WorldWideScience

Sample records for agricultural chemicals

  1. Agricultural Chemical Sourcebook for Wildlife Contaminants Specialists

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this handbook is to provide information to contaminant specialists involved in evaluating agricultural chemical impacts on wetlands. The handbook...

  2. Agricultural Chemicals and Radiation. Ag Ed Environmental Education Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulloch, Rodney W.

    The document is designed to be used as a resource in teaching vocational agriculture high school students about the environment. Agricultural chemicals are the major focus, with some attention to radiation. The importance of safety in agricultural chemical use is stressed, with descriptions of the pesticide label; protective clothing; respiratory…

  3. THE USE OF CHEMICALS AS FERTILIZERS. AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS TECHNOLOGY, NUMBER 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO ASSIST TEACHERS IN PREPARING POST-SECONDARY STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL OCCUPATIONS. ONE OF A SERIES OF EIGHT MODULES, IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF DATA FROM STATE STUDIES. SUBJECT MATTER AREAS ARE (1) CHEMICAL NUTRITION OF PLANTS, (2) PLANT GROWTH, (3) TERMINOLOGY,…

  4. THE INDUSTRIAL UTILIZATION OF CHEMICAL MODIFIED AGRICULTURAL RESIDUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Xu; Runcang Sun; Huaiyu Zhan

    2004-01-01

    Various lignocellulosic materials such as wood,agricultural and forest residues has the potential to be valuable substitute for, or complement to,commercial sorbents for removing heavy metal ions or dyes from waste water or spilled oil from inland water or sea. More than 9 million tons of straw pulp are produced annually in china, which account for about 90% of the world′s total straw pulp. However,huge quantity of remain straw is not used as industrial raw material and is burnt in the fields or on the side of road. These resources can be chemical modified such as acetylation. Modified straws have the characteristics of low cost, high capacity, quick uptake, and easy to desorb. This paper reviews the current status of the technology for modified agricultural residues, which focus on hemicellulose and cellulose. The potential of these natural sorbents in main industry is also indicated.

  5. THE INDUSTRIAL UTILIZATION OF CHEMICAL MODIFIED AGRICULTURAL RESIDUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FengXu; RuncangSun; HuaiyuZhan

    2004-01-01

    Various lignocellulosic materials such as wood, agricultural and forest residues has the potential to be valuable substitute for, or complement to, commercial sorbents for removing heavy metal ions or dyes from waste water or spilled oil from inland water or sea. More than 9 million tons of straw pulp are produced annually in china, which account for about 90% of the world's total straw pulp. However, huge quantity of remain straw is not used as industrial raw material and is burnt in the fields or on the side of road. These resources can be chemical modified such as acetylation. Modified straws have the characteristics of low cost, high capacity, quick uptake, and easy to desorb. This paper reviews the current status of the technology for modified agricultural residues, which focus on hemicellulose and cellulose. The potential of these natural sorbents in main industry is also indicated.

  6. Hygroscopic, Morphological, and Chemical Properties of Agricultural Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiranuma, N.; Brooks, S. D.; Cheek, L.; Thornton, D. C.; Auvermann, B. W.; Littleton, R.

    2007-12-01

    Agricultural fugitive dust is a significant source of localized air pollution in the semi-arid southern Great Plains. In the Texas Panhandle, daily episodes of ground-level fugitive dust emissions from the cattle feedlots are routinely observed in conjunction with increased cattle activity in the late afternoons and early evenings. We conducted a field study to characterize size-selected agricultural aerosols with respect to hygroscopic, morphological, and chemical properties and to attempt to identify any correlations between these properties. To explore the hygroscopic nature of agricultural particles, we have collected size-resolved aerosol samples using a cascade impactor system at a cattle feedlot in the Texas Panhandle and have used the Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) to determine the water uptake by individual particles in those samples as a function of relative humidity. To characterize the size distribution of agricultural aerosols as a function of time, A GRIMM aerosol spectrometer and Sequential Mobility Particle Sizer and Counter (SMPS) measurements were simultaneously performed in an overall size range of 11 nm to 20 µm diameters at a cattle feedlot. Complementary determination of the elemental composition of individual particles was performed using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). In addition to the EDS analysis, an ammonia scrubber was used to collect ammonia and ammonium in the gas and particulate phases, respectively. The concentration of these species was quantified offline via UV spectrophotometry at 640 nanometers. The results of this study will provide important particulate emission data from a feedyard, needed to improve our understanding of the role of agricultural particulates in local and regional air quality.

  7. THE USE OF CHEMICALS AS INSECTICIDES--PLANTS. AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS TECHNOLOGY, NUMBER 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS GUIDE IS ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO PROVIDE GROUP INSTRUCTION AND INDIVIDUAL OCCUPATIONAL EXPERIENCE FOR POST-SECONDARY STUDENTS PREPARING FOR EMPLOYMENT AS AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL TECHNICIANS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF STATE STUDY DATA. THE OBJECTIVES ARE TO DEVELOP (1) INTEREST, APPRECIATION, AND UNDERSTANDING…

  8. Soil chemical sensor and precision agricultural chemical delivery system and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colburn, J.W. Jr.

    1991-07-23

    A real time soil chemical sensor and precision agricultural chemical delivery system includes a plurality of ground-engaging tools in association with individual soil sensors which measure soil chemical levels. The system includes the addition of a solvent which rapidly saturates the soil/tool interface to form a conductive solution of chemicals leached from the soil. A multivalent electrode, positioned within a multivalent frame of the ground-engaging tool, applies a voltage or impresses a current between the electrode and the tool frame. A real-time soil chemical sensor and controller senses the electrochemical reaction resulting from the application of the voltage or current to the leachate, measures it by resistivity methods, and compares it against pre-set resistivity levels for substances leached by the solvent. Still greater precision is obtained by calibrating for the secondary current impressed through solvent-less soil. The appropriate concentration is then found and the servo-controlled delivery system applies the appropriate amount of fertilizer or agricultural chemicals substantially in the location from which the soil measurement was taken. 5 figures.

  9. Symposium introduction: the first joint American Chemical Society Agricultural and Food Chemistry Division and the American Chemical Society International Chemical Sciences Chapter in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    The American Chemical Society (ACS) Agricultural and Food Chemistry Division (AGFD) and the ACS International Chemical Sciences Chapter in Thailand (ICSCT) worked together to stage the “1st Joint ACS AGFD - ACS ICSCT Symposium on Agricultural and Food Chemistry,” which was held in Bangkok, Thailand ...

  10. Estimates of agricultural-chemical use in counties in the conterminous United States as reported in the 1987 Census of Agriculture

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains estimates of agricultural-chemical use in counties in the conterminous United States as reported in the 1987 Census of Agriculture (U.S....

  11. THE USE OF CHEMICALS IN THE FIELD OF FARM ANIMAL HEALTH (NUTRITION, ENTOMOLOGY, PATHOLOGY). AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS TECHNOLOGY, NUMBER 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF STATE STUDIES, THIS MODULE IS ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO ASSIST TEACHERS IN PREPARING POST-SECONDARY STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL OCCUPATIONS. THE SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE OF THIS MODULE IS TO PREPARE TECHNICIANS IN THE FIELD OF THE USE OF CHEMICALS FOR ANIMAL HEALTH. SECTIONS INCLUDE -- (1)…

  12. Proceedings of the frst joint american chemical society agricultural and food chemistry division – american chemical society international chemical sciences chapter in Thailand symposium on agricultural and food chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Proceedings is a compilation of papers from contributed oral and poster presentations presented at the first joint symposium organized by the American Chemical Society Agricultural and Food Chemistry Division and the American Chemical Society International Chemical Sciences Chapter in Thailand ...

  13. Pesticide regulations for agriculture: Chemically flawed regulatory practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Donald S; Bruccoleri, Aldo G

    2016-08-02

    Two categories of pesticide soil models now exist. Government regulatory agencies use pesticide fate and transport hydrology models, including versions of PRZM.gw. They have good descriptions of pesticide transport by water flow. Their descriptions of chemical mechanisms are unrealistic, having been postulated using the universally accepted but incorrect pesticide soil science. The objective of this work is to report experimental tests of a pesticide soil model in use by regulatory agencies and to suggest possible improvements. Tests with experimentally based data explain why PRZM.gw predictions can be wrong by orders of magnitude. Predictive spreadsheet models are the other category. They are experimentally based, with chemical stoichiometry applied to integral kinetic rate laws for sorption, desorption, intra-particle diffusion, and chemical reactions. They do not account for pesticide transport through soils. Each category of models therefore lacks what the other could provide. They need to be either harmonized or replaced. Some preliminary tests indicate that an experimental mismatch between the categories of models will have to be resolved. Reports of pesticides in the environment and the medical problems that overlap geographically indicate that government regulatory practice needs to account for chemical kinetics and mechanisms. Questions about possible cause and effect links could then be investigated.

  14. Agricultural Chemicals in Leary Weber Ditch Basin, Hancock County, Indiana, 2003-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Nancy T.; Lathrop, Timothy R.

    2006-01-01

    Leary Weber Ditch Basin, Hancock County, Indiana, is part of an Agricultural Chemicals: Source, Transport, and Fate study conducted by the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. Water-quality samples were collected in Leary Weber Ditch and in the major hydrologic compartments of the Leary Weber Ditch Basin during 2003 and 2004. Hydrologic compartments that contribute water and agricultural chemicals to Leary Weber Ditch are rain water, overland-flow water, soil water, tile-drain water, and ground water. Samples were analyzed for selected pesticides, nutrients, and major ions.

  15. THE IMPACT OF REDUCED AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL USE ON FOOD: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE FOR THE UNITED STATES

    OpenAIRE

    Senauer, Benjamin

    1993-01-01

    Concerns about food safety and environmental quality have increased in recent years. Consumers are particularly concerned about the health risks posed by pesticide residues in food and the environmental impact of agricultural chemicals. These concerns have stimulated a considerable amount of recent research to assess the effects of reduced agricultural chemical use. This paper focuses on the research in the United States which has examined the impact of reduced agricultural chemical use on fo...

  16. OPEN BURNING OF AGRICULTURAL BIOMASS: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF PARTICLE-PHASE EMISSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This effort presents the physical and chemical characterization of PM2.5 emissions from simulated agricultural fires of surface residuals of two major grain crops, rice (Oryza sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L). The O2 levels and CO/CO

  17. National, holistic, watershed-scale approach to understand the sources, transport, and fate of agricultural chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capel, P.D.; McCarthy, K.A.; Barbash, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is an introduction to the following series of papers that report on in-depth investigations that have been conducted at five agricultural study areas across the United States in order to gain insights into how environmental processes and agricultural practices interact to determine the transport and fate of agricultural chemicals in the environment. These are the first study areas in an ongoing national study. The study areas were selected, based on the combination of cropping patterns and hydrologic setting, as representative of nationally important agricultural settings to form a basis for extrapolation to unstudied areas. The holistic, watershed-scale study design that involves multiple environmental compartments and that employs both field observations and simulation modeling is presented. This paper introduces the overall study design and presents an overview of the hydrology of the five study areas. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  18. The Fate of Non-Volatile Organic Chemicals in The Agricultural Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Batiha

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia dynamic model of the fate of non-volatile organic chemicals (NVOC in the agricultural environment is described. The modeled environment, consisting of up to three major surfaces environmental compartments, includes air, agricultural soil, and surface water. This model is based on the aquivalence approach suggested by Mackay and co-workers in 1989. As the movement of chemicals in the environment is closely associated with the movement of air, water and organic matter, the complete steady state mass budgets for air, water and particulate organic carbon (POC between the model compartments are described. All of the model equations, which are expressed in aquivalence notation, the mass balance for NVOC in the environmental surfaces compartments at dynamic state, and equations for the calculation of partitioning, overall persistence, total amount, total concentrations at dynamic state and intermedia fluxes of organic chemicals between air, water, and soil at steady-state are provided.

  19. Toxic fables: the advertising and marketing of agricultural chemicals in the great plains, 1945-1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, David D

    2012-12-01

    This paper examines how pesticides and their technologies were sold to farmers and pilots throughout the midtwentieth century. It principally considers how marketing rhetoric and advertisement strategies used by chemical companies and aerial spraying firms influenced the practices and perspectives of farm producers in the Great Plains. In order to convince landowners and agricultural leaders to buy their pesticides, chemical companies generated advertisements that championed local crop health, mixture accuracy, livestock safety and a chemical-farming 'way of life' that kept fields healthy and productive. Combining notions of safety, accuracy and professionalism with pest eradication messages reinforced the standards that landowners, pilots and agriculturalists would hold regarding toxicity and risk when spraying their fields. As the politics of health changed in the aftermath of Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, these companies and aerial spraying outfits responded by keeping to a vision of agricultural health that required poisons for protection through technological accuracy.

  20. Chemical and biological indicators of water quality in three agricultural watersheds of the Po valley, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Pieri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture has both direct and indirect effects on quality of surface water and is one of the key activities causing water quality degradation. Its environmental impact can be evaluated by the determination of indicators of the quality of water bodies that collect drainage and runoff waters from agricultural watersheds. For this research, the water quality draining from three watersheds, totally or partially cultivated, all within the Po river valley (Italy, was determined, using chemical indicators (N-NO3 and N-NH4 concentration, N balance, trophic status (chlorophyll-a concentration and benthic population indexes. Together, they should provide an overview of the water status, which is supposed to be strictly related to the land use and the management. Results show that the chemical parameters are well related to land use and farming management: intensive agricultural activity leads to high N-NO3 concentration in water and N surplus and vice versa. The chlorophyll-a concentration follows the same trend, being linked to nitrogen loads and land use. Not always there is accordance between chemical and biological indicators: no direct correspondence is evident between the N-NO3 concentration in waters and benthic community. Its presence and abundance seems to be mostly correlated with the geomorphology, hydrology, riparian strips, etc. of the habitat than to the land use. Only the integration of chemical and biological parameters allows a correct understanding of the state of health of water body and benthic communities.

  1. Water and Agricultural-Chemical Transport in a Midwestern, Tile-Drained Watershed: Implications for Conservation Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Nancy T.; Stone, Wesley W.; Frey, Jeffrey W.; Wilson, John T.

    2007-01-01

    The study of agricultural chemicals is one of five national priority topics being addressed by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program in its second decade of studies, which began in 2001. Seven watersheds across the Nation were selected for the NAWQA agricultural-chemical topical study. The watersheds selected represent a range of agricultural settings - with varying crop types and agricultural practices related to tillage, irrigation, artificial drainage, and chemical use - as well as a range of landscapes with different geology, soils, topography, climate, and hydrology (Capel and others, 2004). Chemicals selected for study include nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and about 50 commonly used pesticides. This study design leads to an improved understanding of many factors that can affect the movement of water and chemicals in different agricultural settings. Information from these studies will help with decision making related to chemical use, conservation, and other farming practices that are used to reduce runoff of agricultural chemicals and sediment from fields (Capel and others, 2004). This Fact Sheet highlights the results of the NAWQA agricultural chemical study in the Leary Weber Ditch Watershed in Hancock County, Indiana. This watershed was selected to represent a tile-drained, corn and soybean, humid area typical in the Midwest.

  2. Towards personalized agriculture: What chemical genomics can bring to plant biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Stokes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to the dominant drug paradigm in which compounds were developed to fit all, new models focused around personalized medicine are appearing where treatments are customized for individual patients. The agricultural biotechnology industry should also think about these new personalized models. For example, most common herbicides are generic in action, which led to the development of genetically modified crops to add specificity. The ease and accessibility of modern genomic analysis should facilitate the discovery of chemicals that are more selective in their utility. Is it possible to develop species-selective herbicides and growth regulators? More generally put, is plant research at a stage where chemicals can be developed that streamline plant development and growth to various environments? We believe the advent of chemical genomics now opens up these and other opportunities to personalize agriculture. Furthermore, chemical genomics does not necessarily require genetically tractable plant models, which in principle should allow quick translation to practical applications. For this to happen, however, will require collaboration between the Ag-biotech industry and academic labs for early-stage research and development.

  3. Determination of Physical, Chemical and Digestibility of some Agricultural by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    majed dehgan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, physical and chemical characteristics and estimation of effective fiber and digestibility of some agricultural by-products such as lerd, pulp and date kernel, grape pomace, pistachio hulls, lime and rice straw were determined by using in vitro technique. Experimental data were analyzed as a complete randomized design, with three replicates. Physical and chemical characteristics and digestibility parameters among samples were significantly different. Rice straw due to high water holding capacity and low-density mass were floating on the liquid phase of reticulo-rumen and stimulates rumination but palm seed with high bulk density tends to deposit in the rumen. Chemical characteristics such as non-fibrous carbohydrates of lemon pulp and pistachio hull and crude protein of grape pomace, lerd and pulp of date were significantly different between samples. Results of physical characteristics, particle size separation and physical effective cell wall showed that rice straw provides adequate fiber in diet. Also, to some extent physical effective cell wall can be provided by grape pomace, kernel and lerd of date. The predictions of particle size separation and physical effective cell wall were found to compare reasonably well when new Pennsylvania sieves, compare to old ones, were used. By considering physical and chemical characteristics of above mentioned agricultural by-products date pulp with non-fibrous carbohydrate and high protein content and digestibility can be used in higher amounts in ruminant diets.

  4. Assessment of macroinvertebrate health and agricultural chemical exposure on Waterfowl Production Areas in Nebraska’s Rainwater Basin Wetland Management District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Of the 12 sampled locations, the 6 non-buffered sites appear to be affected by agricultural chemical exposure. Agricultural chemical exposure to these sites include...

  5. Organic Contaminant Content and Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Waste Materials Recycled in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Rigby

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A range of wastes representative of materials currently applied, or with future potential to be applied, to agricultural land in the UK as fertilisers and soil improvers or used as animal bedding in livestock production, were investigated. In addition to full physico-chemical characterization, the materials were analysed for a suite of priority organic contaminants. In general, contaminants were present at relatively low concentrations. For example, for biosolids and compost-like-output (CLO, concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs were approximately 1−10 and 5–50 times lower, respectively, than various proposed or implemented European limit values for these contaminants in biosolids or composts applied to agricultural land. However, the technical basis for these limits may require re-evaluation in some cases. Polybrominated, and mixed halogenated, dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans are not currently considered in risk assessments of dioxins and dioxin-like chemicals, but were detected at relatively high concentrations compared with PCDD/Fs in the biosolids and CLOs and their potential contribution to the overall toxic equivalency is assessed. Other ‘emerging’ contaminants, such as organophosphate flame retardants, were detected in several of the waste materials, and their potential significance is discussed. The study is part of a wider research programme that will provide evidence that is expected to improve confidence in the use of waste-derived materials in agriculture and to establish guidelines to protect the food chain where necessary.

  6. Chemical Compounds Toxic to Invertebrates Isolated from Marine Cyanobacteria of Potential Relevance to the Agricultural Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magbubah Essack

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In spite of advances in invertebrate pest management, the agricultural industry is suffering from impeded pest control exacerbated by global climate changes that have altered rain patterns to favour opportunistic breeding. Thus, novel naturally derived chemical compounds toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates are of interest, as potential pesticides. In this regard, marine cyanobacterium-derived metabolites that are toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates continue to be a promising, but neglected, source of potential pesticides. A PubMed query combined with hand-curation of the information from retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 36 cyanobacteria-derived chemical compounds experimentally confirmed as being toxic to invertebrates. These compounds are discussed in this review.

  7. Chemical Compounds Toxic to Invertebrates Isolated from Marine Cyanobacteria of Potential Relevance to the Agricultural Industry

    KAUST Repository

    Essack, Magbubah

    2014-10-29

    In spite of advances in invertebrate pest management, the agricultural industry is suffering from impeded pest control exacerbated by global climate changes that have altered rain patterns to favour opportunistic breeding. Thus, novel naturally derived chemical compounds toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates are of interest, as potential pesticides. In this regard, marine cyanobacterium-derived metabolites that are toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates continue to be a promising, but neglected, source of potential pesticides. A PubMed query combined with hand-curation of the information from retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 36 cyanobacteria-derived chemical compounds experimentally confirmed as being toxic to invertebrates. These compounds are discussed in this review.

  8. Does exposure to agricultural chemicals increase the risk of prostate cancer among farmers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Marie-Elise; Désy, Marie; Siemiatycki, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Several studies suggest that farmers may be at increased risk of prostate cancer. The present analysis, based on a large population-based case-control study conducted among men in the Montreal area in the early 1980's, aim at identifying occupational chemicals which may be responsible for such increases. The original study enrolled 449 prostate cancer cases, nearly 4,000 patients with other cancers, as well as 533 population controls. Subjects were interviewed about their occupation histories, and a team of industrial hygienists assigned their past exposures using a checklist of some 300 chemicals. The present analysis was restricted to a study base of men who had worked as farmers earlier in their lives. There were a total of 49 men with prostate cancers, 127 with other cancers and 56 population controls. We created a pool of 183 controls combining the patients with cancers at sites other than the prostate and the population controls. We then estimated the odds ratio for prostate cancer associated with exposure to each of 10 agricultural chemicals, i.e., pesticides, arsenic compounds, acetic acid, gasoline engine emissions, diesel engine emissions, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from petroleum, lubricating oils and greases, alkanes with >or=18 carbons, solvents, and mononuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Based on a model adjusting for age, ethnicity, education, and respondent status, there was evidence of a two-fold excess risk of prostate cancer among farmers with substantial exposure to pesticides [odds ratio (OR)=2.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-5.1], as compared to unexposed farmers. There was some suggestion, based on few subjects, of increased risks among farmers ever exposed to diesel engine emissions (OR=5.7, 95% CI 1.2-26.5). The results for pesticides are particularly noteworthy in the light of findings from previous studies. Suggestions of trends for elevated risks were noted with other agricultural chemicals, but these are largely novel and need

  9. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ASSESSMENT OF AGRICULTURAL POLLUTION ON GROUNDWATER AND SOIL QUALITY IN AN AGRICULTURAL FARM (NORTH EASTERN MOROCCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fetouani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To ensure sustainable food security, Morocco gives priority to agricultural and rural development by promoting investment in agricultural sector and use of intensification factors to improve incomes in rural areas. The Triffa irrigated perimeter is one of the oldest and the most productive in the country thanks to the Mohammed the V dam activity and the beginning of agricultural development intensification. Although this intensification has a positive effect on agricultural yields, it has negative impacts on soil and generatesgroundwater quality degradation. Indeed, recent studies performed in this area by us and Bendra (Fetouani et al., 2008; Bendra et al, 2012 have mentioned the existence of salinity problems, nitric groundwater pollution and soils salinization. This degradation is caused essentially by intensive use of agrochemicals, including nitrogen fertilizers and pesticides, and non-control of irrigation and cultivated plots drainage. However, a degradation of groundwater and soil quality is not without risk to Human health. Having a global vision about situation of groundwater and soil quality in the Triffa plain we have decided to deepen this theme to a local scale and to study in details the impact of intensive agriculture on groundwater and soil quality in a farm, located in the centre of the Triffa plain.To sum up the results of this study the state of soil quality in the farm is not alarming. However, the groundwater quality is mainly dramatic, because it is a receptacle of all the nutrients applied on the surface, especially nitrates.

  10. Estimation of Some Chemical Properties of an Agricultural Soil by Spectroradiometric Measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.JARMER; M.VOHLAND; H.LILIENTHAL; E.SCHNUG

    2008-01-01

    The contents of nitrogen and organic carbon in an agricultural soil were analyzed using reflectance measurements (n = 52) performed with an ASD FieldSpec-Ⅱspectroradiometer.For parameter prediction,empirical models based on partial least squares (PLS) regression were defined from the measured reflectance spectra (0.4 to 2.4 μm).Here,reliable estimates were obtained for nitrogen content,but prediction accuracy was only moderate for organic carbon.For nitrogen,the real spatial pattern of within-field variability was reproduced with high accuracy.The results indicate the potential of this method as a quick screening tool for the spatial assessment of nitrogen and organic carbon,and therefore an appropriate alternative to time-and cost-intensive chemical analysis in the laboratory.

  11. Assessing the Amount of Chemical Elements in Biodegradable Agricultural Wastes and ASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa Kvasauskienė

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable agricultural wastes such as manure, has long been used as an organic fertilizer that improves soil structure, enriches the soil with micro-organisms and micro-elements necessary for plants and promotes humus formation. Manure can also be successfully used as a renewable energy source directly combusting and extracting energy. The carried out investigation showed that the incineration of manure remaining in ashes could also be used as a fertilizer. Waste combustion reduces its volume to 80–90%. Also, the investigation revealed that the amount of chemical elements (Na, Mg, Si, P, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe decreased after combustion. However, the concentration of these elements in ashes is higher than that in raw manure. Article in Lithuanian

  12. What is needed to understand feedback mechanisms from agricultural and climate changes that can alter the hydrological system and the transport of sediments and agricultural chemicals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupe, Richard; Payraudeau, Sylvain; Babcsányi, Izabella; Imfeld, Gwenaël

    2015-04-01

    Modern agriculture activities are constantly changing as producers try to produce a crop, keep their soils fertile, control pests, and prevent contamination of air and water resources. Because most of the world's arable land is already in production we must become more efficient if we are to feed and clothe the world's growing population as well as do this in a sustainable manner; leaving a legacy of fertile soil and clean water resources for our descendants. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of historical datasets and of developing new strategies to understand the effects of changing agricultural systems on the environment. Scientists who study agriculture and its effects on water must constantly adapt their strategies and evaluate how changing agricultural activities impact the environment. As well as understand from historical datasets on hydrology and agriculture how a changing climate or agricultural activity such as a change in tillage method might impact the processes that determine the movement of agricultural chemicals off of the target site. The 42.7 ha Hohrain (Rouffach, Alsace, France) vineyard experimental catchment offers several examples of how scientists have used historical data from this catchment to understand how the transport of agricultural chemicals may change due to a changing climate as well as how new strategies are developed for understanding the transport of agricultural chemicals. Runoff is a major process of pesticide transport from agricultural land to downstream aquatic ecosystems. The impact of rainfall characteristics on the transport of runoff-related pesticides is crucial to understanding how to prevent or minimize their movement now, but also in understanding how climate change might affect runoff. If we understand how rainfall characteristics affect the transport of pesticides, we can use climate change models to predict how those characteristics might change in the future and be better prepared for

  13. A comparison of forest and agricultural shallow groundwater chemical status a century after land use change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellner, Elliott, E-mail: rekfh3@mail.missouri.edu [School of Natural Resources, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Hubbart, Jason A. [Water Resources Program, School of Natural Resources, Department of Forestry, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Ikem, Abua, E-mail: Ikema@lincolnu.edu [Lincoln University, Department of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, 204 Foster Hall, 904 Chestnut Street, Jefferson City, MO 65101 (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Considering the increasing pace of global land use change and the importance of groundwater quality to humans and aquatic ecosystems, studies are needed that relate land use types to patterns of groundwater chemical composition. Piezometer grids were installed in a remnant bottomland hardwood forest (BHF) and a historic agricultural field (Ag) to compare groundwater chemical composition between sites with contrasting land use histories. Groundwater was sampled monthly from June 2011 to June 2013, and analyzed for 50 physiochemical metrics. Statistical tests indicated significant differences (p < 0.05) between the study sites for 32 out of 50 parameters. Compared to the Ag site, BHF groundwater was characterized by significantly (p < 0.05) lower pH, higher electrical conductivity, and higher concentrations of total dissolved solids and inorganic carbon. BHF groundwater contained significantly (p < 0.05) higher concentrations of all nitrogen species except nitrate, which was higher in Ag groundwater. BHF groundwater contained significantly (p < 0.05) higher concentrations of nutrients such as sulfur, potassium, magnesium, calcium, and sodium, relative to the Ag site. Ag groundwater was characterized by significantly (p < 0.05) higher concentrations of trace elements such as arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, nickel, and titanium. Comparison of shallow groundwater chemical composition with that of nearby receiving water suggests that subsurface concentration patterns are the result of contrasting site hydrology and vegetation. Results detail impacts of surface vegetation alteration on subsurface chemistry and groundwater quality, thereby illustrating land use impacts on the lithosphere and hydrosphere. This study is among the first to comprehensively characterize and compare shallow groundwater chemical composition at sites with contrasting land use histories. - Highlights: • Shallow groundwater chemical composition was compared at floodplain sites.

  14. Harmonisation of food consumption data format for dietary exposure assessments of chemicals analysed in raw agricultural commodities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boon, Polly E.; Ruprich, Jiri; Petersen, Annette

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present an approach to format national food consumption data at raw agricultural commodity (RAC) level. In this way, the data is both formatted in a harmonised way given the comparability of RACs between countries, and suitable to assess the dietary exposure to chemicals analysed...

  15. Physical and chemical characterizations of biochars derived from different agricultural residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jindo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Biochar has received large attention as a strategy to tackle against carbon emission. Not only carbon fixation has been carried out but also other merits for agricultural application due to unique physical and chemical character such as absorption of contaminated compounds in soil, trapping ammonia and methane emission from compost, and enhancement of fertilizer quality. In our study, different local waste feed stocks (rice husk, rice straw, wood chips of apple tree (Malus Pumila and oak tree (Quercus serrata, in Aomori, Japan, were utilized for creating biochar with different temperature (400–800 °C. Concerning to the biochar production, the pyrolysis of lower temperature had more biochar yield than higher temperature pyrolysis process. On the contrary, surface areas and adsorption characters have been increased as increasing temperature. The proportions of carbon content in the biochars also increased together with increased temperatures. Infrared-Fourier spectra (FT-IR and 13C-NMR were used to understand carbon chemical compositions in our biochars, and it was observed that the numbers of the shoulders representing aromatic groups, considered as stable carbon structure appeared as the temperature came closer to 600 °C, as well as in FT-IR. In rice materials, the peak assigned to SiO2, was observed in all biochars (400–800 °C in FT-IR. We suppose that the pyrolysis at 600 °C creates the most recalcitrant character for carbon sequestration, meanwhile the pyrolysis at 400 °C produces the superior properties as a fertilizer by retaining volatile and easily labile compounds which promotes soil microbial activities.

  16. Streptococcus suis sorption on agricultural soils: role of soil physico-chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenqiang; Liu, Xing; Huang, Qiaoyun; Cai, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Understanding pathogen sorption on natural soil particles is crucial to protect public health from soilborne and waterborne diseases. Sorption of pathogen Streptococcus suis on 10 agricultural soils was examined, and its correlations with soil physico-chemical properties were also elucidated. S. suis sorption isotherms conformed to the linear equation, with partition coefficients (Ks) ranging from 12.7 mL g(-1) to 100.1 mL g(-1). Bacteria were observed to sorb on the external surfaces of soil aggregates by scanning electron microscopy. Using Pearson correlation and linear regression analysis, solution pH was found to have significant negative correlations with Ks. Stepwise multiple regression and path analysis revealed that pH and cation exchange capacity (CEC) were the main factors influencing sorption behaviors. The obtained overall model (Ks=389.6-45.9×pH-1.3×CEC, R(2)=0.943, PKs values. However, the variability in Ks was less dependent on soil organic matter, specific surface area, soil texture and zeta potential, probably due to the internal-surface shielding phenomenon of soil aggregates. Additionally, the sorption trends cannot be interpreted by interaction energy barriers calculated using the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory, suggesting the limits of DLVO theory in describing pathogen sorption on natural soils. Our results also indicated soil pH and CEC should be preferentially considered when modeling S. suis sorption process.

  17. Evaluation of unsaturated-zone solute-transport models for studies of agricultural chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Bernard T.; Bayless, E. Randall; Green, Christopher T.; Garg, Sheena; Voss, Frank D.; Lampe, David C.; Barbash, Jack E.; Capel, Paul D.; Bekins, Barbara A.

    2005-01-01

    Seven unsaturated-zone solute-transport models were tested with two data sets to select models for use by the Agricultural Chemical Team of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The data sets were from a bromide tracer test near Merced, California, and an atrazine study in the White River Basin, Indiana. In this study the models are designated either as complex or simple based on the water flux algorithm. The complex models, HYDRUS2D, LEACHP, RZWQM, and VS2DT, use Richards' equation to simulate water flux and are well suited to process understanding. The simple models, CALF, GLEAMS, and PRZM, use a tipping-bucket algorithm and are more amenable to extrapolation because they require fewer input parameters. The purpose of this report is not to endorse a particular model, but to describe useful features, potential capabilities, and possible limitations that emerged from working with the model input data sets. More rigorous assessment of model applicability involves proper calibration, which was beyond the scope of this study.

  18. Measurement of natural radioactivity in chemical fertilizer and agricultural soil: evidence of high alpha activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Dipak; Deb, Argha; Bera, Sukumar; Sengupta, Rosalima; Patra, Kanchan Kumar

    2008-02-01

    People are exposed to ionizing radiation from the radionuclides that are present in different types of natural sources, of which phosphate fertilizer is one of the most important sources. Radionuclides in phosphate fertilizer belonging to 232Th and 238U series as well as radioisotope of potassium (40K) are the major contributors of outdoor terrestrial natural radiation. The study of alpha activity in fertilizers, which is the first ever in West Bengal, has been performed in order to determine the effect of the use of phosphate fertilizers on human health. The data have been compared with the alpha activity of different types of chemical fertilizers. The measurement of alpha activity in surface soil samples collected from the cultivated land was also performed. The sampling sites were randomly selected in the cultivated land in the Midnapore district, which is the largest district in West Bengal. The phosphate fertilizer is widely used for large agricultural production, mainly potatoes. The alpha activities have been measured using solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD), a very sensitive detector for alpha particles. The results show that alpha activity of those fertilizer and soil samples varies from 141 Bq/kg to 2,589 Bq/kg and from 109 Bq/kg to 660 Bq/kg, respectively. These results were used to estimate environmental radiation exposure on human health contributed by the direct application of fertilizers.

  19. AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS TECHNOLOGY, A SUGGESTED TWO-YEAR POST HIGH SCHOOL CURRICULUM AND COURSE OUTLINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HALTERMAN, JERRY; AND OTHERS

    DATA REVEALED BY STUDIES OF AGRICULTURAL BUSINESS TRAINING NEEDS CONDUCTED IN SEVERAL STATES PROMPTED THE DESIGN OF AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SERIES TO ASSIST STATE AND LOCAL VOCATIONAL EDUCATION LEADERS IN DEVELOPING PROGRAMS TO PREPARE YOUTH AND ADULTS FOR EMPLOYMENT AND ADVANCEMENT IN OFF-FARM AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS. THIS DOCUMENT, THE…

  20. Pesticide resistance from historical agricultural chemical exposure in Thamnocephalus platyurus (Crustacea: Anostraca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brausch, John M; Smith, Philip N

    2009-02-01

    Extensive pesticide usage in modern agriculture represents a considerable anthropogenic stressor to freshwater ecosystems throughout the United States. Acute toxicity of three of the most commonly used agricultural pesticides (Methyl Parathion 4ec, Tempo SC Ultra, Karmex DF, and DDT) was determined in two different wild-caught strains of the fairy shrimp Thamnocephalus platyurus. Fairy shrimp collected from playas surrounded by native grasslands were between 200% and 400% more sensitive than fairy shrimp derived from playas in agricultural watersheds for Methyl Parathion 4ec, Tempo SC Ultra, and Karmex DF, likely due to the development of resistance. Additionally, reduced sensitivity to DDT was observed among fairy shrimp from agriculturally-impacted playas as compared to those from native grassland-dominated playas. These data suggest that fairy shrimp inhabiting playas in agricultural regions have developed some degree of resistance to a variety of agrochemicals in response to historical usage.

  1. [The discussion of the infiltrative model of chemical knowledge stepping into genetics teaching in agricultural institute or university].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ping; Luo, Pei-Gao

    2010-05-01

    Chemistry is an important group of basic courses, while genetics is one of the important major-basic courses in curriculum of many majors in agricultural institutes or universities. In order to establish the linkage between the major course and the basic course, the ability of application of the chemical knowledge previously learned in understanding genetic knowledge in genetics teaching is worthy of discussion for genetics teachers. In this paper, the authors advocate to apply some chemical knowledge previously learned to understand genetic knowledge in genetics teaching with infiltrative model, which could help students learn and understand genetic knowledge more deeply. Analysis of the intrinsic logistic relationship among the knowledge of different courses and construction of the integral knowledge network are useful for students to improve their analytic, comprehensive and logistic abilities. By this way, we could explore a new teaching model to develop the talents with new ideas and comprehensive competence in agricultural fields.

  2. Evaluation of chemical and ecotoxicological characteristics of biodegradable organic residues for application to agricultural land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, P; Palma, P; Gonçalves, A P; Fernandes, R M; Cunha-Queda, A C; Duarte, E; Vallini, G

    2007-05-01

    The use of organic waste and compost as a source of organic matter and nutrients is a common practice to improve soil physico-chemical properties, meanwhile reducing the need for inorganic fertilisers. Official guidelines to assess sewage sludge and compost quality are mostly based on total metal content of these residues. Measurement of the total concentration of metals may be useful as a general index of contamination, but provides inadequate or little information about their bioavailability, mobility or toxicity when the organic residue is applied to the soil. However, ecotoxicity tests provide an integrated measure of bioavailability and detrimental effects of contaminants in the ecosystem. In the present study, three different types of biodegradable organic residues (BORs) have been considered: sewage sludge from municipal wastewater treatment (SS), compost from the organic fraction of unsorted municipal solid waste (MSWC), and garden waste compost (GWC). The BORs were subjected to chemical characterisation and total metal quantification (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn), in order to verify their suitability for land application. Water leachability was determined through the DIN 38414-S4 method, while the modified BCR sequential extraction procedure was used for metal speciation. Ecotoxicity of the BORs was studied by direct and indirect bioassays. Direct toxicity bioassays were: plant growth tests with cress (Lepidium sativum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and earthworm (Eisenia fetida) mortality. On the other hand, indirect exposure bioassays, with leachate from the residues, took into account: luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), seed germination (L. sativum and H. vulgare) and Daphnia magna immobilization. As far as total metal concentration is concerned, with particular reference to Zn, SS resulted neither suitable for the use in agriculture nor compatible to be disposed of as an inert material into landfill, according to the Directive 1999/31/EC. Zinc

  3. Assessment of rice farming and agricultural chemical impacts on amphibians of the Anahuac National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study was designed to determine if the use of agricultural pesticides and herbicides used in rice farming and Chinese tallow tree control have a noticeable...

  4. 现代有机农业与化肥%Modern organic agriculture and chemical fertilizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奚振邦

    2011-01-01

    The organic agriculture is concerned because it can produce organic farming products; and the organic agriculture is discussed from different perspectives. What is the organic agriculture and how to develop the organic agriculture with more large-scale and high productivity under the background in modem agriculture to satisfy the people's needs are discussed around the core target of traditional, classical organic agriculture: ecological environment protection, natural resources and biodiversity, clean and healthy organic products.%人们关注有机农业,因为它能生产有机农牧产品;人们也从不同视角议论有机农业。为此讨论什么是有机农业,在现代农业背景下,如何围绕传统、经典有机农业的核心目标(保护生态环境、自然资源和生物多样性,生产洁净、健康的有机产品),谋求发展较大规模和较高生产力的有机农业,以较多的有机产品满足人们需求。

  5. Pesticide resistance from historical agricultural chemical exposure in Thamnocephalus platyurus (Crustacea: Anostraca)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brausch, John M. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, 1207 Gilbert Dr, Lubbock, TX 79416 (United States)], E-mail: john.brausch@ttu.edu; Smith, Philip N. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, 1207 Gilbert Dr, Lubbock, TX 79416 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Extensive pesticide usage in modern agriculture represents a considerable anthropogenic stressor to freshwater ecosystems throughout the United States. Acute toxicity of three of the most commonly used agricultural pesticides (Methyl Parathion 4ec, Tempo SC Ultra, Karmex DF, and DDT) was determined in two different wild-caught strains of the fairy shrimp Thamnocephalus platyurus. Fairy shrimp collected from playas surrounded by native grasslands were between 200% and 400% more sensitive than fairy shrimp derived from playas in agricultural watersheds for Methyl Parathion 4ec, Tempo SC Ultra, and Karmex DF, likely due to the development of resistance. Additionally, reduced sensitivity to DDT was observed among fairy shrimp from agriculturally-impacted playas as compared to those from native grassland-dominated playas. These data suggest that fairy shrimp inhabiting playas in agricultural regions have developed some degree of resistance to a variety of agrochemicals in response to historical usage. - This manuscript discusses the potential effects of long-term pesticide usage on the development of resistance and cross-resistance on a non-target aquatic invertebrate.

  6. Review on advanced of solar assisted chemical heat pump dryer for agriculture produce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadhel, M.I. [Solar Energy Research Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, Jalan Ayer Keroh Lama, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia); Sopian, K.; Daud, W.R.W.; Alghoul, M.A. [Solar Energy Research Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    Over the past three decades there has been nearly exponential growth in drying R and D on a global scale. Improving of the drying operation to save energy, improve product quality as well as reduce environmental effect remained as the main objectives of any development of drying system. A solar assisted chemical heat pump dryer is a new solar drying system, which have contributed to better cost-effectiveness and better quality dried products as well as saving energy. A solar collector is adapted to provide thermal energy in a reactor so a chemical reaction can take place. This reduces the dependency of the drying technology on fossil energy for heating. In this paper a review on advanced of solar assisted chemical heat pump dryer is presented (the system model and the results from experimental studies on the system performance are discussed). The review of heat pump dryers and solar assisted heat pump dryer is presented. Description of chemical heat pump types and the overview of chemical heat pump dryer are discussed. The combination of chemical heat pump and solar technology gives extra efficiency in utilizing energy. (author)

  7. Alteration of gene expression in human cells treated with the agricultural chemical diazinon: possible interaction in fetal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankame, T; Hokanson, R; Fudge, R; Chowdhary, R; Busbee, D

    2006-05-01

    Agricultural chemicals frequently alter human health or development, typically because they have endocrine agonist or antagonist activities and alter hormone-regulation of gene expression. The insecticide, diazinon, was evaluated for gene expression disrupting activity using MCF-7 cells, an estrogen-dependent human cell line, to examine the capacity of the insecticide to disrupt gene expression essential for morphological development, immune system development or function, and/or central nervous system development and function. MCF-7 cells were treated with 30, 50 or 67 ppm diazinon, and gene expression was measured in treated cells compared to expression in untreated or estrogen-treated cells. DNA microarray analysis of diazinon-treated cells showed significant up- or down-regulation of a large number of genes compared to untreated cells. Of the 600 human genes on the Phase 1 chip utilized for these studies, two specific genes--calreticulin and TGF-beta3--were selected for corroboration using quantitative real time PCR (qrtPCR). qrtPCR, completed to assess gene expression levels for calreticulin and TGFbeta3, confirmed results showing significant up-regulation of these two genes obtained from the microarray data. These studies were designed to provide baseline data on the gene expression-altering capacity of a specific chemical, diazinon, and allow a partial assessment of the potentially deleterious effects associated with exposure of human cells to this chemical. Currently, it is not known whether results from cells in vitro can be extrapolated to human health consequences of chemical exposure.

  8. Modelling the Fate of Xenobiotic Trace Chemicals via Wastewater Treatment and Agricultural Resource Reuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polesel, Fabio

    As a result of widespread human activities, pharmaceuticals and biocides are ubiquitously present at trace levels in the environment. Large amounts of these substances, also identified as xenobiotic trace chemicals (XTCs), are released daily from: (i) households and healthcare facilities, following...... design limitations. These chemicals are thus eventually released to the environment, e.g. in freshwater bodies receiving WWTP effluents, representing a threat to living organisms. WWTPs have been generally identified as a major point source of XTC emissions to the environment. Nevertheless, due...... to the high number of marketed and consumed chemicals, and to the uncertainties associated to sampling and analytical methodologies, quantifying the elimination of XTCs during wastewater treatment still remains a challenge. Developing robust modelling tools to predict the fate of XTCs in WWTPs can help...

  9. Teaching Reforms and Practices of General Chemistry in Agricultural Universities%Guangzhou Chemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁厚群; 胡春燕; 李艳霞; 孙婷婷; 王义华

    2016-01-01

    General Chemistry is an important public basic course in agriculture, forestry, animal science, bioengineering, food engineering, environment engineering majors, etc, in agricultural universities. The main problems during teaching course were analyzed, and according to the curriculum characteristics and the teaching objectives, the teaching contents, patternsand methods were reformedand implemented. The students were found to be more interested in General Chemistry,and their practical handing capabilities were cultivated. The teaching qualityand teaching effect were obviously improved.%《普通化学》是面向高等农业院校农学、林学、动科、生工、食品、环工等专业的一门重要公共基础课。课程组分析课程存在的主要问题,结合本课程特点和教学目标,在教学内容、教学模式、教学方法等方面进行了教学改革与实践。通过这几年的教学改革与实践,不仅学生的学习兴趣和动手实践能力有了很大的进步,教学质量和教学效果也有了明显的提高。

  10. Modelling effects of chemical exposure on birds wintering in agricultural landscapes: The western burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelman, Catherine A.; Grant, William E.; Mora, Miguel A.; Woodin, Marc

    2012-01-01

    We describe an ecotoxicological model that simulates the sublethal and lethal effects of chronic, low-level, chemical exposure on birds wintering in agricultural landscapes. Previous models estimating the impact on wildlife of chemicals used in agro-ecosystems typically have not included the variety of pathways, including both dermal and oral, by which individuals are exposed. The present model contains four submodels simulating (1) foraging behavior of individual birds, (2) chemical applications to crops, (3) transfers of chemicals among soil, insects, and small mammals, and (4) transfers of chemicals to birds via ingestion and dermal exposure. We demonstrate use of the model by simulating the impacts of a variety of commonly used herbicides, insecticides, growth regulators, and defoliants on western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) that winter in agricultural landscapes in southern Texas, United States. The model generated reasonable movement patterns for each chemical through soil, water, insects, and rodents, as well as into the owl via consumption and dermal absorption. Sensitivity analysis suggested model predictions were sensitive to uncertainty associated with estimates of chemical half-lives in birds, soil, and prey, sensitive to parameters associated with estimating dermal exposure, and relatively insensitive to uncertainty associated with details of chemical application procedures (timing of application, amount of drift). Nonetheless, the general trends in chemical accumulations and the relative impacts of the various chemicals were robust to these parameter changes. Simulation results suggested that insecticides posed a greater potential risk to owls of both sublethal and lethal effects than do herbicides, defoliants, and growth regulators under crop scenarios typical of southern Texas, and that use of multiple indicators, or endpoints provided a more accurate assessment of risk due to agricultural chemical exposure. The model should prove

  11. Modelling effects of chemical exposure on birds wintering in agricultural landscapes: The western burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelman, C.A.; Grant, W.E.; Mora, M.A.; Woodin, M.

    2012-01-01

    We describe an ecotoxicological model that simulates the sublethal and lethal effects of chronic, low-level, chemical exposure on birds wintering in agricultural landscapes. Previous models estimating the impact on wildlife of chemicals used in agro-ecosystems typically have not included the variety of pathways, including both dermal and oral, by which individuals are exposed. The present model contains four submodels simulating (1) foraging behavior of individual birds, (2) chemical applications to crops, (3) transfers of chemicals among soil, insects, and small mammals, and (4) transfers of chemicals to birds via ingestion and dermal exposure. We demonstrate use of the model by simulating the impacts of a variety of commonly used herbicides, insecticides, growth regulators, and defoliants on western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) that winter in agricultural landscapes in southern Texas, United States. The model generated reasonable movement patterns for each chemical through soil, water, insects, and rodents, as well as into the owl via consumption and dermal absorption. Sensitivity analysis suggested model predictions were sensitive to uncertainty associated with estimates of chemical half-lives in birds, soil, and prey, sensitive to parameters associated with estimating dermal exposure, and relatively insensitive to uncertainty associated with details of chemical application procedures (timing of application, amount of drift). Nonetheless, the general trends in chemical accumulations and the relative impacts of the various chemicals were robust to these parameter changes. Simulation results suggested that insecticides posed a greater potential risk to owls of both sublethal and lethal effects than do herbicides, defoliants, and growth regulators under crop scenarios typical of southern Texas, and that use of multiple indicators, or endpoints provided a more accurate assessment of risk due to agricultural chemical exposure. The model should prove

  12. Effects of organic versus conventional management on chemical and biological parameters in agricultural soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeningen, van A.D.; Vos, de O.J.; Korthals, G.W.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2006-01-01

    A comparative study of organic and conventional arable farming systems was conducted in The Netherlands to determine the effect of management practices on chemical and biological soil properties and soil health. Soils from thirteen accredited organic farms and conventionally managed neighboring farm

  13. Physical and chemical properties of selected agricultural byproduct-based activated carbons and their ability to adsorb geosmin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chilton; Losso, Jack N; Marshall, Wayne E; Rao, Ramu M

    2002-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate selected physical and chemical properties of agricultural byproduct-based activated carbons made from pecan shells and sugarcane bagasse, and compare those properties to a commercial coal-based activated carbon as well as to compare the adsorption efficiency of these carbons for geosmin. Comparison of the physical and chemical properties of pecan shell- and bagasse-based carbons to the commercial carbon, Calgon Filtrasorb 400, showed that pecan shell carbon, but not the bagasse carbon, compared favorably to Filtrasorb 400, especially in terms of surface area, bulk density, ash and attrition. A carbon dosage study done in a model system showed the amount of geosmin adsorbed to be greater for Filtrasorb 400 and the bagasse-based carbon at low carbon concentrations than for the pecan shell carbons, but geosmin adsorption was similar in all carbons at higher carbon dosages. Application of the Freundlich isotherm model to the adsorption data showed that carbons made by steam activation of pecan shells or sugarcane bagasse had geosmin adsorption characteristics most like those of the commercial carbon. In terms of physical, chemical and adsorptive properties, steam-activated pecan shell carbon most resembled the commercial carbon and has the potential to replace Filtrasorb 400 in applications involving removal of geosmin from aqueous environments.

  14. Analysis of the Farmers Economic Behavior to Reduce the Environmental Effects of Agricultural Chemical Inputs (a Case Study of Kashaf- Rood Basin in Mashhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Aghasafari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is the analysis of the farmers economic behavior to reduce the adverse environmental effects of agricultural chemical inputs by using contingent valuation approach and Tobit model by Heckman's two stage. To achieve the desired goal, 100 questionnaires collected by a random sampling from farmers of Kashaf- rood basin in Mashhad city in 2013. Results showed that variables of age, education, type of agricultural activity, index 2 (farmers agree with the adverse effects of overuse of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, index 5 (farmers agree with investments to protect the soil and water, Sex, number of households employed in agriculture, experience in the use of soil and water conservation practices, total area under cultivation and index 4 (farmers agree with well being of available soil and water have a significant impact on the farmers financial participation to reduce the adverse environmental effects of chemical fertilizers. also, variables of age, education, total amount annual consumption of chemical pesticides per year, sex, main job, number of households employed in agriculture, type of agricultural activity, net savings of agriculture, land ownership status, total amount annual consumption of fertilizer per year, index 1 (farmers agree with benefits of preventing soil washing, index 4 (farmers agree with well being of available soil and water and index 5 (farmers agree with investments to protect the soil and water have a significant impact on the farmers financial participation to reduce the adverse environmental effects of chemical pesticides. According to the study results, Suggestions is presented for reducing the adverse environmental impacts of chemical inputs.

  15. A Research of Agricultural Chemical Metaldehyde's Impact on Edaphon%农药除蜗灵对土壤微生物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵琦; 唐美珍

    2014-01-01

    The agricultural chemical metaldehyde is widely used in recent years ,which has a certain influence on the soil environment's quality . This article has analyzed emphatically its impact on the soil - plant rhizosphere microorganism's amount ,and has designed the different agricultural chemical's concentration and application time to test agricultural chemical metaldehyde's long -term influence on microorganism ,which provides a scientific basis for agricultural chemical metaldehyde's application time , application concentration and impact on soil environment's quality .The tilt-pour process separates microorganism in the soil and ,plate count method counts the amount ,then the article have found ,the impact of agricultural chemical metaldehyde on edaphon are as follow s:the agricultural chemical metaldehyde plays an auxo-action to bacteria and actinomycetes ,but plays an inhibitory action to mycete . As time passes by ,the agricultural chemical Metaldehyde's increase function to actinomycetes decreases first ,then follows mycete and the bacteria's recover is the latest .The test results also explains that the soil itself has certain purification effect to the agricultural chemicals .%指出了农药除蜗灵近年来的大量使用,对土壤环境质量产生了一定的影响,进行了其对土壤-植物根际微生物数量上的影响的试验,并设计了农药浓度和施药时间的不同,从而了解了农药除蜗灵对微生物的长远影响。为农药除蜗灵的施用时间、施用浓度及其对土壤环境质量的影响提供了一定的科学依据。通过采用倾注法分离土壤中微生物,利用平板计数法进行计数,可得知农药除蜗灵对土壤中微生物的影响如下:对细菌和放线菌都产生了明显的促进作用,而对霉菌产生了显著的抑制作用。随着时间的推移,农药除蜗灵对放线菌的增加作用最先减弱,霉菌次之,细菌最晚恢复,这又说明了土壤本身

  16. The effect of the 2011 flood on agricultural chemical and sediment movement in the lower Mississippi River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, H.; Coupe, R.; Aulenbach, B.

    2012-04-01

    Extreme hydrologic events, such as floods, can overwhelm a surface water system's ability to process chemicals and can move large amounts of material downstream to larger surface water bodies. The Mississippi River is the 3rd largest River in the world behind the Amazon in South America and the Congo in Africa. The Mississippi-Atchafalaya River basin grows much of the country's corn, soybean, rice, cotton, pigs, and chickens. This is large-scale modern day agriculture with large inputs of nutrients to increase yields and large applied amounts of crop protection chemicals, such as pesticides. The basin drains approximately 41% of the conterminous United States and is the largest contributor of nutrients to the Gulf of Mexico each spring. The amount of water and nutrients discharged from the Mississippi River has been related to the size of the low dissolved oxygen area that forms off of the coast of Louisiana and Texas each summer. From March through April 2011, the upper Mississippi River basin received more than five times more precipitation than normal, which combined with snow melt from the Missouri River basin, created a historic flood event that lasted from April through July. The U.S. Geological Survey, as part of the National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN), collected samples from six sites located in the lower Mississippi-Atchafalaya River basin, as well as, samples from the three flow-diversion structures or floodways: the Birds Point-New Madrid in Missouri and the Morganza and Bonnet Carré in Louisiana, from April through July. Samples were analyzed for nutrients, pesticides, suspended sediments, and particle size; results were used to determine the water quality of the river during the 2011 flood. Monthly loads for nitrate, phosphorus, pesticides (atrazine, glyphosate, fluometuron, and metolachlor), and sediment were calculated to quantify the movement of agricultural chemicals and sediment into the Gulf of Mexico. Nutrient loads were

  17. Development of hazard analysis by critical control points (HACCP) procedures to control organic chemical hazards in the agricultural production of raw food commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropkins, Karl; Ferguson, Andrew; Beck, Angus J

    2003-01-01

    Hazard Analysis by Critical Control Points (HACCP) is a systematic approach to the identification, assessment, and control of hazards in the food chain. Effective HACCP requires the consideration of all chemical microbiological, and physical hazards. However, current procedures focus primarily on microbiological and physical hazards, while chemical aspects of HACCP have received relatively little attention. In this article we discuss the application of HACCP to organic chemical contaminants and the problems that are likely to be encountered in agriculture. We also present generic templates for the development of organic chemical contaminant HACCP procedures for selected raw food commodities, that is, cereal crops,raw meats, and milk.

  18. Phytocenotic structure and physico-chemical properties of a small water body in agricultural landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Sender

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Small water bodies, until recently considered as wasteland, are an essential element of the so-called small water retention. Their main use can vary significantly, but they always play a positive role by increasing water resources and enhancing the natural values of the landscape. Moreover, by increasing bio- diversity thanks to plants forming habitats for many species of flora and fauna, small water bodies act as a biofilter, improving water quality. But these small reservoirs belong to the groups of waters that are most exposed to damage, especially within the catchment area. Because of the invaluable role of small farmland water bodies, a study was undertaken to investigate their phytocenotic structure. In addition, an attempt was made to assess the level of threats and to indicate their role in the development of habitat conditions. The investigated reservoir was created in 2007. Before that time, it functioned as a part of the Zemborzycki reservoir, as they were close to each other. Almost the entire surrounding of this small reservoir consisted of farmland. In 2011 a revitalization project was carried out in the reservoir. Plants typical for wetland habitats were mainly introduced, while synanthropic vegetation was removed. Based on chemical and physical analyses, it can be concluded that the investigated reservoir serves as a natural biofilter thanks to the qualitative and quantitative changes in the structure of macrophytes. After the revitalization project, the investigated pond gained new aesthetic and ecological qualities.

  19. Changes in bacterial community structure of agricultural land due to long-term organic and chemical amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Vasvi; Rehman, Ateequr; Mishra, Aradhana; Chauhan, Puneet Singh; Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar

    2012-08-01

    Community level physiological profiling and pyrosequencing-based analysis of the V1-V2 16S rRNA gene region were used to characterize and compare microbial community structure, diversity, and bacterial phylogeny from soils of chemically cultivated land (CCL), organically cultivated land (OCL), and fallow grass land (FGL) for 16 years and were under three different land use types. The entire dataset comprised of 16,608 good-quality sequences (CCL, 6,379; OCL, 4,835; FGL, 5,394); among them 12,606 sequences could be classified in 15 known phylum. The most abundant phylum were Proteobacteria (29.8%), Acidobacteria (22.6%), Actinobacteria (11.1%), and Bacteroidetes (4.7%), while 24.3% of the sequences were from bacterial domain but could not be further classified to any known phylum. Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Gemmatimonadetes were found to be significantly abundant in OCL soil. On the contrary, Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria were significantly abundant in CCL and FGL, respectively. Our findings supported the view that organic compost amendment (OCL) activates diverse group of microorganisms as compared with conventionally used synthetic chemical fertilizers. Functional diversity and evenness based on carbon source utilization pattern was significantly higher in OCL as compared to CCL and FGL, suggesting an improvement in soil quality. This abundance of microbes possibly leads to the enhanced level of soil organic carbon, soil organic nitrogen, and microbial biomass in OCL and FGL soils as collated with CCL. This work increases our current understanding on the effect of long-term organic and chemical amendment applications on abundance, diversity, and composition of bacterial community inhabiting the soil for the prospects of agricultural yield and quantity of soil.

  20. Temporal variability of atmospheric particulate matter and chemical composition during a growing season at an agricultural site in northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiwei; Tong, Daniel; Zhang, Shichun; Dan, Mo; Zhang, Xuelei; Zhao, Hongmei

    2015-12-01

    This study presents the observations of PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations at an agricultural site from April to October 2012 in Dehui city, China. Ambient air was sampled by filter-based samplers and online PM monitors. The filter samples were analyzed to determine the abundance of ionic/inorganic elements, organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC). The daily PM10 concentrations varied significantly over the monitoring period, with an average of 168±63 (in the range of 52-277)μg/m(3) during the land preparation/planting period (26 April-15 June), 85±65 (36-228)μg/m(3) during the growing season (16 June-25 September), and 207±88 (103-310)μg/m(3) during the harvest period (26 September-31 October). PM2.5 accounted for 44%, 56% and 66% of atmospheric PM10 during these periods, respectively. The PM10 diurnal variation showed a distinct peak from 16:00 to 21:00 (LST) during the growing and harvesting seasons, while a gradual increase throughout the daytime until 17:00 was observed during tilling season. Mineral dust elements (Al, Ca, Fe, and Mg) dominated the PM10 chemical composition during the tilling season; OC, NO3(-), SO4(2-) and NH4(+) during the growing season; and carbonaceous species (i.e., OC and EC) during the harvesting season. Our results indicate that the soil particles emitted by farm tillage and organic matter released from straw burning are the two most significant sources of PM10 emissions contributing to the recurring high pollution events in this region. Therefore, development of agricultural PM inventories from soil tillage and straw burning is prioritized to support air quality modeling.

  1. Water-quality, water-level, and discharge data associated with the Mississippi embayment agricultural chemical-transport study, 2006-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Melinda S.; Rose, Claire E.; Coupe, Richard H.

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, the Agricultural Chemicals: Sources, Transport and Fate study team (Agricultural Chemicals Team, ACT) of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program began a study in northwestern Mississippi to evaluate the influence of surface-water recharge on the occurrence of agriculturally related nutrients and pesticides in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer. The ACT study was composed in the Bogue Phalia Basin, an indicator watershed within the National Water-Quality Assessment Program Mississippi Embayment Study Unit and utilized several small, subbasins within the Bogue Phalia to evaluate surface and groundwater interaction and chemical transport in the Basin. Data collected as part of this ACT study include water-quality data from routine and incident-driven water samples evaluated for major ions, nutrients, organic carbon, physical properties, and commonly used pesticides in the area; discharge, gage height and water-level data for surface-water sites, the shallow alluvial aquifer, and hyporheic zone; additionally, agricultural data and detailed management activities were reported by land managers for farms within two subbasins of the Bogue Phalia Basin—Tommie Bayou at Pace, MS, and an unnamed tributary to Clear Creek near Napanee, MS.

  2. Agricultural chemical exposures and birth defects in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa A case – control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler Joanne

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa is one of the major users of pesticides on the African continent. The Eastern Cape is the second largest province in South Africa. There has been growing concern about the occurrence of certain birth defects which seemed to have increased in the past few years. In this paper we investigate associations between exposure to agricultural chemicals and certain birth defects. Few such studies have been undertaken in the developing world previously. Methods Between September 2000 and March 2001 a case – control study was conducted among rural women in the area of the Eastern cape to investigate the association between women's exposure to pesticides and the occurrence of birth defects. Information on birth defects was obtained from the register of the Paediatrics Department at the Cecilia Makiwane Hospital in Mdantsane, one of the largest referral hospitals in the province. The cases were children who were diagnosed with selected birth defects. The controls were children born in the same areas as the cases. Exposure information on the mothers was obtained by interview concerning from their activities in gardens and fields. Data were analysed using conditional logistic regression. Results A total of 89 case mothers and 178 control mothers was interviewed. Babies with birth defects were seven times more likely to be born to women exposed to chemicals used in gardens and fields compared to no reported exposure (Odds Ratio 7.18, 95% CI 3.99, 13.25; and were almost twice as likely to be born to women who were involved in dipping livestock used to prevent ticks (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.15, 3.14. They were also 6.5 times more likely to be born to women who were using plastic containers for fetching water (OR 6.5, 95% CI 2.2, 27.9. Some of these containers had previously contained pesticides (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.06, 3.31. Conclusions These findings suggest a link between exposure to pesticides and certain birth defects among the

  3. The 5th World Congress of chemical engineering: Technologies critical to a changing World. Volume II: Agriculture, food biotechnology biomedical electric power process safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Volume 2 of the proceedings from the 5th World Congress of Chemical Engineering covers four major topic areas from which papers were selected for the database: Agriculture, Food; Biotechnology; Electric Power, and Process Safety. Pertinent subtopics include: Renewable Resource Engineering; Special Processes in the Food Industry; Advances in Metabolite Production; Advances in Fermentation and Cell Culture Engineering; Coal and Nuclear Central Station Power Plants; Large Natural Gas Fired Power Stations; Distributed Generation; Potential Impact of Biomass Energy; and Chemical Hazards in Plant Design. 29 papers were selected from Volume 1 for the database.

  4. Responses of physical, chemical, and biological indicators of water quality to a gradient of agricultural land use in the Yakima River Basin, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffney, T.F.; Meador, M.R.; Porter, S.D.; Gurtz, M.E.

    2000-01-01

    The condition of 25 stream sites in the Yakima River Basin, Washington, were assessed by the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Multimetric condition indices were developed and used to rank sites on the basis of physical, chemical, and biological characteristics. These indices showed that sites in the Cascades and Eastern Cascades ecoregions were largely unimpaired. In contrast, all but two sites in the Columbia Basin ecoregion were impaired, some severely. Agriculture (nutrients and pesticides) was the primary factor associated with impairment and all impaired sites were characterized by multiple indicators of impairment. All indices of biological condition (fish, invertebrates, and algae) declined as agricultural intensity increased. The response exhibited by invertebrates and algae suggested a threshold response with conditions declining precipitously at relatively low levels of agricultural intensity and little response at moderate to high levels of agricultural intensity. This pattern of response suggests that the success of mitigation will vary depending upon where on the response curve the mitigation is undertaken. Because the form of the community condition response is critical to effective water-quality management, the National Water-Quality Assessment Program is conducting studies to examine the response of biota to gradients of land-use intensity and the relevance of these responses to water-quality management. These land-use gradient pilot studies will be conducted in several urban areas starting in 1999.

  5. MAM-An Aquivalence-based Dynamic Mass Balance Model for the Fate of Non-Volatile Organic Chemicals in the Agricultural Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Batiha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A Multimedia Agricultural Model (MAM for predicting the fate and transport of Non-Volatile Organic Chemicals (NVOCs in the agricultural environment was presented. It is an expanded and modified version of the three compartmental model introduced by Batiha and co-authors in 2007, which is an aquivalence-based level IV. MAM considered five environmental compartments to include the air, water, soil, sediment and vegetation. It calculates the complete steady-state mass budgets for the air, water and particulate organic carbon between the model compartments. MAM compartments were connected by advective and intermedia transport processes. Degradation can take place in every compartment. The mass balances for each of the compartments result in a system of five differential equations, solved numerically to yield estimates of concentrations, masses, transport fluxes and reaction rates as a function of time. All the equations required for MAM calculations were provided.

  6. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Occupational Exposure to Agricultural Pesticide Chemical Groups and Active Ingredients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Schinasi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes results from a systematic review and a series of meta-analyses of nearly three decades worth of epidemiologic research on the relationship between non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL and occupational exposure to agricultural pesticide active ingredients and chemical groups. Estimates of associations of NHL with 21 pesticide chemical groups and 80 active ingredients were extracted from 44 papers, all of which reported results from analyses of studies conducted in high-income countries. Random effects meta-analyses showed that phenoxy herbicides, carbamate insecticides, organophosphorus insecticides and the active ingredient lindane, an organochlorine insecticide, were positively associated with NHL. In a handful of papers, associations between pesticides and NHL subtypes were reported; B cell lymphoma was positively associated with phenoxy herbicides and the organophosphorus herbicide glyphosate. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was positively associated with phenoxy herbicide exposure. Despite compelling evidence that NHL is associated with certain chemicals, this review indicates the need for investigations of a larger variety of pesticides in more geographic areas, especially in low- and middle-income countries, which, despite producing a large portion of the world’s agriculture, were missing in the literature that were reviewed.

  7. Effect of Agricultural Amendments on Cajanus cajan (Pigeon Pea) and Its Rhizospheric Microbial Communities--A Comparison between Chemical Fertilizers and Bioinoculants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rashi; Bisaria, V S; Sharma, Shilpi

    2015-01-01

    Inoculation of leguminous seeds with bioinoculants has been practiced in agriculture for decades to ameliorate grain yield by enhanced growth parameters and soil fertility. However, effective enhancement of plant growth parameters results not only from the direct effects these bioinoculants impose on them but also from their non-target effects. The ability of bioinoculants to reduce the application of chemicals for obtaining optimum yield of legume appears to be of great ecological and economic importance. In the present study, we compared the influence of seed inoculation of Cajanus cajan with a microbial consortium, comprising Bacillus megaterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma harzianum, with that of application of chemical fertilizers on plant's growth parameters and its rhizospheric microbial communities. Real-time PCR assay was carried out to target the structure (16S rRNA) and function (nitrogen cycle) of rhizospheric microbiota, using both DNA and RNA as markers. The results showed that the microbial consortium was the most efficient in increasing grain yield (2.5-fold), even better than the recommended dose of chemical fertilizers (by 1.2-fold) and showed enhancement in nifH and amoA transcripts by 2.7- and 2.0-fold, respectively. No adverse effects of bioinoculants' application were observed over the rhizospheric microbial community, rendering the consortium to be safe for release in agricultural fields.

  8. Effect of Agricultural Amendments on Cajanus cajan (Pigeon Pea and Its Rhizospheric Microbial Communities--A Comparison between Chemical Fertilizers and Bioinoculants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashi Gupta

    Full Text Available Inoculation of leguminous seeds with bioinoculants has been practiced in agriculture for decades to ameliorate grain yield by enhanced growth parameters and soil fertility. However, effective enhancement of plant growth parameters results not only from the direct effects these bioinoculants impose on them but also from their non-target effects. The ability of bioinoculants to reduce the application of chemicals for obtaining optimum yield of legume appears to be of great ecological and economic importance. In the present study, we compared the influence of seed inoculation of Cajanus cajan with a microbial consortium, comprising Bacillus megaterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma harzianum, with that of application of chemical fertilizers on plant's growth parameters and its rhizospheric microbial communities. Real-time PCR assay was carried out to target the structure (16S rRNA and function (nitrogen cycle of rhizospheric microbiota, using both DNA and RNA as markers. The results showed that the microbial consortium was the most efficient in increasing grain yield (2.5-fold, even better than the recommended dose of chemical fertilizers (by 1.2-fold and showed enhancement in nifH and amoA transcripts by 2.7- and 2.0-fold, respectively. No adverse effects of bioinoculants' application were observed over the rhizospheric microbial community, rendering the consortium to be safe for release in agricultural fields.

  9. Effects of chemical compositions and ensiling on the biogas productivity and degradation rates of agricultural and food processing by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, Gopi Krishna; Kim, Sang Hun

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of chemical compositions and ensiling on the biogas productivity and degradation rates of agricultural and food processing by-products (AFPBPs) using the biogas potential test. The AFPBPs were classified based on their chemical compositions (i.e., carbohydrate, protein and fat contents). The biogas and methane potentials of AFPBPs were calculated to range from 450 to 777 mL/g volatile solids (VS) and 260-543 mL/g VS, respectively. AFPBPs with high fat and protein contents produced significantly higher amounts of biogas than AFPBPs with high carbohydrate and low fat contents. The degradation rate was faster for AFPBPs with high carbohydrate contents compared to AFPBPs with high protein and fat contents. The lag phase and biogas production duration were lower when using ensiled AFPBPs than when using nonsilage AFPBPs. Among the four different silages tested, two silages significantly improved biogas production compared to the nonsilage AFPBPs.

  10. Influence of chemical properties of biomass plant agricultural origin on outlays energy incurred during the production of pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur KRASZKIEWICZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, was analysed made the measurements of the content of water, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulphur and chlorine in plant biomass of agricultural origin in the context of the impact of these features on the energy expenditures incurred in its pelleting. For the examined raw materials statistical analysis results showed negative linear trend between energy expenditures and: water content, total sulfur and chlorine. Positive linear trend between energy expenditures and: contents of carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen. Wherein the coefficients of correlation expenditures energy and: carbon, hydrogen and chlorine are significant p<0.05.

  11. Chemical properties of urban waste ash produced by open burning on the Jos Plateau: implications for agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquini, M W; Alexander, M J

    2004-02-05

    Urban centres produce most of the world's waste and between a third and a half goes uncollected. The answer to the problem of waste disposal lies partly in agriculture, as waste can be extremely nutrient-rich. In the last decade there has been a tremendous increase in the developing world in total city area under informal food production and there are many examples of waste recycling onto the urban or peri-urban plots. Farmers on the Jos Plateau, Nigeria, have developed a successful soil fertility management strategy based on the combination of inorganic fertilisers, manure and urban waste ash. This study sought to provide some preliminary data on urban waste ash produced by open burning and used in farming in a developing country. Ash samples were collected from different locations around Jos and tested for C, N, pH, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd and Pb. It was found that ash is an effective liming material (because of the high pH, and high Ca, Mg and K contents), and has the potential to contribute significant quantities of micro-nutrients such as Mn, Zn and Cu. Ash, however, is far from being a homogenous material and its variability means that its fertilising potential will vary between batches and that, even if mean and median levels are low, there is the risk of the formation of localised areas of soil with excessive heavy metal contents (this is particularly the case with Pb). Further research is required to determine the plant-availability of these elements in the ash and to assess the wider environmental and health implications of uncontrolled, open burning of waste as a means of producing ash for agricultural purposes.

  12. Potential chemical and microbiological risks on human health from urban wastewater reuse in agriculture. Case study of wastewater effluents in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Ivan; Tomàs, Núria; Mas, Jordi; García-Reyes, Juan Fracisco; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2010-05-01

    Potential health risks derived from wastewater reuse in agriculture have been evaluated with Risk Assessment modelling techniques, in a case study involving the effluents of two Spanish wastewater treatment plants. One of the plants applies primary and secondary treatment, and the other one applies an additional tertiary treatment. Health risks were assessed on the basis of ingesting contaminated food, due to exposure to: (i) 22 chemical pollutants, namely pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), and priority pollutants included in the European Framework Directive, and (ii) microorganisms, namely enterovirus. Chemical Risk Assessment has been carried out following the European Commission's technical guidelines, while risks from exposure to viruses have been evaluated by means of Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment, assuming a virus to coliform ratio of 1:10(5). The results of the chemical assessment show that there is a margin of safety above 100 for all substances, with the exception of gemfibrozil, for which the mean margin of safety (MOS) is above 100, but the lower bound of MOS with a 95 % confidence interval lies in the 3-4 range. A MOS under 100 was also found for 2,3,7,8-TCDD in one of the effluents. The assessment of risks from viruses shows a very low probability of infection. The overall results show that risks are lower for the plant applying tertiary treatment, especially concerning microbiological parameters.

  13. [Effects of agricultural activities and transgenic crops on agricultural biodiversity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-Tao; Luo, Hong-Bing; Li, Jun-Sheng; Huang, Hai; Liu, Yong-Bo

    2014-09-01

    Agricultural biodiversity is a key part of the ecosystem biodiversity, but it receives little concern. The monoculture, environmental pollution and habitat fragmentation caused by agricultural activities have threatened agricultural biodiversity over the past 50 years. To optimize agricultural management measures for crop production and environmental protection, we reviewed the effects of agricultural activities, including cultivation patterns, plastic mulching, chemical additions and the cultivation of transgenic crops, on agricultural biodiversity. The results showed that chemical pesticides and fertilizers had the most serious influence and the effects of transgenic crops varied with other factors like the specific transgene inserted in crops. The environmental risk of transgenic crops should be assessed widely through case-by-case methods, particularly its potential impacts on agricultural biodiversity. It is important to consider the protection of agricultural biodiversity before taking certain agricultural practices, which could improve agricultural production and simultaneously reduce the environmental impacts.

  14. Influence of resting and pine sawdust application on chemical changes in post-agricultural soil and the ectomycorrhizal community of growing Scots pine saplings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małecka Monika

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in chemical compounds and in ectomycorrhizal structure were determined for Scots pine growing on post agricultural soil lying fallow for 3, 6 and 15 years, after amendment with pine sawdust. Soil without any amendments was used as the control treatment. Comparing the ectomycorrhizal structure 15 years after the application of pine sawdust revealed no significant differences in abundance or species richness between soil with and without organic enrichment. The results showed that the ectomycorrhizal status depends on soil conditions (soil pH, nitrogen content, which remain unaffected by saw dust application. In all treatments, the most frequently occurring ectomycorrhizae genera were Dermocybe, Hebeloma, Suillus, Tomentella and Tricholoma. Two species (Paxillus involutus, Amanita muscaria were specific to the control plots that lay fallow for 15 years.

  15. A nontoxic polypeptide oligomer with a fungicide potency under agricultural conditions which is equal or greater than that of their chemical counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Sara; Carreira, Alexandra; Freitas, Regina; Pinheiro, Ana Margarida; Ferreira, Ricardo Boavida

    2015-01-01

    There are literally hundreds of polypeptides described in the literature which exhibit fungicide activity. Tens of them have had attempted protection by patent applications but none, as far as we are aware, have found application under real agricultural conditions. The reasons behind may be multiple where the sensitivity to the Sun UV radiation can come in first place. Here we describe a multifunctional glyco-oligomer with 210 kDa which is mainly composed by a 20 kDa polypeptide termed Blad that has been previously shown to be a stable intermediary product of β-conglutin catabolism. This oligomer accumulates exclusively in the cotyledons of Lupinus species, between days 4 and 12 after the onset of germination. Blad-oligomer reveals a plethora of biochemical properties, like lectin and catalytic activities, which are not unusual per si, but are remarkable when found to coexist in the same protein molecule. With this vast range of chemical characteristics, antifungal activity arises almost as a natural consequence. The biological significance and potential technological applications of Blad-oligomer as a plant fungicide to agriculture, its uniqueness stems from being of polypeptidic in nature, and with efficacies which are either equal or greater than the top fungicides currently in the market are addressed.

  16. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity of Essential oil obtained from DCM Extracts of Psoralea corylifolia against Agricultural pest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Gupta

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The insecticidal activity of essential oils obtained from DCM extracts of Psoralea corylifolia (Fabaceae against pupa of Epilachna insect was investigated in a series of laboratory experiments. Insecticidal activity was determined at 24 ± 4⁰C and 68 ± 5% R.H., in dark conditions. The DCM extracts of the dried seeds of the plants were subjected to Column chromatography and the oil obtained was then subjected to hydrodistillation using a Clevenger type apparatus. The major components in these essential oils are identified using GC-MS spectroscopy and their insecticidal activity was tested. The predominant components in the oil of Psoralea corylifolia are toluene, alpha-pinene, L-beta-pinene, beta-pinene, 3-carene, limonene, Gamma terpinene, terpinolene, alpha santolina alcohol, 4-terpineol, Cyclohexene, 1-methyl-4-(1-methyl ethenyl, caryophyllene, alpha caryophyllene, thumbergene. The mortality rate of the agricultural pests was checked against 1%, 5% and 10% conc. of essential oil. The essential oil from Psoralea corylifolia shows strong toxic effect against pupa of Epilachna insect. Finding insecticidal activity is of great importance as using plant extracts as insecticides, are biodegrable and do not leave toxic residues results in better crop and better human health.

  17. An investigation analysis on agricultural chemical marketing management in Fangchenggang City%防城港市农药经营管理情况调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑德剑

    2009-01-01

    农药作为防治农作物病虫害的特殊商品,它的使用对确保农业生产丰收起着关键性作用,随着使用量的逐年增加,其经营利润也凸显出来,因此而产生了一系列的经营和管理的问题.本文通过实地调查与资料调查相结合的办法,对防城港市农药经营管理进行了调查,结果表明,农药经营管理存在经营不规范、安全意识不高、监管不到位等问题,并对存在的问题进行了深入的分析,提出了规范农药市场的经营管理应对策略.%As the special commodities for controlling crop diseases and insects, agricultural chemical's utilization makes a key function on ensure farming harvest and along with their application increase yearly, their profit is becoming bigger and bigger and a series of problems in marketing management are occurred. Based on field investigation and data collection, this paper has analyzed the management situation of agricultural chemical in Fangchenggang City, and the results show that there are some problems such as nonstandard marketing, lower security awareness, weaker supervision etc. This paper has also analyzed the existing problems and put forward measures to enhance marketing management.

  18. CHEMICAL VALORIZATION OF AGRICULTURAL BY-PRODUCTS: ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF XYLAN-BASED ANTIOXIDANTS FROM ALMOND SHELL BIOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ebringerová

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of non-cellulosic polysaccharides from both almond shells and their solid residue after autohydrolysis using a two-step alkaline extraction without and in combination with short ultrasonic treatment was investigated. The obtained polysaccharide preparations were characterized by yield, chemical composition and structural features, and the antioxidant activity of the water-soluble preparations was discussed in relation to the content of phenolics. The results suggested that, depending on the extraction conditions used, xylan associated to various extent with pectic polysaccharides and phenolics can be prepared, and the reaction time significantly shortened by application of ultrasound. The xylan polymers might serve as biopolymer sources in native form or after targeted modification for production of value-added substances and polysaccharide-based antioxidants, applicable in food, cosmetics and other areas.

  19. Influence of a combination of agricultural chemicals on embryos of the endangered gold-striped salamander (Chioglossa lusitanica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Santaliestra, M E; Fernández-Benéitez, M J; Lizana, M; Marco, A

    2011-05-01

    Pollution from agrochemicals may be contributing to the global decline of amphibian populations. Environmentally relevant concentrations of a fertiliser, ammonium nitrate, and a commercial formulation of the herbicide glyphosate Roundup Plus were tested on the embryonic development of Chioglossa lusitanica. This study introduces new data at three different levels. First, we provide previously unknown information about hatchling traits of C. lusitanica. Second, we present the first ecotoxicological study of this endangered species, to which environmental pollution is considered a major threat. Third, we conduct the first experiment with an amphibian species exposed to a mixture of a glyphosate-based herbicide and a nitrogenous fertiliser. Control individuals hatched with an average (±SD) total length of 18.77 (±2.02) mm and at an average Harrison's developmental stage of 44.58 (±1.24). Mean hatching time among controls was 11.52 (±1.29) weeks. None of the chemicals or their interaction produced lethal effects; however, a significant interaction was found when analysing total length at hatching. Individuals exposed to the herbicide hatched at a larger size than controls, and this effect was especially clear when the fertiliser was added to the water. The absence of pollutant-related mortality or severe sublethal effects is in agreement with most studies indicating a high tolerance of amphibian embryos to agrochemicals. However, further research considering other life stages and additional natural factors (i.e., predators, food availability) is needed to estimate the ecological impact of chemical mixtures on C. lusitanica.

  20. USSR Report, Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    rations for ruminant animals. Its preparation from corn of milky-waxy ripeness, assuming the observance of all of the technological requirements, makes...combines of the agricultural chemicals association or on the kolkhozes and sovkhozes for the preservation of liquid preservatives or special means of...Tatar combine of the agricultural chemicals association, liquid preserv- atives are kept in wide-diameter polytheylene pipes.. A storage unit with

  1. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  2. Determination of the composition of the organic matter chemically stabilized by agricultural soil clay minerals: Spectroscopy and Density Fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oufqir, Sofia; Bloom, Paul; Toner, Brandy; Hatcher, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    The interactions between soil organic matter and clay minerals are considered important processes because of their ability to sequester C in soil for long periods of time, and hence control C in the global C cycle when present. However, differing results have been reported regarding the composition of the soil organic matter - aromatic fractions versus aliphatic fractions - associated with clay minerals. To clarify this critical issue and better understand the C sequestration process in soils, we aimed to determine the nature of the chemically bound natural organic matter on clay surfaces, and to probe the speciation and spatial distribution of C in the soil clay nanoparticles using direct spectroscopic measurements namely solid-state CP-MAS and DP-MAS 13C NMR spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), and scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM). We tested the hypotheses that peptides and polysaccharides are stabilized by the smectite-illite clay while the lipids and black carbon are a separate phase; and that they are evenly distributed on clay surfaces. A soil clay fraction (5.5% organic C) was isolated from the surface of a prairie soil (Mollisol) in southwestern Minnesota, characterized by a pH 6.0, 32.5% clay content, and 3.7% organic carbon, using a sonication-sedimentation-siphoning process in distilled water. Then was subjected to density separation combined with low energy ultrasonic dispersion to separate the free organic and black C (light fraction) from the chemically bound C (heavy fraction). The XRD results indicated a dominance of interstratified smectite-illite clays in soil. The 13C-NMR spectra of the soil clay fraction suggested that polysaccharides and polypeptides are the prevailing components of the organic matter associated with the mineral clay, with only a minor component of aromatic C. The light fraction has strong alkyl C-H bands characteristic of fatty acids plus strong C-O bands characteristic of polysaccharides, including

  3. A Farming Revolution: Sustainable Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinkenborg, Verlyn

    1995-01-01

    Growing realization of the economic, social, and environmental costs of conventional agriculture has led many U.S. farmers to embrace and become advocates for agricultural practices that limit the need for pesticides and chemical fertilizers, decrease soil erosion, and improve soil health. Some hope that sustainable agriculture can promote smaller…

  4. {sup 37}Cl, {sup 15}N, {sup 13}C isotopic analysis of common agro-chemicals for identifying non-point source agricultural contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annable, W.K. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada)]. E-mail: wkannabl@uwaterloo.ca; Frape, S.K. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Shouakar-Stash, O. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Shanoff, T. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Drimmie, R.J. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Harvey, F.E. [School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588-0517 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    The isotopic compositions of commercially available herbicides were analyzed to determine their respective {sup 15}N, {sup 13}C and {sup 37}Cl signatures for the purposes of developing a discrete tool for tracing and identifying non-point source contaminants in agricultural watersheds. Findings demonstrate that of the agrochemicals evaluated, chlorine stable isotopes signatures range between {delta}{sup 37}Cl = -4.55 per mille and +3.40 per mille , whereas most naturally occurring chlorine stable isotopes signatures, including those of road salt, sewage sludge and fertilizers, vary in a narrow range about the Standard Mean Ocean Chloride (SMOC) between -2.00 per mille and +1.00 per mille . Nitrogen stable isotope values varied widely from {delta}{sup 15}N = -10.86 per mille to +1.44 per mille and carbon stable isotope analysis gave an observed range between {delta}{sup 13}C = -37.13 per mille and -21.35 per mille for the entire suite of agro-chemicals analyzed. When nitrogen, carbon and chlorine stable isotope analyses were compared in a cross-correlation analysis, statistically independent isotopic signatures exist suggesting a new potential tracer tool for identifying herbicides in the environment.

  5. Pretreated cheese whey wastewater management by agricultural reuse: chemical characterization and response of tomato plants Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. under salinity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prazeres, Ana R; Carvalho, Fátima; Rivas, Javier; Patanita, Manuel; Dôres, Jóse

    2013-10-01

    The agricultural reuse of pretreated industrial wastewater resulting from cheese manufacture is shown as a suitable option for its disposal and management. This alternative presents attractive advantages from the economic and pollution control viewpoints. Pretreated cheese whey wastewater (CWW) has high contents of biodegradable organic matter, salinity and nutrients, which are essential development factors for plants with moderate to elevated salinity tolerance. Five different pretreated CWW treatments (1.75 to 10.02 dS m(-1)) have been applied in the tomato plant growth. Fresh water was used as a control run (average salinity level=1.44 dS m(-1)). Chemical characterization and indicator ratios of the leaves, stems and roots were monitored. The sodium and potassium leaf concentrations increased linearly with the salinity level in both cultivars, Roma and Rio Grande. Similar results were found in the stem sodium content. However, the toxic sodium accumulations in the cv. Roma exceeded the values obtained in the cv. Rio Grande. In this last situation, K and Ca uptake, absorption, transport and accumulation capacities were presented as tolerance mechanisms for the osmotic potential regulation of the tissues and for the ion neutralization. Consequently, Na/Ca and Na/K ratios presented lower values in the cv. Rio Grande. Na/Ca ratio increased linearly with the salinity level in leaves and stems, regardless of the cultivar. Regarding the Na/K ratio, the values demonstrated competition phenomena between the ions for the cv. Rio Grande. Despite the high chloride content of the CWW, no significant differences were observed for this nutrient in the leaves and stems. Thus, no nitrogen deficiency was demonstrated by the interaction NO3(-)/Cl(-). Nitrogen also contributes to maintain the water potential difference between the tissues and the soil. Na, P, Cl and N radicular concentrations were maximized for high salinity levels (≥2.22 dS m(-1)) of the pretreated CWW.

  6. Earthworm tolerance to residual agricultural pesticide contamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givaudan, Nicolas; Binet, Françoise; Le Bot, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates if acclimatization to residual pesticide contamination in agricultural soils is reflected in detoxification, antioxidant enzyme activities and energy budget of earthworms. Five fields within a joint agricultural area exhibited different chemical and farming histories from ...

  7. Agricultural Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  8. Fermentation Results and Chemical Composition of Agricultural Distillates Obtained from Rye and Barley Grains and the Corresponding Malts as a Source of Amylolytic Enzymes and Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Balcerek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the efficiency of rye and barley starch hydrolysis in mashing processes using cereal malts as a source of amylolytic enzymes and starch, and to establish the volatile profile of the obtained agricultural distillates. In addition, the effects of the pretreatment method of unmalted cereal grains on the physicochemical composition of the prepared mashes, fermentation results, and the composition of the obtained distillates were investigated. The raw materials used were unmalted rye and barley grains, as well as the corresponding malts. All experiments were first performed on a semi-technical scale, and then verified under industrial conditions in a Polish distillery. The fermentable sugars present in sweet mashes mostly consisted of maltose, followed by glucose and maltotriose. Pressure-thermal treatment of unmalted cereals, and especially rye grains, resulted in higher ethanol content in mashes in comparison with samples subjected to pressureless liberation of starch. All agricultural distillates originating from mashes containing rye and barley grains and the corresponding malts were characterized by low concentrations of undesirable compounds, such as acetaldehyde and methanol. The distillates obtained under industrial conditions contained lower concentrations of higher alcohols (apart from 1-propanol than those obtained on a semi-technical scale.

  9. Topical Hazard Evaluation Program of Candidate Insect Repellent AI3-30180-c, US Department of Agriculture Proprietary Chemical, April 1982 - September 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-10

    irritation photochemical chemical and 10 percent reaction under test con- irritation in humans. (wlv) Oil of Bergamot ditions. 2 * - Study No. 75-51-0367-85...control (oil of Bergamot ), than unirradiated skin areas. a and diluent were applied to additional skin areas to serve as unirradiated control sites

  10. Topical Hazard Evaluation Program of Candidate Insect Repellent A13-38349a US Department of Agriculture Proprietary Chemicals, July 1981-January 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-16

    reaction (w/v) Oil of Bergamot irritation reaction under test (positive control) in 95% under test conditions and is ethyl alcohol was conditions, not...the rabbits, 0.05 mL cation and irradiation of the test chemical, caused greater irritant positive control (oil of effects than in un- Bergamot ) and

  11. Effects of residential and agricultural land uses on the chemical quality of baseflow of small streams in the Croton Watershed, southeastern New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisig, Paul M.

    2000-01-01

    Data on the chemical quality of baseflow from 33 small streams that drain basins of differing land-use type and intensity within the Croton watershed were collected seasonally for 1 year to identify and characterize the quality of ground-water contributions to surface water. The watershed includes twelve of New York City's water-supply reservoirs. Baseflow samples were collected a minimum of three days after the most recent precipitation and were analyzed for major ions, boron, and nutrients.

  12. Alternative Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Will the popularization of bioenergy, a new source for powering China, trigger another agricultural revolution? Skyrocketing energy prices, especially the oil shock in the first half of 2005, are pushing China to seek more substitutes for gasoline. A number of cities are turning to ethanol-blended gas made from com. Starting this month, the sale of regular gasoline will be brought to an end in nine of China's

  13. 提高化肥利用率 发展低碳农业%Rise in Utilization Ratio of Chemical Fertilizers and Development of Low-Carbon Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵建华; 沈静; 陈绍荣; 杨树祥; 朱树丽; 施红贵

    2012-01-01

    提高肥料利用率、创新肥料生产技术是发展低碳经济的需要.提高农作物吸收养分能力、测土平衡施肥、开发新型肥料、利用有机废弃资源生产有机肥、加速秸秆应用研究是提高肥料利用率的有效途径,不仅可减轻化肥对环境的污染,而且还可以增强农作物的抗病、抗寒、抗高温的能力,提高农业投入产出比,进而实现农业低碳经济.%Rise in fertilizer utilization ratio and innovation in fertilizer production technology are necessary for the development of low-carbon economy. Improvement on nutrient absorption ability of crops, balanced fertilizer application based on soil analysis, development of new types of fertilizers, utilization of abandoned organic waste resources for the production of organic manures, and speeding up of application study of straw are effective ways to improve fertilizer utilization ratio, thereby not only lessening environment pollution by chemical fertilizers, but also improving the ability of crops to resist diseases, cold and high temperature , raising the ratio of agricultural input to output, and then realizing low-carbon economy in agriculture.

  14. Morphological and chemical diversity in the Type IV glandular trichomes of Solananeae (S. sisymbrifolium and N. glauca) as germplasm resources for agricultural and food uses

    OpenAIRE

    Cesio, Verónica; Dutra,Carmelo; Moyna,Patrick; Heinzen, Horacio

    2006-01-01

    Morphological variation in type IV trichomes in Ss and Ng was studied through SEM. The differences can be related to chemical differences in the excreted sugar esters. Ng trichomes exude two fractions, one of glucose tri-esters and the other one of sucrose tetra-esters, in a 3:7 ratio. The main acid found forming these esthers, is 3-methylvalerianic acid, in consonance to those secreted by other Solanaceae. Esters from Ss are novel structures, which can also be separated into three fractions,...

  15. The Influence of Agricultural Mechanization on the Development of Agricultural Economy in Chongqing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changsheng; QIU

    2015-01-01

    The impact of the agricultural mechanization development on the agricultural economy has caught public attention. In this paper,the role of the agricultural mechanization in the agricultural economic development of Chongqing is analyzed with the qualitative and quantitative methods based on econometrics and agricultural engineering theory,and its contribution rate is 30. 6%. Moreover,the development of agricultural mechanization of the agricultural economy will play a leading role in the 21 st century,and will change the traditional economic development mode featured by increasing agricultural labor and chemical fertilizer. The quality and quantity of agricultural labor force mastering modern science technology is the key to the development of modern agricultural economy.

  16. Application of Chemical Regulating Technology for Utilization of Water and Fertilizer in Dry-land Agriculture%化学调控技术在旱地水肥利用中的应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨培岭; 廖人宽; 任树梅; 李云开

    2013-01-01

    The issue on the theme of efficient utilization of water and fertilizer in dry-land agriculture was discussed.The mechanism of action of three typical chemical agents (soil conditioner-PAM,water retaining agent-SAP,antitranspirant-FA) in regulation of water and fertilizer and its application methods were introduced.Research of chemical regulating technology on four important parts were emphatically reviewed (enhancement of the accumulation of water and fertilizer,improvement of the soil and water conservation,improvement of the utilization of crop to water and fertilizer,increasing of the crop yield and quality) in dry-land agriculture production.Finally,the future important research directions were proposed.%围绕旱地农业生产中的水肥资源高效利用展开讨论,主要介绍了以3种典型化学调控制剂(土壤改良剂PAM、土壤保水剂SAP和蒸腾抑制剂FA)为代表的化学调控技术在旱地农业水肥资源利用方面的调控机制和应用方法,重点对化学调控技术在旱地农业生产中的增强水肥保蓄、提高坡地水土保持、改善作物水肥利用性能及提升作物品质和产量4个重要环节上的应用研究进行了综述,最后提出未来化学调控技术在旱地农业中应用的重点研究方向.

  17. Comparison and Analysis of Chemical Characteristics of Typical Agricultural Biomass%典型农业生物质化学特性的比较与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王璐; 黄历; 陶懿伟; 刘荣厚

    2014-01-01

    The rice straw, corn stalks, rape straw and cotton stalks from Anhui , Jiangxi and Shanghai were used as test samples .In order to deduce a proper energy utilization method of them , their chemical characteristics were analyzed and compared .The results show that rice straw is more suitable for producing ethanol .Corn stalks are more likely to be con-verted into CO , CO2 in thermo-chemical conversion , while cotton stalks are easily converted into CH 4 .Cotton stalks and corn stalks are not suitable for pyrolysis to produce bio-oil .Rape straw is not suitable for direct combustion for power generation .The research provides a reference for raw material selection for biomass energy production and utilization .%以安徽省、江西省和上海市的典型生物质农作物秸秆(水稻秸秆、玉米秸秆、油菜秸秆和棉花秸秆)作为研究对象,通过测试生物质的化学组成特性,比较分析不同种类秸秆性质的异同,推断不同秸秆适宜的能源化利用途径。结果表明:玉米秸秆热化学转换时更易转化为 CO、CO2,棉花秸秆热化学转换时更易转化为 CH4;棉花秸秆不适合热裂解液化生成生物油,其次为玉米秸秆;水稻秸秆更适合生产乙醇;油菜秸秆不适于直燃发电。本研究可以为3个地区不同类型生物质能源利用时的原料选择及热化学转化设备的改进提供参考。

  18. Nitrate in ground water and water sources used by riparian trees in an agricultural watershed: A chemical and isotopic investigation in southern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komor, Stephen C.; Magner, J.

    1996-01-01

    This study evaluates processes that affect nitrate concentrations in groundwater beneath riparian zones in an agricultural watershed. Nitrate pathways in the upper 2 m of groundwater were investigated beneath wooded and grass-shrub riparian zones next to cultivated fields. Because trees can be important components of the overall nitrate pathway in wooded riparian zones, water sources used by riparian trees and possible effects of trees on nitrate concentrations in groundwater were also investigated. Average nitrate concentrations in shallow groundwater beneath the cultivated fields were 5.5 mg/L upgradient of the wooded riparian zone and 3.5 mg/L upgradient of the grass-shrub zone. Shallow groundwater beneath the fields passed through the riparian zones and discharged into streams that had average nitrate concentrations of 8.5 mg/L (as N). Lateral variations of δD values in groundwater showed that mixing among different water sources occurred beneath the riparian zones. In the wooded riparian zone, nitrate concentrations in shallow groundwater were diluted by upwelling, nitrate-poor, deep groundwater. Upwelling deep groundwater contained ammonium with a δ15N of 5‰ that upon nitrification and mixing with nitrate in shallow groundwater caused nitrate δ15N values in shallow groundwater to decrease by as much as 19.5‰. Stream water penetrated laterally beneath the wooded riparian zone as far as 19 m from the stream's edge and beneath the grass-shrub zone as far as 27 m from the stream's edge. Nitrate concentrations in shallow groundwater immediately upgradient of where it mixed with stream water averaged 0.4 mg/L in the wooded riparian zone and 0.8 mg/L near the grass-shrub riparian zone. Nitrate concentrations increased toward the streams because of mixing with nitrate-rich stream water. Because nitrate concentrations were larger in stream water than shallow groundwater, concentrated nitrate in the streams cannot have come from shallow groundwater at these

  19. Chemical characterization of ash generated from alfalfa stem gasification: Agricultural and environmental implications. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, C.; Mozaffari, M.; Russelle, M.; Nater, E.

    1997-10-30

    This progress report provides results of Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedures (TCLP) and Synthetic Leachate Test Procedure (SLTP) for the alfalfa stem ash. The TCLP simulates solute leaching in landfill by using acetic acid as a solvent and SLTP simulates potential for leaching from synthetic acid rain. This report also provides information on detailed chemical characterization of organic and inorganic constituents of the ash. The analysis performed includes information on compounds that may represent a potential risk to human or animal health and those constituents that may have beneficial use as soil amendments and conditioners. A sample of the fly (filter) ash from the test burn conducted in Finland was received in May 1997 and used for initial investigation. Three additional fly ash samples and one sample of bottom ash (reactor bed ash) were received in June 1997. The samples were either tested at the University of Minnesota or sent to a reputable laboratory, and various tests were conducted according to the standard methods. The result of the comprehensive tests conducted in May 1997 (report submitted previously) were used as a screening procedure for conducting tests on June 1997 samples. To provide a more comprehensive representation of ash characteristics the results for fly ash received in May are presented along with results from fly ash samples received in July. The average, range and coefficient of variation (CV) are provided. The TCLP and SLTP tests conducted in the laboratory indicated that the concentration of heavy metals were below or close to the detection limits for fly and bottom ash samples (Tables 1 and 2). The ash was also characterized for a number of classes of organic compounds that may pose potential environmental or health risks. These are polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), total and individual dioxin and furan compounds.

  20. AGRICULTURAL USES OF SEAWEEDS EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Popescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine bioactive substances extracted from seaweed are currently used in food, animal feed, as a raw material in the industry and have therapeutic applications. Most of the products based on marine algae are extracted from Brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum. The use of extracts of seaweed in agriculture is beneficial because the amount of chemical fertilizers and obtaining organic yield.

  1. Chemical and biochemical properties of Stagnic Albeluvisols organic matter as result of long-term agricultural management and native forest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astover, Alar; Kõlli, Raimo; Wojciech Szajdak, Lech

    2010-05-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is considered to be as the most important factor in soil forming, development and continuous functioning. Sequestrated into SOM organic carbon concentrations, pools and residence time in soil, as well acting intensity of interconnected with SOM edaphon are soil type specific or characteristic to certain soil types. In depending on soil moisture regime, calcareousness and clay content for each soil type certain soil organic carbon (SOC) retaining capacity and its vertical distribution pattern are characteristic. However, land use change (crop rotation, continuous cropping, no-tillage, melioration, rewetting) has greatest influence mainly on fabric of epipedon and biological functions of soil cover. Stagnic Albeluvisols are largely distributed at Tartu County. They form here more than half from arable soils. The establishment of long-term field trial and forest research area in these regions for biochemical analysis of Stagnic Albeluvisols' organic matter is in all respects justified. In 1989, an international long-term experiment on the organic nitrogen or IOSDV (Internationale Organische Stickstoffdauerdiingungsversuche) with three-field crop rotation (potato - spring wheat - spring barley) was started at Eerika near Tartu (58° 22.5' N; 26° 39.8' E) on Stagnic Albeluvisol. The main aims of this study were to determine the long-term effects of cropping systems on physico-chemical properties of soils and their productivity. The design of this field experiment is similar to other European network of IOSDV experiments. Before the establishment of this experiment in 1989 it was in set-aside state (5-6 years) as field-grass fallow. It was used as arable land in condition of state farm during 1957-83. Average agrochemical characteristics of the plough horizon of soil in the year of establishment were the following: humus content 17.1 g kg-1, total nitrogen content 0.9 g kg-1, C:N ratio 11 and pHKCl 6.3. DL soluble phosphorus content was 44 mg

  2. Agriculture ideas and modernization of agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Kangmin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of agriculture has its own history from primitive agriculture, traditional agriculture to modem agriculture. Is it a historical road we must follow?Human being had experienced a long history of living on collection and hunting for about 2,000 to 3,000 millenniums since human being appeared on earth. After we settled down, another 10 millenniums passed. Human being began to cultivate crops and raise animals. Thus, we entered the primitive agriculture stage. The primitive agriculture lasted for 7,000 years to get our food security on primitive crop cultivation and animal raising.

  3. Occupational Allergic Hazards of Agricultural Chemicals and Its Prevention%对农药引起敏感性疾病的综合、系统预防体系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    上田厚; 原田幸一; 大森昭子; 魏长年; 今村和彦; 韦庆军; 皆本景子

    2005-01-01

    .The main methods are the inhalation provocation test for the immediate-type allergy and the patch testing and the guinea pig maximization test for the delayed-type allergy,now developing the method using cultured cells .At the present time,a comprehensive-organized-consecutive control model is tried to be settled to detect the allergenic effect of the pesticides and to establish appropriate control measures for the workers,based on the results from our investigations. Our moded is consisted of 6 steps and figured as a flow chart as follows:1)Detecting suspected chemicals and agricultural works to develop allergy and allergic workers by field surveys;2)Biblio graphical references on allergenic effect to the suspected chemicals and works;3)Confirmation of propriety to reported allergenic effect;4)If no report on allergenic effect to the suspected chemicals,experimental investigation is settled to confirm allergenic effect;5)If confirmed the allergenic effect,experimental determination on dose-effect and dose-response relationships of allergenic effect to the suspected chemicals;6)Establishment and conducting the control measures for agricultural workers and work conditions. Finally,it is proposea to found the regional allergy and immunoloy center to manage above control system effectively.

  4. BIODYNAMIC AGRICULTURE - ECO-FRIENDLY AGRICULTURAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselka Vlahova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodynamic agriculture is undoubtedly the oldest organized agricultural movement in the world. It is considered as an organic agricultural farming approach and determined as the oldest organized alternative agricultural movement in the world. In 1924 Rudolf Steiner – an Austrian natural scientist and philosopher, carried out a series of eight lectures in Koberwitz, currently Kobierzyce- Poland, where he formulated his visions on changes in agriculture and revealed his spiritual and scientific concepts about the connection between nature and agriculture by determining the important role of agriculture for the future of humanity and thus he became known as “the father of anthroposophy”. The great ecological effect of the application of the biodynamic agriculture is expressed in soil preservation and preservation of the living organisms in the soil, as well as maintenance of the natural balance in the vegetable and animal kingdom.

  5. Agricultural Education at Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Donald E.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses educational reform in the context of agricultural education. Covers a recent report on agricultural education reform by the National Academy of Sciences, state legislative initiatives, and several recommendations for the future of agricultural education. (CH)

  6. Agricultural Tariff Tracker

    Data.gov (United States)

    Foreign Agricultural Service, Department of Agriculture — The Agricultural Tariff Tool is a web application that queries tariff schedules and rate information resulting from Free Trade Agreements (FTAs). All...

  7. Urban Agriculture Guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.J.; Jansma, J.E.; Dekking, A.J.G.; Klieverik, M.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The Urban Agriculture Guide describes the experiences, learning moments, tips and tricks of those involved in the initiatives of urban agriculture and an indication is provided of what is required to develop urban agriculture further in the Netherlands

  8. Methylotrophic bacteria in sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Tomar, Rajesh Singh; Lade, Harshad; Paul, Diby

    2016-07-01

    Excessive use of chemical fertilizers to increase production from available land has resulted in deterioration of soil quality. To prevent further soil deterioration, the use of methylotrophic bacteria that have the ability to colonize different habitats, including soil, sediment, water, and both epiphytes and endophytes as host plants, has been suggested for sustainable agriculture. Methylotrophic bacteria are known to play a significant role in the biogeochemical cycle in soil ecosystems, ultimately fortifying plants and sustaining agriculture. Methylotrophs also improve air quality by using volatile organic compounds such as dichloromethane, formaldehyde, methanol, and formic acid. Additionally, methylotrophs are involved in phosphorous, nitrogen, and carbon cycling and can help reduce global warming. In this review, different aspects of the interaction between methylotrophs and host plants are discussed, including the role of methylotrophs in phosphorus acquisition, nitrogen fixation, phytohormone production, iron chelation, and plant growth promotion, and co-inoculation of these bacteria as biofertilizers for viable agriculture practices.

  9. Análisis multivariado de propiedades químicas en Oxisoles con diferentes niveles de intervención agrícola Multivariate analysis of chemical properties in Oxisols with different levels of intervention agricultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús H Camacho-Tamayo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available La intervención humana en la producción agrícola influye directamente en la calidad del suelo, promoviendo alteraciones en las propiedades físicas y químicas, mediante el uso de fertilizantes, correctivos y prácticas de labranza. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar los cambios en las propiedades químicas de dos Oxisoles (Typic Hapludox y Typic Haplustox, con diferentes niveles de intervención (cultivos de pasto Brachiaria y rotaciones de maíz y soya, en el municipio de Puerto López (Meta-Colombia. Las muestras fueron tomadas en 42 puntos, distanciados 25 m perpendicularmente, entre 0 y 0.10 m y 0.10 y 0.20 m de profundidad, para un total de 168 muestras en los dos lotes. Los datos fueron analizados mediante análisis de varianza y técnicas de análisis multivariado, a través de componentes principales y agrupamiento jerárquico. Las propiedades estudiadas fueron carbono orgánico, pH, acidez intercambiable, aluminio intercambiable, P, Ca, Mg, P, Na, capacidad de intercambio catiónica efectiva (CICE, suma de bases y saturación de bases. La intervención agrícola se ve reflejada principalmente en la capa superficial del suelo, donde se presentaron los mayores valores de CO, Ca, Mg, K, P, SB y CICE, debido a la presencia de residuos de cosecha, así como a la aplicación de fertilizantes y correctivos.Human intervention in agricultural production affects directly soil quality by promoting changes in physical and chemical properties through the use of fertilizers, correctives and tillage practices (Brachiria and corn- soybean. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the chemical properties of two Oxisols (Typic Hapludox y Typic Haplustox with different intervention levels, in the municipality of Puerto Lopez (Meta-Colombia. Samples were taken at 42 points, spaced 25 m perpendicularly between 0-0, 10 my 0.10 and 0.20 m of deep, for a total of 168 samples in both fields. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance

  10. Chemical and microbiological water quality of subsurface agricultural drains during a field trial of liquid dairy manure effluent application rate and varying tillage practices, Upper Tiffin Watershed, southeastern Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Sheridan Kidd; Duris, Joseph W.

    2008-01-01

    A field trial was done in the Upper Tiffin River Watershed, in southeastern Michigan, to determine the influence of liquid dairy manure effluent (LDME) management practices on the quality of agricultural subsurface-drain water. Samples from subsurface drains were analyzed for nutrients, fecal-coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria, antibiotics, chemicals typically detected in wastewater, and the occurrence of genes indicating the presence of shiga-toxin-producing E. coli, or of bovine-specific Bacteroidetes bacteria. Samples were collected from November 2, 2006, to March 20, 2007, from eight subsurface drains under field plots that received no LDME and no tillage (controls) or received 4,000 or 8,000 gallons per acre (gal/acre) of LDME and either no tillage or two different types of tillage. The two types of tillage tested were (1) ground-driven, rotary, subsurface cultivation and (2) rolling-tine aeration. Samples were collected before LDME application and at 4 hours, and 1, 2, 6, 7, and 14 days post-application. Nutrient concentrations were high in subsurface-drain water throughout the field-trial period and could not be attributed to the field-trial LDME application. Of the 59 drain-water samples, including those collected before LDME application and control samples for each date, 56 had concentrations greater than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), Ecoregion VI recommended surface-water criterion for total phosphorus, and all samples had concentrations greater than the recommended total nitrogen criterion. Nitrate + nitrite nitrogen concentration exceeded 20 milligrams per liter for every sample and contributed most to the total nitrogen concentrations. Substantial increases in drain-water concentrations of organic and ammonia nitrogen and total phosphorus were found for all treatments, including controls, at 14 days post-application after 0.84 inch of rainfall over 2 days. E. coli concentrations exceeded the USEPA recreational

  11. Journal of Integrative Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Scope Journal of Integrative Agriculture (JIA), formerly Agricultural Sciences in China (ASC), founded in 2002, is an official publication of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS). JIA seeks to publish those papers that are influential and will significantly advance scientific understanding in agriculture fields worldwide.

  12. Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geophysical methods continue to show great promise for use in agriculture. The term “agricultural geophysics” denotes a subdiscipline of geophysics that is focused only on agricultural applications. The Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics was compiled to include a comprehensive overview of the geoph...

  13. Sustainable agriculture - selected papers

    OpenAIRE

    Krasowicz, Stanisław; Wrzaszcz, Wioletta; Zegar, Jozef St.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of research on socially sustainable agriculture. Features of sustainable agriculture. Sustainability of private farms in the light of selected criteria. Subsistence agricultural holdings and the sustainable development of agriculture. Sustainable farms in the light of the FADN data. Description of organic holdings in Poland.

  14. A threshold area ratio of organic to conventional agriculture causes recurrent pathogen outbreaks in organic agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adl, S; Iron, D; Kolokolnikov, T

    2011-05-01

    Conventional agriculture uses herbicides, pesticides, and chemical fertilizers that have the potential to pollute the surrounding land, air and water. Organic agriculture tries to avoid using these and promotes an environmentally friendly approach to agriculture. Instead of relying on herbicides, pesticides and chemical fertilizers, organic agriculture promotes a whole system approach to managing weeds, pests and nutrients, while regulating permitted amendments. In this paper, we consider the effect of increasing the total area of agricultural land under organic practices, against a background of conventional agriculture. We hypothesized that at a regional scale, organic agriculture plots benefit from existing in a background of conventional agriculture, that maintains low levels of pathogens through pesticide applications. We model pathogen dispersal with a diffusive logistic equation in which the growth/death rate is spatially heterogeneous. We find that if the ratio of the organic plots to conventional plots remains below a certain threshold l(c), the pest population is kept small. Above this threshold, the pest population in the organic plots grows rapidly. In this case, the area in organic agriculture will act as a source of pest to the surrounding region, and will always infect organic plots as they become more closely spaced. Repeated localized epidemics of pest outbreaks threaten global food security by reducing crop yields and increasing price volatility. We recommend that regional estimates of this threshold are necessary to manage the growth of organic agriculture region by region.

  15. Effective Factors in Achieving Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Sharghi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The indiscriminate use of chemical inputs led to severe degradation of resources in Iran. Therefore, considering the increasing population and growing demand of agricultural products, it seems necessary to achieve a sustainable agriculture. In this study, sustainable agriculture refers to a kind of agriculture which is ecologically appropriate, economically justifiable, and socially desirable. Approach: There were two objectives for this study .The first objective of this study was to identify the effective factors in achieving sustainable agriculture. The second objective was to categorize the effective factors in achieving sustainable agriculture. In this study the Delphi technique has been used. Sustainable agriculture expert researchers of statistical and related issues were 56 scholars selected from the experts in the research centers of Tehran and Yazd provinces. The instruments used in data collection were three series of questionnaires sent to the researchers via email, fax and mail. Results: Findings have shown that the researchers have identified effective factors in achieving sustainable agriculture in Iran as the sections of Infrastructure, policy-making, economy, society, participation, research, extension and education. From the 35 factors exposed to the researchers, the factors of attainment of researches related to sustainable agriculture by agricultural research institutions in Iran, Interaction and participation of researchers, extension educators, farmers and policy-makers of sustainable agriculture, attempt to give priority to those who are the most appropriate from the standpoint of practically creating interactive, logical as well as flexible planning system between different sections dealing with sustainable agriculture have gained the agreement of 100% researchers. Conclusion: The important conclusion is that the communication between extension, farmers and policymaker should be strengthened. So

  16. Potential use of a chemical leaching reject from a kaolin industry as agricultural fertilizer Uso potencial do resíduo químico lixiviado duma indústria de caulim como adubo de terras agrícolas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Rodrigues Ribeiro

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The industrial refining of kaolin involves the removal of iron oxides and hydroxides along with other impurities that cause discoloration of the final product and depreciate its commercial value, particularly undesirable if destined to the paper industry. The chemical leaching in the industrial processing requires treatments with sodium hyposulfite, metallic zinc, or sulfuric and phosphoric acids, in order to reduce, dissolve and remove ferruginous compounds. To mitigate the environmental impact, the acidic effluent from the leaching process must be neutralized, usually with calcium oxide. The resulting solid residue contains phosphorous, zinc, and calcium, among other essential nutrients for plant growth, suggesting its use as a macro and micronutrient source. Samples of such a solid industrial residue were used here to evaluate their potential as soil fertilizer in an incubation greenhouse experiment with two soil samples (clayey and medium-textured. The small pH shift generated by applying the residue to the soil was not a limiting factor for its use in agriculture. The evolution of the concentrations of exchangeable calcium, and phosphorous and zinc extractability by Mehlich-1 extractant during the incubation period confirms the potential use of this industrial residue as agricultural fertilizer.O beneficiamento industrial do caulim envolve a remoção de óxidos e hidróxidos de ferro e outras impurezas, que conferem coloração indesejável ao produto final e depreciam seu valor comercial, particularmente se destinado à indústria de papel. A lixiviação química, na linha de processamento industrial, pode ser feita com tratamentos com hipossulfito de sódio, zinco metálico e ácidos sulfúrico e fosfórico, para redução, solubilização e remoção de compostos ferruginosos. A fim de minimizar o impacto ambiental, o efluente ácido, procedente da etapa de lixiviação, deve ser inicialmente neutralizado, usualmente por óxido de c

  17. Geologic research in support of sustainable agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, L.P.; Herring, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The importance and role of the geosciences in studies of sustainable agriculture include such traditional research areas as, agromineral resource assessments, the mapping and classification of soils and soil amendments, and the evaluation of landscapes for their vulnerability to physical and chemical degradation. Less traditional areas of study, that are increasing in societal importance because of environmental concerns and research into sustainable systems in general, include regional geochemical studies of plant and animal trace element deficiencies and toxicities, broad-scale water quality investigations, agricultural chemicals and the hydrogeologic interface, and minimally processed and ion-exchange agrominerals. We discuss the importance and future of phosphate in the US and world based on human population growth, projected agromineral demands in general, and the unavailability of new, high-quality agricultural lands. We also present examples of studies that relate geochemistry and the hydrogeologic characteristics of a region to the bioavailability and cycling of trace elements important to sustainable agricultural systems. ?? 1993.

  18. PERFORMANCE OF ECOLOGICAL AGRICULTURE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CIPRIAN APOSTOL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The term ecological agriculture has been attributed by the European Union of Romania to define this system of agriculture and is similar with terms organic agriculture or biological agriculture, which are used in other member states. One of the main goals of ecological agriculture is the production of agricultural and food products fresh and genuine through processes created to respect nature and its systems. Thus, it prohibits the use of genetically modified organisms, fertilizers and synthetic pesticides, stimulators and growth regulators, hormones, antibiotics for livestock and the use of synthetic chemical fertilizers, drastic interventions on the soil, the introduction of genetically modified organisms, in the case of the cultivated soil. The study aims to highlight the main features of ecological agriculture and its impact on the national economy. Through a descriptive and comparative analysis of specific indicators are surprising the main aspects of ecological agriculture performance in Romania and are identified investment opportunities in this sector of the national economy. Following this study, it was found that ecological agriculture in Romania is quite performant and recorded a continuous development, but mainly in the production, not in the processing and trading of natural products, which is why investment in these areas would be welcome.

  19. Impacts of climate change on indirect human exposure to pathogens and chemicals from agriculture Impactos das mudanças climáticas sobre a exposição humana indireta a elementos patogênicos e químicos da agricultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair Boxall

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is likely to affect the nature of pathogens/ chemicals in the environment and their fate and transport. We assess the implications of climate change for changes in human exposures to pathogens/chemicals in agricultural systems in the UK and discuss the effects on health impacts, using expert input and literature on climate change; health effects from exposure to pathogens/chemicals arising from agriculture; inputs of chemicals/pathogens to agricultural systems; and human exposure pathways for pathogens/chemicals in agricultural systems. We established the evidence base for health effects of chemicals/pathogens in the agricultural environment; determined the potential implications of climate change on chemical/pathogen inputs in agricultural systems; and explored the effects of climate change on environmental transport and fate of various contaminants. We merged data to assess the implications of climate change in terms of indirect human exposure to pathogens/chemicals in agricultural systems, and defined recommendations on future research and policy changes to manage adverse increases in risks.É provável que a mudança climática afete a natureza, destino e transporte de elementos patogênicos/químicos no ambiente . Avaliamos as implicações das mudanças climáticas em mudanças na exposição humana a elementos patogênicos/químicos nos sistemas agrícolas no Reino Unido e discutimos os efeitos sobre os impactos à saúde, usando a contribuição de especialistas e literatura; efeitos à saúde da exposição a elementos patogênicos/químicos provenientes da agricultura; introdução de elementos químicos/patogênicos e caminhos de exposição humana a elementos patogênicos/químicos nos sistemas agrícolas. Definimos a base de evidência para efeitos de saúde de elementos químicos/patogênicos no ambiente agrícola; determinamos as possíveis implicações da mudança climática na introdução de elementos qu

  20. Health and safety risks in production agriculture.

    OpenAIRE

    Von Essen, S G; McCurdy, S A

    1998-01-01

    Production agriculture is associated with a variety of occupational illnesses and injuries. Agricultural workers are at higher risk of death or disabling injury than most other workers. Traumatic injury commonly occurs from working with machinery or animals. Respiratory illness and health problems from exposures to farm chemicals are major concerns, and dermatoses, hearing loss, certain cancers, and zoonotic infections are important problems. Innovative means of encouraging safe work practice...

  1. National Agriculture Imagery Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) acquires aerial imagery during the agricultural growing seasons in the continental U.S. A primary goal of the NAIP...

  2. Agricultural Libraries and Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Keith W., Ed.; Pisa, Maria G., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven articles address issues relating to agricultural libraries and information, including background on agricultural libraries and information, trend management, document delivery, reference services, user needs and library services, collection development, technologies for international information management, information sources,…

  3. Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Dick

    1997-01-01

    Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate…

  4. Urban Agricultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbellini, Margaret

    1991-01-01

    John Bourne High School in Queens, New York, offers an agricultural program enrolling more than 400 students. The curriculum includes agricultural career exploration, plant and animal science, summer land laboratories, and a special education component. (SK)

  5. Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Dick

    1997-01-01

    Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…

  6. Innovations in urban agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, van der J.W.; Renting, Henk; Veenhuizen, Van René

    2014-01-01

    This issuehighlights innovations in urban agriculture. Innovation and the various forms of innovations are of particular importance because urban agriculture is adapted to specific urban challenges and opportunities. Innovation is taking place continuously, exploring the multiple fundions of urban a

  7. Groundwater recharge and agricultural contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhlke, J.K.

    2002-01-01

    Agriculture has had direct and indirect effects on the rates and compositions of groundwater recharge and aquifer biogeochemistry. Direct effects include dissolution and transport of excess quantities of fertilizers and associated materials and hydrologic alterations related to irrigation and drainage. Some indirect effects include changes in water-rock reactions in soils and aquifers caused by increased concentrations of dissolved oxidants, protons, and major ions. Agrilcultural activities have directly or indirectly affected the concentrations of a large number of inorganic chemicals in groundwater, for example NO3-, N2, Cl, SO42-, H+, P, C, K, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, and As, as well a wide variety of pesticides and other organic compounds. For reactive contaminants like NO3-, a combination of chemical, isotopic, and environmental-tracer analytical approaches might be required to resolve changing inputs from subsequent alterations as causes of concentration gradients in groundwater. Groundwater records derived from multi-component hydrostratigraphic data can be used to quantify recharge rates and residence times of water and dissolved contaminants, document past variations in recharging contaminant loads, and identify natural contaminant-remediation processes. These data indicate that many of the world's surficial aquifers contain transient records of changing agricultural contamination from the last half of the 20th century. The transient agricultural groundwater signal has important implications for long-term trends and spatial heterogeneity in discharge.

  8. Innovations in urban agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This issuehighlights innovations in urban agriculture. Innovation and the various forms of innovations are of particular importance because urban agriculture is adapted to specific urban challenges and opportunities. Innovation is taking place continuously, exploring the multiple fundions of urban agriculture, including food security, income generation and environmental management.

  9. Chiral separation of agricultural fungicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Fernández, Virginia; García, Maria Ángeles; Marina, Maria Luisa

    2011-09-23

    Fungicides are very important and diverse environmental and agricultural concern species. Their determination in commercial formulations or environmental matrices, requires highly efficient, selective and sensitive methods. A significant number of these chemicals are chiral with the activity residing usually in one of the enantiomers. The different toxicological and degradation behavior observed in many cases for fungicide enantiomers, results in the need to investigate them separately. For this purpose, separation techniques such as GC, HPLC, supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and CE have widely been employed although, at present, HPLC still dominates chromatographic chiral analysis of fungicides. This review covers the literature concerning the enantiomeric separation of fungicides usually employed in agriculture grouping the chiral separation methodologies developed for their analysis in environmental, biological, and food samples.

  10. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES AND COMPETITION IN WORLD AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Duma

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural policies have had a guiding role inagriculture development and implicitly in their marketing. Usually they belongto each state and government and are issued in accordance with their specificclimate, social-economic and cultural background which includes food andgastronomic traditions. Agricultural policies have in view home and foreignmarket demand, as well as the socio-demographic, political and military contextat a certain point in the socio-economic development

  11. Agricultural policy schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2016-01-01

    in agricultural policy and they have different functions and impacts. Market price support and deficiency payments are two very important instruments in agricultural policy; however, they belong to two different support regimes or support systems. Market price support operates in the so-called high price system...... of direct support, while market prices are left undistorted at, or close to, world market level. The two different support systems have very different implications for agricultural production, financing, markets, and other aspects; still, there is an income transfer to agriculture in both systems. During...... the last decades, the composition of agricultural support has changed significantly. Market price support has decreased, and direct support has increased....

  12. Agricultural science and ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Vaarst, Mette

    2014-01-01

    , about 20 % of the world's coral reefs and 35 % of the mangrove areas were lost (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005). In the following, the development of agricultural science will be sketched out and the role of ethics in agricultural science will be discussed. Then different views of nature that have...... shaped agriculture and the role of science in agriculture will be discussed by analyzing some of the presumptions behind the concept of ecosystem services and the way animals are viewed. Finally, the concepts of animal welfare and sustainability will be explored to show how they make vivid the connection...... between agricultural science and ethics....

  13. EVALUATION OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF AGRICULTURAL SOILS IRRIGATED BY THE WATERS OF THE HYDROLIC BASIN OF SEBOU RIVER AND THEIR INFLUENCES ON THE TRANSFER OF TRACE ELEMENTS INTO SUGAR CROPS (THE CASE OF SUGAR CANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Benlkhoubi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted in Kenitra (northwestern Morocco to determine the physicochemical parameters and metallic concentrations at three levels: surface water of Sebou and Beht intended for irrigation, agricultural soils and sugarcane. The spectrometric analysis of source plasma emission (ICP has identified eight trace elements contained in the materials taken from zone 1 (As, Cd, Co, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cu and Cr.The obtained results showed that the interaction between the different physicochemical parameters of agricultural soils decides the transfer of the metal elements to the plants. Indeed, for the soil which is used in this agriculture (for sugar cane, its irrigation water, and the contents of Cr, Cd and As exceeds the accepted standards.The principal component analysis of the levels of trace metal supports in area 1, allowed to distinguish between the items with a high tolerance for bagasse (Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd and Pb, compared to Cr, Co, and As.

  14. 蚯蚓堆肥处理对不同物料农化性质的影响%Effect of Earthworm Composting on Agriculture Chemical Characteristics of Different Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳; 鄢海印; 杜亚琴; 梁俊文; 刘可星

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The objective was to study the change of the main agriculture chemical characteristics between raw material and earthworm faces. [ Method] Earthworm composted different ratio cattle manure,liquid,sludge and litter. [ Result] The results showed that pH closed to 7 and the contents of EC all increased. But compared the raw material with earthworm faces,the contents of the total N and available N descended excepted the treatment of 30% cattle manure + 70% sludge. The total P increased by 0 to 101.8% and available phosphorus increased by 13.6% to 57.2% ,the contents of available K increased by 6.9% to 33.7%. Earthworm composting accelerated the decomposition of organic matter. On the whole,the two treatments of 30% cattle manure + 70% sludge and 100% litter increased the most contents of available nutrient.And the quanity of bacteria,actinomycetes and fungus were higher than those of the treatment of 100% cattle manure. [Conclusion] By earthworm composting,it could increase the contents of available nutrient and the number of microorganism. 30% cattle manure + 70% sludge and 100% litter were the best.%[目的]研究蚯蚓堆肥前后进料和出料的主要农化性质的变化.[方法]蚯蚓堆肥处理不同比例的牛粪、药渣、污泥、枯枝落叶.[结果]pH趋于中性,EC增加;与进料相比,出料的全氮和速效氮含量(除30%牛粪+70%污泥处理外)表现出下降趋势;全磷和速效磷的含量均增加,增幅分别为0~101.8%,13.6%~57.2%;速效钾含量均增加,增幅为6.9%~33.7%;蚯蚓堆肥加快了有机物的分解,各处理有机质含量与进科相比都呈下降的趋势;整体上,30%牛粪+70%污泥和100%枯枝落叶2个处理的速效养分含量增加最多.蚯蚓堆制处理后,总体上各处理的细菌、放线菌、真菌数量均大于对照(100%牛粪).[结论]经过蚯蚓堆肥处理后,整体上能使速效养分含量和微生物数量增加,其中30%牛粪+70%污泥和100%枯枝落叶的效果最好.

  15. Agricultural uses of thermal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caglar, K.O.

    1973-01-01

    Hot and cold mineral waters are used in two ways in agriculture: one for irrigation and other as a heat resource. Irrigation is widely applied in Turkey when the chemical composition of water is found suitable for the purpose. However as a heat resource it is almost never used. Studies showed that the hot waters of Turkey have 4665 billion kcal (equivalent of 450 thousand tons) which means green-houses can be established over an area about 4665 decar for growing vegetable and fruits. The approximate income of the green houses is estimated millions of Turkish lira.

  16. Marx’s Agricultural Intensive Management Thought and Its Guiding Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Through analyzing Marx’s agricultural intensive management thought,this paper points out that the existence and development of agricultural management mode experience historical course and the development of agricultural intensification depends on many objective conditions.On the basis of this,it discusses the guiding significance of Marx’s agricultural intensive management thought to China’s agricultural development.It is required to fully realize basic current situations of China’s agriculture,widely popularize agricultural mechanization and electrification,speed up artificial transformation of soil structure,promote chemical application of agriculture,make rational use of water resource,and spread improved seeds.

  17. Promoting bio-fertilizers in Indian agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Nilabja Ghosh

    2003-01-01

    The green revolution brought impressive gains in food production but with insufficient concern for sustainability. In India the availability and affordability of fossil fuel based chemical fertilizers at the farm level have been ensured only through imports and subsidies. Dependence on chemical fertilizers for future agricultural growth would mean further loss in soil quality, possibilities of water contamination and unsustainable burden on the fiscal system. The Government of India has been ...

  18. Reorganization of Agricultural Extension toward Green Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. Allahyari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Considering unsustainable agricultural conditions of Iran and organizational recession and inability of current extension organization to achieve sustainability, it seems that extension systems require a new organizational structure to achieve sustainability objectives. The purpose of the present study was to identify the most appropriate characteristics for extension organization toward green agriculture in Iran context. Approach: To fulfill this objective, a sample of 120 respondents was selected through simple random sampling technique. A survey study was applied as a methodology of research. A mailed questionnaire was used to collect the data. The response rate of questionnaire was 65.83% (N = 79. Appropriate descriptive statistics such as mean scores, standard deviations and variation ratio were used. Results: Extension experts believed that among important organizational characteristics of extension system for supporting green agriculture collaboration among research, extension, education organizations, farmers' associations, NGOs, rural credit agencies, transportation companies, considering local groups and learning organization had very high importance for supporting green agriculture. According to factor analysis, the implications for extension organization were categorized into two groups consisting: (1 Holistic organizations (2 Participatory organizations that those factors explained 67.54% of the total variance of the research variables. Conclusion: Identifying suitable extension mechanisms had important role for developing extension system. Therefore, identifying extension organizational characteristics for supporting green agriculture of Iran is one of the major approaches needs to be carefully thought and accurately implemented for the extension system development.

  19. MODERNIZATION OF AGRICULTURE VS SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz KUSZ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the correlation between the need to modernise agriculture and sustainable development. Modernisation of agriculture aiming only at increasing the efficiency of production, if implemented in accordance with the principles of sustainable development, enabled reduction in the negative external effects. Modernisation of agriculture is supposed to ensure productivity growth without imposing any threats to the natural environment and the well-being of animals, reduced impoverishment in rural areas as well as to ensure food security, growth in the profitability of farms, improvement to the efficiency of use of natural resources. Therefore, in the near future, the agriculture – environment relation will be subject to change taking into account, on the one hand, concern about the natural environment, and, on the other, pressure on increasing the efficiency of production. The above challenges will be addressed by the need to implement efficient and, at the same time, environmentally-friendly production technologies and relevant legal instruments which oblige agricultural producers to protect the natural environment.

  20. Organic Agriculture and Nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Jahanban, Leila; Davari, Mohammadreza

    2014-01-01

    Organic agriculture is a holistic production management system which promotes and enhances agro-ecosystem health, including biodiversity, biological cycles and soil biological activity. On the other hand, nanotechnology is a rapidly developing domain of research and practice, the terminology is in a state of flux and usage is evolving. Nano-applications are being applied across the entire agriculture and food sectors. In agriculture, for example, nano-pesticides and nano-sensors are changing ...

  1. Ukraine Agricultural Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The agri-food sector is an important part of the Ukrainian economy. Agriculture could make an even larger contribution to economic growth and the vitality of rural areas in Ukraine than is currently the case. Ukraine has the agro-climatic potential to be a major player on world agricultural markets. Agricultural competitiveness in Ukraine also suffers from inadequate systems to test and do...

  2. Sustainable Agricultural Marketing Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Adanacıoğlu

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable marketing is a holistic approach that puts equal emphasis on environmental, social equity, and economic concerns in the development of marketing strategies. The purpose of the study is to examine and discuss the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced throughout the World and Turkey, and to put forth suggestions to further improve the performance of agricultural marketing initiatives in Turkey. Some of the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced a...

  3. Measuring agricultural policy bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    that the agricultural price incentive bias generally perceived to exist during the 1980s was largely eliminated during the 1990s. Results also demonstrate that general equilibrium effects and country-specific characteristics are crucial for determining the sign and magnitude of agricultural bias. Our comprehensive...... protection measure is therefore uniquely suited to capture the full impact of trade policies on relative agricultural price incentives....

  4. Regionalisation of Croatian Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdo Bašić

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available After becoming self-standing state one of new needs of Croatia important for agricultural profession, farmers, policy makers and public needs was regionalization of agriculture. It is the analyse of state of agroecological conditions in agrosphere and based on results identification and territorial separation of agricultural regions as parts of agrosphere with similar conditions for plant and animal growing and similar farming systems. On this track within a special project we fi nished an inventory of agrosphere, result of which is Regionalisation of Croatian Agriculture presented in this paper. Following wise message of old Chinese proverb cited above, the starting approach is the MFCAL concept (Multifunctional Character of Agriculture and Land, which means that apart from very important and primary economic, agriculture and agricultural land (soil in human life play other roles (functions of similar importance; environmental, social, cultural and spatial, as well as the role of shaping the cultural landscape as a factor of rural development. As well, we respect the point of view prevailing in EU that all natural resources used in agriculture but at the fi rst place soil as a major one, need sustainable use and efficient protection. Using the data on Land resource potential based primarily on data of General Soil Map of Croatia (GSM in a scale of 1:50 000 and results of our research in the period 2000 – 2003, the agrosphere of Croatia is divided in three agricultural regions; Pannonian with four, Mountain with two and Adriatic with three subregions.

  5. Agriculture - reconciling ancient tensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Atkinson

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making in agriculture has tended to be driven by factors other than environmental concerns. This may be changing, and perhaps the emphases of the two creation accounts in Genesis (responsible management or 'dominion', and active care may become more important. The paper examines a number of current developments in agriculture (synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, genetic manipulation, and organic versus industrial methodologies and discusses the issues they raise for agricultural productivity and the human communities dependent on farming. The questions raised are complex; we are faced with establishing a new paradigm for agricultural practice.

  6. Malawi - Conservation Agriculture

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The randomized control trial impact evaluation tests different strategies for communicating information about agricultural technologies to smallholder maize farmers...

  7. Propolis extract application in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiano Spaziani Pereira

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Propolis has been ground in various areas of science, but its application in agriculture, is a recent and almost unknown subject. In agronomy work mainly seek to explore the antibiotic and antifungal properties of propolis, but other uses have been proposed, such as plant nutrition, pest control (such as mites and even reducing water stress in plants. Despite numerous utilities proven and proposals, there are many questions, particularly for the preparation of the extract, most appropriate chemical composition for a particular use, application forms, crude propolis extract in percentages, dose minimum efficiency, efficiency, etc. Given the above, the purpose of this literature review is to present the origin and chemical composition of propolis, making methodology of propolis extract, more effective dose in the control of fungi, plant pathogenic bacteria and reduce water stress. During the study, it can be seen that the difference in propolis composition occurs mainly due to the variability of vegetable composition in the vicinity of the hive, the bees forage and chemical composition is quite complex and variable in terms of both concentration and chemicals gifts. In the extraction, there are still many gaps to be studied, including the best way to obtain the extract, with questions about the best puller, with lack of consensus in the literature. On the efficiency of this technology, there are numerous studies with promising results, which allow implementation of technology in the field and these jobs concentrated in coffee crops, beans, cucumber and tomato.

  8. Agricultural Technology Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Board of Education, Raleigh. Agricultural Technology Education Section.

    Agricultural education programs available through North Carolina's newly created system of industrial education center, technical institutes, and community colleges are described. The information is for use by administrators, and teachers of adult agricultural courses and counselors of high school dropouts and graduates. It describes the need for…

  9. Conservation Agriculture in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á. Kertész

    2014-03-01

    Yield performance and stability, operating costs, environmental policies and programs of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP, and climate change will likely be the major driving forces defining the direction and for the extension of CA in Europe. The role of agriculture in climate change mitigation in the EU is discussed in the paper.

  10. Agricultural lung diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkhorn, S R; Garry, V F

    2000-01-01

    Agriculture is considered one of the most hazardous occupations. Organic dusts and toxic gases constitute some of the most common and potentially disabling occupational and environmental hazards. The changing patterns of agriculture have paradoxically contributed to both improved working conditions and increased exposure to respiratory hazards. Animal confinement operations with increasing animal density, particularly swine confinement, have contributed significantly to increased intensity an...

  11. Legislature Abolishes Agricultural Tax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

      China's 2,600-year-old agricultural tax will be rescinded as of Jan. 1,2006, after China's top legislature voted on December 27 to adopt a motion on the regulations revoking the agricultural tax.……

  12. The Urban Agriculture Circle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansma, J.E.; Chambers, Joe; Sabas, Eva; Veen, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    The lack of inclusion of urban agriculture in city planning directly affects the success of initiatives in this sector, which subsequently could impede fu-ture innovations. The poor representation of urban agriculture in planning can be attributed to a lack of understanding about its multi-functiona

  13. Theme: Marketing Agricultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staller, Bernie L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Consists of six articles on marketing agricultural education. Topics include (1) being consumer conscious, (2) cooperating with agribusiness, (3) preparing students for postsecondary education, (4) allowing concurrent enrollments, (5) saving the failing agricultural program, and (6) refocusing the curriculum toward agrimarketing. (CH)

  14. Theme: Urban Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellibee, Margaret; And Others

    1990-01-01

    On the theme of secondary agricultural education in urban areas, this issue includes articles on opportunities, future directions, and implications for the profession; creative supervised experiences for horticulture students; floral marketing, multicultural education; and cultural diversity in urban agricultural education. (JOW)

  15. Agriculture biotechnology report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This report provides the basis for an overall agriculture biotechnology strategy for Saskatchewan, encompassing all aspects of the biotechnology sector and supporting institutions. It presents results of a survey of over 70 industry and public sector leaders in agriculture biotechnology in order to assist Saskatchewan Agriculture & Food in defining its role and involvement in the agriculture biotechnology industry. Issues examined include: Goals for the agriculture biotechnology industry; research and development; technology transfer and commercialisation; infrastructure and services; human resources; legislation and policy; funding; future core areas of research and development; and the role of government in developing the industry. The report concludes with lists of recommendations. The supplement lists the survey questions and responses.

  16. THE CHEMICAL TEACHING MATTER AND THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO THE WAYS OF PERFORMANCE OF THE AGRICULTURAL ENGINEER / LA DÍSCIPLINA QUÍMICA Y SU CONTRIBUCIÓN A LOS MODOS DE ACTUACIÓN DEL INGENIERO AGRÓNOMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamilé Batista Yero

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows an activity system from Chemistry for the development of the research and field experience for first year students of the agronomy career. They are aimed to contribute to the knowledge acquisition about the application of chemistry by the professional of agricultural branch, because they make use of the tools offered by chemistry as basic discipline to solve professional problems encountered at the base of their profession. The results are directed to achieve the systematization of academic, field experience and research components from a chemistry perspective for the formation of an integral professional bestowed of knowledge and abilities which contributes the foundation of their professional performance.

  17. Innovative Programs in Agricultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Vocational Association, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Developmental programs resulting from the increased emphasis on off-farm agricultural occupations and considered innovative by state wupervisors of agricultural education are described: (1) 17 high school vocational agriculture programs in horticulture, agricultural mechanics, forestry and conservation, agriculture and distribution, cooperative…

  18. Agriculture and private sector

    OpenAIRE

    Sahin, Sila; Prowse, Martin Philip; Weigh, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture is and will continue to be critical to the futures of many developing countries. This may or may not be because agriculture can contribute directly and/or indirectly to economic growth. But it will certainly be critical because poverty is still predominantly a rural phenomenon and this looks set to remain for the next two decades at least. The agriculture and growth evidence paper series has been developed to cover a range of issues that are of most relevance to DFID staff. The pa...

  19. Atoms in Agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, Thomas S. [University of Tennessee

    1965-01-01

    Agriculture benefits from the applications of research. Radioactive techniques have been used to study soils, plants, microbes, insects, farm animals, and new ways to use and preserve foodstuffs. Radioactive atoms are not used directly by farmers but are used in research directed by the U. S. Department of Agriculture and Atomic Energy Commission, by the agricultural experiment stations of the various states, and by numerous public and private research institutions. From such research come improved materials and methods which are used on the farm.

  20. Use of potassium permanganate integrated chemical-biological treatment schemes of wastewaters from agricultural industry; Aplicacion de permanganato potasico en sistemas de tratamiento integrado quimico-biologico en las aguas residuales de la industria agricola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medialdea, J. M.; Arnaiz, M. C.; Isac, L.; Ruiz, C.; Valentin, R.; Martinez, M. F.; Garcia, S.; Lebrato, J. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Cuenca, I.

    2000-07-01

    Present study assesses the applicability of a treatment scheme based on the combination of anaerobic biological digestion and chemical oxidation by potassium permanganate, in the purification of winery wastewaters. Biological digestion, performed using an experimental 1-liter reactor that operated discontinuously with completely mixed input and a mesophilic regime (35 degree centigree), removed 65% and 78% of water COD and BOD, and contributed 82,27% to the system global efficiency. Further chemical oxidation of effluent by Aquox -potassium permanganate eliminated 40% of residual COD, although contributed only 17,73% to global purification efficiency. However, effluent chemical oxidation at a dosage of 35 mg KMnO{sub 4}/L significantly increased effluent biodegradability. Results demonstrated the feasibility of analyzed working scheme and provide a positive valuation on the use of KMnO{sub 4} in the treatment of winery wastewaters. (Author) 24 refs.

  1. Health and safety risks in production agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Essen, S G; McCurdy, S A

    1998-10-01

    Production agriculture is associated with a variety of occupational illnesses and injuries. Agricultural workers are at higher risk of death or disabling injury than most other workers. Traumatic injury commonly occurs from working with machinery or animals. Respiratory illness and health problems from exposures to farm chemicals are major concerns, and dermatoses, hearing loss, certain cancers, and zoonotic infections are important problems. Innovative means of encouraging safe work practices are being developed. Efforts are being made to reach all groups of farmworkers, including migrant and seasonal workers, farm youth, and older farmers.

  2. Can agricultural fungicides accelerate the discovery of human antifungal drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Kyung; Klittich, Carla J R

    2015-01-01

    Twelve drugs from four chemical classes are currently available for treatment of systemic fungal infections in humans. By contrast, more than 100 structurally distinct compounds from over 30 chemical classes have been developed as agricultural fungicides, and these fungicides target many modes of action not represented among human antifungal drugs. In this article we introduce the diverse aspects of agricultural fungicides and compare them with human antifungal drugs. We propose that the information gained from the development of agricultural fungicides can be applied to the discovery of new mechanisms of action and new antifungal agents for the management of human fungal infections.

  3. Agricultural Drainage Well Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Locations of surface intakes for registered agriculture drainage wells according to the database maintained by IDALS. Surface intakes were located from their...

  4. Agricultural Health and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of injury from working with livestock Risk of electrocution to persons operating large equipment that can contact ... which identifies common agricultural hazards and provides safety solutions for employers and young workers to prevent accidents ...

  5. Agriculture and private sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahin, Sila; Prowse, Martin Philip; Weigh, Nadia

    and this looks set to remain for the next two decades at least. The agriculture and growth evidence paper series has been developed to cover a range of issues that are of most relevance to DFID staff. The paper is not intended to be a comprehensive overview of all issues relating to agriculture and the private......Agriculture is and will continue to be critical to the futures of many developing countries. This may or may not be because agriculture can contribute directly and/or indirectly to economic growth. But it will certainly be critical because poverty is still predominantly a rural phenomenon...... sector. It concentrates on those areas that are of particular focus for DFID policy and strategy....

  6. Agricultural Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type Progress Annual Report to the Nation Cancer Portfolio Snapshots Milestones in Cancer Research & Discovery Stories of ... the Agricultural Health Study (1994–2007). Environmental Health Perspectives 2011; online May 27, doi:10.1289/ehp. ...

  7. Agricultural Producer Certificates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — A Certified Agricultural Producer, or representative thereof, is an individual who wishes to sell regionally-grown products in the public right-of-way. A Certified...

  8. Collaboration in Agricultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Roland L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Theme articles discuss environment, food, agriculture, and renewal resources as they relate to science education, learning partnerships, collaboration in Kyrghyzstan, leadership development, opportunities for collaboration, networking, and the creation of a shared course between agribusiness and biology. (JOW)

  9. Department of Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

      Topics Animal Health Biotechnology Climate Solutions Conservation Disaster and Emergency Preparedness Employee Services Energy Environment and Natural Resources Ethics Farm Bill Food and Nutrition Food Safety Forestry Housing Assistance Laws and Regulations Organic Agriculture ...

  10. Agriculture and private sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahin, Sila; Prowse, Martin Philip; Weigh, Nadia

    Agriculture is and will continue to be critical to the futures of many developing countries. This may or may not be because agriculture can contribute directly and/or indirectly to economic growth. But it will certainly be critical because poverty is still predominantly a rural phenomenon...... and this looks set to remain for the next two decades at least. The agriculture and growth evidence paper series has been developed to cover a range of issues that are of most relevance to DFID staff. The paper is not intended to be a comprehensive overview of all issues relating to agriculture and the private...... sector. It concentrates on those areas that are of particular focus for DFID policy and strategy....

  11. Organic agriculture in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sukkel, W.; Hommes, M.

    2009-01-01

    Dutch organic agriculture has unique characteristics and peculiarities. It is still a relatively small sector compared to conventional agriculture in the Netherlands. However, its market share is growing and organic agriculture leads the way in terms of sustainability and innovations

  12. New Research in Organic Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    The book is the proceedings from the bi-annual international scientific conference on organic agriculture. The chapters are: - plant and soil interactions, - animal production systems, - traditional knowledge in sustainable agriculture, - research, education and extension in sustainable agriculture...

  13. Características químicas determinan la capacidad micotrófica arbuscular de suelos agrícolas y prístinos de Buenos Aires (Argentina Chemical characteristics as determinants of arbuscular mycotrophic ability of agricultural and pristine soils from Buenos Aires (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Covacevich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Los suelos de la provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina presentan muy buenas características físicas y químicas para la producción agrícola, así como elevada diversidad microbiana. Sin embargo, la continua explotación agrícola del suelo, con permanente extracción de nutrientes, aceleró su degradación, afectó su fertilidad natural y las poblaciones microbianas po-tencialmente benéficas como los hongos formadores de micorrizas arbusculares (HMA, aspecto que ha sido poco explorado. El objetivo de este trabajo es identificar cambios en el contenido de nutrientes en suelos sometidos a manejos agrícolas contrastantes que podrían incidir en la capacidad micotrófica de los HMA. Se tomaron muestras de suelo de 29 sitios de la provincia de Buenos Aires bajo manejo agrícola, o sin uso (prístino. Se determinaron las características químicas (CIC, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, B, P-Bray, CO y pH, así como el grado de micorrización nativa, luego de 12 semanas desde la instalación de cultivos trampa. Los valores de las características químicas fueron, en general, mayores para los sitios prístinos que para los que estuvieron bajo agricultura. Sin embargo, la intensidad de micorrización no fue significativamente diferente en relación al manejo del suelo. El análisis de componentes principales permitió agrupar por una parte los sitios que se encontraban bajo agricultura y por otra parte los sitios prístinos. El contenido de P disponible en el suelo, juntamente con el contenido de Fe parecerían ser los principales depresores de la capacidad micotrófica de los suelos analizados, particularmente en condiciones de moderado a bajo contenido de Carbono Orgánico.The soils of Buenos Aires Province (Argentina have very good physical and chemical properties for agricultural production, and also a high microbial diversity. However, the continuous cropping of agricultural soils with a high nutrient removal rate has accelerated its degradation. Consequently

  14. Topical Hazard Evaluation Program of Candidate Insect Repellents AI3-38352a, AI3-38354a, AI3-38355a, US Department of Agriculture Proprietary Chemicals, May 1982 - November 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    irrita- chemical and of 10% (wv) A13-38357a, AI3-38360a, tion reaction under Oil of Bergamot (positive and Ar3-38361a did test conditions and control...caused a greater Irritant positive control (Oil of effect than In un- Bergamot ) and diluent were Irradiated skin areas. applied to additional skin

  15. Agriculture, pesticides, food security and food safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fernando P. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Departamento de Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, P-2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)]. E-mail: carvalho@itn.pt

    2006-11-15

    Decades ago, agrochemicals were introduced aiming at enhancing crop yields and at protecting crops from pests. Due to adaptation and resistance developed by pests to chemicals, every year higher amounts and new chemical compounds are used to protect crops, causing undesired side effects and raising the costs of food production. Eventually, new techniques, including genetically modified organisms (GMOs) resistant to pests, could halt the massive spread of agrochemicals in agriculture fields. Biological chemical-free agriculture is gaining also more and more support but it is still not able to respond to the need for producing massive amounts of food. The use of agrochemicals, including pesticides, remains a common practice especially in tropical regions and South countries. Cheap compounds, such as DDT, HCH and lindane, that are environmentally persistent, are today banned from agriculture use in developed countries, but remain popular in developing countries. As a consequence, persistent residues of these chemicals contaminate food and disperse in the environment. Coordinated efforts are needed to increase the production of food but with a view to enhanced food quality and safety as well as to controlling residues of persistent pesticides in the environment.

  16. Scoping Agriculture, Wetland Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture is identified as the main cause of wetland degradation and loss. Using a drivers, pressures, state changes, impacts and responses (DPSIR) framework to analyze 90 cases drawn from all parts of the world and all wetland types, this report assesses the character of agriculture - wetlands interactions (AWIs) and their impacts in socio-economic and ecosystem services terms. The report is a technical framework that is used to scope out the relevance and nature of AWIs, identify response...

  17. World competitiveness and agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van Zyl

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of a changing environment in which market factors and greater world trade and competitiveness are increasingly becoming the only criteria for success, a framework for the analysis of world competitiveness is initially developed. This is followed by a discussion on the growth of productivity in agriculture, as well as an exposition of the role of agricultural research. Thirdly, price factors and the terms of trade are discussed, followed by a summary of policy implications.

  18. Chemical Control of Plant Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural Research Center (USDA), Beltsville, MD.

    Seven experiments are presented in this Science Study Aid to help students investigate the control of plant growth with chemicals. Plant growth regulators, weed control, and chemical pruning are the topics studied in the experiments which are based on investigations that have been and are being conducted at the U. S. Agricultural Research Center,…

  19. Reform and Practice of Organic Chemical Curriculum of Applied Chemistry in Agricultural Colleges%农业院校应化专业有机化学课程改革与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽波; 徐雅琴

    2012-01-01

    针对农业院校有机化学教学特点,对教学过程中存在的问题提出改革措施,编写了有机化学教材;采用现代教学手段、理论联系实际改善课堂教学结构;注重理论课与实验课的交叉渗透,增设开放性实验,提高了教学效果。%Aimed at the teaching characteristics of organic chemistry in agricultural colleges,the paper puts forward the reform measures for the problems in the teaching process,writes teaching materials in organic chemistry;improves classroom teaching structure by modern teaching way and linking theory with practice;pays attention to the penetration of theoretical and experimental curriculum,increases open experiments,and enhances the teaching effect.

  20. Environmental behavior and analysis of agricultural sulfur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Corey M; Woodrow, James E; Seiber, James N

    2015-11-01

    Sulfur has been widely used for centuries as a staple for pest and disease management in agriculture. Presently, it is the largest-volume pesticide in use worldwide. This review describes the sources and recovery methods for sulfur, its allotropic forms and properties and its agricultural uses, including development and potential advantages of nanosulfur as a fungicide. Chemical and microbial reactivity, interactions in soil and water and analytical methods for determination in environmental samples and foodstuffs, including inexpensive analytical methods for sulfur residues in wine, beer and other food/beverage substrates, will be reviewed. The toxicology of sulfur towards humans and agriculturally important fungi is included, with some restrictions on use to promote safety. The review concludes with areas for which more research is warranted.

  1. Biosurfactants in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, Dhara P; Cameotra, Swaranjit S

    2013-02-01

    Agricultural productivity to meet growing demands of human population is a matter of great concern for all countries. Use of green compounds to achieve the sustainable agriculture is the present necessity. This review highlights the enormous use of harsh surfactants in agricultural soil and agrochemical industries. Biosurfactants which are reported to be produced by bacteria, yeasts, and fungi can serve as green surfactants. Biosurfactants are considered to be less toxic and eco-friendly and thus several types of biosurfactants have the potential to be commercially produced for extensive applications in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and food industries. The biosurfactants synthesized by environmental isolates also has promising role in the agricultural industry. Many rhizosphere and plant associated microbes produce biosurfactant; these biomolecules play vital role in motility, signaling, and biofilm formation, indicating that biosurfactant governs plant-microbe interaction. In agriculture, biosurfactants can be used for plant pathogen elimination and for increasing the bioavailability of nutrient for beneficial plant associated microbes. Biosurfactants can widely be applied for improving the agricultural soil quality by soil remediation. These biomolecules can replace the harsh surfactant presently being used in million dollar pesticide industries. Thus, exploring biosurfactants from environmental isolates for investigating their potential role in plant growth promotion and other related agricultural applications warrants details research. Conventional methods are followed for screening the microbial population for production of biosurfactant. However, molecular methods are fewer in reaching biosurfactants from diverse microbial population and there is need to explore novel biosurfactant from uncultured microbes in soil biosphere by using advanced methodologies like functional metagenomics.

  2. Chemistry of subsurface drain discharge from an agricultural polder soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesterberg, D.; Vos, de B.; Raats, P.A.C.

    2006-01-01

    Protecting groundwater and surface water quality in drained agricultural lands is aided by an understanding of soil physical and chemical processes affecting leaching of plant nutrients and other chemical constituents, and discharge from subsurface drains. Our objectives were to determine which chem

  3. An improved model for estimating pesticide emissions for agricultural LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkman, Teunis Johannes; Birkved, Morten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2011-01-01

    Credible quantification of chemical emissions in the inventory phase of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is crucial since chemicals are the dominating cause of the human and ecotoxicity-related environmental impacts in Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA). When applying LCA for assessment of agricultural...

  4. Urban Agriculture Program Planning Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemp, Paul E.; Ethridge, Jim

    Urban agriculture may be defined as those areas of agriculture that are practiced in metropolitan settings, plus knowledge and skills in agricultural subject areas which lead to vocational proficiency and improved quality of life or effective citizenship. Agriculture areas that are especially significant in urban settings include ornamental…

  5. [Musculoskeletal disorders in agriculture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Christophe; Tourne, Mathias

    2007-06-15

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are a major area of concern in the occupational world. The agricultural industry is particularly affected: 93 percent of occupational diseases in agriculture are MSD. Carpal tunnel syndrome occurs in one third of the cases. Shoulder is the second most common location. The most affected occupational areas are meat production, viticulture, market gardening, horticulture and small animal farming. This MSD phenomenon, of multifactorial origin, which has been amplifying for two decades, has led to some consensus in terms of definition and prevention strategy. The aim is to identify, limit or even suppress risk factors through worker training as well as through actions related to work organization. Regarding occupational health and safety in agriculture, two fronts of progress have been mentioned: the creation of a statistic observatory of MSD (disease, occupational area and cost) and the assessment of prevention activities. Finally, a new issue is being discussed: sustainable prevention of MSD.

  6. Data mining in agriculture

    CERN Document Server

    Mucherino, Antonio; Pardalos, Panos M

    2009-01-01

    Data Mining in Agriculture represents a comprehensive effort to provide graduate students and researchers with an analytical text on data mining techniques applied to agriculture and environmental related fields. This book presents both theoretical and practical insights with a focus on presenting the context of each data mining technique rather intuitively with ample concrete examples represented graphically and with algorithms written in MATLAB®. Examples and exercises with solutions are provided at the end of each chapter to facilitate the comprehension of the material. For each data mining technique described in the book variants and improvements of the basic algorithm are also given. Also by P.J. Papajorgji and P.M. Pardalos: Advances in Modeling Agricultural Systems, 'Springer Optimization and its Applications' vol. 25, ©2009.

  7. Contribution of Agricultural Input to Output in Hohhot City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tinghe; DENG; Jie; TIAN

    2013-01-01

    Based on the research data from the economics and management platform of Inner Mongolia Agricultural University,we analyze the changes in the input of agricultural production factors,such as farmland,labor and capital in Hohhot City. Based on the principle of econometrics,we select the agricultural production input-output data in Hohhot City during the period 1992-2010,and establish the econometric model using Cobb-Douglas production factor,to estimate the rate of contribution of agricultural input to the growth of agricultural output value,and study the quantitative relations between agricultural input and agricultural output value. The results show that in Hohhot City,the contribution of chemical fertilizer input to the growth of agricultural output value is the greatest; the contribution of mechanical power to agricultural output value is still not brought into full play; the contribution of remaining production inputs ( including technical progress) accounts for 35. 69% . In the future,Hohhot City should pay more attention to the technical input to develop agriculture.

  8. Agricultural Production Efficiency of Chongqing Based on DEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Literatures about agricultural production efficiency are reviewed.Concept of DEA Method,as well as the definition methods of effective DEA and scale efficiency increase are introduced.According to the relevant statistical data in the years 1997-2007 in Chongqing Municipality,efficiency of agricultural economy is calculated from the year 1997 to 2007 by DEA method and the scale efficiency is also analyzed by taking the total output of agriculture,forestry,animal husbandry and fishery industry as the output index.And the input index includes total workforce in agriculture,forestry,animal husbandry and fishery,the total sown area of crops,the total power of agricultural machinery,chemical fertilizer application,the draft animal,and the effective irrigation area.Result shows that Chongqing City became a municipality directly under the central government;its agricultural production efficiency is still low.And the sustainable development capacity of agricultural is weak in Chongqing,and the agricultural resources are not fully used.Based on this,related suggestions are put forward to improve the agricultural production efficiency of Chongqing,such as implementing an appropriate management scale of land,improving the organization degree of peasant households and the rate of industrialization management,enhancing the quality of the rural labor force,strengthening the agricultural science and technology input and extension,perfecting the construction of rural infrastructure,and improving the rate of resource utilization.

  9. Assessment of the agricultural sustainability of Shaanxi Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Qian; Zhao Xueping

    2007-01-01

    It is significant for the study on the sustainable development of regional agriculture to monitor and measure the trend of agricultural development with an effective method. The sustainable development of regional agriculture should accord with regional population, rural economic development, social progress, resource and environmental support. This paper establishes the evaluating indicators system of sustainable development of regional agriculture,evaluates the agricultural sustainable development in Shaanxi Province with a comprehensive multi-indicator method,analyzes the support of resource and environment for regional agriculture by the resource-development index and the environment-development index, and gets the conclusion that the indicators, such as education level, the income gap between urban and rural residents, the per capita area under cultivation and the consumption of pesticides and chemical fertilizers per hectare, are the main factors to restrict agricultural sustainability, and that the pressure of the development of subsystems of population, economy and society on the subsystems of resource and environment turns out to be stronger and stronger. Agricultural environment gets better, but resource becomes one of the important factors to restrict the development of regional agriculture. In a word, this paper highlights the potentials and limitations of sustainable agriculture of Shaanxi and helps identify the development direction in the future.

  10. Agricultural risk management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mogens; Oksen, Arne; Larsen, Torben U.;

    2005-01-01

    A new model for risk management in agriculture is described in the paper. The risk model is constructed as a context dependent process, which includes four main phases. The model is aimed at agricultural advisors, who wish to facilitate and disseminate risk management to farmers. It is developed...... and tested by an action research approach in an attempt to make risk management more applicable on family farms. Our obtained experiences indicate that farmers don’t apply probabilistic thinking and other concepts according to formal decision theory....

  11. Measuring Agricultural Bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn

    . For the 15 sample countries, the results indicate that the agricultural price incentive bias, which was generally perceived to exist during the 1980s, was largely eliminated during the 1990s. The results also demonstrate that general equilibrium effects and country-specific characteristics - including trade...... shares and intersectoral linkages - are crucial for determining the sign and magnitude of trade policy bias. The GE-ERP measure is therefore uniquely suited to capture the full impact of trade policies on agricultural price incentives. A Monte Carlo procedure confirms that the results are robust...

  12. Nanotechnology in Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    An overview is given of the application of nanotechnology to agriculture. This is an active field of R&D, where a large number of findings and innovations have been reported. For example, in soil management, applications reported include nanofertilizers, soil binders, water retention aids, and nut...

  13. [Vibration on agricultural tractors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretti, Alessandro; Delvecchio, Simone; Bonomini, Francesco; di Bisceglie, Anita Pasqua; Colosio, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    In the article, details related to the diffusion of agricultural tractors in Italy are given and considerations about the effects of vibration on operators, the sources of vibration and suggestions to reduce them are presented. The acceleration values observed in Italy amongst 244 tractors and levels of worker exposure are shown by means of histograms. The relevant data variability is discussed.

  14. USSR Report, Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    evaluation of the phyto- sanitary condition of the fields were not coordinated with the calendar- phenological schedules, some agronomists were unable...During the first year following its introduction, an intensified variation of this agricultural technology enabled the Tambov grain growers to produce

  15. Teacher Education in Agriculture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Dale W.

    1977-01-01

    Urging continued high priority support to preservice and inservice professional development, especially in the area of agricultural education, the author responds to a letter from the Joint Committee on Vocational Education for the State of California indicating the committee's consideration of support reduction for teacher education in vocational…

  16. Agricultural nitrate pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Helle Tegner

    2015-01-01

    Despite the passing of almost 25 years since the adoption of the EU Nitrates Directive, agricultural nitrate pollution remains a major concern in most EU Member States. This is also the case in Denmark, although a fairly strict regulatory regime has resulted in almost a 50 per cent reduction...

  17. Goryachkin's agricultural mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinenova, Vera

    2016-03-01

    The paper contributes to the development of applied mechanics by establishing a new discipline, namely, agricultural mechanics by academician Vasilii Prohorovich Goryachkin (1868-1935) who was an apprentice of Nikolay Yegorovich Zhukovsky and a graduate of the Moscow University (current known as Moscow State University) and the Imperial Higher Technical School.

  18. Beyond conservation agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giller, K.E.; Andersson, J.A.; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and s

  19. Agricultural lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkhorn, S R; Garry, V F

    2000-08-01

    Agriculture is considered one of the most hazardous occupations. Organic dusts and toxic gases constitute some of the most common and potentially disabling occupational and environmental hazards. The changing patterns of agriculture have paradoxically contributed to both improved working conditions and increased exposure to respiratory hazards. Animal confinement operations with increasing animal density, particularly swine confinement, have contributed significantly to increased intensity and duration of exposure to indoor air toxins. Ongoing research has implicated bacterial endotoxins, fungal spores, and the inherent toxicity of grain dusts as causes of upper and lower airway inflammation and as immunologic agents in both grain and animal production. Animal confinement gases, particularly ammonia and hydrogen sulfide, have been implicated as additional sources of respiratory irritants. It has become evident that a significant percentage of agricultural workers have clinical symptoms associated with long-term exposure to organic dusts and animal confinement gases. Respiratory diseases and syndromes, including hypersensitivity pneumonitis, organic dust toxic syndrome, chronic bronchitis, mucous membrane inflammation syndrome, and asthmalike syndrome, result from ongoing acute and chronic exposures. In this review we focus upon the emerging respiratory health issues in a changing agricultural economic and technologic environment. Environmental and occupational hazards and exposures will be emphasized rather than clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods of prevention, from both engineering controls and personal respiratory perspectives, are also addressed.

  20. Cohabitation: Humans & Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woodington, W.

    2012-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Smart & Bioclimatic Design. Cohabitation of humans and agriculture can be used to improve building climate, human health and the state of the world. It affects building design and requires new building components. This manual explains w

  1. Governing agricultural sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macnaghten, Philip; Carro-Ripalda, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Although GM crops are seen by their advocates as a key component of the future of world agriculture and as part of the solution for world poverty and hunger, their uptake has not been smooth nor universal: they have been marred by controversy and all too commonly their regulation has been challen

  2. Africa, Agriculture, Aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuyvenhoven, A.

    2008-01-01

    In a world that is developing fast, Africa¿s relative stagnation is a human tragedy that challenges the development profession. Although climate and geography, and their effect on local institutions, are not in Africa¿s favour, inappropriate policies (including neglect of agriculture) and weak insti

  3. Heroes of Agricultural Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weele, van der C.; Keulartz, F.W.J.

    2009-01-01

    New technology has a prominent place in the theory and practice of innovation, but the association between high tech and innovation is not inevitable. In this paper, we discuss six metaphorical heroes of agricultural innovation, starting with the dominant hero of frontier science and technology. At

  4. Agriculture. Poultry Livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for poultry, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list.…

  5. Agriculture. Beef Livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for beef livestock, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task…

  6. Scrapping Agricultural Tax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    On March 5,in his government report to the annual session of the country's top legislature,the National People's Congress,Premier Wen Jiabao set the goal to reduce the agricultural tax rate by more than one percentage point each year,

  7. African agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...

  8. Analysis of Input and Output of China’s Agriculture Based on Canonical Correlation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    I select effective irrigated area, consumption of agricultural chemical fertilizer, electricity consumed in rural areas, and total power of agricultural machinery as input variables of China’s agriculture; I select grain, bean, tobacco, oil-bearing crop and fruit as output variables of China’s agriculture. By using the data of China Statistical Yearbook in 2010, based on the analysis method of canonical correlation, I conduct research on the input and output of China’s agriculture. The results show that consumption of chemical fertilizer has the biggest impact on the agricultural output of China, followed by the input of total power of agricultural machinery; the canonical variable of agricultural output of China is mainly impacted by grain, oil-bearing crop and fruit; in terms of the selected variables, the output increase of grain, oil-bearing crop and fruit in China arises from the input increase of agricultural chemical fertilizer and machinery, and there is high-degree correlation between the two. According to the conclusions, the policy suggestions are put forward as follows: gradually decrease consumption of chemical fertilizer; increase the use of modern agricultural machinery; increase agricultural irrigation input.

  9. Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  10. Indian Agricultural Marketing- A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel-Ul-Rehman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture in India has directly or indirectly continued to be the source of livelihood to majority of the population. Indian agriculture has seen a lot of changes in its structure. India, predominantly an agricultural economy, has healthy signs of transformation in agriculture and allied activities. India has seen agriculture as a precious tool of economic development as other sectors of production depend on it. Efficient backward and forward integration with agriculture has led to globally competitive production system in terms of cost and quality. Cooperatives seem to be well positioned to coordinate product differentiation at the farm level and to integrate forward into value added processing activities.. Indian agriculture can be balanced and made efficient through proper and better management practices. The present study brings out past and present scenario of agricultural marketing prevailing in India, its challenges and future recommendations. Moreover the opportunities provide by agricultural marketing should be tapped effectively by the marketers.

  11. Researches on Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organization Promoting Agricultural Insurance Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The advantages of cooperative economic organization being the effective carrier of agricultural insurance development are analyzed. Firstly, cooperative economic organization promotes scale management and solves the problem of decentralized operation of small households. Secondly, cooperative economic organization can settle the problem of peasants’ low systematization. Thirdly, cooperative economic organization can largely reduce the costs of agricultural insurance operation. Fourthly, cooperative organization decreases moral risks as well as adverse selection to some extent. Lastly, cooperative organization, to a certain degree, reduces the risks of agricultural production and increases the insurability of agricultural risks. Meanwhile, limitations of agricultural cooperative economic organization being the carrier of agricultural insurance operation are pointed out. Firstly, cooperative economic organization has limited coverage and small size of organization, which is harmful to the diversification of agricultural risks. Secondly, cooperative economic organization lacks capital funds and its development is not standard, which is not perfect for the function exertion as a carrier. Lastly, members of professional cooperative organization have low cultural qualities, which restrict the implementation of agricultural insurance. The modes of farmers’ cooperative economic organization promoting agricultural insurance development are proposed, including mode of agricultural insurance cooperative ( mutual corporation), mode of "leading enterprises (companies) + professional cooperative organization (planting majors) + insurance" and mode of professional cooperatives serving as agricultural insurance agent. Last of all, the promoting role of agricultural insurance in agricultural cooperative economic organization is briefly illustrated.

  12. Chemical Composition and Anti -fungal Properties of Xinjiang Propolis Extracts against Agricultural Phytopathogenic Fungi%新疆产蜂胶提取物对农作物病原真菌的抗性作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿米尼姑丽·买买提; 木塔力甫·艾买提; 尼砸木·艾海提; 布威海丽且姆·阿巴拜科日; 依米提·热合曼

    2011-01-01

    [目的]分析新疆蜂胶的化学成分并研究其抗菌活性.[方法]用超声波提取法提取蜂胶,采用GC-MS联用技术鉴定其化学成分,通过最小抑菌浓度试验和抑菌试验来测定蜂胶的抗真菌活性.[结果]从蜂胶的乙醇提取物中鉴定出23种化合物.蜂胶对不同真菌表现出不同的抗菌活性,对不同植物病原真菌的抑菌率为16.7%~39.6%,最小抑菌浓度为2.0~4.0 mg/mL.[结论]新疆蜂胶具有广谱的抑菌活性,对某些重要植物病原菌有一定防控作用.%[Objective] The purpose of this project was to analyze the chemical composition of Xinjiang propolis extracts and investigate its antifungi activity. [ Method ] Ultrasonic was used to extract propolis and Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry were applied to identify its chemical composition. Through the tests of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and mycelial growth inhabitation, its antifungal activity assays were determined. [ Result] twenty - three compounds were identified in ethanol - extracted propolis (EEP). Propolis displayed different antifungi actions depending on the type of fungi tested. It showed the antifungi activity range was from 16.7% to 39.6% and minimum inhibitory concentration range was from 2.0 to 4. Omg/ mL against the tested phytopathogenic fungi as a mycelial growth inhibitor. [ Conclusion ] The results obtained in this study demonstrated that Xinjiang propolis extracts possessed a wide range spectrum of fungistatic activity and could become an alternative to controlling certain important plant fungal diseases.

  13. The rise of Brazilian agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Vink, Nick; Sandrey, Ron

    2014-01-01

    of Brazilian agricultural policies, namely farmer support, the research and technology transfer system and land issues. The implications for South African agriculture can be summarized as the recognition that history, geography, the development path and agricultural policies all matter. The article......The purpose of this article is to explore some of the possible lessons for South African agriculture from the Brazilian experience. To this end, the article discusses the performance of Brazilian agriculture in terms of land and labour use, production, and exports. This is followed by aspects...... then identifies five important lessons for agricultural development in South Africa....

  14. Chemical characterization of the lignins of corn and soybean agricultural residues Caracterização química das ligninas dos resíduos agrícolas de milho e de soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O.S. Saliba

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Corn (CR and soybean (SR culture wastes were submitted to extraction with organic solvents for lignin isolation (LGS. The obtained lignin was chemically characterized, and based on studies of functional groups and microanalyses, it was possible to determine the minimum formula. LGS of CR has characteristics that resemble wood and of bamboo lignin, possessing a larger amount of methoxyl groups and vanillin.Foram utilizados dois restos de cultura, resíduo de milho (CR e resíduo da cultura de soja (SR e o material foi submetido à extração com solventes orgânicos para isolamento da lignina (LGS. A lignina assim obtida foi caracterizada quimicamente. Com base em estudos de grupos funcionais e microanálise foi possível determinar a fórmula mínima para as ligninas. A LGS de CR tem características que a assemelham à lignina de madeira e do bambu, apresentando maior quantidade de grupos metoxila e de vanilina derivada.

  15. Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Caporali

    Full Text Available In the framework of the 16th National Meeting of the Italian Ecological Society (“Global Change, Ecological Diversity and Sustainability”, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, 19-22 September 2006, a symposium was devoted to “Agroecology and Sustainable Development”. A major goal of this symposium was to contribute to keeping the dialogue among the experts of the various disciplines alive. Sustainability of agriculture is a challenge for society world wide. Universities and society as a whole have a responsibility in re-examining current perception of nature, of the world and of human society in the light of natural resources depletion, increasing pollution and social inequalities. The urgency to address sustainability issues is increasingly being reflected in the manner in which institutions of higher education around the world are giving priority to the teaching, research and practice of sustainability. The University of Tuscia is involved in international initiatives concerning teaching and research in Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture.

  16. Advanced Agriculture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrinivas R. Zanwar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the advanced system which improves agriculture processes like cultivation on ploughed land, based on robotic platform. We have developed a robotic vehicle having four wheels and steered by DC motor. The advanced autonomous system architecture gives us the opportunity to develop a complete new range of agricultural equipment based on small smart machines. The machine will cultivate the farm by considering particular rows and specific column at fixed distance depending on crop. The obstacle detection problem will also be considered, sensed by infrared sensor. The whole algorithm, calculation, processing, monitoring are designed with motors & sensor interfaced with microcontroller. The result obtained through example activation unit is also presented. The dc motor simulation with feedforward and feedback technique shows precise output. With the help of two examples, a DC motor and a magnetic levitation system, the use of MATLAB and Simulink for modeling, analysis and control is designed.

  17. The global view: issues affecting US production agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Peter

    2010-07-01

    This paper discusses small events occurring among developing countries, particularly but not exclusively in Asia, and their subsequent large impacts on net food exporting countries in the world, particularly, but not exclusively, located in the Western hemisphere. A Green Revolution II is underway as a result where the world's agricultural system will produce more (output) with less (inputs). Agriculture will meet the rapidly growing demand for bio-based foods, fuels, feeds, and fiber while reducing input usage, preserving the natural environment, and maintaining native ecosystems. In turn agricultural workers will receive a health dividend as chemical usage falls, automation, metering, and sensing technologies rise, and exposure to harsh environmental, both natural and man-made, conditions is reduced. This paper was prepared for the Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Conference, "Be Safe, Be Profitable: Protecting Workers in Agriculture," January 27-28, 2010, Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas.

  18. Pontos de abastecimento de pulverizadores agrícolas: uma revisão comparando os modelos em uso Agricultural chemical handling pads: a review comparing the models in use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Gebler

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Pontos de abastecimento de pulverizadores são locais destinados ao preparo das caldas agroquímicas e carregamento de equipamentos de pulverização agrícola, classificados pela legislação ambiental e trabalhista como equipamento de segurança ambiental. Há suficiente bibliografia técnica que recomenda e descreve os processos construtivos e de manejo de tais locais, mas há pouca clareza sobre como se chegou a esta forma consensual, aliado ao pouco embasamento científico de seus benefícios e riscos agregados. Alguns aspectos como impermeabilização, constituição do material, manejo do piso e dos resíduos de agroquímicos, interferem na capacidade de evitar que os possíveis contaminantes atinjam o solo e as águas, interferindo no descarte final. Aspectos funcionais ainda carecem de respostas, como a possibilidade do piso reter e armazenar o contaminante e se tornar um emissor a longo prazo, a definição do tempo de vida útil do equipamento, dentre outros. Recentemente houve avanços na filosofia construtiva dos pontos de abastecimento de pulverizadores, com a introdução da remediação de resíduos in situ, através da biodegradação, ganhando denominações, como biobeds, dentre outras. O objetivo desta revisão é discutir as diferentes formas de pisos e manejo nestes locais, seus riscos e a possibilidade de se tornarem um passivo ambiental.Sprayers handling pads, among other designations, are described as sites intended for the preparation of pesticides and load of agricultural pulverization equipments. By the environmental and labour legislation, these points are seen as environmental security equipment in the rural surroundings (environment. There is enough technical bibliography that describes the constructive and handling processes of such sites, but there is insufficient clarity about how this consensual manner was reached, with little scientific basis about its collective advantages and risks. Some aspects such as the

  19. European Agricultural Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Timothy J.

    1997-01-01

    This bulletin is a supplement to the Europe Team's Situation and Outlook Series and expands upon material traditionally presented as an appendix in the annual Europe Report. This report presents an extensive statistical database on European agriculture. The geographic scope covers most of the countrias of Europe, including the 15 member states of the European Union (Austria. Belgium. Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy. Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, a...

  20. Risk governance in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Bachev, Hrabrin

    2008-01-01

    This paper identifies and assesses the efficiency of major modes for risk governance in agriculture on the base of Bulgarian dairy farming. Firstly, the New Institutional and Transaction Costs Economics is incorporated and a framework for analysis of the governance of natural, market, private, and social (institutional) risks presented. Next, the pace and challenges of the dairy farming development during the post-communist transition and EU integration is outlined. Third, major types of risk...

  1. Agricultural and urban pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehmer, M. L.

    1972-01-01

    The degradation produced by the introduction of agricultural and urban wastes into estuarine systems, with emphasis on the Chesapeake Bay area, is discussed. The subjects presented are: (1) effects of sediment loading and (2) organic and nutrient loading problems. The impact of high turbidity on the biological life of the bay is analyzed. The sources of nutrients which produce over-enrichment of the waters and the subsequent production of phytoplankton are examined.

  2. Entomophagy and space agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, N.; Ishikawa, Y.; Takaoki, M.; Yamashita, M.; Nakayama, S.; Kiguchi, K.; Kok, R.; Wada, H.; Mitsuhashi, J.; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Supplying food for human occupants remains one of the primary issues in engineering space habitation Evidently for long-term occupation on a distant planet it is necessary to start agriculture on site Historically humans have consumed a variety of animals and it is required to fill our nutritional need when they live in space Among many candidate group and species of animal to breed in space agriculture insects are of great interest since they have a number of advantages over mammals and other vertebrates or invertebrates About 70-75 of animal species is insects and they play an important role in materials recycle loop of terrestrial biosphere at their various niche For space agriculture we propose several insect species such as the silkworm Bombyx mori the drugstore beetle Stegobium paniceum and the termite Macrotermes subhyalinus Among many advantages these insects do not compete with human in terms of food resources but convert inedible biomass or waste into an edible food source for human The silkworm has been domesticated since 5 000 years ago in China Silk moth has lost capability of flying after its domestication history This feature is advantageous in control of their breeding Silkworm larvae eat specifically mulberry leaves and metamorphose in their cocoon Silk fiber obtained from cocoon can be used to manufacture textile Farming system of the drugstore beetle has been well established Both the drugstore beetle and the termite are capable to convert cellulose or other inedible biomass

  3. Agricultural Technology, Risk, and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Tarp, Finn

    2000-01-01

    Interactions between agricultural technology improvements, risk-reducing behavior, and gender roles in agricultural production in Mozambique are examined. The analysis employs a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model that explicitly incorporates key features of the economy. These include...

  4. Effect of Agricultural Intervention on the Spatial Variability of some Soils Chemical Properties in the Eastern Plains of Colombia Efecto de la Intervención Agrícola sobre la Variabilidad Espacial de algunas Propiedades Químicas de Suelos en los Llanos Orientales de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús H Camacho-Tamayo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Growing demand for food exerts pressure on natural resources and may lead to the expansion of agricultural frontiers in developing countries. Most of this pressure appears in tropical zones, in native savannahs, with naturally infertile soils prone to degradation. Crop management in these regions is based on generalized estimates, leaving aside the inherent soil variability, leading to low production efficiency and high risk of environmental damage. This study aims at determining the spatial variability of some chemical properties, including organic carbon, pH, exchangeable acidity, exchangeable aluminum, P, Ca, Mg, K and Na for two Oxisols with different levels of agricultural intervention, in Puerto Lopez, Colombia, in order to identify guidelines for site-specific management. A forty-two point grid (25´ 25 m was established for samplings at two depths: 0-100 and 100-200 mm. Descriptive statistics and geostatistics were used to analyze soil properties spatial dependence. Variogram models were obtained and from them maps of properties were drawn using ordinary punctual kriging. The results showed that spatial variability of the soil chemical properties depends upon the use of amendments, fertilizing methods, tillage and the inherent characteristics of each variable analyzed. A greater influence of the agricultural intervention on spatial variability was evident in the upper 100 mm of soil. Spatial dependence was found for most of the studied soil properties. However, K and Na presented variograms with pure nugget effects and/or very short ranges. The information generated is a base to derive guidelines for site-specific agricultureLa creciente demanda por alimentos ejerce presión sobre los recursos naturales y puede conducir a la ampliación de la frontera agrícola en países en desarrollo. Esto ocurre principalmente en zonas tropicales, en sabanas nativas, con suelos de baja fertilidad y susceptibles a degradación. El manejo de cultivos en

  5. Skill Sheets for Agricultural Machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    This set of 21 skill sheets for agricultural machinery was developed for use in high school and vocational school agricultural mechanics programs. Each sheet covers a single operational procedure for a piece of agricultural machinery, and includes: (1) a diagram, (2) a step-by-step operational procedure, (3) abilities or understandings taught, (4)…

  6. DYNAMICS OF AGRICULTURAL GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Hellegers, Petra J.G.J.; Zilberman, David; van Ierland, Ekko C.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural shallow groundwater extraction can result in desiccation of neighbouring nature reserves and degradation of groundwater quality in the Netherlands, whereas both externalities are often not considered when agricultural groundwater extraction patterns are being determined. A model is developed to study socially optimal agricultural shallow groundwater extraction patterns. It shows the importance of stock size to slow down changes in groundwater quality.

  7. Sustainability in the Agricultural sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Forgács

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study will examine the possible ways of integrating sustainability indicators in assessing the performance of agriculture. We are examining the appropriate ways of calculating the output of the sector including the damages caused by and the benefits of agricultural production. The involvment of environmental pressure into the assessment of agricultural performance does not show significant changes in values.

  8. Changing closed agricultural policy communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Termeer, C.J.A.M.; Werkman, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural policy networks have served as classic examples of closed policy communities facing pressure to open up. However, attempts to change them are slowly moving forward. The dialogues on Common Agricultural Policy reforms in which the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture is engaged with a range of

  9. Agricultural Productivity and Farm Financing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, F. Vernon

    1975-01-01

    The author, president of the Federal Intermediate Credit Bank of New Orleans, in remarks to the first general session of the Agricultural Education Division of the American Vocational Association, paints a bright picture of agricultural productivity, financial challenge, and agricultural commitment in the mid-South. (Author/EA)

  10. Crop Protection in Medieval Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadoks, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Mediterranean and West European pre-modern agriculture (agriculture before 1600) was by necessity ‘organic agriculture’. Crop protection is part and parcel of this agriculture, with weed control in the forefront. Crop protection is embedded in the medieval agronomy text books but specialised section

  11. The economics of agricultural subsidies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    PART ONE1. Agricultural subsidies have been defined as a government induced change of relative prices of goods, services and factors of production in the agricultural sector. These agricultural price changes may result from a large number of different government measures varying from direct cash tra

  12. Agricultural experts’ attitude towards precision agriculture: Evidence from Guilan Agricultural Organization, Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadegh Allahyari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Identifying factors that influence the attitudes of agricultural experts regarding precision agriculture plays an important role in developing, promoting and establishing precision agriculture. The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting the attitudes of agricultural experts regarding the implementation of precision agriculture. A descriptive research design was employed as the research method. A research-made questionnaire was used to examine the agricultural experts’ attitude toward precision agriculture. Internal consistency was demonstrated with a coefficient alpha of 0.87, and the content and face validity of the instrument was confirmed by a panel of experts. The results show that technical, economic and accessibility factors accounted for 55% of the changes in attitudes towards precision agriculture. The findings revealed that there were no significant differences between participants in terms of gender, field of study, extension education, age, experience, organizational position and attitudes, while education levels had a significant effect on the respondent’s attitudes.

  13. Charcoal from jute sticks: an agricultural waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banergee, S.K.

    1980-07-01

    Charcoal is conventionally obtained by the carbonization of hardwoods. However, recent experiments carried out at the Jute Technological Research Laboratory (Indian Council of Agricultural Research), Calcutta, India, have indicated that a good quality smokeless charcoal in chip form could be obtained by low temperature carbonization of jute sticks. Jute stick is the core portion of the jute plant left after the extraction of the jute fiber. Whereas the fiber portion has great commerical value, the stick portion is considered to be an agricultural waste. The actual amount of jute sticks, which is annually renewable product, is about 2-3 million tonnes a year. Due to its abundance, ready availability and cheapness, it is anticipated that jute sticks will be a more economical source for making charcoal for fuel and chemical carbon than the hardwood resources. The latter take many years to grow to maturity and need extensive reforestation plans.

  14. Agricultural Technology, Risk, and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Tarp, Finn

    2000-01-01

    Interactions between agricultural technology improvements, risk-reducing behavior, and gender roles in agricultural production in Mozambique are examined. The analysis employs a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model that explicitly incorporates key features of the economy. These include......: detailed accounting of marketing margins, home consumption, risk, and gender roles in agricultural production. Our results show that agricultural technology improvements benefit both male and female occupants of rural households. Due to economic interactions, agricultural technology improvements...... are particularly compelling when combined with marketing system improvements. Moreover, technological change in cassava appears to be a particularly strong lever for increasing female and overall household welfare, especially when risk is considered....

  15. Agricultural Pilot's Audiological Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foltz, Lucas

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The agricultural airplane pilot are daily exposed to intense noises, being susceptible to the noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL and its auditory and extra auditory effects. Objective: To analyze the audiological profile of this population, verifying the work's influence on its hearing. Method: It was realized a retrospective, individual, observational, and cross-sectional study through the data obtained by means of a questionnaire and audiometric thresholds of 41 agricultural pilots. To the statistical analysis were utilized the chi-square, Spearman, and Wilcoxon tests with significance level of 5%. Results: It was verified that 95,1% of the pilots use PPE ( personal protective equipment during flight and 58,5% have contact with pesticides. More than half of individuals referred to feel auditory and extra auditory symptoms, being the buzz the more frequent (29,1%. It has the occurrence of 29,3% of NIHL suggestive hearing loss and 68,3% of normality, taking this presence of unilateral notch in 24,4% and bilateral notch in 31,7%. It was found correlation statistically significant in the associations between time of service and the average of the acute frequencies in the right ear (p=0038, and in the left ear (p=0,010. It has a statistical tendency in the association between audiometric configuration and contact with pesticides (p=0,088. Conclusion: The hearing loss prevalence in this study was showed high. More than half of the sample has normal audiometric thresholds with notch configuration. Such data lead to the conclusion that the agricultural pilots, even with PPE use, they still suffer with the damages caused by noise, needing best proposals of hearing loss prevention.

  16. African agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...... outside of tariffs. Impressive results were forecast by simulating both a 50% reduction in what can be considered traditional non-tariff barriers and a modest 20% reduction in the costs associated with transit time delays at customs, terminals and internal land transportation. Gains from tariff...

  17. Biostimulants in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick eBrown

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Biostimulants, which may be derived from a wide range of natural or synthetic processes, are now widely used in agriculture and yet the mode of action of these materials is not well understood. On the basis of available literature, and based upon the diversity of biostimulant responses highlighted in this focus issue, we hypothesize that biostimulants function by directly interacting with plant signaling cascades or act through stimulation of endophytic and non-endophytic bacteria, yeast and fungi to produce molecules of benefit to the plant. The benefit of the biostimulant is derived from the reduction in assimilates that are diverted to non-productive stress response metabolism.

  18. Depuration sludges in agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchese, F.; Nappi, P.; Onofrio, M.; Barberis, R. (Politecnico di Torino (Italy). Dipt. di Scienza dei Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica)

    The study examines 5 sludges coming from different scale municipal waste treatment plants and some other 8 produced by waste treatment of as many different industrial plants. The studied sludges were characterized both through chemical and microbiological analyses. Biological assays were made to evaluate phytotoxicity and pot cultivation assays using Lepidium Sativum as test plant. Toxic metals transfer from the soil to the plant was found to take place in the following decreasing order: Zn Cr Cd Ni Cu Pb. Metal transfer coefficient is lower for sludge-soil mixtures than tor soil alone probably because of the metals different chemical form.

  19. Beyond Conservation Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken E Giller

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance, soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals and biotechnology. Over the past ten years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub- tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture.

  20. COMMUNITY SUPPORTED AGRICULTURE (CSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atănăsoaie George Sebastian

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Farms of CSA types are a viable alternative to trade of agricultural products coming from conventional agriculture. These farms are faced with a number of policy issues related to product, price, distribution and promotion. In order to elucidate the issues listed above, we have investigated the literature of specialty. Farmers must make more flexible the content of basket both quantitatively and in terms of the nature of food products offered. Consumers need information on ways of preparation or preservation of products. The growth of the processing degree in farm, and inclusion in the offer of services in ecotourism represent effective options to satisfy consumers. To offset the negative impact of high prices measures should be taken in reducing costs, more flexibility in rescheduling of payments due from customers and compensate for the lack of financial resources with the provision of farm work or subsidize a portion of the basket value from private or government sources. Delivery of baskets should be both at fixed points and at customers domicile. Farmers must provide customers the possibility so that they could harvest themselves the products they will buy. Negative influence of prices will be reduced by establishing an effective communication policy with the market, by organizing events on the farm or nearby towns, through blogs and social networks, and through participation in fairs and exhibitions. A greater customer involvement in farming activities will lead to the implementation of an effective marketing mix.

  1. Beyond conservation agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giller, Ken E.; Andersson, Jens A.; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals, and biotechnology. Over the past 10 years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub-) tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture. PMID:26579139

  2. AGRICULTURE DISEASE MITIGATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sion Hannuna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Around 52% of the population of India rely on farming for their livelihood which accounts for 17% of India’s GDP. Whilst most farmers are familiar with conventional farming practices, they are often ill positioned to promptly deal with diseases and plant infestations affecting their crops. Current advisory systems tend to be generic and are not tailored to specific plots or farms. This work comprises an agriculture advisory call center similar to a modern call center to provide an agriculture disease mitigation system. The information regarding an individual farm is collected using mobile phones. The image of diseased/infected crop is also captured using mobile phones and is made available to the expert to provide the advisory. To scale the advisory, an attempt is also made to automate the disease recognition process using image processing. Unfortunately, the photos taken will be sensitive to a number of factors including camera type and lighting incident on the scene. Ideally, the images would be processed in such a way as to provide the expert with a visual representation of the affected crops that reflects the true nature of the scene. We describe a framework for standardising the colour of plant images taken using both mobile phones and compact cameras within the context of the advisory system.

  3. Emerging Agricultural Biotechnologies for Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jennifer A; Gipmans, Martijn; Hurst, Susan; Layton, Raymond; Nehra, Narender; Pickett, John; Shah, Dilip M; Souza, Thiago Lívio P O; Tripathi, Leena

    2016-01-20

    As global populations continue to increase, agricultural productivity will be challenged to keep pace without overtaxing important environmental resources. A dynamic and integrated approach will be required to solve global food insecurity and position agriculture on a trajectory toward sustainability. Genetically modified (GM) crops enhanced through modern biotechnology represent an important set of tools that can promote sustainable agriculture and improve food security. Several emerging biotechnology approaches were discussed in a recent symposium organized at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry meeting in San Francisco, CA, USA. This paper summarizes the innovative research and several of the new and emerging technologies within the field of agricultural biotechnology that were presented during the symposium. This discussion highlights how agricultural biotechnology fits within the context of sustainable agriculture and improved food security and can be used in support of further development and adoption of beneficial GM crops.

  4. Analysis of Factors Influencing Development of Resource-saving and Environment-friendly Agriculture in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By selecting the data from 1989 to 2009 in China, we conduct regression analysis on the total output value of agriculture, the usage amount of chemical fertilizer, total power of agricultural machinery, effective irrigation area, and the damage area. The results show that the usage amount of chemical fertilizer and the damage area, the great obstacle to the construction of resource-saving and environment-friendly agriculture, have significant impact on the output value of agriculture; total power of agricultural machinery and effective irrigation area have insignificant impact on the output value of agriculture. Based on these, the suggestions for promoting the development of resource-saving and environment-friendly agriculture are put forward as follows: transform agricultural production mode, and optimize the industrial structure of agriculture; promote scientific use of chemical fertilizer, and promote the ability of agriculture to resist risks; promote the development of biogas in rural areas, and carry out the comprehensive use of biological material resources in rural areas.

  5. Comparing Pathways to Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Q Fuller

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The transition from foraging systems to agricultural dependence is a persistent focus of archaeological research, and the focus of a major research project supported by the European Research Council (ERC grant no. 323842, ’ComPAg’. Gordon Childe, director of the Institute of Archaeology 1947–1957, influentially defined the Neolithic revolution as that which instigated a series of changes in human societies towards sedentism (settling in one place, larger populations, food production based on domesticated plants and animals, transformed cosmologies and the dawn of new malleable technologies such as ceramics and textiles (Childe 1936.

  6. Agricultural nitrate pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Helle Tegner

    2015-01-01

    Despite the passing of almost 25 years since the adoption of the EU Nitrates Directive, agricultural nitrate pollution remains a major concern in most EU Member States. This is also the case in Denmark, although a fairly strict regulatory regime has resulted in almost a 50 per cent reduction...... in nitrogen leaching since the mid-80s. Nevertheless, further effort is needed, particularly in ecologically sensitive areas. This article discusses different regulatory approaches – and in particular the need for a differentiated nitrate regulation tailored to meet site-specific ecological demands – from...... of the mandatory specification standards of the Nitrates Directive combined with additional instruments to address the need for severe restrictions on fertiliser use or cultivation practices in the most ecologically vulnerable areas....

  7. Urban agriculture in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloysius Clemence Mosha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Botswana, a middle-income country, is experiencing a sluggish economic growth and a rapid urbanisation which has brought in its wake high unemployment, poverty and food insecurity. This has led some people to engage in subsistence and commercial urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA to address these problems. However, in spite of its known advantages, uptake of UPA has been low for a number of reasons including: high GDP before the economic meltdown of recent years; a harsh climate; lack of water; poor access to land; and over-reliance on generous government handouts. Nevertheless, the extent of its practice and its contribution to food security – albeit modest – shows that it is a sector that needs to be encouraged and supported. Both central and local government can play a big role by providing land and infrastructure, and also by implementing an enabling policy and regulatory environment which promotes small- and medium-scale urban food production.

  8. Linking nutrition-health-agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural production is intimately linked with health and nutrition as a form of income, a source of food, and a cause of disease. Citing a variety of previous studies, this presentation demonstrates the complexity of the relationships among agriculture and food consumption, food safety, infection, and stunting. The authors demonstrate that increasing agricultural production does not necessarily result in improved nutrition: Although more food may be available, this greater yield may suppl...

  9. Green Agriculture - features and agricultural policy measures for the transition to a sustainable agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Nistor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is one of the most important economic activities in each country or area, as it is in close correlation with all other the other economic activities, in a whole which must be structured so as to achieve a more efficient planning and organization of the territory. The practice of a traditional agriculture, based on industrialization, affects the natural environment through emissions of pollutants, waste and deforestation which together affects biodiversity. Green Agriculture suppose to empower managers to widespread the use of fertilizers, to improve the crop rotation, to realize a more efficient water consumption, to improve the storage methods and the supply chain of products. Agricultural policies are closely interrelated with environmental policies as agricultural activities have a considerable influence on the environment. The efficiency of agricultural policies is reflected in monetary transfers between agriculture and other economic sectors, in the costs due to the reallocation of the resources between different agricultural and non-agricultural activities and in the realized gains. Currently there is a constant concern of the governments for the transition to a green agriculture, and most countries recognize the importance of achieving sustainable economic development.

  10. Effects of composting with earthworm on the chemical and biological properties of agricultural organic wastes: A principal component analysis%蚯蚓堆制处理对农业有机废弃物的化学及生物学影响的主成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘婷; 任宗玲; 张池; 陈旭飞; 周波; 戴军

    2012-01-01

    在实验室可控条件下,以碳氮比28.7∶1的农业有机废弃物(牛粪和稻秆)为赤子爱胜蚓(Eisenia foetida)的培养基质,研究蚯蚓的堆制作用对有机物料的化学及生物学特性的影响.结果表明:蚯蚓堆制处理30 d后,基质pH值、碳氮比显著降低,全磷显著升高,而全氮、碱解氮、可溶性碳、速效磷、微生物生物量碳、呼吸速率和微生物熵分别提高8.5%、2.6%、1.8%、6.3%、21.2%、4.4%和30.0%,有机质、呼吸熵分别降低5.0%和21.9%.蚯蚓堆制处理后物料具有较高的转化酶、酸性和碱性磷酸酶活性,较低的过氧化氢酶和脲酶活性.多元数据分析结果显示,自然堆制和蚯蚓堆制处理物料的化学和生物学特性均呈现显著的差异性.蚯蚓堆制处理优于自然堆制处理,可以明显改善有机物料的化学、生物学性质,是一种高效率处理农业有机废弃物的技术.%Taking mixed agricultural organic wastes cattle manure and rice straw (C;N = 28.7;1) as the substrate of earthworm Eisenia foetida, an experiment was conducted to study the effects of earthworm on the changes of the chemical and biological properties of wastes during vermi-compos-ting. After 30 days of vermi-composting, the substrate' s pH and C/N decreased while the total P content increased significantly, and the total N, available N, dissolved organic carbon, available P content, microbial biomass-C, respiration rate, and microbial quotient increased by 8. 5% , 2. 6% , 1. 8% , 6. 3% , 21. 2% , 4. 4% , and 30. 0% whereas the organic matter content and metabolic quotient decreased by 5.0% and 21. 9% , respectively, as compared with natural composting. Vermi-composting made the substrate have higher invertase, acid phosphatase, and alkaline phospha-tase activities but lower catalase and urease activities. Principal component analysis and discriminant analysis confirmed the significant differences in the substrate' s chemical and

  11. Advanced Manufacturing and Value-added Products from US Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villet, Ruxton H.; Child, Dennis R.; Acock, Basil

    1992-01-01

    An objective of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agriculture Research Service (ARS) is to develop technology leading to a broad portfolio of value-added marketable products. Modern scientific disciplines such as chemical engineering are brought into play to develop processes for converting bulk commodities into high-margin products. To accomplish this, the extremely sophisticated processing devices which form the basis of modern biotechnology, namely, genes and enzymes, can be tailored to perform the required functions. The USDA/ARS is a leader in the development of intelligent processing equipment (IPE) for agriculture in the broadest sense. Applications of IPE are found in the production, processing, grading, and marketing aspects of agriculture. Various biotechnology applications of IPE are discussed.

  12. USSR Report, Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    of sugar beet. The farms are amassing fertilizer and plant protection chemicals. The sugar industry also gets raw materials from Cuba in the form of... sugar cane . Sugar factories—numbering over a hundred in the USSR—are preparing to process a large quantity of raw materials. New shops are being... Sugar Beet Processing Figures Reported (TASS, 6 Feb 84) 21 Briefs Belgorodskaya Oblast Sugar Beet Developments 22 Ukraine Sugar Beet Developments

  13. Precision agriculture and food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebbers, Robin; Adamchuk, Viacheslav I

    2010-02-12

    Precision agriculture comprises a set of technologies that combines sensors, information systems, enhanced machinery, and informed management to optimize production by accounting for variability and uncertainties within agricultural systems. Adapting production inputs site-specifically within a field and individually for each animal allows better use of resources to maintain the quality of the environment while improving the sustainability of the food supply. Precision agriculture provides a means to monitor the food production chain and manage both the quantity and quality of agricultural produce.

  14. The Use of Weed Control Robot (WCR for Achieve to the Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Sani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Today, weeds control is very difficult because they are resistant to the herbicide due to excessive use of chemical herbicides in agriculture. Many studies have shown that mechanical and biological control of weeds can be much less damage to the environment of chemical herbicides. Develop of biological herbicides in agriculture was slow due to high prices and this subject the researchers to move toward the elimination of agricultural weed mechanically. This work was originally done by a many number of workers because and workers' rights didn’t work was ultimately economic value. Now solve this subject by the use of robotic technology in agriculture has been studied and a many number of agricultural researchers with the help of computer scientists move towards making robots to remove the weeds. Of course this is difficult due to excessive weeds similar to the plants, but the final results will help to increase crop and save the environment by eliminating chemical herbicides.

  15. Cycling of Organoarsenic Compounds in Agricultural Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, M. E.; Chambers, D. B.; White, J. S.

    2004-12-01

    The use of the organoarsenical roxarsone, added to poultry feed to increase weight gain, results in elevated arsenic concentrations (10-50 mg/kg) in poultry litter. This litter is extensively applied to crop fields and pastures, both as a fertilizer and as a waste disposal technique, in agricultural regions. Using a combination of field sampling and laboratory experiments, we investigated the sources and sinks of arsenic within soils and natural waters in an agricultural watershed in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia, USA, an area of intense poultry production. Surface, ground, and soil waters were collected in an instrumented field site to examine arsenic and other litter-derived species in different hydrologic compartments and different settings within the field site. We collected soil cores of the Frederick series, common in the Shenandoah Valley, from several areas experiencing different litter application histories in the valley to examine relationships between arsenic and physico-chemical properties of the soils. Last, we conducted a series of batch experiments to examine adsorption and biotransformation characteristics of roxarsone within Ap and Bt soil horizons of the Frederick soils. Results of these combined studies document a complex yet intriguing cycling of arsenic through the watershed, which will provide useful information for management of poultry litter in agricultural watersheds.

  16. Property Analysis of the Agricultural Machinery Lubricants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tone Ploj

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available We need to produce enough healthy and cheap food as well as to preserve the ecologic equilibrium. This can be achived by using modern machinery and up- to-date knowledge and technology. Agricultural machinery, in which 40-60% of all funds are invested, is poorly maintained and underused. The main causes for this are poor knowledge and extensive farm land fragmentation. The fact that over 140,000 tractors in Slovenia are on average 9.6 years old, i.e. that more than 80% of overall agricultural machinery is obsolete, should be a matter of serious concern. In the paper we follow tribological conditions in particular tractor assemblies. In the first part of the paper we have treated the required conditions of tractor manufacturers in Europe and primarily in Slovenia, what has served us in the final phase of the research for elaboration of the model. In this way we have got data about the presence of particular tractor types. We have separately elaborated the necessary specifications of engine lubricants, transmission, gears, hydraulics and wet breaks. We have carried out chemical and mechanical analyses of all accessible lubricants in agricultural mechanisation. The results of the new oils were coordinated with the required specifications of tractor manufacturers and so we have got such a model, that certainly meet all lubricating requirements of our tractors.

  17. Research achievements in Bangladesh agriculture using nuclear techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattar, M.A. [Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Mymensingh, (Bangladesh)

    1997-10-01

    Application of isotope and radiation techniques in Bangladesh agriculture has been initiated in 1961 with the establishment of Atomic Energy Agricultural Research Centre, Dhaka under the then Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission. The activity of the centre was strengthened and upgraded to the level of an institute as a constituent organization of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission in 1972. It was further reorganized, made an autonomous research organization under the Ministry of Agriculture in 1982 and renamed as Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture. The other organizations involved in nuclear agricultural research are Institute of Food and Radiation Biology and Bangladesh Agricultural University. A number of technologies have been developed using nuclear techniques that imparted on agricultural development. Sixteen new crops were developed using physical (200-700 Gy gamma rays) and chemical mutagen (NaN{sub 3}). Soil fertility and plant nutrition technologies were developed using both stable and radio isotopes. The improved feeding strategies and utilization of locally available low quality feed material (rice straw) were determined using {sup 51}Cr-EDTA and {sup 125}I in order to have better livestock growth and reproduction ability. Several constraints related to nuclear research were identified. Increased government commitment and international cooperation are of the utmost importance for effective utilization of the benefits of nuclear technology and to face the increasing demand for food for the ever increasing population in years to come 32 refs., 1 tab.

  18. Fact Sheet in English and Spanish: What Residents in Agricultural Communities Should Know About Soil Fumigants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about fumigant gas from treated fields (often covered with plastic tarps), some chemical and trade names of these agricultural products, signs and symptoms of pesticide exposure, and how to avoid or report or treat pesticide illness.

  19. 40 CFR 455.60 - Applicability; description of repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed by refilling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... defined in 40 CFR 167.3. (c) The provisions of this subpart do not apply to wastewater discharges from... repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed by refilling establishments subcategory. 455.60 Section 455... STANDARDS PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Repackaging of Agricultural Pesticides Performed at Refilling...

  20. One hundred years of the Division of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (AGFD)of the American Chemical Society was 100 years old in 2008. ACS grouped papers into sections at its national meetings starting in 1904, including one dealing with agricultural, biological, and sanitary chemistry. This section became AGFD on Dec...

  1. Capital loss in China's agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Peng

    2004-01-01

    China's agriculture has contributed a lot to industrialization but it has suffered a long-run and severe capital loss.This paper provides an estimation model of capital loss in agriculture and gives some explanation in marginal approach.With an eye to a balanced and sustainable economy development, it is high time for government to do something for it.

  2. Entrepreneurship in agriculture and healthcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassink, Jan; Hulsink, Willem; Grin, John

    2016-01-01

    Care farming provides an interesting context of multifunctional agriculture where farmers face the challenge of having to bridge the gap between agriculture and healthcare and acquire new customers, partners and financial resources from the care sector. We compared different entry strategies of d

  3. Organic agriculture in North Carolina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wossink, G.A.A.; Kuminoff, N.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of the NC State Economist provides an overview of organic agriculture with an emphasis on North Carolina. Research results are reported and some of the new policies and programs that may affect organic agriculture in the near future are described

  4. Chemical use

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of research and activities related to chemical use on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge between 1992 and 2009. The chemicals used on the Refuge...

  5. Chemical Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, C. N.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a course, including content, reading list, and presentation on chemical reactors at Cambridge University, England. A brief comparison of chemical engineering education between the United States and England is also given. (JN)

  6. Productivity Growth in China’s Agriculture During 1985-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhou; ZHANG Hai-peng

    2013-01-01

    This paper made an empirical analysis of China’s agricultural growth path and inlfuential factors using the province-level panel data of agricultural inputs and outputs during 1985-2010. The ifndings indicate that the increase in agricultural inputs and TFP contributed 40.6 and 55.2% to the agricultural output growth, respectively; China’s agriculture had jumped out of the pattern which output growth was mainly driven by increasing input. Of the total inputs, chemical fertilizer had the most important contribution to the output growth, followed by mechanical inputs. The contribution of land and labor was negative. China’s agricultural output growth belonged to the type of induced technology innovation. China’s agricultural TFP growth had characteristics of lfuctuations over time and unbalanced between regions, but the gap between the eastern, the middle, and the western regions has been narrowed.

  7. Bioprospecting bacterial and fungal volatiles for sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchiswamy, Chidananda Nagamangala; Malnoy, Mickael; Maffei, Massimo E

    2015-04-01

    Current agricultural practice depends on a wide use of pesticides, bactericides, and fungicides. Increased demand for organic products indicates consumer preference for reduced chemical use. Therefore, there is a need to develop novel sustainable strategies for crop protection and enhancement that do not rely on genetic modification and/or harmful chemicals. An increasing body of evidence indicates that bacterial and fungal microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) might provide an alternative to the use of chemicals to protect plants from pathogens and provide a setting for better crop welfare. It is well known that MVOCs can modulate the physiology of plants and microorganisms and in this Opinion we propose that MVOCs can be exploited as an ecofriendly, cost-effective, and sustainable strategy for agricultural practices.

  8. Biofertilizers: a potential approach for sustainable agriculture development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanty, Trishna; Bhattacharjee, Surajit; Goswami, Madhurankhi; Bhattacharyya, Purnita; Das, Bannhi; Ghosh, Abhrajyoti; Tribedi, Prosun

    2017-02-01

    The worldwide increase in human population raises a big threat to the food security of each people as the land for agriculture is limited and even getting reduced with time. Therefore, it is essential that agricultural productivity should be enhanced significantly within the next few decades to meet the large demand of food by emerging population. Not to mention, too much dependence on chemical fertilizers for more crop productions inevitably damages both environmental ecology and human health with great severity. Exploitation of microbes as biofertilizers is considered to some extent an alternative to chemical fertilizers in agricultural sector due to their extensive potentiality in enhancing crop production and food safety. It has been observed that some microorganisms including plant growth promoting bacteria, fungi, Cyanobacteria, etc. have showed biofertilizer-like activities in the agricultural sector. Extensive works on biofertilizers have revealed their capability of providing required nutrients to the crop in sufficient amounts that resulted in the enhancement of crop yield. The present review elucidates various mechanisms that have been exerted by biofertilizers in order to promote plant growth and also provides protection against different plant pathogens. The aim of this review is to discuss the important roles and applications of biofertilizers in different sectors including agriculture, bioremediation, and ecology.

  9. TRANSFORMATION OF MODERN AGRICULTURE INTO ORGANIC AGRICULTURE AT SUBAK WANGAYA BETAN, PENEBEL DISTRICT, TABANAN REGENCY, BALI PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euis Dewi Yuliana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This dissertation discusses the transformation of modern agriculture into organicagriculture at Subak Wangaya Betan, Penebel District, Tabanan Regency, Bali Province.This study is conducted in the perspective of Cultural Studies and the problem is that thedark side of modern agriculture is getting visible. The chemical substances used inagriculture have turned out to result in many problems such as the damage of landquality, the continuous decrease in plant productivity and environment, themarginalization of farmers. Therefore, many farmers have been aware and havetransformed into ecologically organic agriculture as what has taken place at SubakWangaya Betan. The farmers have transformed from modern agriculture into organicagriculture. However, the process of the transformation has left many problems;therefore, a deep study is necessarily conducted to answer various existing questions.The problems in this study are formulated in three basic questions such asfollows. First, how has the process of the transformation from modern agriculture intoorganic agriculture taken place at Subak Wangaya Betan? Second, why has thetransformation from modern agriculture into organic agriculture taken place? Third, whatare the implications and meanings of the transformation from modern agriculture intoorganic agriculture at Subak Wangaya Betan? In general, this study aims at identifyingand comprehending more clearly the transformation from modern agriculture into organicagriculture taking place at Betan Wangaya Subak.This research was conducted using qualitative method with multidisciplinaryapproach in accordance with the paradigm of cultural studies. In the first stage, primaryand secondary data were collected. In the second stage, theories were selected foranalyzing the data. Several critical theories such as the theory of Discourse of Power andKnowledge, the theory of Hegemony and the theory of Deconstruction, which are eclecticin nature, were decided to

  10. Structural Adjustment of Oasis Agriculture in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Jun; Zhang Xiaolei

    2005-01-01

    Xinjiang's oasis agriculture has made enormous strides over past decades. Structural adjustment of oasis agriculture sector has promoted production diversification. Xinjiang's oasis agriculture sector is entering a new era. The era means more adjustments in oasis agricultural and rural economic structure so as to realize the sustainable development of agriculture. By summing and analyzing the main problems in Xinjinag's oasis agricultural structure,such as raising farmer's income, industry structure within agriculture, rural urbanization, pressure coming from market, agricultural environment degradation,puts forward the thinking, director and countermeasures to adjust oasis agricultural structure.

  11. Online educational repositories for promoting agricultural knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.I. Costopoulou

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Towards promoting sustainable agriculture and economic growth, the development of the agricultural workforce and set up of innovative agricultural systems are required. Agricultural educational repositories are systems used for storing, reusing and sharing agricultural learning resources. They contribute to agricultural education at different educational levels and target groups. Thus, this paper firstly provides an overview of Institutional repositories (IRs and Open Access Archives (OAAs in Greece and agricultural repositories worldwide. Also, it describes the agricultural repositories that provide access to educational content in Greek and presents experiences from the establishment of Agricultural University of Athens’ (AUA repository.

  12. Gender Equality in Agricultural Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jayakumar

    2016-05-01

    “Increased women’s enrollment in agricultural courses” as one among the strategies when addressing gender issues in the education and training components of agricultural development projects. In this context the study was carried out to ascertain the representation of women and their academic achievement in agricultural education. The study revealed that almost equal representation was found for women in agricultural course and they were also provided better quality education in their schooling, in the form of English medium education and education in private schools. Recent trends for the past four years showed a higher percentage of enrollments of women in agricultural course than men. The growth rate was also higher for the female students. Women also showed a significantly higher percentage of academic achievement than men. These positive indicators provide sufficient signals for equality of women in agricultural course and have positive implications for development of the agricultural sector in future.

  13. Greenhouse gas mitigation in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pete; Martino, Daniel; Cai, Zucong; Gwary, Daniel; Janzen, Henry; Kumar, Pushpam; McCarl, Bruce; Ogle, Stephen; O'Mara, Frank; Rice, Charles; Scholes, Bob; Sirotenko, Oleg; Howden, Mark; McAllister, Tim; Pan, Genxing; Romanenkov, Vladimir; Schneider, Uwe; Towprayoon, Sirintornthep; Wattenbach, Martin; Smith, Jo

    2008-02-27

    Agricultural lands occupy 37% of the earth's land surface. Agriculture accounts for 52 and 84% of global anthropogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Agricultural soils may also act as a sink or source for CO2, but the net flux is small. Many agricultural practices can potentially mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the most prominent of which are improved cropland and grazing land management and restoration of degraded lands and cultivated organic soils. Lower, but still significant mitigation potential is provided by water and rice management, set-aside, land use change and agroforestry, livestock management and manure management. The global technical mitigation potential from agriculture (excluding fossil fuel offsets from biomass) by 2030, considering all gases, is estimated to be approximately 5500-6000Mt CO2-eq.yr-1, with economic potentials of approximately 1500-1600, 2500-2700 and 4000-4300Mt CO2-eq.yr-1 at carbon prices of up to 20, up to 50 and up to 100 US$ t CO2-eq.-1, respectively. In addition, GHG emissions could be reduced by substitution of fossil fuels for energy production by agricultural feedstocks (e.g. crop residues, dung and dedicated energy crops). The economic mitigation potential of biomass energy from agriculture is estimated to be 640, 2240 and 16 000Mt CO2-eq.yr-1 at 0-20, 0-50 and 0-100 US$ t CO2-eq.-1, respectively.

  14. General Situations of Development of Photovoltaic Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohang; ZHANG; Shoufu; CUI; Fuping; LIU

    2015-01-01

    This paper firstly introduced policy of photovoltaic agriculture in China. It discussed significance of developing photovoltaic agriculture. Then,it introduced progress in application of photovoltaic agriculture at both home and abroad. Finally,it pointed out existing problems in photovoltaic agriculture and came up with recommendations for development of photovoltaic agriculture in China.

  15. Mathematics in agriculture and vocational education for agricultures

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents some of the results from a research study about mathematics in agriculture and agricultural education. The purpose of the study is to investigate the role of mathematics as a professional knowledge, and how to organize vocational secondary school education so that students receive the math knowledge and skills they need for their future profession. The study is done from a curricula theoretical perspective with concepts from Bernstein (2000). The re...

  16. Economics, Policy, and Organic Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingemann, Jan Holm

    2009-01-01

    Is organic agriculture so special that special social theories and methods are needed? The article investigates the question in two steps: First, the article address the question whether agriculture is special. Second, whether organic agriculture is special. It is concluded that from an economic...... point of view new research suggests that the organic sector can only be conceptualized and understood in the general social context. If the sector is analyzed as independent of general social context, it will lead to insufficient, and in worst case wrong, understandings and subsequently inadequate...

  17. Adapting agriculture with traditional knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiderska, Krystyna; Reid, Hannah [IIED, London (United Kingdom); Song, Yiching; Li, Jingsong [Centre for Chinese Agriculutral Policy (China); Mutta, Doris [Kenya Forestry Research Institute (Kenya)

    2011-10-15

    Over the coming decades, climate change is likely to pose a major challenge to agriculture; temperatures are rising, rainfall is becoming more variable and extreme weather is becoming a more common event. Researchers and policymakers agree that adapting agriculture to these impacts is a priority for ensuring future food security. Strategies to achieve that in practice tend to focus on modern science. But evidence, both old and new, suggests that the traditional knowledge and crop varieties of indigenous peoples and local communities could prove even more important in adapting agriculture to climate change.

  18. Agricultural uses of alkaline fluidized bed combustion ash: case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, W.L.; Daily, M.R.; Nickeson, T.L.; Svendson, R.L.; Thompson, G.P. [USDA-ARS, University Park, PA (United States)

    1997-06-01

    Successful programmes were developed by Ahlstrom Development Ash Corporation and Air Products and Chemical for using fluidized bed combustion ash as a substitute for agricultural lime on dairy farms in northern New York state and on fruit and nut crops in the San Joaquin Valley of California. The companies developed these programmes by utilizing the methodology developed through USDA-ARS research and working closely with agricultural consultants and regulatory agencies to ensure that the ash applications were both agronomically and environmentally sound. 1 ref.

  19. Agricultural water demand, water quality and crop suitability in Souk-Alkhamis Al-Khums, Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abunnour, Mohamed Ali; Hashim, Noorazuan Bin Md.; Jaafar, Mokhtar Bin

    2016-06-01

    Water scarcity, unequal population distribution and agricultural activities increased in the coastal plains, and the probability of seawater intrusion with ground water. According to this, the quantitative and qualitative deterioration of underground water quality has become a potential for the occurrence, in addition to the decline in agricultural production in the study area. This paper aims to discover the use of ground water for irrigation in agriculture and their suitability and compatibility for agricultural. On the other hand, the quality is determines by the cultivated crops. 16 random samples of regular groundwater are collected and analyzed chemically. Questionnaires are also distributed randomly on regular basis to farmers.

  20. Agricultural Minerals Operations - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes agricultural minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  1. Decentralizing Agricultural Extension: Alternative Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, William M.

    1997-01-01

    Examines government strategies for decentralizing agricultural extension, concluding that such changes are largely determined by the country's constitutional status. Reviews decentralization guidelines for structural and fiscal reforms and participatory management systems. (SK)

  2. Polymer in Agriculture: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Puoci

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In agricultural field, polymers are widely used for many applications. Although they were used, in the first time, just as structural materials (inhert polymers, in the last decades functionalized polymers revolutionized the agricultural and food industry with new tools for several applications. Smart polymeric materials and smart delivery systems helped the agricultural industryto combat viruses and other crop pathogens, functionalized polymers were used to increase the efficiency of pesticides and herbicides, allowing lower doses to be used and to indirectly protect the environment through filters or catalysts to reduce pollution and clean-up existing pollutants. This report will review the key aspects of used polymers in agricultural area, highlighting current research in this field and the future impacts they may have.

  3. Danish emission inventories for agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth; Albrektsen, Rikke; Gyldenkærne, Steen

    . This report contains a description of the emissions from the agricultural sector from 1985 to 2009. Furthermore, the report includes a detailed description of methods and data used to calculate the emissions, which is based on national methodologies as well as international guidelines. For the Danish...... emissions calculations and data management an Integrated Database model for Agricultural emissions (IDA) is used. The emission from the agricultural sector includes emission of the greenhouse gases methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), ammonia (NH3), particulate matter (PM), non-methane volatile organic...... compounds (NMVOC) and other pollutants related to the field burning of agricultural residue such as NOx, CO2, CO, SO2, heavy metals, dioxin and PAH. The ammonia emission from 1985 to 2009 has decreased from 119 300 tonnes of NH3 to 73 800 tonnes NH3, corresponding to a 38 % reduction. The emission...

  4. Laser-based agriculture system

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Boon S.

    2016-03-31

    A system and method are provided for indoor agriculture using at least one growth chamber illuminated by laser light. In an example embodiment of the agriculture system, a growth chamber is provided having one or more walls defining an interior portion of the growth chamber. The agriculture system may include a removable tray disposed within the interior portion of the growth chamber. The agriculture system also includes a light source, which may be disposed outside the growth chamber. The one or more walls may include at least one aperture. The light source is configured to illuminate at least a part of the interior portion of the growth chamber. In embodiments in which the light source is disposed outside the growth chamber, the light source is configured to transmit the laser light to the interior portion of the growth chamber via the at least one aperture.

  5. Agricultural Roots in the Biological Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Charles W.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    A wide variety of careers related to agriculture and based on studies of the biological sciences are discussed. The importance of agriculture in our society as well as the educational means to an agricultural career are outlined. (MDR)

  6. Knowledge Base and Content of Agricultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Robert A.; Peterson, Ronald L.

    1991-01-01

    Agricultural education encompasses basic sciences and business management principles. Critical curriculum components are (1) technical agriculture (basic principles, functions, and technical specialties of agriculture); (2) experiential learning; and (3) human development. (SK)

  7. Integrating Agriculture into the Science Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Pamela M.; Linder, Mark P.

    1993-01-01

    The California Foundation for Agriculture in the Classroom supports efforts to integrate agricultural education into K-12 science curriculum. Thirteen pilot agriculture/science units have been developed. (SK)

  8. Theme: Future Programs of Agricultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jasper S.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This issue, focusing on future programs of agricultural education, includes articles on the future of agriculture, bioelectronics, secondary programs, technical education in agriculture, young and adult farmer programs, instructional technology, and expanding opportunities for women. (CT)

  9. Sustainability and Competitiveness of Romanian Farms through Organic Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Ionela Aceleanu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the development of any sector involves respecting the principles of sustainability, which means economic, social and environmental development. Moreover, organic farming is a very important field for ensuring sustainable development. Romania has great potential for the development of organic agriculture, especially due to the large number of available farmland and reduced use of fertilizers and other chemicals. However, the development of organic farming in Romania is in an early stage, due to the numerous problems that Romanian agriculture is still facing. Concern for the environment should be reflected at the level of production processes and consumption. As market demand influences and stimulates production, we can ask the question to what extent stimulating the consumption of organic products through green marketing can boost organic agriculture development and competitiveness of Romanian farms. Using several methods of research, such as analysis, synthesis, comparison, statistical methods and by calling on studies, reports and data series on organic farming in the EU and Romania, this paper highlights Romania's position in terms of the level of development of organic agriculture and recommends several ways to improve the outcomes obtained by Romania in the field. Moreover, based on regression equations, the trend of convergence of Romanian organic agriculture development in relation to the EU countries is analysed. The paper demonstrates that one of the measures that can be taken by Romanian farms is green marketing strategy development that can stimulate both consumption and production of organic products. Therefore, with increasing interest in the development of organic agriculture in Romania, green marketing can play an increasingly important role in promoting the benefits of consuming organic products, thus contributing to business development of organic products as well as to the development of Romanian agriculture

  10. Biogas - agriculture and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, L.; Birkmose, T. [The Danish Agricultural Advisory Centre, Aarhus (Denmark)

    1997-08-01

    Cultivating the soil always leads to a higher loss of nutrients to the surrounding environment than the loss recorded from natural areas. Loss of nitrogen by leaching may have the effect that the set limit for nitrate of 50 mg NO{sub 3} per litre of water is exceeded in areas, where the water supply is based on ground water. Furthermore, nitrogen leaching may lead to eutrophication followed by oxygen depletion in inland waterways whereas it has hardly any significant environmental impact in freshwater areas. Ammonia volatilization followed by deposition influences nutrient-poor bio-topes like heaths, marshland etc. Increasing importance is attached to the loss of phosphorus from farmland as the discharge of sewage from urban areas and industries are reduced due to effective chemical and biological treatment plants. Environmental problems related to loss phosphorus is primarily eutrophication of freon water lakes. Nitrous oxide(N{sub 2}O), resulting from denitrification of nitrate in the soil, and the emission of methane contribute considerably to the greenhouse effect. Both nitrous oxide and the emission of methane are influenced by the volume of animal production, but no certain data on the connection and the importance are available. Loss of nutrients from farm production is primarily related to animal production. The largest environmental impact concerns the loss of nutrients in areas, where the live-stock production is very intensive in large compact areas and, where the produced amount of nutrients in animal manure and other organic manures exceed the requirements of the crops. (EG) 13 refs.

  11. The impact of mining activities on agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghatelyan, A.; Sahakyan, L.

    2009-04-01

    The present study was designed to assess environmental status of the territory of the city of Kapan and neighboring agricultural farms with an emphasis on the impact of the tailing repository and operation of the Kapan copper plant on soil, water and plant pollution. The region has long been known for its abundant copper and polymetallic deposits with vein- and stockwork-type mineralization. Moreover, historically Kapan was the miners' city and a powerful copper mining and dressing plant has been operating there since 1846. The performed geochemical survey and a sanitary-hygienic assessment of pollution of the Kapan's soils have indicated high contents of Cu, Pb, Ni, Mo and As vs. the background and Maximum Acceptable Concentrations (MAC). The assessment of pollution levels of surface water, including natural and industrial streams, has indicated that unlike natural stream waters, mining waters from the adit and industrial stream waters were high in a number of toxic (Cd, As, Hg) and ore (Cu, Zn) elements. Activation of most chemical elements and particularly of heavy metals in water environment rapidly brings to pollution of environmental components (soils, plants, etc.), and as a result heavy metals enter the human organism via trophic chains. So, in the frame of the research eco-toxicological studies were performed on accumulation of heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Cr, Zn, Sn, Mo), including high toxic elements (As, Hg, Pb, Cd) in agricultural soils and in the basic assortment of agricultural crops. The research covered agricultural lands within the bounds of the city and private plots in neighboring villages. Wholly, 24 vegetable, melon field, cereal (corn), oil-bearing (sunflower) species adding spicy herbs and fruits were studied. It should be stressed that agricultural crops growing on the study sites are used provide food products not only by the population of this particular city and neighboring villages, but of other cities, too. It means that the average number of

  12. Stronger management needed to protect agricultural environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai Shikui

    1983-01-01

    This article examines environmental issues and management in developed agricultural areas of China. Agricultural environmental management is defined as the adoption of countermeasures by applying the theories and methods of environmental science and management science and abiding by economic laws and ecological laws to prevent pollution of the agricultural environment and destruction of the agro-ecology by man; to coordinate the relationship between the development of agricultural production and the protection of the agricultural environment and to satisfy increasing demands for agricultural by-products. Topics considered include the basis for developing agricultural environmental management, the present condition of the agricultural environment in China, and several management proposals.

  13. INTEGRATION OF SEMI-SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURAL FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paun Georgeta

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Intensive agriculture, industrial type, contributed to environmental degradation and pollution. Thus, on the one hand, makes intensive use of chemicals has led to neglect of duty to maintain the natural fertility of the soil organic matter through proper fattening. On the other hand, organizing specialized industrial environments, high animal breeders, considered the only marketable livestock production, neglecting the production of manure, thus representing a break with the brutal nature of biological circuits Following the experience accumulated over two centuries, mankind has drawn valuable education obligation to safeguard the habitat of nature as a collaborator. In this respect, the main task of our times is to develop appropriate technologies humanist ideal, so that man can become a being as fully integrated into the social and cosmic environment. In the present period as a peasant household current form, is typical of developing countries. It is generated by the result of families who received income from farming and increase farm animalelor.Gospodaria organizational structure is the basic economic and agricultural economy. On the basis of the idea that organic production is the main cause of degradation of the biological quality of products is inadequate human intervention at various structural levels of the biosphere, and the most severe effects on humans resulting from the cumulation of errors relating to soil, plants and animals. Organic farming places emphasis on quality natural products, the quantity and productivity issues as a peripheral level. A balanced rural development policy for the future is not an option but a necessity, especially considering the fact that the issue of agriculture and rural development has important national connotations and is a very complex and timely in Romania Regional development is a concept that aims at stimulating and diversifying economic activities, encouraging private sector investment, helping

  14. Chemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, J.R. Jr.; Edlund, D.J.; Friesen, D.T.; Rayfield, G.W.

    1991-07-02

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed. The sensors comprise a mechanochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment. They are operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical response. 9 figures.

  15. Economic evaluation of agricultural pollution control options for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Abler

    2015-01-01

    Environmental sustainability has become a policy priority in China. In agriculture, China has had major success in reha-bilitating desertiifed lands through programs to convert steeply-sloped cropland to forest and limit grazing on sensitive grasslands. However, little has been done in terms of policies for agricultural nutrient management. Runoff and leaching of nutrients in chemical fertilizers and livestock manure are widely acknowledged as signiifcant problems in China. This paper presents an evaluation of agricultural nonpoint pol ution control options for China. Options analyzed include design standards (command&control), performance standards, and design and performance incentives. Evaluation criteria include economic efifciency and effectiveness, environmental impact and risk, and social criteria such as equity and food security. The evaluation indicates that the best options for China involve subsidies to farmers for changing production practices in order to reduce nonpoint emissions, combined with appropriate farmer education and technical assistance.

  16. Public Investment and Environrnental Sustainability of Agricultural Production in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Jing; Li Yousheng

    2004-01-01

    The excessive application of fertilizer and pesticides in grain production in China has posed a threat to the environrnental sustainability of agricultural production. One of the major reasons of the increasing usage of chemical inputs by farmers is their trying to reach higher yields, especially in absence of adequate public inputs, such as development and extension of appropriate technology and necessary production infrastructure, etc. Based on the cropspecific data of the past 20 years, this paper examines how the public investments in agricultural researches could impact on the reduction of farmers' private material inputs of major grain crops in China. It manifests that the increased investments in public sector, especially in agricultural researches, is a favorable and effective way to reduce farmers' private material inputs and should be given a priority consideration in the policy emendation to increase yields and improve production sustainability.

  17. The magnetic susceptibility of European agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, K.; Reimann, C.

    2012-04-01

    The GEMAS (Geochemical mapping of agricultural soils) project, a cooperation project between EuroGeoSurveys and Eurometaux, aims at providing soil quality data for Europe. Samples of arable soil were taken during 2008 at an average density of 1 site/2500 km2 covering the member states of the European Union (except Malta and Romania) and several neighbouring countries (e.g., Norway, Serbia, Ukraine). While the primary aim of the GEMAS project is to produce REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of CHemicals - EC, 2006) consistent soil geochemistry data at the continental scale, the data set is also optimally apt to provide the first continental scale overview of magnetic properties in European soils. Soil samples from the upper 20 cm were taken as composites from 5 sites spread over a ca. 100 m2 area in a large agricultural field (Ap-sample). The samples were air dried and sieved to pass a 2 mm nylon screen. Weight normalized magnetic susceptibility of these dried samples was measured using a Sapphire Instruments SI2B susceptibility meter with dynamic background removal. The here presented maps of magnetic susceptibility in relation to geochemical composition and geological structures for the first time allow to outline the large scale influence of tectonics and climate on magnetic mineral concentration in European soils. The data set also provides the background variability for regional studies aiming to relate magnetic susceptibility of soils to local contamination sources.

  18. Fungal biology and agriculture: revisiting the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarden, O; Ebbole, D J; Freeman, S; Rodriguez, R J; Dickman, M B

    2003-10-01

    Plant pathology has made significant progress over the years, a process that involved overcoming a variety of conceptual and technological hurdles. Descriptive mycology and the advent of chemical plant-disease management have been followed by biochemical and physiological studies of fungi and their hosts. The later establishment of biochemical genetics along with the introduction of DNA-mediated transformation have set the stage for dissection of gene function and advances in our understanding of fungal cell biology and plant-fungus interactions. Currently, with the advent of high-throughput technologies, we have the capacity to acquire vast data sets that have direct relevance to the numerous subdisciplines within fungal biology and pathology. These data provide unique opportunities for basic research and for engineering solutions to important agricultural problems. However, we also are faced with the challenge of data organization and mining to analyze the relationships between fungal and plant genomes and to elucidate the physiological function of pertinent DNA sequences. We present our perspective of fungal biology and agriculture, including administrative and political challenges to plant protection research.

  19. AGRICOH: A Consortium of Agricultural Cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelia H. Zahm

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available AGRICOH is a recently formed consortium of agricultural cohort studies involving 22 cohorts from nine countries in five continents: South Africa (1, Canada (3, Costa Rica (2, USA (6, Republic of Korea (1, New Zealand (2, Denmark (1, France (3 and Norway (3. The aim of AGRICOH, initiated by the US National Cancer Institute (NCI and coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC, is to promote and sustain collaboration and pooling of data to investigate the association between a wide range of agricultural exposures and a wide range of health outcomes, with a particular focus on associations that cannot easily be addressed in individual studies because of rare exposures (e.g., use of infrequently applied chemicals or relatively rare outcomes (e.g., certain types of cancer, neurologic and auto-immune diseases. To facilitate future projects the need for data harmonization of selected variables is required and is underway. Altogether, AGRICOH provides excellent opportunities for studying cancer, respiratory, neurologic, and auto-immune diseases as well as reproductive and allergic disorders, injuries and overall mortality in association with a wide array of exposures, prominent among these the application of pesticides.

  20. Soil biota and agriculture production in conventional and organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrama, Maarten; de Haan, Joj; Carvalho, Sabrina; Kroonen, Mark; Verstegen, Harry; Van der Putten, Wim

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable food production for a growing world population requires a healthy soil that can buffer environmental extremes and minimize its losses. There are currently two views on how to achieve this: by intensifying conventional agriculture or by developing organically based agriculture. It has been established that yields of conventional agriculture can be 20% higher than of organic agriculture. However, high yields of intensified conventional agriculture trade off with loss of soil biodiversity, leaching of nutrients, and other unwanted ecosystem dis-services. One of the key explanations for the loss of nutrients and GHG from intensive agriculture is that it results in high dynamics of nutrient losses, and policy has aimed at reducing temporal variation. However, little is known about how different agricultural practices affect spatial variation, and it is unknown how soil fauna acts this. In this study we compare the spatial and temporal variation of physical, chemical and biological parameters in a long term (13-year) field experiment with two conventional farming systems (low and medium organic matter input) and one organic farming system (high organic matter input) and we evaluate the impact on ecosystem services that these farming systems provide. Soil chemical (N availability, N mineralization, pH) and soil biological parameters (nematode abundance, bacterial and fungal biomass) show considerably higher spatial variation under conventional farming than under organic farming. Higher variation in soil chemical and biological parameters coincides with the presence of 'leaky' spots (high nitrate leaching) in conventional farming systems, which shift unpredictably over the course of one season. Although variation in soil physical factors (soil organic matter, soil aggregation, soil moisture) was similar between treatments, but averages were higher under organic farming, indicating more buffered conditions for nutrient cycling. All these changes coincide with

  1. Comparative Analysis of the Utilization Efficiency of Major Agricultural Resources in Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yajuan; TIAN; Li; ZHEN

    2014-01-01

    The utilization efficiency of resources is one of the important factors affecting the development of modern agriculture. Using production function method and ratio analysis method,we carry out the horizontal comparison of the utilization efficiency of major agricultural resources such as arable land,agricultural machinery power and chemical fertilizer in Hebei Province and the national level,and the vertical comparison of the utilization efficiency of major agricultural resources between the prefecture-level cities in the province. The results show that the utilization efficiency of agricultural resources in Hebei Province is below the national average,and there are significant differences in the utilization efficiency of agricultural resources between the prefecture-level cities in the province.

  2. Chemical intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz; Andersson, Linus; Nordin, Steven;

    2015-01-01

    Chemical intolerance (CI) is a term used to describe a condition in which the sufferer experiences a complex array of recurrent unspecific symptoms attributed to low-level chemical exposure that most people regard as unproblematic. Severe CI constitutes the distinguishing feature of multiple...... chemical sensitivity (MCS). The symptoms reported by CI subjects are manifold, involving symptoms from multiple organs systems. In severe cases of CI, the condition can cause considerable life-style limitations with severe social, occupational and economic consequences. As no diagnostic tools for CI...

  3. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  4. Agricultural utilization of sewage sludge: effect on the chemical and physical properties of soils and on the productivity and recovery of degraded areas/ Uso agrícola do lodo de esgoto: influência nas propriedades químicas e físicas do solo, produtividade e recuperação de áreas degradadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Tavares Filho

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is an overview of the agricultural recycling of sewage sludge and its impact on the chemical and physical properties of soils and on the productivity and recovery of degraded areas. Sewage sludge contains some of the essential plant nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorous, and micronutrients; it also has variable humidity content and is rich in organic matter. Sewage sludge also acts as a soil conditioner, improving soil structure and aggregation, thus decreasing density and increasing aeration of soils.Sewage sludge can complement other crop fertilization techniques by reducing the use of chemical fertilizers and fertilization costs as it increases nutrient availability in soils. As a result, the sludge can enhance plant development and productivity. Sludge application in degraded areas leads to a rapid growth of gramineous and leguminous plants. Plants growing in sludge-applied areas tend to be more vigorous and to cover larger areas (percentage; they also tend to have higher productivity and a better development of the root system. Soil recovery by liming and mineral fertilization can also lead to vegetation regrowth; however, the poor physical and biological soil conditions can deteriorate the cover plants before the soil is actually recovered. Sewage sludge must be processed before being used and cannot be applied directly to agricultural or forested land until biological treatments reduce the sludge organic content and promote organic matter stabilization. In the State of Paraná, Brazil, the direct application of sewage sludge on horticultural and other products that are ingested raw, is not recommended. Sludge fertilization is recommended for corn, wheat, sugarcane, sorghum, fruitiferous plants, and for forest plant species used to recover degraded areas. State regulations determine the levels of heavy metals allowed in the sludge and the maximum dosage of 50 ton biosolid matter/ha, for a 10-year period.Objetivou-se com esta revis

  5. 29 CFR 780.509 - Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agriculture. 780.509 Section 780.509 Labor Regulations... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF... Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.509 Agriculture. The definition of “agriculture,” as...

  6. Department of Agriculture Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... Part III Department of Agriculture Semiannual Regulatory Agenda ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (USDA) DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary 7 CFR Subtitle A, Chs. I-VII, IX-XII, XIV-XVIII, XXI, XXIV.... Department of Agriculture (USDA) in conformance with Executive Order 12866 ``Regulatory Planning and...

  7. Weather extremes could affect agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-05-01

    As Earth's climate warms, agricultural producers will need to adapt. Changes, especially increases in extreme events, are already having an impact on food production, according to speakers at a 1 May session on agriculture and food security at the AGU Science Policy Conference. Christopher Field, director of the Department of Global Ecology at the Carnegie Institution for Science of Washington, D. C., pointed out the complex factors that come into play in understanding food security, including spatially varying controls and stresses, incomplete models, and the potential for threshold responses. Factors that are likely to cause problems include increasing population; increasing preference for meat, which needs more land and energy inputs to produce; climate change; and increasing use of agricultural lands for biomass energy.

  8. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONAL AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda GHEORGHIU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture today is a strategic point of a country's economy, providing food based on population, development of internal and external trade and manufacturing industries by supplying raw materials. For Romania, this branch is a strong point both in terms climatic (temperate, balanced relief, soil quality and at the same time is also a way of national development and convergence of rural areas to their full potential untapped. With strong reforms, well implemented, a specific legislative framework which aims to protecting private property, Romania could reduce the low efficiency and can have a sustainable agriculture. The paper aimed to present the advantages of consuming organic products, and, on the other hand, the advantages of a country in terms of organic farming. European agriculture is a competitive, market-oriented, but also protecting the environment model.

  9. Heavy metal contamination and source in arid agricultural soil in central Gansu Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu; GOU Xin; WANG Gang; ZHANG Qiang; SU Qiong; XIAO Guoju

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), and arsenic (As) were measured in arid agricultural and irrigated agricultural soils collected in Daba Village, Shajiawuan Village, Gangou Village and Sifangwu Village, located in central Gansu Province, China. Concentrations except Hg and Pb were lower than the background values in grey calcareous soil in the selected arid agricultural soils. Pb concentration exceeded the threshold of arid agricultural soils in China by 72. 46%. These results showed that there was indeed serious pollution with Pb, a slight pollution problem for other selected metals in the irrigated agricultural soils in Daba Village. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to assess the soil data, applying varimax rotation with Kaiser Normalization. The result showed that the irrigated factor, agricultural factor and anthropogenic factor all contributed to the relations between selected chemical properties. The main factor of accumulation of Cu, Pb, Cr, Hg and As was lithological factor in arid agricultural areas. There is a striking dissimilarity of origin of Cu, Pb, Cr, Hg and As in agricultural soil between the irrigate agriculture and arid agriculture.

  10. Agricultural Waste Management Extension Education (AWMEE The Ultimate Need for Intellectual Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj M.  Mohammadi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Extension education is significant range of fields like Agriculture, Natural Resources, Environmental and Bio Diversity Conservation, Rural Development, Home Management Skill Development, Disaster Management, Waste Management, Value Adding Management. Among them, waste management extension is highly significant because of the millions of tons of annual waste in vegetal, animal, environmental and natural resources products as well as millions of hectors of land degradation. Waste management extension deals with raising the efficiency and productivity of the agricultural industry, intellectually and/ or economically. Both producers and consumers should be fully aware of the mechanism by which waste in agricultural commodities diminishes to a considerable level. In agriculture, knowledge and decision-making capacity determine how production factor (i.e. oil, water, capital, chemicals, etc are utilized. Agricultural extension is a focal issue in formulating and disseminating knowledge and helping farmers to be competent decision makers. This article is designed to provide a theoretical and conceptual framework for “agricultural” extension (i.e. mutual agreement between producers and consumers in comprising agricultural waste management to respond to the world-wide expectations for extension to raise agricultural productivity, food production, bio- safety as well as environmental and bio-diversity conservation. Literature review, content analysis and modeling through utilizing contingency tables were employed to conduct the study. Different experiences in this regard have been collected and results show that the greater the use of AWMEE, the less agricultural waste, the higher the agricultural productivity and lower the land degradatioN.

  11. Biologically produced succinic acid: A new route to chemical intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Alternative Feedstocks (AF) program is forging new links between the agricultural community and the chemicals industry through support of research and development (R & D) that uses `green` feedstocks to produce chemicals. The program promotes cost-effective industrial use of renewable biomass as feedstocks to manufacture high-volume chemical building blocks. Industrial commercialization of such processes would stimulate the agricultural sector by increasing the demand of agricultural and forestry commodities. New alternatives for American industry may lie in the nation`s forests and fields. The national laboratory consortium has undertaken a joint R&D project with the Michigan Biotechnology Institute to demonstrate the feasibility of producing a chemical intermediate, succinic acid, and various derivatives, from renewable agricultural resources.

  12. Organic matter matters for ice nuclei of agricultural soil origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Tobo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous ice nucleation is a~crucial process for forming ice-containing clouds and subsequent ice-induced precipitation. The importance for ice nucleation of airborne desert soil dusts composed predominantly of minerals is relatively well understood. On the other hand, the potential influence of agricultural soil dusts on ice nucleation has been poorly recognized, despite recent estimates that they may account for up to ∼25% of the global atmospheric dust load. We have conducted freezing experiments with various dusts, including agricultural soil dusts derived from the largest dust source region in North America. Here we show evidence for the significant role of soil organic matter (SOM in particles acting as ice nuclei (IN under mixed-phase cloud conditions. We find that the ice nucleating ability of the agricultural soil dusts is similar to that of desert soil dusts, but is reduced to almost the same level as that of clay minerals (e.g., kaolinite after either H2O2 digestion or dry heating to 300 °C. In addition, based on chemical composition analysis, we show that organic-rich particles are more important than mineral particles for the ice nucleating ability of the agricultural soil dusts at temperatures warmer than about −36 °C. Finally, we suggest that such organic-rich particles of agricultural origin (namely, SOM particles may contribute significantly to the ubiquity of organic-rich IN in the global atmosphere.

  13. ECONOMIC APPROACH FOR CONTROL AGRICULTURAL NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-yan; CAO Li-ping

    2005-01-01

    This paper mainly discusses the feasibility to establish economic policy systems for control and management of agricultural nonpoint source pollution in China. The current situation of serious agricultural nonpoint source pollution in China is described firstly. Based on the environmental policy and economics theories, the system of economic policies for control and management of agricultural nonpoint source pollution is designed in this paper. This system includes the policy objective, the designing principle and the methods. The key issues include pollution charge,inputs tax for restriction, subsides for induction and incentive, effluent trading for least cost reduction. The emphases are optimized on inputs tax and agricultural chemical tax permit under complete information, as well as sub-optimized inputs tax under incomplete information, subsides for farm due to positive and negative externality. The functions and suitability of the policies are also analyzed in the paper. According to the field experiment results and other relating economic data in watershed of the Chaohe River, Beijing, some economic approaches to reducing agricultural nonpoint source pollution are proposed. The main idea is to encourage and support the farmers to improve their farming way,and to implement the policy of castigating charge simultaneously. The feasibility of the policies are analyzed with consideration of economy, technology and institution. It is concluded that the economic policies are necessary and feasible.

  14. 7 CFR 305.11 - Miscellaneous chemical treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... Miscellaneous chemical treatments. (a) CC1 for citrus canker. The fruit must be thoroughly wetted for at least 2 minutes with a solution containing 200 parts per million sodium hypochlorite. (b) CC2 for citrus...

  15. Agricultural Mechanics--A Stimulus to Vocational Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almazan, Isais, Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Through the study of agricultural mechanics or farm shop, students are able to discover their mechanical aptitudes and also develop a sense of satisfaction that comes with the experience of personal accomplishments at the Victoria-Stroman High School. Adults are encouraged to participate in the Specialist Program which is sponsored by the…

  16. An online agricultural genetics course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Vivian

    2014-07-03

    In this age of rapidly developing online learning, the advent of a series of talks and supplementary material devoted to genetics in agriculture from Henry Stewart Talks ( http://hstalks.com/main/browse_talks.php?r=776&c=252 ) is welcome indeed. The series is designed for researchers and graduate students in the fields of genetics, plant science, animal science, agricultural science, food science, human nutrition and environmental science, advanced undergraduate students, policy makers and managers in public and private sectors, and continuing professional education/development.

  17. Agricultural and industrial process heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollard, J.

    1978-01-01

    The application of solar energy to agricultural and industrial process heat requirements is discussed. This energy end use sector has been the largest and it appears that solar energy can, when fully developed and commercialized, displace from three to eight or more quads of oil and natural gas in U.S. industry. This potential for fossil fuel displacement in the agricultural and industrial process heat area sector represents a possible savings of 1.4 to 3.8 million barrels of oil daily.

  18. AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION IN INDIA: CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    India is an agricultural country. At the time of independence our country faced food shortages. Later on due to green revolution we became self sufficient in food grain production despite population increase. One of the important factors in success of green revolution is the role played by agricultural graduates. After independence, state agricultural universities were established in all the states to impart education in the field of agriculture. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New D...

  19. Research Frontiers of Agricultural Economics and Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang L.X.

    2004-01-01

    @@ Introduction The focus of research on Agricultural Economics and Management (AEM) has been switching from developed countries to developing countries. In important international journals on AEM such as "American Journal of Agricultural Economics" and "Agricultural Economics", the research objectives mainly focus on AEM problems in developing countries, e.g. the effects of globalization and liberalization on agricultural production in developing countries, and problems in agricultural resources and environmental protections in developing countries.

  20. Tracer Study of Agricultural Graduates in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Mugisha, Johnny; Nkwasibwe, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    There has been increased demand for food not only on the African continent but globally. This has been largely attributed to the high population growth with changing food preferences. This calls for the transformation of Africa’s agriculture and food systems through transforming agricultural production, markets, agricultural education and training institutions. Agricultural training institutions such as universities and agricultural colleges have a lot to contribute but they need to run relev...

  1. Understanding the links between agriculture and health:

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkes, Corinna; Ruel, Marie T.

    2006-01-01

    CONTENTS: 1.Overview / Corinna Hawkes and Marie T. Ruel; 2. Agriculture, Food, and Health: Perspectives on a Long Relationship / Tim Lang; 3. Agricultural Technology and Health / Michael Lipton, Saurabh Sinha, and Rachel Blackman; 4. Agriculture and Nutrition Linkages: Old Lessons and New Paradigms / Corinna Hawkes and Marie T. Ruel; 5. Agriculture, Food Safety, and Foodborne Diseases / Ewen C. D. Todd and Clare Narrod; 6. Agriculture, Malaria, and Water-Associated Diseases / Clifford M. Mute...

  2. Liposomal nanocapsules in food science and agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, T Matthew; Davidson, P Michael; Bruce, Barry D; Weiss, Jochen

    2005-01-01

    Liposomes, spherical bilayer vesicles from dispersion of polar lipids in aqueous solvents, have been widely studied for their ability to act as drug delivery vehicles by shielding reactive or sensitive compounds prior to release. Liposome entrapment has been shown to stabilize encapsulated, bioactive materials against a range of environmental and chemical changes, including enzymatic and chemical modification, as well as buffering against extreme pH, temperature, and ionic strength changes. Liposomes have been especially useful to researchers in studies of various physiological processes as models of biological membranes in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Industrial applications include encapsulation of pharmaceuticals and therapeutics, cosmetics, anti-cancer and gene therapy drugs. In the food industry, liposomes have been used to deliver food flavors and nutrients and more recently have been investigated for their ability to incorporate food antimicrobials that could aid in the protection of food products against growth of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. In this review we briefly introduce key physicochemical properties of liposomes and review competing methods for liposome production. A survey of non-agricultural and food applications of liposomes are given. Finally, a detailed up-to-date summary of the emerging usage of liposomes in the food industry as delivery vehicles of nutrients, nutraceuticals, food additives, and food antimicrobials is provided.

  3. Research on plant-parasitic nematode biology conducted by the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitwood, David J

    2003-01-01

    The recent de-registration of several chemical nematicides and the impending loss of methyl bromide from the pest-control market necessitate the development of new methods for controlling nematode-induced crop damage. One approach for developing novel target-specific controls is by exploiting fundamental differences between the biological processes of nematodes and their host plants. Researchers of the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) of the US Department of Agriculture are actively exploring these differences. Research accomplishments include the discovery of heat shock protein genes possibly involved in developmental arrest of the soybean cyst nematode, the identification of neuropeptides and female-specific proteins in the soybean cyst nematode, the disruption of nematode reproduction with inhibitors of nematode sterol metabolism, the development of novel morphological and molecular (heat shock protein genes and the D3 segment of large subunit ribosomal DNA) features useful for nematode identification and classification, and the elucidation of the population genetics of potato cyst nematode pathotypes. In addition, several ARS researchers are investigating biological determinants of nematode response to management strategies utilized in agricultural fields. These collective efforts should lead to new chemical and non-chemical alternatives to conventional nematode control strategies.

  4. 7 CFR 1945.18 - United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC). 1945.18 Section 1945.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES...

  5. Importance and Capability of Teaching Agricultural Mechanics as Perceived by Secondary Agricultural Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Matthew J.; Anderson, Ryan G.; Shultz, Alyx M.; Paulsen, Thomas H.

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural mechanics instruction is a long-standing and significant part of secondary agricultural education. Similar to the broader agricultural industry, agricultural mechanics instruction is in a constant state of dynamic change. Educators must be proactive to ensure agricultural mechanics curriculum retains its relevance within this changing…

  6. Does Agricultural Mechanics Laboratory Size Affect Agricultural Education Teachers' Job Satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Alex Preston; Anderson, Ryan G.; Paulsen, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    Secondary agricultural education teachers were surveyed to examine if a relationship existed between the physical attributes of agricultural mechanics laboratories and agricultural education teachers' enjoyment of teaching agricultural mechanics. Teachers also indicated their competence to teach courses other than agricultural mechanics within the…

  7. Adapting agriculture to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howden, S.M.; Soussana, J.F.; Tubiello, F.N.; Chhetri, N.; Dunlop, M.; Meinke, H.B.

    2007-01-01

    The strong trends in climate change already evident, the likelihood of further changes occurring, and the increasing scale of potential climate impacts give urgency to addressing agricultural adaptation more coherently. There are many potential adaptation options available for marginal change of exi

  8. Teacher Burnout in Agricultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croom, D. Barry

    2003-01-01

    Results of the Maslach Burnout Inventory completed by 164 secondary agriculture teachers revealed moderate levels of emotional exhaustion, low levels of depersonalization in relationships, and a high degree of personal accomplishment. Gender, degree, contract length, preservice versus lateral entry method, school/department size, and community…

  9. Agriculture, development, and urban bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, Dirk; Headey, Derek

    2008-01-01

    Throughout history, agriculture-led development strategies with state support programs have been essential to achieving rapid economy-wide growth, poverty reduction, and structural transformation. Yet over the last three decades, the domestic and international policy environments have continued to d

  10. Activated Carbons from Agricultural Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water quality and public health impacts of animal manure produced at large concentrated animal facilities prompted the need for viable solutions for their conversion and reuse. Our laboratory at the Southern Regional Research Center, as part of the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Departme...

  11. Colonial adventures in tropical agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buelens, Frans; Frankema, Ewout

    2015-01-01

    How profitable were foreign investments in plantation agriculture in the Netherlands Indies during the late colonial era? We use a new dataset of monthly quoted stock prices and dividends of international companies at the Brussels stock exchange to estimate the returns to investment in tropical a

  12. USSR Report, Agriculture, No. 1395

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    possible to obtain wheat with an increased gluten content. For example, it is extremely effective to apply the agricultural device recommended by...slaughterhouse byproducts. The combine treated them until the ESSR Meat and Dairy Products Ministry forbade it. Yet it is not sensible to

  13. Crop protection in organic agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letourneau, D.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2006-01-01

    The authors describe pests and diseases and their management in organic versus conventional agriculture. Also two case studies are described: 1. Pest and pathogen regulation in organic versus conventional cereal crops in Europe and 2. Pest and pathogen regulation in organic versus conventional tomat

  14. Internet of Things in agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdouw, C.N.; Wolfert, Jacques; Tekinerdogan, B.

    2016-01-01

    This literature review on Internet of Things (IoT) in agriculture and food, provides an overview of existing applications, enabling technologies and main challenges ahead. The results of the review show that this subject received attention by the scientific community from 2010 on and the number of p

  15. Consultancy Services in Croatian Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Žimbrek

    1997-12-01

    Meetings, lectures, practical demonstration of technology, mass media and introduction of computer technology are important aids which should be further developed as well as bigger financial aid for these purposes. Those depend on better future economic position of the agriculture and the economy in a whole.

  16. Campaigns in Agricultural Extension Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaven, John W.

    A booklet designed to aid those who use agricultural campaigns in their educational and advisory programs is presented. It is pointed out that a good campaign works as a chain reaction, inciting enthusiasm among workers and planners. The five steps in a well-organized campaign are: (1) planning, (2) preparing people for their jobs, (3) producing…

  17. Exploring agricultural taxation in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van der H.B.; Meulen, van der H.A.B.; Bommel, van K.H.M.; Doorneweert, R.B.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the tax systems in ten European countries, focusing on agriculture. It not only deals with income tax, it also describes other taxes such as gift and inheritance tax and Value Added Tax. This information leads to an analysis of the impact of taxation on the competitive position

  18. The promising future of agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    I was fortunate to take two exciting trips on behalf of CSSA recently – one was to Beijing, China and the other to St. Louis, Missouri. While these were extremely distinct venues and very different meetings, a common thread was that both gave an insight into the future of agriculture. And I believ...

  19. Colonial adventures in tropical agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buelens, Frans; Frankema, Ewout

    2016-01-01

    How profitable were foreign investments in plantation agriculture in the Netherlands Indies during the late colonial era? We use a new dataset of monthly quoted stock prices and dividends of international companies at the Brussels stock exchange to estimate the returns to investment in tropical a

  20. Saline agriculture in Mediterranean environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Maggio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinization is increasingly affecting world's agricultural land causing serious yield loss and soil degradation. Understanding how we could improve crop productivity in salinized environments is therefore critical to meet the challenging goal of feeding 9.3 billion people by 2050. Our comprehension of fundamental physiological mechanisms in plant salt stress adaptation has greatly advanced over the last decades. However, many of these mechanisms have been linked to salt tolerance in simplified experimental systems whereas they have been rarely functionally proven in real agricultural contexts. In-depth analyses of specific crop-salinity interactions could reveal important aspects of plant salt stress adaptation as well as novel physiological/agronomic targets to improve salinity tolerance. These include the developmental role of root vs. shoot systems respect to water-ion homeostasis, morphological vs. metabolic contributions to stress adaptation, developmental processes vs. seasonal soil salinity evolution, residual effects of saline irrigation in non-irrigated crops, critical parameters of salt tolerance in soil-less systems and controlled environments, response to multiple stresses. Finally, beneficial effects of salinization on qualitative parameters such as stress-induced accumulation of high nutritional value secondary metabolites should be considered, also. In this short review we attempted to highlight the multifaceted nature of salinity in Mediterranean agricultural systems by summarizing most experimental activity carried out at the Department of Agricultural Engineering and Agronomy of University of Naples Federico II in the last few years.

  1. Agriculture & Agronomy: A Dissertation Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978

    This bibliography presents a compilation of Agriculture and Agronomy doctoral research for the years 1973-1976. Each of the 3,386 doctoral dissertations cited herein has been accepted by accredited degree-granting universities in North America and published by University Microfilms International (UMI). Dissertations are arranged alphabetically in…

  2. Hemp as an Agricultural Commodity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-08

    hemp oil , true hemp yarn, true hemp fabric, true hemp raw or processed but not spun, and true hemp raw other. 13 USDA, Foreign Agricultural Service...Poland, Romania, Canada, and India. The leading exporters of hemp oil have been the Netherlands, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, the Republic of South

  3. Income insurance in European agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.; Skees, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    The agricultural risk environment in Europe is changing, for example because of WTO agreements and governments increasingly withdrawing from disaster assistance in case of catastrophic events. In this context, some form of income insurance may be a useful risk management tool for farmers. Insuring f

  4. Maine Agricultural Foods. Project SEED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Peter; Ossenfort, Pat

    This paper describes an activity-based program that teaches students in grades 4-12 about the importance of Maine agriculture in their lives. Specifically, the goal is to increase student awareness of how the foods they eat are planted, harvested, and processed. The emphasis is on crops grown in Maine such as potatoes, broccoli, peas, blueberries,…

  5. Robotics in agriculture and forestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergerman, M.; Billingsley, J.; Reid, J.; Henten, van E.J.

    2016-01-01

    Robotics for agriculture and forestry (A&F) represents the ultimate application of one of our society’s latest and most advanced innovations to its most ancient and important industries. Over the course of history, mechanization and automation increased crop output several orders of magnitude, e

  6. Agricultural Polymers as Corrosion Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural polymers were composed of extra-cellular polysaccharides secreted by Leuconostoc mesenteroides have been shown to inhibit corrosion on corrosion-sensitive metals. The substantially pure exopolysaccharide has a general structure consisting of alpha(1-6)-linked D-glucose backbone and appr...

  7. Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Eva; Tubiello, Francesco; Herold, Martin

    2013-03-01

    1. Introduction Better information on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and mitigation potential in the agricultural sector is necessary to manage these emissions and identify responses that are consistent with the food security and economic development priorities of countries. Critical activity data (what crops or livestock are managed in what way) are poor or lacking for many agricultural systems, especially in developing countries. In addition, the currently available methods for quantifying emissions and mitigation are often too expensive or complex or not sufficiently user friendly for widespread use. The purpose of this focus issue is to capture the state of the art in quantifying greenhouse gases from agricultural systems, with the goal of better understanding our current capabilities and near-term potential for improvement, with particular attention to quantification issues relevant to smallholders in developing countries. This work is timely in light of international discussions and negotiations around how agriculture should be included in efforts to reduce and adapt to climate change impacts, and considering that significant climate financing to developing countries in post-2012 agreements may be linked to their increased ability to identify and report GHG emissions (Murphy et al 2010, CCAFS 2011, FAO 2011). 2. Agriculture and climate change mitigation The main agricultural GHGs—methane and nitrous oxide—account for 10%-12% of anthropogenic emissions globally (Smith et al 2008), or around 50% and 60% of total anthropogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions, respectively, in 2005. Net carbon dioxide fluxes between agricultural land and the atmosphere linked to food production are relatively small, although significant carbon emissions are associated with degradation of organic soils for plantations in tropical regions (Smith et al 2007, FAO 2012). Population growth and shifts in dietary patterns toward more meat and dairy consumption will lead to

  8. "Othering" agricultural biotechnology: Slovenian media representation of agricultural biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajc, Jožica; Erjavec, Karmen

    2014-08-01

    While studies on media representations of agricultural biotechnology mostly analyse media texts, this work is intended to fill a research gap with an analysis of journalistic interpretations of media representations. The purpose of this project was to determine how news media represent agricultural biotechnology and how journalists interpret their own representations. A content and critical discourse analysis of news texts published in the Slovenian media over two years and in-depth interviews with their authors were conducted. News texts results suggest that most of the news posts were "othering" biotechnology and biotechnologists: biotechnology as a science and individual scientists are represented as "they," who are socially irresponsible, ignorant, arrogant, and "our" enemies who produce unnatural processes and work for biotechnology companies, whose greed is destroying people, animals, and the environment. Most journalists consider these representations to be objective because they have published the biotechnologists' opinions, despite their own negative attitudes towards biotechnology.

  9. Environmental Issues Related to Chemical Fertilizer Use in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAOZHIHONG

    1996-01-01

    The current status of chemical fertilizers production and consumption in China as well as their important roles in Chinese modern agriculture are discussed with special concerns to the environmental issues related to chemical fertilizer use.On the one hand.the total amount of chemical fertilizer produced is insufficient to meet the agricultural needs.On the other hand.the production and consumption of chemical fertilizers in China are obviously not balanced.In some areas over application of nitrogen fertilizers and loss of phosphate fertilizer due to soil erosion have resulted in some undesirable environmental problems such as increase of nitrate in water and eutrophication of water bodies.Maximum scientific uses of organic manures in combination with reasonable use of chemical fertilizers are part of good practices not only in increasuing soil productivity and keeping sustainable agriculture development but also in minimizing their detrimental effects on the environment.

  10. Agricultural Decision Making Using North Dakota Agricultural Weather Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyuz, F.; Mullins, B.; Morlock, D.; Carcoana, R.

    2010-09-01

    The North Dakota Agricultural Weather Network (NDAWN) consists of 72 automated weather stations spread across agricultural locations of North Dakota, the Red River Valley, and border regions of surrounding states. The NDAWN Center is a part of the Department of Soil Science, North Dakota State University. The NDAWN stations measure wind speed and direction, air temperature, rainfall, solar radiation, pressure (31 stations), atmospheric moisture and soil temperatures under bare and turf at 10 cm (4 inch) depth. The center provides daily summaries consisting of maximums and minimums as well as time of occurrence, and various totals or averages for all variables in English or metric units. Measured and calculated variables along with complete descriptions are available. The NDAWN Center web site: http://ndawn.ndsu.nodak.edu/ allows direct access to NDAWN data in various special and temporal scales. The voice modem accommodates those who do not have internet access. The NDAWN Center has assisted many North Dakotans in making weather critical decisions concerning their crops, livestock, and livelihood. The stations provide weather data, which was instrumental in developing various agricultural models including but not limited to the late blight model, degree day and growth stage models for barley, corn, canola, potato, sugarbeet, sunflower, wheat and other small grains, irrigation scheduling, crop water use, sugarbeet root maggot, and insect development models. Late blight model, for example, predicts when leaf disease can occur in potato plants. Late blight doesn't occur in North Dakota every year and is prevalent during cool and moist periods of weather. In 1993-94, this model predicted that late blight would occur and growers were able to use fungicide applications to prevent the disease. Another direct benefit of NDAWN data is that it provides universities and the National Weather Service with an additional database for research and forecasting applications

  11. Parameterisation of LCI/LCIA models of agricultural systems emissions under future pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cosme, Nuno Miguel Dias; Dijkman, Teunis Johannes; Birkved, Morten

    . Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been dealing with the environmental impacts from emissions and resources consumption from human activities including agriculture. Several approaches for inventory (LCI) and impact assessment (LCIA) modelling of agricultural activities have been published recently....... To enhance the agriculture yield by adding nutrients and chemicals, humans will potentially increase the magnitude of the resulting emission flows to the ecosphere. The linearity of the emissions’ fate and impact modelling suggests the assertion that the more nutrients or chemicals we apply in these systems......Agricultural production currently faces two important challenges that need to be overcome in the next decades. Firstly, the expected increase of the global human population will put more pressure on productive ecosystems to accommodate the growing need for food. Secondly, climate change...

  12. FINANCING MECHANISMS OF AGRICULTURE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUMBESCU SORINA SIMONA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to highlight the importance of the agriculture financing ways, existing an interdependence relationship between the stage of agriculture development and its funding mechanisms. This article presents in a complex way, the general theoretical framework of the agriculture financing, and the practical methods of agriculture finance from bank loans to European programs and projects, the impact of EU funds on agriculture. The research leads to two important categories of tangible results; on one hand it highlights the most important and used ways to finance the Romanian agriculture, and on the other hand, there is analised the impact of EU funds on rural development, their absorption.

  13. ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF THE ROMANIAN AGRICULTURE EVOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CECILIA IRINA RABONTU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is a sector of the national economy which may represent a significant contribution to the economic growth if it is quantified properly. In Romania agriculture has declined significantly caused by various reasons. In frame of this study, we will attempt to discern their influence using official statistics. We will try to identify the place and the role of agriculture in Romania's actual economy from the perspective of GDP, investment in agriculture, the employment of this sector activity, because romanian agriculture remains an important sector in terms of view of agricultural area used, the contribution to GDP and, in particular, the percentage of the population employed.

  14. DESIGN OF FARMLAND GIS FOR PRECISION AGRICULTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Precision Agriculture, also known as Precision Farming, or Prescription Farming, is a modern agriculture technology system, which brings " precision" into agriculture system. All concepts of Precision Agriculture are established on the collection and management of variable cropland information. As the tool of collecting, managing and analyzing spatial data, GIS is the key technology of integrated Precision Agriculture system. This article puts forward the concept of Farmland GIS and designs Farmland GIS into five modules, and specifies the functions of the each module, which builds the foundation for practical development of the software. The study and development of Farmland GIS will propel the spreading of Precision Agriculture technology in China.

  15. Profitability Analysis for Agricultural Investment Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Oana VIRLANUTA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In agriculture production is based on a process both economically as well as the biological one, the work results are influenced, more than any branch of economic, natural and climatic conditions are subject to higher risk and permanently. Due to the features of production in agriculture, we believe that it is necessary such as performance agricultural units to be assessed under a system of specific indicators. The correct assessment units are closely related agricultural economic-financial investment in agriculture. In the following we present and analyze a complex system of specific performance indicators of the extremely for assessing agricultural units.

  16. Effectiveness of Agricultural Extension Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali AL-Sharafat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Jordans agricultural extension service is seriously under-staffed and its effectiveness is consequently compromised. Reservations are being expressed about the performance and capability of the agricultural extension system in Jordan. The performance of this sector has been disappointing and has failed to transfer agricultural technology to the farmers. The main objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness of Jordans agricultural extension services. Approach: The effect of extension services on olive productivity in the study area was investigated. A total number of 60 olive producers were selected to be interviewed for this study. This number was enough to achieve the study objectives. The interviewed producers were distributed almost equally within olive production locations in the study area. The sample obtained through the simple random sampling technique. The two groups had been chosen and distributed randomly into an experimental group (30 farmers; 10 for each source of extension service and control group (30 farmers. The experimental group received extension services and the control group received no extension services. Two interview-cum-structured questionnaires were designed and used to collect information and data for this study. The first instrument was designed for farmers who received extension services and the second from farmers who received no extension services. Another questionnaire was designed for administrators of extension organizations concerned with providing extension services to farmers. To find the differences that may exist between two studied groups, One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA, t-test and LSD test via Statistical Package for Social Sciences software (SPSS were used. The average net profit obtained from an area of one dynamo of olive farm was the main item to be considered in determining the effectiveness of agricultural extension activities. Results and Conclusion: The results of

  17. An Outlook on Agricultural Modernization Path with Chinese Characteristics from Scale Agricultural Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanjiang; WANG

    2015-01-01

    First of all,this paper discusses the scale agricultural operation of China from the aspects of practical exploration and rational thinking. Later,it puts forward the concept of further promoting scale agricultural operation according to the present conditions of China,which includes encouraging large household pattern and scale breeding,developing various forms of socialized agricultural services,promoting agriculture industrialization,accelerating regional distribution of advantageous agricultural products and promoting the progress in agricultural science and technology comprehensively.

  18. Hydrological heterogeneity in agricultural riparian buffer strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hénault-Ethier, Louise; Larocque, Marie; Perron, Rachel; Wiseman, Natalie; Labrecque, Michel

    2017-03-01

    Riparian buffer strips (RBS) may protect surface water and groundwater in agricultural settings, although their effectiveness, observed in field-scale studies, may not extend to a watershed scale. Hydrologically-controlled leaching plots have often shown RBS to be effective at buffering nutrients and pesticides, but uncontrolled field studies have sometimes suggested limited effectiveness. The limited RBS effectiveness may be explained by the spatiotemporal hydrological heterogeneity near non-irrigated fields. This hypothesis was tested in conventional corn and soy fields in the St. Lawrence Lowlands of southern Quebec (Canada), where spring melt brings heavy and rapid runoff, while summer months are hot and dry. One field with a mineral soil (Saint-Roch-de-l'Achigan) and another with an organic-rich soil (Boisbriand) were equipped with passive runoff collectors, suction cup lysimeters, and piezometers placed before and after a 3 m-wide RBS, and monitored from 2011 to 2014. Soil topography of the RBS was mapped to a 1 cm vertical precision and a 50 cm sampling grid. On average, surface runoff intersects the RBS perpendicularly, but is subject to substantial local heterogeneity. Groundwater saturates the root zones, but flows little at the time of snowmelt. Groundwater flow is not consistently perpendicular to the RBS, and may reverse, flowing from stream to field under low water flow regimes with stream-aquifer connectivity, thus affecting RBS effectiveness calculations. Groundwater flow direction can be influenced by stratigraphy, local soil hydraulic properties, and historical modification of the agricultural stream beds. Understanding the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of surface and groundwater flows is essential to correctly assess the effectiveness of RBS in intercepting agro-chemical pollution. The implicit assumption that water flows across vegetated RBS, from the field to the stream, should always be verified.

  19. The Potential of Genetic Engineering in Agriculture to Affect Global Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    resulted in the global expansion of their interests and opened new markets for genetic engineering.19 In addition, the interests of the newly acquired...corporations controlled more than 75% of the global seed market . Of these eight, six led the market in the production and sale of agricultural chemicals...one of the best examples, as it relates to agriculture, is Given its global use, the impact of pests developing resistance to Bt would have the

  20. Reducing air and water pollutants in precision agriculture using robotic system

    OpenAIRE

    González-de-Soto, Mariano

    2016-01-01

    [EN]In the last decades there has been a large increase in environmental pollution. The incessant use of fossil fuels generates large air pollution with consequent climate change, in addition to the health problems caused by these pollutant emissions. These fuels are the main energy source for mobile vehicles, such as agricultural ones. Another problem generated in the current intensive agriculture is the use of chemicals to combat undesired pests that undermine and damage the production. Man...

  1. Chemical Mahjong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossairt, Travis J.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2011-01-01

    An open-access, Web-based mnemonic game is described whereby introductory chemistry knowledge is tested using mahjong solitaire game play. Several tile sets and board layouts are included that are themed upon different chemical topics. Introductory tile sets can be selected that prompt the player to match element names to symbols and metric…

  2. Chemical dispersants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Murk, Albertinka J.; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical dispersants were used in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, both at the sea surface and the wellhead. Their effect on oil biodegradation is unclear, as studies showed both inhibition and enhancement. This study addresses the effect of Corexit on oil biodeg

  3. Agricultural uses of waste heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pile, R.S.; Behrends, L.L.; Burns, E.R.; Maddox, J.J.; Madewell, C.E.; Mays, D.A.; Meriwether, J.

    1977-11-16

    A major concern of the Tennessee Valley Authority is to ensure efficient use of Tennessee Valley resources in achieving optimum economic development without degrading the environment. As part of this effort, TVA is exploring many uses for waste heat. Activities to develop ways to use waste heat in agricultural production are described. Primary objectives are to: (1) identify potential agricultural uses of waste heat, (2) develop and test technologies and management criteria for more productive uses, (3) demonstrate technologies in commercial-scale production facilities, and (4) provide technical assistance for commercial application. Waste heat research and development projects under investigation or being planned by TVA independently or cooperatively include: (1) controlled environment greenhouses, (2) biological ecycling of nutrients from livestock manures, (3) soil heating and irrigation, and (4) environmental control for livestock housing. (MHR)

  4. Transgenic agriculture and environmental indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denize Dias de Carvalho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the rapid diffusion of transgenic crops, there are still few environmental impact studies capable of supplying a conclusive scientific response in regard to its technical and economic advantages and disadvantages. Prospective scenarios were elaborated to assist environmental impact assessment, using techniques derived from SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, Threat analysis and the DPSIR (Driving Force – human activity, Pressure, State, Impact, Response model, to evaluate the environmental indicators and the relationship between them. Control and management actions were identified, searching the integration of aspects related to the biotechnology applied to transgenic processes, biodiversity, biosafety and intellectual property. It was demonstrated that the DPSIR model is, in fact, an instrument for integrated environmental assessment and the application of the proposed methodology resulted in favorable indicators to the adoption of transgenic agriculture. The elaborated scenarios are useful to develop an Environmental Management System (EMS to agriculture.

  5. Energy Flow in Agriculture: Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    M. S. Alam; Alam, M.R; Islam, K. K.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a qualitative energy flow analysis in Bangladesh agriculture has been made for a period from 1980-81 to 2000-01 to evaluate the impact of energy input to produce output. Human & animal muscle power and machinery energy for tillage operation, electricity and diesel energy for irrigation, fertilizer and pesticides energy for growth and protection are taken into account. Energy values are calculated by multiplying respective quantity by their respective energy equivalents with...

  6. Agricultural Mechanics and Basic Plant Science. Agricultural Mechanics and Basic Animal Science. An Administrative Guide for Agricultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum Center.

    This basic instructional guide for the first two years of instruction in agricultural education is one in a series of such guides. It is useful in developing and selecting instructional material and implementing competency-based education for two courses: agricultural science and basic plant science and agricultural science and basic animal…

  7. Analyzing Agricultural Agglomeration in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available There has been little scholarly research on Chinese agriculture’s geographic pattern of agglomeration and its evolutionary mechanisms, which are essential to sustainable development in China. By calculating the barycenter coordinates, the Gini coefficient, spatial autocorrelation and specialization indices for 11 crops during 1981–2012, we analyze the evolutionary pattern and mechanisms of agricultural agglomeration. We argue that the degree of spatial concentration of Chinese planting has been gradually increasing and that regional specialization and diversification have progressively been strengthened. Furthermore, Chinese crop production is moving from the eastern provinces to the central and western provinces. This is in contrast to Chinese manufacturing growth which has continued to be concentrated in the coastal and southeastern regions. In Northeast China, the Sanjiang and Songnen plains have become agricultural clustering regions, and the earlier domination of aquaculture and rice production in Southeast China has gradually decreased. In summary, this paper provides a political economy framework for understanding the regionalization of Chinese agriculture, focusing on the interaction among the objectives, decisionmaking behavior, path dependencies and spatial effects.

  8. Wastewater and Sludge Reuse Management in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis K. Kalavrouziotis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Huge quantities of treated wastewater (TMWW and biosolids (sludge are produced every day all over the world, which exert a strong pressure on the environment. An important question that is raised is “what to do with them?”.An effort is put by the scientific community to eliminate the concept of “waste” and to replace it with the concept of “recycling of resources”, by means of effective management, which does not concern only the users, but all the other groups involved in the problem, such as facility administrators, operations, politicians, scientific community and the general population. Sludge concentration data showed that there exist 516 chemicals in biosolids which create a serious health risk. It is pointed out that this risk will be greatly exacerbated by chemical toxins present in the sludge which can predispose skin to infection by pathogens. Consequently, the need for science-based policies are necessary to effectively protect public health. The risk assessment due to sludge, is difficult to evaluate of due to the large number of unknown interactions involved. People living near the sludge application sites may suffer from such abnormalities as: eye, nose, and throat irritation, gastrointestinal abnormalities, as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, including cough, difficulty in breathing, sinus congestion, skin infection and sores. Many problems seem to be related to biosolid and wastewater application in agriculture, which should be solved. A universal one, acknowledged as an “international health crisis” is the resistance of pathogens to antibiotics and to the evolution of multidrug resistance of bacteria”. Certain anthropogenically created environments have been identified as major sources of multidrug resistance bacteria such as in water treatment plants, concentrated animal feeding operations etc. All these, and many other health problems, render the safety of sludge and biosolid and wastewater agricultural reuse, for

  9. WASTE MANAGEMENT GENERATED FROM AGRICULTURE IN CĂLĂRAŞI COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia NEAGU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The agriculture practiced in Calarasi county has negative effects on soil and water sources. The significant quantities of chemical fertilizers and fito-sanitary products, mono crops practicing, vegetal layer reducing (pasture and poor organic waste management derived from agriculture vegetal remains and animal manure lead to soil and ground water pollution. Due to the geographical position of the county, it is needed to monitor constantly the agricultural sector that can flow into the Danube high quantities of nitrites and nitrates. Călăraşi county has a high potential of biomass, enough to obtain natural fertilizers and biogas.

  10. Agricultural Education Curricula in the Middle School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexrode, Carl L.

    1980-01-01

    Defining the terms middle school and curriculum, the author then gives suggestions for planning the agricultural education curriculum for middle schools. Important responsibilities of the vocational agriculture teacher are discussed. (SK)

  11. Improving Local Weather Forecasts for Agricultural Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeswijk, T.G.; Keesman, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    For controlling agricultural systems, weather forecasts can be of substantial importance. Studies have shown that forecast errors can be reduced in terms of bias and standard deviation using forecasts and meteorological measurements from one specific meteorological station. For agricultural systems

  12. Agricultural Science--Striving for Excellence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budke, Wesley E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Six articles examine several of the critical components of program and personnel development in agricultural science including linkages between agriscience and natural resources teachers and high school science teachers, science in agriculture, biological science applications, and hydroponics. (JOW)

  13. Embracing the Role of Science in Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparace, Salvatore A.; Layfield, K. Dale

    2003-01-01

    The approach to agricultural production has come to rely on the application of modern science and technology for improvements and innovation. There has been a shift from traditional production careers to those involving science-driven agricultural development. (JOW)

  14. Agricultural Investment Environment in Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The features of ageing,low educational level and female domination on the part of agricultural labor forces,determine that the sustainable development of agriculture can not rely entirely on farmers,who are engaged in dispersed planting and small-scale operation,therefore,improving agricultural investment environment,and taking positive measures to promote diversification of the main body of agricultural investment,is the key to the healthy development of agriculture.From four aspects(the industrial base of agriculture,arable land resource conditions,capital investment capacity,input of means of production),this article establishes evaluation indicator system of agricultural investment environment in Shaanxi Province,and based on this,make recommendations for improvement of agricultural investment environment in Shaanxi.

  15. Microbiological Production of Surfactant from Agricultural Residuals for IOR Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bala, Greg Alan; Bruhn, Debby Fox; Fox, Sandra Lynn; Noah, Karl Scott; Thompson, David Neal

    2002-04-01

    Utilization of surfactants for improved oil recovery (IOR) is an accepted technique with high potential. However, technology application is frequently limited by cost. Biosurfactants (surface-active molecules produced by microorganisms) are not widely utilized in the petroleum industry due to high production costs associated with use of expensive substrates and inefficient product recovery methods. The economics of biosurfactant production could be significantly impacted through use of media optimization and application of inexpensive carbon substrates such as agricultural process residuals. Utilization of biosurfactants produced from agricultural residuals may 1) result in an economic advantage for surfactant production and technology application, and 2) convert a substantial agricultural waste stream to a value-added product for IOR. A biosurfactant with high potential for use is surfactin, a lipopeptide biosurfactant, produced by Bacillus subtilis. Reported here is the production and potential IOR utilization of surfactin produced by Bacillus subtilis (American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 21332) from starch-based media. Production of surfactants from microbiological growth media based on simple sugars, chemically pure starch medium, simulated liquid and solid potato-process effluent media, a commercially prepared potato starch in mineral salts, and process effluent from a potato processor is discussed. Additionally, the effect of chemical and physical pretreatments on starchy feedstocks is discussed.

  16. ORGANIC FARMING FOR CROP IMPROVEMENT AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE IN THE ERA OF CLIMATE CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Roychowdhury

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development has caught the imagination and action of the world for more than a decade. Sustainable agriculture is necessary to attain the goal of sustainable development. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, sustainable agriculture is the successful management of resources to satisfy the changing human needs while maintaining or enhancing the quality of environment and conserving natural resources. All definitions of sustainable agriculture lay great emphasis on maintaining an agricultural growth rate, which can meet the demand for food of all living beings without draining the basic resources towards crop improvement. Organic farming is one of the several approaches found to meet the objectives of sustainable agriculture. Most of the techniques used in organic farming like inter-cropping, mulching and integration of crops and livestock are not alien to agriculture systems including the traditional agricultural practices. However, organic farming is based on various laws and certification programmes, which prohibit the use of almost all synthetic inputs and the central theme of this method is the health of soil. The adverse effects of modern agricultural practices on the farm and also on the health of living beings and thus on the environment has been well documented all over the world. Application of technology, particularly the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides all around us has persuaded people to think aloud. As a result of global climatic changes, their negative effects on the environment are manifested through soil erosion, water shortages, salination, soil contamination, genetic erosion, Organic farming is one of the widely used methods, which is thought as the best alternative to avoid the ill effects of chemical farming. It also has far more advantages over the conventional and other modern agricultural practices that are available today.

  17. Sustainable Use of Agricultural Land in Zhoukou City Based on Emergy Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian; WEN; Shuijuan; SUN; Qingsong; LI; Huiping; FAN

    2013-01-01

    Taking Zhoukou City in Henan Province as an example,we select the statistics during the period 2000-2009,and use emergy analysis method to research the sustainable use of agricultural land in Zhoukou City. The study results show that: ( i) The agricultural input is mainly based on resources purchase input,which accounts for more than 90% of total emergy input; the industrial energy input is to a large extent dependent on the input of chemical fertilizer and pesticide; precipitation significantly affects the input of renewable environmental resources. ( ii) The agricultural output is mainly based on farming and animal husbandry,with the proportion reaching 99% ; the proportion of fishery and forestry is too low; the agricultural output structure is relatively simple. ( iii) The use of agricultural land has achieved initial success in terms of economic sustainability,but in terms of ecological sustainability and social sustainability,it is at a low level; the sustainable use index shows the great vitality and development potential of agricultural system; unsustainability is reflected in considerable input of chemical fertilizer and pesticide,and simple agricultural output structure.

  18. Caracterização física, química e mineralógica de solos da colônia agrícola do Apiaú (Roraima, Amazônia, sob diferentes usos e após queima Physical chemical and mineralogical characteristics of soils from the agricultural colony of Apiaú ( Roraima, Amazonia, under different land uses and after burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdinar Ferreira Melo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Existem poucos estudos sobre os solos sob cultivo de subsistência em assentamentos rurais do norte da Amazônia. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram a caracterização de solos da Colônia Agrícola do Apiaú, Roraima, e a avaliação das alterações em algumas propriedades químicas resultantes dos sistemas de manejo adotados pelos agricultores, bem como os impactos da ação de queimadas nos solos. As áreas estudadas foram: pastagens, cultivo de banana e de milho, mata queimada e não queimada. As amostras de solos foram submetidas a análises químicas e mineralógicas. Foram encontrados Latossolos, Argissolos e Gleissolos, todos possuindo mineralogia caulinítica e expressivos teores de Ti, evidenciando elevado grau de intemperismo. Os Argissolos e Gleissolos possuem baixos teores de Fe. Os baixos teores de cátions trocáveis indicam a baixa fertilidade natural, com elevada saturação por Al no complexo sortivo na maioria dos solos. A pobreza química resultou em pouca variação química entre os diferentes solos. Comparativamente, a área cultivada com banana mostrou os maiores teores de cátions trocáveis e de P disponível no horizonte superficial, conseqüência da mineralização dos restos culturais pela ação do fogo e maior proximidade de afloramentos de rocha. A pobreza química extrema nos Argissolos refletiu-se na má qualidade da pastagem degradada. Os baixos teores totais de Zn, Cu e Mg indicaram sua baixa reserva e possível deficiência.There are few studies on soils under slash-and-burn agriculture in settlements in Amazônia. The aim of this study was the soil characterization in the Apiaú Agricultural Colony, Roraima, and to evaluate changes in some soil chemical properties in function of the management systems and the impacts of burning to the soil properties. The studied areas were: pastures, cultivated with banana and maize, burned forest and natural forest. The samples were submitted to physical chemical and

  19. Plumbum contamination detecting model for agricultural soil using hyperspectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangnan; Huang, Fang; Wang, Ping

    2008-10-01

    The issue of environmental pollution due to toxic heavy metals in agricultural land has caused worldwide growing concern in recent years. Being one of toxic heavy metals, the accumulation of Plumbum (Pb) may have negative effects on natural and agricultural vegetation growth, yield and quality. It can also constitute short-term and long-term health risks by entering the food chain. In this study, we analyze the relationships between physical and chemical characteristics, biological parameters of soil-vegetation system and hyperspectral spectrum responses systematically. The relation between hyperspectral data and the biological parameters of Pb polluted wheat canopy such as leaf pigments, leaf moisture, cell structure and leaf area index (LAI) are discussed. We detect the changes in the wheat biological parameters and spectral response associated with Pb concentration in soil. To reveal the impact mechanisms of Pb concentration on agricultural soil, six models including chlorophyll-leaf moisture model, chlorophyll-cell structure model, chlorophyll-LAI model, leaf moisture-cell structure model, leaf moisture-LAI model, cell structure- LAI model are explored. We find that changes in Pb concentration present various features in different models. Pb contamination in agricultural soil can be identified and assessed effectively while integrating the characteristics of those developed models.

  20. Agricultural biological reference materials for analytical quality control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihnat, M.

    1986-01-01

    Cooperative work is under way at Agriculture Canada, US Department of Agriculture, and US National Bureau of Standards in an attempt to fill some of the gaps in the world repertoire of reference materials and to provide much needed control materials for laboratories' day to day operations. This undertaking involves the preparation and characterization of a number of agricultural and food materials for data quality control for inorganic constituents. Parameters considered in the development of these materials were material selection based on importance in commerce and analysis; techniques of preparation, processing, and packaging; physical and chemical characterization; homogeneity testing and quantitation (certification). A large number of agricultural/food products have been selected to represent a wide range of not only levels of sought-for constituents (elements) but also a wide range of matrix components such as protein, carbohydrate, dietary fiber, fat, and ash. Elements whose concentrations are being certified cover some two dozen major, minor, and trace elements of nutritional, toxicological, and environmental significance.

  1. Notice to Contributors about Agricultural Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>The Agricultural Engineering is a comprehensive academic journal under the charge of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Mechanization Sciences,and sponsored by Beijing Prominion Publishing Co,.Ltd.It is launched in2011 under CN 11-6025S and ISSN 2095-1795.The journal aims to interpret agricultural engineering policies,focus on innovations and breakthroughs with key technologies in all fields of agricultural engineering,integration of

  2. Agriculture Cooperative Training--"Learning by Doing."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Lewis E., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A vocational agriculture instructor describes the Agricultural Cooperative Training (ACT) program at Nottoway (Virginia) Senior High School for on-the-job training in agribusiness and agricultural production. Especially important are student and site selection, ACT guidelines, a parent-student-employer-school written agreement, and the student…

  3. [Theme: Economic Literacy Through Agricultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Roland L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    In a series of articles, the authors indicate that in building a vocational agriculture program, developing students' abilities to deal with the economic impact of agricultural production should receive high priority. Discusses banking, taxes, economic principles, farm business management, and marketing as they relate to agriculture. (JOW)

  4. The sociology of the Australian agricultural environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanclay, F.

    1994-01-01

    Australian agriculture is in crisis, the terms of trade for agriculture are falling, many farmers have negative incomes, and there is massive structural adjustment with government policy assisting the exit of marginal farmers out of agriculture. Australian governments are gripped with the philosophy

  5. Theme: The Future for Agricultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pals, Douglas A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Theme articles discuss the 1984 report of the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences, the use of computers, adult education in agriculture, new curricula and approaches, teacher preparation, the National Vocational Agricultural Teachers Association, museum living history programs, postsecondary agricultural education, and…

  6. Theme: Teaching Physical Science Applications in Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Edward W.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Includes "Preparing Teachers to Teach Agriscience" (Osborne); "Physical Sciences and Agriculture" (Buriak); "Using Experiments to Teach Agriculture" (Miller); "Oooh-Ahhh: So That's How It Works!" (Loschen); "Keeping Agriculture in Agriscience" (Moss); "Sharpening Twist Drills" (McHargue, Hood); and "Safety in the Agriscience Laboratory"…

  7. Theme: Teaching the Science of Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutphin, Dean; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Discusses bridging the gap between agricultural and science education; involving the science department in animal science classes; working with industry to improve educational programs; integrating science and agriculture; improving scientific literacy through an agriscience curriculum; and industry's role in developing science-based agriculture.…

  8. Readership Study of an Agricultural Magazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Ted

    Since the fall of 1957, the Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station has published a semi-scientific quarterly magazine, "Louisiana Agriculture," to present information on the station's research to Louisiana citizens, particularly public officials, members of the agribusiness sector, science-oriented farmers, agriculture and science teachers, and…

  9. Nuclear Technique and Agriculture in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu B.J.

    2004-01-01

    @@ Nuclear technique is a powerful scientific tool in agricultural research, an area with fruitful achievements in China. Application of nuclear technique in agriculture (Nuclear Agricultural Sciences) based on the development of related science and technology is a high-tech area, and also a significant aspect of non-electrical power application of nuclear technique.

  10. Nuclear Technique and Agriculture in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu; B.J.

    2004-01-01

      Nuclear technique is a powerful scientific tool in agricultural research, an area with fruitful achievements in China. Application of nuclear technique in agriculture (Nuclear Agricultural Sciences) based on the development of related science and technology is a high-tech area, and also a significant aspect of non-electrical power application of nuclear technique.……

  11. Collaboration between Science and Agriculture Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Lee G.; Warnick, Brian K.; Tarpley, Rudy S.

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this descriptive study was to determine the type and frequency of collaborative activities occurring between agriculture teachers and science teachers who taught in schools with agricultural education programs. Additional foci of this study included determining the extent to which science and agriculture teachers value collaborative…

  12. 29 CFR 570.123 - Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agriculture. 570.123 Section 570.123 Labor Regulations... Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended Exemptions § 570.123 Agriculture. (a) Section... agriculture outside of school hours for the school district where such employee is living while he is...

  13. Modeling and simulation of the agricultural sprayer boom leveling system

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jian

    2011-01-01

    According to the agricultural precision requirements, the distance from sprayer nozzles to the corps should be kept between 50 cm to 70 cm. The sprayer boom also needs to be kept parallel to the field during the application process. Thus we can guarantee the quality of the chemical droplets distribution on the crops. In this paper we design a sprayer boom leveling system for agricultural sprayer vehicles combined with a four-rod linkage self-leveling suspension and electro-hydraulic auto-leveling system. The dynamic analysis shows that the suspension can realize an excellent self-leveling in a comparative small inclination range. In addition we build compensation controller for the electro-hydraulic system based on the mathematical model. With simulations we can optimize the performance of this controller to make sure a fast leveling response to the inclined sprayer boom. © 2011 IEEE.

  14. Agricultural Mechanics Laboratory Management Professional Development Needs of Wyoming Secondary Agriculture Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, Billy R.; Saucier, P. Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Accidents happen; however, the likelihood of accidents occurring in the agricultural mechanics laboratory is greatly reduced when agricultural mechanics laboratory facilities are managed by secondary agriculture teachers who are competent and knowledgeable. This study investigated the agricultural mechanics laboratory management in-service needs…

  15. The Basic Path of Modern Agriculture with Chinese Characteristics-Industry Nurturing Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Constructing the modern agriculture with Chinese characteristics is the path and direction for solving issues concerning agriculture, countryside and farmers in China, the key to new village construction, the important measure for promoting overall agricultural production capacity, and the prerequisite and guarantee for coordinating urban-rural development. At present, the level of agricultural mechanization in China is promoted steadily; the science and technology are applied to agriculture extensively; the agricultural regionalization layout gradually takes shape; the agricultural industrialization management develops steadily. Be that as it may, the overall quality of farmers is low; the agricultural infrastructure is weak; the agricultural resources are limited; the inputs of agricultural science and technology are short. These hamper the development of modern agriculture. We should implement "industry nurturing agriculture"; through capital support and policy guidance, reform household registration system; connect the fragmented land into parcel; encourage the leading enterprises to develop in rural areas; establish agricultural cooperative organizations; deepen rural financial system reform; quicken the promotion and application of agricultural technology. These measures can effectively promote the development of agriculture, and realize the agricultural modernization in China.

  16. Agricultural Education Perceived Teacher Self-Efficacy: A Descriptive Study of Beginning Agricultural Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Kattlyn J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe beginning agriculture teachers' perceived agricultural education teacher self-efficacy. Additionally, the researcher sought to describe the relationship among teachers' demographic characteristics and their agricultural education teacher self-efficacy. An instrument specific to agricultural education was…

  17. The Impact of Price on Chemical Fertilizer Demand in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John K.Dagsvik

    2012-01-01

    Since 1998,the national policies on chemical fertilizer in China have been concentrated in limiting price plus subsidizing,abolishing agricultural tax,giving direct subsidies to farmers,and other aspects.In order to analyze the impact of national policies on the consumption of chemical fertilizer,this article selects the consumption of chemical fertilizer per unit,chemical fertilizer price index and farmers’net income in different provinces during the period 1998-2007 as variables,to conduct regression analysis of chemical fertilizer expenditure function,and calculate the price elasticity and income elasticity of chemical fertilizer demand in different provinces over the decade based on the regression results.The results show that at present the basic consumption of chemical fertilizer for agricultural development in China is 0.35 t/hm 2 ,and the consumption of chemical fertilizer is excessive in some provinces;the chemical fertilizer market has not been really established,and the price has little impact on demand.This indicates that the chemical fertilizer is essential for agricultural economic development,and it increases along with the increase of farmers’income; the intervention of the national policy in chemical fertilizer price is a fundamental reason for the rising demand for chemical fertilizer.This also to some extent indicates that the policy effect of merely using environmental taxes to change farmers’consumption of chemical fertilizer is limited;there is a need to transform the existing policies purely promoting agricultural economic development,toward giving different subsidies in accordance with whether the farmers’fertilization pattern is beneficial to the environment.

  18. MODERN FORMS OF MANAGEMENT OF AGRICULTURAL BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarenko A. V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have performed an analysis of the effective use of agricultural lands in Russia, using the methods of scientific management, as a modern form of agricultural business management. The analysis of effective models of world agricultural business, management and support, as well as the domestic and the European model of agriculture was given as well. The article contains suggestions and developing of the most rational and effective management methods for agricultural business, on the basis of international and domestic experience in this area

  19. Dye sequestration using agricultural wastes as adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayode Adesina Adegoke

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Color is a visible pollutant and the presence of even minute amounts of coloring substance makes it undesirable due to its appearance. The removal of color from dye-bearing effluents is a major problem due to the difficulty in treating such wastewaters by conventional treatment methods. The most commonly used methods for color removal are biological oxidation and chemical precipitation. However, these processes are effective and economic only in the case where the solute concentrations are relatively high. Most industries use dyes and pigments to color their products. The presence of dyes in effluents is a major concern due to its adverse effect on various forms of life. The discharge of dyes in the environment is a matter of concern for both toxicological and esthetical reasons. It is evident from a literature survey of about 283 recently published papers that low-cost adsorbents have demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for dye removal and the optimal equilibrium time of various dyes with different charcoal adsorbents from agricultural residues is between 4 and 5 h. Maximum adsorptions of acidic dyes were obtained from the solutions with pH 8–10. The challenges and future prospects are discussed to provide a better framework for a safer and cleaner environment.

  20. Agriculture on Mars: Soils for Plant Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.

    2016-01-01

    Robotic rovers and landers have enabled the mineralogical, chemical, and physical characterization of loose, unconsolidated materials on the surface of Mars. Planetary scientists refer to the regolith material as "soil." NASA is currently planning to send humans to Mars in the mid 2030s. Early missions may rely on the use of onsite resources to enable exploration and self-sufficient outposts on Mars. The martian "soil" and surface environment contain all essential plant growth elements. The study of martian surface materials and how they might react as agricultural soils opens a new frontier for researchers in the soil science community. Other potential applications for surface "soils" include (i) sources for extraction of essential plant-growth nutrients, (ii) sources of O2, H2, CO2, and H2O, (iii) substrates for microbial populations in the degradation of wastes, and (iv) shielding materials surrounding outpost structures to protect humans, plants, and microorganisms from radiation. There are many challenges that will have to be addressed by soil scientists prior to human exploration over the next two decades.

  1. Uses of antimicrobials in plant agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidaver, Anne K

    2002-06-01

    Bacterial diseases of plants are less prevalent than diseases caused by fungi and viruses. Antimicrobials for prophylactic treatment of bacterial diseases of plants are limited in availability, use, and efficacy, and therapeutic use is largely ineffective. Most applications are by spray treatments in orchards. Monitoring and surveillance for drug resistance are not routinely done. In the United States, data on use of antimicrobials for treatment of bacterial diseases of plants are limited to streptomycin and oxytetracycline. Resistance to streptomycin has become widespread among bacterial phytopathogens; no resistance among these bacteria has yet been reported for oxytetracycline. No human health effects have been documented since inception of use of antimicrobials in plants in the 1950s. Transfer of antimicrobial resistance from marker genes in transgenic plants to bacteria has not been documented under natural conditions in field-grown plants. However, antimicrobial-resistance genes are being eliminated from use as marker genes because of concerns about possible transfer from plant genomes back to bacteria, with further horizontal transfer to the bacteria in the environment, or from plant genomes to animals by plant consumption. No new antimicrobials are expected to be used in plant agriculture because of high costs of development, regulatory constraints, and environmental and human health concerns. Alternatives to antimicrobials, such as biocontrol agents, transgenic plants, and novel chemicals, are being developed and marketed, although their efficacy remains to be determined.

  2. Practicing Conservation Agriculture to mitigate and adapt to Climate Change in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khresat, Saeb

    2016-04-01

    Climate change scenarios indicate that Jordan and the Middle East could suffer from reduced agricultural productivity and water availability among other negative impacts. Based on the projection models for the area, average temperature in Jordan is projected to increase between 1.2 and 1.6 °C by 2050. Projections for precipitation trends are projected to decrease by 16% by the year 2050. Evaporation is likely to increase due to higher temperatures. This is likely to increase the incidence of drought potential since precipitation is projected to decrease. The dominant form of agriculture system in Jordan is based on intensive tillage. This form of tillage has resulted in large losses of organic soil carbon, weaker soil structure, and cause compaction. It has negative effects on soil aeration, root development and water infiltration among other factors. There is a need to transform farming practices to conservation agriculture to sequester carbon so that climate change mitigation becomes an inherent property of future farming systems. Conservation Agriculture, a system avoiding or minimizing soil disturbance, combined with soil cover and crop diversification, is considered to be a sustainable production system that can also sequester carbon unlike tillage agriculture. Conservation agriculture promotes minimal disturbance of the soil by tillage (zero tillage), balanced application of chemical inputs and careful management of residues and wastes. This study was conducted to develop a clear understanding of the impacts and benefits of the two most common types of agriculture, traditional tillage agriculture and conservation agriculture with respect to their effects on land productivity and on soil carbon pools. The study results indicated that conservation agriculture contributed to the reduction of the farming systems' greenhouse gas emissions and enhance its role as carbon sinks. Also, it was found that by shifting to conservation agriculture labor cost needed for

  3. Against the Grain: The Influence of Changing Agricultural Management on the Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    The rise of modern agriculture was one of the most transformative events in human history, and has forever changed our relationship to the natural world. By clearing tropical forests, practicing subsistence agriculture on marginal lands and intensifying industrialized farmland production, agricultural practices are changing the worldês landscapes in pervasive ways. In the past decade, we have made tremendous progress in monitoring agricultural expansion from satellites, and modeling associated environmental impacts. In the past decade, the Earth System Science research community has begun to recognize the importance of agricultural lands, particularly as they continue expanding at the expense of important natural ecosystems, potentially altering the planetês carbon cycle and climate. With the advent of new remote sensing and global modeling methods, several efforts have documented the expansion of agricultural lands, the corresponding loss of natural ecosystems, and how this may influence the earth system. But the geographic expansion of agricultural lands is not the whole story. While significant agricultural expansion (or extensification) has occurred in the past few decades, the intensification of agricultural practices Ð under the aegis of the -Green Revolution" Ð has dramatically altered the relationship between humans and environmental systems across the world. Simply put, many of the worldês existing agricultural lands are being used much more intensively as opportunities for agricultural expansion are being exhausted elsewhere. In the last 40 years, global agricultural production has more than doubled Ð although global cropland has increased by only 12% Ð mainly through the use of high yielding varieties of grain, increased reliance on irrigation, massive increases in chemical fertilization, and increased mechanization. Indeed, in the past 40 years there has been a 700% increase in global fertilizer use and a 70% increase in irrigated cropland area

  4. Investments and Growth in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Luminita Sarbovan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The economic growth of all countries, during the past centuries had aimed to balance the global raising number of population with the food production, as a basic requirement for mankind survival. Unlike the pessimistic view of Malthus and neo-maltusianists, who considered population and food resources a given disequilibrium, from the individual entrepreneurs and farmers up to the macroeconomic decedents of the rural policies, they all prove a continuous commitment to feed consumers with their basic requirements. This is why investments and subventions in agriculture have important particularities and consequences, and play a major role on the global market.

  5. Agricultural pesticides and precocious puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, Samim; Goksen, Damla; Darcan, Sukran

    2014-01-01

    The onset and course of puberty is under the control of the neuroendocrine system. Factors affecting the regulation of timing and order of this system's functions may alter the onset and course of puberty. Several environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs) with significant influences on the normal course of puberty have been identified. Despite the numerous animal and human studies on EDs that may extensively affect human health, there are still several issues that need to be clarified. This chapter discusses the effects of pesticides, which constitute a significant portion of disruptors and have been increasingly used in agriculture, on precocious puberty.

  6. Agricultural-industrial technological paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Paulo Sergio Graziano; Nogueira, Luiz Augusto Horta; Cantarella, Heitor; Rossetto, Raffaella; Franco, Henrique C. Junqueira; Braunbeck, Oscar

    2012-07-01

    The chapter approaches the identification of relevant parameters, sugarcane planting, soil preparation and compaction, mechanical harvesting, straw recovery, use of residues, soil carbon sequestration, greenhouse gases emission,l other effects, production of coal as an alternative for C storage, use of biofuels (bioethanol and biodiesel) in agriculture and transport of sugarcane, estimation of diesel consumption in the sugarcane industry, scenarios considered for the use of biofuels, modelling the impacts of the adoption of biofuels - fuel consumption and emissions, energy and impact of biofuels use in bioethanol production, impact of adoption of biofuels on emissions in bioethanol production, and increase in the scale (milling capacity) of the sugar and bioethanol mills.

  7. On Diffused Pollution Effect of Chemical Fertilizers in Chongqing Municipality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Limeng; GU; Lianchao; YU; Qian; BI

    2015-01-01

    Improper use of chemical fertilizers is an essential reason for diffused pollution of agriculture. Therefore,finding out influence factors of farmers in application of chemical fertilizers will play a significant role in controlling the diffused pollution of agriculture. Through field survey,a total of 340 samples in 4 counties of Chongqing Municipality were obtained. On the basis of these samples,an empirical study was carried out. The study results indicate that farmers’ application of chemical fertilizers is negatively correlated with farmers’ age,education level,male labor proportion,and soil fertility,while the annual family income,agricultural production population proportion,commodity trading characteristics,and scientific fertilizer application ability fail to pass the significance test. These results will provide reference for proper application of chemical fertilizers and controlling diffused pollution.

  8. Climate-smart agriculture for food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipper, Leslie; Thornton, Philip; Campbell, Bruce M.; Baedeker, Tobias; Braimoh, Ademola; Bwalya, Martin; Caron, Patrick; Cattaneo, Andrea; Garrity, Dennis; Henry, Kevin; Hottle, Ryan; Jackson, Louise; Jarvis, Andrew; Kossam, Fred; Mann, Wendy; McCarthy, Nancy; Meybeck, Alexandre; Neufeldt, Henry; Remington, Tom; Sen, Pham Thi; Sessa, Reuben; Shula, Reynolds; Tibu, Austin; Torquebiau, Emmanuel F.

    2014-12-01

    Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) is an approach for transforming and reorienting agricultural systems to support food security under the new realities of climate change. Widespread changes in rainfall and temperature patterns threaten agricultural production and increase the vulnerability of people dependent on agriculture for their livelihoods, which includes most of the world's poor. Climate change disrupts food markets, posing population-wide risks to food supply. Threats can be reduced by increasing the adaptive capacity of farmers as well as increasing resilience and resource use efficiency in agricultural production systems. CSA promotes coordinated actions by farmers, researchers, private sector, civil society and policymakers towards climate-resilient pathways through four main action areas: (1) building evidence; (2) increasing local institutional effectiveness; (3) fostering coherence between climate and agricultural policies; and (4) linking climate and agricultural financing. CSA differs from 'business-as-usual' approaches by emphasizing the capacity to implement flexible, context-specific solutions, supported by innovative policy and financing actions.

  9. Chemical carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula A. Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of chemical compounds benefits society in a number of ways. Pesticides, for instance, enable foodstuffs to be produced in sufficient quantities to satisfy the needs of millions of people, a condition that has led to an increase in levels of life expectancy. Yet, at times, these benefits are offset by certain disadvantages, notably the toxic side effects of the chemical compounds used. Exposure to these compounds can have varying effects, ranging from instant death to a gradual process of chemical carcinogenesis. There are three stages involved in chemical carcinogenesis. These are defined as initiation, promotion and progression. Each of these stages is characterised by morphological and biochemical modifications and result from genetic and/or epigenetic alterations. These genetic modifications include: mutations in genes that control cell proliferation, cell death and DNA repair - i.e. mutations in proto-oncogenes and tumour suppressing genes. The epigenetic factors, also considered as being non-genetic in character, can also contribute to carcinogenesis via epigenetic mechanisms which silence gene expression. The control of responses to carcinogenesis through the application of several chemical, biochemical and biological techniques facilitates the identification of those basic mechanisms involved in neoplasic development. Experimental assays with laboratory animals, epidemiological studies and quick tests enable the identification of carcinogenic compounds, the dissection of many aspects of carcinogenesis, and the establishment of effective strategies to prevent the cancer which results from exposure to chemicals.A sociedade obtém numerosos benefícios da utilização de compostos químicos. A aplicação dos pesticidas, por exemplo, permitiu obter alimento em quantidade suficiente para satisfazer as necessidades alimentares de milhões de pessoas, condição relacionada com o aumento da esperança de vida. Os benefícios estão, por

  10. Chemical cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Boeyens, Jan CA

    2010-01-01

    The composition of the most remote objects brought into view by the Hubble telescope can no longer be reconciled with the nucleogenesis of standard cosmology and the alternative explanation, in terms of the LAMBDA-Cold-Dark-Matter model, has no recognizable chemical basis. A more rational scheme, based on the chemistry and periodicity of atomic matter, opens up an exciting new interpretation of the cosmos in terms of projective geometry and general relativity. The response of atomic structure to environmental pressure predicts non-Doppler cosmical redshifts and equilibrium nucleogenesis by alp

  11. EXPERT SYSTEMS - DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL INSURANCE TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAN Anca-Petruţa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Because of the fact that specialty agricultural assistance is not always available when the farmers need it, we identified expert systems as a strong instrument with an extended potential in agriculture. This started to grow in scale recently, including all socially-economic activity fields, having the role of collecting data regarding different aspects from human experts with the purpose of assisting the user in the necessary steps for solving problems, at the performance level of the expert, making his acquired knowledge and experience available. We opted for a general presentation of the expert systems as well as their necessity, because, the solution to develop the agricultural system can come from artificial intelligence by implementing the expert systems in the field of agricultural insurance, promoting existing insurance products, farmers finding options in depending on their necessities and possibilities. The objective of this article consists of collecting data about different aspects about specific areas of interest of agricultural insurance, preparing the database, a conceptual presentation of a pilot version which will become constantly richer depending on the answers received from agricultural producers, with the clearest exposure of knowledgebase possible. We can justify picking this theme with the fact that even while agricultural insurance plays a very important role in agricultural development, the registered result got from them are modest, reason why solutions need to be found in the scope of developing the agricultural sector. The importance of this consists in the proposal of an immediate viable solution to correspond with the current necessities of agricultural producers and in the proposal of an innovative solution, namely the implementation of expert system in agricultural insurance as a way of promoting insurance products. Our research, even though it treats the subject at an conceptual level, it wants to undertake an

  12. Agricultural pesticide usage and prioritization in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Eun Shil; Jeong, Mihye; Lee, Won Jin

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to review agricultural pesticide usage and trends and to identify hazardous pesticides for regulation, in terms of public health, in South Korea. The authors collected data on usage and trends of agricultural pesticides through agriculture-related databases. Criteria from the US Environmental Protection Agency classification for carcinogenicity, World Health Organization classification for acute toxicity, and European Union prioritization list for endocrine-disrupting chemicals were used for the hazard categorization of identified individual active ingredients. Pesticides to be prioritized among all pesticides used in South Korea between 2007 and 2011 were selected by taking into account the volume of usage, toxicity, and epidemiological evidence. Annual agricultural use of pesticides has increased rapidly from the 1970s to 1990s in South Korea, but has declined since 2001. The quantity of pesticides used in 2011 was reported as 19,131 tons, and was comprised of 34.7% insecticides, 28.0% fungicides, and 27.1% herbicides. The 50 pesticides with the greatest volume of usage accounted for 82.6% of the total volume of pesticides used between 2007 and 2011, with the most-used active ingredient being machine oil, followed by mancozeb and then paraquat. Organophosphates were the most used among the top 50 pesticides. A total of 24 pesticides were selected for recommendation of intensive regulation in South Korea. In conclusion, the authors described the usage and trends of overall agricultural pesticides, which would serve as a fundamental step forward in managing pesticide in terms of public health. Intensive efforts are required for the prevention of potential health effects from the 24 identified pesticides.

  13. Karst and agriculture in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillieson David

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Much of the development and degradation of karst lands in Australia has occurred in the last two centuries since European settlement. Recent prolonged El Nino events add further climatic uncertainty and place real constraints on sustainable agriculture. The lower southeast of South Australia is perhaps the one area in Australia where karst, and particularly karst hydrology, impinge on the daily lives of the community in that pollution and overexploitation of the aquifer are readily apparent to the local population. Effluent from intensive dairy farms, piggeries and cheese factories enters the karst and has caused concern over pollution of water supplies. Human impacts on the Mole Creek karst of Tasmania have been well documented. The principal recent impacts on the karst arc associated with land clearance for farmland, forest cutting for timber, road building, refuse disposal and associated hydrological change. There is similar evidence of agricultural impacts un karst in central New South Wales, with clear evidence of vegetation clearance and soil stripping on the limestones at Wellington, Orange and Molong.

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION IN AGRICULTURE FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Facini dos Reis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In Front of new prospects and the environmental concerns with sustainable development, always more the science, communities, institutions of education and general managers have been engaged in developing new strategies and methodologies to work in urban and rural area. The aims are not harming the environment and optimize the processes of action, trying to maximize profits. The objective of this study was to verify the current state of knowledge of environmental education and dissemination of information on subsistence agriculture, within the national context. The methodology was based on a qualitative literature review, with exploratory character, exposing the main arguments used and their applicability. The results showed that although there are many options to work for environmental education in family agriculture, few things has been done in practice. It was verified that the main focus of environmental education in the field is restricted to activities with planting of seedlings for reforestation of degraded areas and conservation of riparian forests. Although, the environmental education may involve several techniques aimed at improving the quality of life in the field. Also, working only with "green marketing" themes are not that interesting, when we talk about sustainability.

  15. Diagnosing Management of Agricultural Research and Technology Development under the Agricultural Innovation Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at identifying and analyzing issues and challenges on the agricultural research and technology development under the national innovation framework. The survey consisted of two groups: agricultural researchers of Agriculture-Research and Education Organization and all faculty members of public agricultural faculties of Ministry of Scientific, Research and Technology. Using Cochran sampling formula and multi-stage sampling method, 188 researchers and 205 faculty members were selected in order to fill in the survey questionnaire. Using the SPSS, collected data analyzed based on explanatory factor analysis. Totally, factor analysis of three sets of issues and challenges on the agricultural research and technology development under the national innovation framework led to extract 13 factors, including agricultural structure and policy, infrastructure and resources of agricultural development, supportive services for agricultural development (level of agricultural development, investment and capacity building in research and technology, management of research and technology development, research and technology productivity, research culture, networks for research and technology development (level of national innovation system, agricultural research policy, impacts and effectiveness of agricultural research and technology development, integrated management of research and technology, institutional development for agricultural research and technology and systematic synergy of agricultural research and higher education (level of agricultural innovation system. Totally, these three sets of factors explained 64%, 75% and 73% of the total variances. Finally, using conceptual clustering for the extracted factors, a conceptual model of issues and challenges of agricultural research and technology development under the national innovation framework was presented.

  16. Chemical risk: strategies for social intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Calera Rubio

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Production, use, marketing and emission of chemical substances display the strong links between chemical risks at the workplace, healthcare and environmental pollution. In spite of this fact, the policies for the management of chemical risk are far from being coherent and unified in the different sectors. (Nutritional safety, agriculture, healthcare, environment and occupational health.The Commission of European Communities (EC has elaborated a White Document on the future policy on chemicals that recognizes the existing lack of control in this domain. We are facing a deep crisis of traditional strategies that are supposed to control chemical risks.It becomes essential to diversify the strategies. Some of them must aim at the improvement of information, others at the assessment of risk situations and some strategies must be directed to evaluate the possible alternatives for the solution of problems.

  17. Fluoride gases damages on agricultural and ornamental plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, V.; Padalino, O.

    1968-01-01

    Reports are presented concerning fluoride gases from a brick furnace, damaging agricultural and ornamental plants: Prunus armeniaca L. var. Reale d'Imola, Vitis vinifera L. var. Cardinal, Gladiolus spp., Pinus pinea L., Iris germanica L., that are particularly sensitive to these gases. There are descriptions of the morphological alterations and the authors have proven the presence of fluoride in the chemically analyzed samples. There is a list of plants found near the brick furnace that have been classified as (I) highly sensitive; (II) moderately sensitive; (III) very little sensitivity; (IV) immune to fluoride gases. 10 references, 9 figures.

  18. Fungal community dynamics and driving factors during agricultural waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Man; Zhang, Jiachao; Xu, Yuxin; Xiao, Hua; An, Wenhao; Xi, Hui; Xue, Zhiyong; Huang, Hongli; Chen, Xiaoyang; Shen, Alin

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted to identify the driving factors behind fungal community dynamics during agricultural waste composting. Fungal community abundance and structure were determined by quantitative PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis combined with DNA sequencing. The effects of physico-chemical parameters on fungal community abundance and structure were evaluated by least significant difference tests and redundancy analysis. The results showed that Cladosporium bruhnei, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Scytalidium thermophilum, Tilletiopsis penniseti, and Coprinopsis altramentaria were prominent during the composting process. The greatest variation in the distribution of fungal community structure was statistically explained by pile temperature and total organic carbon (TOC) (P composting.

  19. Theme: Innovative Curriculum Ideas and Practices in Agricultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural Education Magazine, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Fourteen theme articles discuss the following: curriculum ideas and innovations in agricultural education, agricultural literacy, Supervised Agricultural Experience, active learning, locating agricultural education resources, distance and web-based instruction, principles of forest management, professional development, and service learning. (JOW)

  20. A Spatial Data Model Desing For The Management Of Agricultural Data (Farmer, Agricultural Land And Agricultural Production)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taşkanat, Talha; İbrahim İnan, Halil

    2016-04-01

    Since the beginning of the 2000s, it has been conducted many projects such as Agricultural Sector Integrated Management Information System, Agriculture Information System, Agricultural Production Registry System and Farmer Registry System by the Turkish Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock and the Turkish Statistical Institute in order to establish and manage better agricultural policy and produce better agricultural statistics in Turkey. Yet, it has not been carried out any study for the structuring of a system which can meet the requirements of different institutions and organizations that need similar agricultural data. It has been tried to meet required data only within the frame of the legal regulations from present systems. Whereas the developments in GIS (Geographical Information Systems) and standardization, and Turkey National GIS enterprise in this context necessitate to meet the demands of organizations that use the similar data commonly and to act in terms of a data model logic. In this study, 38 institutions or organization which produce and use agricultural data were detected, that and thanks to survey and interviews undertaken, their needs were tried to be determined. In this study which is financially supported by TUBITAK, it was worked out relationship between farmer, agricultural land and agricultural production data and all of the institutions and organizations in Turkey and in this context, it was worked upon the best detailed and effective possible data model. In the model design, UML which provides object-oriented design was used. In the data model, for the management of spatial data, sub-parcel data model was used. Thanks to this data model, declared and undeclared areas can be detected spatially, and thus declarations can be associated to sub-parcels. Within this framework, it will be able to developed agricultural policies as a result of acquiring more extensive, accurate, spatially manageable and easily updatable farmer and

  1. China Report, Agriculture, No. 255, 1981 Agricultural Yearbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Trichogramma 495 Ground Infra-red Forest Fire Detector 495 Culturing of Tree Fungus and Mushrooms in Wood Shavings 495 Chemical [Resin] Tapping...Tea Cotton cloth Wool Silks and satins Rnit underpants Leather shoes Rubber shoes Firewood Soap Thermos bottles Sewing machines...8) (9) (10) Forestry industry Food industry Textile, sewing and leather industries 8.36 20.17 40.75 2.92 7.05 14.25 (ID Paper making

  2. Agricultural Multifunctionality Evolution and Research into Issues concerning Agriculture,Countryside and Farmers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xin

    2012-01-01

    From the point of view of agricultural civilization, the history of human civilization is the history of the development of the agricultural civilization. Accompanied by social progress and development of the times, the function of agriculture also experiences the expansion and deepening. In terms of economy, there is a process from mechanized farming to industrialization, then to informatization, modernization and internationalization. The great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation has also experienced and witnessed this process. In terms of "agriculture, countryside and farmers", the content is complex, diverse, profound, sharp, and changing, constantly testing and challenging our wisdom. When the Document No.1 in 2007 targeted modern agriculture, it indicated that new connotation was integrated into agricultural multifunctionality, standing at a new starting point. At present, the function of agriculture is still deepening; there are tremendous achievements and outstanding problems concurrently in issues concerning agriculture, countryside and farmers. We take the agricultural multifunctionality as breakthrough point for exploration and research.

  3. Research on Dynamic Relationship between Agricultural Insurance and Agricultural Disaster Degree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin; QI; Chunlong; XIAN

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural insurance is an important system of rural financial support for agricultural development.Based on the analysis of agricultural insurance improving farmers’anti-risk ability and reducing the damage,the dynamic relationship is discussed with the adoption of error correction model and the data of Guangdong province between 1997 and 2010.The result shows that the promotion of agricultural insurance depth is beneficial to reducing agricultural damage degree and there exists long-term equilibrium relationship.More precisely,agricultural insurance depth is the Granger reason of agricultural damage degree while the reverse relationship has not been supported yet.Based on the empirical analysis,this paper discusses the characteristics and foundation of agricultural production as well as market characteristics of agricultural insurance to further explore the necessity of financial support.

  4. Chemical Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulluck, J. W.; Rushing, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    As a preliminary study on the effects of chemical aging of polymer materials MERL and TRI have examined two polymeric materials that are typically used for offshore umbilical applications. These two materials were Tefzel, a copolymer of ethylene and tetrafluoroethylene, and Coflon, polyvinylidene fluoride. The Coflon specimens were cut from pipe sections and exposed to H2S at various temperatures and pressures. One of these specimens was tested for methane permeation, and another for H2S permeation. The Tefzel specimens were cut from .05 mm sheet stock material and were exposed to methanol at elevated temperature and pressure. One of these specimens was exposed to methanol permeation for 2 days at 100 C and 2500 psi. An additional specimen was exposed to liquid methanol for 3 days at 150 C and 15 Bar. Virgin specimens of each material were similarly prepared and tested.

  5. Current United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service research on understanding agrochemical fate and transport to prevent and mitigate adverse environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapeman, Cathleen J; McConnell, Laura L; Rice, Clifford P; Sadeghi, Ali M; Schmidt, Walter F; McCarty, Gregory W; Starr, James L; Rice, Pamela J; Angier, Jonathan T; Harman-Fetcho, J A

    2003-01-01

    Environmentally and economically viable agriculture requires a variety of cultivation practices and pest management options as no one system will be appropriate for every situation. Agrochemicals are some of the many pest control tools used in an integrated approach to pest management. They are applied with the intent of maximizing efficacy while minimizing off-site movement; however, their judicious use demands a practical knowledge of their fate and effects in agricultural and natural ecosystems. Agrochemical distribution into environmental compartments is influenced by the physical and chemical properties of the agrochemical and environmental conditions, ie soil type and structure, and meteorological conditions. Agricultural Research Service (ARS) researchers working in the area of agrochemical fate have focused on accurately describing those processes that govern the transport, degradation and bioavailability of these chemicals under conditions reflecting actual agronomic practices. Results from ARS research concerning the environmental fate and effects of agrochemicals have led to the development of science-based management practices that will protect vulnerable areas of the ecosystem. The new challenge is to identify these vulnerable areas and the temporal and spatial variations prior to use of the chemical by predicting how it will behave in environmental matrices, and using that information, predict its transport and transformation within an air- or watershed. With the development of better predictive tools and GIS (Geographic Information System)-based modeling, the risks of agricultural management systems can be assessed at the watershed and basin levels, and management strategies can be identified that minimize negative environmental impacts.

  6. Dry fermentation of agricultural residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, W. J.; Chandler, J. A.; Dellorto, S.; Fanfoni, K. J.; Fast, S.; Jackson, D.; Kabrick, R. M.

    1981-09-01

    A dry fermentation process is discussed which converts agricultural residues to methane, using the residues in their as produced state. The process appears to simplify and enhance the possibilities for using crop residues as an energy source. The major process variables investigated include temperature, the amount and type of inoculum, buffer requirements, compaction, and pretreatment to control the initial available organic components that create pH problems. A pilot-scale reactor operation on corn stover at a temperature of 550 C, with 25 percent initial total solids, a seed-to-feed ratio of 2.5 percent, and a buffer-to-feed ratio of 8 percent achieved 33 percent total volatile solids destruction in 60 days. Volumetric biogas yields from this unit were greater than 1 vol/vol day for 12 days, and greater than 0.5 vol/vol day for 32 days, at a substrate density of 169 kg/m (3).

  7. Economic Analysis of Agricultural Investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian ZUGRAVU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to introduce a modification of a standardfour input production process where energy is used in an inefficient way due topartly unnecessary waste of energy. The changes in production efficiencyinvestigated using stochastic frontier methods, show declining technicalefficiency in livestock production and especially low marginal contribution oflabor inputs. The number of workers, size of farm, and distance from nearestcity are related to efficiency in agricultural production. It is well known thatresults from an environmental policy in response to global climate change arequite sensitive to the assumption on the rate of energy efficiency improvements.However, technical progress is traditionally considered as a non-economicvariable in economic policy models. It is exogenous in most policy evaluationsas well as in the theory of environmental economics.

  8. Agricultural Innovation System In Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudath Arumapperuma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to document agricultural innovation systems (AIS in Australia. We identified eleven broad categories (actors in terms of their activities, namely: policy, education, finance and credit, marketing, input supply, research, extension and information, logistics, processing and storage, farmers and farm organisations and consumers. Survey results reveal that 11 kinds of innovation-related activities of research and education organisations with corresponding percentage weight are directly involved in innovation diffusion. Twelve pre-identified goals of innovation related activities of the above organisations surveyed with their corresponding percentage weight have also been revealed. The study reveals that the majority of funding (more than 80% for innovation activities comes from the Federal Government and funding bodies. Finally survey results indicate that the main constrains/incentives are other issues such as funding, lack of qualified staff, equipment, environmental and Government policy issues etc.

  9. AgBase: a functional genomics resource for agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Many agricultural species and their pathogens have sequenced genomes and more are in progress. Agricultural species provide food, fiber, xenotransplant tissues, biopharmaceuticals and biomedical models. Moreover, many agricultural microorganisms are human zoonoses. However, systems biology from functional genomics data is hindered in agricultural species because agricultural genome sequences have relatively poor structural and functional annotation and agricultural researc...

  10. Should I Take French, Physics, or Vocational Agriculture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, William; Goecker, Allan

    1974-01-01

    Studies at the Purdue School of Agriculture indicated students who had completed high school vocational agriculture were more likely to complete requirements for a baccalaureate degree in agriculture than those not having vocational agriculture. Agriculture college-bound students should emphasize agriculture, biology, chemistry, mathematics, and…

  11. 7 CFR 1210.505 - Department of Agriculture costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Department of Agriculture costs. 1210.505 Section 1210.505 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  12. A Guide for Planning Programs in Agricultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, A. E.; And Others

    The general information necessary for planning a high school program in agricultural educated is provided, based on the following briefly described occupational areas: agricultural production, agricultural supplied/services, agricultural mechanics, agricultural products (processing, inspection, and marketing), agricultural resources (conversation,…

  13. Making agriculture work for the poor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowse, Martin; Chimhowu, Admos

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarises recent work on poverty, agriculture and land. First, we report on panel data analysis in five countries – Vietnam, Uganda, India, Nicaragua and Ethiopia. We focus on rural exits from poverty, their relation with agricultural growth trends, and the contingent factors that sup......This paper summarises recent work on poverty, agriculture and land. First, we report on panel data analysis in five countries – Vietnam, Uganda, India, Nicaragua and Ethiopia. We focus on rural exits from poverty, their relation with agricultural growth trends, and the contingent factors...... that supported these exits. We suggest that three ‘pillars’ can help to make agriculture work for the rural poor – infrastructure, education and information. Second, we summarise recent CPRC work on land tenure, focusing on the relationship between tenure and agricultural productivity....

  14. Migrant labor in agriculture: an international comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P L

    1985-01-01

    The May 1984 Conference on Migrant Labor in Agriculture at the University of California-Davis discussed papers by 22 farm labor experts from 12 nations. Each industrial nation utilizes a different set of public and private policies to supply workers for labor-intensive agriculture, but none is entirely satisfactory. Labor-intensive agriculture is becoming more dependent on workers who are shut out of labor markets. Some countries have simply accepted foreign workers in agriculture, while others have adopted policies to integrate farm and nonfarm labor markets. Polices to reduce agriculture's reliance on workers-without-options include restructuring employment practices to employ fewer seasonal workers for longer periods, mechanizing production, and importing fruits and vegetables from nearby developing countries. This article explains the salient features of labor-intensive agriculture, the various polices for obtaining seasonal farmworkers, and options to reduce farming's dependence on migrant labor.

  15. Crop Insurance, Premium Subsidy and Agricultural Output

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jing-feng; LIAO Pu

    2014-01-01

    This paper studied the effects of crop insurance on agricultural output with an economic growth model. Based on Ramsey-Cass-Koopmans (RCK) model, a basic model of agriculture economic growth was developed. Extending the basic model to incorporate uncertainty and insurance mechanism, a risk model and a risk-insurance model were built to study the inlfuences of risk and crop insurance on agricultural output. Compared with the steady states of the three models, the following results are achieved:(i) agricultural output decreases if we introduce uncertainty into the risk-free model;(ii) crop insurance promotes agriculture economic growth if insurance mechanism is introduced into the risk model;(iii) premium subsidy constantly improves agricultural output. Our contribution is that we studied the effects of crop insurance and premium subsidy from the perspective of economic growth in a dynamic framework, and proved the output promotion of crop insurance theoretically.

  16. Urban Agriculture:The Major Direction of Future Agricultural Development in Huainan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Xing-ying

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of introducing the concept of urban agriculture, this paper analyses the necessity of developing urban agriculture in Huainan City as follows: it is the need of transformation and upgrading of agricultural industry; it is the need of development of urban-rural integration; it is the need of sustainable urban development; it is the need of solving the issues concerning agriculture, countryside and farmers effectively. Then this paper analyses the endowment of developing urban agriculture in Huainan City. And finally the basic conception in industrial form and spatial framework is put forward, to develop urban agriculture in Huainan City.

  17. Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles for Revolutionizing Agriculture: Synthesis and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidra Sabir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is the most innovative field of 21st century. Extensive research is going on for commercializing nanoproducts throughout the world. Due to their unique properties, nanoparticles have gained considerable importance compared to bulk counterparts. Among other metal nanoparticles, zinc oxide nanoparticles are very much important due to their utilization in gas sensors, biosensors, cosmetics, drug-delivery systems, and so forth. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs also have remarkable optical, physical, and antimicrobial properties and therefore have great potential to enhance agriculture. As far as method of formation is concerned, ZnO NPs can be synthesized by several chemical methods such as precipitation method, vapor transport method, and hydrothermal process. The biogenic synthesis of ZnO NPs by using different plant extracts is also common nowadays. This green synthesis is quite safe and ecofriendly compared to chemical synthesis. This paper elaborates the synthesis, properties, and applications of zinc oxide nanoparticles.

  18. VALUING AGRICULTURAL MORTGAGE-BACKED SECURITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Stokes, Jeffrey R.; Brinch, Brian M.

    2001-01-01

    A model to value Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation (Farmer Mac) agricultural mortgage-backed securities (AMBS) is developed and numerically solved. The results suggest prepayment penalties currently being used by Farmer Mac reduce yields on AMBS considerably. Even with prepayment penalties, it can be advantageous for profit maximizing mortgagors to optimally prepay or even default on agricultural mortgages. The model is used to quantify prepayment and default risk by valuing the embed...

  19. Agricultural productivity and supply responses in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The importance of Agricultural Supply Response (ASR) modelling cannot be over emphasised. Knowledge of its size provides a roadmap for designing a tailored agricultural policy based on suppliers’ responses to price and non-price incentives. In spite of its policy importance, limited amount of studies exist for Ghana. This study seeks to fill the gap and also sheds some light on how future agricultural policies in Ghana should be formulated. This study is conducted on a regional (ecologic...

  20. Energy production from agriculture: an economic evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, J.J.

    1986-05-01

    The crisis in sales on the world market of the European Economic Community's traditional agricultural products as well as Europe's concern for its energy independence, have led to the elaboration of agricultural diversification strategies and more specifically of agricultural projects which produce energy. This article evaluates the interest of such schemes in relation to the criterion of collective profitability.

  1. Animal agriculture: symbiosis, culture or ethical conflict?

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Vonne; Olsson, I Anna S

    2006-01-01

    Several writers on animal ethics defend the abolition of most or all animal agriculture, which they consider an unethical exploitation of sentient non-human animals. However, animal agriculture can also be seen as a co-evolution over thousands of years, that has affected biology and behaviour on the one hand, and quality of life of humans and domestic animals on the other. Furthermore, animals are important in sustainable agriculture. They can increase efficiency by their ability to transform...

  2. Risk management in agricultural water use

    OpenAIRE

    Tychon, Bernard; Balaghi, Riad; Jlibene, Mohammed

    2002-01-01

    Water availability for agricultural activities will decrease in the twenty-first century. As a consequence, agricultural water management will have to improve in order to meet two challenges: satisfy the needs of an increasing world population; and alleviate the climate change impacts. One way to improve agricultural water management consists of including the ‘risk’ notion as much as possible at the different decision levels of: farmers, farmer corporations and states or associations of st...

  3. Virtual reality application in agriculture field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weixi; Pan, Zhigeng; Guo, Xinyu; Zhao, Chunjiang

    2004-03-01

    The recent study of agriculture has faced more and more time-consuming problems and digitalizing problems. In order to solve these problems, we raise our proposal of creating a new virtual agriculture system using the technologies of the virtual reality and artificial intelligence. In this paper, we will not only introduce the composition and the control mechanism of this new agriculture system, but also prove its promising future. We will also discuss the wide application fields of this new system.

  4. Egyptian Agriculture in the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenzweig, C; Hillel, D.

    1994-01-01

    In order to perform a proper, integrated assessment of potential climate change impacts on Egypt it was necessary to accurately identify important and impending issues and problems which are and will be facing the Egyptian agriculture sector into the next century. To this aim, two experts in the fields of Agronomy and Irrigated Agriculture in the Middle East were asked to travel to Egypt in order to assess the current state of Egyptian agriculture and pose possible questions and scenarios tha...

  5. Global climate change and US agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Richard M.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Peart, Robert M.; Ritchie, Joe T.; Mccarl, Bruce A.

    1990-01-01

    Agricultural productivity is expected to be sensitive to global climate change. Models from atmospheric science, plant science, and agricultural economics are linked to explore this sensitivity. Although the results depend on the severity of climate change and the compensating effects of carbon dioxide on crop yields, the simulation suggests that irrigated acreage will expand and regional patterns of U.S. agriculture will shift. The impact of the U.S. economy strongly depends on which climate model is used.

  6. Agricultural marketing in Belgium and The Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    M.T.G. Meulenberg; Viaene, J.

    1993-01-01

    Agriculture in Belgium and the Netherlands has a strong export tradition and has been market oriented for a long time. In this article agricultural markeling in Belgium and the Netherlands is analyzed on the basis of the concepts structure, conduct and performance. In our review of market structure attention is paid to the structure of agriculture, the food consumer, food retailing, government policies, competition and marketing channels. Afterwards market conduct with respect to product, pri...

  7. STUDY OF AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SYSTEM IN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Tushar

    2010-01-01

    The conceptual theory of agriculture marketing encompasses the fields of operations, marketing and agricultural economics. It provides an array of options to explore the linkages between the producers, traders and buyers of the markets. As efficient, integrated, and responsive marketing systems form the core of economic development, it is of critical importance for optimal use of resources and to stimulate farmers to increase their output. The approaches used for studying the agricultural ...

  8. Agricultural sciences in transition from 1800 to 2020: Exploring knowledge and creating impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiertz, J.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Transitions in agricultural sciences are brought about by incorporating new findings and insights emerg-ing from biological, chemical and biophysical sciences, by more advanced ways of experimentation andlast but not least by quantitative methods and models for data analyses and processing. Major br

  9. The increasing multifunctionality of Agricultural Raw Materials: Three dilemmas for Innovation and Adoption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boehlje, M.; Bröring, S.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural raw materials are increasingly being used for multiple industries or sectors beyond the traditional fiber and nutrition industries: energy in the form of ethanol and biodiesel, industrial products such as polymers and bio-based synthetic chemicals and fibers, and pharmaceutical/health p

  10. Challenging a trickle-down view of climate change on agriculture and groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Global climate change is largely viewed as affecting ecohydrology of the Earth’s surface, but various studies are showing deeper effects on groundwater. Agricultural systems may be studied at the land surface and into the root zone with deeper effects of water and chemical movement to groundwater. ...

  11. The global impact of ozone on agricultural crop yields under current and future air quality legislation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingenen, van R.; Dentener, F.J.; Raes, F.; Krol, M.C.; Emberson, L.; Cofala, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate the global impact of surface ozone on four types of agricultural crop. The study is based on modelled global hourly ozone fields for the year 2000 and 2030, using the global 1°×1° 2-way nested atmospheric chemical transport model (TM5). Projections for the year 2030 are bas

  12. Do You See What I See? Examining the Epistemic Barriers to Sustainable Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Michael S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the epistemic barriers to sustainable agriculture, which are those aspects of food production that are not readily revealed by direct perception: such as decreases in rates of soil and nutrient loss, increases in levels of beneficial soil micro-organisms, and reductions in the amount of chemicals leaching into the water table.…

  13. A Multi-Criteria Index for Ecological Evaluation of Tropical Agriculture in Southeastern Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huerta, E.; Kampichler, C.; Ochoa-Gaona, S.; Jong, de B.; Hernandez-Daumas, S.; Geissen, V.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to generate an easy to use index to evaluate the ecological state of agricultural land from a sustainability perspective. We selected environmental indicators, such as the use of organic soil amendments (green manure) versus chemical fertilizers, plant biodiversity (includi

  14. Tracing the spatial propagation of river inlet water into an agricultural polder area using anthropogenic gadolinium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozemeijer, J.; Siderius, C.; Verheul, M.; Pomarius, H.

    2012-01-01

    Diverting river water into agricultural areas or nature reserves is a frequently applied management strategy to prevent fresh water shortage. However, the river water might have negative consequences for chemical and ecological water quality in the receiving water bodies. This study aimed to obtain

  15. Laboratory tests to assess optimal agricultural residue traits for an abrasive weed control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the biggest challenges to organic agricultural production and herbicide resistant crops in industrialized countries today is the non-chemical control of weed plants. Studies of new tools and methods for weed control have been motivated by an increased consumer demand for organic produce and c...

  16. Biological indicators of soil quality and soil organic matter characteristics in an agricultural management continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relationships among biological indicators of soil quality and soil organic matter characteristics in a claypan soil were evaluated across a continuum of long-term agricultural practices in Missouri, USA. In addition to chemical and physical soil quality indicators, dehydrogenase and phenol oxidase a...

  17. Health and occupational risks due to pesticide handling among agricultural workers in marinilla, antioquia, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Tabares L

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural sector has played a key role in the development of Colombia’s economy and rural communities. The Marinilla municipality, located in the eastern area of the department of Antioquia, bases its economy in agriculture and livestock activities. This requires the use of a wide variety of chemical products that pose health risks. Objective: to describe the occupational and health risks of the farmers who use pesticides in Marinilla. Methodology: a descriptive study with multistage sampling and a sample of 157 farmers. Results: 64.9% of the farmers combine more than two chemicals. 83% of them have received no training on safe handling of agricultural chemical products. Approximately 80% of these individuals do not use the appropriate protective equipment to perform this task. Only 2.5 % of the farmers have occupational risks insurance. The most common disease was acute respiratory infection (78%. 22.3% have suffered from acute intoxication, and 14% (11 of the female farmers who have ever been intoxicated had abortions, premature births, or bore children with some kind of disability. A statistically significant difference was found between the age of farmers and pesticide usage time. No statistical difference was found between low schooling level and knowledge of the risks posed by chemical products. Conclusion: most agricultural workers have not been trained in safety standards; therefore, they disregard all kinds of safety measures during their work, and act without safety in mind and without personal hygiene habits.

  18. GUO BOSHENG,PIONEER FOR DEVELOPING RARE EARTH APPLICATION IN AGRICULTURE IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1990-01-01

    Guo Bosheng, senior engineer/professor, is now a member of the Expert Group of the State Council Rare Earth Leading Group, PRC., director of Rare Earth Development Center for Agricultural Technique. He graduated from Moscow Fine Chemical Industry University in the Sovi-

  19. Agricultural and food chemistry: 50 years of synergy between AGFD and JAFC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiber, James N; Kleinschmidt, Loreen A

    2009-09-23

    The Division of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (AGFD) and the American Chemical Society had the foresight to launch the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry in 1953. JAFC, still closely connected with the Division, has grown to be the premier international journal in the field, providing an outlet for publishing original research articles, reviews, perspectives, and editorials, for agricultural and food chemists from many nations. JAFC has expanded coverage of current areas of intense interest, such as bioactive constituents of foods, biotechnology, and biobased products and biofuels, as well as continuing strong coverage of such mainstream categories as food chemistry/biochemistry, analytical methods, safety and toxicology, and agrochemistry. In 2008 alone, JAFC published over 1650 peer-reviewed manuscripts, several symposia (largely from AGFD symposia at ACS National Meetings), and a number of reviews. The synergy between AGFD and JAFC offers many benefits and exciting opportunities for advancing the science of agricultural and food chemistry for the future.

  20. Hemp as an Agricultural Commodity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-14

    plant species as marijuana. However, hemp is genetically different and distinguished by its use and chemical makeup. Hemp has long been cultivated...for non-drug use in the production of industrial and other goods. Some estimate that the global market for hemp consists of more than 25,000 products...It can be grown as a fiber, seed, or other dual-purpose crop. Hemp fibers are used in a wide range of products, including fabrics and textiles

  1. China Report, Agriculture, No. 266

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    province had turned over to the state a grand total of over 735,000 tons of sugar . In the 1982-83 extraction season, there was a big increase in cane ... Fertilizer Prices (RENMIN RIBAO, 2 Jun 83).... 9 Beijing Briefs Cotton Growth Chemical 11 Pastureland Development 11 Fuj ian Province Has...Guangdong Hebei Spring Planting Completed After Long Wet Spell (NANFANG RIBAO, 8 May 83) 20 Province Sets Record For Highest Sugar Output (NANFANG

  2. organic agriculture in Syria : policy options

    OpenAIRE

    Santucci, Fabio M.

    2010-01-01

    The author analyses present difficulties of conventional agriculture in Syria. Market opportunities, in Syria and abroad, are illustrated. Possible actions and participatory approach are thus covered.

  3. The agricultural and the democratic transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundlach, Erich; Paldam, Martin

    Long-run development (in income) causes a large fall in the share of agriculture commonly known as the agricultural transition. We confirm that this conventional wisdom is strongly supported by the data. Long-run development (in income) also causes a large increase in democracy known as the democ......Long-run development (in income) causes a large fall in the share of agriculture commonly known as the agricultural transition. We confirm that this conventional wisdom is strongly supported by the data. Long-run development (in income) also causes a large increase in democracy known...

  4. The costly benefits of opposing agricultural biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Andrew

    2010-11-30

    Rigorous application of a simple definition of what constitutes opposition to agricultural biotechnology readily encompasses a wide array of key players in national and international systems of food production, distribution and governance. Even though the sum of political and financial benefits of opposing agricultural biotechnology appears vastly to outweigh the benefits which accrue to providers of agricultural biotechnology, technology providers actually benefit from this opposition. If these barriers to biotechnology were removed, subsistence farmers still would not represent a lucrative market for improved seed. The sum of all interests involved ensures that subsistence farmers are systematically denied access to agricultural biotechnology.

  5. Making agriculture work for the poor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowse, Martin; Chimhowu, Admos

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarises recent work on poverty, agriculture and land. First, we report on panel data analysis in five countries – Vietnam, Uganda, India, Nicaragua and Ethiopia. We focus on rural exits from poverty, their relation with agricultural growth trends, and the contingent factors...... that supported these exits. We suggest that three ‘pillars’ can help to make agriculture work for the rural poor – infrastructure, education and information. Second, we summarise recent CPRC work on land tenure, focusing on the relationship between tenure and agricultural productivity....

  6. 78 FR 23885 - Agricultural Research Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ..., Agricultural Research Service, intends to grant to Headwall Photonics, Inc. of Fitchburg, Massachusetts, an... public interest to so license these inventions as Headwall Photonics, Inc. of Fitchburg,...

  7. Competitive development of the agricultural enterprises France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Yushkevych

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The stages which determine the development of agricultural enterprises in France are investigated in the article. In the course of implementation of Ukrainian-French programs of scientific and educational cooperation on the problems of the management of agricultural enterprises in State Educational Institutions training specialists (cities of Chartres and Vic–en Bigorre, France it was found that the major components of development of agricultural enterprises in France are as follows: agricultural policy, education, motivation, information and management. The problem of the diversified development in the context of transition to green economy and sustainable development is considered. It is determined that an example of competitive development of agricultural enterprises in France is the establishment and operation of professional associations, in particular, cooperatives and clusters. The priority directions of economic and ecological development of agricultural enterprises for Ukraine are offered in order to implement potential opportunities of agricultural enterprises and to relocate the resources into new kinds of agricultural and non-agricultural activities

  8. The Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing on Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beng Ong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic fracturing (or “fracking” is a method of extracting oil and natural gas trapped in deep rock layers underground by pumping water, sand, and other chemicals/additives at high pressures into a well drilled vertically, and then horizontally into the rocks.Advocates of fracking in U.S. have skillfully positioned domestic natural gas as a sensible alternative energy to the country’s goals of reducing carbon emissions and dependence on foreign oil, while simultaneously creating jobs locally. Opponents to fracking, however, alleged that the process pollutes the air, contaminates the soil and water, particularly in farming/rural communities. Due to page limitson this paper, we discussed only the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on water, and consequently, agriculture. Any impact on agriculture extends beyond the perimeter of a farm or plot of rural land where fracking operations occur. Fruits, vegetables, dairy, and meats from an impacted farming region may be shipped to other parts of the country, or even internationally. Fracking challenges stakeholders to confront the trade-offs between economic development and public health/safety; thus multiple viewpoints and issues were raised.Keywords: Hydraulic Fracking; Environmental Sustainability; Water Contamination; Agriculture vs. Energy; Shale Gas.

  9. Complexity of human and ecosystem interactions in an agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupe, Richard H.; Barlow, Jeannie R.; Capel, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of human interaction in the commercial agricultural landscape and the resulting impacts on the ecosystem services of water quality and quantity is largely ignored by the current agricultural paradigm that maximizes crop production over other ecosystem services. Three examples at different spatial scales (local, regional, and global) are presented where human and ecosystem interactions in a commercial agricultural landscape adversely affect water quality and quantity in unintended ways in the Delta of northwestern Mississippi. In the first example, little to no regulation of groundwater use for irrigation has caused declines in groundwater levels resulting in loss of baseflow to streams and threatening future water supply. In the second example, federal policy which subsidizes corn for biofuel production has encouraged many producers to switch from cotton to corn, which requires more nutrients and water, counter to national efforts to reduce nutrient loads to the Gulf of Mexico and exacerbating groundwater level declines. The third example is the wholesale adoption of a system for weed control that relies on a single chemical, initially providing many benefits and ultimately leading to the widespread occurrence of glyphosate and its degradates in Delta streams and necessitating higher application rates of glyphosate as well as the use of other herbicides due to increasing weed resistance. Although these examples are specific to the Mississippi Delta, analogous situations exist throughout the world and point to the need for change in how we grow our food, fuel, and fiber, and manage our soil and water resources.

  10. Using Microbial Source Tracking to Enhance Environmental Stewardship of Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sherry; Rose, Joan; Flood, Matthew; Aw, Tiong; Hyndman, David

    2016-04-01

    Large scale agriculture relies on the application of chemical fertilizers and animal manure. It is well known that nutrients in excess of a plant's uptake and soil retention capacity can travel to nearby waterways via surface run-off and groundwater pathways, indirectly fertilizing these aquatic ecosystems. It has not yet been possible to distinguish water quality impacts of fertilizer from those derived from human and animal waste sources. However, new microbial source tracking (MST) tools allow specific identification of fecal pollution. Our objective was to examine pollution risks at the regional scale using MST, mapping and classification and regression tree analysis. We present results Bovine M2 genetic marker data from three flow regimes (baseflow, snow melt, and post-planting rain). Key landscape characteristics were related to the presence of the bovine markers and appear to be related to fate and transport. Impacts at this regional watershed scale will be discussed. Our research aims to identify the impacts of agricultural management practices on water quality by linking nutrient concentrations with fecal pollution sources. We hope that our research will provide guidance that will help improve water quality through agricultural best management practices to reduce pathogen contamination.

  11. Biotic stress resistance in agriculture through antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarika; Iquebal, M A; Rai, Anil

    2012-08-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are the hosts' defense molecules against microbial pathogens and gaining extensive research attention worldwide. These have been reported to play vital role of host innate immunity in response to microbial challenges. AMPs can be used as a natural antibiotic as an alternative of their chemical counterpart for protection of plants/animals against diseases. There are a number of sources of AMPs including prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms and are present, both in vertebrates and invertebrates. AMPs can be classified as cationic or anionic, based on net charges. Large number of databases and tools are available in the public domain which can be used for development of new genetically modified disease resistant varieties/breeds for agricultural production. The results of the biotechnological research as well as genetic engineering related to AMPs have shown high potential for reduction of economic losses of agricultural produce due to pathogens. In this article, an attempt has been made to introduce the role of AMPs in relation to plants and animals. Their functional and structural characteristics have been described in terms of its role in agriculture. Different sources of AMPs and importance of these sources has been reviewed in terms of its availability. This article also reviews the bioinformatics resources including different database tools and algorithms available in public domain. References of promising biotechnology research in relation to AMPs, prospects of AMPs for further development of genetically modified varieties/breeds are highlighted. AMPs are valuable resource for students, researchers, educators and medical and industrial personnel.

  12. CHEMICAL EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Melvin

    1965-06-01

    How did life come to be on the surface of the earth? Darwin himself recognized that his basic idea of evolution by variation and natural selection must be a continuous process extending backward in time through that period in which the first living things arose and into the period of 'Chemical Evolution' which preceded it. We are approaching the examination of these events by two routes. One is to seek for evidence in the ancient rocks of the earth which were laid down prior to that time in which organisms capable of leaving their skeletons in the rocks to be fossilized were in existence. This period is sometime prior to approximately 600 million years ago. The earth is believed to have taken its present form approximately 4700 million years ago. We have found in rocks whose age is about 1000 million years certain organic molecules which are closely related to the green pigment of plants, chlorophyll. This seems to establish that green plants were already fluorishing prior to that time. We have now found in rocks of still greater age, namely, 2500 million years, the same kinds of molecules mentioned above which can be attributed to the presence of living organisms. If these molecules are as old as the rocks, we have thus shortened the time available for the generation of the complex biosynthetic sequences which give rise to these specific hydrocarbons (polyisoprenoids) to less than 2000 million years.

  13. Chemical information science coverage in Chemical Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, G

    1987-02-01

    For many years Chemical Abstracts has included in its coverage publications on chemical documentation or chemical information science. Although the bulk of those publications can be found in section 20 of Chemical Abstracts, many relevant articles were found scattered among 39 other sections of CA in 1984-1985. In addition to the scattering of references in CA, the comprehensiveness of Chemical Abstracts as a secondary source for chemical information science is called into question. Data are provided on the journals that contributed the most references on chemical information science and on the languages of publication of relevant articles.

  14. The Swaziland Agriculture Teacher Education Program as Perceived by Professionals in Agricultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Larry E.; Dlamini, Barnabas M.

    Descriptive correlational research employing a mailed questionnaire was used to study perceptions of agricultural education professionals regarding Swaziland's preservice teacher education program in agriculture. Areas examined were student selection, student teaching, inservice education, teacher educators, coordination and linkage with other…

  15. Analysis of the Dynamic Relationship among Financial Fund for Agriculture, Agricultural Output Value and Farmers’ income

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By using the methods of co-integration, impulse response function and variance decomposition, I conduct the empirical research on the dynamic relationship among China’s financial fund for agriculture, agricultural output value, and farmers’ income from the year 1978 to the year 2009. The results indicate that the government’s financial fund for agriculture plays the significant role in promoting agricultural output value and farmers’ income in the long run, but this role of promoting is not prominent in the short run; in the mean time, agricultural output value plays insignificant role in promoting farmers’ income and the government’s financial fund for agriculture; farmers’ income plays the significant role in promoting agricultural output value and the government’s financial fund for agriculture.

  16. Research on Supply Chain Operation of Connecting Agriculture with Supermarkets Based on Agricultural Brokers System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of expounding the research results of using relevant knowledge about Game Theory for supply chain of agricultural products at home and abroad,we use principal-agent model in Game Theory to research the new function that the supermarkets entrust supervision and control over quality of agricultural products to agricultural brokers in the circulation model of connecting agriculture with supermarkets;then design the optimal incentive contract and influencing factors between agricultural broker and supermarket,and explain the fundamental role of agricultural brokers in the process of circulation;finally in light of the role of government in promoting development and application of agricultural brokers,put forward corresponding policy suggestions:establish government support policy;set relevant standard of industry;establish cooperative organizations of agricultural brokers.

  17. Utilizing Indigenous Knowledge Systems in Agricultural Education to Promote Sustainable Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David L.; Muchena, Olivia N.

    1991-01-01

    Understanding and appreciation of indigenous knowledge systems (IKS) are essential for promoting sustainable agriculture development. IKS provides a cultural basis for nonformal agricultural programs that is absent in technology transfer approaches. (SK)

  18. ANALYSIS OF DIVERSIFICATION EFFORTS IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PROCHÁZKA, Petr

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Study of agriculture enjoys less popularity over time in most of the developed countries, including Canada and the Czech Republic. Analysis in this paper provides interesting findings about activities of agricultural universities to increase enrollment into their programs. While the study is focused on Canada, it is possible to draw implications also for the Czech Republic as many of the characteristics pertaining to the education and agricultural sectors are similar. Enrollment into educational programs in agriculture in North America has been steadily declining in the last several decades. While the overall share of agriculture on national gross domestic product has also been falling, the need for qualified people in agriculture is still eminent as the shift to sustainable agriculture appears to be one of the key priorities of governments in the US and Canada. One of the ways how to facilitate interest of prospective students to study agriculture is to diversify the programs through offering of more major options. It is important to study the motivation and other stimuli for the choice of major in order to adapt the educational programs and attract more students. In the paper, factors influencing the choice of major are studied by analyzing survey data from the only agricultural college in Atlantic Canada. The results show significant differences in the socio-economic background among the prospective students based on the choice of major. For example, students interested in social sciences much more appraise more choices of major than students in biophysical fields. Based on the findings from the analysis, several recommendations are made. It is suggested, for example, that for students interested in biophysical sciences, sport plays an important role and thus, appropriate promotional campaign about recreation and sport facilities of a post-secondary agricultural educational institutions should be conducted. Analysis in this paper may serve

  19. Towards Conservation Agriculture systems in Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Boincean

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As the world population and food production demands rise, keeping agricultural soils and landscapes healthy and productive are of paramount importance to sustaining local and global food security and the flow of ecosystem services to society. The global population, expected to reach 9.7 billion people by 2050, will put additional pressure on the available land area and resources for agricultural production. Sustainable production intensification for food security is a major challenge to both industrialized and developing countries. The paper focuses on the results from long-term multi-factorial experiments involving tillage practices, crop rotations and fertilization to study the interactions amongst the treatments in the context of sustainable production intensification. The paper discusses the results in relation to reported performance of crops and soil quality in Conservation Agriculture systems that are based on no or minimum soil disturbance (no-till seeding and weeding, maintenance of soil mulch cover with crop biomass and cover crops, and diversified cropping s involving annuals and perennials. Conservation Agriculture also emphasizes the necessity of an agro-ecosystems approach to the management of agricultural land for sustainable production intensification, as well as to the site-specificity of agricultural production. Arguments in favor of avoiding the use of soil tillage are discussed together with agro-ecological principles for sustainable intensification of agriculture. More interdisciplinary systems research is required to support the transformation of agriculture from the conventional tillage agriculture to a more sustainable agriculture based on the principles and practices of Conservation Agriculture, along with other complementary practices of integrated crop, nutrient, water, pest, energy and farm power management.

  20. Potential of Biological Agents in Decontamination of Agricultural Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Muhammad Kashif; Ashiq, Mehrban; Tahir, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used for the control of weeds, diseases, and pests of cultivated plants all over the world, mainly since the period after the Second World War. The use of pesticides is very extensive to control harm of pests all over the globe. Persistent nature of most of the synthetic pesticides causes serious environmental concerns. Decontamination of these hazardous chemicals is very essential. This review paper elaborates the potential of various biological agents in decontamination of agricultural soils. The agricultural crop fields are contaminated by the periodic applications of pesticides. Biodegradation is an ecofriendly, cost-effective, highly efficient approach compared to the physical and chemical methods which are expensive as well as unfriendly towards environment. Biodegradation is sensitive to the concentration levels of hydrogen peroxide and nitrogen along with microbial community, temperature, and pH changes. Experimental work for optimum conditions at lab scale can provide very fruitful results about specific bacterial, fungal strains. This study revealed an upper hand of bioremediation over physicochemical approaches. Further studies should be carried out to understand mechanisms of biotransformation. PMID:27293964

  1. Potential of Biological Agents in Decontamination of Agricultural Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kashif Javaid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are widely used for the control of weeds, diseases, and pests of cultivated plants all over the world, mainly since the period after the Second World War. The use of pesticides is very extensive to control harm of pests all over the globe. Persistent nature of most of the synthetic pesticides causes serious environmental concerns. Decontamination of these hazardous chemicals is very essential. This review paper elaborates the potential of various biological agents in decontamination of agricultural soils. The agricultural crop fields are contaminated by the periodic applications of pesticides. Biodegradation is an ecofriendly, cost-effective, highly efficient approach compared to the physical and chemical methods which are expensive as well as unfriendly towards environment. Biodegradation is sensitive to the concentration levels of hydrogen peroxide and nitrogen along with microbial community, temperature, and pH changes. Experimental work for optimum conditions at lab scale can provide very fruitful results about specific bacterial, fungal strains. This study revealed an upper hand of bioremediation over physicochemical approaches. Further studies should be carried out to understand mechanisms of biotransformation.

  2. Nature's chemicals and synthetic chemicals: comparative toxicology.

    OpenAIRE

    Ames, B N; Profet, M; Gold, L S

    1990-01-01

    The toxicology of synthetic chemicals is compared to that of natural chemicals, which represent the vast bulk of the chemicals to which humans are exposed. It is argued that animals have a broad array of inducible general defenses to combat the changing array of toxic chemicals in plant food (nature's pesticides) and that these defenses are effective against both natural and synthetic toxins. Synthetic toxins such as dioxin are compared to natural chemicals, such as indole carbinol (in brocco...

  3. Perceptions of Tennessee School-Based Agricultural Education Teachers’ Attitudes Toward Globalizing the Agricultural Curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The agriculture industry is part of an interconnected world that is continually navigating complex trade regulations and cultural barriers. Graduates of School-Based Agricultural Education programs need to be prepared to positively communicate with people from all over the world and to have an understanding of international agricultural practices. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of Tennessee School-Based Agricultural Educators towards globalizing the secondary agricul...

  4. GEMAS: Unmixing magnetic properties of European agricultural soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Karl; Reimann, Clemens; Kuzina, Dilyara; Kosareva, Lina; Fattakhova, Leysan; Nurgaliev, Danis

    2016-04-01

    High resolution magnetic measurements provide new methods for world-wide characterization and monitoring of agricultural soil which is essential for quantifying geologic and human impact on the critical zone environment and consequences of climatic change, for planning economic and ecological land use, and for forensic applications. Hysteresis measurements of all Ap samples from the GEMAS survey yield a comprehensive overview of mineral magnetic properties in European agricultural soil on a continental scale. Low (460 Hz), and high frequency (4600 Hz) magnetic susceptibility k were measured using a Bartington MS2B sensor. Hysteresis properties were determined by a J-coercivity spectrometer, built at the paleomagnetic laboratory of Kazan University, providing for each sample a modified hysteresis loop, backfield curve, acquisition curve of isothermal remanent magnetization, and a viscous IRM decay spectrum. Each measurement set is obtained in a single run from zero field up to 1.5 T and back to -1.5 T. The resulting data are used to create the first continental-scale maps of magnetic soil parameters. Because the GEMAS geochemical atlas contains a comprehensive set of geochemical data for the same soil samples, the new data can be used to map magnetic parameters in relation to chemical and geological parameters. The data set also provides a unique opportunity to analyze the magnetic mineral fraction of the soil samples by unmixing their IRM acquisition curves. The endmember coefficients are interpreted by linear inversion for other magnetic, physical and chemical properties which results in an unprecedented and detailed view of the mineral magnetic composition of European agricultural soils.

  5. STUDY ON THE FRAMEWORK SYSTEM OF DIGITAL AGRICULTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    China is a great agricultural country with large population, limited soil resources and traditional farming mode, so the central government has been attaching great importance to the development of agriculture and put forward a new agricultural technology revolution - the transformation from traditional agriculture to modern agriculture and from extensive farming to intensive farming. Digital agriculture is the core of agricultural informatization. The enforcement of digital agriculture will greatly promote agricultural technology revolution, two agricultural transformations and its rapid development, and enhance China′ s competitive power after the entrance of WTO. To carry out digital agriculture, the frame system of digital agriculture is required to be studied in the first place. In accordance with the theory and technology of digital earth and in combination with the agricultural reality of China, this article outlines the frame system of digital agriculture and its main content and technology support.

  6. Agricultural sources of contaminants of emerging concern and adverse health effects on freshwater fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillitt, Donald E.; Buxton, Herbert T.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) are generally thought of as certain classes of chemicals associated with animal feeding and production facilities. Veterinary pharmaceuticals used in animal food production systems represent one of the largest groups of CECs. In our review, we discuss the extensive increase in use of antibiotics in animal feeding operations (AFOs) around the world. AFOs are a major consumer of antibiotics and other veterinary pharmaceuticals and over the past decade there has been growing information on the occurrence, release, and fate of CECs from animal food production operations, including the application of pharmaceutical-containing manure to agricultural fields and releases from waste lagoons. Concentrations of CECs in surface and ground water in proximity to AFOs correspond to their presence in the AFO wastes. In many cases, the environmental concentrations of agriculturally-derived CECs are below toxicity thresholds. Hormones and hormone replacement compounds are a notable exception, where chemical concentrations near AFOs can exceed concentrations known to cause adverse effects on endocrine-related functions in fish. In addition, some agricultural pesticides, once thought to be safe to non-target organisms, have demonstrated endocrine-related effects that may pose threats to fish populations in agricultural regions. That is, we have pesticides with emerging concerns, thus, the concern is emerging and not necessarily the chemical. In this light, one must consider certain agricultural pesticides to be included in the list of CECs. Even though agricultural pesticides are routinely evaluated in regulatory testing schemes which have been used for decades, the potential hazards of some pesticides have only recently been emerging. Emerging concerns of pesticides in fish include interference with hormone signaling pathways; additive (or more than additive) effects from pesticide mixtures; and adverse population-level effects at

  7. Personal noise exposures of operators of agricultural tractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aybek, Ali; Kamer, H Atil; Arslan, Selçuk

    2010-03-01

    Approximately one million agricultural tractors are used in Turkey for crop production and about one-third of the population lives in rural areas. The objectives of this study were to determine sound pressure levels, A-weighted sound pressure levels, and the permissible exposure time for tractors without cabins, field-installed cabins, and original cabins at ear level of agricultural tractor operators for following machines: plows, cultivators, top soil cultivators, rotary tillers, tool combinations (harrow+roller), mechanical drills, pneumatic drills, chemical applicators, fertilizer applicators, drum mowers, balers, and forage harvesters. Variance analyses showed that type of operation, type of cabins, and operation x cabin interactions were statistically significant (Ptractors without cabins. Sound pressure levels at 4000Hz center frequency was reduced 2-13dB and 4-18dB by using a field-installed cabin and an original cabin, respectively. The measured A-weighted equivalent sound pressure levels were compared to the threshold limit level, and was concluded that depending on the cabin types used, the operators could usually work from 4 to 6h a day without suffering from noise induced inconveniences while 2-3h is permissible for plowing and forage harvesting on tractors without cabins. Due to timeliness considerations in agricultural machine operations, a farmer would not be willing to interrupt the operation based on permissible exposure time set by the standards. Based on the findings of this study, particularly an original cabin is recommended to reduce machine-induced noise below the danger limit during agricultural machine operations. Personal protection devices should be used when tractors are operated without cabins, which could reduce A-weighted equivalent sound pressure levels by 10-45dB(A).

  8. Agricultural Impacts on Water Resources: Recommendations for Successful Applied Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmel, D.

    2014-12-01

    We, as water resource professionals, are faced with a truly monumental challenge - that is feeding the world's growing population and ensuring it has an adequate supply of clean water. As researchers and educators it is good for us to regularly remember that our research and outreach efforts are critical to people around the world, many of whom are desperate for solutions to water quality and supply problems and their impacts on food supply, land management, and ecosystem protection. In this presentation, recommendations for successful applied research on agricultural impacts on water resources will be provided. The benefits of building multidisciplinary teams will be illustrated with examples related to the development and world-wide application of the ALMANAC, SWAT, and EPIC/APEX models. The value of non-traditional partnerships will be shown by the Soil Health Partnership, a coalition of agricultural producers, chemical and seed companies, and environmental advocacy groups. The results of empowering decision-makers with useful data will be illustrated with examples related to bacteria source and transport data and the MANAGE database, which contains runoff nitrogen and phosphorus data for cultivated, pasture, and forest land uses. The benefits of focusing on sustainable solutions will be shown through examples of soil testing, fertilizers application, on-farm profit analysis, and soil health assessment. And the value of welcoming criticism will be illustrated by the development of a framework to estimate and publish uncertainty in measured discharge and water quality data. The good news for researchers is that the agricultural industry is faced with profitability concerns and the need to wisely utilize soil and water resources, and simultaneously state and federal agencies crave sound-science to improve decision making, policy, and regulation. Thus, the audience for and beneficiaries of agricultural research are ready and hungry for applied research results.

  9. Climate change and agricultural transformation in the Oaxaca Valley, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilley, F.B.

    1993-01-01

    The Valley of Oaxaca, a semi-arid region in the central highlands of southern Mexico, provides a case study through which to develop a methodology for climate change impact assessment. The causes and impacts of climate change originate in dialectic processes within a nexus of inter-dependent social, technical, environmental, cultural and academic production relations. Agriculture is the most important economic activity in the Valley, and rain-fed maize the most important crop. Harvest failures from droughts occur one year in four. Annual rainfall varies with large-scale convection of water vapor transported from the Pacific and Gulf of Mexico during summer, upper-air disturbances caused by hurricanes and El Ninos. Variations in maize yields and losses have roughly moisture availability during August. Yields and losses can be predicted using precipitation during this time, or directly from atmospheric circulation. Contemporary agriculture in the Valley of Oaxaca has both traditional and modern sectors, of which both may appear within individual communities and households. The traditional sector consists of semi-autonomous rural communities using traditional technology for subsistence farming. The modern sector uses tractors, irrigation pumps, agricultural chemicals and hybrid seeds to produce cash crops and dairy products. The evidence for climate change in the Valley is ambiguous and contradictory. Under wet or dry scenarios, climate change affects the rate and pathway of the absorption of Oaxaca's traditional rural communities into the wage labor market of the larger capitalist system. Increased moisture availability would raise land productivity, promoting cash cropping and development of the modern market-oriented agricultural sector and leading to land consolidation and rural-to-urban migration. Decreased moisture availability would inhibit cash-cropping but also lead to rural-to-urban migration due to decreased land productivity.

  10. Gendering Agricultural Education: A Study of Historical Pictures of Women in the Agricultural Education Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, Kellie J.; Martin, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of women agriculture teachers over the past 50 years has opened opportunities while revealing issues which females still face in agricultural education. Issues such as lack of female role models, gender stereotyping, and gender bias have been documented in agricultural education research. The purpose of this study was to explore the…

  11. Urban Agriculture Programs on the Rise: Agriculture Education Model Can Reach Students Other Classes Leave Behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Julie M.

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural education begins with hands-on classroom and laboratory instruction. Because agriculture is such a broad topic, schools typically tailor agriculture class offerings to match the interests of the student population, needs of nearby businesses and industry, or topics relevant to their state's standard assessments. Within most…

  12. The Importance of Agriculture Science Course Sequencing in High Schools: A View from Collegiate Agriculture Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelus, Robin P.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the importance of Agriculture Science course sequencing in high schools, as a preparatory factor for students enrolled in collegiate agriculture classes. With the variety of courses listed in the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for Agriculture Science, it has been possible for counselors,…

  13. Beliefs and Attitudes of Secondary Agriculture Teachers about Global Agriculture Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Sara D.; Roberts, T. Grady; Harder, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the beliefs and attitudes of secondary agriculture teachers regarding global agricultural issues. A randomized national sample of 417 teachers were surveyed using a modified version of the International Agricultural Awareness and Understanding Survey (Wingenbach, Boyd, Lindner, Dick, Arispe, & Haba,…

  14. Urban Agriculture Programs on the Rise: Agriculture Education Model Can Reach Students Other Classes Leave Behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Julie M.

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural education begins with hands-on classroom and laboratory instruction. Because agriculture is such a broad topic, schools typically tailor agriculture class offerings to match the interests of the student population, needs of nearby businesses and industry, or topics relevant to their state's standard assessments. Within most…

  15. Commodity Agriculture, Civic Agriculture and the Future of U.S. Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyson, Thomas A.; Guptill, Amy

    2004-01-01

    Commodity agriculture and civic agriculture represent two distinct types of farming found in the U.S. today. Commodity agriculture is grounded on the belief that the primary objectives of farming should be to produce as much food/fiber as possible for the least cost. It is driven by the twin goals of productivity and efficiency. Civic…

  16. Influence of Physical Habitat and Agricultural Contaminants on Fishes within Agricultural Drainage Ditches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural drainage ditches are used within agricultural watersheds for the removal of excess water from agricultural fields. These headwater streams have been constructed or modified so they possess an enlarged trapezoidal cross-section, straightened channels, and riparian zones lacking woody veg...

  17. Urban Agriculture: Passing Fad or New Prospects for Agriculture and Cities?

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    While urban agriculture might be considered a passing fad, we argue that it is a vehicle to deal with many urgent topics of societal transformation towards a sustainable future. We discuss the potential of urban agriculture to change agriculture and urban life.

  18. SIZE OF LIVESTOCK AGRICULTURAL OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazbanela Stere

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the paper is to map the performance of Romanian farms from the perspective of livestock agricultural operations using principal component analysis technique (PCA and similarities between Romania and other countries from UE. The empirical results reveal that animal breedings farms are grouped into two categories :small and middle sized farms ; and the fact that Romania , one of Europe’s major forces in the field of livestock husbandry, has come to be one of the biggest importers of food products, although, by tradition, it is one of the continent’s countries with ideal conditions for breeding all species of animals. When clustering the countries we observ that in countries such as Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain, cow farms, for example, do not exceed 10-16 heads and in Holland, England, Denmark, Belgium and France, the average farm size reaches 30-70 heads of milk cows. The cluster analysis revealed that in livestock operations, animal stock is the one that generates production, while the animal number indicates the size of the livestock unit.

  19. Meeting the Challenges for Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Les Copeland

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring food security is an ongoing global challenge. Many forecasts point to a need to increase food production by at least 70% if we are to feed the world’s projected population of nine billion in 2050. Recent volatility in commodity prices and the general upward trend in the cost of food are indicators that global food systems are now driven by demand rather than supply. There are various reasons for this: greater demand for animal protein with economic growth in developing countries; the continuing increase in world population; competition between food and bioenergy crops for land and water; low inventories of world grain stocks; reduced investment in agricultural R&D; and unfavorable weather resulting in a succession of poor harvests around the world. Increasing production of grains, which are the foundation of the human food supply, will have to be achieved through higher crop yields without boosting inputs of land, water and energy. Meeting community expectations for environmental stewardship and sustainability, and adapting food production to increasingly variable climate, add greatly to the challenge.

  20. Resilience of Amazonian landscapes to agricultural intensification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakovac, C.C.

    2015-01-01

    ISBN: 978-94-6257-443-4 Author: Catarina C. Jakovac Title: Resilience of Amazonian landscapes to agricultural intensification Swidden cultivation is the traditional agricultural system in riverine Amazonia, which supports local livelihoods and trans