics from the theory of physico-chemical instabilities are also encompassed. Chemists, mechanical engin

  7. 高等农业院校无机化学教学中绿色创新思维的培养探讨%Research of Inorganic Chemistry Teaching in Agricultural University Based on the Green Chemis-try and Innovation Training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯飞; 陈培荣; 王文保

    2016-01-01

    The idea of green chemistry and innovation training has attracted increasing attention by the international higher education. This paper analyzed the disadvantages existed in the teaching process of inorganic chemistry in ag⁃ricultural university. Further the significance to infiltrate the idea of green chemistry and innovation training in inor⁃ganic chemistry teaching was introduced,and some constructive opinions and suggestions were also put forward.Se⁃quentially,the students desire for knowledge can be inflamed and the effective teaching can also be raised.%注重培养学生的绿色创新思维是当今国际人才教育发展的大趋势。该文针对目前农业院校无机化学教育体系中存在的一些问题,并结合高等农业院校所具有的独特优势,提出了在无机化学教学中注入绿色创新思维培养,并对培养的具体方法和途径进行了探讨,进而激发大学生们对无机化学学习的热情和兴趣。

  8. Surface chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Desai, KR

    2008-01-01

    The surface Chemistry of a material as a whole is crucially dependent upon the Nature and type of surfaces exposed on crystallites. It is therefore vitally important to independently Study different, well - defined surfaces through surface analytical techniques. In addition to composition and structure of surface, the subject also provides information on dynamic light scattering, micro emulsions, colloid Stability control and nanostructures. The present book endeavour to bring before the reader that the understanding and exploitation of Solid state phenomena depended largely on the ability to

  9. Study on Establishment of Experiment for Undergraduate Major of Applied Chemistry in Agricultural University%农业院校应用化学专业实验课程的设立与思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒绪刚; 阎杰; 宋光泉; 蒋旭红

    2011-01-01

    应用化学专业基础实验课程体系的改革与思考以我校应用化学专业为研究对象,整合四大化学的基础实验,提出十项试验技术,探讨了该专业的实验课程体系的建设与教学方式的改革。%On the base of applied chemistry specialty in the university,the construction on its experimental course system was discussed focusing on ten modules,At the same time,the process and method in detail for the reform were also preliminary presented.

  10. Green polymer chemistry: biocatalysis and biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    This overview briefly surveys the practice of green chemistry in polymer science. Eight related themes can be discerned from the current research activities: 1) biocatalysis, 2) bio-based building blocks and agricultural products, 3) degradable polymers, 4) recycling of polymer products and catalys...

  11. Science Update: Inorganic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1978-01-01

    This first in a series of articles describing the state of the art of various branches of chemistry reviews inorganic chemistry, including bioinorganic, photochemistry, organometallic, and solid state chemistries. (SL)

  12. Astronomical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemperer, William

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of polar polyatomic molecules in higher-density regions of the interstellar medium by means of their rotational emission detected by radioastronomy has changed our conception of the universe from essentially atomic to highly molecular. We discuss models for molecule formation, emphasizing the general lack of thermodynamic equilibrium. Detailed chemical kinetics is needed to understand molecule formation as well as destruction. Ion molecule reactions appear to be an important class for the generally low temperatures of the interstellar medium. The need for the intrinsically high-quality factor of rotational transitions to definitively pin down molecular emitters has been well established by radioastronomy. The observation of abundant molecular ions both positive and, as recently observed, negative provides benchmarks for chemical kinetic schemes. Of considerable importance in guiding our understanding of astronomical chemistry is the fact that the larger molecules (with more than five atoms) are all organic.

  13. Combustion chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  14. Environmental chemistry. Seventh edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manahan, S.E. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    1999-11-01

    This book presents a basic understanding of environmental chemistry and its applications. In addition to providing updated materials in this field, the book emphasizes the major concepts essential to the practice of environmental chemistry. Topics of discussion include the following: toxicological chemistry; toxicological chemistry of chemical substances; chemical analysis of water and wastewater; chemical analysis of wastes and solids; air and gas analysis; chemical analysis of biological materials and xenobiotics; fundamentals of chemistry; and fundamentals of organic chemistry.

  15. Advanced Chemistry Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry laboratory The Advanced Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) is a unique facility designed for working with the most super toxic compounds known...

  16. Science Update: Inorganic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1981-01-01

    Describes areas of inorganic chemistry which have changed dramatically in the past year or two, including photochemistry, electrochemistry, organometallic complexes, inorganic reaction theory, and solid state chemistry. (DS)

  17. 独立学院农科普通化学教学思考与实践%Teaching Thought and Practice on General Chemistry for Agricultural Majors in Independent College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋春霞

    2012-01-01

    Independent college is a new school -running model for general colleges and universities, whose curriculum of basic courses and teaching methods are still being explored in the experimental stage. The importance should be attached to the setup of new curriculum system, which can be applied in independent colleges and aimed to cultivate practical and technical talents. On the basis of the writer' s teaching experience for Bio -Foods majors from Chengdong College for years, the paper analyzed the recent teaching situation of general chemistry, reformed practical teaching and bore fruits.%独立学院作为普通高校办学新模式,基础课程设置和教学手段等都处于探索的实验阶段。建立以培养技术应用能力为主线的独立学院新教学模式显得尤为重要。结合笔者多年教学经验,分析独立学院农科普通化学教学现状,在东北农业大学成栋学院生物食品系进行教学实践改革,取得较好效果。

  18. Agriculture ideas and modernization of agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Kangmin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of agriculture has its own history from primitive agriculture, traditional agriculture to modem agriculture. Is it a historical road we must follow?Human being had experienced a long history of living on collection and hunting for about 2,000 to 3,000 millenniums since human being appeared on earth. After we settled down, another 10 millenniums passed. Human being began to cultivate crops and raise animals. Thus, we entered the primitive agriculture stage. The primitive agriculture lasted for 7,000 years to get our food security on primitive crop cultivation and animal raising.

  19. BIODYNAMIC AGRICULTURE - ECO-FRIENDLY AGRICULTURAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselka Vlahova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodynamic agriculture is undoubtedly the oldest organized agricultural movement in the world. It is considered as an organic agricultural farming approach and determined as the oldest organized alternative agricultural movement in the world. In 1924 Rudolf Steiner – an Austrian natural scientist and philosopher, carried out a series of eight lectures in Koberwitz, currently Kobierzyce- Poland, where he formulated his visions on changes in agriculture and revealed his spiritual and scientific concepts about the connection between nature and agriculture by determining the important role of agriculture for the future of humanity and thus he became known as “the father of anthroposophy”. The great ecological effect of the application of the biodynamic agriculture is expressed in soil preservation and preservation of the living organisms in the soil, as well as maintenance of the natural balance in the vegetable and animal kingdom.

  20. Agricultural Education at Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Donald E.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses educational reform in the context of agricultural education. Covers a recent report on agricultural education reform by the National Academy of Sciences, state legislative initiatives, and several recommendations for the future of agricultural education. (CH)

  1. Agricultural Tariff Tracker

    Data.gov (United States)

    Foreign Agricultural Service, Department of Agriculture — The Agricultural Tariff Tool is a web application that queries tariff schedules and rate information resulting from Free Trade Agreements (FTAs). All...

  2. Urban Agriculture Guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.J.; Jansma, J.E.; Dekking, A.J.G.; Klieverik, M.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The Urban Agriculture Guide describes the experiences, learning moments, tips and tricks of those involved in the initiatives of urban agriculture and an indication is provided of what is required to develop urban agriculture further in the Netherlands

  3. Green chemistry: A tool in Pharmaceutical Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Smita Talaviya; Falguni Majumdar

    2012-01-01

    Green chemistry expresses an area of research developing from scientific discoveries about pollution awareness and it utilizes a set of principles that reduces or eliminates the use or generation of hazardous substances in all steps of particular synthesis or process. Chemists and medicinal scientists can greatly reduce the risk to human health and the environment by following all the valuable principles of green chemistry. The most simple and direct way to apply green chemistry in pharmaceut...

  4. From Matter to Life:Chemistry?Chemistry!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean-Marie; LEHN

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Animate as well as inanimate matter,living organisms as well as materials,are formed of molecules and of the organized entities resulting from the interaction of molecules with each other.Chemistry provides the bridge between the molecules of inanimate matter and the highly complex molecular architectures and systems which make up living organisms. Synthetic chemistry has developed a very powerful set of methods for constructing ever more complex molecules.Supramolecular chemistry seeks to con...

  5. Constitutional dynamic chemistry: bridge from supramolecular chemistry to adaptive chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Supramolecular chemistry aims at implementing highly complex chemical systems from molecular components held together by non-covalent intermolecular forces and effecting molecular recognition, catalysis and transport processes. A further step consists in the investigation of chemical systems undergoing self-organization, i.e. systems capable of spontaneously generating well-defined functional supramolecular architectures by self-assembly from their components, thus behaving as programmed chemical systems. Supramolecular chemistry is intrinsically a dynamic chemistry in view of the lability of the interactions connecting the molecular components of a supramolecular entity and the resulting ability of supramolecular species to exchange their constituents. The same holds for molecular chemistry when the molecular entity contains covalent bonds that may form and break reversibility, so as to allow a continuous change in constitution by reorganization and exchange of building blocks. These features define a Constitutional Dynamic Chemistry (CDC) on both the molecular and supramolecular levels.CDC introduces a paradigm shift with respect to constitutionally static chemistry. The latter relies on design for the generation of a target entity, whereas CDC takes advantage of dynamic diversity to allow variation and selection. The implementation of selection in chemistry introduces a fundamental change in outlook. Whereas self-organization by design strives to achieve full control over the output molecular or supramolecular entity by explicit programming, self-organization with selection operates on dynamic constitutional diversity in response to either internal or external factors to achieve adaptation.The merging of the features: -information and programmability, -dynamics and reversibility, -constitution and structural diversity, points to the emergence of adaptive and evolutive chemistry, towards a chemistry of complex matter.

  6. Green chemistry; La chimie verte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colonna, P. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Dept. Caracterisation et Elaboration des Produits, 78 - Versailles (France)

    2006-07-01

    The depletion of world fossil fuel reserves and the involvement of greenhouse gases in the global warming has led to change the industrial and energy policies of most developed countries. The goal is now to reserve petroleum to the uses where it cannot be substituted, to implement renewable raw materials obtained from plants cultivation, and to consider the biodegradability of molecules and of manufactured objects by integrating the lifetime concept in their expected cycle of use. The green chemistry includes the design, development and elaboration of chemical products and processes with the aim of reducing or eliminating the use and generation of harmful compounds for the health and the environment, by adapting the present day operation modes of the chemical industry to the larger framework of the sustainable development. In addition to biofuels, this book reviews the applications of green chemistry in the different industrial processes in concern. Part 1 presents the diversity of the molecules coming from renewable carbon, in particular lignocellulose and the biotechnological processes. Part 2 is devoted to materials and treats of the overall available technological solutions. Part 3 focusses on functional molecules and chemical intermediates, in particular in sugar- and fats-chemistry. Part 4 treats of biofuels under the aspects of their production and use in today's technologies. The last part deals with the global approaches at the environmental and agricultural levels. (J.S.)

  7. Journal of Integrative Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Scope Journal of Integrative Agriculture (JIA), formerly Agricultural Sciences in China (ASC), founded in 2002, is an official publication of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS). JIA seeks to publish those papers that are influential and will significantly advance scientific understanding in agriculture fields worldwide.

  8. Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geophysical methods continue to show great promise for use in agriculture. The term “agricultural geophysics” denotes a subdiscipline of geophysics that is focused only on agricultural applications. The Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics was compiled to include a comprehensive overview of the geoph...

  9. Sustainable agriculture - selected papers

    OpenAIRE

    Krasowicz, Stanisław; Wrzaszcz, Wioletta; Zegar, Jozef St.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of research on socially sustainable agriculture. Features of sustainable agriculture. Sustainability of private farms in the light of selected criteria. Subsistence agricultural holdings and the sustainable development of agriculture. Sustainable farms in the light of the FADN data. Description of organic holdings in Poland.

  10. Green chemistry: A tool in Pharmaceutical Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Talaviya

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Green chemistry expresses an area of research developing from scientific discoveries about pollution awareness and it utilizes a set of principles that reduces or eliminates the use or generation of hazardous substances in all steps of particular synthesis or process. Chemists and medicinal scientists can greatly reduce the risk to human health and the environment by following all the valuable principles of green chemistry. The most simple and direct way to apply green chemistry in pharmaceuticals is to utilize eco-friendly, non-hazardous, reproducible and efficient solvents and catalysts in synthesis of drug molecules, drug intermediates and in researches involving synthetic chemistry. Microwave synthesis is also an important tool of green chemistry by being an energy efficient process.

  11. Environmental chemistry: Volume A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, T.F.

    1999-08-01

    This is an extensive introduction to environmental chemistry for engineering and chemical professionals. The contents of Volume A include a brief review of basic chemistry prior to coverage of litho, atmo, hydro, pedo, and biospheres.

  12. Advanced Chemistry Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry laboratoryThe Advanced Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) is a unique facility designed for working with the most super toxic compounds known...

  13. Organometallic Chemistry of Molybdenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, C. Robert; Walsh, Kelly A.

    1987-01-01

    Suggests ways to avoid some of the problems students have learning the principles of organometallic chemistry. Provides a description of an experiment used in a third-year college chemistry laboratory on molybdenum. (TW)

  14. Chemistry for Potters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denio, Allen A.

    1980-01-01

    Relates pottery making to chemistry by providing chemical information about clay, its origin, composition, properties, and changes that occur during firing; also describes glaze compositions, examples of redox chemistry, salt glazing, crystalline glazes, and problems in toxicity. (CS)

  15. CHINESE JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Chinese Journal of Chemistry is an international journal published in English by the Chinese Chemical Society with its editorial office hosted by Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  16. Organic chemistry experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, Seok Sik

    2005-02-15

    This book deals with organic chemistry experiments, it is divided five chapters, which have introduction, the way to write the experiment report and safety in the laboratory, basic experiment technic like recrystallization and extraction, a lot of organic chemistry experiments such as fischer esterification, ester hydrolysis, electrophilic aromatic substitution, aldol reaction, benzoin condensation, wittig reaction grignard reaction, epoxidation reaction and selective reduction. The last chapter introduces chemistry site on the internet and way to find out reference on chemistry.

  17. Green Chemistry and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjeresen, Dennis L.; Schutt, David L.; Boese, Janet M.

    2000-01-01

    Many students today are profoundly interested in the sustainability of their world. Introduces Green Chemistry and its principles with teaching materials. Green Chemistry is the use of chemistry for pollution prevention and the design of chemical products and processes that are environmentally benign. (ASK)

  18. Surface chemistry essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Birdi, K S

    2013-01-01

    Surface chemistry plays an important role in everyday life, as the basis for many phenomena as well as technological applications. Common examples range from soap bubbles, foam, and raindrops to cosmetics, paint, adhesives, and pharmaceuticals. Additional areas that rely on surface chemistry include modern nanotechnology, medical diagnostics, and drug delivery. There is extensive literature on this subject, but most chemistry books only devote one or two chapters to it. Surface Chemistry Essentials fills a need for a reference that brings together the fundamental aspects of surface chemistry w

  19. National Agriculture Imagery Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) acquires aerial imagery during the agricultural growing seasons in the continental U.S. A primary goal of the NAIP...

  20. Agricultural Libraries and Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Keith W., Ed.; Pisa, Maria G., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven articles address issues relating to agricultural libraries and information, including background on agricultural libraries and information, trend management, document delivery, reference services, user needs and library services, collection development, technologies for international information management, information sources,…

  1. Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Dick

    1997-01-01

    Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate…

  2. Urban Agricultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbellini, Margaret

    1991-01-01

    John Bourne High School in Queens, New York, offers an agricultural program enrolling more than 400 students. The curriculum includes agricultural career exploration, plant and animal science, summer land laboratories, and a special education component. (SK)

  3. Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Dick

    1997-01-01

    Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…

  4. Innovations in urban agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, van der J.W.; Renting, Henk; Veenhuizen, Van René

    2014-01-01

    This issuehighlights innovations in urban agriculture. Innovation and the various forms of innovations are of particular importance because urban agriculture is adapted to specific urban challenges and opportunities. Innovation is taking place continuously, exploring the multiple fundions of urban a

  5. Innovations in urban agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This issuehighlights innovations in urban agriculture. Innovation and the various forms of innovations are of particular importance because urban agriculture is adapted to specific urban challenges and opportunities. Innovation is taking place continuously, exploring the multiple fundions of urban agriculture, including food security, income generation and environmental management.

  6. Carbohydrate Green Chemistry: C-Glycoside Ketones as Potential Chiral Building Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    "Green chemistry" methods to produce new chemicals from renewable agricultural feedstocks will decrease our dependence on imported petroleum feedstocks and lower the environmental impact of consumer products. Our current research focuses on development of new carbohydrate-based derivatives, "locked...

  7. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES AND COMPETITION IN WORLD AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Duma

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural policies have had a guiding role inagriculture development and implicitly in their marketing. Usually they belongto each state and government and are issued in accordance with their specificclimate, social-economic and cultural background which includes food andgastronomic traditions. Agricultural policies have in view home and foreignmarket demand, as well as the socio-demographic, political and military contextat a certain point in the socio-economic development

  8. Agricultural policy schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2016-01-01

    in agricultural policy and they have different functions and impacts. Market price support and deficiency payments are two very important instruments in agricultural policy; however, they belong to two different support regimes or support systems. Market price support operates in the so-called high price system...... of direct support, while market prices are left undistorted at, or close to, world market level. The two different support systems have very different implications for agricultural production, financing, markets, and other aspects; still, there is an income transfer to agriculture in both systems. During...... the last decades, the composition of agricultural support has changed significantly. Market price support has decreased, and direct support has increased....

  9. Agricultural science and ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Vaarst, Mette

    2014-01-01

    , about 20 % of the world's coral reefs and 35 % of the mangrove areas were lost (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005). In the following, the development of agricultural science will be sketched out and the role of ethics in agricultural science will be discussed. Then different views of nature that have...... shaped agriculture and the role of science in agriculture will be discussed by analyzing some of the presumptions behind the concept of ecosystem services and the way animals are viewed. Finally, the concepts of animal welfare and sustainability will be explored to show how they make vivid the connection...... between agricultural science and ethics....

  10. Orbital interactions in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Albright, Thomas A; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Explains the underlying structure that unites all disciplines in chemistry Now in its second edition, this book explores organic, organometallic, inorganic, solid state, and materials chemistry, demonstrating how common molecular orbital situations arise throughout the whole chemical spectrum. The authors explore the relationships that enable readers to grasp the theory that underlies and connects traditional fields of study within chemistry, thereby providing a conceptual framework with which to think about chemical structure and reactivity problems. Orbital Interactions

  11. Group theory and chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, David M

    1993-01-01

    Group theoretical principles are an integral part of modern chemistry. Not only do they help account for a wide variety of chemical phenomena, they simplify quantum chemical calculations. Indeed, knowledge of their application to chemical problems is essential for students of chemistry. This complete, self-contained study, written for advanced undergraduate-level and graduate-level chemistry students, clearly and concisely introduces the subject of group theory and demonstrates its application to chemical problems.To assist chemistry students with the mathematics involved, Professor Bishop ha

  12. Green Chemistry Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolopajlo, Larry

    2017-02-01

    This chapter attempts to show how the practice of chemistry teaching and learning is enriched by the incorporation of green chemistry (GC) into lectures and labs. To support this viewpoint, evidence from a wide range of published papers serve as a cogent argument that GC attracts and engages both science and nonscience students, enhances chemistry content knowledge, and improves the image of the field, while preparing the world for a sustainable future. Published pedagogy associated with green and sustainable chemistry is critically reviewed and discussed.

  13. Advances in quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin, John R

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Quantum Chemistry presents surveys of current topics in this rapidly developing field that has emerged at the cross section of the historically established areas of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. It features detailed reviews written by leading international researchers. This volume focuses on the theory of heavy ion physics in medicine.Advances in Quantum Chemistry presents surveys of current topics in this rapidly developing field that has emerged at the cross section of the historically established areas of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. It features

  14. Science Update: Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Ward

    1980-01-01

    Briefly discusses new instrumentation in the field of analytical chemistry. Advances in liquid chromatography, photoacoustic spectroscopy, the use of lasers, and mass spectrometry are also discussed. (CS)

  15. Challenges and opportunities in supporting sustainable agriculture and food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 2014 IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry (San Francisco, August, 2014) included a symposium on “Challenges Associated with Global Adoption of Agricultural Biotechnology” to review current obstacles in promoting GM crops. Challenges identified by symposium presenters included i) ...

  16. Reorganization of Agricultural Extension toward Green Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. Allahyari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Considering unsustainable agricultural conditions of Iran and organizational recession and inability of current extension organization to achieve sustainability, it seems that extension systems require a new organizational structure to achieve sustainability objectives. The purpose of the present study was to identify the most appropriate characteristics for extension organization toward green agriculture in Iran context. Approach: To fulfill this objective, a sample of 120 respondents was selected through simple random sampling technique. A survey study was applied as a methodology of research. A mailed questionnaire was used to collect the data. The response rate of questionnaire was 65.83% (N = 79. Appropriate descriptive statistics such as mean scores, standard deviations and variation ratio were used. Results: Extension experts believed that among important organizational characteristics of extension system for supporting green agriculture collaboration among research, extension, education organizations, farmers' associations, NGOs, rural credit agencies, transportation companies, considering local groups and learning organization had very high importance for supporting green agriculture. According to factor analysis, the implications for extension organization were categorized into two groups consisting: (1 Holistic organizations (2 Participatory organizations that those factors explained 67.54% of the total variance of the research variables. Conclusion: Identifying suitable extension mechanisms had important role for developing extension system. Therefore, identifying extension organizational characteristics for supporting green agriculture of Iran is one of the major approaches needs to be carefully thought and accurately implemented for the extension system development.

  17. MODERNIZATION OF AGRICULTURE VS SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz KUSZ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the correlation between the need to modernise agriculture and sustainable development. Modernisation of agriculture aiming only at increasing the efficiency of production, if implemented in accordance with the principles of sustainable development, enabled reduction in the negative external effects. Modernisation of agriculture is supposed to ensure productivity growth without imposing any threats to the natural environment and the well-being of animals, reduced impoverishment in rural areas as well as to ensure food security, growth in the profitability of farms, improvement to the efficiency of use of natural resources. Therefore, in the near future, the agriculture – environment relation will be subject to change taking into account, on the one hand, concern about the natural environment, and, on the other, pressure on increasing the efficiency of production. The above challenges will be addressed by the need to implement efficient and, at the same time, environmentally-friendly production technologies and relevant legal instruments which oblige agricultural producers to protect the natural environment.

  18. Chemistry in Microfluidic Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Matthew C.; Sweeney, Christina M.; Odom, Teri W.

    2011-01-01

    General chemistry introduces principles such as acid-base chemistry, mixing, and precipitation that are usually demonstrated in bulk solutions. In this laboratory experiment, we describe how chemical reactions can be performed in a microfluidic channel to show advanced concepts such as laminar fluid flow and controlled precipitation. Three sets of…

  19. Exercises in Computational Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    A selection of HyperChem© PC-exercises in computational chemistry. Answers to most questions are appended (Roskilde University 2014-16).......A selection of HyperChem© PC-exercises in computational chemistry. Answers to most questions are appended (Roskilde University 2014-16)....

  20. Physical Chemistry of Molecular

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Established in 2009, the group consists of six researchers and more than 70 research assistants and graduate students from the CAS Key Laboratory of Molecular Nanostructures and Nanotechnologies at the CAS Institute of Chemistry.Its research focuses on the physical chemistry involved in molecular assembly, molecular nanostructures, functional nanomaterials and conceptual nano-devices.

  1. The Breath of Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josephsen, Jens

    The present preliminary text is a short thematic presentation in biological inorganic chemistry meant to illustrate general and inorganic (especially coordination) chemistry in biochemistry. The emphasis is on molecular models to explain features of the complicated mechanisms essential to breathing...

  2. Bioorganic and bioinorganic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, Edwin C; Housecroft, Catherine E; Creus, Marc; Gademann, Karl; Giese, Bernd; Ward, Thomas R; Woggon, Wolf D; Chougnet, Antoinette

    2010-01-01

    The interdisciplinary projects in bioinorganic and bioorganic chemistry of the Department of Chemistry, University of Basel led to the preparation of new systems that mimic biologically important processes and to the discovery of compounds from natural sources which are very promising with respect to medical applications. The advances in these areas are reported here.

  3. Mathematics and Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, R.; Stumbles, A.

    1977-01-01

    The relationship between mathematics and chemistry has been changing rapidly in recent years. Some chemistry teachers have experienced difficulties in their teaching with the introduction of modern mathematics in the schools. Some suggestions for reinforcing the concepts and language of modern mathematics are put forth. (Author/MA)

  4. Chemistry of americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, W.W.

    1976-01-01

    Essential features of the descriptive chemistry of americium are reviewed. Chapter titles are: discovery, atomic and nuclear properties, collateral reading, production and uses, chemistry in aqueous solution, metal, alloys, and compounds, and, recovery, separation, purification. Author and subject indexes are included. (JCB)

  5. Biodiesel from Seeds: An Experiment for Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    Plants can store the chemical energy required by their developing offspring in the form of triglycerides. These lipids can be isolated from seeds and then converted into biodiesel through a transesterification reaction. This second-year undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory experiment exemplifies the conversion of an agricultural energy…

  6. Effectiveness in Agricultural Engineering: introductory course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, A.; Tarquis, A. M.; Cartagena, M. C.

    2009-04-01

    A great number of our incoming students do not have the prerequisite knowledge expected from studying Chemistry, Mathematics and Physics in the engineering degree. In some cases, they did not take Chemistry lessons at Secondary School. In other cases, students do not have enough level to follow the lessons at university. If we want to avoid failure in University, all of these students should do some extra work. In some School of Technical University of Madrid, students seek optional introductory courses to acquire the technical basic necessary knowledge to start education in High School, avoiding as far as possible the failure of the first course and in many cases the abandonment. These courses began in Agricultural School in 2005. The course is given during the month of September and includes a total of 5 ECTS that are distributed among different fundamental subjects: Mathematics (40%), Physics (30%) and Chemistry (30%). Course contents include a review of Secondary School concepts as well as others that the different Departments consider necessary to follow the subject at the first engineering course properly. In this work the results obtained during the last four years are showed on the students' formation and knowledge of these fundamental subjects prior to the introductory course and their level of participation, beside the degree of students' satisfaction gathered in the surveys. In addition, a case study in Chemistry is presented showing teaching techniques and learning activities used as well as the knowledge and abilities acquired.

  7. Biosynthetic inorganic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi

    2006-08-25

    Inorganic chemistry and biology can benefit greatly from each other. Although synthetic and physical inorganic chemistry have been greatly successful in clarifying the role of metal ions in biological systems, the time may now be right to utilize biological systems to advance coordination chemistry. One such example is the use of small, stable, easy-to-make, and well-characterized proteins as ligands to synthesize novel inorganic compounds. This biosynthetic inorganic chemistry is possible thanks to a number of developments in biology. This review summarizes the progress in the synthesis of close models of complex metalloproteins, followed by a description of recent advances in using the approach for making novel compounds that are unprecedented in either inorganic chemistry or biology. The focus is mainly on synthetic "tricks" learned from biology, as well as novel structures and insights obtained. The advantages and disadvantages of this biosynthetic approach are discussed.

  8. Organic Agriculture and Nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Jahanban, Leila; Davari, Mohammadreza

    2014-01-01

    Organic agriculture is a holistic production management system which promotes and enhances agro-ecosystem health, including biodiversity, biological cycles and soil biological activity. On the other hand, nanotechnology is a rapidly developing domain of research and practice, the terminology is in a state of flux and usage is evolving. Nano-applications are being applied across the entire agriculture and food sectors. In agriculture, for example, nano-pesticides and nano-sensors are changing ...

  9. Ukraine Agricultural Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The agri-food sector is an important part of the Ukrainian economy. Agriculture could make an even larger contribution to economic growth and the vitality of rural areas in Ukraine than is currently the case. Ukraine has the agro-climatic potential to be a major player on world agricultural markets. Agricultural competitiveness in Ukraine also suffers from inadequate systems to test and do...

  10. Sustainable Agricultural Marketing Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Adanacıoğlu

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable marketing is a holistic approach that puts equal emphasis on environmental, social equity, and economic concerns in the development of marketing strategies. The purpose of the study is to examine and discuss the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced throughout the World and Turkey, and to put forth suggestions to further improve the performance of agricultural marketing initiatives in Turkey. Some of the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced a...

  11. Measuring agricultural policy bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    that the agricultural price incentive bias generally perceived to exist during the 1980s was largely eliminated during the 1990s. Results also demonstrate that general equilibrium effects and country-specific characteristics are crucial for determining the sign and magnitude of agricultural bias. Our comprehensive...... protection measure is therefore uniquely suited to capture the full impact of trade policies on relative agricultural price incentives....

  12. Regionalisation of Croatian Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdo Bašić

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available After becoming self-standing state one of new needs of Croatia important for agricultural profession, farmers, policy makers and public needs was regionalization of agriculture. It is the analyse of state of agroecological conditions in agrosphere and based on results identification and territorial separation of agricultural regions as parts of agrosphere with similar conditions for plant and animal growing and similar farming systems. On this track within a special project we fi nished an inventory of agrosphere, result of which is Regionalisation of Croatian Agriculture presented in this paper. Following wise message of old Chinese proverb cited above, the starting approach is the MFCAL concept (Multifunctional Character of Agriculture and Land, which means that apart from very important and primary economic, agriculture and agricultural land (soil in human life play other roles (functions of similar importance; environmental, social, cultural and spatial, as well as the role of shaping the cultural landscape as a factor of rural development. As well, we respect the point of view prevailing in EU that all natural resources used in agriculture but at the fi rst place soil as a major one, need sustainable use and efficient protection. Using the data on Land resource potential based primarily on data of General Soil Map of Croatia (GSM in a scale of 1:50 000 and results of our research in the period 2000 – 2003, the agrosphere of Croatia is divided in three agricultural regions; Pannonian with four, Mountain with two and Adriatic with three subregions.

  13. Agriculture - reconciling ancient tensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Atkinson

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making in agriculture has tended to be driven by factors other than environmental concerns. This may be changing, and perhaps the emphases of the two creation accounts in Genesis (responsible management or 'dominion', and active care may become more important. The paper examines a number of current developments in agriculture (synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, genetic manipulation, and organic versus industrial methodologies and discusses the issues they raise for agricultural productivity and the human communities dependent on farming. The questions raised are complex; we are faced with establishing a new paradigm for agricultural practice.

  14. Malawi - Conservation Agriculture

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The randomized control trial impact evaluation tests different strategies for communicating information about agricultural technologies to smallholder maize farmers...

  15. Annual Report 1984. Chemistry Department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funck, Jytte; Nielsen, Ole John

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All articles and reports published and lectures given in 1984 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, an......, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, geochemistry and waste disposal, radical chemistry, positron annihilation, mineral processing, and general.......This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All articles and reports published and lectures given in 1984 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry...

  16. Agricultural Technology Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Board of Education, Raleigh. Agricultural Technology Education Section.

    Agricultural education programs available through North Carolina's newly created system of industrial education center, technical institutes, and community colleges are described. The information is for use by administrators, and teachers of adult agricultural courses and counselors of high school dropouts and graduates. It describes the need for…

  17. Conservation Agriculture in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á. Kertész

    2014-03-01

    Yield performance and stability, operating costs, environmental policies and programs of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP, and climate change will likely be the major driving forces defining the direction and for the extension of CA in Europe. The role of agriculture in climate change mitigation in the EU is discussed in the paper.

  18. Agricultural lung diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkhorn, S R; Garry, V F

    2000-01-01

    Agriculture is considered one of the most hazardous occupations. Organic dusts and toxic gases constitute some of the most common and potentially disabling occupational and environmental hazards. The changing patterns of agriculture have paradoxically contributed to both improved working conditions and increased exposure to respiratory hazards. Animal confinement operations with increasing animal density, particularly swine confinement, have contributed significantly to increased intensity an...

  19. Legislature Abolishes Agricultural Tax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

      China's 2,600-year-old agricultural tax will be rescinded as of Jan. 1,2006, after China's top legislature voted on December 27 to adopt a motion on the regulations revoking the agricultural tax.……

  20. The Urban Agriculture Circle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansma, J.E.; Chambers, Joe; Sabas, Eva; Veen, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    The lack of inclusion of urban agriculture in city planning directly affects the success of initiatives in this sector, which subsequently could impede fu-ture innovations. The poor representation of urban agriculture in planning can be attributed to a lack of understanding about its multi-functiona

  1. Theme: Marketing Agricultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staller, Bernie L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Consists of six articles on marketing agricultural education. Topics include (1) being consumer conscious, (2) cooperating with agribusiness, (3) preparing students for postsecondary education, (4) allowing concurrent enrollments, (5) saving the failing agricultural program, and (6) refocusing the curriculum toward agrimarketing. (CH)

  2. Theme: Urban Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellibee, Margaret; And Others

    1990-01-01

    On the theme of secondary agricultural education in urban areas, this issue includes articles on opportunities, future directions, and implications for the profession; creative supervised experiences for horticulture students; floral marketing, multicultural education; and cultural diversity in urban agricultural education. (JOW)

  3. Gas phase ion chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Michael T

    1979-01-01

    Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Volume 1 covers papers on the advances of gas phase ion chemistry. The book discusses the advances in flow tubes and the measurement of ion-molecule rate coefficients and product distributions; the ion chemistry of the earth's atmosphere; and the classical ion-molecule collision theory. The text also describes statistical methods in reaction dynamics; the state selection by photoion-photoelectron coincidence; and the effects of temperature and pressure in the kinetics of ion-molecule reactions. The energy distribution in the unimolecular decomposition of ions, as well

  4. Mathematics for physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Mortimer, Robert G

    2013-01-01

    Mathematics for Physical Chemistry is the ideal supplementary text for practicing chemists and students who want to sharpen their mathematics skills while enrolled in general through physical chemistry courses. This book specifically emphasizes the use of mathematics in the context of physical chemistry, as opposed to being simply a mathematics text. This 4e includes new exercises in each chapter that provide practice in a technique immediately after discussion or example and encourage self-study. The early chapters are constructed around a sequence of mathematical topics, wit

  5. Experiments in physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, J M; Denaro, A R

    1968-01-01

    Experiments in Physical Chemistry, Second Edition provides a compilation of experiments concerning physical chemistry. This book illustrates the link between the theory and practice of physical chemistry. Organized into three parts, this edition begins with an overview of those experiments that generally have a simple theoretical background. Part II contains experiments that are associated with more advanced theory or more developed techniques, or which require a greater degree of experimental skill. Part III consists of experiments that are in the nature of investigations wherein these invest

  6. Spatially Resolved Artificial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, Harold

    2009-01-01

    Although spatial structures can play a crucial role in chemical systems and can drastically alter the outcome of reactions, the traditional framework of artificial chemistry is a well-stirred tank reactor with no spatial representation in mind. Advanced method development in physical chemistry has...... made a class of models accessible to the realms of artificial chemistry that represent reacting molecules in a coarse-grained fashion in continuous space. This chapter introduces the mathematical models of Brownian dynamics (BD) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) for molecular motion and reaction...

  7. Fluorine in medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swallow, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Since its first use in the steroid field in the late 1950s, the use of fluorine in medicinal chemistry has become commonplace, with the small electronegative fluorine atom being a key part of the medicinal chemist's repertoire of substitutions used to modulate all aspects of molecular properties including potency, physical chemistry and pharmacokinetics. This review will highlight the special nature of fluorine, drawing from a survey of marketed fluorinated pharmaceuticals and the medicinal chemistry literature, to illustrate key concepts exploited by medicinal chemists in their attempts to optimize drug molecules. Some of the potential pitfalls in the use of fluorine will also be highlighted.

  8. Agriculture biotechnology report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This report provides the basis for an overall agriculture biotechnology strategy for Saskatchewan, encompassing all aspects of the biotechnology sector and supporting institutions. It presents results of a survey of over 70 industry and public sector leaders in agriculture biotechnology in order to assist Saskatchewan Agriculture & Food in defining its role and involvement in the agriculture biotechnology industry. Issues examined include: Goals for the agriculture biotechnology industry; research and development; technology transfer and commercialisation; infrastructure and services; human resources; legislation and policy; funding; future core areas of research and development; and the role of government in developing the industry. The report concludes with lists of recommendations. The supplement lists the survey questions and responses.

  9. Indicators: Soil Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemical makeup of the soil can provide information on wetland condition, wetland water quality and services being provided by the wetland ecosystem. Analyzing soil chemistry reveals if the soil is contaminated with a toxic chemical or heavy metal.

  10. Chemistry for Kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Sanae; Majoros, Bela

    1988-01-01

    Reports two methods for interesting children in chemistry. Describes a method for producing large soap bubbles and films for study. Examines the use of simple stories to explain common chemical concepts with example given. Lists titles of available stories. (ML)

  11. Beauty in chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Atkins

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Though hard going for the general reader and highly personal in its selectivity, Elegant Solutions: Ten Beautiful Experiments in Chemistry provides reflections of a thoughtful author that will delight chemists

  12. Microfluidics in inorganic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Hassan, Ali; Sandre, Olivier; Cabuil, Valérie

    2010-08-23

    The application of microfluidics in chemistry has gained significant importance in the recent years. Miniaturized chemistry platforms provide controlled fluid transport, rapid chemical reactions, and cost-saving advantages over conventional reactors. The advantages of microfluidics have been clearly established in the field of analytical and bioanalytical sciences and in the field of organic synthesis. It is less true in the field of inorganic chemistry and materials science; however in inorganic chemistry it has mostly been used for the separation and selective extraction of metal ions. Microfluidics has been used in materials science mainly for the improvement of nanoparticle synthesis, namely metal, metal oxide, and semiconductor nanoparticles. Microfluidic devices can also be used for the formulation of more advanced and sophisticated inorganic materials or hybrids.

  13. Uncertainty in chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menger, Fredric M

    2010-09-01

    It might come as a disappointment to some chemists, but just as there are uncertainties in physics and mathematics, there are some chemistry questions we may never know the answer to either, suggests Fredric M. Menger.

  14. Chemistry at large

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy. K.M. Sanders

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A new book introduces young researchers to supramolecular chemistry, starting from the basics and working up to the more complicated aspects of the topic. While the text is inspiring for new graduates, it lacks a critical view.

  15. Enzymes in Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Myer M.

    1980-01-01

    Presents tabular information concerning recent research in the field of enzymes in analytic chemistry, with methods, substrate or reaction catalyzed, assay, comments and references listed. The table refers to 128 references. Also listed are 13 general citations. (CS)

  16. Water Chemistry: Seeking Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfino, Joseph J.

    1977-01-01

    A survey of the available literature in water chemistry is presented. Materials surveyed include: texts, reference books, bibliographic resources, journals, American Chemical Society publications, proceedings, unpublished articles, and reports. (BT)

  17. Forensic Chemistry Training

    OpenAIRE

    GERÇEK, Zuhal

    2012-01-01

    Increasing the types of terrorism and crime nowadays, the importance of the forensic sciences can be bett er understood. Forensic science is the application of the wide spectrum of science to answer the question of legal system. It contains the application of the principles, techniques and methods of basic sciences and its main aim is the determination of the physical facts which are important in legal situations. Forensic chemistry is the branch of chemistry which performs the chemical analy...

  18. Click chemistry with DNA

    OpenAIRE

    El-Sagheer, Afaf H.; Brown, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The advent of click chemistry has led to an influx of new ideas in the nucleic acids field. The copper catalysed alkyne–azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction is the method of choice for DNA click chemistry due to its remarkable efficiency. It has been used to label oligonucleotides with fluorescent dyes, sugars, peptides and other reporter groups, to cyclise DNA, to synthesise DNA catenanes, to join oligonucleotides to PNA, and to produce analogues of DNA with modified nucleobases and backbone...

  19. Impact of surface chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The applications of molecular surface chemistry in heterogeneous catalyst technology, semiconductor-based technology, medical technology, anticorrosion and lubricant technology, and nanotechnology are highlighted in this perspective. The evolution of surface chemistry at the molecular level is reviewed, and the key roles of surface instrumentation developments for in situ studies of the gas–solid, liquid–solid, and solid–solid interfaces under reaction conditions are emphasized.

  20. Gas phase ion chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Michael T

    1979-01-01

    Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Volume 2 covers the advances in gas phase ion chemistry. The book discusses the stabilities of positive ions from equilibrium gas-phase basicity measurements; the experimental methods used to determine molecular electron affinities, specifically photoelectron spectroscopy, photodetachment spectroscopy, charge transfer, and collisional ionization; and the gas-phase acidity scale. The text also describes the basis of the technique of chemical ionization mass spectrometry; the energetics and mechanisms of unimolecular reactions of positive ions; and the photodissociation

  1. Fundamentals of quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    House, J E

    2004-01-01

    An introduction to the principles of quantum mechanics needed in physical chemistry. Mathematical tools are presented and developed as needed and only basic calculus, chemistry, and physics is assumed. Applications include atomic and molecular structure, spectroscopy, alpha decay, tunneling, and superconductivity. New edition includes sections on perturbation theory, orbital symmetry of diatomic molecules, the Huckel MO method and Woodward/Hoffman rules as well as a new chapter on SCF and Hartree-Fock methods. * This revised text clearly presents basic q

  2. Applications of supramolecular chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Hans-Jörg

    2012-01-01

    ""The time is ripe for the present volume, which gathers thorough presentations of the numerous actually realized or potentially accessible applications of supramolecular chemistry by a number of the leading figures in the field. The variety of topics covered is witness to the diversity of the approaches and the areas of implementation…a broad and timely panorama of the field assembling an eminent roster of contributors.""-Jean-Marie Lehn, 1987 Noble Prize Winner in Chemistry

  3. Innovative Programs in Agricultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Vocational Association, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Developmental programs resulting from the increased emphasis on off-farm agricultural occupations and considered innovative by state wupervisors of agricultural education are described: (1) 17 high school vocational agriculture programs in horticulture, agricultural mechanics, forestry and conservation, agriculture and distribution, cooperative…

  4. Agriculture and private sector

    OpenAIRE

    Sahin, Sila; Prowse, Martin Philip; Weigh, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture is and will continue to be critical to the futures of many developing countries. This may or may not be because agriculture can contribute directly and/or indirectly to economic growth. But it will certainly be critical because poverty is still predominantly a rural phenomenon and this looks set to remain for the next two decades at least. The agriculture and growth evidence paper series has been developed to cover a range of issues that are of most relevance to DFID staff. The pa...

  5. Atoms in Agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, Thomas S. [University of Tennessee

    1965-01-01

    Agriculture benefits from the applications of research. Radioactive techniques have been used to study soils, plants, microbes, insects, farm animals, and new ways to use and preserve foodstuffs. Radioactive atoms are not used directly by farmers but are used in research directed by the U. S. Department of Agriculture and Atomic Energy Commission, by the agricultural experiment stations of the various states, and by numerous public and private research institutions. From such research come improved materials and methods which are used on the farm.

  6. Hydrothermal carbonization of biomass residuals: A comparative review of the chemistry, processes and applications of wet and dry pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper reviews chemistry, processes and application of hydrothermcally carbonized biomass wastes. Potential feedstock for the hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) includes variety of the non-traditional renewable wet agricultural and municipal waste streams. Pyrolysis and HTC show a comparable calor...

  7. Agricultural Drainage Well Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Locations of surface intakes for registered agriculture drainage wells according to the database maintained by IDALS. Surface intakes were located from their...

  8. Agricultural Health and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of injury from working with livestock Risk of electrocution to persons operating large equipment that can contact ... which identifies common agricultural hazards and provides safety solutions for employers and young workers to prevent accidents ...

  9. Agriculture and private sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahin, Sila; Prowse, Martin Philip; Weigh, Nadia

    and this looks set to remain for the next two decades at least. The agriculture and growth evidence paper series has been developed to cover a range of issues that are of most relevance to DFID staff. The paper is not intended to be a comprehensive overview of all issues relating to agriculture and the private......Agriculture is and will continue to be critical to the futures of many developing countries. This may or may not be because agriculture can contribute directly and/or indirectly to economic growth. But it will certainly be critical because poverty is still predominantly a rural phenomenon...... sector. It concentrates on those areas that are of particular focus for DFID policy and strategy....

  10. Agricultural Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type Progress Annual Report to the Nation Cancer Portfolio Snapshots Milestones in Cancer Research & Discovery Stories of ... the Agricultural Health Study (1994–2007). Environmental Health Perspectives 2011; online May 27, doi:10.1289/ehp. ...

  11. Agricultural Producer Certificates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — A Certified Agricultural Producer, or representative thereof, is an individual who wishes to sell regionally-grown products in the public right-of-way. A Certified...

  12. Collaboration in Agricultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Roland L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Theme articles discuss environment, food, agriculture, and renewal resources as they relate to science education, learning partnerships, collaboration in Kyrghyzstan, leadership development, opportunities for collaboration, networking, and the creation of a shared course between agribusiness and biology. (JOW)

  13. Department of Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

      Topics Animal Health Biotechnology Climate Solutions Conservation Disaster and Emergency Preparedness Employee Services Energy Environment and Natural Resources Ethics Farm Bill Food and Nutrition Food Safety Forestry Housing Assistance Laws and Regulations Organic Agriculture ...

  14. Agriculture and private sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahin, Sila; Prowse, Martin Philip; Weigh, Nadia

    Agriculture is and will continue to be critical to the futures of many developing countries. This may or may not be because agriculture can contribute directly and/or indirectly to economic growth. But it will certainly be critical because poverty is still predominantly a rural phenomenon...... and this looks set to remain for the next two decades at least. The agriculture and growth evidence paper series has been developed to cover a range of issues that are of most relevance to DFID staff. The paper is not intended to be a comprehensive overview of all issues relating to agriculture and the private...... sector. It concentrates on those areas that are of particular focus for DFID policy and strategy....

  15. Organic agriculture in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sukkel, W.; Hommes, M.

    2009-01-01

    Dutch organic agriculture has unique characteristics and peculiarities. It is still a relatively small sector compared to conventional agriculture in the Netherlands. However, its market share is growing and organic agriculture leads the way in terms of sustainability and innovations

  16. New Research in Organic Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    The book is the proceedings from the bi-annual international scientific conference on organic agriculture. The chapters are: - plant and soil interactions, - animal production systems, - traditional knowledge in sustainable agriculture, - research, education and extension in sustainable agriculture...

  17. Scoping Agriculture, Wetland Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture is identified as the main cause of wetland degradation and loss. Using a drivers, pressures, state changes, impacts and responses (DPSIR) framework to analyze 90 cases drawn from all parts of the world and all wetland types, this report assesses the character of agriculture - wetlands interactions (AWIs) and their impacts in socio-economic and ecosystem services terms. The report is a technical framework that is used to scope out the relevance and nature of AWIs, identify response...

  18. USSR Report, Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    rations for ruminant animals. Its preparation from corn of milky-waxy ripeness, assuming the observance of all of the technological requirements, makes...combines of the agricultural chemicals association or on the kolkhozes and sovkhozes for the preservation of liquid preservatives or special means of...Tatar combine of the agricultural chemicals association, liquid preserv- atives are kept in wide-diameter polytheylene pipes.. A storage unit with

  19. World competitiveness and agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van Zyl

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of a changing environment in which market factors and greater world trade and competitiveness are increasingly becoming the only criteria for success, a framework for the analysis of world competitiveness is initially developed. This is followed by a discussion on the growth of productivity in agriculture, as well as an exposition of the role of agricultural research. Thirdly, price factors and the terms of trade are discussed, followed by a summary of policy implications.

  20. Chemistry beyond positivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Werner W

    2003-05-01

    Chemistry is often thought to be quite factual, and therefore might be considered close to the "positivist" ideal of a value-free science. A closer look, however, reveals that the field is coupled to the invisible realm of values, meanings, and purpose in various ways, and chemists interact with that realm loosely and unevenly. Tacit knowledge is one important locus of such interactions. We are concerned in this essay with two questions. What is the nature of the knowledge when we are in the early stages of discovery? and In what ways does the hidden reality we are seeking affect our search for an understanding of it? The first question is partly answered by Polanyi's theory of tacit knowledge, while the second one leads us to realize the limitations of our language when discussing "reality"-or certain chemical experimental results. A strictly positivist approach is of little use, but so is the opposite, the complete disregard of facts. The contrast between positivism and non-formulable aspects of scientific reasoning amounts to a paradox that needs to be analyzed and can lead to a "connected" chemistry. This in turn resembles networks described by Schweber and is more concerned than the chemistry "as it is" with aspects such as the image of chemistry, the challenges chemists face as citizens, and chemistry in liberal education.

  1. Biosurfactants in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, Dhara P; Cameotra, Swaranjit S

    2013-02-01

    Agricultural productivity to meet growing demands of human population is a matter of great concern for all countries. Use of green compounds to achieve the sustainable agriculture is the present necessity. This review highlights the enormous use of harsh surfactants in agricultural soil and agrochemical industries. Biosurfactants which are reported to be produced by bacteria, yeasts, and fungi can serve as green surfactants. Biosurfactants are considered to be less toxic and eco-friendly and thus several types of biosurfactants have the potential to be commercially produced for extensive applications in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and food industries. The biosurfactants synthesized by environmental isolates also has promising role in the agricultural industry. Many rhizosphere and plant associated microbes produce biosurfactant; these biomolecules play vital role in motility, signaling, and biofilm formation, indicating that biosurfactant governs plant-microbe interaction. In agriculture, biosurfactants can be used for plant pathogen elimination and for increasing the bioavailability of nutrient for beneficial plant associated microbes. Biosurfactants can widely be applied for improving the agricultural soil quality by soil remediation. These biomolecules can replace the harsh surfactant presently being used in million dollar pesticide industries. Thus, exploring biosurfactants from environmental isolates for investigating their potential role in plant growth promotion and other related agricultural applications warrants details research. Conventional methods are followed for screening the microbial population for production of biosurfactant. However, molecular methods are fewer in reaching biosurfactants from diverse microbial population and there is need to explore novel biosurfactant from uncultured microbes in soil biosphere by using advanced methodologies like functional metagenomics.

  2. Reaction chemistry of cerium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    It is truly ironic that a synthetic organic chemist likely has far greater knowledge of the reaction chemistry of cerium(IV) than an inorganic colleague. Cerium(IV) reagents have long since been employed as oxidants in effecting a wide variety of organic transformations. Conversely, prior to the late 1980s, the number of well characterized cerium(IV) complexes did not extend past a handful of known species. Though in many other areas, interest in the molecular chemistry of the 4f-elements has undergone an explosive growth over the last twenty years, the chemistry of cerium(IV) has for the most part been overlooked. This report describes reactions of cerium complexes and structure.

  3. Uranium triamidoamine chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Benedict M; Liddle, Stephen T

    2015-07-01

    Triamidoamine (Tren) complexes of the p- and d-block elements have been well-studied, and they display a diverse array of chemistry of academic, industrial and biological significance. Such in-depth investigations are not as widespread for Tren complexes of uranium, despite the general drive to better understand the chemical behaviour of uranium by virtue of its fundamental position within the nuclear sector. However, the chemistry of Tren-uranium complexes is characterised by the ability to stabilise otherwise reactive, multiply bonded main group donor atom ligands, construct uranium-metal bonds, promote small molecule activation, and support single molecule magnetism, all of which exploit the steric, electronic, thermodynamic and kinetic features of the Tren ligand system. This Feature Article presents a current account of the chemistry of Tren-uranium complexes.

  4. Mathematics for physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Mortimer, Robert G

    2005-01-01

    Mathematics for Physical Chemistry, Third Edition, is the ideal text for students and physical chemists who want to sharpen their mathematics skills. It can help prepare the reader for an undergraduate course, serve as a supplementary text for use during a course, or serve as a reference for graduate students and practicing chemists. The text concentrates on applications instead of theory, and, although the emphasis is on physical chemistry, it can also be useful in general chemistry courses. The Third Edition includes new exercises in each chapter that provide practice in a technique immediately after discussion or example and encourage self-study. The first ten chapters are constructed around a sequence of mathematical topics, with a gradual progression into more advanced material. The final chapter discusses mathematical topics needed in the analysis of experimental data.* Numerous examples and problems interspersed throughout the presentations * Each extensive chapter contains a preview, objectives, and ...

  5. Air Composition and Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimblecombe, Peter

    1996-01-01

    This book is about the atmosphere and humanity's influence on it. For this new edition, Brimblecombe has rewritten and updated much of the book. In the early chapters, he discusses the geochemical, biological and maritime sources of the trace gases. Next, he examines the chemistry of atmospheric gases, suspended particles, and rainfall. After dealing with the natural atmosphere, he examines the sources of air pollution and its effects, with all scenarios updated from the last edition. Scenarios include decline in health, damage to plants and animals, indoor pollution, and acid rain. The final chapters, also revised, are concerned with the chemistry and evolution of the atmospheres of the planets of the solar system. Students with an interest in chemistry and the environmental sciences will find this book highly valuable.

  6. LAYERED DOUBLE HYDROXIDES: NANOMATERIALS FOR APPLICATIONS IN AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luíz Paulo Figueredo Benício

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The current research aims to introduce Layered Double Hydroxides (LDH as nanomaterials to be used in agriculture, with particular reference to its use as storage and slow release matrix of nutrients and agrochemicals for plant growing. Structural characteristics, main properties, synthesis methods and characterization of LDH were covered in this study. Moreover, some literature data have been reported to demonstrate their potential for storage and slow release of nitrate, phosphate, agrochemicals, besides as being used as adsorbent for the wastewater treatment. This research aims to expand, in near future, the investigation field on these materials, with application in agriculture, increasing the interface between chemistry and agronomy.

  7. [Effects of agricultural activities and transgenic crops on agricultural biodiversity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-Tao; Luo, Hong-Bing; Li, Jun-Sheng; Huang, Hai; Liu, Yong-Bo

    2014-09-01

    Agricultural biodiversity is a key part of the ecosystem biodiversity, but it receives little concern. The monoculture, environmental pollution and habitat fragmentation caused by agricultural activities have threatened agricultural biodiversity over the past 50 years. To optimize agricultural management measures for crop production and environmental protection, we reviewed the effects of agricultural activities, including cultivation patterns, plastic mulching, chemical additions and the cultivation of transgenic crops, on agricultural biodiversity. The results showed that chemical pesticides and fertilizers had the most serious influence and the effects of transgenic crops varied with other factors like the specific transgene inserted in crops. The environmental risk of transgenic crops should be assessed widely through case-by-case methods, particularly its potential impacts on agricultural biodiversity. It is important to consider the protection of agricultural biodiversity before taking certain agricultural practices, which could improve agricultural production and simultaneously reduce the environmental impacts.

  8. Chemistry and lithography

    CERN Document Server

    Okoroanyanwu, Uzodinma

    2011-01-01

    This is a unique book, combining chemistry and physics with technology and history in a way that is both enlightening and lively. No other book in the field of lithography has as much breadth. Highly recommended for anyone interested in the broad application of chemistry to lithography. --Chris Mack, Gentleman Scientist. This book provides a comprehensive treatment of the chemical phenomena in lithography in a manner that is accessible to a wide readership. The book presents topics on the optical and charged particle physics practiced in lithography, with a broader view of how the marriage bet

  9. Chemistry in microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Le Tiec, Yannick

    2013-01-01

    Microelectronics is a complex world where many sciences need to collaborate to create nano-objects: we need expertise in electronics, microelectronics, physics, optics and mechanics also crossing into chemistry, electrochemistry, as well as biology, biochemistry and medicine. Chemistry is involved in many fields from materials, chemicals, gases, liquids or salts, the basics of reactions and equilibrium, to the optimized cleaning of surfaces and selective etching of specific layers. In addition, over recent decades, the size of the transistors has been drastically reduced while the functionalit

  10. Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisbjerg, Micke

    This thesis is divided into seven chapters, which can all be read individually. The first chapter, however, contains a general introduction to the chemistry used in the remaining six chapters, and it is therefore recommended to read chapter one before reading the other chapters. Chapter 1...... is a general introductory chapter for the whole thesis. The history and concepts of dynamic combinatorial chemistry are described, as are some of the new and intriguing results recently obtained. Finally, the properties of a broad range of hexameric macrocycles are described in detail. Chapter 2 gives...

  11. Chemistry WebBook

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 69 NIST Chemistry WebBook (Web, free access)   The NIST Chemistry WebBook contains: Thermochemical data for over 7000 organic and small inorganic compounds; thermochemistry data for over 8000 reactions; IR spectra for over 16,000 compounds; mass spectra for over 33,000 compounds; UV/Vis spectra for over 1600 compounds; electronic and vibrational spectra for over 5000 compounds; constants of diatomic molecules(spectroscopic data) for over 600 compounds; ion energetics data for over 16,000 compounds; thermophysical property data for 74 fluids.

  12. Solvent effects in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Buncel, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces the concepts, theory and experimental knowledge concerning solvent effects on the rate and equilibrium of chemical reactions of all kinds.  It begins with basic thermodynamics and kinetics, building on this foundation to demonstrate how a more detailed understanding of these effects may be used to aid in determination of reaction mechanisms, and to aid in planning syntheses. Consideration is given to theoretical calculations (quantum chemistry, molecular dynamics, etc.), to statistical methods (chemometrics), and to modern day concerns such as ""green"" chemistry, where ut

  13. Progress in physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Hempelmann, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    Progress in Physical Chemistry is a collection of recent ""Review Articles"" published in the ""Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie"". The second volume of Progress in Physical Chemistry is a collection of thematically closely related minireview articles written by the members of the Collaborative Research Centre (SFB) 277 of the German Research Foundation (DFG). These articles are based on twelve years of intense coordinated research efforts. Central topics are the synthesis and the characterization of interface-dominated, i.e. nanostructured materials, mainly in the solid state but also as

  14. The chemistry of silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Rochow, E G; Emeléus, H J; Nyholm, Ronald

    1975-01-01

    Pergamon Texts in Organic Chemistry, Volume 9: The Chemistry of Silicon presents information essential in understanding the chemical properties of silicon. The book first covers the fundamental aspects of silicon, such as its nuclear, physical, and chemical properties. The text also details the history of silicon, its occurrence and distribution, and applications. Next, the selection enumerates the compounds and complexes of silicon, along with organosilicon compounds. The text will be of great interest to chemists and chemical engineers. Other researchers working on research study involving s

  15. Spins in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    McWeeny, Roy

    2004-01-01

    Originally delivered as a series of lectures, this volume systematically traces the evolution of the ""spin"" concept from its role in quantum mechanics to its assimilation into the field of chemistry. Author Roy McWeeny presents an in-depth illustration of the deductive methods of quantum theory and their application to spins in chemistry, following the path from the earliest concepts to the sophisticated physical methods employed in the investigation of molecular structure and properties. Starting with the origin and development of the spin concept, the text advances to an examination of sp

  16. Urban Agriculture Program Planning Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemp, Paul E.; Ethridge, Jim

    Urban agriculture may be defined as those areas of agriculture that are practiced in metropolitan settings, plus knowledge and skills in agricultural subject areas which lead to vocational proficiency and improved quality of life or effective citizenship. Agriculture areas that are especially significant in urban settings include ornamental…

  17. [Musculoskeletal disorders in agriculture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Christophe; Tourne, Mathias

    2007-06-15

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are a major area of concern in the occupational world. The agricultural industry is particularly affected: 93 percent of occupational diseases in agriculture are MSD. Carpal tunnel syndrome occurs in one third of the cases. Shoulder is the second most common location. The most affected occupational areas are meat production, viticulture, market gardening, horticulture and small animal farming. This MSD phenomenon, of multifactorial origin, which has been amplifying for two decades, has led to some consensus in terms of definition and prevention strategy. The aim is to identify, limit or even suppress risk factors through worker training as well as through actions related to work organization. Regarding occupational health and safety in agriculture, two fronts of progress have been mentioned: the creation of a statistic observatory of MSD (disease, occupational area and cost) and the assessment of prevention activities. Finally, a new issue is being discussed: sustainable prevention of MSD.

  18. Data mining in agriculture

    CERN Document Server

    Mucherino, Antonio; Pardalos, Panos M

    2009-01-01

    Data Mining in Agriculture represents a comprehensive effort to provide graduate students and researchers with an analytical text on data mining techniques applied to agriculture and environmental related fields. This book presents both theoretical and practical insights with a focus on presenting the context of each data mining technique rather intuitively with ample concrete examples represented graphically and with algorithms written in MATLAB®. Examples and exercises with solutions are provided at the end of each chapter to facilitate the comprehension of the material. For each data mining technique described in the book variants and improvements of the basic algorithm are also given. Also by P.J. Papajorgji and P.M. Pardalos: Advances in Modeling Agricultural Systems, 'Springer Optimization and its Applications' vol. 25, ©2009.

  19. Is Chemistry Attractive for Pupils? Czech Pupils' Perception of Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiatko, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Chemistry is an important subject due to understanding the composition and structure of the things around us. The main aim of the study was to find out the perception of chemistry by lower secondary school pupils. The partial aims were to find out the influence of gender, year of study and favorite subject on the perception of chemistry. The…

  20. Turkish Prospective Chemistry Teachers' Beliefs about Chemistry Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boz, Yezdan; Uzuntiryaki, Esen

    2006-01-01

    In order to study the beliefs of Turkish prospective chemistry teachers about teaching chemistry, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 prospective teachers. Analysis of the interviews revealed that most of the prospective teachers held intermediate (transition between constructivist and traditional) beliefs about chemistry teaching.…

  1. Top Down Chemistry Versus Bottom up Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Takeshi; Witt, Adolf N.

    2016-06-01

    The idea of interstellar top down chemistry (TDC), in which molecules are produced from decomposition of larger molecules and dust in contrast to ordinary bottom up chemistry (BUC) in which molecules are produced synthetically from smaller molecules and atoms in the ISM, has been proposed in the chemistry of PAH and carbon chain molecules both for diffusea,c and dense cloudsb,d. A simple and natural idea, it must have occurred to many people and has been in the air for sometime. The validity of this hypothesis is apparent for diffuse clouds in view of the observed low abundance of small molecules and its rapid decrease with molecular size on the one hand and the high column densities of large carbon molecules demonstrated by the many intense diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) on the other. Recent identification of C60^+ as the carrier of 5 near infrared DIBs with a high column density of 2×1013 cm-2 by Maier and others confirms the TDC. This means that the large molecules and dust produced in the high density high temperature environment of circumstellar envelopes are sufficiently stable to survive decompositions due to stellar UV radiaiton, cosmic rays, C-shocks etc. for a long time (≥ 10^7 year) of their migration to diffuse clouds and seems to disagree with the consensus in the field of interstellar grains. The stability of molecules and aggregates in the diffuse interstellar medium will be discussed. Duley, W. W. 2006, Faraday Discuss. 133, 415 Zhen,J., Castellanos, P., Paardekooper, D. M., Linnartz, H., Tielens, A. G. G. M. 2014, ApJL, 797, L30 Huang, J., Oka, T. 2015, Mol. Phys. 113, 2159 Guzmán, V. V., Pety, J., Goicoechea, J. R., Gerin, M., Roueff, E., Gratier, P., Öberg, K. I. 2015, ApJL, 800, L33 L. Ziurys has sent us many papers beginning Ziurys, L. M. 2006, PNAS 103, 12274 indicating she had long been a proponent of the idea. Campbell, E. K., Holz, M., Maier, J. P., Gerlich, D., Walker, G. A. H., Bohlender, D, 2016, ApJ, in press Draine, B. T. 2003

  2. Agricultural risk management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mogens; Oksen, Arne; Larsen, Torben U.;

    2005-01-01

    A new model for risk management in agriculture is described in the paper. The risk model is constructed as a context dependent process, which includes four main phases. The model is aimed at agricultural advisors, who wish to facilitate and disseminate risk management to farmers. It is developed...... and tested by an action research approach in an attempt to make risk management more applicable on family farms. Our obtained experiences indicate that farmers don’t apply probabilistic thinking and other concepts according to formal decision theory....

  3. Measuring Agricultural Bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn

    . For the 15 sample countries, the results indicate that the agricultural price incentive bias, which was generally perceived to exist during the 1980s, was largely eliminated during the 1990s. The results also demonstrate that general equilibrium effects and country-specific characteristics - including trade...... shares and intersectoral linkages - are crucial for determining the sign and magnitude of trade policy bias. The GE-ERP measure is therefore uniquely suited to capture the full impact of trade policies on agricultural price incentives. A Monte Carlo procedure confirms that the results are robust...

  4. Polymer Chemistry in High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucki, Roger

    1984-01-01

    Discusses why polymer chemistry should be added to the general chemistry curriculum and what topics are appropriate (listing traditional with related polymer topics). Also discusses when and how these topics should be taught. (JN)

  5. Water Chemistry Laboratory Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, David; And Others

    This manual of laboratory experiments in water chemistry serves a dual function of illustrating fundamental chemical principles of dilute aqueous systems and of providing the student with some familiarity with the chemical measurements commonly used in water and wastewater analysis. Experiments are grouped in categories on the basis of similar…

  6. Chemistry and Popperism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akeroyd, F. Michael

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the relationship of Karl Popper's theories to chemistry, examining scientific statements and verisimilitude (which indicates that newer theories should have a higher degree of truth content compared with older theories). Also provides examples illustrating the use of Agassi's criteria for assessing currently fashionable theories. (JN)

  7. Supramolecular Chemistry in Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oshovsky, Gennady V.; Reinhoudt, David N.; Verboom, Willem

    2007-01-01

    Supramolecular chemistry in water is a constantly growing research area because noncovalent interactions in aqueous media are important for obtaining a better understanding and control of the major processes in nature. This Review offers an overview of recent advances in the area of water-soluble sy

  8. Forensic Chemistry Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal GERÇEK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the types of terrorism and crime nowadays, the importance of the forensic sciences can be bett er understood. Forensic science is the application of the wide spectrum of science to answer the question of legal system. It contains the application of the principles, techniques and methods of basic sciences and its main aim is the determination of the physical facts which are important in legal situations. Forensic chemistry is the branch of chemistry which performs the chemical analysis of evidences that used in the courts. Forensic chemist is the professional chemist who analyzes the evidences from crime scene and reaches a result by application of tests. Th us, they have to have a special education. In forensic laboratories candidates who have chemistry/biochemistry undergraduate degree and took biology and forensic chemistry lectures are preferred. It is necessary to design graduate and undergraduate education to train a forensic chemist. Science education should be at the core of the undergraduate education. In addition to this strong laboratory education on both science and forensic science should be given. Th e graduate program of forensic science example should contain forensic science subjects, strong academic lectures on special subjects and research and laboratory components.

  9. Online organic chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowicz, Philip A.

    This is a comprehensive study of the many facets of an entirely online organic chemistry course. Online homework with structure-drawing capabilities was found to be more effective than written homework. Online lecture was found to be just as effective as in-person lecture, and students prefer an online lecture format with shorter Webcasts. Online office hours were found to be effective, and discussion sessions can be placed online as well. A model was created that explains 36.1% of student performance based on GPA, ACT Math score, grade in previous chemistry course, and attendance at various forms of discussion. Online exams have been created which test problem-solving skills and is instantly gradable. In these exams, students can submit answers until time runs out for different numbers of points. These facets were combined effectively to create an entirely online organic chemistry course which students prefer over the in-person alternative. Lastly, there is a vision for where online organic chemistry is going and what can be done to improve education for all.

  10. Array processors in chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostlund, N.S.

    1980-01-01

    The field of attached scientific processors (''array processors'') is surveyed, and an attempt is made to indicate their present and possible future use in computational chemistry. The current commercial products from Floating Point Systems, Inc., Datawest Corporation, and CSP, Inc. are discussed.

  11. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Analytical Chemistry and Material Development Group maintains a capability in chemical analysis, materials R&D failure analysis and contamination control. The uniquely qualified staff and facility support the needs of flight projects, science instrument development and various technical tasks, as well as Cal Tech.

  12. Supramolecular analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anslyn, Eric V

    2007-02-02

    A large fraction of the field of supramolecular chemistry has focused in previous decades upon the study and use of synthetic receptors as a means of mimicking natural receptors. Recently, the demand for synthetic receptors is rapidly increasing within the analytical sciences. These classes of receptors are finding uses in simple indicator chemistry, cellular imaging, and enantiomeric excess analysis, while also being involved in various truly practical assays of bodily fluids. Moreover, one of the most promising areas for the use of synthetic receptors is in the arena of differential sensing. Although many synthetic receptors have been shown to yield exquisite selectivities, in general, this class of receptor suffers from cross-reactivities. Yet, cross-reactivity is an attribute that is crucial to the success of differential sensing schemes. Therefore, both selective and nonselective synthetic receptors are finding uses in analytical applications. Hence, a field of chemistry that herein is entitled "Supramolecular Analytical Chemistry" is emerging, and is predicted to undergo increasingly rapid growth in the near future.

  13. Computational chemistry at Janssen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vlijmen, Herman; Desjarlais, Renee L; Mirzadegan, Tara

    2016-12-19

    Computer-aided drug discovery activities at Janssen are carried out by scientists in the Computational Chemistry group of the Discovery Sciences organization. This perspective gives an overview of the organizational and operational structure, the science, internal and external collaborations, and the impact of the group on Drug Discovery at Janssen.

  14. Online Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowicz, Philip A.

    2010-01-01

    This is a comprehensive study of the many facets of an entirely online organic chemistry course. Online homework with structure-drawing capabilities was found to be more effective than written homework. Online lecture was found to be just as effective as in-person lecture, and students prefer an online lecture format with shorter Webcasts. Online…

  15. Evaluating Environmental Chemistry Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hites, Ronald A.

    2001-01-01

    A director of the Indiana University Center for Environmental Science Research reviews textbooks on environmental chemistry. Highlights clear writing, intellectual depth, presence of problem sets covering both the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the material, and full coverage of the topics of concern. Discusses the director's own approach…

  16. Chemistry in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Henning, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This comprehensive review summarizes our current understanding of the evolution of gas, solids and molecular ices in protoplanetary disks. Key findings related to disk physics and chemistry, both observationally and theoretically, are highlighted. We discuss which molecular probes are used to derive gas temperature, density, ionization state, kinematics, deuterium fractionation, and study organic matter in protoplanetary disks.

  17. Chemistry and Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittoria Barbarulo, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Chemistry is the central science, as it touches every aspect of the society we live in and it is intertwined with many aspects of our culture; in particular, the strong link between Chemistry and Archaeology and Art History is being explored, offering a penetrating insight into an area of growing interest from an educational point of view. A series of vital and vibrant examples (i.e., ancient bronzes composition, colour changes due to natural pigment decomposition, marble degradation) has been proposed, on one hand, to improve student understanding of the relationship between cultural and scientific issues arising from the examination, the conservation, and the maintenance of cultural Heritage, on the other, to illustrate the role of the underlying Chemistry. In some case studies, a survey of the most relevant atmospheric factors, which are involved in the deterioration mechanisms, has also been presented to the students. First-hand laboratory experiences have been providing an invaluable means of discovering the full and varied world of Chemistry. Furthermore, the promotion of an interdisciplinary investigation of a famous painting or fresco, involving the study of its nature and significance, the definition of its historical context, any related literature, the chemical knowledge of the materials used, may be an excellent occasion to experiment the Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL). The aim of this approach is to convey the important message that everyone has the responsibility to care for and preserve Heritage for the benefit of present and future generations.

  18. Nobel Prize in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Royal Swedish Academy has awarded the 1999 Nobel Prize in Chemistry to Ahmed H. Zewail (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA) "for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy". Zewail's work has taken the study of the rates and mechanisms of chemical reactions to the ultimate degree of detail - the time scale of bond making and bond breaking.

  19. The Chemistry of Griseofulvin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Asger Bjørn; Rønnest, Mads Holger; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2014-01-01

    Specific synthetic routes are presented in schemes to illustrate the chemistry, and the analogs are presented in a table format to give an accessible overview of the structures. Several patents have been published regarding the properties of griseofulvin and its derivatives including synthesis...

  20. Symmetry in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Jaffé, Hans H

    1977-01-01

    This book, devoted exclusively to symmetry in chemistry and developed in an essentially nonmathematical way, is a must for students and researchers. Topics include symmetry elements and operations, multiple symmetry operations, multiplication tables and point groups, group theory applications, and crystal symmetry. Extensive appendices provide useful tables.

  1. Computational chemistry at Janssen

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vlijmen, Herman; Desjarlais, Renee L.; Mirzadegan, Tara

    2016-12-01

    Computer-aided drug discovery activities at Janssen are carried out by scientists in the Computational Chemistry group of the Discovery Sciences organization. This perspective gives an overview of the organizational and operational structure, the science, internal and external collaborations, and the impact of the group on Drug Discovery at Janssen.

  2. Chemistry Education and Mythology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sule Aycan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of mythological story in teaching chemistry. To this end the students in the class were divided into two homogenous groups. While the first group was thought in a traditional way, using a mythological story thought the second group. The story used was based on a Mountain just opposite the faculty.

  3. Chemistry Is Fun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaniv, D; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Encouraging scientific thinking through open-ended experiments, allowing students access to common chemical instrumentation, and introduction to laboratory techniques are goals of a high school science laboratory program. Course content (general, inorganic, and organic chemistry), limitations, and course evaluation are discussed. (Author/JN)

  4. Green chemistry metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synthetic chemists have always had an objective to achieve reliable and high-yielding routes to the syntheses of targeted molecules. The importance of minimal waste generation has emphasized the use of green chemistry principles and sustainable development. These directions lead ...

  5. Mathematical problems for chemistry students

    CERN Document Server

    Pota, Gyorgy

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical Problems for Chemistry Students has been compiled and written (a) to help chemistrystudents in their mathematical studies by providing them with mathematical problems really occurring in chemistry (b) to help practising chemists to activate their applied mathematical skills and (c) to introduce students and specialistsof the chemistry-related fields (physicists, mathematicians, biologists, etc.) intothe world of the chemical applications.Some problems of the collection are mathematical reformulations of those in the standard textbooks of chemistry, others we

  6. Division of Analytical Chemistry, 1998

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    1999-01-01

    The article recounts the 1998 activities of the Division of Analytical Chemistry (DAC- formerly the Working Party on Analytical Chemistry, WPAC), which body is a division of the Federation of European Chemical Societies (FECS). Elo Harald Hansen is the Danish delegate, representing The Danish...... Chemical Society/The Society for Analytical Chemistry....

  7. Nanotechnology in Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    An overview is given of the application of nanotechnology to agriculture. This is an active field of R&D, where a large number of findings and innovations have been reported. For example, in soil management, applications reported include nanofertilizers, soil binders, water retention aids, and nut...

  8. [Vibration on agricultural tractors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretti, Alessandro; Delvecchio, Simone; Bonomini, Francesco; di Bisceglie, Anita Pasqua; Colosio, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    In the article, details related to the diffusion of agricultural tractors in Italy are given and considerations about the effects of vibration on operators, the sources of vibration and suggestions to reduce them are presented. The acceleration values observed in Italy amongst 244 tractors and levels of worker exposure are shown by means of histograms. The relevant data variability is discussed.

  9. USSR Report, Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    evaluation of the phyto- sanitary condition of the fields were not coordinated with the calendar- phenological schedules, some agronomists were unable...During the first year following its introduction, an intensified variation of this agricultural technology enabled the Tambov grain growers to produce

  10. Teacher Education in Agriculture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Dale W.

    1977-01-01

    Urging continued high priority support to preservice and inservice professional development, especially in the area of agricultural education, the author responds to a letter from the Joint Committee on Vocational Education for the State of California indicating the committee's consideration of support reduction for teacher education in vocational…

  11. Agricultural nitrate pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Helle Tegner

    2015-01-01

    Despite the passing of almost 25 years since the adoption of the EU Nitrates Directive, agricultural nitrate pollution remains a major concern in most EU Member States. This is also the case in Denmark, although a fairly strict regulatory regime has resulted in almost a 50 per cent reduction...

  12. Goryachkin's agricultural mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinenova, Vera

    2016-03-01

    The paper contributes to the development of applied mechanics by establishing a new discipline, namely, agricultural mechanics by academician Vasilii Prohorovich Goryachkin (1868-1935) who was an apprentice of Nikolay Yegorovich Zhukovsky and a graduate of the Moscow University (current known as Moscow State University) and the Imperial Higher Technical School.

  13. Beyond conservation agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giller, K.E.; Andersson, J.A.; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and s

  14. Agricultural lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkhorn, S R; Garry, V F

    2000-08-01

    Agriculture is considered one of the most hazardous occupations. Organic dusts and toxic gases constitute some of the most common and potentially disabling occupational and environmental hazards. The changing patterns of agriculture have paradoxically contributed to both improved working conditions and increased exposure to respiratory hazards. Animal confinement operations with increasing animal density, particularly swine confinement, have contributed significantly to increased intensity and duration of exposure to indoor air toxins. Ongoing research has implicated bacterial endotoxins, fungal spores, and the inherent toxicity of grain dusts as causes of upper and lower airway inflammation and as immunologic agents in both grain and animal production. Animal confinement gases, particularly ammonia and hydrogen sulfide, have been implicated as additional sources of respiratory irritants. It has become evident that a significant percentage of agricultural workers have clinical symptoms associated with long-term exposure to organic dusts and animal confinement gases. Respiratory diseases and syndromes, including hypersensitivity pneumonitis, organic dust toxic syndrome, chronic bronchitis, mucous membrane inflammation syndrome, and asthmalike syndrome, result from ongoing acute and chronic exposures. In this review we focus upon the emerging respiratory health issues in a changing agricultural economic and technologic environment. Environmental and occupational hazards and exposures will be emphasized rather than clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods of prevention, from both engineering controls and personal respiratory perspectives, are also addressed.

  15. Cohabitation: Humans & Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woodington, W.

    2012-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Smart & Bioclimatic Design. Cohabitation of humans and agriculture can be used to improve building climate, human health and the state of the world. It affects building design and requires new building components. This manual explains w

  16. Governing agricultural sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macnaghten, Philip; Carro-Ripalda, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Although GM crops are seen by their advocates as a key component of the future of world agriculture and as part of the solution for world poverty and hunger, their uptake has not been smooth nor universal: they have been marred by controversy and all too commonly their regulation has been challen

  17. Africa, Agriculture, Aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuyvenhoven, A.

    2008-01-01

    In a world that is developing fast, Africa¿s relative stagnation is a human tragedy that challenges the development profession. Although climate and geography, and their effect on local institutions, are not in Africa¿s favour, inappropriate policies (including neglect of agriculture) and weak insti

  18. Heroes of Agricultural Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weele, van der C.; Keulartz, F.W.J.

    2009-01-01

    New technology has a prominent place in the theory and practice of innovation, but the association between high tech and innovation is not inevitable. In this paper, we discuss six metaphorical heroes of agricultural innovation, starting with the dominant hero of frontier science and technology. At

  19. Agriculture. Poultry Livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for poultry, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list.…

  20. Agriculture. Beef Livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for beef livestock, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task…

  1. Scrapping Agricultural Tax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    On March 5,in his government report to the annual session of the country's top legislature,the National People's Congress,Premier Wen Jiabao set the goal to reduce the agricultural tax rate by more than one percentage point each year,

  2. African agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...

  3. Examination on Expert Chemistry Teachers’ Secondary School Chemistry Textbook Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan NAKİBOĞLU

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to determine how chemistry textbooks used by expert chemistry teachers are used during teaching process in secondary education, and to find how prospective chemistry teachers evaluate the situation mentioned. Thus, a project concerned with how expert chemistry teachers use them in their classes was carried out. Based on the research context, an interview that was used to interview with expert chemistry teachers by prospective chemistry teachers was prepared by the author. Next, prospective chemistry teachers were asked to evaluate how expert chemistry teachers used textbooks. The sample group of the study consisted of 21 expert high school chemistry teachers working at schools in Balıkesir and 21 prospective chemistry teachers studying at Education Faculty of Balıkesir University during 2007-2008 academic years. The findings of the study revealed that expert chemistry teachers did not use textbooks during their teaching process while they used them as the sources of problems and exercises at the end of units. Furthermore, it was found that University Entrance Exam (OSS had an effect on how to use the textbooks by teachers.

  4. Study on the Reform of Teaching System and Teaching Content of Chemistry in Agriculture Higher Vocational Colleges%高职农业类专业化学课程教学体系和教学内容改革的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉梅; 王丽君; 王量

    2015-01-01

    通过近几年来高职农业类专业化学教学内容的研究,构建以未来职业岗位需要的能力为中心的化学课程新体系,满足专业人才培养目标和规格的要求。可供教师在高职化学教学中借鉴此教学体系的构建。%In the paper, the author tries to construct a new chemistry curriculum system which focuses on training students’ professional ability needed in the future to meet the requirements of the target and specifications of professional talents cultivation. This teaching system can be used as reference for chemistry teaching in the higher vocational colleges.

  5. Indian Agricultural Marketing- A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel-Ul-Rehman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture in India has directly or indirectly continued to be the source of livelihood to majority of the population. Indian agriculture has seen a lot of changes in its structure. India, predominantly an agricultural economy, has healthy signs of transformation in agriculture and allied activities. India has seen agriculture as a precious tool of economic development as other sectors of production depend on it. Efficient backward and forward integration with agriculture has led to globally competitive production system in terms of cost and quality. Cooperatives seem to be well positioned to coordinate product differentiation at the farm level and to integrate forward into value added processing activities.. Indian agriculture can be balanced and made efficient through proper and better management practices. The present study brings out past and present scenario of agricultural marketing prevailing in India, its challenges and future recommendations. Moreover the opportunities provide by agricultural marketing should be tapped effectively by the marketers.

  6. Towards "Bildung"-Oriented Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöström, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns "Bildung"-oriented chemistry education, based on a reflective and critical discourse of chemistry. It is contrasted with the dominant type of chemistry education, based on the mainstream discourse of chemistry. "Bildung"-oriented chemistry education includes not only content knowledge in chemistry, but also…

  7. Researches on Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organization Promoting Agricultural Insurance Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The advantages of cooperative economic organization being the effective carrier of agricultural insurance development are analyzed. Firstly, cooperative economic organization promotes scale management and solves the problem of decentralized operation of small households. Secondly, cooperative economic organization can settle the problem of peasants’ low systematization. Thirdly, cooperative economic organization can largely reduce the costs of agricultural insurance operation. Fourthly, cooperative organization decreases moral risks as well as adverse selection to some extent. Lastly, cooperative organization, to a certain degree, reduces the risks of agricultural production and increases the insurability of agricultural risks. Meanwhile, limitations of agricultural cooperative economic organization being the carrier of agricultural insurance operation are pointed out. Firstly, cooperative economic organization has limited coverage and small size of organization, which is harmful to the diversification of agricultural risks. Secondly, cooperative economic organization lacks capital funds and its development is not standard, which is not perfect for the function exertion as a carrier. Lastly, members of professional cooperative organization have low cultural qualities, which restrict the implementation of agricultural insurance. The modes of farmers’ cooperative economic organization promoting agricultural insurance development are proposed, including mode of agricultural insurance cooperative ( mutual corporation), mode of "leading enterprises (companies) + professional cooperative organization (planting majors) + insurance" and mode of professional cooperatives serving as agricultural insurance agent. Last of all, the promoting role of agricultural insurance in agricultural cooperative economic organization is briefly illustrated.

  8. The rise of Brazilian agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Vink, Nick; Sandrey, Ron

    2014-01-01

    of Brazilian agricultural policies, namely farmer support, the research and technology transfer system and land issues. The implications for South African agriculture can be summarized as the recognition that history, geography, the development path and agricultural policies all matter. The article......The purpose of this article is to explore some of the possible lessons for South African agriculture from the Brazilian experience. To this end, the article discusses the performance of Brazilian agriculture in terms of land and labour use, production, and exports. This is followed by aspects...... then identifies five important lessons for agricultural development in South Africa....

  9. Carbohydrates in Supramolecular Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbianco, Martina; Bharate, Priya; Varela-Aramburu, Silvia; Seeberger, Peter H

    2016-02-24

    Carbohydrates are involved in a variety of biological processes. The ability of sugars to form a large number of hydrogen bonds has made them important components for supramolecular chemistry. We discuss recent advances in the use of carbohydrates in supramolecular chemistry and reveal that carbohydrates are useful building blocks for the stabilization of complex architectures. Systems are presented according to the scaffold that supports the glyco-conjugate: organic macrocycles, dendrimers, nanomaterials, and polymers are considered. Glyco-conjugates can form host-guest complexes, and can self-assemble by using carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions and other weak interactions such as π-π interactions. Finally, complex supramolecular architectures based on carbohydrate-protein interactions are discussed.

  10. Quo vadis, analytical chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcárcel, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an open, personal, fresh approach to the future of Analytical Chemistry in the context of the deep changes Science and Technology are anticipated to experience. Its main aim is to challenge young analytical chemists because the future of our scientific discipline is in their hands. A description of not completely accurate overall conceptions of our discipline, both past and present, to be avoided is followed by a flexible, integral definition of Analytical Chemistry and its cornerstones (viz., aims and objectives, quality trade-offs, the third basic analytical reference, the information hierarchy, social responsibility, independent research, transfer of knowledge and technology, interfaces to other scientific-technical disciplines, and well-oriented education). Obsolete paradigms, and more accurate general and specific that can be expected to provide the framework for our discipline in the coming years are described. Finally, the three possible responses of analytical chemists to the proposed changes in our discipline are discussed.

  11. [Gaubius and medical chemistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gijn, Jan; Gijselhart, Joost P

    2011-01-01

    Hieronymus David Gaub (1705-1780) was the son of a protestant cloth merchant in Heidelberg. Disliking a pietistic boarding school in Halle, Germany, he came to stay with a paternal uncle who was a physician in Amsterdam. Hieronymus studied medicine in Harderwijk and in Leiden, under the guidance of Herman Boerhaave (1668-1738). In 1731 he was appointed reader (and in 1734 professor) in chemistry at the Leiden medical faculty. After Boerhaave's death he also taught medicine, but without access to hospital beds. Gaubius correctly envisaged that chemistry would become an important discipline in medicine, but was limited by the technical constraints of his time. In his textbook of general pathology (1758) he attributed disease to disturbances of not only fluids, but also solid parts, although symptoms remained the basis of his classification. The book would remain influential for several decades, until the advent of pathological anatomy.

  12. Chemistry space–time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Winkler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As Einstein identified so clearly, space and time are intimately related. We discuss the relationship between time and Euclidean space using spectroscopic and radioastronomical studies of interstellar chemistry as an example. Given the finite speed of light, we are clearly studying chemical reactions occurring tens of thousands of years ago that may elucidate the primordial chemistry of this planet several billion years ago. We also explore space of a different kind – chemical space, with many more dimensions than the four we associate as space–time. Vast chemical spaces also need very efficient (computational methods for their exploration to overcome this ‘curse of dimensionality’. We discuss methods by which the time to explore these new spaces can be very substantially reduced, opening the discovery useful new materials that are the key to our future.

  13. Bubble and foam chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Pugh, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    This indispensable guide will equip the reader with a thorough understanding of the field of foaming chemistry. Assuming only basic theoretical background knowledge, the book provides a straightforward introduction to the principles and properties of foams and foaming surfactants. It discusses the key ideas that underpin why foaming occurs, how it can be avoided and how different degrees of antifoaming can be achieved, and covers the latest test methods, including laboratory and industrial developed techniques. Detailing a variety of different kinds of foams, from wet detergents and food foams, to polymeric, material and metal foams, it connects theory to real-world applications and recent developments in foam research. Combining academic and industrial viewpoints, this book is the definitive stand-alone resource for researchers, students and industrialists working on foam technology, colloidal systems in the field of chemical engineering, fluid mechanics, physical chemistry, and applied physics.

  14. Organic Chemistry in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnley, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Astronomical observations, theoretical modeling, laboratory simulation and analysis of extraterrestrial material have enhanced our knowledge of the inventory of organic matter in the interstellar medium (ISM) and on small bodies such as comets and asteroids (Ehrenfreund & Charnley 2000). Comets, asteroids and their fragments, meteorites and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), contributed significant amounts of extraterrestrial organic matter to the young Earth. This material degraded and reacted in a terrestrial prebiotic chemistry to form organic structures that may have served as building blocks for life on the early Earth. In this talk I will summarize our current understanding of the organic composition and chemistry of interstellar clouds. Molecules of astrobiological relevance include the building blocks of our genetic material: nucleic acids, composed of subunits such as N-heterocycles (purines and pyrimidines), sugars and amino acids. Signatures indicative of inheritance of pristine and modified interstellar material in comets and meteorites will also be discussed.

  15. Storylines in intercalation chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerf, A

    2014-07-21

    Intercalation chemistry will soon be a hundred years old. The period of greatest activity in this field of solid state chemistry and physics was from about 1970 to 1990. The intercalation reactions are defined as topotactic solid state reactions and the products--the intercalation compounds--are clearly distinguished from inclusion and interstitial compounds. After a short historical introduction emphasizing the pioneering work of Ulrich Hofmann, the central topics and concepts will be reviewed and commented on. The most important ones, in my view, are: dichalcogenide intercalation compounds, the electrochemical intercalation and the search for new battery electrodes, the physics of graphite intercalation compounds, and the staging and interstratification phenomena. The relation to other fields of actual research and the demands for forthcoming research will also be addressed.

  16. Quantum mechanics in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Schatz, George C

    2002-01-01

    Intended for graduate and advanced undergraduate students, this text explores quantum mechanical techniques from the viewpoint of chemistry and materials science. Dynamics, symmetry, and formalism are emphasized. An initial review of basic concepts from introductory quantum mechanics is followed by chapters examining symmetry, rotations, and angular momentum addition. Chapter 4 introduces the basic formalism of time-dependent quantum mechanics, emphasizing time-dependent perturbation theory and Fermi's golden rule. Chapter 5 sees this formalism applied to the interaction of radiation and matt

  17. Green chemistry: development trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseev, I. I.

    2013-07-01

    Examples of applications of green chemistry methods in heavy organic synthesis are analyzed. Compounds, which can be produced by the processing of the biomass, and the criteria for the selection of the most promising products are summarized. The current status of the ethanol production and processing is considered. The possibilities of the use of high fatty acid triglycerides, glycerol, succinic acid, and isoprene are briefly discussed. The bibliography includes 67 references.

  18. Transferases in Polymer Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vlist, Jeroen; Loos, Katja

    Transferases are enzymes that catalyze reactions in which a group is transferred from one compound to another. This makes these enzymes ideal catalysts for polymerization reactions. In nature, transferases are responsible for the synthesis of many important natural macromolecules. In synthetic polymer chemistry, various transferases are used to synthesize polymers in vitro. This chapter reviews some of these approaches, such as the enzymatic polymerization of polyesters, polysaccharides, and polyisoprene.

  19. Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Caporali

    Full Text Available In the framework of the 16th National Meeting of the Italian Ecological Society (“Global Change, Ecological Diversity and Sustainability”, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, 19-22 September 2006, a symposium was devoted to “Agroecology and Sustainable Development”. A major goal of this symposium was to contribute to keeping the dialogue among the experts of the various disciplines alive. Sustainability of agriculture is a challenge for society world wide. Universities and society as a whole have a responsibility in re-examining current perception of nature, of the world and of human society in the light of natural resources depletion, increasing pollution and social inequalities. The urgency to address sustainability issues is increasingly being reflected in the manner in which institutions of higher education around the world are giving priority to the teaching, research and practice of sustainability. The University of Tuscia is involved in international initiatives concerning teaching and research in Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture.

  20. Advanced Agriculture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrinivas R. Zanwar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the advanced system which improves agriculture processes like cultivation on ploughed land, based on robotic platform. We have developed a robotic vehicle having four wheels and steered by DC motor. The advanced autonomous system architecture gives us the opportunity to develop a complete new range of agricultural equipment based on small smart machines. The machine will cultivate the farm by considering particular rows and specific column at fixed distance depending on crop. The obstacle detection problem will also be considered, sensed by infrared sensor. The whole algorithm, calculation, processing, monitoring are designed with motors & sensor interfaced with microcontroller. The result obtained through example activation unit is also presented. The dc motor simulation with feedforward and feedback technique shows precise output. With the help of two examples, a DC motor and a magnetic levitation system, the use of MATLAB and Simulink for modeling, analysis and control is designed.

  1. Allicin: Chemistry and Biological Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Borlinghaus

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Allicin (diallylthiosulfinate is a defence molecule from garlic (Allium sativum L. with a broad range of biological activities. Allicin is produced upon tissue damage from the non-proteinogenic amino acid alliin (S-allylcysteine sulfoxide in a reaction that is catalyzed by the enzyme alliinase. Current understanding of the allicin biosynthetic pathway will be presented in this review. Being a thiosulfinate, allicin is a reactive sulfur species (RSS and undergoes a redox-reaction with thiol groups in glutathione and proteins that is thought to be essential for its biological activity. Allicin is physiologically active in microbial, plant and mammalian cells. In a dose-dependent manner allicin can inhibit the proliferation of both bacteria and fungi or kill cells outright, including antibiotic-resistant strains like methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Furthermore, in mammalian cell lines, including cancer cells, allicin induces cell-death and inhibits cell proliferation. In plants allicin inhibits seed germination and attenuates root-development. The majority of allicin’s effects are believed to be mediated via redox-dependent mechanisms. In sub-lethal concentrations, allicin has a variety of health-promoting properties, for example cholesterol- and blood pressure-lowering effects that are advantageous for the cardio-vascular system. Clearly, allicin has wide-ranging and interesting applications in medicine and (green agriculture, hence the detailed discussion of its enormous potential in this review. Taken together, allicin is a fascinating biologically active compound whose properties are a direct consequence of the molecule’s chemistry.

  2. European Agricultural Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Timothy J.

    1997-01-01

    This bulletin is a supplement to the Europe Team's Situation and Outlook Series and expands upon material traditionally presented as an appendix in the annual Europe Report. This report presents an extensive statistical database on European agriculture. The geographic scope covers most of the countrias of Europe, including the 15 member states of the European Union (Austria. Belgium. Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy. Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, a...

  3. Risk governance in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Bachev, Hrabrin

    2008-01-01

    This paper identifies and assesses the efficiency of major modes for risk governance in agriculture on the base of Bulgarian dairy farming. Firstly, the New Institutional and Transaction Costs Economics is incorporated and a framework for analysis of the governance of natural, market, private, and social (institutional) risks presented. Next, the pace and challenges of the dairy farming development during the post-communist transition and EU integration is outlined. Third, major types of risk...

  4. Agricultural and urban pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehmer, M. L.

    1972-01-01

    The degradation produced by the introduction of agricultural and urban wastes into estuarine systems, with emphasis on the Chesapeake Bay area, is discussed. The subjects presented are: (1) effects of sediment loading and (2) organic and nutrient loading problems. The impact of high turbidity on the biological life of the bay is analyzed. The sources of nutrients which produce over-enrichment of the waters and the subsequent production of phytoplankton are examined.

  5. Entomophagy and space agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, N.; Ishikawa, Y.; Takaoki, M.; Yamashita, M.; Nakayama, S.; Kiguchi, K.; Kok, R.; Wada, H.; Mitsuhashi, J.; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Supplying food for human occupants remains one of the primary issues in engineering space habitation Evidently for long-term occupation on a distant planet it is necessary to start agriculture on site Historically humans have consumed a variety of animals and it is required to fill our nutritional need when they live in space Among many candidate group and species of animal to breed in space agriculture insects are of great interest since they have a number of advantages over mammals and other vertebrates or invertebrates About 70-75 of animal species is insects and they play an important role in materials recycle loop of terrestrial biosphere at their various niche For space agriculture we propose several insect species such as the silkworm Bombyx mori the drugstore beetle Stegobium paniceum and the termite Macrotermes subhyalinus Among many advantages these insects do not compete with human in terms of food resources but convert inedible biomass or waste into an edible food source for human The silkworm has been domesticated since 5 000 years ago in China Silk moth has lost capability of flying after its domestication history This feature is advantageous in control of their breeding Silkworm larvae eat specifically mulberry leaves and metamorphose in their cocoon Silk fiber obtained from cocoon can be used to manufacture textile Farming system of the drugstore beetle has been well established Both the drugstore beetle and the termite are capable to convert cellulose or other inedible biomass

  6. From China to the world: Science China Chemistry celebrates the International Year of Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU XiaoWen; XUE Zi-Ling

    2012-01-01

    1 Introduction Science China Chemistry is considered the best and most comprehensive chemistry journal in China,Its primary mission is to communicate the results of basic and innovative chemistry research.The subject areas include physical chemistry,organic chemistry,inorganic chemistry,polymer chemistry,biological chemistry,environmental chemistry,and chemical engineering in the form of Feature Articles,Reviews,Communications,Articles,and News & Comments.

  7. Agricultural Technology, Risk, and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Tarp, Finn

    2000-01-01

    Interactions between agricultural technology improvements, risk-reducing behavior, and gender roles in agricultural production in Mozambique are examined. The analysis employs a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model that explicitly incorporates key features of the economy. These include...

  8. Spotlight on medicinal chemistry education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, Simone; Xu, Yao-Zhong; Taylor, Peter; Turner, Nicholas; Coaker, Hannah; Crews, Kasumi

    2014-05-01

    The field of medicinal chemistry is constantly evolving and it is important for medicinal chemists to develop the skills and knowledge required to succeed and contribute to the advancement of the field. Future Medicinal Chemistry spoke with Simone Pitman (SP), Yao-Zhong Xu (YX), Peter Taylor (PT) and Nick Turner (NT) from The Open University (OU), which offers an MSc in Medicinal Chemistry. In the interview, they discuss the MSc course content, online teaching, the future of medicinal chemistry education and The OU's work towards promoting widening participation. SP is a Qualifications Manager in the Science Faculty at The OU. She joined The OU in 1993 and since 1998 has been involved in the Postgraduate Medicinal Chemistry provision at The OU. YX is a Senior Lecturer in Bioorganic Chemistry at The OU. He has been with The OU from 2001, teaching undergraduate courses of all years and chairing the master's course on medicinal chemistry. PT is a Professor of Organic Chemistry at The OU and has been involved with the production and presentation of The OU courses in Science and across the university for over 30 years, including medicinal chemistry modules at postgraduate level. NT is a Lecturer in Analytical Science at The OU since 2009 and has been involved in the production of analytical sciences courses, as well as contributing to the presentation of a number of science courses including medicinal chemistry.

  9. Glassy state on the undergraduate course in chemistry (physical chemistry).

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaki, SB; Pedroso, AG; ATVARS, TDZ

    2002-01-01

    We consider the relevance of the study of the glassy state properties and the glass transition as important topics of the physical chemistry for undergraduate courses of Chemistry. Two of the most important theoretical approaches for the description of the glassy state, the thermodynamic and the kinetic models, are summarized with emphasis on the physical chemistry aspects. Examples illustrating the glass transition of some materials are also presented.

  10. Green Chemistry Metrics with Special Reference to Green Analytical Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Tobiszewski; Mariusz Marć; Agnieszka Gałuszka; Jacek Namieśnik

    2015-01-01

    The concept of green chemistry is widely recognized in chemical laboratories. To properly measure an environmental impact of chemical processes, dedicated assessment tools are required. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field of development of green chemistry and green analytical chemistry metrics. The diverse methods used for evaluation of the greenness of organic synthesis, such as eco-footprint, E-Factor, EATOS, and Eco-Scale are described. Both the well-establis...

  11. Skill Sheets for Agricultural Machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    This set of 21 skill sheets for agricultural machinery was developed for use in high school and vocational school agricultural mechanics programs. Each sheet covers a single operational procedure for a piece of agricultural machinery, and includes: (1) a diagram, (2) a step-by-step operational procedure, (3) abilities or understandings taught, (4)…

  12. DYNAMICS OF AGRICULTURAL GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Hellegers, Petra J.G.J.; Zilberman, David; van Ierland, Ekko C.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural shallow groundwater extraction can result in desiccation of neighbouring nature reserves and degradation of groundwater quality in the Netherlands, whereas both externalities are often not considered when agricultural groundwater extraction patterns are being determined. A model is developed to study socially optimal agricultural shallow groundwater extraction patterns. It shows the importance of stock size to slow down changes in groundwater quality.

  13. Sustainability in the Agricultural sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Forgács

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study will examine the possible ways of integrating sustainability indicators in assessing the performance of agriculture. We are examining the appropriate ways of calculating the output of the sector including the damages caused by and the benefits of agricultural production. The involvment of environmental pressure into the assessment of agricultural performance does not show significant changes in values.

  14. A Farming Revolution: Sustainable Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinkenborg, Verlyn

    1995-01-01

    Growing realization of the economic, social, and environmental costs of conventional agriculture has led many U.S. farmers to embrace and become advocates for agricultural practices that limit the need for pesticides and chemical fertilizers, decrease soil erosion, and improve soil health. Some hope that sustainable agriculture can promote smaller…

  15. Changing closed agricultural policy communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Termeer, C.J.A.M.; Werkman, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural policy networks have served as classic examples of closed policy communities facing pressure to open up. However, attempts to change them are slowly moving forward. The dialogues on Common Agricultural Policy reforms in which the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture is engaged with a range of

  16. Agricultural Productivity and Farm Financing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, F. Vernon

    1975-01-01

    The author, president of the Federal Intermediate Credit Bank of New Orleans, in remarks to the first general session of the Agricultural Education Division of the American Vocational Association, paints a bright picture of agricultural productivity, financial challenge, and agricultural commitment in the mid-South. (Author/EA)

  17. Crop Protection in Medieval Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadoks, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Mediterranean and West European pre-modern agriculture (agriculture before 1600) was by necessity ‘organic agriculture’. Crop protection is part and parcel of this agriculture, with weed control in the forefront. Crop protection is embedded in the medieval agronomy text books but specialised section

  18. The economics of agricultural subsidies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    PART ONE1. Agricultural subsidies have been defined as a government induced change of relative prices of goods, services and factors of production in the agricultural sector. These agricultural price changes may result from a large number of different government measures varying from direct cash tra

  19. Integrating UNESCO ICT-Based Instructional Materials in Chemistry Lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHARLIE P. NACARIO

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the effectiveness of the lessons in Chemistry integrating UNESCO ICT-based instructional material on the achievement of Chemistry students at Central Bicol State University of Agriculture. It aimed to identify lessons that may be developed integrating UNESCO ICT-based instructional materials, determine the effect of the developed lessons using the material on: conceptual understanding; science process skills; and attitude towards chemistry and gather insights from the experiences of the students and teacher. The study used the single group pretest and posttest experimental design. Descriptive, quantitative and qualitative techniques were also utilized. Quantitative data were taken from the pretest-posttest results on the Test on Conceptual Understanding, Science Process Skills and Chemistry Attitudinaire. Qualitative data were drawn from the experts’ assessment of the developed lessons and research instruments, and the insights of students and teacher. The developed lessons integrating UNESCO ICT-based instructional materials were Atomic Model and Structure, Periodic Table of Elements, Chemical Bonding, and Balancing Chemical Equation. These lessons increased the conceptual understanding of the students by topic and skill from very low mastery to average mastery level. The students have slightly improved along the different science process skills. After teaching the lessons, the students’ attitude also improved. The students became more motivated and interested in Chemistry and the lessons were student centered and entailed teacher’s competence and flexibility in computer use.

  20. From organic chemistry to fat and oil chemistry*

    OpenAIRE

    Deffense Etienne

    2009-01-01

    With his work on animal fat and identification of fatty acids, Chevreul was a pioneer in organic chemistry. As Chevreul, I had a passion for organic chemistry too. It was then, an honour and a pleasure to present in 2008 at EFL in Athens this presentation entitled “From organic chemistry to fat and oil chemistry” because my background in organic chemistry helped me all along my professional career to understand and implement new developments related to oil and fat technology and processing. A...

  1. An Evaluation of Chemistry I Textbook by Chemistry Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah AYDIN

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Textbooks are one of the most consulted sources in the processes of teaching- learning and assessment. It is indispensable to prepare textbooks in accordance with the curriculum to ensure effective teaching and learning. “Teacher evaluation questionnaire” consistingof 20 questions has been prepared to evaluate secondary level IXth class chemistry textbook in terms of its content. This questionnaire was carried out with 31 secondary level chemistry teachers who work in the public schools and 19 chemistry teachers who work in the private courses. According to the results obtained, chemistry teachers think that there are some deficiencies and obstacles in the application of this textbook.

  2. Sixty Years of Chemistry at CAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Li-Jun

    2011-01-01

    @@ As one of the fundamental and key disciplines of natural sciences, chemistry deals with the properties, composition, structure, transformation and applications of substances.It could be further divided into several branches, such as inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, physical chemistry, polymer chemistry, analytical chemistry and chemical engineering.In recent years, many new branches and fields have emerged amide the continuous development of chemistry and its interdisciplinary research with mathematics, physics, astronomy, earth science, biology, medical science, materials science, and environmental science.

  3. Agricultural experts’ attitude towards precision agriculture: Evidence from Guilan Agricultural Organization, Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadegh Allahyari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Identifying factors that influence the attitudes of agricultural experts regarding precision agriculture plays an important role in developing, promoting and establishing precision agriculture. The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting the attitudes of agricultural experts regarding the implementation of precision agriculture. A descriptive research design was employed as the research method. A research-made questionnaire was used to examine the agricultural experts’ attitude toward precision agriculture. Internal consistency was demonstrated with a coefficient alpha of 0.87, and the content and face validity of the instrument was confirmed by a panel of experts. The results show that technical, economic and accessibility factors accounted for 55% of the changes in attitudes towards precision agriculture. The findings revealed that there were no significant differences between participants in terms of gender, field of study, extension education, age, experience, organizational position and attitudes, while education levels had a significant effect on the respondent’s attitudes.

  4. Green Chemistry: Progress and Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sarah A.

    2016-10-01

    Green chemistry can advance both the health of the environment and the primary objectives of the chemical enterprise: to understand the behavior of chemical substances and to use that knowledge to make useful substances. We expect chemical research and manufacturing to be done in a manner that preserves the health and safety of workers; green chemistry extends that expectation to encompass the health and safety of the planet. While green chemistry may currently be treated as an independent branch of research, it should, like safety, eventually become integral to all chemistry activities. While enormous progress has been made in shifting from "brown" to green chemistry, much more effort is needed to effect a sustainable economy. Implementation of new, greener paradigms in chemistry is slow because of lack of knowledge, ends-justify-the-means thinking, systems inertia, and lack of financial or policy incentives.

  5. Agricultural Technology, Risk, and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Tarp, Finn

    2000-01-01

    Interactions between agricultural technology improvements, risk-reducing behavior, and gender roles in agricultural production in Mozambique are examined. The analysis employs a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model that explicitly incorporates key features of the economy. These include......: detailed accounting of marketing margins, home consumption, risk, and gender roles in agricultural production. Our results show that agricultural technology improvements benefit both male and female occupants of rural households. Due to economic interactions, agricultural technology improvements...... are particularly compelling when combined with marketing system improvements. Moreover, technological change in cassava appears to be a particularly strong lever for increasing female and overall household welfare, especially when risk is considered....

  6. Agricultural Pilot's Audiological Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foltz, Lucas

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The agricultural airplane pilot are daily exposed to intense noises, being susceptible to the noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL and its auditory and extra auditory effects. Objective: To analyze the audiological profile of this population, verifying the work's influence on its hearing. Method: It was realized a retrospective, individual, observational, and cross-sectional study through the data obtained by means of a questionnaire and audiometric thresholds of 41 agricultural pilots. To the statistical analysis were utilized the chi-square, Spearman, and Wilcoxon tests with significance level of 5%. Results: It was verified that 95,1% of the pilots use PPE ( personal protective equipment during flight and 58,5% have contact with pesticides. More than half of individuals referred to feel auditory and extra auditory symptoms, being the buzz the more frequent (29,1%. It has the occurrence of 29,3% of NIHL suggestive hearing loss and 68,3% of normality, taking this presence of unilateral notch in 24,4% and bilateral notch in 31,7%. It was found correlation statistically significant in the associations between time of service and the average of the acute frequencies in the right ear (p=0038, and in the left ear (p=0,010. It has a statistical tendency in the association between audiometric configuration and contact with pesticides (p=0,088. Conclusion: The hearing loss prevalence in this study was showed high. More than half of the sample has normal audiometric thresholds with notch configuration. Such data lead to the conclusion that the agricultural pilots, even with PPE use, they still suffer with the damages caused by noise, needing best proposals of hearing loss prevention.

  7. Workshop on Agricultural Air Quality: State of the science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneja, Viney P.; Blunden, Jessica; Roelle, Paul A.; Schlesinger, William H.; Knighton, Raymond; Niyogi, Dev; Gilliam, Wendell; Jennings, Greg; Duke, Clifford S.

    The first Workshop on Agricultural Air Quality: State of the Science was held at the Bolger Center in Potomac, Maryland from 4 to 8 June 2006. This international conference assembled approximately 350 people representing 25 nations from 5 continents, with disciplines ranging from atmospheric chemistry to soil science. The workshop was designed as an open forum in which participants could openly exchange the most current knowledge and learn about numerous international perspectives regarding agricultural air quality. Participants represented many stakeholder groups concerned with the growing need to assess agricultural impacts on the atmosphere and to develop beneficial policies to improve air quality. The workshop focused on identifying methods to improve emissions inventories and best management practices for agriculture. Workshop participants also made recommendations for technological and methodological improvements in current emissions measurement and modeling practices. The workshop commenced with a session on agricultural emissions and was followed by international perspectives from the United States, Europe, Australia, India, and South America. This paper summarizes the findings and issues of the workshop and articulates future research needs. These needs were identified in three general areas: (1) improvement of emissions measurement; (2) development of appropriate emission factors; and (3) implementation of best management practices (BMPs) to minimize negative environmental impacts. Improvements in the appropriate measurements will inform decisions regarding US farming practices. A need was demonstrated for a national/international network to monitor atmospheric emissions from agriculture and their subsequent depositions to surrounding areas. Information collected through such a program may be used to assess model performance and could be critical for evaluating any future regulatory policies or BMPs. The workshop concluded that efforts to maximize

  8. NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY ANNUAL REPORT 1970

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authors, Various

    1971-05-01

    Papers are presented for the following topics: (1) Nuclear Structure and Nuclear Properties - (a) Nuclear Spectroscopy and Radioactivity; (b) Nuclear Reactions and Scattering; (c) Nuclear Theory; and (d) Fission. (2) Chemical and Atomic Physics - (a) Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy; and (b) Hyperfine Interactions. (3) Physical, Inorganic, and Analytical Chemistry - (a) X-Ray Crystallography; (b) Physical and Inorganic Chemistry; (c) Radiation Chemistry; and (d) Chemical Engineering. (4) Instrumentation and Systems Development.

  9. Chemistry and Science Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Jack H.

    1998-11-01

    This lively collection looks at science as filtered through literature, film, and television. It discusses classic works in science fiction and provides an in-depth look at the chemistry depicted in popular culture, particularly in Start Trek , Star Wars , and Doctor Who . It includes an examination by Nebula Award winner Connie Willis of how science fiction authors use science, and reprints two tongue-in-cheek short stories by Isaac Asimov. The book also includes suggestions for using science fiction as an educational resource.

  10. Analytical chemistry in space

    CERN Document Server

    Wainerdi, Richard E

    1970-01-01

    Analytical Chemistry in Space presents an analysis of the chemical constitution of space, particularly the particles in the solar wind, of the planetary atmospheres, and the surfaces of the moon and planets. Topics range from space engineering considerations to solar system atmospheres and recovered extraterrestrial materials. Mass spectroscopy in space exploration is also discussed, along with lunar and planetary surface analysis using neutron inelastic scattering. This book is comprised of seven chapters and opens with a discussion on the possibilities for exploration of the solar system by

  11. Organic iodine chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickinson, S. E-mail: shirley.dickinson@aeat.co.uk; Sims, H.E.; Belval-Haltier, E.; Jacquemain, D.; Poletiko, C.; Funke, F.; Hellmann, S.; Karjunen, T.; Zilliacus, R

    2001-11-01

    A shared-cost action on Organic Iodine Chemistry has been completed as part of the CEC 4th Framework programme on Nuclear Fission Safety. Organisations from four EC countries are involved in an integrated programme of experiments and analysis to help clarify the phenomenology, and to increase confidence in the modelling of iodine behaviour in containment. The project is focused on identifying the main routes for organic iodine formation, and providing new experimental kinetic data which will be used to improve existing models and to stimulate code development.

  12. Radiochemistry and nuclear chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Choppin, Gregory; RYDBERG, JAN; Ekberg, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Radiochemistry or nuclear chemistry is the study of radiation from an atomic and molecular perspective, including elemental transformation and reaction effects, as well as physical, health and medical properties. This revised edition of one of the earliest and best-known books on the subject has been updated to bring into teaching the latest developments in research and the current hot topics in the field. To further enhance the functionality of this text, the authors have added numerous teaching aids, examples in MathCAD with variable quantities and options, hotlinks to relevant text secti

  13. Quantum chemistry an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Kauzmann, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Quantum Chemistry: An Introduction provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of quantum mechanics. This book presents the theory of partial differentiation equations by using the classical theory of vibrations as a means of developing physical insight into this essential branch of mathematics.Organized into five parts encompassing 16 chapters, this book begins with an overview of how quantum mechanical deductions are made. This text then describes the achievements and limitations of the application of quantum mechanics to chemical problems. Other chapters provide a brief survey

  14. Process Analytical Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veltkamp, David J.(VISITORS); Doherty, Steve D.(BCO); Anderson, B B.(VISITORS); Koch, Mel (University of Washington); Bond, Leonard J.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Burgess, Lloyd W.(VISITORS); Ullman, Alan H.(UNKNOWN); Bamberger, Judith A.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Greenwood, Margaret S.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    1999-06-15

    This review of process analytical chemistry is an update to the previous review on this subject published in 1995(A2). The time period covered for this review includes publications written or published from late 1994 until early 1999, with the addition of a few classic references pointing to background information critical to an understanding of a specific topic area. These older references have been critically included as established fundamental works. New topics covered in this review not previously treated as separate subjects in past reviews include sampling systems, imaging (via optical spectroscopy), and ultrasonic analysis.

  15. Chemistry in aircraft plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraabol, A.G.; Stordal, F.; Knudsen, S. [Norwegian Inst. for Air Research, Kjeller (Norway); Konopka, P. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-31

    An expanding plume model with chemistry has been used to study the chemical conversion of NO{sub x} to reservoir species in aircraft plumes. The heterogeneous conversion of N{sub 2}O{sub 5} to HNO{sub 3}(s) has been investigated when the emissions take place during night-time. The plume from an B747 has been simulated. During a ten-hour calculation the most important reservoir species was HNO{sub 3} for emissions at noon. The heterogeneous reactions had little impact on the chemical loss of NO{sub x} to reservoir species for emissions at night. (author) 4 refs.

  16. Introduction to Coordination Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrance, Geoffrey Alan

    2010-01-01

    Introduction to Coordination Chemistry examines and explains how metals and molecules that bind as ligands interact, and the consequences of this assembly process. This book describes the chemical and physical properties and behavior of the complex assemblies that form, and applications that may arise as a result of these properties. Coordination complexes are an important but often hidden part of our world?even part of us?and what they do is probed in this book. This book distills the essence of this topic for undergraduate students and for research scientists.

  17. Phoenix's Wet Chemistry Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This is an illustration of soil analysis on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Wet Chemistry Lab (WCL) on board the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument. By dissolving small amounts of soil in water, WCL will attempt to determine the pH, the abundance of minerals such as magnesium and sodium cations or chloride, bromide and sulfate anions, as well as the conductivity and redox potential. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. Nuclear Chemistry and Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandevelde, L

    2002-04-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of R and D at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in the field of nuclear chemistry and analytical techniques are summarized. Major achievement in 2001 included the completion of a project on the measurement of critical radionuclides in reactor waste fluxes (the ARIANE project), the radiochemical characterisation of beryllium material originating from the second matrix of the BR2 reactor as well as to a the organisation of a workshop on the analysis of thorium and its isotopes in workplace materials.

  19. Sustainable chemistry metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Flores, Francisco García

    2009-01-01

    Green chemistry has developed mathematical parameters to describe the sustainability of chemical reactions and processes, in order to quantify their environmental impact. These parameters are related to mass and energy magnitudes, and enable analyses and numerical diagnoses of chemical reactions. The environmental impact factor (E factor), atom economy, and reaction mass efficiency have been the most influential metrics, and they are interconnected by mathematical equations. The ecodesign concept must also be considered for complex industrial syntheses, as a part of the sustainability of manufacturing processes. The aim of this Concept article is to identify the main parameters for evaluating undesirable environmental consequences.

  20. Phoenix's Wet Chemistry Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This is an illustration of the analytical procedure of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Wet Chemistry Lab (WCL) on board the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument. By dissolving small amounts of soil in water, WCL can determine the pH, the abundance of minerals such as magnesium and sodium cations or chloride, bromide and sulfate anions, as well as the conductivity and redox potential. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  1. Principles of quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    George, David V

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Quantum Chemistry focuses on the application of quantum mechanics in physical models and experiments of chemical systems.This book describes chemical bonding and its two specific problems - bonding in complexes and in conjugated organic molecules. The very basic theory of spectroscopy is also considered. Other topics include the early development of quantum theory; particle-in-a-box; general formulation of the theory of quantum mechanics; and treatment of angular momentum in quantum mechanics. The examples of solutions of Schroedinger equations; approximation methods in quantum c

  2. African agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...... outside of tariffs. Impressive results were forecast by simulating both a 50% reduction in what can be considered traditional non-tariff barriers and a modest 20% reduction in the costs associated with transit time delays at customs, terminals and internal land transportation. Gains from tariff...

  3. Biostimulants in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick eBrown

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Biostimulants, which may be derived from a wide range of natural or synthetic processes, are now widely used in agriculture and yet the mode of action of these materials is not well understood. On the basis of available literature, and based upon the diversity of biostimulant responses highlighted in this focus issue, we hypothesize that biostimulants function by directly interacting with plant signaling cascades or act through stimulation of endophytic and non-endophytic bacteria, yeast and fungi to produce molecules of benefit to the plant. The benefit of the biostimulant is derived from the reduction in assimilates that are diverted to non-productive stress response metabolism.

  4. Green chemistry: principles and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastas, Paul; Eghbali, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Green Chemistry is a relatively new emerging field that strives to work at the molecular level to achieve sustainability. The field has received widespread interest in the past decade due to its ability to harness chemical innovation to meet environmental and economic goals simultaneously. Green Chemistry has a framework of a cohesive set of Twelve Principles, which have been systematically surveyed in this critical review. This article covers the concepts of design and the scientific philosophy of Green Chemistry with a set of illustrative examples. Future trends in Green Chemistry are discussed with the challenge of using the Principles as a cohesive design system (93 references).

  5. Solid state chemistry an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Smart, Lesley E

    2012-01-01

    ""Smart and Moore are engaging writers, providing clear explanations for concepts in solid-state chemistry from the atomic/molecular perspective. The fourth edition is a welcome addition to my bookshelves. … What I like most about Solid State Chemistry is that it gives simple clear descriptions for a large number of interesting materials and correspondingly clear explanations of their applications. Solid State Chemistry could be used for a solid state textbook at the third or fourth year undergraduate level, especially for chemistry programs. It is also a useful resource for beginning graduate

  6. Podcasts in the Chemistry Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Silva Leite

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies (ICT provide facilities in teaching through education. There are many new tools and methodologies that use ICT as a knowledge-building support, but that are not always related to pedagogical practice. The Podcast is an important technology that can be used in the classroom. Using this tool, it can make the most interactive chemistry class, fleeing the classroom routine. However, it is necessary to point out that the podcast is just one feature that should be incorporated into education and not a substitute. This paper describes the development of Chemistry Podcasts by teachers and chemistry students in three disciplines in 2015. This study took place over a one-year period in a public University, in Pernambuco, Brazil. In the discipline of "Computer applied to the teaching of chemistry" participated 21 Chemistry teachers. In the disciplines of "Information and Communication Technologies in the teaching of chemistry" and "Informatics, Chemistry and Education" was composed of 54 undergraduate students in chemistry. Twelve podcasts were elaborated by students and five by teachers in this paper we present only nine. The results showed the contribution of podcasts produced by teachers and students in teaching and learning process chemistry. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v0i0.898

  7. The physical basis of chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Warren, Warren S

    2000-01-01

    If the text you're using for general chemistry seems to lack sufficient mathematics and physics in its presentation of classical mechanics, molecular structure, and statistics, this complementary science series title may be just what you're looking for. Written for the advanced lower-division undergraduate chemistry course, The Physical Basis of Chemistry, Second Edition, offers students an opportunity to understand and enrich the understanding of physical chemistry with some quantum mechanics, the Boltzmann distribution, and spectroscopy. Posed and answered are questions concerning eve

  8. Beyond Conservation Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken E Giller

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance, soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals and biotechnology. Over the past ten years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub- tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture.

  9. COMMUNITY SUPPORTED AGRICULTURE (CSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atănăsoaie George Sebastian

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Farms of CSA types are a viable alternative to trade of agricultural products coming from conventional agriculture. These farms are faced with a number of policy issues related to product, price, distribution and promotion. In order to elucidate the issues listed above, we have investigated the literature of specialty. Farmers must make more flexible the content of basket both quantitatively and in terms of the nature of food products offered. Consumers need information on ways of preparation or preservation of products. The growth of the processing degree in farm, and inclusion in the offer of services in ecotourism represent effective options to satisfy consumers. To offset the negative impact of high prices measures should be taken in reducing costs, more flexibility in rescheduling of payments due from customers and compensate for the lack of financial resources with the provision of farm work or subsidize a portion of the basket value from private or government sources. Delivery of baskets should be both at fixed points and at customers domicile. Farmers must provide customers the possibility so that they could harvest themselves the products they will buy. Negative influence of prices will be reduced by establishing an effective communication policy with the market, by organizing events on the farm or nearby towns, through blogs and social networks, and through participation in fairs and exhibitions. A greater customer involvement in farming activities will lead to the implementation of an effective marketing mix.

  10. Beyond conservation agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giller, Ken E.; Andersson, Jens A.; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals, and biotechnology. Over the past 10 years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub-) tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture. PMID:26579139

  11. AGRICULTURE DISEASE MITIGATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sion Hannuna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Around 52% of the population of India rely on farming for their livelihood which accounts for 17% of India’s GDP. Whilst most farmers are familiar with conventional farming practices, they are often ill positioned to promptly deal with diseases and plant infestations affecting their crops. Current advisory systems tend to be generic and are not tailored to specific plots or farms. This work comprises an agriculture advisory call center similar to a modern call center to provide an agriculture disease mitigation system. The information regarding an individual farm is collected using mobile phones. The image of diseased/infected crop is also captured using mobile phones and is made available to the expert to provide the advisory. To scale the advisory, an attempt is also made to automate the disease recognition process using image processing. Unfortunately, the photos taken will be sensitive to a number of factors including camera type and lighting incident on the scene. Ideally, the images would be processed in such a way as to provide the expert with a visual representation of the affected crops that reflects the true nature of the scene. We describe a framework for standardising the colour of plant images taken using both mobile phones and compact cameras within the context of the advisory system.

  12. Complex Protostellar Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuth, Joseph A., III; Johnson, Natasha M.

    2012-01-01

    Two decades ago, our understanding of the chemistry in protostars was simple-matter either fell into the central star or was trapped in planetary-scale objects. Some minor chemical changes might occur as the dust and gas fell inward, but such effects were overwhelmed by the much larger scale processes that occurred even in bodies as small as asteroids. The chemistry that did occur in the nebula was relatively easy to model because the fall from the cold molecular cloud into the growing star was a one-way trip down a well-known temperature-pressure gradient; the only free variable was time. However, just over 10 years ago it was suggested that some material could be processed in the inner nebula, flow outward, and become incorporated into comets (1, 2). This outward flow was confirmed when the Stardust mission returned crystalline mineral fragments (3) from Comet Wild 2 that must have been processed close to the Sun before they were incorporated into the comet. In this week's Science Express, Ciesla and Sandford (4) demonstrate that even the outermost regions of the solar nebula can be a chemically active environment. Their finding could have consequences for the rest of the nebula.

  13. Current ADC Linker Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Nareshkumar; Smith, Sean W; Ghone, Sanjeevani; Tomczuk, Bruce

    2015-11-01

    The list of ADCs in the clinic continues to grow, bolstered by the success of first two marketed ADCs: ADCETRIS® and Kadcyla®. Currently, there are 40 ADCs in various phases of clinical development. However, only 34 of these have published their structures. Of the 34 disclosed structures, 24 of them use a linkage to the thiol of cysteines on the monoclonal antibody. The remaining 10 candidates utilize chemistry to surface lysines of the antibody. Due to the inherent heterogeneity of conjugation to the multiple lysines or cysteines found in mAbs, significant research efforts are now being directed toward the production of discrete, homogeneous ADC products, via site-specific conjugation. These site-specific conjugations may involve genetic engineering of the mAb to introduce discrete, available cysteines or non-natural amino acids with an orthogonally-reactive functional group handle such as an aldehyde, ketone, azido, or alkynyl tag. These site-specific approaches not only increase the homogeneity of ADCs but also enable novel bio-orthogonal chemistries that utilize reactive moieties other than thiol or amine. This broadens the diversity of linkers that can be utilized which will lead to better linker design in future generations of ADCs.

  14. A Quantum Chemistry Concept Inventory for Physical Chemistry Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick-Perez, Marilu; Luxford, Cynthia J.; Windus, Theresa L.; Holme, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    A 14-item, multiple-choice diagnostic assessment tool, the quantum chemistry concept inventory or QCCI, is presented. Items were developed based on published student misconceptions and content coverage and then piloted and used in advanced physical chemistry undergraduate courses. In addition to the instrument itself, data from both a pretest,…

  15. Introducing Chemistry Students to the "Real World" of Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael E.; Cosser, Ronald C.; Davies-Coleman, Michael T.; Kaye, Perry T.; Klein, Rosalyn; Lamprecht, Emmanuel; Lobb, Kevin; Nyokong, Tebello; Sewry, Joyce D.; Tshentu, Zenixole R.; van der Zeyde, Tino; Watkins, Gareth M.

    2010-01-01

    A majority of chemistry graduates seek employment in a rapidly changing chemical industry. Our attempts to provide the graduates with skills in entrepreneurship and the ability to understand and communicate with their chemical engineering colleagues, in addition to their fundamental knowledge of chemistry, are described. This is done at…

  16. Art in Chemistry: Chemistry in Art. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Barbara R.; Patterson, Dianne

    2008-01-01

    This textbook integrates chemistry and art with hands-on activities and fascinating demonstrations that enable students to see and understand how the science of chemistry is involved in the creation of art. It investigates such topics as color integrated with electromagnetic radiation, atoms, and ions; paints integrated with classes of matter,…

  17. Medicinal Chemistry/Pharmacology in Sophomore Organic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Aline M.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is a series of lectures designed to illustrate the use of general organic chemical principles in molecular biology, introduce current research in interdisciplinary areas to the beginner, increase interest in organic chemistry, and bridge the gap between traditional organic chemistry, biology, and the consumer. An outline is presented.…

  18. Green Chemistry Metrics with Special Reference to Green Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiszewski, Marek; Marć, Mariusz; Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-06-12

    The concept of green chemistry is widely recognized in chemical laboratories. To properly measure an environmental impact of chemical processes, dedicated assessment tools are required. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field of development of green chemistry and green analytical chemistry metrics. The diverse methods used for evaluation of the greenness of organic synthesis, such as eco-footprint, E-Factor, EATOS, and Eco-Scale are described. Both the well-established and recently developed green analytical chemistry metrics, including NEMI labeling and analytical Eco-scale, are presented. Additionally, this paper focuses on the possibility of the use of multivariate statistics in evaluation of environmental impact of analytical procedures. All the above metrics are compared and discussed in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. The current needs and future perspectives in green chemistry metrics are also discussed.

  19. From organic chemistry to fat and oil chemistry*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deffense Etienne

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available With his work on animal fat and identification of fatty acids, Chevreul was a pioneer in organic chemistry. As Chevreul, I had a passion for organic chemistry too. It was then, an honour and a pleasure to present in 2008 at EFL in Athens this presentation entitled “From organic chemistry to fat and oil chemistry” because my background in organic chemistry helped me all along my professional career to understand and implement new developments related to oil and fat technology and processing. Among the topics which I worked out, I highlighted more particularly the following subjects: the degumming chemistry of oil and fat; the improvement of physical refining; a new chemical analytical tool for the dry fractionation; new development in the dry fractionation

  20. Green Chemistry Metrics with Special Reference to Green Analytical Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Tobiszewski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of green chemistry is widely recognized in chemical laboratories. To properly measure an environmental impact of chemical processes, dedicated assessment tools are required. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field of development of green chemistry and green analytical chemistry metrics. The diverse methods used for evaluation of the greenness of organic synthesis, such as eco-footprint, E-Factor, EATOS, and Eco-Scale are described. Both the well-established and recently developed green analytical chemistry metrics, including NEMI labeling and analytical Eco-scale, are presented. Additionally, this paper focuses on the possibility of the use of multivariate statistics in evaluation of environmental impact of analytical procedures. All the above metrics are compared and discussed in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. The current needs and future perspectives in green chemistry metrics are also discussed.

  1. Significant steps in the evolution of analytical chemistry--is the today's analytical chemistry only chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayannis, Miltiades I; Efstathiou, Constantinos E

    2012-12-15

    In this review the history of chemistry and specifically the history and the significant steps of the evolution of analytical chemistry are presented. In chronological time spans, covering the ancient world, the middle ages, the period of the 19th century, and the three evolutional periods, from the verge of the 19th century to contemporary times, it is given information for the progress of chemistry and analytical chemistry. During this period, analytical chemistry moved gradually from its pure empirical nature to more rational scientific activities, transforming itself to an autonomous branch of chemistry and a separate discipline. It is also shown that analytical chemistry moved gradually from the status of exclusive serving the chemical science, towards serving, the environment, health, law, almost all areas of science and technology, and the overall society. Some recommendations are also directed to analytical chemistry educators concerning the indispensable nature of knowledge of classical analytical chemistry and the associated laboratory exercises and to analysts, in general, why it is important to use the chemical knowledge to make measurements on problems of everyday life.

  2. Contextualising Nanotechnology in Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Christine; Hayden, Hugh

    2008-01-01

    In recent years nanotechnology has become part of the content of many undergraduate chemistry and physics degree courses. This paper deals with the role of contextualisation of nanotechnology in the delivery of the content, as nanotechnology is only now being slowly integrated into many chemistry degree courses in Ireland and elsewhere. An…

  3. Rethinking Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Stephen R.

    2016-01-01

    A summary of fundamental changes made to the undergraduate physical chemistry curriculum in the Chemistry Department at Gustavus Adolphus College (beginning in the 2013-2014 academic year) is presented. The yearlong sequence now consists of an introductory semester covering both quantum mechanics and thermodynamics/kinetics, followed by a second…

  4. Chemistry Teachers' Views of Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkanat, Çigdem; Gökdere, Murat

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine chemistry teachers' views of creativity. In this study, phenomenology method, one of the qualitative research patterns, was used. The participants of this study were 13 chemistry teachers working in Amasya. A semi-structured interview form was used for data collection. By using NVivo 9 qualitative…

  5. Remedial Mathematics for Quantum Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Lodewijk; Brouwer, Natasa; Heck, Andre; Buma, Wybren Jan

    2008-01-01

    Proper mathematical skills are important for every science course and mathematics-intensive chemistry courses rely on a sound mathematical pre-knowledge. In the first-year quantum chemistry course at this university, it was noticed that many students lack basic mathematical knowledge. To tackle the mathematics problem, a remedial mathematics…

  6. Introducing Relativity into Quantum Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wai-Kee; Blinder, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    It is not often realized by chemists that the special theory of relativity is behind several aspects of quantum chemistry. The Schrdinger equation itself is based on relations between space-time and energy-momentum four vectors. Electron spin is, of course, the most obvious manifestation of relativity. The chemistry of some heavy elements is…

  7. [Photonic crystals for analytical chemistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Li, Jincheng

    2009-09-01

    Photonic crystals, originally created to control the transmission of light, have found their increasing value in the field of analytical chemistry and are probable to become a hot research area soon. This review is hence composed, focusing on their analytical chemistry-oriented applications, including especially their use in chromatography, capillary- and chip-based electrophoresis.

  8. News from Online: Green Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uffelman, Erich S.

    2004-01-01

    Green chemistry closely relates to energy and environmental problems, and includes the promotion of environmental friendly products and systems within the framework of renewable resources. Various websites on green chemistry are reviewed, one of which lists the 12 commandments of this particular subject.

  9. Crocodile Chemistry. [CD-ROM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    This high school chemistry resource is an on-screen chemistry lab. In the program, students can experiment with a huge range of chemicals, choosing the form, quantity and concentrations. Dangerous or difficult experiments can be investigated safely and easily. A vast range of equipment can be set up, and complex simulations can be put together and…

  10. Organic Chemistry Software from COMPress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Sister Isabel

    1982-01-01

    Reviews three organic chemistry computer programs for TRS-80 and Apple microcomputers. Programs include "Introduction to Organic Chemistry,""Qualitative Organic Analysis," and a game called "Chemrain." Indicates that all three produce a readable screen, require exact responses, use graphics in an appealingly and…

  11. Fundamentals of Aqueous Microwave Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first chemical revolution changed modern life with a host of excellent amenities and services, but created serious problems related to environmental pollution. After 150 years of current chemistry principles and practices, we need a radical change to a new type of chemistry k...

  12. Comparing Pathways to Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Q Fuller

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The transition from foraging systems to agricultural dependence is a persistent focus of archaeological research, and the focus of a major research project supported by the European Research Council (ERC grant no. 323842, ’ComPAg’. Gordon Childe, director of the Institute of Archaeology 1947–1957, influentially defined the Neolithic revolution as that which instigated a series of changes in human societies towards sedentism (settling in one place, larger populations, food production based on domesticated plants and animals, transformed cosmologies and the dawn of new malleable technologies such as ceramics and textiles (Childe 1936.

  13. Agricultural nitrate pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Helle Tegner

    2015-01-01

    Despite the passing of almost 25 years since the adoption of the EU Nitrates Directive, agricultural nitrate pollution remains a major concern in most EU Member States. This is also the case in Denmark, although a fairly strict regulatory regime has resulted in almost a 50 per cent reduction...... in nitrogen leaching since the mid-80s. Nevertheless, further effort is needed, particularly in ecologically sensitive areas. This article discusses different regulatory approaches – and in particular the need for a differentiated nitrate regulation tailored to meet site-specific ecological demands – from...... of the mandatory specification standards of the Nitrates Directive combined with additional instruments to address the need for severe restrictions on fertiliser use or cultivation practices in the most ecologically vulnerable areas....

  14. Urban agriculture in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloysius Clemence Mosha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Botswana, a middle-income country, is experiencing a sluggish economic growth and a rapid urbanisation which has brought in its wake high unemployment, poverty and food insecurity. This has led some people to engage in subsistence and commercial urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA to address these problems. However, in spite of its known advantages, uptake of UPA has been low for a number of reasons including: high GDP before the economic meltdown of recent years; a harsh climate; lack of water; poor access to land; and over-reliance on generous government handouts. Nevertheless, the extent of its practice and its contribution to food security – albeit modest – shows that it is a sector that needs to be encouraged and supported. Both central and local government can play a big role by providing land and infrastructure, and also by implementing an enabling policy and regulatory environment which promotes small- and medium-scale urban food production.

  15. Complex Autocatalysis in Simple Chemistries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgo, Nathaniel; Ikegami, Takashi; McGregor, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Life on Earth must originally have arisen from abiotic chemistry. Since the details of this chemistry are unknown, we wish to understand, in general, which types of chemistry can lead to complex, lifelike behavior. Here we show that even very simple chemistries in the thermodynamically reversible regime can self-organize to form complex autocatalytic cycles, with the catalytic effects emerging from the network structure. We demonstrate this with a very simple but thermodynamically reasonable artificial chemistry model. By suppressing the direct reaction from reactants to products, we obtain the simplest kind of autocatalytic cycle, resulting in exponential growth. When these simple first-order cycles are prevented from forming, the system achieves superexponential growth through more complex, higher-order autocatalytic cycles. This leads to nonlinear phenomena such as oscillations and bistability, the latter of which is of particular interest regarding the origins of life.

  16. Prebiotic phosphorus chemistry reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, A. W.; Orgel, L. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    The available evidence indicates that the origin of life on Earth certainly occurred earlier than 3.5 billion years ago and perhaps substantially earlier. The time available for the chemical evolution which must have preceded this event is more difficult to estimate. Both endogenic and exogenic contributions to chemical evolution have been considered; i.e., from chemical reactions in a primitive atmosphere, or by introduction in the interiors of comets and/or meteorites. It is argued, however, that the phosphorus chemistry of Earth's earliest hydrosphere, whether primarily exogenic or endogenic in origin, was most likely dominated by compounds less oxidized than phosphoric acid and its esters. A scenario is presented for the early production of a suite of reactive phosphonic acid derivatives, the properties of which may have foreshadowed the later appearance of biophosphates.

  17. Prebiotic chemistry in clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbeck, Verne R.; Marshall, John; Shen, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    The chemical evolution hypothesis of Woese (1979), according to which prebiotic reactions occurred rapidly in droplets in giant atmospheric reflux columns was criticized by Scherer (1985). This paper proposes a mechanism for prebiotic chemistry in clouds that answers Scherer's concerns and supports Woese's hypothesis. According to this mechanism, rapid prebiotic chemical evolution was facilitated on the primordial earth by cycles of condensation and evaporation of cloud drops containing clay condensation nuclei and nonvolatile monomers. For example, amino acids supplied by, or synthesized during entry of meteorites, comets, and interplanetary dust, would have been scavenged by cloud drops containing clay condensation nuclei and would be polymerized within cloud systems during cycles of condensation, freezing, melting, and evaporation of cloud drops.

  18. Advances in analytical chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendale, W. F.; Congo, Richard T.; Nielsen, Bruce J.

    1991-01-01

    Implementation of computer programs based on multivariate statistical algorithms makes possible obtaining reliable information from long data vectors that contain large amounts of extraneous information, for example, noise and/or analytes that we do not wish to control. Three examples are described. Each of these applications requires the use of techniques characteristic of modern analytical chemistry. The first example, using a quantitative or analytical model, describes the determination of the acid dissociation constant for 2,2'-pyridyl thiophene using archived data. The second example describes an investigation to determine the active biocidal species of iodine in aqueous solutions. The third example is taken from a research program directed toward advanced fiber-optic chemical sensors. The second and third examples require heuristic or empirical models.

  19. Beryllium chemistry and processing

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Kenneth A

    2009-01-01

    This book introduces beryllium; its history, its chemical, mechanical, and physical properties including nuclear properties. The 29 chapters include the mineralogy of beryllium and the preferred global sources of ore bodies. The identification and specifics of the industrial metallurgical processes used to form oxide from the ore and then metal from the oxide are thoroughly described. The special features of beryllium chemistry are introduced, including analytical chemical practices. Beryllium compounds of industrial interest are identified and discussed. Alloying, casting, powder processing, forming, metal removal, joining and other manufacturing processes are covered. The effect of composition and process on the mechanical and physical properties of beryllium alloys assists the reader in material selection. The physical metallurgy chapter brings conformity between chemical and physical metallurgical processing of beryllium, metal, alloys, and compounds. The environmental degradation of beryllium and its all...

  20. Getting Hooked on Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Diana S.

    2002-04-01

    Other fun things in this issue include three Quote Boxes by Olney (3) that will allow your students to engage in deductive reasoning to solve the puzzles. Kelkar (4) presents a slightly more difficult but very clever mystery element game; it provides clues to element symbols that all fit into a single matrix. Ibanez's game (5) lists popular sayings or proverbs and the student's job is to match each with an analogous chemical phenomenon. As always, answers are provided. For the more sophisticated among us, there is Who Wants to Be a Chemist Extraordinaire? devised by Campbell and Muzyka (6), who describe their use of online chemistry game shows patterned on popular TV programs. Examples of the HTML files with sample questions are available through JCE Online. These are just some of the many suggestions that can be found in this issue of JCE. Try a few, you might like them!

  1. Organic chemistry on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S.; Scattergood, T.; Aronowitz, S.; Flores, J.

    1979-01-01

    Features taken from various models of Titan's atmosphere are combined in a working composite model that provides environmental constraints within which different pathways for organic chemical synthesis are determined. Experimental results and theoretical modeling suggest that the organic chemistry of the satellite is dominated by two processes: photochemistry and energetic particle bombardment. Photochemical reactions of CH4 in the upper atmosphere can account for the presence of C2 hydrocarbons. Reactions initiated at various levels of the atmosphere by cosmic rays, Saturn 'wind', and solar wind particle bombardment of a CH4-N2 atmospheric mixture can account for the UV-visible absorbing stratospheric haze, the reddish appearance of the satellite, and some of the C2 hydrocarbons. In the lower atmosphere photochemical processes will be important if surface temperatures are sufficiently high for gaseous NH3 to exist. It is concluded that the surface of Titan may contain ancient or recent organic matter (or both) produced in the atmosphere.

  2. Chemistry of Aviation Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knepper, Bryan; Hwang, Soon Muk; DeWitt, Kenneth J.

    2004-01-01

    Minimum ignition energies of various methanol/air mixtures were measured in a temperature controlled constant volume combustion vessel using a spark ignition method with a spark gap distance of 2 mm. The minimum ignition energies decrease rapidly as the mixture composition (equivalence ratio, Phi) changes from lean to stoichiometric, reach a minimum value, and then increase rather slowly with Phi. The minimum of the minimum ignition energy (MIE) and the corresponding mixture composition were determined to be 0.137 mJ and Phi = 1.16, a slightly rich mixture. The variation of minimum ignition energy with respect to the mixture composition is explained in terms of changes in reaction chemistry.

  3. Rapid automated nuclear chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, R.A.

    1979-05-31

    Rapid Automated Nuclear Chemistry (RANC) can be thought of as the Z-separation of Neutron-rich Isotopes by Automated Methods. The range of RANC studies of fission and its products is large. In a sense, the studies can be categorized into various energy ranges from the highest where the fission process and particle emission are considered, to low energies where nuclear dynamics are being explored. This paper presents a table which gives examples of current research using RANC on fission and fission products. The remainder of this text is divided into three parts. The first contains a discussion of the chemical methods available for the fission product elements, the second describes the major techniques, and in the last section, examples of recent results are discussed as illustrations of the use of RANC.

  4. Pollution prevention through chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breen, J.J.; Anastas, P.T.; Hassur, S.M.; Tobin, P.S. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics

    1995-09-01

    Prosperity without pollution, and the consideration of how to achieve this economic and environmental imperative, has become the fundamental environmental theme of the 1990s. The new strategy--pollution prevention--will serve s the keystone of federal, state, and local environmental policy. The challenge is to switch from two decades of environmental policy based on pollution controls and government-mandated regulations to a future environmental policy based on pollution prevention, source reduction, recycling, and waste minimization. To make this change will require a new social compact among environmental, industrial, and regulatory interests. This chapter focuses on the role of chemistry and the contributions of synthetic and process analytical chemists. It also describes the implementation of pollution prevention concepts into the premanufacturing notice review process mandated by Section 5 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and discusses the implications of pollution prevention for chemical safety. 55 refs.

  5. Linking nutrition-health-agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural production is intimately linked with health and nutrition as a form of income, a source of food, and a cause of disease. Citing a variety of previous studies, this presentation demonstrates the complexity of the relationships among agriculture and food consumption, food safety, infection, and stunting. The authors demonstrate that increasing agricultural production does not necessarily result in improved nutrition: Although more food may be available, this greater yield may suppl...

  6. Green Agriculture - features and agricultural policy measures for the transition to a sustainable agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Nistor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is one of the most important economic activities in each country or area, as it is in close correlation with all other the other economic activities, in a whole which must be structured so as to achieve a more efficient planning and organization of the territory. The practice of a traditional agriculture, based on industrialization, affects the natural environment through emissions of pollutants, waste and deforestation which together affects biodiversity. Green Agriculture suppose to empower managers to widespread the use of fertilizers, to improve the crop rotation, to realize a more efficient water consumption, to improve the storage methods and the supply chain of products. Agricultural policies are closely interrelated with environmental policies as agricultural activities have a considerable influence on the environment. The efficiency of agricultural policies is reflected in monetary transfers between agriculture and other economic sectors, in the costs due to the reallocation of the resources between different agricultural and non-agricultural activities and in the realized gains. Currently there is a constant concern of the governments for the transition to a green agriculture, and most countries recognize the importance of achieving sustainable economic development.

  7. Nanoplasmonics tuned ``click chemistry''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijunelyte, I.; Guenin, E.; Lidgi-Guigui, N.; Colas, F.; Ibrahim, J.; Toury, T.; Lamy de La Chapelle, M.

    2016-03-01

    Nanoplasmonics is a growing field of optical condensed matter science dedicated to optical phenomena at the nanoscale level in metal systems. Extensive research on noble metallic nanoparticles (NPs) has emerged within the last two decades due to their ability to keep the optical energy concentrated in the vicinity of NPs, in particular, the ability to create optical near-field enhancement followed by heat generation. We have exploited these properties in order to induce a localised ``click'' reaction in the vicinity of gold nanostructures under unfavourable experimental conditions. We demonstrate that this reaction can be controlled by the plasmonic properties of the nanostructures and we propose two physical mechanisms to interpret the observed plasmonic tuning of the ``click'' chemistry.Nanoplasmonics is a growing field of optical condensed matter science dedicated to optical phenomena at the nanoscale level in metal systems. Extensive research on noble metallic nanoparticles (NPs) has emerged within the last two decades due to their ability to keep the optical energy concentrated in the vicinity of NPs, in particular, the ability to create optical near-field enhancement followed by heat generation. We have exploited these properties in order to induce a localised ``click'' reaction in the vicinity of gold nanostructures under unfavourable experimental conditions. We demonstrate that this reaction can be controlled by the plasmonic properties of the nanostructures and we propose two physical mechanisms to interpret the observed plasmonic tuning of the ``click'' chemistry. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: NMR study on reaction initiation, SERS spectra and temperature calculations. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr09018k

  8. Chemistry for whom? Gender awareness in teaching and learning chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Kristina

    2016-11-01

    Marie Ståhl and Anita Hussénius have defined what discourses dominate national tests in chemistry for Grade 9 in Sweden by using feminist, critical didactic perspectives. This response seeks to expand the results in Ståhl and Hussénius's article Chemistry inside an epistemological community box!—Discursive exclusions and inclusions in the Swedish national tests in chemistry, by using different facets of gender awareness. The first facet—Gender awareness in relations to the test designers' own conceptions—highlighted how the gender order where women are subordinated men becomes visible in the national tests as a consequence of the test designers internalized conceptions. The second facet—Gender awareness in relation to chemistry—discussed the hierarchy between discourses within chemistry. The third facet—Gender awareness in relation to students—problematized chemistry in relation to the students' identity formation. In summary, I suggest that the different discourses can open up new ways to interpret chemistry and perhaps dismantle the hegemonic chemistry discourse.

  9. Precision agriculture and food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebbers, Robin; Adamchuk, Viacheslav I

    2010-02-12

    Precision agriculture comprises a set of technologies that combines sensors, information systems, enhanced machinery, and informed management to optimize production by accounting for variability and uncertainties within agricultural systems. Adapting production inputs site-specifically within a field and individually for each animal allows better use of resources to maintain the quality of the environment while improving the sustainability of the food supply. Precision agriculture provides a means to monitor the food production chain and manage both the quantity and quality of agricultural produce.

  10. Food chemistry and U.S. food regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, David J

    2009-09-23

    The Agriculture and Food Chemistry Division (AGFD) was founded in 1908 shortly after passage of the first U.S. food regulations in 1906. Modern food regulations started with the passage of the Food Drug and Cosmetic Act in 1938. This Act has been amended several times to keep pace with developments in food chemistry. In 1958 the Food Additives Amendment was enacted to control substances added to food. Since 1958 scientific techniques have been developed to evaluate the safety and carcinogenicity of substances in the food supply. In the 1970s and 1980s AGFD symposia and books addressed compounds of concern in foods. In the 1990s food safety and nutrition regulations followed new developments in food and nutrition chemistry. Recently, the well-studied toxin acrylamide was discovered in food and presented regulators with new questions on safety and control in the food supply. Discoveries and developments in chemistry such as those in nanotechnology will continue to present challenges to food regulators.

  11. Incorporation of Medicinal Chemistry into the Organic Chemistry Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, David C.

    2004-01-01

    Application of concepts presented in organic chemistry lecture using a virtual project involving the sythesis of medicinally important compounds is emphasized. The importance of reinforcing the concepts from lecture in lab, thus providing a powerful instructional means is discussed.

  12. Smart Cities Will Need Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru WOINAROSCHY

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A smart city is a sustainable and efficient urban centre that provides a high quality of life to its inhabitants through optimal management of its resources. Chemical industry has a key role to play in the sustainable evolution of the smart cities. Additionally, chemistry is at the heart of all modern industries, including electronics, information technology, biotechnology and nano-technology. Chemistry can make the smart cities project more sustainable, more energy efficient and more cost effective. There are six broad critical elements of any smart city: water management systems; infrastructure; transportation; energy; waste management and raw materials consumption. In all these elements chemistry and chemical engineering are deeply involved.

  13. Advances in electron transfer chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Mariano, Patrick S

    1993-01-01

    Advances in Electron Transfer Chemistry, Volume 3 presents studies that discuss findings in the various aspects of electron chemistry. The book is comprised of four chapters; each chapter reviews a work that tackles an issue in electron transfer chemistry. Chapter 1 discusses the photoinduced electron transfer in flexible biaryl donor-acceptor molecules. Chapter 2 tackles light-induced electron transfer in inorganic systems in homogeneous and heterogeneous phases. The book also covers internal geometry relaxation effects on electron transfer rates of amino-centered systems. The sequential elec

  14. The radiation chemistry of macromolecules

    CERN Document Server

    1973-01-01

    The Radiation Chemistry of Macromolecules, Volume II is a collection of papers that discusses radiation chemistry of specific systems. Part 1 deals with radiation chemistry of substituted vinyl polymers, particularly polypropylene (PP) as its structure is intermediate between polyethylene and polyisobutylene. This part also discusses polypropylene oxide (PPOx) for it can be prepared in the atactic, isotactic, and optically active forms. One paper focuses on the fundamental chemical processes and the changes in physical properties that give rise to many different applications of polystyrene. An

  15. Catalysis and sustainable (green) chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Centi, Gabriele; Perathoner, Siglinda [Dipartimento di Chimica Industriale ed Ingegneria dei Materiali, University of Messina, Salita Sperone 31, 98166 Messina (Italy)

    2003-01-15

    Catalysis is a key technology to achieve the objectives of sustainable (green) chemistry. After introducing the concepts of sustainable (green) chemistry and a brief assessment of new sustainable chemical technologies, the relationship between catalysis and sustainable (green) chemistry is discussed and illustrated via an analysis of some selected and relevant examples. Emphasis is also given to the concept of catalytic technologies for scaling-down chemical processes, in order to develop sustainable production processes which reduce the impact on the environment to an acceptable level that allows self-depuration processes of the living environment.

  16. Capital loss in China's agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Peng

    2004-01-01

    China's agriculture has contributed a lot to industrialization but it has suffered a long-run and severe capital loss.This paper provides an estimation model of capital loss in agriculture and gives some explanation in marginal approach.With an eye to a balanced and sustainable economy development, it is high time for government to do something for it.

  17. Entrepreneurship in agriculture and healthcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassink, Jan; Hulsink, Willem; Grin, John

    2016-01-01

    Care farming provides an interesting context of multifunctional agriculture where farmers face the challenge of having to bridge the gap between agriculture and healthcare and acquire new customers, partners and financial resources from the care sector. We compared different entry strategies of d

  18. Organic agriculture in North Carolina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wossink, G.A.A.; Kuminoff, N.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of the NC State Economist provides an overview of organic agriculture with an emphasis on North Carolina. Research results are reported and some of the new policies and programs that may affect organic agriculture in the near future are described

  19. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2014-10-01

    Alternative transportation fuels, preferably from renewable sources, include alcohols with up to five or even more carbon atoms. They are considered promising because they can be derived from biological matter via established and new processes. In addition, many of their physical-chemical properties are compatible with the requirements of modern engines, which make them attractive either as replacements for fossil fuels or as fuel additives. Indeed, alcohol fuels have been used since the early years of automobile production, particularly in Brazil, where ethanol has a long history of use as an automobile fuel. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the use of non-petroleum-based fuels made from biological sources, including alcohols (predominantly ethanol), as important liquid biofuels. Today, the ethanol fuel that is offered in the market is mainly made from sugar cane or corn. Its production as a first-generation biofuel, especially in North America, has been associated with publicly discussed drawbacks, such as reduction in the food supply, need for fertilization, extensive water usage, and other ecological concerns. More environmentally friendly processes are being considered to produce alcohols from inedible plants or plant parts on wasteland. While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides ethanol, many linear and branched members of the alcohol family, from methanol to hexanols, have been studied, with a particular emphasis on butanols. These fuels and their combustion properties, including their ignition, flame propagation, and extinction characteristics, their pyrolysis and oxidation reactions, and their potential to produce pollutant emissions have been intensively investigated in dedicated experiments on the laboratory and the engine scale

  20. An Evaluation of Chemistry I Textbook by Chemistry Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah AYDIN

    2010-01-01

    Textbooks are one of the most consulted sources in the processes of teaching- learning and assessment. It is indispensable to prepare textbooks in accordance with the curriculum to ensure effective teaching and learning. “Teacher evaluation questionnaire” consistingof 20 questions has been prepared to evaluate secondary level IXth class chemistry textbook in terms of its content. This questionnaire was carried out with 31 secondary level chemistry teachers who work in the public schools and 1...

  1. Green chemistry at work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, J. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The 1.7 billion pounds of benzene produced each year in the US provide one measure of its utility. At the same time, there are a number of environmental reasons for avoiding the use of benzene in chemical manufacture. Perhaps most compelling: benzene is a potent carcinogen. Scrutiny of many of the chemicals derived from benzene reveals that each molecule contains at least one oxygen atom while benzene completely lacks oxygen atoms. Introduction of oxygen to make up for this lack can require processes that are environmentally problematic. One of the steps used to introduce oxygen atoms during manufacture of adipic acid, a component of Nylon 66, is responsible for 10% of the annual global increase in atmospheric nitrous oxide. This by-product is a causative agent of atmospheric ozone depletion and has been implicated in global warming. With support from EPA and the National Science Foundation, alternative manufacturing processes are being explored. By these new methods, chemicals usually created from benzene are made instead from nontoxic glucose, a component of table sugar. Unlike benzene, glucose is obtained from such renewable resources as plant starch and cellulose. ``Green`` manufacturing routes ideally should lead to chemicals that are economically competitive with chemicals produced by traditional methods. For two chemicals of roughly comparable cost, the consumer or producer can then be realistically expected to choose in favor of the chemical produced by a ``green`` process. Projections indicate that catechol and hydroquinone can be biocatalytically produced from glucose at a cost competitive with current market prices. Synthesis of chemicals from glucose using biocatalysis offers the premise of achieving fundamental environmental improvement while increasing the demand for agricultural products. In the final analysis, what is good for the environment can also be good for American agriculture.

  2. Computational chemistry research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Eugene

    1987-01-01

    Task 41 is composed of two parts: (1) analysis and design studies related to the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Extended Operating Configuration (EOC) and (2) computational chemistry. During the first half of 1987, Dr. Levin served as a member of an advanced system planning team to establish the requirements, goals, and principal technical characteristics of the NAS EOC. A paper entitled 'Scaling of Data Communications for an Advanced Supercomputer Network' is included. The high temperature transport properties (such as viscosity, thermal conductivity, etc.) of the major constituents of air (oxygen and nitrogen) were correctly determined. The results of prior ab initio computer solutions of the Schroedinger equation were combined with the best available experimental data to obtain complete interaction potentials for both neutral and ion-atom collision partners. These potentials were then used in a computer program to evaluate the collision cross-sections from which the transport properties could be determined. A paper entitled 'High Temperature Transport Properties of Air' is included.

  3. Nuclear chemistry progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viola, V.E.; Kwiatkowski, K.

    1993-08-01

    This is the annual progress report for the Indiana University nuclear chemistry program for the 1992/1993 year. Accomplishments include the construction, testing, and initial experimental runs of the Indiana Silicon Sphere (ISiS) 4{pi} charged particle detector. ISiS is designed to study energy dissipation and multifragmentation phenomena in light-ion-induced nuclear reactions at medium-to-high energies. Its second test run was to examine 3.6 GeV {sup 3}He beam reactions at Laboratoire National Saturne (LNS) in Saclay. The development and deployment of this system has occupied a great deal of the groups effort this reporting period. Additional work includes: calculations of isotopic IMF yields in the {sup 4}He + {sup 116,124}Sn reaction; cross sections for A = 6 - 30 fragments from the {sup 4}He + {sup 28}Si reaction at 117 and 198 MeV; charging effects of passivated silicon detectors; neck emission of intermediate-mass fragments in the fission of hot heavy nuclei.

  4. Computational Chemistry and Lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehe, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    Members of NASA Lewis Research Center's Tribology and Surface Science Branch are applying high-level computational chemistry techniques to the development of new lubrication systems for space applications and for future advanced aircraft engines. The next generation of gas turbine engines will require a liquid lubricant to function at temperatures in excess of 350 C in oxidizing environments. Conventional hydrocarbon-based lubricants are incapable of operating in these extreme environments, but a class of compounds known as the perfluoropolyether (PFAE) liquids (see the preceding illustration) shows promise for such applications. These commercially available products are already being used as lubricants in conditions where low vapor pressure and chemical stability are crucial, such as in satellite bearings and composite disk platters. At higher temperatures, however, these compounds undergo a decomposition process that is assisted (catalyzed) by metal and metal oxide bearing surfaces. This decomposition process severely limits the applicability of PFAE's at higher temperatures. A great deal of laboratory experimentation has revealed that the extent of fluid degradation depends on the chemical properties of the bearing surface materials. Lubrication engineers would like to understand the chemical breakdown mechanism to design a less vulnerable PFAE or to develop a chemical additive to block this degradation.

  5. Atmospheric and aerosol chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeill, V. Faye [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Ariya, Parisa A. (ed.) [McGill Univ. Montreal, QC (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; McGill Univ. Montreal, QC (Canada). Dept. of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences

    2014-09-01

    This series presents critical reviews of the present position and future trends in modern chemical research. Short and concise reports on chemistry, each written by the world renowned experts. Still valid and useful after 5 or 10 years. More information as well as the electronic version of the whole content available at: springerlink.com. Christian George, Barbara D'Anna, Hartmut Herrmann, Christian Weller, Veronica Vaida, D. J. Donaldson, Thorsten Bartels-Rausch, Markus Ammann Emerging Areas in Atmospheric Photochemistry. Lisa Whalley, Daniel Stone, Dwayne Heard New Insights into the Tropospheric Oxidation of Isoprene: Combining Field Measurements, Laboratory Studies, Chemical Modelling and Quantum Theory. Neil M. Donahue, Allen L. Robinson, Erica R. Trump, Ilona Riipinen, Jesse H. Kroll Volatility and Aging of Atmospheric Organic Aerosol. P. A. Ariya, G. Kos, R. Mortazavi, E. D. Hudson, V. Kanthasamy, N. Eltouny, J. Sun, C. Wilde Bio-Organic Materials in the Atmosphere and Snow: Measurement and Characterization V. Faye McNeill, Neha Sareen, Allison N. Schwier Surface-Active Organics in Atmospheric Aerosols.

  6. Structural transition metal chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, K M

    2002-01-01

    This thesis is divided up into five chapters as outlined below. Chapter 1 gives the background to the techniques used in this thesis including X-ray structure determination and ab initio methods. An overview of some recent studies using ab initio methods to study transition metal complexes is also given. Chapter 2 investigates structural trans influence in a number of transition metal and p-block complexes. The database and ab initio studies showed that the classical trans influence model based on Pt(II) chemistry does not always hold. For some systems (eg. d sup 1 sup 0 s sup 0 for Sb sup V and Sn sup I sup V) the cis influence is of similar magnitude to the trans influence. For other systems (d sup 0), the trans influence is not as powerful as usually assumed. Chapter 3 is an investigation into the bridging chloride unit. A database study was performed on three systems (M-CI-M', M-CI...H and M-CI...Li/Na/K). Reaction pathway analysis was carried out for the M-CI-M' case and showed that bond order is not con...

  7. American Association for Clinical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education Credits Certification Resources Career Guidance Publications Clinical Chemistry Clinical Laboratory News The Journal of Applied Laboratory Medicine Clinical and Forensic Toxicology News Clinical Laboratory Marketplace Books and Multimedia ...

  8. International Year of Chemistry 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Zi-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Science China Chemistry would like to dedicate this special issue to the International Year of Chemistry (IYC) 2011,as part of the celebrations of IYC in China.Scientists from Australia,Brazil,Britain,Canada,Chile,China,France,Germany,India,Israel,Japan,Nepal,Pakistan,Saudi Arabia,Singapore,South Africa,and the USA have contributed 28 papers marking the event.Our authors from across the globe include students,members (a corresponding member) and fellows of national academies of sciences in several countries (Australia,Chile,China,France,India,Israel,Pakistan,and the USA),fellows of the British and Canadian Royal Societies,and two Nobel Laureates (Robert Grubbs and Ada Yonath).Here they present their work contributing to the IYC 2011 theme "Chemistry-our life,our future" [1].These papers cover fundamental chemistry,the chemical bases of life processes,and their potential applications.

  9. QDB: Validated Plasma Chemistries Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Sara; Hamilton, James; Hill, Christian; Tennyson, Jonathan; UCL Team

    2016-09-01

    One of most challenging recurring problems when modelling plasmas is the lack of data. This lack of complete and validated datasets hinders research on plasma processes and curbs development of industrial Applications. We will describe the QDB project which aims to fill this missing link by provide a platform for exchange and validation of chemistry datasets. The database will collate published data on both electron scattering and heavy particle reactions and also facilitates and encourages peer-to-peer data sharing by its users. This data platform is rigorously supported by the validation methodical validation of the datasetsan automated chemistry generator employed; this methodology identifies missing reactions in chemistries which although important are currently unreported in the literature and employs mathematical methods to analyze the importance of these chemistries. Gaps in the datasets are filled using in house theoretical methods.

  10. One century of aryne chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenk, Hans Henning; Winkler, Michael; Sander, Wolfram

    2003-02-03

    Arynes, which are formally derived from aromatic rings by abstraction of two hydrogen atoms, have been a focus of organic chemistry for 100 years. In contrast to ortho-benzyne, which is mentioned in almost every introductory textbook on organic reaction mechanisms as a reactive intermediate of nucleophilic aromatic substitution, the meta and para isomers were regarded as rather exotic until recently. This situation has changed dramatically with the discovery of the enediyne antibiotics, a promising new class of antitumor drugs, and has aroused the interest of research groups from all branches of chemistry. Nowadays, arynes and related compounds are among the most intensively studied systems in chemistry. However, many aspects of the chemistry of these reactive intermediates are not well understood yet. In this review we outline the historical developement with an emphasis on recent progress in this challenging field of research.

  11. Plants and Medicinal Chemistry--2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, D.

    1977-01-01

    Second of a two part article on the influence of plants on medicinal chemistry. This part considers how drugs work, the attempts to develop anaesthetics safer than cocaine, and useful poisons. (Author/SL)

  12. [Pharmaceutical chemistry of general anaesthetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szász, György; Takácsné, Novák Krisztina

    2004-01-01

    The paper represents the first part of a planned series of reviews about pharmaceutical chemistry of drugs acting on the central nervous system. The authorial aim and editorial concepts are the same were followed in a former series of papers about pharmaceutical chemistry of agents effecting the heart, blood circulation and vegetative nervous system. Consequently, general anaesthetics are discussed in the present paper through the chapters "history, preparation; structure-properties-activity; application; analysis".

  13. 42 CFR 493.839 - Condition: Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Chemistry. 493.839 Section 493.839... These Tests § 493.839 Condition: Chemistry. The specialty of chemistry includes for the purposes of proficiency testing the subspecialties of routine chemistry, endocrinology, and toxicology....

  14. Peer Mentoring in the General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories: The Pinacol Rearrangement--An Exercise in NMR and IR Spectroscopy for General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrington, Caleb A.; Hill, Jameica B.; Radfar, Ramin; Whisnant, David M.; Bass, Charles G.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a discovery experiment for general chemistry and organic chemistry labs. Although the pinacol rearrangement has been employed in undergraduate organic laboratories before, in this application organic chemistry students act as mentors to students of general chemistry. Students work together using distillation--a new technique…

  15. Effective Chemistry Communication in Informal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academies Press, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Chemistry plays a critical role in daily life, impacting areas such as medicine and health, consumer products, energy production, the ecosystem, and many other areas. Communicating about chemistry in informal environments has the potential to raise public interest and understanding of chemistry around the world. However, the chemistry community…

  16. The Brazilian medicinal chemistry from 1998 to 2008 in the Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry, Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters and European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry [A química medicinal brasileira de 1998 a 2008 nos periódicos Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry, Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters e European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Bárbara Vasconcellos da Silva; Renato Saldanha Bastos; Angelo da Cunha Pinto

    2009-01-01

    In this article we present the Brazilian publications, the research groups involved, the contributions per states and the main diseases studied from 1998 to 2008 in the following periodicals: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry, Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters and European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry.

  17. Structural Adjustment of Oasis Agriculture in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Jun; Zhang Xiaolei

    2005-01-01

    Xinjiang's oasis agriculture has made enormous strides over past decades. Structural adjustment of oasis agriculture sector has promoted production diversification. Xinjiang's oasis agriculture sector is entering a new era. The era means more adjustments in oasis agricultural and rural economic structure so as to realize the sustainable development of agriculture. By summing and analyzing the main problems in Xinjinag's oasis agricultural structure,such as raising farmer's income, industry structure within agriculture, rural urbanization, pressure coming from market, agricultural environment degradation,puts forward the thinking, director and countermeasures to adjust oasis agricultural structure.

  18. Online educational repositories for promoting agricultural knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.I. Costopoulou

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Towards promoting sustainable agriculture and economic growth, the development of the agricultural workforce and set up of innovative agricultural systems are required. Agricultural educational repositories are systems used for storing, reusing and sharing agricultural learning resources. They contribute to agricultural education at different educational levels and target groups. Thus, this paper firstly provides an overview of Institutional repositories (IRs and Open Access Archives (OAAs in Greece and agricultural repositories worldwide. Also, it describes the agricultural repositories that provide access to educational content in Greek and presents experiences from the establishment of Agricultural University of Athens’ (AUA repository.

  19. Gender Equality in Agricultural Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jayakumar

    2016-05-01

    “Increased women’s enrollment in agricultural courses” as one among the strategies when addressing gender issues in the education and training components of agricultural development projects. In this context the study was carried out to ascertain the representation of women and their academic achievement in agricultural education. The study revealed that almost equal representation was found for women in agricultural course and they were also provided better quality education in their schooling, in the form of English medium education and education in private schools. Recent trends for the past four years showed a higher percentage of enrollments of women in agricultural course than men. The growth rate was also higher for the female students. Women also showed a significantly higher percentage of academic achievement than men. These positive indicators provide sufficient signals for equality of women in agricultural course and have positive implications for development of the agricultural sector in future.

  20. Greenhouse gas mitigation in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pete; Martino, Daniel; Cai, Zucong; Gwary, Daniel; Janzen, Henry; Kumar, Pushpam; McCarl, Bruce; Ogle, Stephen; O'Mara, Frank; Rice, Charles; Scholes, Bob; Sirotenko, Oleg; Howden, Mark; McAllister, Tim; Pan, Genxing; Romanenkov, Vladimir; Schneider, Uwe; Towprayoon, Sirintornthep; Wattenbach, Martin; Smith, Jo

    2008-02-27

    Agricultural lands occupy 37% of the earth's land surface. Agriculture accounts for 52 and 84% of global anthropogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Agricultural soils may also act as a sink or source for CO2, but the net flux is small. Many agricultural practices can potentially mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the most prominent of which are improved cropland and grazing land management and restoration of degraded lands and cultivated organic soils. Lower, but still significant mitigation potential is provided by water and rice management, set-aside, land use change and agroforestry, livestock management and manure management. The global technical mitigation potential from agriculture (excluding fossil fuel offsets from biomass) by 2030, considering all gases, is estimated to be approximately 5500-6000Mt CO2-eq.yr-1, with economic potentials of approximately 1500-1600, 2500-2700 and 4000-4300Mt CO2-eq.yr-1 at carbon prices of up to 20, up to 50 and up to 100 US$ t CO2-eq.-1, respectively. In addition, GHG emissions could be reduced by substitution of fossil fuels for energy production by agricultural feedstocks (e.g. crop residues, dung and dedicated energy crops). The economic mitigation potential of biomass energy from agriculture is estimated to be 640, 2240 and 16 000Mt CO2-eq.yr-1 at 0-20, 0-50 and 0-100 US$ t CO2-eq.-1, respectively.

  1. General Situations of Development of Photovoltaic Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohang; ZHANG; Shoufu; CUI; Fuping; LIU

    2015-01-01

    This paper firstly introduced policy of photovoltaic agriculture in China. It discussed significance of developing photovoltaic agriculture. Then,it introduced progress in application of photovoltaic agriculture at both home and abroad. Finally,it pointed out existing problems in photovoltaic agriculture and came up with recommendations for development of photovoltaic agriculture in China.

  2. Mathematics in agriculture and vocational education for agricultures

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents some of the results from a research study about mathematics in agriculture and agricultural education. The purpose of the study is to investigate the role of mathematics as a professional knowledge, and how to organize vocational secondary school education so that students receive the math knowledge and skills they need for their future profession. The study is done from a curricula theoretical perspective with concepts from Bernstein (2000). The re...

  3. Economics, Policy, and Organic Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingemann, Jan Holm

    2009-01-01

    Is organic agriculture so special that special social theories and methods are needed? The article investigates the question in two steps: First, the article address the question whether agriculture is special. Second, whether organic agriculture is special. It is concluded that from an economic...... point of view new research suggests that the organic sector can only be conceptualized and understood in the general social context. If the sector is analyzed as independent of general social context, it will lead to insufficient, and in worst case wrong, understandings and subsequently inadequate...

  4. Adapting agriculture with traditional knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiderska, Krystyna; Reid, Hannah [IIED, London (United Kingdom); Song, Yiching; Li, Jingsong [Centre for Chinese Agriculutral Policy (China); Mutta, Doris [Kenya Forestry Research Institute (Kenya)

    2011-10-15

    Over the coming decades, climate change is likely to pose a major challenge to agriculture; temperatures are rising, rainfall is becoming more variable and extreme weather is becoming a more common event. Researchers and policymakers agree that adapting agriculture to these impacts is a priority for ensuring future food security. Strategies to achieve that in practice tend to focus on modern science. But evidence, both old and new, suggests that the traditional knowledge and crop varieties of indigenous peoples and local communities could prove even more important in adapting agriculture to climate change.

  5. Analytical Chemistry as an Information Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    AD-AIOS 433 WASHINGTON UNIV SEATTLE LAB OR CHEMOMETRICS /7/ ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY AS AN INFORMATION SCIENCE Ul NAb7/ .JUN 81 B A KO WALSKI NUUUIA 75C...AN INFORMATION SCIENCE by B. R. Kowalski Prepared for Publication in Trends in Analytical Chemistry University of Washington Department of Chemistry...S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Technical Report - Interim ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY AS AN INFORMATION SCIENCE , 2/1981 - 6/1981 6. PERFORMING ORG

  6. A química orgânica na consolidação dos conceitos de átomo e molécula Organic chemistry in the consolidation of the concepts of atom and molecule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia de Oliveira Camel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work discusses the appearance of the concepts of valence and molecular structure, and describes the appropriation and evolution of the concept of molecule in the period following the publication of Avogadro's Hypothesis. The point of reference is the development of what became known as Organic Chemistry, which encompassed Pharmacy, Physiological Chemistry, Animal and Plant Chemistry, Chemistry of Dyestuffs, Agricultural Chemistry, and the fledgling Organic Synthesis industry in the early 19th century. The theories formulated in these areas and the quest for accurate atomic weights led to those concepts of valence and molecular structure and to a precise differentiation between atom and molecule.

  7. Publicising chemistry in a multicultural society through chemistry outreach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce D. Sewry

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Given the emphasis in Higher Education on community engagement in South Africa and the importance of international collaboration, we discuss a joint approach to chemistry outreach in two countries on two continents with widely differing target school audiences. We describe the history of the partnership between the chemistry departments at Rhodes University and the University of Bristol and provide an outline of the chemistry content of their outreach initiatives, the modes of delivery, the advantages to both departments and their students for involvement in various levels of outreach, the challenges they still face and additional opportunities that such work facilitated. The lecture demonstration ‘A Pollutant’s Tale’ was presented to thousands of learners all over the world, including learners at resource-deprived schools in South Africa. Challenges to extend outreach activities in South Africa include long travelling distances, as well as a lack of facilities (such as school halls and electricity at schools. Outreach activities not only impacted on the target audience of young learners, they also impacted upon the postgraduate and other chemistry students taking part in these initiatives. This collaboration strengthened both institutions and their outreach work and may also lead to chemistry research collaborations between the academics involved.

  8. Agricultural Minerals Operations - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes agricultural minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  9. Decentralizing Agricultural Extension: Alternative Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, William M.

    1997-01-01

    Examines government strategies for decentralizing agricultural extension, concluding that such changes are largely determined by the country's constitutional status. Reviews decentralization guidelines for structural and fiscal reforms and participatory management systems. (SK)

  10. Polymer in Agriculture: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Puoci

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In agricultural field, polymers are widely used for many applications. Although they were used, in the first time, just as structural materials (inhert polymers, in the last decades functionalized polymers revolutionized the agricultural and food industry with new tools for several applications. Smart polymeric materials and smart delivery systems helped the agricultural industryto combat viruses and other crop pathogens, functionalized polymers were used to increase the efficiency of pesticides and herbicides, allowing lower doses to be used and to indirectly protect the environment through filters or catalysts to reduce pollution and clean-up existing pollutants. This report will review the key aspects of used polymers in agricultural area, highlighting current research in this field and the future impacts they may have.

  11. Danish emission inventories for agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth; Albrektsen, Rikke; Gyldenkærne, Steen

    . This report contains a description of the emissions from the agricultural sector from 1985 to 2009. Furthermore, the report includes a detailed description of methods and data used to calculate the emissions, which is based on national methodologies as well as international guidelines. For the Danish...... emissions calculations and data management an Integrated Database model for Agricultural emissions (IDA) is used. The emission from the agricultural sector includes emission of the greenhouse gases methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), ammonia (NH3), particulate matter (PM), non-methane volatile organic...... compounds (NMVOC) and other pollutants related to the field burning of agricultural residue such as NOx, CO2, CO, SO2, heavy metals, dioxin and PAH. The ammonia emission from 1985 to 2009 has decreased from 119 300 tonnes of NH3 to 73 800 tonnes NH3, corresponding to a 38 % reduction. The emission...

  12. Laser-based agriculture system

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Boon S.

    2016-03-31

    A system and method are provided for indoor agriculture using at least one growth chamber illuminated by laser light. In an example embodiment of the agriculture system, a growth chamber is provided having one or more walls defining an interior portion of the growth chamber. The agriculture system may include a removable tray disposed within the interior portion of the growth chamber. The agriculture system also includes a light source, which may be disposed outside the growth chamber. The one or more walls may include at least one aperture. The light source is configured to illuminate at least a part of the interior portion of the growth chamber. In embodiments in which the light source is disposed outside the growth chamber, the light source is configured to transmit the laser light to the interior portion of the growth chamber via the at least one aperture.

  13. The Chemistry of Planet Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberg, Karin I.

    2017-01-01

    Exo-planets are common, and they span a large range of compositions. The origins of the observed diversity of planetary compositions is largely unconstrained, but must be linked to the planet formation physics and chemistry. Among planets that are Earth-like, a second question is how often such planets form hospitable to life. A fraction of exo-planets are observed to be ‘physically habitable’, i.e. of the right temperature and bulk composition to sustain a water-based prebiotic chemistry, but this does not automatically imply that they are rich in the building blocks of life, in organic molecules of different sizes and kinds, i.e. that they are chemically habitable. In this talk I will argue that characterizing the chemistry of protoplanetary disks, the formation sites of planets, is key to address both the origins of planetary bulk compositions and the likelihood of finding organic matter on planets. The most direct path to constrain the chemistry in disks is to directly observe it. In the age of ALMA it is for the first time possible to image the chemistry of planet formation, to determine locations of disk snowlines, and to map the distributions of different organic molecules. Recent ALMA highlights include constraints on CO snowline locations, the discovery of spectacular chemical ring systems, and first detections of more complex organic molecules. Observations can only provide chemical snapshots, however, and even ALMA is blind to the majority of the chemistry that shapes planet formation. To interpret observations and address the full chemical complexity in disks requires models, both toy models and astrochemical simulations. These models in turn must be informed by laboratory experiments, some of which will be shown in this talk. It is thus only when we combine observational, theoretical and experimental constraints that we can hope to characterize the chemistry of disks, and further, the chemical compositions of nascent planets.

  14. Agricultural Roots in the Biological Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Charles W.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    A wide variety of careers related to agriculture and based on studies of the biological sciences are discussed. The importance of agriculture in our society as well as the educational means to an agricultural career are outlined. (MDR)

  15. Knowledge Base and Content of Agricultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Robert A.; Peterson, Ronald L.

    1991-01-01

    Agricultural education encompasses basic sciences and business management principles. Critical curriculum components are (1) technical agriculture (basic principles, functions, and technical specialties of agriculture); (2) experiential learning; and (3) human development. (SK)

  16. Integrating Agriculture into the Science Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Pamela M.; Linder, Mark P.

    1993-01-01

    The California Foundation for Agriculture in the Classroom supports efforts to integrate agricultural education into K-12 science curriculum. Thirteen pilot agriculture/science units have been developed. (SK)

  17. Theme: Future Programs of Agricultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jasper S.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This issue, focusing on future programs of agricultural education, includes articles on the future of agriculture, bioelectronics, secondary programs, technical education in agriculture, young and adult farmer programs, instructional technology, and expanding opportunities for women. (CT)

  18. Radiation Chemistry Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1973-12-31

    collaboration with Desalination and Effluent Engineering Division. Preliminary experiments with a valved-out test section in TAPS established the feasibility of achieving chemical decontamination. The initial Water Chemistry in RAPP-1 prior to and after criticality was closely observed and the data were analyzed. Opportunity was also taken during this period to observe the addition and removal of boric acid to the moderator system. In a joint program with the Metallurgy and the Reactor Operations Divisions the hot conditioning of the primary heat transport system of RAPP was followed by chemical and metallurgical evaluation of coupons especially installed for that purpose. In order to keep a close watch on material compatibility, the composition of crud samples from the primary heat transport was evaluated by several techniques. (auth)

  19. Medicinal electrochemistry: integration of electrochemistry, medicinal chemistry and computational chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, M O; Maltarollo, V G; de Toledo, R A; Shim, H; Santos, M C; Honorio, K M

    2014-01-01

    Over the last centuries, there were many important discoveries in medicine that were crucial for gaining a better understanding of several physiological processes. Molecular modelling techniques are powerful tools that have been successfully used to analyse and interface medicinal chemistry studies with electrochemical experimental results. This special combination can help to comprehend medicinal chemistry problems, such as predicting biological activity and understanding drug action mechanisms. Electrochemistry has provided better comprehension of biological reactions and, as a result of many technological improvements, the combination of electrochemical techniques and biosensors has become an appealing choice for pharmaceutical and biomedical analyses. Therefore, this review will briefly outline the present scope and future advances related to the integration of electrochemical and medicinal chemistry approaches based on various applications from recent studies.

  20. [The sugar cane blight of the 1860s: science applied to agriculture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bediaga, Begonha

    2012-12-01

    The Imperial Instituto Fluminense de Cultura (Fluminense Imperial Institute of Agriculture) encouraged debate with a view to eradicating the blight that devastated sugar cane plantations in the State of Bahia. Rural landowners, government officials and men of science participated in the discussions. The article presents the context of the sciences applied to agriculture, especially agricultural chemistry and the repercussions of the 'discoveries' of Justus Liebig in Brazil. The debate at the Imperial Instituto about the sugar cane blight was analyzed, together with the ideas espoused there and the characters involved in the issue. The procedures and solutions presented are studied, as well as the formation of knowledge networks around the agricultural sciences, which was in the process of institutionalization at the time.

  1. Stronger management needed to protect agricultural environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai Shikui

    1983-01-01

    This article examines environmental issues and management in developed agricultural areas of China. Agricultural environmental management is defined as the adoption of countermeasures by applying the theories and methods of environmental science and management science and abiding by economic laws and ecological laws to prevent pollution of the agricultural environment and destruction of the agro-ecology by man; to coordinate the relationship between the development of agricultural production and the protection of the agricultural environment and to satisfy increasing demands for agricultural by-products. Topics considered include the basis for developing agricultural environmental management, the present condition of the agricultural environment in China, and several management proposals.

  2. Organic chemistry on solid surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhen; Zaera, Francisco [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)

    2006-07-15

    Chemistry on solid surfaces is central to many areas of practical interest such as heterogeneous catalysis, tribology, electrochemistry, and materials processing. With the development of many surface-sensitive analytical techniques in the past decades, great advances have been possible in our understanding of such surface chemistry at the molecular level. Earlier studies with model systems, single crystals in particular, have provided rich information about the adsorption and reaction kinetics of simple inorganic molecules. More recently, the same approach has been expanded to the study of the surface chemistry of relatively complex organic molecules, in large measure in connection with the selective synthesis of fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals. In this report, the chemical reactions of organic molecules and fragments on solid surfaces, mainly on single crystals of metals but also on crystals of metal oxides, carbides, nitrides, phosphides, sulfides and semiconductors as well as on more complex models such as bimetallics, alloys, and supported particles, are reviewed. A scheme borrowed from the organometallic and organic chemistry literature is followed in which key examples of representative reactions are cited first, and general reactivity trends in terms of both the reactants and the nature of the surface are then identified to highlight important mechanistic details. An attempt has been made to emphasize recent advances, but key earlier examples are cited as needed. Finally, correlations between surface and organometallic and organic chemistry, the relevance of surface reactions to applied catalysis and materials functionalization, and some promising future directions in this area are briefly discussed. (author)

  3. The Application of SCC-DV-Xα Computational Method of Quantum Chemistry in Cement Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It has been explored why quantum chemistry is applied to the research field of cement chemistry. The fundamental theory of SCC-DV-Xα computational method of quantum chemistry is synopsized. The results obtained by computational quantum chemistry method in recent years of valence-bond structures and hydration activity of some cement clinker minerals, mechanical strength and stabilization of some hydrates are summarized and evaluated. Finally the prospects of the future application of quantum chemistry to cement chemistry are depicted.

  4. Teaching Chemistry in the New Century: Inorganic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorhout, Peter K.

    2001-09-01

    At the San Diego ACS meeting, members of the academic community came together to share their visions for teaching inorganic chemistry. They discussed new laboratory experiences, virtual textbooks, integration of computers in the laboratory, undergraduate research experiences, and new ways of classifying reactions to enable students to recognize and categorize reaction types. It was clear from the presentations that, while the toolbox of the inorganic chemist is not now as sophisticated as the organic chemist's, that toolbox must evolve (and is evolving) if we are to understand just a fraction of the unique chemistry that is inorganic.

  5. Towards Bildung-Oriented Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöström, Jesper

    2013-07-01

    This paper concerns Bildung-oriented chemistry education, based on a reflective and critical discourse of chemistry. It is contrasted with the dominant type of chemistry education, based on the mainstream discourse of chemistry. Bildung-oriented chemistry education includes not only content knowledge in chemistry, but also knowledge about chemistry, both about the nature of chemistry and about its role in society. In 2004 Mahaffy suggested a tetrahedron model based on Johnstone's chemical triangle. The latter represents the formal aspects of chemistry teaching (macro, submicro, and symbolic) and the top of the tetrahedron represents a human element. In the present paper the following subdivision of the top is suggested (starting from the bottom): (1) applied chemistry, (2) socio-cultural context, and (3) critical-philosophic approach. The professional identity of the Bildung-oriented chemistry teacher differs from that of the chemist and is informed by research fields such as Philosophy of Chemistry, Science and Technology Studies, and Environmental Education. He/she takes a socio-critical approach to chemistry, emphasising both the benefits and risks of chemistry and its applications.

  6. Proximate and ultimate controls on carbon and nutrient dynamics of small agricultural catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Zahra; Abbott, Benjamin W.; Troccaz, Olivier; Baudry, Jacques; Pinay, Gilles

    2016-03-01

    Direct and indirect effects from human activity have dramatically increased nutrient loading to aquatic inland and estuarine ecosystems. Despite an abundance of studies investigating the impact of agricultural activity on water quality, our understanding of what determines the capacity of a watershed to remove or retain nutrients remains limited. The goal of this study was to identify proximate and ultimate controls on dissolved organic carbon and nutrient dynamics in small agricultural catchments by investigating the relationship between catchment characteristics, stream discharge, and water chemistry. We analyzed a 5-year, high-frequency water chemistry data set from three catchments in western France ranging from 2.3 to 10.8 km2. The relationship between hydrology and solute concentrations differed between the three catchments and was associated with hedgerow density, agricultural activity, and geology. The catchment with thicker soil and higher surface roughness had relatively invariant carbon and nutrient chemistry across hydrologic conditions, indicating high resilience to human disturbance. Conversely, the catchments with smoother, thinner soils responded to both intra- and interannual hydrologic variation with high concentrations of phosphate (PO43-) and ammonium (NH4+) in streams during low flow conditions and strong increases in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), sediment, and particulate organic matter during high flows. Despite contrasting agricultural activity between catchments, the physical context (geology, topography, and land-use configuration) appeared to be the most important determinant of catchment solute dynamics based on principle components analysis. The influence of geology and accompanying topographic and geomorphological factors on water quality was both direct and indirect because the distribution of agricultural activity in these catchments is largely a consequence of the geologic and topographic context. This link between inherent

  7. Making Decisions by Analytical Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    , forensics and other fields of science where analytical chemistry is the key instrument of decision making. In order to elucidate the potential origin of the statistical variations found among laboratories, a major program was undertaken including several analytical technologies where the purpose......It has been long recognized that results of analytical chemistry are not flawless, owing to the fact that professional laboratories and research laboratories analysing the same type of samples by the same type of instruments are likely to obtain significantly different results. The European....... These discrepancies are very unfortunate because erroneous conclusions may arise from an otherwise meticulous and dedicated effort of research staff. This may eventually lead to unreliable conclusions thus jeopardizing investigations of environmental monitoring, climate changes, food safety, clinical chemistry...

  8. Organometallic frustrated Lewis pair chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erker, Gerhard

    2011-08-07

    Frustrated Lewis pairs are playing an increasingly important role in organometallic chemistry. Examples are presented and discussed where organometallic systems themselves serve as the Lewis base or Lewis acid components in frustrated Lewis pair chemistry, mostly through their attached functional groups. Activation of dihydrogen takes place easily in many of these systems. This may lead to the generation of novel catalyst systems but also in many cases to the occurrence of specific reactions at the periphery of the organometallic frameworks. Increasingly, FLP reactions are used to carry out functional group conversions in organometallic systems under mild reaction conditions. The limits of typical FLP reactivity are explored with selected organometallic examples, a discussion that points toward new developments, such as the discovery of facile new 1,1-carboboration reactions. Learning more and more about the broad spectrum of frustrated Lewis pair chemistry helps us to find novel reactions and applications.

  9. Understanding MAOS through computational chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, P; de la Hoz, A; Díaz-Ortiz, A; Rodríguez, A M

    2017-01-23

    The importance of microwave irradiation in organic synthesis today is unquestionable, but in many cases the nature of these improvements remains unknown. Exploiting the benefits that microwave irradiation has in chemistry is still hindered by a lack of understanding of the physical principles of the interaction of microwave irradiation with the components of a reaction. Moreover, dielectric properties vary with temperature and along the reaction coordinate and this makes the situation more complex. Experimental determinations employed to date in Microwave-Assisted Organic Chemistry (MAOS) are characterized by the importance of thermal heating. In this way the separation of thermal heating from any other effect of electromagnetic radiation is completely impossible. This review provides an overview of the use of Computational Chemistry in MAOS to provide a theoretical understanding of the factors that can be used to explain the improvements in MAOS and how computational calculations can be used as a predictive tool.

  10. Mass spectrometry. [in organic chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlingame, A. L.; Shackleton, C. H. L.; Howe, I.; Chizhov, O. S.

    1978-01-01

    A review of mass spectrometry in organic chemistry is given, dealing with advances in instrumentation and computer techniques, selected topics in gas-phase ion chemistry, and applications in such fields as biomedicine, natural-product studies, and environmental pollution analysis. Innovative techniques and instrumentation are discussed, along with chromatographic-mass spectrometric on-line computer techniques, mass spectral interpretation and management techniques, and such topics in gas-phase ion chemistry as electron-impact ionization and decomposition, photoionization, field ionization and desorption, high-pressure mass spectrometry, ion cyclotron resonance, and isomerization reactions of organic ions. Applications of mass spectrometry are examined with respect to bio-oligomers and their constituents, biomedically important substances, microbiology, environmental organic analysis, and organic geochemistry.

  11. Problems in structural inorganic chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Wai-Kee; Mak, Thomas Chung Wai; Mak, Kendrew Kin Wah

    2013-01-01

    This book consists of over 300 problems (and their solutions) in structural inorganic chemistry at the senior undergraduate and beginning graduate level. The topics covered comprise Atomic and Molecular Electronic States, Atomic Orbitals, Hybrid Orbitals, Molecular Symmetry, Molecular Geometry and Bonding, Crystal Field Theory, Molecular Orbital Theory, Vibrational Spectroscopy, and Crystal Structure. The central theme running through these topics is symmetry, molecular or crystalline. The problems collected in this volume originate in examination papers and take-home assignments that have been part of the teaching of the book's two senior authors' at The Chinese University of Hong Kong over the past four decades. The authors' courses include Chemical Bonding, Elementary Quantum Chemistry, Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, X-Ray Crystallography, etc. The problems have been tested by generations of students taking these courses.

  12. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Gaffney

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.

  13. Utilization of night-soil, sewage, and sewage sludge in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PETRIK, M

    1954-01-01

    The author reviews the agricultural use of night-soil, sewage, and sewage sludge from two points of view: the purely agricultural and the sanitary.Knowledge of the chemistry and bacteriology of human faecal matter is still rather scant, and much further work has to be done to find practical ways of digesting night-soil in a short time into an end-product of high fertilizing value and free of pathogens, parasites, and weeds.More is known about sewage and sewage sludge, but expert opinion is not unanimous as to the manner or the value of their use in agriculture. The author reviews a number of studies and experiments made in many countries of the world on the content, digestion, composting, agricultural value, and epidemiological importance of sewage and sewage sludge, but draws from these the conclusion that the chemistry, biology, and bacteriology of the various methods of treatment and use of waste matter need further investigation. He also considers that standards of quality might be set up for sludge and effluents used in agriculture and for water conservation.

  14. Sustainable Chemistry at Sungkyunkwan University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nam-Gyu

    2015-07-20

    Special Issue: Sustainable Chemistry at Sungkyunkwan University. Sustainable chemistry is key to the development of efficient renewable energies, which will become more and more important in order to combat global warming. In this Editorial, guest editor Prof. Nam-Gyu Park describes the context of this Special Issue on top-quality research towards sustainability performed at Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU) in Korea. Scientists at SKKU work on, for example, photovoltaic solar cells to generate low-cost electricity, lithium batteries and capacitors to store electricity, piezoelectric nanogenerators, thermoelectric devices, hydrogen generation, and fuel cells.

  15. Perspectives on Computational Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streitwieser, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The author reviews how his early love for theoretical organic chemistry led to experimental research and the extended search for quantitative correlations between experiment and quantum calculations. The experimental work led to ion pair acidities of alkali-organic compounds and most recently to equilibria and reactions of lithium and cesium enolates in THF. This chemistry is now being modeled by ab initio calculations. An important consideration is the treatment of solvation in which coordination of the alkali cation with the ether solvent plays a major role. PMID:19518150

  16. Knot theory in modern chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Kate E; Miller, Mark A; Steed, Jonathan W; Sutcliffe, Paul M

    2016-11-21

    Knot theory is a branch of pure mathematics, but it is increasingly being applied in a variety of sciences. Knots appear in chemistry, not only in synthetic molecular design, but also in an array of materials and media, including some not traditionally associated with knots. Mathematics and chemistry can now be used synergistically to identify, characterise and create knots, as well as to understand and predict their physical properties. This tutorial review provides a brief introduction to the mathematics of knots and related topological concepts in the context of the chemical sciences. We then survey the broad range of applications of the theory to contemporary research in the field.

  17. An update on chemistry analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vap, L M; Mitzner, B

    1996-09-01

    This update of six chemistry analyzers available to the clinician discusses several points that should be considered prior to the purchase of equipment. General topics include how to best match an instrument to clinic needs and the indirect costs associated with instrument operation. Quality assurance recommendations are discussed and common terms are defined. Specific instrument features, principles of operation, performance, and costs are presented. The information provided offers potential purchasers an objective approach to the evaluation of a chemistry analyzer for the veterinary clinic.

  18. The chemistry of graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Daniel R; Park, Sungjin; Bielawski, Christopher W; Ruoff, Rodney S

    2010-01-01

    The chemistry of graphene oxide is discussed in this critical review. Particular emphasis is directed toward the synthesis of graphene oxide, as well as its structure. Graphene oxide as a substrate for a variety of chemical transformations, including its reduction to graphene-like materials, is also discussed. This review will be of value to synthetic chemists interested in this emerging field of materials science, as well as those investigating applications of graphene who would find a more thorough treatment of the chemistry of graphene oxide useful in understanding the scope and limitations of current approaches which utilize this material (91 references).

  19. Theoretical chemistry advances and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Eyring, Henry

    1980-01-01

    Theoretical Chemistry: Advances and Perspectives, Volume 5 covers articles concerning all aspects of theoretical chemistry. The book discusses the mean spherical approximation for simple electrolyte solutions; the representation of lattice sums as Mellin-transformed products of theta functions; and the evaluation of two-dimensional lattice sums by number theoretic means. The text also describes an application of contour integration; a lattice model of quantum fluid; as well as the computational aspects of chemical equilibrium in complex systems. Chemists and physicists will find the book usef

  20. Theoretical chemistry advances and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Eyring, Henry

    1977-01-01

    Theoretical Chemistry: Advances and Perspectives, Volume 2 covers all aspects of theoretical chemistry.This book reviews the techniques that have been proven successful in the study of interatomic potentials in order to describe the interactions between complex molecules. The ground state properties of the interacting electron gas when a magnetic field is present are also elaborated, followed by a discussion on the Gellman-Brueckner-Macke theory of the correlation energy that has applications in atomic and molecular systems.This volume considers the instability of the Hartree-Fock ground state

  1. General Chemistry Students' Goals for Chemistry Laboratory Coursework

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKorver, Brittland K.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2015-01-01

    Little research exists on college students' learning goals in chemistry, let alone specifically pertaining to laboratory coursework. Because students' learning goals are linked to achievement and dependent on context, research on students' goals in the laboratory context may lead to better understanding about the efficacy of lab curricula. This…

  2. Integrating Particulate Representations into AP Chemistry and Introductory Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prilliman, Stephen G.

    2014-01-01

    The College Board's recently revised curriculum for advanced placement (AP) chemistry places a strong emphasis on conceptual understanding, including representations of particle phenomena. This change in emphasis is informed by years of research showing that students could perform algorithmic calculations but not explain those calculations…

  3. Integrating Computational Chemistry into the Physical Chemistry Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lewis E.; Engel, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Relatively few undergraduate physical chemistry programs integrate molecular modeling into their quantum mechanics curriculum owing to concerns about limited access to computational facilities, the cost of software, and concerns about increasing the course material. However, modeling exercises can be integrated into an undergraduate course at a…

  4. Comparing Carbonyl Chemistry in Comprehensive Introductory Organic Chemistry Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Donna J.; Kumar, Ravi; Ramasamy, Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Learning the chemistry of compounds containing carbonyl groups is difficult for undergraduate students partly because of a convolution of multiple possible reaction sites, competitive reactions taking place at those sites, different criteria needed to discern between the mechanisms of these reactions, and no straightforward selection method…

  5. Developing an online chemistry laboratory for non-chemistry majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Jacqueline H.

    Distance education, also known as online learning, is student-centered/self-directed educational opportunities. This style of learning is expanding in scope and is increasingly being accepted throughout the academic curriculum as a result of its flexibility for the student as well as the cost-effectiveness for the institution. Nevertheless, the introduction of online science courses including chemistry and physics have lagged behind due to the challenge of re-creation of the hands-on laboratory learning experience. This dissertation looks at the effectiveness of the design of a series of chemistry laboratory experiments for possible online delivery that provide students with simulated hands-on experiences. One class of college Chemistry 101 students conducted chemistry experiments inside and outside of the physical laboratory using instructions on Blackboard and Late Nite Labs(TM). Learning outcomes measured by (a) pretests, (b) written laboratory reports, (c) posttest assessments, (d) student reactions as determined by a questionnaire, and (e) a focus group interview were utilized to compare both types of laboratory experiences. The research findings indicated learning outcomes achieved by students outside of the traditional physical laboratory were statistically greater than the equivalent face-to-face instruction in the traditional laboratory. Evidence from student reactions comparing both types of laboratory formats (online and traditional face-to-face) indicated student preference for the online laboratory format. The results are an initial contribution to the design of a complete sequence of experiments that can be performed independently by online students outside of the traditional face-to-face laboratory that will satisfy the laboratory requirement for the two-semester college Chemistry 101 laboratory course.

  6. 29 CFR 780.509 - Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agriculture. 780.509 Section 780.509 Labor Regulations... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF... Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.509 Agriculture. The definition of “agriculture,” as...

  7. Department of Agriculture Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... Part III Department of Agriculture Semiannual Regulatory Agenda ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (USDA) DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary 7 CFR Subtitle A, Chs. I-VII, IX-XII, XIV-XVIII, XXI, XXIV.... Department of Agriculture (USDA) in conformance with Executive Order 12866 ``Regulatory Planning and...

  8. Weather extremes could affect agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-05-01

    As Earth's climate warms, agricultural producers will need to adapt. Changes, especially increases in extreme events, are already having an impact on food production, according to speakers at a 1 May session on agriculture and food security at the AGU Science Policy Conference. Christopher Field, director of the Department of Global Ecology at the Carnegie Institution for Science of Washington, D. C., pointed out the complex factors that come into play in understanding food security, including spatially varying controls and stresses, incomplete models, and the potential for threshold responses. Factors that are likely to cause problems include increasing population; increasing preference for meat, which needs more land and energy inputs to produce; climate change; and increasing use of agricultural lands for biomass energy.

  9. Methylotrophic bacteria in sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Tomar, Rajesh Singh; Lade, Harshad; Paul, Diby

    2016-07-01

    Excessive use of chemical fertilizers to increase production from available land has resulted in deterioration of soil quality. To prevent further soil deterioration, the use of methylotrophic bacteria that have the ability to colonize different habitats, including soil, sediment, water, and both epiphytes and endophytes as host plants, has been suggested for sustainable agriculture. Methylotrophic bacteria are known to play a significant role in the biogeochemical cycle in soil ecosystems, ultimately fortifying plants and sustaining agriculture. Methylotrophs also improve air quality by using volatile organic compounds such as dichloromethane, formaldehyde, methanol, and formic acid. Additionally, methylotrophs are involved in phosphorous, nitrogen, and carbon cycling and can help reduce global warming. In this review, different aspects of the interaction between methylotrophs and host plants are discussed, including the role of methylotrophs in phosphorus acquisition, nitrogen fixation, phytohormone production, iron chelation, and plant growth promotion, and co-inoculation of these bacteria as biofertilizers for viable agriculture practices.

  10. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONAL AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda GHEORGHIU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture today is a strategic point of a country's economy, providing food based on population, development of internal and external trade and manufacturing industries by supplying raw materials. For Romania, this branch is a strong point both in terms climatic (temperate, balanced relief, soil quality and at the same time is also a way of national development and convergence of rural areas to their full potential untapped. With strong reforms, well implemented, a specific legislative framework which aims to protecting private property, Romania could reduce the low efficiency and can have a sustainable agriculture. The paper aimed to present the advantages of consuming organic products, and, on the other hand, the advantages of a country in terms of organic farming. European agriculture is a competitive, market-oriented, but also protecting the environment model.

  11. Some Exercises Reflecting Green Chemistry Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yu-Min; Wang, Yong-Cheng; Geng, Zhi-Yuan

    2004-01-01

    Some exercises to introduce students to the concept of green chemistry are given. By doing these exercises, students develop an appreciation for the role of green chemistry on feedstock substitution, milder reaction conditions, reduced environmental exposure, and resource conservation.

  12. Problems in Quantum Chemistry and Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    A collection of 22 introductory exercise problems for the course "Quantum Chemistry and Spectroscopy (QCS)".......A collection of 22 introductory exercise problems for the course "Quantum Chemistry and Spectroscopy (QCS)"....

  13. Halogen Chemistry in the CMAQ Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halogens (iodine and bromine) emitted from oceans alter atmospheric chemistry and influence atmospheric ozone mixing ratio. We previously incorporated a representation of detailed halogen chemistry and emissions of organic and inorganic halogen species into the hemispheric Commun...

  14. Outlook Bright for Computers in Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Rudy M.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the recent decision to close down the National Resource for Computation in Chemistry (NRCC), implications of that decision, and various alternatives in the field of computational chemistry. (CS)

  15. Neglect of Solid State Chemistry Scored

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974

    1974-01-01

    At a recent symposium concerning the teaching of solid state chemistry in the classroom, many educators indicated that important areas of solid state chemistry were being neglected in college curricula. (RH)

  16. Agricultural Mechanics--A Stimulus to Vocational Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almazan, Isais, Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Through the study of agricultural mechanics or farm shop, students are able to discover their mechanical aptitudes and also develop a sense of satisfaction that comes with the experience of personal accomplishments at the Victoria-Stroman High School. Adults are encouraged to participate in the Specialist Program which is sponsored by the…

  17. Teaching Techniques in Clinical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Diane

    This master's thesis presents several instructional methods and techniques developed for each of eleven topics or subject areas in clinical chemistry: carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, diagnostic enzymology, endocrinology, toxicology, quality control, electrolytes, acid base balance, hepatic function, nonprotein nitrogenous compounds, and…

  18. Surface chemistry in three dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollinger, Mikkel; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2000-01-01

    the usual single surface ('2D') process because indirect adsorbate-adsorbate interactions in the transition state are absent in the '3D' case. The prospects for STM-induced single molecule chemistry and for '3D' catalysts are discussed. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  19. Synthesis: Click chemistry gets reversible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, David A.

    2016-10-01

    'Click' chemistry allows for the linking together of chemical modules, however, there are currently no methods that also allow for facile 'declicking' to unlink them. Now, a method has been developed to click together amines and thiols, and then allow a chemically triggered declick reaction to release the original molecular components.

  20. A Comprehensive General Chemistry Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeder, Ryan D.; Jeffery, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the use of a comprehensive demonstration suitable for a high school or first-year undergraduate introductory chemistry class. The demonstration involves placing a burning candle in a container adjacent to a beaker containing a basic solution with indicator. After adding a lid, the candle will extinguish and the produced…

  1. Laser ablation in analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Richard E; Mao, Xianglei; Gonzalez, Jhanis J; Zorba, Vassilia; Yoo, Jong

    2013-07-02

    In 2002, we wrote an Analytical Chemistry feature article describing the Physics of Laser Ablation in Microchemical Analysis. In line with the theme of the 2002 article, this manuscript discusses current issues in fundamental research, applications based on detecting photons at the ablation site (LIBS and LAMIS) and by collecting particles for excitation in a secondary source (ICP), and directions for the technology.

  2. The isfet in analytical chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoot, van der B.H.; Bergveld, P.; Bousse, L.J.

    1982-01-01

    The fast chemical response of the pH-ISFET makes the device an excellent detector in analytical chemistry. The time response of ISFETs, with Al2O3 at the pH-sensitive gate insulator, is determined in a flow injection analysis system. Application of an ISFET and a glass electrode are compared in rapi

  3. Supramolecular chemistry of pyrazolyl complexes

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe the progress in the supramolecular chemistry of the pyrazolyl-based metal complexes. The text is written under the structural point of view, emphasizing the role of the covalent and non-covalent interactions in the rational construction of super and supramolecules.

  4. Research in Inorganic Fluorine Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-28

    Constants/ Pergamon, Oxford, 1977. 11 W. A. Sheppard and C. M. Sharts, ’Organic Fluorine Chemistry,’ W. A. Benjamin, New York, 1969. 12 M. Hudlicky...Wilson, W. W., Inorg. Chem., (1988) 27, 3763. 24. Grison, E., Eriks , K., and De Vries, J. L., Acta Crystallogr., (1950), 3, 290. 25. Wilson, W. W. and

  5. Organometallic chemistry: A new metathesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Elisabeth T.; Jacobsen, Eric N.

    2016-08-01

    Carbonyls and alkenes, two of the most common functional groups in organic chemistry, generally do not react with one another. Now, a simple Lewis acid has been shown to catalyse metathesis between alkenes and ketones in a new carbonyl olefination reaction.

  6. Chemistry without borders: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    As chemistry becomes more globalized, it is important for an organization to be interconnected and adaptable, and for an individual to keep up with changes and latest scientific findings and keep options open. Many of the challenges and the opportunities of globalization are in the areas of jobs, re...

  7. Supramolecular chemistry and crystal engineering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashwini Nangia

    2010-05-01

    Advances in supramolecular chemistry and crystal engineering reported from India within the last decade are highlighted in the categories of new intermolecular interactions, designed supramolecular architectures, network structures, multi-component host-guest systems, cocrystals, and polymorphs. Understanding self-assembly and crystallization through X-ray crystal structures is illustrated by two important prototypes - the large unit cell of elusive saccharin hydrate, Na16(sac)16 . 30H2O, which contains regular and irregular domains in the same structure, and by the Aufbau build up of zinc phosphate framework structures, e.g. ladder motif in [C3N2H12][Zn(HPO4)2] to layer structure in [C3N2H12][Zn2(HPO4)3] upon prolonged hydrothermal conditions. The pivotal role of accurate X-ray diffraction in supramolecular and structural studies is evident in many examples. Application of the bottomup approach to make powerful NLO and magnetic materials, design of efficient organogelators, and crystallization of novel pharmaceutical polymorphs and cocrystals show possible future directions for interdisciplinary research in chemistry with materials and pharmaceutical scientists. This article traces the evolution of supramolecular chemistry and crystal engineering starting from the early nineties and projects a center stage for chemistry in the natural sciences.

  8. Computational Chemistry of Adhesive Bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Donald H.

    1999-01-01

    This investigation is intended to determine the electrical mechanical, and chemical properties of adhesive bonds at the molecular level. The initial determinations will be followed by investigations of the effects of environmental effects on the chemistry and properties of the bond layer.

  9. Microcomputer Applications in Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Joseph W.

    The first part of this paper addresses the following topics: (1) the usefulness of microcomputers; (2) applications for microcomputers in analytical chemistry; (3) costs; (4) major microcomputer systems and subsystems; and (5) which microcomputer to buy. Following these brief comments, the major focus of the paper is devoted to a discussion of…

  10. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Sharon S.

    1988-01-01

    This review compares "Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry" with the "Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology," two prominent encyclopedias of chemical technology and industry. Cost, quantity of information, organization, illustrations, authorship, abbreviations, online availability, and content of articles are discussed. (MES)

  11. Chemistry of the Burning Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-12

    control voltage of the Pt filament is highly terial. This chemistry cannot be extracted by slowly heat- sensitive to the thermochemistry of the thin...azines. the residues formed at teach iernperature ’)ascd ýucli as melon, arc known to be thcriaalLv -.) tile absorhanice value ot ouhgaseous prod

  12. Plasma chemistry and organic synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezuka, M.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristic features of chemical reactions using low temperature plasmas are described and differentiated from those seen in other reaction systems. A number of examples of applications of plasma chemistry to synthetic reactions are mentioned. The production of amino acids by discharge reactions in hydrocarbon-ammonia-water systems is discussed, and its implications for the origins of life are mentioned.

  13. Organic chemistry in Titan's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scattergood, T.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory photochemical simulations and other types of chemical simulations are discussed. The chemistry of methane, which is the major known constituent of Titan's atmosphere was examined with stress on what can be learned from photochemistry and particle irradiation. The composition of dust that comprises the haze layer was determined. Isotope fractionation in planetary atmospheres is also discussed.

  14. Green chemistry for chemical synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chao-Jun; Trost, Barry M.

    2008-01-01

    Green chemistry for chemical synthesis addresses our future challenges in working with chemical processes and products by inventing novel reactions that can maximize the desired products and minimize by-products, designing new synthetic schemes and apparati that can simplify operations in chemical productions, and seeking greener solvents that are inherently environmentally and ecologically benign.

  15. Green chemistry for chemical synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao-Jun; Trost, Barry M.

    2008-01-01

    Green chemistry for chemical synthesis addresses our future challenges in working with chemical processes and products by inventing novel reactions that can maximize the desired products and minimize by-products, designing new synthetic schemes and apparati that can simplify operations in chemical productions, and seeking greener solvents that are inherently environmentally and ecologically benign. PMID:18768813

  16. Visualizing Chemistry: Investigations for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ealy, Julie B.; Ealy, James L., Jr.

    This book contains 101 investigations for chemistry classrooms. Topics include: (1) Physical Properties; (2) Reactions of Some Elements; (3) Reactions Involving Gases; (4) Energy Changes; (5) Solutions and Solubility; (6) Transition Metals and Complex Ions; (7) Kinetics and Equilibrium; (8) Acids and Bases; (9) Oxidation-Reduction; (10)…

  17. The Chemistry of Color Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, Wayne C.; Raber, Douglas J.

    1975-01-01

    Presents several topics in color photography which can serve as an introduction of scientific concepts into the classroom, such as: photochemistry (energy transport), organic chemistry (dye formation), physics (nature of light), psychology (color perception), and engineering (isolation of different chemical processes within layers of the film).…

  18. Green Chemistry with Microwave Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green chemistry utilizes a set of 12 principles that reduces or eliminates the use or generation of hazardous substances in the design, manufacture, and applications of chemical products (1). This newer chemical approach protects the environment by inventing safer and eco-friendl...

  19. Chemistry of high temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    1991-01-01

    This review volume contains the most up-to-date articles on the chemical aspects of high temperature oxide superconductors. These articles are written by some of the leading scientists in the field and includes a comprehensive list of references. This is an essential volume for researchers working in the fields of ceramics, materials science and chemistry.

  20. Structural Chemistry of Functional Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ This innovative research group on structural chemistry of functional materials was approved by NSFC in 2005.Headed by Prof.HONG Maochun, the team consists of several young research scientists from the CAS Fujian Institute of Research on the Structures of Matter, including Profs CAO Rong, LU Canzhong, GUO Guocong, CHEN Zhongning, MAO Jianggao Mao and CHEN Ling.

  1. Chemistry--The Big Picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassell, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Chemistry produces materials and releases energy by ionic or electronic rearrangements. Three structure types affect the ease with which a reaction occurs. In the Earth's crust, "solid crystals" change chemically only with extreme heat and pressure, unless their fixed ions touch moving fluids. On the other hand, in living things, "liquid crystals"…

  2. IV. Health physics and chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garden, N.B.; Moyer, B.J.

    1948-05-24

    This report describes progress on the development of equipment and techniques to accomplish the goal of control and trapping of radioactive sustances. Emphasis is on simplicity reproducibiolity, and universal use. Also illustrated is the Health Chemistry Organization set-up of personnel.

  3. Atmospheric chemistry over southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.

    2012-03-01

    Changing Chemistry in a Changing Climate: Human and Natural Impacts Over Southern Africa (C4-SAR); Midrand, South Africa, 31 May to 3 June 2011 During the southern African dry season, regional haze from mixed industrial pollution, biomass burning aerosol and gases from domestic and grassland fires, and biogenic sources from plants and soils is worsened by a semipermanent atmospheric gyre over the subcontinent. These factors were a driver of several major international field campaigns in the 1990s and early 2000s and attracted many scientists to the region. Some researchers were interested in understanding fundamental processes governing chemistry of the atmosphere and interaction with climate change. Others found favorable conditions for evaluating satellite- derived measurements of atmospheric properties and a changing land surface. With that background in mind a workshop on atmospheric chemistry was held in South Africa. Sponsored by the International Commission on Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP; http://www.icacgp.org/), the workshop received generous support from Eskom, the South African power utility; and the Climatology Research Group of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

  4. Agricultural pathogen decontamination technology-reducing the threat of infectious agent spread.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betty, Rita G.; Bieker, Jill Marie; Tucker, Mark David

    2005-10-01

    Outbreaks of infectious agricultural diseases, whether natural occurring or introduced intentionally, could have catastrophic impacts on the U.S. economy. Examples of such agricultural pathogens include foot and mouth disease (FMD), avian influenza (AI), citrus canker, wheat and soy rust, etc. Current approaches to mitigate the spread of agricultural pathogens include quarantine, development of vaccines for animal diseases, and development of pathogen resistant crop strains in the case of plant diseases. None of these approaches is rapid, and none address the potential persistence of the pathogen in the environment, which could lead to further spread of the agent and damage after quarantine is lifted. Pathogen spread in agricultural environments commonly occurs via transfer on agricultural equipment (transportation trailers, tractors, trucks, combines, etc.), having components made from a broad range of materials (galvanized and painted steel, rubber tires, glass and Plexiglas shields, etc), and under conditions of heavy organic load (mud, soil, feces, litter, etc). A key element of stemming the spread of an outbreak is to ensure complete inactivation of the pathogens in the agricultural environment and on the equipment used in those environments. Through the combination of enhanced agricultural pathogen decontamination chemistry and a validated inactivation verification methodology, important technologies for incorporation as components of a robust response capability will be enabled. Because of the potentially devastating economic impact that could result from the spread of infectious agricultural diseases, the proposed capability components will promote critical infrastructure protection and greater border and food supply security. We investigated and developed agricultural pathogen decontamination technologies to reduce the threat of infectious-agent spread, and thus enhance agricultural biosecurity. Specifically, enhanced detergency versions of the patented

  5. An online agricultural genetics course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Vivian

    2014-07-03

    In this age of rapidly developing online learning, the advent of a series of talks and supplementary material devoted to genetics in agriculture from Henry Stewart Talks ( http://hstalks.com/main/browse_talks.php?r=776&c=252 ) is welcome indeed. The series is designed for researchers and graduate students in the fields of genetics, plant science, animal science, agricultural science, food science, human nutrition and environmental science, advanced undergraduate students, policy makers and managers in public and private sectors, and continuing professional education/development.

  6. Agricultural and industrial process heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollard, J.

    1978-01-01

    The application of solar energy to agricultural and industrial process heat requirements is discussed. This energy end use sector has been the largest and it appears that solar energy can, when fully developed and commercialized, displace from three to eight or more quads of oil and natural gas in U.S. industry. This potential for fossil fuel displacement in the agricultural and industrial process heat area sector represents a possible savings of 1.4 to 3.8 million barrels of oil daily.

  7. Eleventh international symposium on radiopharmaceutical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This document contains abstracts of papers which were presented at the Eleventh International Symposium on Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry. Sessions included: radiopharmaceuticals for the dopaminergic system, strategies for the production and use of labelled reactive small molecules, radiopharmaceuticals for measuring metabolism, radiopharmaceuticals for the serotonin and sigma receptor systems, labelled probes for molecular biology applications, radiopharmaceuticals for receptor systems, radiopharmaceuticals utilizing coordination chemistry, radiolabelled antibodies, radiolabelling methods for small molecules, analytical techniques in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, and analytical techniques in radiopharmaceutical chemistry.

  8. AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION IN INDIA: CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    India is an agricultural country. At the time of independence our country faced food shortages. Later on due to green revolution we became self sufficient in food grain production despite population increase. One of the important factors in success of green revolution is the role played by agricultural graduates. After independence, state agricultural universities were established in all the states to impart education in the field of agriculture. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New D...

  9. Research Frontiers of Agricultural Economics and Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang L.X.

    2004-01-01

    @@ Introduction The focus of research on Agricultural Economics and Management (AEM) has been switching from developed countries to developing countries. In important international journals on AEM such as "American Journal of Agricultural Economics" and "Agricultural Economics", the research objectives mainly focus on AEM problems in developing countries, e.g. the effects of globalization and liberalization on agricultural production in developing countries, and problems in agricultural resources and environmental protections in developing countries.

  10. Tracer Study of Agricultural Graduates in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Mugisha, Johnny; Nkwasibwe, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    There has been increased demand for food not only on the African continent but globally. This has been largely attributed to the high population growth with changing food preferences. This calls for the transformation of Africa’s agriculture and food systems through transforming agricultural production, markets, agricultural education and training institutions. Agricultural training institutions such as universities and agricultural colleges have a lot to contribute but they need to run relev...

  11. Understanding the links between agriculture and health:

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkes, Corinna; Ruel, Marie T.

    2006-01-01

    CONTENTS: 1.Overview / Corinna Hawkes and Marie T. Ruel; 2. Agriculture, Food, and Health: Perspectives on a Long Relationship / Tim Lang; 3. Agricultural Technology and Health / Michael Lipton, Saurabh Sinha, and Rachel Blackman; 4. Agriculture and Nutrition Linkages: Old Lessons and New Paradigms / Corinna Hawkes and Marie T. Ruel; 5. Agriculture, Food Safety, and Foodborne Diseases / Ewen C. D. Todd and Clare Narrod; 6. Agriculture, Malaria, and Water-Associated Diseases / Clifford M. Mute...

  12. Nitrogen Compounds in Radiation Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims, H.E. [NNL Sellafield (United Kingdom); Dey, G.R. [Radiation and Photochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Vaudey, C.E.; Peaucelle, C. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon - IPNL, 69 - Lyon (France); Boucher, J.L. [Lab. de Chimie et Biochimie Pharmacologiques et Toxicologiques, UMR 8601 CNRS 45 rue des Saints Peres, 75270 Paris cedex 06, Univ Paris 5, 75 (France); Toulhoat, N. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon (France); Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique CEA/DEN, Centre de Saclay (France); Bererd, N. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon (France); IUT Departement Chimie, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1 (France); Koppenol, W.H. [Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Janata, E. [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Materialien und Energie, Solar Energy Research, Berlin (Germany); Dauvois, V.; Durand, D.; Legand, S.; Roujou, J.L.; Doizi, D.; Dannoux, A.; Lamouroux, C. [Laboratoire de Speciation des Radionucleides et des Molecules, DEN/DPC/Service d' Etude du Comportement des Radionucleides, CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif sur yvette (France)

    2009-07-01

    Water radiolysis in presence of N{sub 2} is probably the topic the most controversy in the field of water radiolysis. It still exists a strong discrepancy between the different reports of ammonia formation by water radiolysis in presence of N{sub 2} and moreover in absence of oxygen there is no agreement on the formation or not of nitrogen oxide like NO{sub 2}- and NO{sub 3}-. These discrepancies come from multiple sources: - the complexity of the reaction mechanisms where nitrogen is involved - the experimental difficulties - and, the irradiation conditions. The aim of the workshop is to capitalize the knowledge needed to go further in simulations and understanding the problems caused (or not) by the presence of nitrogen / water in the environment of radioactive materials. Implications are evident in terms of corrosion, understanding of biological systems and atmospheric chemistry under radiation. Topics covered include experimental and theoretical approaches, application and fundamental researches: - Nitrate and Ammonia in radiation chemistry in nuclear cycle; - NOx in biological systems and atmospheric chemistry; - Formation of Nitrogen compounds in Nuclear installations; - Nitrogen in future power plant projects (Gen4, ITER...) and large particle accelerators. This document gathers the transparencies available for 7 of the presentations given at this workshop. These are: - H.E SIMS: 'Radiation Chemistry of Nitrogen Compounds in Nuclear Power Plant'; - G.R. DEY: 'Nitrogen Compounds Formation in the Radiolysis of Aqueous Solutions'; - C.E. VAUDEY et al.: 'Radiolytic corrosion of nuclear graphite studied with the dedicated gas irradiation cell of IPNL'; - J.L. BOUCHER: 'Roles and biosynthesis of NO in eukaryotes and prokaryotes'; - W.H. KOPPENOL: 'Chemistry of NOx'; - E. JANATA: 'Yield of OH in N{sub 2}O saturated aqueous solution'; - V. DAUVOIS: 'Analytical strategy for the study of radiolysis gases'

  13. DanceChemistry: Helping Students Visualize Chemistry Concepts through Dance Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Gidget C.; Edwards, Kimberly D.

    2015-01-01

    A visual aid teaching tool, the DanceChemistry video series, has been developed to teach fundamental chemistry concepts through dance. These educational videos portray chemical interactions at the molecular level using dancers to represent chemical species. Students reported that the DanceChemistry videos helped them visualize chemistry ideas in a…

  14. The Journal of Kitchen Chemistry: A Tool for Instructing the Preparation of a Chemistry Journal Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Jonathan K.; LeBaron, Tyler W.; Collins, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Writing assignments are typically incorporated into chemistry courses in an attempt to enhance the learning of chemistry or to teach technical writing to chemistry majors. This work addresses the development of chemistry-major writing skills by focusing on the rigorous guidelines and conventions associated with the preparation of a journal…

  15. Greener Approaches to Undergraduate Chemistry Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, Mary, Ed.; Ryan, Mary Ann, Ed.

    This laboratory manual introduces the idea of Green Chemistry, which is the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. Instructional samples are included to help teachers integrate green chemistry into the college chemistry curriculum. Each laboratory includes: (1) a…

  16. Forensic Chemistry--A Symposium Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents a collection of articles to provide chemistry teachers with resource materials to add forensic chemistry units to their chemistry courses. Topics range from development of forensic science laboratory courses and mock-crime scenes to forensic serology and analytical techniques. (JN)

  17. Affordances of Instrumentation in General Chemistry Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Kristin Mary Daniels

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out what students in the first chemistry course at the undergraduate level (general chemistry for science majors) know about the affordances of instrumentation used in the general chemistry laboratory and how their knowledge develops over time. Overall, students see the PASCO(TM) system as a useful and accurate…

  18. Supplemental Instruction in Physical Chemistry I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toby, Ellen; Scott, Timothy P.; Migl, David; Kolodzeji, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Physical chemistry I at Texas A&M University is an upper division course requiring mathematical and analytical skills. As such, this course poses a major problem for many Chemistry, Engineering, Biochemistry and Genetics majors. Comparisons between participants and non-participants in Supplemental Instruction for physical chemistry were made…

  19. Modern Analytical Chemistry in the Contemporary World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šíma, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Students not familiar with chemistry tend to misinterpret analytical chemistry as some kind of the sorcery where analytical chemists working as modern wizards handle magical black boxes able to provide fascinating results. However, this approach is evidently improper and misleading. Therefore, the position of modern analytical chemistry among…

  20. One-world chemistry and systems thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlin, Stephen A.; Mehta, Goverdhan; Hopf, Henning; Krief, Alain

    2016-05-01

    The practice and overarching mission of chemistry need a major overhaul in order to be fit for purpose in the twenty-first century and beyond. The concept of 'one-world' chemistry takes a systems approach that brings together many factors, including ethics and sustainability, that are critical to the future role of chemistry.

  1. 42 CFR 493.931 - Routine chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Routine chemistry. 493.931 Section 493.931 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.931 Routine chemistry. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing for routine chemistry, a...

  2. 42 CFR 493.929 - Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chemistry. 493.929 Section 493.929 Public Health... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.929 Chemistry. The subspecialties under the specialty of chemistry for which a proficiency testing program may offer proficiency testing are...

  3. Organic Chemistry Self Instructional Package 2: Methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdravkovich, V.

    This booklet, one of a series of 17 developed at Prince George's Community College, Largo, Maryland, provides an individualized, self-paced undergraduate organic chemistry instruction module designed to augment any course in organic chemistry but particularly those taught using the text "Organic Chemistry" by Morrison and Boyd. The…

  4. A Student Guide to Studying General Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This is a guide for introductory college chemistry students who are new to the subject of chemistry and who have been exposed to linear and second-order algebra equations and the concept of slope. The guide presents directions on the following topics: (1) How to prepare for lectures and take notes; (2) How to study chemistry outside of class using…

  5. Reaction-Map of Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murov, Steven

    2007-01-01

    The Reaction-Map of Organic Chemistry lists all the most commonly studied reactions in organic chemistry on one page. The discussed Reaction-Map will act as another learning aide for the students, making the study of organic chemistry much easier.

  6. Undergraduate Chemistry Education: A Workshop Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Keegan; Alper, Joe

    2014-01-01

    "Undergraduate Chemistry Education" is the summary of a workshop convened in May 2013 by the Chemical Science Roundtable of the National Research Council to explore the current state of undergraduate chemistry education. Research and innovation in undergraduate chemistry education has been done for many years, and one goal of this…

  7. An Approach towards Teaching Green Chemistry Fundamentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Arnum, Susan D.

    2005-01-01

    A useful metrics system for the assessment of the environmental impact of chemical processes is utilized to illustrate several of the principles of green chemistry. The use of this metrics system in conjunction with laboratory experiments in green chemistry would provide for reinforcement in both the theory and practice of green chemistry.

  8. Environmental Chemistry Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    111 pg, leading to a body fat concentration of about 40 ppt (12). Lithium Battery AdvancesRechargeable Power SourceRecent advances in lithium ion battery technology may allow these devices to become the rechargeable power source of choice in electric cars of the future. Due to their high voltage, they can store a large amount of energy per given mass or volume of battery. In the past, however, such batteries have been somewhat impractical because they had to be hermetically sealed and required nonaqueous electrolytes due to lithium's violent reaction with water. In the newly developed battery, the electrolyte is water that already contains a high concentration of Li+ ions; elemental lithium (present as LiMn2O4 in one electrode) is unreactive in this medium unless an external connection to the other electrode is made (13). Air-Pollution Control for Power PlantsA process called SNOX, which removes both NOx and SO2 from the flue gases produced by coal-fired power plants, has been developed and demonstrated. The nitrogen oxides are first reduced to N2. The resulting gas is then heated and catalytically oxidized to sulfur trioxide, which is then hydrated to sulfuric acid. More than 90% of the NOx and SO2 were removed from the flue gases in the demonstration held at an Ohio Edison plant (14). Literature Cited Williams, D. Nature 1994, 371, 556. Emsley, J. New Scientist 1994, (Oct 1), 14. McMichael, A. J. American Journal of Epidemiology 1994, 140, 489-499. Chemical and Engineering News 1994, (Oct 10), 5. Santee, M. L. Science 1995, 267, 849-852. Chemical and Engineering News 1994, (Nov 14). Solomon, S. Journal of Geophysical Research 1994, 99, 20491-20499. Wennberg, P. O. Science 1994, 266, 398-404. Viggiano, A. A. Science 1995, 267, 82-84. Summary in Chemistry and Engineering News 1995, (Jan 9), 23. Schottler, S. P.; Eisenreich, S. J. Environmental Science and Technology 1994, 28, 2228-2232. Lang, L. Environmental Health Perspectives 1993, 101, 578-583. Chemical and

  9. 7 CFR 1945.18 - United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC). 1945.18 Section 1945.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES...

  10. Importance and Capability of Teaching Agricultural Mechanics as Perceived by Secondary Agricultural Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Matthew J.; Anderson, Ryan G.; Shultz, Alyx M.; Paulsen, Thomas H.

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural mechanics instruction is a long-standing and significant part of secondary agricultural education. Similar to the broader agricultural industry, agricultural mechanics instruction is in a constant state of dynamic change. Educators must be proactive to ensure agricultural mechanics curriculum retains its relevance within this changing…

  11. Does Agricultural Mechanics Laboratory Size Affect Agricultural Education Teachers' Job Satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Alex Preston; Anderson, Ryan G.; Paulsen, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    Secondary agricultural education teachers were surveyed to examine if a relationship existed between the physical attributes of agricultural mechanics laboratories and agricultural education teachers' enjoyment of teaching agricultural mechanics. Teachers also indicated their competence to teach courses other than agricultural mechanics within the…

  12. Adapting agriculture to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howden, S.M.; Soussana, J.F.; Tubiello, F.N.; Chhetri, N.; Dunlop, M.; Meinke, H.B.

    2007-01-01

    The strong trends in climate change already evident, the likelihood of further changes occurring, and the increasing scale of potential climate impacts give urgency to addressing agricultural adaptation more coherently. There are many potential adaptation options available for marginal change of exi

  13. Teacher Burnout in Agricultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croom, D. Barry

    2003-01-01

    Results of the Maslach Burnout Inventory completed by 164 secondary agriculture teachers revealed moderate levels of emotional exhaustion, low levels of depersonalization in relationships, and a high degree of personal accomplishment. Gender, degree, contract length, preservice versus lateral entry method, school/department size, and community…

  14. Agriculture, development, and urban bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, Dirk; Headey, Derek

    2008-01-01

    Throughout history, agriculture-led development strategies with state support programs have been essential to achieving rapid economy-wide growth, poverty reduction, and structural transformation. Yet over the last three decades, the domestic and international policy environments have continued to d

  15. Activated Carbons from Agricultural Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water quality and public health impacts of animal manure produced at large concentrated animal facilities prompted the need for viable solutions for their conversion and reuse. Our laboratory at the Southern Regional Research Center, as part of the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Departme...

  16. Colonial adventures in tropical agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buelens, Frans; Frankema, Ewout

    2015-01-01

    How profitable were foreign investments in plantation agriculture in the Netherlands Indies during the late colonial era? We use a new dataset of monthly quoted stock prices and dividends of international companies at the Brussels stock exchange to estimate the returns to investment in tropical a

  17. USSR Report, Agriculture, No. 1395

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    possible to obtain wheat with an increased gluten content. For example, it is extremely effective to apply the agricultural device recommended by...slaughterhouse byproducts. The combine treated them until the ESSR Meat and Dairy Products Ministry forbade it. Yet it is not sensible to

  18. Crop protection in organic agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letourneau, D.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2006-01-01

    The authors describe pests and diseases and their management in organic versus conventional agriculture. Also two case studies are described: 1. Pest and pathogen regulation in organic versus conventional cereal crops in Europe and 2. Pest and pathogen regulation in organic versus conventional tomat

  19. Internet of Things in agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdouw, C.N.; Wolfert, Jacques; Tekinerdogan, B.

    2016-01-01

    This literature review on Internet of Things (IoT) in agriculture and food, provides an overview of existing applications, enabling technologies and main challenges ahead. The results of the review show that this subject received attention by the scientific community from 2010 on and the number of p

  20. Consultancy Services in Croatian Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Žimbrek

    1997-12-01

    Meetings, lectures, practical demonstration of technology, mass media and introduction of computer technology are important aids which should be further developed as well as bigger financial aid for these purposes. Those depend on better future economic position of the agriculture and the economy in a whole.