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Sample records for agricultural chemicals increase

  1. Does exposure to agricultural chemicals increase the risk of prostate cancer among farmers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Marie-Elise; Désy, Marie; Siemiatycki, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Several studies suggest that farmers may be at increased risk of prostate cancer. The present analysis, based on a large population-based case-control study conducted among men in the Montreal area in the early 1980's, aim at identifying occupational chemicals which may be responsible for such increases. The original study enrolled 449 prostate cancer cases, nearly 4,000 patients with other cancers, as well as 533 population controls. Subjects were interviewed about their occupation histories, and a team of industrial hygienists assigned their past exposures using a checklist of some 300 chemicals. The present analysis was restricted to a study base of men who had worked as farmers earlier in their lives. There were a total of 49 men with prostate cancers, 127 with other cancers and 56 population controls. We created a pool of 183 controls combining the patients with cancers at sites other than the prostate and the population controls. We then estimated the odds ratio for prostate cancer associated with exposure to each of 10 agricultural chemicals, i.e., pesticides, arsenic compounds, acetic acid, gasoline engine emissions, diesel engine emissions, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from petroleum, lubricating oils and greases, alkanes with >or=18 carbons, solvents, and mononuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Based on a model adjusting for age, ethnicity, education, and respondent status, there was evidence of a two-fold excess risk of prostate cancer among farmers with substantial exposure to pesticides [odds ratio (OR)=2.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-5.1], as compared to unexposed farmers. There was some suggestion, based on few subjects, of increased risks among farmers ever exposed to diesel engine emissions (OR=5.7, 95% CI 1.2-26.5). The results for pesticides are particularly noteworthy in the light of findings from previous studies. Suggestions of trends for elevated risks were noted with other agricultural chemicals, but these are largely novel and need

  2. Agricultural Chemical Sourcebook for Wildlife Contaminants Specialists

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this handbook is to provide information to contaminant specialists involved in evaluating agricultural chemical impacts on wetlands. The handbook...

  3. Agricultural Chemicals and Radiation. Ag Ed Environmental Education Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulloch, Rodney W.

    The document is designed to be used as a resource in teaching vocational agriculture high school students about the environment. Agricultural chemicals are the major focus, with some attention to radiation. The importance of safety in agricultural chemical use is stressed, with descriptions of the pesticide label; protective clothing; respiratory…

  4. Hygroscopic, Morphological, and Chemical Properties of Agricultural Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiranuma, N.; Brooks, S. D.; Cheek, L.; Thornton, D. C.; Auvermann, B. W.; Littleton, R.

    2007-12-01

    Agricultural fugitive dust is a significant source of localized air pollution in the semi-arid southern Great Plains. In the Texas Panhandle, daily episodes of ground-level fugitive dust emissions from the cattle feedlots are routinely observed in conjunction with increased cattle activity in the late afternoons and early evenings. We conducted a field study to characterize size-selected agricultural aerosols with respect to hygroscopic, morphological, and chemical properties and to attempt to identify any correlations between these properties. To explore the hygroscopic nature of agricultural particles, we have collected size-resolved aerosol samples using a cascade impactor system at a cattle feedlot in the Texas Panhandle and have used the Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) to determine the water uptake by individual particles in those samples as a function of relative humidity. To characterize the size distribution of agricultural aerosols as a function of time, A GRIMM aerosol spectrometer and Sequential Mobility Particle Sizer and Counter (SMPS) measurements were simultaneously performed in an overall size range of 11 nm to 20 µm diameters at a cattle feedlot. Complementary determination of the elemental composition of individual particles was performed using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). In addition to the EDS analysis, an ammonia scrubber was used to collect ammonia and ammonium in the gas and particulate phases, respectively. The concentration of these species was quantified offline via UV spectrophotometry at 640 nanometers. The results of this study will provide important particulate emission data from a feedyard, needed to improve our understanding of the role of agricultural particulates in local and regional air quality.

  5. THE IMPACT OF REDUCED AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL USE ON FOOD: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE FOR THE UNITED STATES

    OpenAIRE

    Senauer, Benjamin

    1993-01-01

    Concerns about food safety and environmental quality have increased in recent years. Consumers are particularly concerned about the health risks posed by pesticide residues in food and the environmental impact of agricultural chemicals. These concerns have stimulated a considerable amount of recent research to assess the effects of reduced agricultural chemical use. This paper focuses on the research in the United States which has examined the impact of reduced agricultural chemical use on fo...

  6. The increasing multifunctionality of Agricultural Raw Materials: Three dilemmas for Innovation and Adoption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boehlje, M.; Bröring, S.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural raw materials are increasingly being used for multiple industries or sectors beyond the traditional fiber and nutrition industries: energy in the form of ethanol and biodiesel, industrial products such as polymers and bio-based synthetic chemicals and fibers, and pharmaceutical/health p

  7. Increasing N Retention in Coastal Plain Agricultural Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth W. Staver

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically, N availability has limited agricultural production as well as primary production in coastal waters. Prior to the middle of the last century, N available for grain production generally was limited to that supplied by previous legume crops, released from soil organic matter, or returned to the soil in animal wastes. The development of infrastructure to produce relatively low-cost inorganic N fertilizers eliminated the need to focus management of the entire agricultural system on increasing soil N availability. Increased N availability has contributed to dramatic increases in agricultural production but also has led to increased losses of both N and C from agricultural systems. N losses from cropland have been linked to increased algal production in the Chesapeake Bay, with N loss from cropland estimated to be the primary N input to the Bay from Coastal Plain regions of the watershed. The decade-long effort to reduce these losses has focused on reducing agricultural N use, but this strategy has yet to yield apparent reductions in N loadings to Coastal Plain tributaries. Although nitrate leaching losses are often attributed to inefficient use of N inputs, soil nitrate data indicate that both corn and soybeans can utilize nearly all available soil nitrate during periods of active growth. However, both crops tend to stop utilizing nitrate before mineralization has ceased, resulting in a late season buildup of root zone nitrate levels and significant leaching losses even when no N was applied. Reducing nitrate losses due to the inherent N inefficiency of summer annual grain crops will require the addition of winter annual crops to rotations or changes in weed management approaches that result in plant N uptake capacity being more closely matched to soil microbial N processes.

  8. THE USE OF CHEMICALS AS FERTILIZERS. AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS TECHNOLOGY, NUMBER 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO ASSIST TEACHERS IN PREPARING POST-SECONDARY STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL OCCUPATIONS. ONE OF A SERIES OF EIGHT MODULES, IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF DATA FROM STATE STUDIES. SUBJECT MATTER AREAS ARE (1) CHEMICAL NUTRITION OF PLANTS, (2) PLANT GROWTH, (3) TERMINOLOGY,…

  9. Pretreaments of Chinese Agricultural residues to increase biogas production

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yu

    2010-01-01

    Development of biological conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biogas is one approach to utilize straw comprehensively. However, high lignin contents of lignocellulosic materials results in low degradation. The main aim of this study was to investigate the appropriate pre-treatment to increase biogas production from Chinese agricultural residues. In this study, Chinese corn stalk, rice plant and wheat straw were evaluated as substrates by applying three different pre-treatments. The inves...

  10. THE INDUSTRIAL UTILIZATION OF CHEMICAL MODIFIED AGRICULTURAL RESIDUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Xu; Runcang Sun; Huaiyu Zhan

    2004-01-01

    Various lignocellulosic materials such as wood,agricultural and forest residues has the potential to be valuable substitute for, or complement to,commercial sorbents for removing heavy metal ions or dyes from waste water or spilled oil from inland water or sea. More than 9 million tons of straw pulp are produced annually in china, which account for about 90% of the world′s total straw pulp. However,huge quantity of remain straw is not used as industrial raw material and is burnt in the fields or on the side of road. These resources can be chemical modified such as acetylation. Modified straws have the characteristics of low cost, high capacity, quick uptake, and easy to desorb. This paper reviews the current status of the technology for modified agricultural residues, which focus on hemicellulose and cellulose. The potential of these natural sorbents in main industry is also indicated.

  11. THE INDUSTRIAL UTILIZATION OF CHEMICAL MODIFIED AGRICULTURAL RESIDUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FengXu; RuncangSun; HuaiyuZhan

    2004-01-01

    Various lignocellulosic materials such as wood, agricultural and forest residues has the potential to be valuable substitute for, or complement to, commercial sorbents for removing heavy metal ions or dyes from waste water or spilled oil from inland water or sea. More than 9 million tons of straw pulp are produced annually in china, which account for about 90% of the world's total straw pulp. However, huge quantity of remain straw is not used as industrial raw material and is burnt in the fields or on the side of road. These resources can be chemical modified such as acetylation. Modified straws have the characteristics of low cost, high capacity, quick uptake, and easy to desorb. This paper reviews the current status of the technology for modified agricultural residues, which focus on hemicellulose and cellulose. The potential of these natural sorbents in main industry is also indicated.

  12. THE USE OF CHEMICALS AS INSECTICIDES--PLANTS. AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS TECHNOLOGY, NUMBER 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS GUIDE IS ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO PROVIDE GROUP INSTRUCTION AND INDIVIDUAL OCCUPATIONAL EXPERIENCE FOR POST-SECONDARY STUDENTS PREPARING FOR EMPLOYMENT AS AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL TECHNICIANS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF STATE STUDY DATA. THE OBJECTIVES ARE TO DEVELOP (1) INTEREST, APPRECIATION, AND UNDERSTANDING…

  13. Soil chemical sensor and precision agricultural chemical delivery system and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colburn, J.W. Jr.

    1991-07-23

    A real time soil chemical sensor and precision agricultural chemical delivery system includes a plurality of ground-engaging tools in association with individual soil sensors which measure soil chemical levels. The system includes the addition of a solvent which rapidly saturates the soil/tool interface to form a conductive solution of chemicals leached from the soil. A multivalent electrode, positioned within a multivalent frame of the ground-engaging tool, applies a voltage or impresses a current between the electrode and the tool frame. A real-time soil chemical sensor and controller senses the electrochemical reaction resulting from the application of the voltage or current to the leachate, measures it by resistivity methods, and compares it against pre-set resistivity levels for substances leached by the solvent. Still greater precision is obtained by calibrating for the secondary current impressed through solvent-less soil. The appropriate concentration is then found and the servo-controlled delivery system applies the appropriate amount of fertilizer or agricultural chemicals substantially in the location from which the soil measurement was taken. 5 figures.

  14. Did the Establishment of Poyang Lake Eco-Economic Zone Increase Agricultural Labor Productivity in Jiangxi Province, China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we take the establishment of Poyang Lake Eco-Economic Zone in 2009 as a quasi-natural experiment, to evaluate its influence on the agricultural labor productivity in Jiangxi Province, China. The estimation results of the DID method show that the establishment of the zone reduced agricultural labor productivity by 3.1%, lowering farmers’ net income by 2.5% and reducing the agricultural GDP by 3.6%. Furthermore, this negative effect has increased year after year since 2009. However, the heterogeneity analysis implies that the agricultural labor productivities of all cities in Jiangxi Province will ultimately converge. We find that the lack of agricultural R&D activities and the abuse of chemical fertilizers may be the main reasons behind the negative influence of the policy, by examining two possible transmission channels—the R&D investment and technological substitution. Corresponding policy implications are also provided.

  15. Managing Nitrogen in Croplands: Implications for Increasing Ecosystem Services in Agricultural Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, L.

    2011-12-01

    Many agricultural landscapes in the temperate zone are dominated by agroecosystems that are managed with high inputs of agrochemicals, including synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizers. The process of agricultural intensification increases crop production per unit area, but also often results in loss of environmental quality (such as N contamination of waters, eutrophication, atmospheric N deposition, and emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas). Loss of biodiversity and its 'functional homogenization' is another concern. Not only does little land in these landscapes remain in natural ecosystems, but there are negative off-site impacts of intensive agriculture on non-target organisms. Segregating agroecosystems with high-input agricultural production from natural ecosystems (land sparing) is one view to support both food security and biodiversity conservation. But proponents of land sparing rarely address the loss of other ecosystem services, such as those related to environmental quality, health, and human well-being (e.g., livelihoods and cultural values). An emerging view is that increased reliance on ecological processes in agroecosystems ('ecological intensification') is more feasible when the landscape mosaic includes planned and unplanned biodiversity. This requires research on how to support multiple ecosystem services through the integration of agricultural production and biodiversity conservation in the same landscape, and how ecological and physico-chemical processes at various spatial scales are interlinked. It is an enormous challenge to increase reliance on ecological processes for N availability for crop productivity. There are skeptics who think that this will be detrimental for food security, despite benefits for other types of ecosystem services. Using examples from agricultural landscapes in California, mechanisms for ecologically-based N cycling will be discussed, such as: 1) increasing the reservoir of soil organic N and the

  16. Chemical intervention in plant sugar signalling increases yield and resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Cara A.; Sagar, Ram; Geng, Yiqun; Primavesi, Lucia F.; Patel, Mitul K.; Passarelli, Melissa K.; Gilmore, Ian S.; Steven, Rory T.; Bunch, Josephine; Paul, Matthew J.; Davis, Benjamin G.

    2016-12-01

    The pressing global issue of food insecurity due to population growth, diminishing land and variable climate can only be addressed in agriculture by improving both maximum crop yield potential and resilience. Genetic modification is one potential solution, but has yet to achieve worldwide acceptance, particularly for crops such as wheat. Trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P), a central sugar signal in plants, regulates sucrose use and allocation, underpinning crop growth and development. Here we show that application of a chemical intervention strategy directly modulates T6P levels in planta. Plant-permeable analogues of T6P were designed and constructed based on a ‘signalling-precursor’ concept for permeability, ready uptake and sunlight-triggered release of T6P in planta. We show that chemical intervention in a potent sugar signal increases grain yield, whereas application to vegetative tissue improves recovery and resurrection from drought. This technology offers a means to combine increases in yield with crop stress resilience. Given the generality of the T6P pathway in plants and other small-molecule signals in biology, these studies suggest that suitable synthetic exogenous small-molecule signal precursors can be used to directly enhance plant performance and perhaps other organism function.

  17. Mechanism for Increasing Effective Inputs in Urban Agriculture through Industrial Value Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Xiao-lan

    2012-01-01

    This paper firstly introduces the value chain management thought, current situations of utilization, and connotation of mechanism for increasing effective inputs in urban agriculture through industrial value chain. On the basis of basic idea of value chain management, this paper is to explore the mechanism for increasing effective inputs in urban agriculture through the value chain of urban agriculture linking with other industries.

  18. DSM Increases Chemicals Production in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ DSM, one of the world's leading chemicals companies,is expected to at least double its sales in China to 600 million euros (US$714 million) by 2008 to cash in on the fastgrowing market. To meet its target, the Dutch company will expand the capacity of existing plants in China, build new production bases, and also seek acquisition opportunities,said Stenfan Sommer, president of DSM (China) Ltd.

  19. Plight and Path in Agricultural Modernization Promotion through Endogenous Increase of Farmers’ Income

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    From analysis on the plight of promotion of agricultural modernization through endogenous increase of farmers’ income,it is believed that the fundamental obstacle lies in inherent weakness of agriculture,lagging of farmers’ quality,as well as defectiveness of agricultural external system.On this basis,an available path,namely energetically developing the industrialized,market-oriented and knowledge-based agriculture is put forward.

  20. Effect of Agricultural Comprehensive Development on Increasing Income of Farmers in Jiangsu Hilly and Mountainous Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tuzhan WANG

    2015-01-01

    To adapt to rural and agricultural economic development,Jiangsu Province adjusted main task of comprehensive development of hilly and mountainous areas to supporting and promoting agricultural structural adjustment of hilly and mountainous areas and promoting increase of agricultural benefits and farmers’ income. Through typical survey,this paper made an objective evaluation of effect of agricultural comprehensive development of hilly and mountainous areas in Jiangsu Province from increasing farmers’ income. Results indicated that agricultural comprehensive development investment projects in Jiangsu hilly and mountainous areas are closely coupled with local agricultural production structure; financial funds promote social capital input to construction of economic forest,fruit and grass planting,and livestock raising. Through demonstration and guidance of farmers,it promoted adjustment of agricultural production structure and increased farmers’ income. Finally,it came up with pertinent policy recommendations.

  1. Symposium introduction: the first joint American Chemical Society Agricultural and Food Chemistry Division and the American Chemical Society International Chemical Sciences Chapter in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    The American Chemical Society (ACS) Agricultural and Food Chemistry Division (AGFD) and the ACS International Chemical Sciences Chapter in Thailand (ICSCT) worked together to stage the “1st Joint ACS AGFD - ACS ICSCT Symposium on Agricultural and Food Chemistry,” which was held in Bangkok, Thailand ...

  2. Increasing Labour Productivity in Agriculture and its Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ban, van den A.W.

    2011-01-01

    In order to profit from the economic growth in their society farmers can (1) increase the yields of their crops and animals, (2) switch to the production of high value products for which there is an increasing demand in the market, (3) increase the labour productivity on their farm, (4) find non-far

  3. Estimates of agricultural-chemical use in counties in the conterminous United States as reported in the 1987 Census of Agriculture

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains estimates of agricultural-chemical use in counties in the conterminous United States as reported in the 1987 Census of Agriculture (U.S....

  4. Mechanism for Increasing Effective Inputs in Urban Agriculture through Industrial Value Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This paper firstly introduces the value chain management thought,current situations of utilization,and connotation of mechanism for increasing effective inputs in urban agriculture through industrial value chain.On the basis of basic idea of value chain management,this paper is to explore the mechanism for increasing effective inputs in urban agriculture through the value chain of urban agriculture linking with other industries.

  5. THE USE OF CHEMICALS IN THE FIELD OF FARM ANIMAL HEALTH (NUTRITION, ENTOMOLOGY, PATHOLOGY). AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS TECHNOLOGY, NUMBER 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF STATE STUDIES, THIS MODULE IS ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO ASSIST TEACHERS IN PREPARING POST-SECONDARY STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL OCCUPATIONS. THE SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE OF THIS MODULE IS TO PREPARE TECHNICIANS IN THE FIELD OF THE USE OF CHEMICALS FOR ANIMAL HEALTH. SECTIONS INCLUDE -- (1)…

  6. Extracurricular Activities Targeted towards Increasing the Number of Engineers Working in the Field of Precision Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Leon Bonde; Stark Olsen, Kent; Ahrenkiel, Linda

    SERVICE ROBOTS in precision agriculture have the potential to ensure a more competitive and sustainable production, but the lack of skilled engineers within this area is limiting the industry’s ability to develop new and innovative agricultural technology products. Part of the reason...... is that engineers and scientists have little knowledge about agricultural technology, and they therefore choose to work in other domains. It is hypothesised that introducing engineering students to precision agriculture through practical work with small-scale service robots will increase their interest......-scale service robot has increased the participants’ practical experience and given them a broader view of technology applied in agriculture. Subsequently, the students have shown an increased interest in and awareness of the possibilities in agricultural technology in relation to their own area of expertise...

  7. On the increasing multifunctionality of agricultural raw materials: three dilemmas for innovation and adoption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boehlje, M.; Bröring, S.

    2010-01-01

    The agricultural sector is increasingly becoming multifunctional. It is the entry point of several value chains. Agricultural raw materials are increasingly being used for multiple industries or sectors beyond the traditional fiber and nutrition industries—energy in the form of ethanol and biodiesel

  8. Using Simulation to Increase Yields in Chemical Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    William C. Conley

    2003-01-01

    Trying to increase the yields or profit or efficiency (less pollution) of chemical processes is a central goal of the chemical engineer in theory and practice. Certainly sound training in chemistry, business and pollution control help the engineer to set up optimal chemical processes. However, the ever changing demands of customers and business conditions, plus the multivariate complexity of the chemical business can make optimization challenging. Mathematical tools such as statistics and lin...

  9. Empirical Analysis on Effect of Agricultural Financial Investment on Increase of Farmers’ Income

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of economic data from 1978 to 2006,the co-integration theory is applied to discuss the relation between agricultural financial investment and farmers’ income.The statistic AR model is obtained.Then,it makes pulse response analysis in combination with principle of pulse response analysis.The regression results show that support in agricultural production,various agricultural operating expenses and three types of costs for agricultural science and technology are favorable to farmers’ income,while expenditure in agricultural capital construction and rural relief costs hinder increase of farmers’ income.The results of pulse response analysis indicate that the change in support of agricultural production and various agricultural operating expenses have positive impact on farmers’ net income,and the impact is greater and greater from the second year;the response of expenditure in agricultural capital construction and rural relief cost is positive in the beginning and starts to fluctuate from the third year;the pulse response of three types of costs for agricultural science and technology is negative,lasts about five periods,and then turns to positive impact.Finally,combining characteristics of China’s financial support for agriculture,it concludes that the scale,proportion and structure of financial support for agriculture are quite improper.

  10. A mathematical approach to increasing the long-term wealth of an agricultural enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Theron

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on developing an agricultural investment model based upon proven financial investment portfolio techniques. The model can be used as a tool to diversify agricultural risk over the long-term by optimising the proportion of land allocated to each of the agricultural products, resulting in increased value of the agricultural enterprise. Sensitivity analysis allows the strategist to understand the impact that future prices, gross margins and land availability may have on the long-term sustainability of the farming enterprise.

  11. Determinants of prices increase of agricultural commodities in a global context1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borychowski Michał

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to present the determinants of increase in agricultural commodity prices after 2006. The other specific aim is to show the factors affecting agricultural raw materials and food prices in the global context. This article is a review paper of the determinants of recent commodity and food prices spikes. However, it provides an outlook on these determinants that were the most important for the increases in the last decade. The last part of the article (conclusions to some extent is a synthesis of considerations and includes the authors’ opinions concerning determinants and an attempt to identify which ones were the most important in the growth of agricultural commodity prices. These increases in agricultural commodity prices resulted from many factors and it is very difficult to separate the individual impact of each of them, because they occurred in parallel. However, it is possible to indicate several main reasons for these price increases, which are: adverse changes in supply-demand relations in agricultural markets, increases in oil prices (and increases of the volatility of those prices, development of biofuel production from agricultural commodities (the first generation biofuels, dollar depreciation, an increase in operations of a speculative nature on commodity markets and improper economic policy that created an environment for the growth of prices of agricultural products.

  12. Proceedings of the frst joint american chemical society agricultural and food chemistry division – american chemical society international chemical sciences chapter in Thailand symposium on agricultural and food chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Proceedings is a compilation of papers from contributed oral and poster presentations presented at the first joint symposium organized by the American Chemical Society Agricultural and Food Chemistry Division and the American Chemical Society International Chemical Sciences Chapter in Thailand ...

  13. Pesticide regulations for agriculture: Chemically flawed regulatory practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Donald S; Bruccoleri, Aldo G

    2016-08-02

    Two categories of pesticide soil models now exist. Government regulatory agencies use pesticide fate and transport hydrology models, including versions of PRZM.gw. They have good descriptions of pesticide transport by water flow. Their descriptions of chemical mechanisms are unrealistic, having been postulated using the universally accepted but incorrect pesticide soil science. The objective of this work is to report experimental tests of a pesticide soil model in use by regulatory agencies and to suggest possible improvements. Tests with experimentally based data explain why PRZM.gw predictions can be wrong by orders of magnitude. Predictive spreadsheet models are the other category. They are experimentally based, with chemical stoichiometry applied to integral kinetic rate laws for sorption, desorption, intra-particle diffusion, and chemical reactions. They do not account for pesticide transport through soils. Each category of models therefore lacks what the other could provide. They need to be either harmonized or replaced. Some preliminary tests indicate that an experimental mismatch between the categories of models will have to be resolved. Reports of pesticides in the environment and the medical problems that overlap geographically indicate that government regulatory practice needs to account for chemical kinetics and mechanisms. Questions about possible cause and effect links could then be investigated.

  14. Determinants of prices increase of agricultural commodities in a global context1

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this article is to present the determinants of increase in agricultural commodity prices after 2006. The other specific aim is to show the factors affecting agricultural raw materials and food prices in the global context. This article is a review paper of the determinants of recent commodity and food prices spikes. However, it provides an outlook on these determinants that were the most important for the increases in the last decade. The last part of the article (conclu...

  15. Agricultural Chemicals in Leary Weber Ditch Basin, Hancock County, Indiana, 2003-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Nancy T.; Lathrop, Timothy R.

    2006-01-01

    Leary Weber Ditch Basin, Hancock County, Indiana, is part of an Agricultural Chemicals: Source, Transport, and Fate study conducted by the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. Water-quality samples were collected in Leary Weber Ditch and in the major hydrologic compartments of the Leary Weber Ditch Basin during 2003 and 2004. Hydrologic compartments that contribute water and agricultural chemicals to Leary Weber Ditch are rain water, overland-flow water, soil water, tile-drain water, and ground water. Samples were analyzed for selected pesticides, nutrients, and major ions.

  16. Increasing corn for biofuel production reduces biocontrol services in agricultural landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landis, D.A.; Gardiner, M.M.; Werf, van der W.; Swinton, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    Increased demand for corn grain as an ethanol feedstock is altering U. S. agricultural landscapes and the ecosystem services they provide. From 2006 to 2007, corn acreage increased 19% nationally, resulting in reduced crop diversity in many areas. Biological control of insects is an ecosystem servic

  17. OPEN BURNING OF AGRICULTURAL BIOMASS: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF PARTICLE-PHASE EMISSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This effort presents the physical and chemical characterization of PM2.5 emissions from simulated agricultural fires of surface residuals of two major grain crops, rice (Oryza sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L). The O2 levels and CO/CO

  18. National, holistic, watershed-scale approach to understand the sources, transport, and fate of agricultural chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capel, P.D.; McCarthy, K.A.; Barbash, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is an introduction to the following series of papers that report on in-depth investigations that have been conducted at five agricultural study areas across the United States in order to gain insights into how environmental processes and agricultural practices interact to determine the transport and fate of agricultural chemicals in the environment. These are the first study areas in an ongoing national study. The study areas were selected, based on the combination of cropping patterns and hydrologic setting, as representative of nationally important agricultural settings to form a basis for extrapolation to unstudied areas. The holistic, watershed-scale study design that involves multiple environmental compartments and that employs both field observations and simulation modeling is presented. This paper introduces the overall study design and presents an overview of the hydrology of the five study areas. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  19. Physical and chemical characterizations of biochars derived from different agricultural residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jindo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Biochar has received large attention as a strategy to tackle against carbon emission. Not only carbon fixation has been carried out but also other merits for agricultural application due to unique physical and chemical character such as absorption of contaminated compounds in soil, trapping ammonia and methane emission from compost, and enhancement of fertilizer quality. In our study, different local waste feed stocks (rice husk, rice straw, wood chips of apple tree (Malus Pumila and oak tree (Quercus serrata, in Aomori, Japan, were utilized for creating biochar with different temperature (400–800 °C. Concerning to the biochar production, the pyrolysis of lower temperature had more biochar yield than higher temperature pyrolysis process. On the contrary, surface areas and adsorption characters have been increased as increasing temperature. The proportions of carbon content in the biochars also increased together with increased temperatures. Infrared-Fourier spectra (FT-IR and 13C-NMR were used to understand carbon chemical compositions in our biochars, and it was observed that the numbers of the shoulders representing aromatic groups, considered as stable carbon structure appeared as the temperature came closer to 600 °C, as well as in FT-IR. In rice materials, the peak assigned to SiO2, was observed in all biochars (400–800 °C in FT-IR. We suppose that the pyrolysis at 600 °C creates the most recalcitrant character for carbon sequestration, meanwhile the pyrolysis at 400 °C produces the superior properties as a fertilizer by retaining volatile and easily labile compounds which promotes soil microbial activities.

  20. A comparison of forest and agricultural shallow groundwater chemical status a century after land use change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellner, Elliott, E-mail: rekfh3@mail.missouri.edu [School of Natural Resources, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Hubbart, Jason A. [Water Resources Program, School of Natural Resources, Department of Forestry, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Ikem, Abua, E-mail: Ikema@lincolnu.edu [Lincoln University, Department of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, 204 Foster Hall, 904 Chestnut Street, Jefferson City, MO 65101 (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Considering the increasing pace of global land use change and the importance of groundwater quality to humans and aquatic ecosystems, studies are needed that relate land use types to patterns of groundwater chemical composition. Piezometer grids were installed in a remnant bottomland hardwood forest (BHF) and a historic agricultural field (Ag) to compare groundwater chemical composition between sites with contrasting land use histories. Groundwater was sampled monthly from June 2011 to June 2013, and analyzed for 50 physiochemical metrics. Statistical tests indicated significant differences (p < 0.05) between the study sites for 32 out of 50 parameters. Compared to the Ag site, BHF groundwater was characterized by significantly (p < 0.05) lower pH, higher electrical conductivity, and higher concentrations of total dissolved solids and inorganic carbon. BHF groundwater contained significantly (p < 0.05) higher concentrations of all nitrogen species except nitrate, which was higher in Ag groundwater. BHF groundwater contained significantly (p < 0.05) higher concentrations of nutrients such as sulfur, potassium, magnesium, calcium, and sodium, relative to the Ag site. Ag groundwater was characterized by significantly (p < 0.05) higher concentrations of trace elements such as arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, nickel, and titanium. Comparison of shallow groundwater chemical composition with that of nearby receiving water suggests that subsurface concentration patterns are the result of contrasting site hydrology and vegetation. Results detail impacts of surface vegetation alteration on subsurface chemistry and groundwater quality, thereby illustrating land use impacts on the lithosphere and hydrosphere. This study is among the first to comprehensively characterize and compare shallow groundwater chemical composition at sites with contrasting land use histories. - Highlights: • Shallow groundwater chemical composition was compared at floodplain sites.

  1. The Fate of Non-Volatile Organic Chemicals in The Agricultural Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Batiha

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia dynamic model of the fate of non-volatile organic chemicals (NVOC in the agricultural environment is described. The modeled environment, consisting of up to three major surfaces environmental compartments, includes air, agricultural soil, and surface water. This model is based on the aquivalence approach suggested by Mackay and co-workers in 1989. As the movement of chemicals in the environment is closely associated with the movement of air, water and organic matter, the complete steady state mass budgets for air, water and particulate organic carbon (POC between the model compartments are described. All of the model equations, which are expressed in aquivalence notation, the mass balance for NVOC in the environmental surfaces compartments at dynamic state, and equations for the calculation of partitioning, overall persistence, total amount, total concentrations at dynamic state and intermedia fluxes of organic chemicals between air, water, and soil at steady-state are provided.

  2. Toxic fables: the advertising and marketing of agricultural chemicals in the great plains, 1945-1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, David D

    2012-12-01

    This paper examines how pesticides and their technologies were sold to farmers and pilots throughout the midtwentieth century. It principally considers how marketing rhetoric and advertisement strategies used by chemical companies and aerial spraying firms influenced the practices and perspectives of farm producers in the Great Plains. In order to convince landowners and agricultural leaders to buy their pesticides, chemical companies generated advertisements that championed local crop health, mixture accuracy, livestock safety and a chemical-farming 'way of life' that kept fields healthy and productive. Combining notions of safety, accuracy and professionalism with pest eradication messages reinforced the standards that landowners, pilots and agriculturalists would hold regarding toxicity and risk when spraying their fields. As the politics of health changed in the aftermath of Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, these companies and aerial spraying outfits responded by keeping to a vision of agricultural health that required poisons for protection through technological accuracy.

  3. Chemical and biological indicators of water quality in three agricultural watersheds of the Po valley, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Pieri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture has both direct and indirect effects on quality of surface water and is one of the key activities causing water quality degradation. Its environmental impact can be evaluated by the determination of indicators of the quality of water bodies that collect drainage and runoff waters from agricultural watersheds. For this research, the water quality draining from three watersheds, totally or partially cultivated, all within the Po river valley (Italy, was determined, using chemical indicators (N-NO3 and N-NH4 concentration, N balance, trophic status (chlorophyll-a concentration and benthic population indexes. Together, they should provide an overview of the water status, which is supposed to be strictly related to the land use and the management. Results show that the chemical parameters are well related to land use and farming management: intensive agricultural activity leads to high N-NO3 concentration in water and N surplus and vice versa. The chlorophyll-a concentration follows the same trend, being linked to nitrogen loads and land use. Not always there is accordance between chemical and biological indicators: no direct correspondence is evident between the N-NO3 concentration in waters and benthic community. Its presence and abundance seems to be mostly correlated with the geomorphology, hydrology, riparian strips, etc. of the habitat than to the land use. Only the integration of chemical and biological parameters allows a correct understanding of the state of health of water body and benthic communities.

  4. Water and Agricultural-Chemical Transport in a Midwestern, Tile-Drained Watershed: Implications for Conservation Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Nancy T.; Stone, Wesley W.; Frey, Jeffrey W.; Wilson, John T.

    2007-01-01

    The study of agricultural chemicals is one of five national priority topics being addressed by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program in its second decade of studies, which began in 2001. Seven watersheds across the Nation were selected for the NAWQA agricultural-chemical topical study. The watersheds selected represent a range of agricultural settings - with varying crop types and agricultural practices related to tillage, irrigation, artificial drainage, and chemical use - as well as a range of landscapes with different geology, soils, topography, climate, and hydrology (Capel and others, 2004). Chemicals selected for study include nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and about 50 commonly used pesticides. This study design leads to an improved understanding of many factors that can affect the movement of water and chemicals in different agricultural settings. Information from these studies will help with decision making related to chemical use, conservation, and other farming practices that are used to reduce runoff of agricultural chemicals and sediment from fields (Capel and others, 2004). This Fact Sheet highlights the results of the NAWQA agricultural chemical study in the Leary Weber Ditch Watershed in Hancock County, Indiana. This watershed was selected to represent a tile-drained, corn and soybean, humid area typical in the Midwest.

  5. Conservation agriculture increases soil organic carbon and residual water content in upland crop production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor B. Ella

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conservation agriculture involves minimum soil disturbance, continuous ground cover, and diversified crop rotations or mixtures. Conservation agriculture production systems (CAPS have the potential to improve soil quality if appropriate cropping systems are developed. In this study, five CAPS including different cropping patterns and cover crops under two fertility levels, and a plow-based system as control, were studied in a typical upland agricultural area in northern Mindanao in the Philippines. Results showed that soil organic carbon (SOC at 0- 5-cm depth for all CAPS treatments generally increased with time while SOC under the plow-based system tended to decline over time for both the high (120, 60 and 60 kg N P K ha-1 and moderate (60-30-30 kg N P K ha-1 fertility levels. The cropping system with maize + Stylosanthes guianensis in the first year followed by Stylosanthes guianensis and fallow in the second year, and the cassava + Stylosanthes guianensis exhibited the highest rate of SOC increase for high and moderate fertility levels, respectively. After one, two, and three cropping seasons, plots under CAPS had significantly higher soil residual water content (RWC than under plow-based systems. Results of this study suggest that conservation agriculture has a positive impact on soil quality, while till systems negatively impact soil characteristics.

  6. Developing drought resilience in irrigated agriculture in the face of increasing water scarcity

    OpenAIRE

    Rey, Dolores; Holman, Ian P.; Knox, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    In many countries, drought is the natural hazard that causes the greatest agronomic impacts. After recurrent droughts, farmers typically learn from experience and implement changes in management to reduce their future drought risks and impacts. This paper aims to understand how irrigated agriculture in a humid climate has been affected by past droughts and how different actors have adapted their activities and strategies over time to increase their resilience. After examining recent drought e...

  7. Regional Agricultural Input-Output Model and Countermeasure for Production and Income Increase of Farmers in Southern Xinjiang,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural input and output status in southern Xinjiang,China is introduced,such as lack of agricultural input,low level of agricultural modernization,excessive fertilizer use,serious damage of environment,shortage of water resources,tremendous pressure on ecological balance,insignificant economic and social benefits of agricultural production in southern Xinjiang,agriculture remaining a weak industry,agricultural economy as the economic subject of southern Xinjiang,and backward economic development of southern Xinjiang.Taking the Aksu area as an example,according to the input and output data in the years 2002-2007,input-output model about regional agriculture of the southern Xinjiang is established by principal component analysis.DPS software is used in the process of solving the model.Then,Eviews software is adopted to revise and test the model in order to analyze and evaluate the economic significance of the results obtained,and to make additional explanations of the relevant model.Since the agricultural economic output is seriously restricted in southern Xinjiang at present,the following countermeasures are put forward,such as adjusting the structure of agricultural land,improving the utilization ratio of land,increasing agricultural input,realizing agricultural modernization,rationally utilizing water resources,maintaining eco-environmental balance,enhancing the awareness of agricultural insurance,minimizing the risk and loss,taking the road of industrialization of characteristic agricultural products,and realizing the transfer of surplus labor force.

  8. No evidence of increased fire risk due to agricultural land abandonment in Sardinia (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ricotta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Different land cover types are related to different levels of fire hazard through their vegetation structure and fuel load composition. Therefore, understanding the relationships between landscape changes and fire behavior is of crucial importance for developing adequate fire fighting and fire prevention strategies for a changing world. In the last decades the abandonment of agricultural lands and pastoral activities has been the major driver of landscape transformations in Mediterranean Europe. As agricultural land abandonment typically promotes an increase in plant biomass (fuel load, a number of authors argue that vegetation succession in abandoned fields and pastures is expected to increase fire hazard. In this short paper, based on 28 493 fires in Sardinia (Italy in the period 2001–2010, we show that there is no evidence of increased probability of fire ignition in abandoned rural areas. To the contrary, in Sardinia the decreased human impact associated with agricultural land abandonment leads to a statistically significant decrease of fire ignition probability.

  9. Towards personalized agriculture: What chemical genomics can bring to plant biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Stokes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to the dominant drug paradigm in which compounds were developed to fit all, new models focused around personalized medicine are appearing where treatments are customized for individual patients. The agricultural biotechnology industry should also think about these new personalized models. For example, most common herbicides are generic in action, which led to the development of genetically modified crops to add specificity. The ease and accessibility of modern genomic analysis should facilitate the discovery of chemicals that are more selective in their utility. Is it possible to develop species-selective herbicides and growth regulators? More generally put, is plant research at a stage where chemicals can be developed that streamline plant development and growth to various environments? We believe the advent of chemical genomics now opens up these and other opportunities to personalize agriculture. Furthermore, chemical genomics does not necessarily require genetically tractable plant models, which in principle should allow quick translation to practical applications. For this to happen, however, will require collaboration between the Ag-biotech industry and academic labs for early-stage research and development.

  10. Determination of Physical, Chemical and Digestibility of some Agricultural by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    majed dehgan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, physical and chemical characteristics and estimation of effective fiber and digestibility of some agricultural by-products such as lerd, pulp and date kernel, grape pomace, pistachio hulls, lime and rice straw were determined by using in vitro technique. Experimental data were analyzed as a complete randomized design, with three replicates. Physical and chemical characteristics and digestibility parameters among samples were significantly different. Rice straw due to high water holding capacity and low-density mass were floating on the liquid phase of reticulo-rumen and stimulates rumination but palm seed with high bulk density tends to deposit in the rumen. Chemical characteristics such as non-fibrous carbohydrates of lemon pulp and pistachio hull and crude protein of grape pomace, lerd and pulp of date were significantly different between samples. Results of physical characteristics, particle size separation and physical effective cell wall showed that rice straw provides adequate fiber in diet. Also, to some extent physical effective cell wall can be provided by grape pomace, kernel and lerd of date. The predictions of particle size separation and physical effective cell wall were found to compare reasonably well when new Pennsylvania sieves, compare to old ones, were used. By considering physical and chemical characteristics of above mentioned agricultural by-products date pulp with non-fibrous carbohydrate and high protein content and digestibility can be used in higher amounts in ruminant diets.

  11. Assessment of macroinvertebrate health and agricultural chemical exposure on Waterfowl Production Areas in Nebraska’s Rainwater Basin Wetland Management District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Of the 12 sampled locations, the 6 non-buffered sites appear to be affected by agricultural chemical exposure. Agricultural chemical exposure to these sites include...

  12. Organic Contaminant Content and Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Waste Materials Recycled in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Rigby

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A range of wastes representative of materials currently applied, or with future potential to be applied, to agricultural land in the UK as fertilisers and soil improvers or used as animal bedding in livestock production, were investigated. In addition to full physico-chemical characterization, the materials were analysed for a suite of priority organic contaminants. In general, contaminants were present at relatively low concentrations. For example, for biosolids and compost-like-output (CLO, concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs were approximately 1−10 and 5–50 times lower, respectively, than various proposed or implemented European limit values for these contaminants in biosolids or composts applied to agricultural land. However, the technical basis for these limits may require re-evaluation in some cases. Polybrominated, and mixed halogenated, dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans are not currently considered in risk assessments of dioxins and dioxin-like chemicals, but were detected at relatively high concentrations compared with PCDD/Fs in the biosolids and CLOs and their potential contribution to the overall toxic equivalency is assessed. Other ‘emerging’ contaminants, such as organophosphate flame retardants, were detected in several of the waste materials, and their potential significance is discussed. The study is part of a wider research programme that will provide evidence that is expected to improve confidence in the use of waste-derived materials in agriculture and to establish guidelines to protect the food chain where necessary.

  13. Increase of heavy oil reservoir recovery using chemical injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amin Alishvandi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to thermal properties, Nano fluids may be new generation of thermal transfer fluids that would be used invarious industries. Energy carrier Nano fluids as waters, lubricants and ethylene glycol include of particles with dimensions of 100 nm as metal, metal oxid or carbon Nano tubes. Based on evaluation, with increase of viscosity of Nano fluid surfactant, absorbed dispersion materials would be increased and Nano particles dispersion and stability and thermal transfer would be developed. Using chemical injection to reservoirs, surfactant is cause of oil entrapment based on decrease of surface tension force, self generate- emulation and change of wetting. According to reservoir temperature,by Nano fluid and surfactant, thermal properties would be achieved to heat oil and decrease viscosity without any change of reservoir stone wetting.

  14. High trees increase sunflower seed predation by birds in an agricultural landscape of Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica eSchäckermann

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural habitats in agricultural landscapes promote agro-ecosystem services but little is known about negative effects (dis-services derived by natural habitats such as crop seed predation. Birds are important seed predators and use high landscape structures to perch and hide. High trees in agricultural landscapes may therefore drive seed predation. We examined if the presence, the distance and the percentages of high trees (tree height >5 m and the percentages of natural habitat surrounding sunflower fields, increased seed predation by birds in Israel. At the field scale, we assessed seed predation across a sample grid of an entire field. At the landscape scale, we assessed seed predation at the field margins and interiors of 20 sunflower fields. Seed predation was estimated as the percentage of removed seeds from sunflower heads. Distances of sample points to the closest high tree and percentage of natural habitat and of high trees in a 1km radius surrounding the fields were measured.We found that seed predation increased with decreasing distance to the closest high tree at the field and landscape scale. At the landscape scale, the percentage of high trees and natural habitat did not increase seed predation. Seed predation in the fields increased by 37 %, with a maximum seed predation of 92 %, when a high tree was available within zero to 50 m to the sunflower fields. If the closest high tree was further away, seed predation was less than 5 %. Sunflower seed predation by birds can be reduced, when avoiding sowing sunflowers within a radius of 50 m to high trees. Farmers should plan to grow crops, not sensitive to bird seed predation, closer to trees to eventually benefit from ecosystem services provided by birds, such as predation of pest insects, while avoiding these locations for growing crops sensitive to bird seed predation. Such management recommendations are directing towards sustainable agricultural landscapes.

  15. Potential To Increase Productivity And Sustainability In Argentinean Agriculture With Controlled Traffic Farming: A Short Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antille Diogenes L.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Drivers for and potential barriers against adoption of controlled traffic farming (CTF systems in Argentina are reviewed. Traffic compaction is one of the main factors affecting crop productivity within Argentinean agriculture, and has significant although less quantified impacts on the whole-of-farm system. This suggests that the benefits of no-tillage (NT, which represents the dominant form of cropping in Argentina, are not fully realised. Conservative estimates indicate that crop yields could be improved by at least 15% if NT is used in conjunction with CTF. Cost-benefit analyses of available options for compaction management are required. Despite this, and based on reported evidence internationally, a shift toward increased uptake of CTF within Argentinean agriculture is likely to: (1 improve productivity and farm profitability, (2 enhance environmental performance, and (3 maintain competitiveness of the agricultural sector. Appropriate technical advice and support is a key requirement to drive adoption of CTF. Therefore, the adoption process will benefit from collaboration developed with well-established research and extension organisations in Australia and the United Kingdom, and active engagement of machinery manufacturers.

  16. 75 FR 51917 - Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act: Increase in License Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... / Tuesday, August 24, 2010 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing... AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Department of Agriculture... marketing of fresh and frozen fruits and vegetables in interstate and foreign commerce. The PACA...

  17. A Research of Agricultural Chemical Metaldehyde's Impact on Edaphon%农药除蜗灵对土壤微生物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵琦; 唐美珍

    2014-01-01

    The agricultural chemical metaldehyde is widely used in recent years ,which has a certain influence on the soil environment's quality . This article has analyzed emphatically its impact on the soil - plant rhizosphere microorganism's amount ,and has designed the different agricultural chemical's concentration and application time to test agricultural chemical metaldehyde's long -term influence on microorganism ,which provides a scientific basis for agricultural chemical metaldehyde's application time , application concentration and impact on soil environment's quality .The tilt-pour process separates microorganism in the soil and ,plate count method counts the amount ,then the article have found ,the impact of agricultural chemical metaldehyde on edaphon are as follow s:the agricultural chemical metaldehyde plays an auxo-action to bacteria and actinomycetes ,but plays an inhibitory action to mycete . As time passes by ,the agricultural chemical Metaldehyde's increase function to actinomycetes decreases first ,then follows mycete and the bacteria's recover is the latest .The test results also explains that the soil itself has certain purification effect to the agricultural chemicals .%指出了农药除蜗灵近年来的大量使用,对土壤环境质量产生了一定的影响,进行了其对土壤-植物根际微生物数量上的影响的试验,并设计了农药浓度和施药时间的不同,从而了解了农药除蜗灵对微生物的长远影响。为农药除蜗灵的施用时间、施用浓度及其对土壤环境质量的影响提供了一定的科学依据。通过采用倾注法分离土壤中微生物,利用平板计数法进行计数,可得知农药除蜗灵对土壤中微生物的影响如下:对细菌和放线菌都产生了明显的促进作用,而对霉菌产生了显著的抑制作用。随着时间的推移,农药除蜗灵对放线菌的增加作用最先减弱,霉菌次之,细菌最晚恢复,这又说明了土壤本身

  18. Greater soil carbon stocks and faster turnover rates with increasing agricultural productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderman, Jonathan; Creamer, Courtney; Baisden, W. Troy; Farrell, Mark; Fallon, Stewart

    2017-01-01

    Devising agricultural management schemes that enhance food security and soil carbon levels is a high priority for many nations. However, the coupling between agricultural productivity, soil carbon stocks and organic matter turnover rates is still unclear. Archived soil samples from four decades of a long-term crop rotation trial were analyzed for soil organic matter (SOM) cycling-relevant properties: C and N content, bulk composition by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, amino sugar content, short-term C bioavailability assays, and long-term C turnover rates by modeling the incorporation of the bomb spike in atmospheric 14C into the soil. After > 40 years under consistent management, topsoil carbon stocks ranged from 14 to 33 Mg C ha-1 and were linearly related to the mean productivity of each treatment. Measurements of SOM composition demonstrated increasing amounts of plant- and microbially derived SOM along the productivity gradient. Under two modeling scenarios, radiocarbon data indicated overall SOM turnover time decreased from 40 to 13 years with increasing productivity - twice the rate of decline predicted from simple steady-state models or static three-pool decay rates of measured C pool distributions. Similarly, the half-life of synthetic root exudates decreased from 30.4 to 21.5 h with increasing productivity, indicating accelerated microbial activity. These findings suggest that there is a direct feedback between accelerated biological activity, carbon cycling rates and rates of carbon stabilization with important implications for how SOM dynamics are represented in models.

  19. Chemical Compounds Toxic to Invertebrates Isolated from Marine Cyanobacteria of Potential Relevance to the Agricultural Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magbubah Essack

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In spite of advances in invertebrate pest management, the agricultural industry is suffering from impeded pest control exacerbated by global climate changes that have altered rain patterns to favour opportunistic breeding. Thus, novel naturally derived chemical compounds toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates are of interest, as potential pesticides. In this regard, marine cyanobacterium-derived metabolites that are toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates continue to be a promising, but neglected, source of potential pesticides. A PubMed query combined with hand-curation of the information from retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 36 cyanobacteria-derived chemical compounds experimentally confirmed as being toxic to invertebrates. These compounds are discussed in this review.

  20. Chemical Compounds Toxic to Invertebrates Isolated from Marine Cyanobacteria of Potential Relevance to the Agricultural Industry

    KAUST Repository

    Essack, Magbubah

    2014-10-29

    In spite of advances in invertebrate pest management, the agricultural industry is suffering from impeded pest control exacerbated by global climate changes that have altered rain patterns to favour opportunistic breeding. Thus, novel naturally derived chemical compounds toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates are of interest, as potential pesticides. In this regard, marine cyanobacterium-derived metabolites that are toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates continue to be a promising, but neglected, source of potential pesticides. A PubMed query combined with hand-curation of the information from retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 36 cyanobacteria-derived chemical compounds experimentally confirmed as being toxic to invertebrates. These compounds are discussed in this review.

  1. THE COMPETITIVENESS OF HIGH VALUE ADDED AGRICULTURE AND MAJOR FACTORS OF ITS INCREASING: THE CASE OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoş CIMPOIEŞ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The key-factors of competitiveness of high value added agriculture of the Republic of Moldova and their great importance in increasing the national wealth of the country are analyzed in this paper. The wealth of a country in terms of competitiveness represents the level in which the country, in conditions of the market economy, produces goods and services to satisfy the global market requirements, thus increasing the real income of the citizens of the country. In this context, factors which have an indispensable contribution in increasing the competitiveness of the high value agriculture are: exports, Foreign Direct Investments, innovations, the role of the state institutions, the business climate and others. By the fact how the state contributes by its agricultural policies to attract FDI, to increase exports, to apply innovations and high technologies in the process of obtaining high value agricultural products depends the competitiveness of the agricultural sector of the country

  2. Increase in African dust flux at the onset of commercial agriculture in the Sahel region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulitza, Stefan; Heslop, David; Pittauerova, Daniela; Fischer, Helmut W; Meyer, Inka; Stuut, Jan-Berend; Zabel, Matthias; Mollenhauer, Gesine; Collins, James A; Kuhnert, Henning; Schulz, Michael

    2010-07-01

    The Sahara Desert is the largest source of mineral dust in the world. Emissions of African dust increased sharply in the early 1970s (ref. 2), a change that has been attributed mainly to drought in the Sahara/Sahel region caused by changes in the global distribution of sea surface temperature. The human contribution to land degradation and dust mobilization in this region remains poorly understood, owing to the paucity of data that would allow the identification of long-term trends in desertification. Direct measurements of airborne African dust concentrations only became available in the mid-1960s from a station on Barbados and subsequently from satellite imagery since the late 1970s: they do not cover the onset of commercial agriculture in the Sahel region approximately 170 years ago. Here we construct a 3,200-year record of dust deposition off northwest Africa by investigating the chemistry and grain-size distribution of terrigenous sediments deposited at a marine site located directly under the West African dust plume. With the help of our dust record and a proxy record for West African precipitation we find that, on the century scale, dust deposition is related to precipitation in tropical West Africa until the seventeenth century. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, a sharp increase in dust deposition parallels the advent of commercial agriculture in the Sahel region. Our findings suggest that human-induced dust emissions from the Sahel region have contributed to the atmospheric dust load for about 200 years.

  3. Increase in soil organic carbon by agricultural intensification in northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Liao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural intensification has contributed greatly to the sustained food supply of China's 1.3 billion population over the 30 year period during 1982–2011. Intensification has several and widely recognized negative environmental impacts including depletion of water resources, pollution of water bodies, greenhouse gas emissions and soil acidification. However, there have been few studies over this period on the impacts of intensification on soil organic carbon (SOC at the regional level. The present study was conducted in Huantai county, a typical intensive farming region in Northern China, to analyze the temporal dynamics of SOC influenced by climate and farming practices. The results indicate that from 1982 to 2011, SOC content and stock in the 0–20 cm layer of the cropland increased from 7.8 ± 1.6 to 11.0 ± 2.3 g kg–1 (41% and 21 ± 4.3 to 33.0 ± 7.0 Mg ha–1 (54%, respectively. The SOC stock (0–20 cm of the farmland for the entire county increased from 0.75 to 1.2 Tg (59%. Correlation analysis revealed that incorporation of crop residues significantly increased SOC, while increase in the mean annual temperature decreased the SOC level. Therefore, agricultural intensification has increased crop productivity and contributed to SOC sequestration in Northern China. In the near future, more appropriate technologies and practices must be developed and implemented for a maintenance or enhancement of SOC in this region and elsewhere in Northern China, that also reduce non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions, since the climate benefit from the additional SOC storage is estimated to be smaller than the negative climate impacts of N2O from N fertilizer additions.

  4. Greater carbon stocks and faster turnover rates with increasing agricultural productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderman, J.; Fallon, S.; Baisden, T. W.

    2013-12-01

    H.H. Janzen (2006) eloquently argued that from an agricultural perspective there is a tradeoff between storing carbon as soil organic matter (SOM) and the soil nutrient and energy benefit provided during SOM mineralization. Here we report on results from the Permanent Rotation Trial at the Waite Agricultural Institute, South Australia, indicating that shifting to an agricultural management strategy which returns more carbon to the soil, not only leads to greater carbon stocks but also increases the rate of carbon cycling through the soil. The Permanent Rotation Trial was established on a red Chromosol in 1925 with upgrades made to several treatments in 1948. Decadal soil samples were collected starting in 1963 at two depths, 0-10 and 10-22.5 cm, by compositing 20 soil cores taken along the length of each plot. We have chosen to analyze five trials representing a gradient in productivity: permanent pasture (Pa), wheat-pasture rotation (2W4Pa), continuous wheat (WW), wheat-oats-fallow rotation (WOF) and wheat-fallow (WF). For each of the soil samples (40 in total), the radiocarbon activity in the bulk soil as well as size-fractionated samples was measured by accelerator mass spectrometry at ANU's Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory (Fallon et al. 2010). After nearly 70 years under each rotation, SOC stocks increased linearly with productivity data across the trials from 24 to 58 tC ha-1. Importantly, these differences were due to greater losses over time in the low productivity trials rather than gains in SOC in any of the trials. Uptake of the bomb-spike in atmospheric 14C into the soil was greatest in the trials with the greatest productivity. The coarse size fraction always had greater Δ14C values than the bulk soil samples. Several different multi-pool steady state and non-steady state models were used to interpret the Δ14C data in terms of SOC turnover rates. Regardless of model choice, either the decay rates of all pools needed to increase or the allocation of C to

  5. Mediterranean agriculture: More efficient irrigation needed to compensate increases in future irrigation water requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, Marianela; Shi, Sinan; von Bloh, Werner; Bondeau, Alberte; Cramer, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Irrigation in the Mediterranean is of vital importance for food security, employment and economic development. Our research shows that, at present, Mediterranean region could save 35% of water by implementing more efficient irrigation and conveyance systems. Some countries like Syria, Egypt and Turkey have higher saving potentials than others. Currently some crops, especially sugar cane and agricultural trees, consume in average more irrigation water per hectare than annual crops (1). Also under climate change, more efficient irrigation is of vital importance for counteracting increases in irrigation water requirements. The Mediterranean area as a whole might face an increase in gross irrigation requirements between 4% and 18% from climate change alone by the end of the century if irrigation systems and conveyance are not improved. Population growth increases these numbers to 22% and 74%, respectively, affecting mainly the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean. However, improved irrigation technologies and conveyance systems have large water saving potentials, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean, and may be able to compensate to some degree the increases due to climate change and population growth. Both subregions would need around 35% more water than today if they could afford some degree of modernization of irrigation and conveyance systems and benefit from the CO2-fertilization effect (1). However, in some scenarios (in this case as combinations of climate change, irrigation technology, influence of population growth and CO2-fertilization effect) water scarcity may constrain the supply of the irrigation water needed in future in Algeria, Libya, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Serbia, Morocco, Tunisia and Spain (1). In this study, vegetation growth, phenology, agricultural production and irrigation water requirements and withdrawal were simulated with the process-based ecohydrological and agro-ecosystem model LPJmL ("Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land") after a

  6. The potential of agricultural practices to increase C storage in cropped soils: an assessment for France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenu, Claire; Angers, Denis; Métay, Aurélie; Colnenne, Caroline; Klumpp, Katja; Bamière, Laure; Pardon, Lenaic; Pellerin, Sylvain

    2014-05-01

    Though large progress has been achieved in the last decades, net GHG emissions from the agricultural sector are still more poorly quantified than in other sectors. In this study, we examined i) technical mitigation options likely to store carbon in agricultural soils, ii) their potential of additional C storage per unit surface area and iii) applicable areas in mainland France. We considered only agricultural practices being technically feasible by farmers and involving no major change in either production systems or production levels. Moreover, only currently available techniques with validated efficiencies and presenting no major negative environmental impacts were taken into account. Four measures were expected to store additional C in agricultural soils: - Reducing tillage: either a switch to continuous direct seeding, direct seeding with occasional tillage once every five years, or continuous superficial (20yrs) C storage rates (MgC ha-1 y-1,) of cropping systems with and without the proposed practice. Then we analysed the conditions for potential application, in terms of feasibility, acceptance, limitation of yield losses and of other GHG emissions. According to the literature, additional C storage rates were 0.15 (0-0.3) MgC ha-1 y-1 for continuous direct seeding, 0.10 (0-0.2) MgC ha-1 y-1for occasional tillage one year in five, and 0.0 MgC ha-1 y-1 for superficial tillage. Cover crops were estimated to store 0.24 (0.13-0.37) MgC ha-1 y-1 between cash crops and 0.49 (0.23-0.72) MgC ha-1 y-1 when associated with vineyards. Hedges (i.e 60 m ha-1) stored 0.15 (0.05-0.26) Mg C ha-1 y-1. Very few estimates were available for temperate agroforestry system, and we proposed a value of 1.01 (0.11-1.36) Mg C ha-1 y-1for C stored in soil and in the tree biomass for systems comprising 30-50 trees ha-1. Increasing the life time of temporary sown grassland increased C stocls by 0.11 (0.07-0.22) Mg C ha-1 y-1. In general, practices with increased C inputs to soil through

  7. GM crops in Ethiopia: a realistic way to increase agricultural performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadi, Hossein; Talsma, Nanda; Ho, Peter; Zarafshani, Kiumars

    2011-01-01

    Much has been published on the application of genetically modified (GM) crops in Africa, but agricultural performance has hardly been addressed. This paper discusses the main consequences of GM crops on agricultural performance in Ethiopia. Three main criteria of performance - productivity, equitability and sustainability - are evaluated in the context of the Ethiopian agricultural sector. We conclude that the application of GM crops can improve the agricultural productivity and sustainability, whereas equitability cannot be stimulated and might even exacerbate the gap between socioeconomic classes. Before introducing GM crops to Ethiopian agriculture, regulatory issues should be addressed, public research should be fostered, and more ex ante values and socioeconomic studies should be included.

  8. Game Analysis and Countermeasures on Increasing Prices of Agricultural Products under Triple Supply Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    From the perspective of supply chain of agricultural products,by establishing Stackelberg game model based on triple supply chain,this paper researches the price formation and profit distribution mechanism of agricultural products under circumstance of non-cooperation and cooperation.The results show the main factors responsible for the hiking of prices of agricultural products as follows:the cost of agricultural products climbs incessantly;the circulation cost hovers at high level;the factor inputs of agricultural products are short;inflation pressure is incessantly mounting;the profit distribution of supply chain is irrational.Finally,corresponding countermeasures are put forward.

  9. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ASSESSMENT OF AGRICULTURAL POLLUTION ON GROUNDWATER AND SOIL QUALITY IN AN AGRICULTURAL FARM (NORTH EASTERN MOROCCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fetouani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To ensure sustainable food security, Morocco gives priority to agricultural and rural development by promoting investment in agricultural sector and use of intensification factors to improve incomes in rural areas. The Triffa irrigated perimeter is one of the oldest and the most productive in the country thanks to the Mohammed the V dam activity and the beginning of agricultural development intensification. Although this intensification has a positive effect on agricultural yields, it has negative impacts on soil and generatesgroundwater quality degradation. Indeed, recent studies performed in this area by us and Bendra (Fetouani et al., 2008; Bendra et al, 2012 have mentioned the existence of salinity problems, nitric groundwater pollution and soils salinization. This degradation is caused essentially by intensive use of agrochemicals, including nitrogen fertilizers and pesticides, and non-control of irrigation and cultivated plots drainage. However, a degradation of groundwater and soil quality is not without risk to Human health. Having a global vision about situation of groundwater and soil quality in the Triffa plain we have decided to deepen this theme to a local scale and to study in details the impact of intensive agriculture on groundwater and soil quality in a farm, located in the centre of the Triffa plain.To sum up the results of this study the state of soil quality in the farm is not alarming. However, the groundwater quality is mainly dramatic, because it is a receptacle of all the nutrients applied on the surface, especially nitrates.

  10. INCREASING THE PHOTOLUMINESCENCE INTENSITY OF Ge ISLANDS BY CHEMICAL ETCHING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高斐; 黄昌俊; 黄大定; 李建平; 孔梅影; 曾一平; 李晋闽; 林兰英

    2001-01-01

    Self-assembled Ge islands were grown on Si(100) substrate by Si2H6-Ge molecular beam epitaxy. After beingsubjected to chemical etching, it is found that the photoluminescence from the etched Ge islands became more intense and shifted to the higher-energy side compared to that of the as-deposited Ge islands. This behaviour was explained by the effect of chemical etching on the morphology of the Ge islands. Our results demonstrate that chemical etching can be a way to change the luminescence property of the as-deposited islands.

  11. Increasing chemical efficiency by mixing different buffer gases on COIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XuMingxiu; Sang Fengting; ChenFang; FangBenjie; JinYuqi

    2011-01-01

    To improve the output power and chemical efficiency,a new method is put forward,which requires no notable change in the configurations and uses different gases as buffer gas.Some experiments are done on chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) with an 11.7 cm gain length.When N2,Ar and CO2 are used as the primary and secondary buffer gases,change of the average molecular weight promotes the mixing between the primary and secondary gases.Experimental results confirm the possibility of improving the chemical efficiency.When N2 is used as the primary gas and Ar as the secondary gas,the highest output power and chemical efficiency are obtained as 3.09 kW and 30.2%.

  12. Can foraging behavior of Criollo cattle help increase agricultural production and reduce environmental impacts in the arid Southwest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Longterm Agroecosystem Research Network (LTAR) was formed to help the nation’s agricultural systems simultaneously increase production and reduce environmental impacts. Eighteen networked sites are conducting a Common Experiment to understand the environmental and economic problems associated wi...

  13. Estimation of Some Chemical Properties of an Agricultural Soil by Spectroradiometric Measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.JARMER; M.VOHLAND; H.LILIENTHAL; E.SCHNUG

    2008-01-01

    The contents of nitrogen and organic carbon in an agricultural soil were analyzed using reflectance measurements (n = 52) performed with an ASD FieldSpec-Ⅱspectroradiometer.For parameter prediction,empirical models based on partial least squares (PLS) regression were defined from the measured reflectance spectra (0.4 to 2.4 μm).Here,reliable estimates were obtained for nitrogen content,but prediction accuracy was only moderate for organic carbon.For nitrogen,the real spatial pattern of within-field variability was reproduced with high accuracy.The results indicate the potential of this method as a quick screening tool for the spatial assessment of nitrogen and organic carbon,and therefore an appropriate alternative to time-and cost-intensive chemical analysis in the laboratory.

  14. Assessing the Amount of Chemical Elements in Biodegradable Agricultural Wastes and ASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa Kvasauskienė

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable agricultural wastes such as manure, has long been used as an organic fertilizer that improves soil structure, enriches the soil with micro-organisms and micro-elements necessary for plants and promotes humus formation. Manure can also be successfully used as a renewable energy source directly combusting and extracting energy. The carried out investigation showed that the incineration of manure remaining in ashes could also be used as a fertilizer. Waste combustion reduces its volume to 80–90%. Also, the investigation revealed that the amount of chemical elements (Na, Mg, Si, P, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe decreased after combustion. However, the concentration of these elements in ashes is higher than that in raw manure. Article in Lithuanian

  15. What is needed to understand feedback mechanisms from agricultural and climate changes that can alter the hydrological system and the transport of sediments and agricultural chemicals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupe, Richard; Payraudeau, Sylvain; Babcsányi, Izabella; Imfeld, Gwenaël

    2015-04-01

    Modern agriculture activities are constantly changing as producers try to produce a crop, keep their soils fertile, control pests, and prevent contamination of air and water resources. Because most of the world's arable land is already in production we must become more efficient if we are to feed and clothe the world's growing population as well as do this in a sustainable manner; leaving a legacy of fertile soil and clean water resources for our descendants. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of historical datasets and of developing new strategies to understand the effects of changing agricultural systems on the environment. Scientists who study agriculture and its effects on water must constantly adapt their strategies and evaluate how changing agricultural activities impact the environment. As well as understand from historical datasets on hydrology and agriculture how a changing climate or agricultural activity such as a change in tillage method might impact the processes that determine the movement of agricultural chemicals off of the target site. The 42.7 ha Hohrain (Rouffach, Alsace, France) vineyard experimental catchment offers several examples of how scientists have used historical data from this catchment to understand how the transport of agricultural chemicals may change due to a changing climate as well as how new strategies are developed for understanding the transport of agricultural chemicals. Runoff is a major process of pesticide transport from agricultural land to downstream aquatic ecosystems. The impact of rainfall characteristics on the transport of runoff-related pesticides is crucial to understanding how to prevent or minimize their movement now, but also in understanding how climate change might affect runoff. If we understand how rainfall characteristics affect the transport of pesticides, we can use climate change models to predict how those characteristics might change in the future and be better prepared for

  16. Increased spring flooding of agricultural fields will exhibit altered production of greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, R. F.; Smith, C. M.; Smyth, E. M.; Kantola, I. B.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Corn Belt currently is a net source of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide to the atmosphere, but is also a sink of methane. Among the proposed effects of climate change in the North American Midwest region is an increase in the frequency and duration of spring flooding events. This would cause ponding in fields which may change the greenhouse gas balance of the region, especially by providing a suitable anoxic environment for the proliferation of methanogens, increasing methane emissions. To determine whether methanogenesis occurs in flooded agricultural soils of the Midwest and how other gas fluxes are affected, we installed collars into the ground of a research field located in central Illinois. The control group was maintained at the same conditions as the surrounding field. Two groups of collars were sustained with water flooding the headspaces via a drip irrigation system; one treatment was analyzed for gas fluxes of CH4, N2O, and CO2 evolving from the collars, and a separate treatment of flooded collars was used for soil sampling. Comparing flooded soils versus control we measured reduced N2O fluxes (-3.12 x 10-6 × 6.8 x 10-7 g N m-2 min-1), reduced CO2 fluxes (-6.13 x 10-3 × 9.3 x 10-4 g CO2 m-2 min-1), and increased methane fluxes (+2.72 x 10-6 × 5.8 x 10-7 g CH4 m-2 min-1). After only one week of treatment the flooded soils switched from being sinks to sources of methane, which continued across the duration of the experiment. These preliminary results indicate that methanogenesis occurs in flooded agricultural fields, and suggest including regional modeling into further study. Although the global warming potential of methane is 25 times greater than CO2, our measured rates of methane production were compensated by reductions in nitrous oxide and CO2 fluxes, reducing the total 100-year horizon global warming potential of the flooded soils we studied by 64.8%. This indicates that accounting for more frequent seasonal ponding would significantly

  17. Is it possible to increase the sustainability of arable and ruminant agriculture by reducing inputs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glendining, M.; Dailey, A.G.; Williams, A.; Evert, van F.K.; Goulding, K.W.T.; Whitmore, A.P.

    2009-01-01

    Until recently, agricultural production was optimised almost exclusively for profit but now farming is under pressure to meet environmental targets. A method is presented and applied for optimising the sustainability of agricultural production systems in terms of both economics and the environment.

  18. GM crops in Ethiopia : a realistic way to increase agricultural performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azadi, Hossein; Taisma, Nanda; Ho, Peter; Zarafshani, Kiumars

    2011-01-01

    Much has been published on the application of genetically modified (GM) crops in Africa, but agricultural performance has hardly been addressed. This paper discusses the main consequences of GM crops on agricultural performance in Ethiopia. Three main criteria of performance productivity, equitabili

  19. Identification of biomes affected by marginal expansion of agricultural land use induced by increased crop consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kløverpris, Jesper Hedal

    2009-01-01

    In a previous study, the global agricultural expansion caused by wheat consumption in four different countries was modelled with the aim of establishing land use life cycle inventories. The previous study estimated the areas affected by expansion (in terms of square meters) but did not explain how...... to characterise these areas. The present study ascribes so-called biomes (natural potential vegetation) to the areas affected by agricultural expansion in order to provide a basis for assessing the environmental impacts from land use in the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). The methodology builds...... on agricultural statistics and maps of global agricultural areas and the global distribution of biomes. The application of the method is illustrated with four examples. The results indicate that agricultural expansion on land suited for crop cultivation (cultivable land) typically affects forest biomes...

  20. Agricultural green revolution as a driver of increasing atmospheric CO2 seasonal amplitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Ning; Zhao, Fang; Collatz, George; Kalnay, Eugenia; Salawitch, Ross J.; West, Tristram O.; Guanter, Luis

    2014-11-20

    The atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) record displays a prominent seasonal cycle that arises mainly from changes in vegetation growth and the corresponding CO2 uptake during the boreal spring and summer growing seasons and CO2 release during the autumn and winter seasons. The CO2 seasonal amplitude has increased over the past five decades, suggesting an increase in Northern Hemisphere biospheric activity. It has been proposed that vegetation growth may have been stimulated by higher concentrations of CO2 as well as by warming in recent decades, but such mechanisms have been unable to explain the full range and magnitude of the observed increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude. Here we suggest that the intensification of agriculture (the Green Revolution, in which much greater crop yield per unit area was achieved by hybridization, irrigation and fertilization) during the past five decades is a driver of changes in the seasonal characteristics of the global carbon cycle. Our analysis of CO2 data and atmospheric inversions shows a robust 15 per cent long-term increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude from 1961 to 2010, punctuated by large decadal and interannual variations. Using a terrestrial carbon cycle model that takes into account high-yield cultivars, fertilizer use and irrigation, we find that the long-term increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude arises from two major regions: the mid-latitude cropland between 256N and 606N and the high-latitude natural vegetation between 506N and 706 N. The long-term trend of seasonal amplitude increase is 0.311 ± 0.027 percent per year, of which sensitivity experiments attribute 45, 29 and 26 per cent to land-use change, climate variability and change, and increased productivity due to CO2 fertilization, respectively. Vegetation growth was earlier by one to two weeks, as measured by the mid-point of vegetation carbon uptake, and took up 0.5 petagrams more carbon in July, the height of the growing season, during 2001–2010 than in 1961–1970

  1. Fall cover cropping can increase arbuscular mycorrhizae in soils supporting intensive agricultural production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intensive agricultural practices, such as tillage, monocropping, seasonal fallow periods, and inorganic nutrient application have been shown to reduce arbuscular mycorrrhizal fungi (AMF) populations and thus may reduce benefits frequently provided to crops by AMF, such as nutrient acquisition, disea...

  2. Priorities for realizing the potential to increase agricultural productivity and growth in Western and Central Africa:

    OpenAIRE

    Nin-Pratt, Alejandro; Johnson, Michael; Magalhaes, Eduardo [UNIFESP; DIAO, Xinshen; You, Liang; Chamberlin, Jordan

    2009-01-01

    "We identify a set of development priorities for agriculture that cut across West Africa, at both the country and the regional level, to achieve economy-wide growth goals in the region. To do this, we adopt a modeling and analytical framework that involves the integration of spatial analysis to identify yield gaps determining growth potential of different agricultural activities for areas with similar conditions and an economy-wide multimarket model to simulate ex ante the economic effects of...

  3. Harmonisation of food consumption data format for dietary exposure assessments of chemicals analysed in raw agricultural commodities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boon, Polly E.; Ruprich, Jiri; Petersen, Annette

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present an approach to format national food consumption data at raw agricultural commodity (RAC) level. In this way, the data is both formatted in a harmonised way given the comparability of RACs between countries, and suitable to assess the dietary exposure to chemicals analysed...

  4. Chemical complexity of odors increases reliability of olfactory threshold testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleszkiewicz, Anna; Pellegrino, Robert; Pusch, Katharina; Margot, Celine; Hummel, Thomas

    2017-01-10

    Assessment of odor thresholds is a widely recognized method of measuring olfactory abilities in humans. To date no attempts have been made to assess whether chemical complexity of odors used can produce more reliable results. To this end, we performed two studies of repeated measures design with 121 healthy volunteers (age 19-62 years). In Study 1, we compared thresholds obtained from tests based on one odor presented in a pen-like odor dispensing device with three odors and six odors mixtures presented in glass containers. In study 2 we compared stimuli of one and three odors, both presented in glass containers. In both studies measurements were performed twice, separated by at least three days. Results indicate that the multiple odor mixtures produced more reliable threshold scores, as compared to thresholds based on a single substance.

  5. Streptococcus suis sorption on agricultural soils: role of soil physico-chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenqiang; Liu, Xing; Huang, Qiaoyun; Cai, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Understanding pathogen sorption on natural soil particles is crucial to protect public health from soilborne and waterborne diseases. Sorption of pathogen Streptococcus suis on 10 agricultural soils was examined, and its correlations with soil physico-chemical properties were also elucidated. S. suis sorption isotherms conformed to the linear equation, with partition coefficients (Ks) ranging from 12.7 mL g(-1) to 100.1 mL g(-1). Bacteria were observed to sorb on the external surfaces of soil aggregates by scanning electron microscopy. Using Pearson correlation and linear regression analysis, solution pH was found to have significant negative correlations with Ks. Stepwise multiple regression and path analysis revealed that pH and cation exchange capacity (CEC) were the main factors influencing sorption behaviors. The obtained overall model (Ks=389.6-45.9×pH-1.3×CEC, R(2)=0.943, PKs values. However, the variability in Ks was less dependent on soil organic matter, specific surface area, soil texture and zeta potential, probably due to the internal-surface shielding phenomenon of soil aggregates. Additionally, the sorption trends cannot be interpreted by interaction energy barriers calculated using the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory, suggesting the limits of DLVO theory in describing pathogen sorption on natural soils. Our results also indicated soil pH and CEC should be preferentially considered when modeling S. suis sorption process.

  6. Evaluation of unsaturated-zone solute-transport models for studies of agricultural chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Bernard T.; Bayless, E. Randall; Green, Christopher T.; Garg, Sheena; Voss, Frank D.; Lampe, David C.; Barbash, Jack E.; Capel, Paul D.; Bekins, Barbara A.

    2005-01-01

    Seven unsaturated-zone solute-transport models were tested with two data sets to select models for use by the Agricultural Chemical Team of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The data sets were from a bromide tracer test near Merced, California, and an atrazine study in the White River Basin, Indiana. In this study the models are designated either as complex or simple based on the water flux algorithm. The complex models, HYDRUS2D, LEACHP, RZWQM, and VS2DT, use Richards' equation to simulate water flux and are well suited to process understanding. The simple models, CALF, GLEAMS, and PRZM, use a tipping-bucket algorithm and are more amenable to extrapolation because they require fewer input parameters. The purpose of this report is not to endorse a particular model, but to describe useful features, potential capabilities, and possible limitations that emerged from working with the model input data sets. More rigorous assessment of model applicability involves proper calibration, which was beyond the scope of this study.

  7. Measurement of natural radioactivity in chemical fertilizer and agricultural soil: evidence of high alpha activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Dipak; Deb, Argha; Bera, Sukumar; Sengupta, Rosalima; Patra, Kanchan Kumar

    2008-02-01

    People are exposed to ionizing radiation from the radionuclides that are present in different types of natural sources, of which phosphate fertilizer is one of the most important sources. Radionuclides in phosphate fertilizer belonging to 232Th and 238U series as well as radioisotope of potassium (40K) are the major contributors of outdoor terrestrial natural radiation. The study of alpha activity in fertilizers, which is the first ever in West Bengal, has been performed in order to determine the effect of the use of phosphate fertilizers on human health. The data have been compared with the alpha activity of different types of chemical fertilizers. The measurement of alpha activity in surface soil samples collected from the cultivated land was also performed. The sampling sites were randomly selected in the cultivated land in the Midnapore district, which is the largest district in West Bengal. The phosphate fertilizer is widely used for large agricultural production, mainly potatoes. The alpha activities have been measured using solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD), a very sensitive detector for alpha particles. The results show that alpha activity of those fertilizer and soil samples varies from 141 Bq/kg to 2,589 Bq/kg and from 109 Bq/kg to 660 Bq/kg, respectively. These results were used to estimate environmental radiation exposure on human health contributed by the direct application of fertilizers.

  8. The effect of the 2011 flood on agricultural chemical and sediment movement in the lower Mississippi River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, H.; Coupe, R.; Aulenbach, B.

    2012-04-01

    Extreme hydrologic events, such as floods, can overwhelm a surface water system's ability to process chemicals and can move large amounts of material downstream to larger surface water bodies. The Mississippi River is the 3rd largest River in the world behind the Amazon in South America and the Congo in Africa. The Mississippi-Atchafalaya River basin grows much of the country's corn, soybean, rice, cotton, pigs, and chickens. This is large-scale modern day agriculture with large inputs of nutrients to increase yields and large applied amounts of crop protection chemicals, such as pesticides. The basin drains approximately 41% of the conterminous United States and is the largest contributor of nutrients to the Gulf of Mexico each spring. The amount of water and nutrients discharged from the Mississippi River has been related to the size of the low dissolved oxygen area that forms off of the coast of Louisiana and Texas each summer. From March through April 2011, the upper Mississippi River basin received more than five times more precipitation than normal, which combined with snow melt from the Missouri River basin, created a historic flood event that lasted from April through July. The U.S. Geological Survey, as part of the National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN), collected samples from six sites located in the lower Mississippi-Atchafalaya River basin, as well as, samples from the three flow-diversion structures or floodways: the Birds Point-New Madrid in Missouri and the Morganza and Bonnet Carré in Louisiana, from April through July. Samples were analyzed for nutrients, pesticides, suspended sediments, and particle size; results were used to determine the water quality of the river during the 2011 flood. Monthly loads for nitrate, phosphorus, pesticides (atrazine, glyphosate, fluometuron, and metolachlor), and sediment were calculated to quantify the movement of agricultural chemicals and sediment into the Gulf of Mexico. Nutrient loads were

  9. Changes in bacterial community structure of agricultural land due to long-term organic and chemical amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Vasvi; Rehman, Ateequr; Mishra, Aradhana; Chauhan, Puneet Singh; Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar

    2012-08-01

    Community level physiological profiling and pyrosequencing-based analysis of the V1-V2 16S rRNA gene region were used to characterize and compare microbial community structure, diversity, and bacterial phylogeny from soils of chemically cultivated land (CCL), organically cultivated land (OCL), and fallow grass land (FGL) for 16 years and were under three different land use types. The entire dataset comprised of 16,608 good-quality sequences (CCL, 6,379; OCL, 4,835; FGL, 5,394); among them 12,606 sequences could be classified in 15 known phylum. The most abundant phylum were Proteobacteria (29.8%), Acidobacteria (22.6%), Actinobacteria (11.1%), and Bacteroidetes (4.7%), while 24.3% of the sequences were from bacterial domain but could not be further classified to any known phylum. Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Gemmatimonadetes were found to be significantly abundant in OCL soil. On the contrary, Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria were significantly abundant in CCL and FGL, respectively. Our findings supported the view that organic compost amendment (OCL) activates diverse group of microorganisms as compared with conventionally used synthetic chemical fertilizers. Functional diversity and evenness based on carbon source utilization pattern was significantly higher in OCL as compared to CCL and FGL, suggesting an improvement in soil quality. This abundance of microbes possibly leads to the enhanced level of soil organic carbon, soil organic nitrogen, and microbial biomass in OCL and FGL soils as collated with CCL. This work increases our current understanding on the effect of long-term organic and chemical amendment applications on abundance, diversity, and composition of bacterial community inhabiting the soil for the prospects of agricultural yield and quantity of soil.

  10. Legumes increase rhizosphere carbon and nitrogen relative to cereals in California agricultural plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, R.; Maltais-landry, G.

    2013-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) is an essential nutrient to plant growth, therefore a sufficient supply is needed for high yields. By using N-fixing plants like legumes in crop rotation, we can increase soil N and yields of following crops. Furthermore, legumes also affect soil carbon (C) and C:N ratios, which impacts nutrient cycling in soils. We assessed the effects of two legumes (vetch, fava bean) and a cereal mixture (oats and wheat) on soil N and C by comparing both rhizosphere and bulk soils. We studied the impacts of these plants with different management types (organic, low-input conventional, unfertilized) to see if plant effects on soil C and N changed across management. We used plots from the Long-Term Research on Agricultural Systems (LTRAS) experiment (Davis, CA) to conduct this experiment, where three plots were under each management type. Within each of these plots, we sampled three micro-plots, where we collected rhizosphere soil from fava bean, vetch, and cereals as well as bulk soil, i.e. non-rhizosphere soil. We collected 108 samples, each of which were dried and ball-milled into a fine, uniform powder. Tin capsules with 15-30mg of soil were then analyzed with a Carlo Erba Elemental analyzer to measure how much N and C was present in each of the samples. The different management types didn't affect the relationship among plants, but soil C and N were highest in organic and lowest in unfertilized plots. We found that N was significantly higher in legume rhizosphere than cereal rhizosphere and bulk soils. Soil C was also higher in legumes vs. cereals and bulk soils, but the only significant difference was with the bulk soils. This ultimately resulted in lower C:N ratios in the rhizosphere of legumes, only vetch, however, had significantly lower soil C:N than cereals. Vetch had higher N, and lower C and C:N than fava bean, but the difference between the two legumes was never significant. Similarly, cereals had higher C and N and lower C:N than bulk soils, although

  11. Temporal variability of atmospheric particulate matter and chemical composition during a growing season at an agricultural site in northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiwei; Tong, Daniel; Zhang, Shichun; Dan, Mo; Zhang, Xuelei; Zhao, Hongmei

    2015-12-01

    This study presents the observations of PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations at an agricultural site from April to October 2012 in Dehui city, China. Ambient air was sampled by filter-based samplers and online PM monitors. The filter samples were analyzed to determine the abundance of ionic/inorganic elements, organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC). The daily PM10 concentrations varied significantly over the monitoring period, with an average of 168±63 (in the range of 52-277)μg/m(3) during the land preparation/planting period (26 April-15 June), 85±65 (36-228)μg/m(3) during the growing season (16 June-25 September), and 207±88 (103-310)μg/m(3) during the harvest period (26 September-31 October). PM2.5 accounted for 44%, 56% and 66% of atmospheric PM10 during these periods, respectively. The PM10 diurnal variation showed a distinct peak from 16:00 to 21:00 (LST) during the growing and harvesting seasons, while a gradual increase throughout the daytime until 17:00 was observed during tilling season. Mineral dust elements (Al, Ca, Fe, and Mg) dominated the PM10 chemical composition during the tilling season; OC, NO3(-), SO4(2-) and NH4(+) during the growing season; and carbonaceous species (i.e., OC and EC) during the harvesting season. Our results indicate that the soil particles emitted by farm tillage and organic matter released from straw burning are the two most significant sources of PM10 emissions contributing to the recurring high pollution events in this region. Therefore, development of agricultural PM inventories from soil tillage and straw burning is prioritized to support air quality modeling.

  12. Feeding the world's increasing population while limiting climate change impacts; decoupling agriculture' s N2O and CH4 emissions from population growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, C.L.; Meerburg, B.G.; Schils, R.L.M.; Verhagen, J.; Kuikman, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    The global demand for agricultural products, including food, is rapidly increasing due to population growth and shifts in consumption patterns. The required increase in agricultural production is predominantly to be achieved in countries with relatively low agricultural production levels at present.

  13. AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS TECHNOLOGY, A SUGGESTED TWO-YEAR POST HIGH SCHOOL CURRICULUM AND COURSE OUTLINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HALTERMAN, JERRY; AND OTHERS

    DATA REVEALED BY STUDIES OF AGRICULTURAL BUSINESS TRAINING NEEDS CONDUCTED IN SEVERAL STATES PROMPTED THE DESIGN OF AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SERIES TO ASSIST STATE AND LOCAL VOCATIONAL EDUCATION LEADERS IN DEVELOPING PROGRAMS TO PREPARE YOUTH AND ADULTS FOR EMPLOYMENT AND ADVANCEMENT IN OFF-FARM AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS. THIS DOCUMENT, THE…

  14. Pesticide resistance from historical agricultural chemical exposure in Thamnocephalus platyurus (Crustacea: Anostraca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brausch, John M; Smith, Philip N

    2009-02-01

    Extensive pesticide usage in modern agriculture represents a considerable anthropogenic stressor to freshwater ecosystems throughout the United States. Acute toxicity of three of the most commonly used agricultural pesticides (Methyl Parathion 4ec, Tempo SC Ultra, Karmex DF, and DDT) was determined in two different wild-caught strains of the fairy shrimp Thamnocephalus platyurus. Fairy shrimp collected from playas surrounded by native grasslands were between 200% and 400% more sensitive than fairy shrimp derived from playas in agricultural watersheds for Methyl Parathion 4ec, Tempo SC Ultra, and Karmex DF, likely due to the development of resistance. Additionally, reduced sensitivity to DDT was observed among fairy shrimp from agriculturally-impacted playas as compared to those from native grassland-dominated playas. These data suggest that fairy shrimp inhabiting playas in agricultural regions have developed some degree of resistance to a variety of agrochemicals in response to historical usage.

  15. [The discussion of the infiltrative model of chemical knowledge stepping into genetics teaching in agricultural institute or university].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ping; Luo, Pei-Gao

    2010-05-01

    Chemistry is an important group of basic courses, while genetics is one of the important major-basic courses in curriculum of many majors in agricultural institutes or universities. In order to establish the linkage between the major course and the basic course, the ability of application of the chemical knowledge previously learned in understanding genetic knowledge in genetics teaching is worthy of discussion for genetics teachers. In this paper, the authors advocate to apply some chemical knowledge previously learned to understand genetic knowledge in genetics teaching with infiltrative model, which could help students learn and understand genetic knowledge more deeply. Analysis of the intrinsic logistic relationship among the knowledge of different courses and construction of the integral knowledge network are useful for students to improve their analytic, comprehensive and logistic abilities. By this way, we could explore a new teaching model to develop the talents with new ideas and comprehensive competence in agricultural fields.

  16. Evaluation of chemical and ecotoxicological characteristics of biodegradable organic residues for application to agricultural land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, P; Palma, P; Gonçalves, A P; Fernandes, R M; Cunha-Queda, A C; Duarte, E; Vallini, G

    2007-05-01

    The use of organic waste and compost as a source of organic matter and nutrients is a common practice to improve soil physico-chemical properties, meanwhile reducing the need for inorganic fertilisers. Official guidelines to assess sewage sludge and compost quality are mostly based on total metal content of these residues. Measurement of the total concentration of metals may be useful as a general index of contamination, but provides inadequate or little information about their bioavailability, mobility or toxicity when the organic residue is applied to the soil. However, ecotoxicity tests provide an integrated measure of bioavailability and detrimental effects of contaminants in the ecosystem. In the present study, three different types of biodegradable organic residues (BORs) have been considered: sewage sludge from municipal wastewater treatment (SS), compost from the organic fraction of unsorted municipal solid waste (MSWC), and garden waste compost (GWC). The BORs were subjected to chemical characterisation and total metal quantification (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn), in order to verify their suitability for land application. Water leachability was determined through the DIN 38414-S4 method, while the modified BCR sequential extraction procedure was used for metal speciation. Ecotoxicity of the BORs was studied by direct and indirect bioassays. Direct toxicity bioassays were: plant growth tests with cress (Lepidium sativum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and earthworm (Eisenia fetida) mortality. On the other hand, indirect exposure bioassays, with leachate from the residues, took into account: luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), seed germination (L. sativum and H. vulgare) and Daphnia magna immobilization. As far as total metal concentration is concerned, with particular reference to Zn, SS resulted neither suitable for the use in agriculture nor compatible to be disposed of as an inert material into landfill, according to the Directive 1999/31/EC. Zinc

  17. Responses of physical, chemical, and biological indicators of water quality to a gradient of agricultural land use in the Yakima River Basin, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffney, T.F.; Meador, M.R.; Porter, S.D.; Gurtz, M.E.

    2000-01-01

    The condition of 25 stream sites in the Yakima River Basin, Washington, were assessed by the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Multimetric condition indices were developed and used to rank sites on the basis of physical, chemical, and biological characteristics. These indices showed that sites in the Cascades and Eastern Cascades ecoregions were largely unimpaired. In contrast, all but two sites in the Columbia Basin ecoregion were impaired, some severely. Agriculture (nutrients and pesticides) was the primary factor associated with impairment and all impaired sites were characterized by multiple indicators of impairment. All indices of biological condition (fish, invertebrates, and algae) declined as agricultural intensity increased. The response exhibited by invertebrates and algae suggested a threshold response with conditions declining precipitously at relatively low levels of agricultural intensity and little response at moderate to high levels of agricultural intensity. This pattern of response suggests that the success of mitigation will vary depending upon where on the response curve the mitigation is undertaken. Because the form of the community condition response is critical to effective water-quality management, the National Water-Quality Assessment Program is conducting studies to examine the response of biota to gradients of land-use intensity and the relevance of these responses to water-quality management. These land-use gradient pilot studies will be conducted in several urban areas starting in 1999.

  18. Supporting food security in the 21st century through resource-conserving increases in agricultural production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uphoff Norman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Green Revolution was accomplished under a set of demographic, economic, climatic and other conditions in the 20th century that have been changing and will surely be different and more difficult in the decades ahead. The suitability and sustainability of any given agricultural technology depends on factors like resource availability and productivity, energy costs, and environmental constraints. The achievements of Green Revolution technologies in the 1960s and 1970s came at a critical time of impending food shortages, and the world’s people would be worse off without them. However, the rate of yield improvement for cereal production has been slowing since the mid-1980s. Looking ahead at the foreseeable circumstances under which 21st century agricultural producers must try to assure food security, there will be need for technologies that are less dependent on resources that are becoming relatively scarcer, like arable land and water, or becoming relatively more costly, like energy and petrochemical-based inputs. This paper considers agroecologically-based innovations that reduce farmers’ dependence on external inputs, relying more on endogenous processes and existing potentials in plants and soil systems. Such resource-conserving production represents a different approach to meeting food security goals. While these innovations are not yet fully understood and are still being researched, there are good agronomic reasons to account for their effectiveness, and scientific validations are accumulating. Enough successes have been recorded from making changes in the management of plants, soil, water and nutrients that more attention from researchers, policy-makers and practitioners is warranted, especially given the need to adapt to, and to mitigate the effects of, climate change. The same agroecological concepts and management methods that are enhancing factor productivity in rice production are giving similar results with other crops

  19. Assessment of rice farming and agricultural chemical impacts on amphibians of the Anahuac National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study was designed to determine if the use of agricultural pesticides and herbicides used in rice farming and Chinese tallow tree control have a noticeable...

  20. Narrowing the harvest: Increasing sickle investment and the rise of domesticated cereal agriculture in the Fertile Crescent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Osamu; Lucas, Leilani; Silva, Fabio; Tanno, Ken-Ichi; Fuller, Dorian Q.

    2016-08-01

    For the first time we integrate quantitative data on lithic sickles and archaeobotanical evidence for domestication and the evolution of plant economies from sites dated to the terminal Pleistocene and Early Holocene (ca. 12000-5000 cal. BCE) from throughout the Fertile Crescent region of Southwest Asia. We find a strong correlation in some regions, throughout the Levant, for increasing investment in sickles that tracks the evidence for increasing reliance on cereal crops, while evidence for morphological domestication in wheats (Triticum monococcum and Triticum dicoccum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) was delayed in comparison to sickle use. These data indicate that while the co-increase of sickle blades and cereal crops support the protracted development of agricultural practice, sickles did not drive the initial stages of the domestication process but rather were a cultural adaptation to increasing reliance on cereals that were still undergoing selection for morphological change. For other regions, such as the Eastern Fertile Crescent and Cyprus such correlations are weaker or non-existent suggesting diverse cultural trajectories to cereal domestication. We conclude that sickles were an exaptation transferred to cereal harvesting and important in signalling a new cultural identity of "farmers". Furthermore, the protracted process of technological and agricultural evolution calls into question hypotheses that the transition to agriculture was caused by any particular climatic event.

  1. Biochars Derived from Gasified Feedstocks Increase the Growth and Improve Nutrient Acquisition of Triticum aestivum (L. Grown in Agricultural Alfisols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin M. Trippe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Biochars are produced by low-oxygen gasification or pyrolysis of organic waste products, and can be co-produced with energy, achieving waste diversion and delivering a soil amendment that can improve agricultural yields. Although many studies have reported the agronomic benefits of biochars produced from pyrolysis, few have interrogated the ability of gasified biochars to improve crop productivity. An earlier study described the ability of a biochar that was derived from gasified Kentucky bluegrass (KB seed screenings to impact the chemistry of acidic agricultural soils. However, that study did not measure the effects of the biochar amendment on plant growth or on nutrient acquisition. To quantify these effects we conducted a greenhouse study that evaluated wheat grown in agricultural soils amended with either the KB-based biochar or a biochar derived from a blend of woody mixed-waste. Our studies indicated that biochar amended soils promoted the growth of wheat in these agricultural alfisols. Our elemental analysis indicated that an attenuation of metal toxicity was likely responsible for the increased plant growth. The results of our study are placed in the context of our previous studies that characterized KB-sourced biochar and its effects on soil chemistry.

  2. Effect of Agricultural Amendments on Cajanus cajan (Pigeon Pea) and Its Rhizospheric Microbial Communities--A Comparison between Chemical Fertilizers and Bioinoculants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rashi; Bisaria, V S; Sharma, Shilpi

    2015-01-01

    Inoculation of leguminous seeds with bioinoculants has been practiced in agriculture for decades to ameliorate grain yield by enhanced growth parameters and soil fertility. However, effective enhancement of plant growth parameters results not only from the direct effects these bioinoculants impose on them but also from their non-target effects. The ability of bioinoculants to reduce the application of chemicals for obtaining optimum yield of legume appears to be of great ecological and economic importance. In the present study, we compared the influence of seed inoculation of Cajanus cajan with a microbial consortium, comprising Bacillus megaterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma harzianum, with that of application of chemical fertilizers on plant's growth parameters and its rhizospheric microbial communities. Real-time PCR assay was carried out to target the structure (16S rRNA) and function (nitrogen cycle) of rhizospheric microbiota, using both DNA and RNA as markers. The results showed that the microbial consortium was the most efficient in increasing grain yield (2.5-fold), even better than the recommended dose of chemical fertilizers (by 1.2-fold) and showed enhancement in nifH and amoA transcripts by 2.7- and 2.0-fold, respectively. No adverse effects of bioinoculants' application were observed over the rhizospheric microbial community, rendering the consortium to be safe for release in agricultural fields.

  3. Effect of Agricultural Amendments on Cajanus cajan (Pigeon Pea and Its Rhizospheric Microbial Communities--A Comparison between Chemical Fertilizers and Bioinoculants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashi Gupta

    Full Text Available Inoculation of leguminous seeds with bioinoculants has been practiced in agriculture for decades to ameliorate grain yield by enhanced growth parameters and soil fertility. However, effective enhancement of plant growth parameters results not only from the direct effects these bioinoculants impose on them but also from their non-target effects. The ability of bioinoculants to reduce the application of chemicals for obtaining optimum yield of legume appears to be of great ecological and economic importance. In the present study, we compared the influence of seed inoculation of Cajanus cajan with a microbial consortium, comprising Bacillus megaterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma harzianum, with that of application of chemical fertilizers on plant's growth parameters and its rhizospheric microbial communities. Real-time PCR assay was carried out to target the structure (16S rRNA and function (nitrogen cycle of rhizospheric microbiota, using both DNA and RNA as markers. The results showed that the microbial consortium was the most efficient in increasing grain yield (2.5-fold, even better than the recommended dose of chemical fertilizers (by 1.2-fold and showed enhancement in nifH and amoA transcripts by 2.7- and 2.0-fold, respectively. No adverse effects of bioinoculants' application were observed over the rhizospheric microbial community, rendering the consortium to be safe for release in agricultural fields.

  4. 现代有机农业与化肥%Modern organic agriculture and chemical fertilizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奚振邦

    2011-01-01

    The organic agriculture is concerned because it can produce organic farming products; and the organic agriculture is discussed from different perspectives. What is the organic agriculture and how to develop the organic agriculture with more large-scale and high productivity under the background in modem agriculture to satisfy the people's needs are discussed around the core target of traditional, classical organic agriculture: ecological environment protection, natural resources and biodiversity, clean and healthy organic products.%人们关注有机农业,因为它能生产有机农牧产品;人们也从不同视角议论有机农业。为此讨论什么是有机农业,在现代农业背景下,如何围绕传统、经典有机农业的核心目标(保护生态环境、自然资源和生物多样性,生产洁净、健康的有机产品),谋求发展较大规模和较高生产力的有机农业,以较多的有机产品满足人们需求。

  5. Pesticide resistance from historical agricultural chemical exposure in Thamnocephalus platyurus (Crustacea: Anostraca)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brausch, John M. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, 1207 Gilbert Dr, Lubbock, TX 79416 (United States)], E-mail: john.brausch@ttu.edu; Smith, Philip N. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, 1207 Gilbert Dr, Lubbock, TX 79416 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Extensive pesticide usage in modern agriculture represents a considerable anthropogenic stressor to freshwater ecosystems throughout the United States. Acute toxicity of three of the most commonly used agricultural pesticides (Methyl Parathion 4ec, Tempo SC Ultra, Karmex DF, and DDT) was determined in two different wild-caught strains of the fairy shrimp Thamnocephalus platyurus. Fairy shrimp collected from playas surrounded by native grasslands were between 200% and 400% more sensitive than fairy shrimp derived from playas in agricultural watersheds for Methyl Parathion 4ec, Tempo SC Ultra, and Karmex DF, likely due to the development of resistance. Additionally, reduced sensitivity to DDT was observed among fairy shrimp from agriculturally-impacted playas as compared to those from native grassland-dominated playas. These data suggest that fairy shrimp inhabiting playas in agricultural regions have developed some degree of resistance to a variety of agrochemicals in response to historical usage. - This manuscript discusses the potential effects of long-term pesticide usage on the development of resistance and cross-resistance on a non-target aquatic invertebrate.

  6. Phytocenotic structure and physico-chemical properties of a small water body in agricultural landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Sender

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Small water bodies, until recently considered as wasteland, are an essential element of the so-called small water retention. Their main use can vary significantly, but they always play a positive role by increasing water resources and enhancing the natural values of the landscape. Moreover, by increasing bio- diversity thanks to plants forming habitats for many species of flora and fauna, small water bodies act as a biofilter, improving water quality. But these small reservoirs belong to the groups of waters that are most exposed to damage, especially within the catchment area. Because of the invaluable role of small farmland water bodies, a study was undertaken to investigate their phytocenotic structure. In addition, an attempt was made to assess the level of threats and to indicate their role in the development of habitat conditions. The investigated reservoir was created in 2007. Before that time, it functioned as a part of the Zemborzycki reservoir, as they were close to each other. Almost the entire surrounding of this small reservoir consisted of farmland. In 2011 a revitalization project was carried out in the reservoir. Plants typical for wetland habitats were mainly introduced, while synanthropic vegetation was removed. Based on chemical and physical analyses, it can be concluded that the investigated reservoir serves as a natural biofilter thanks to the qualitative and quantitative changes in the structure of macrophytes. After the revitalization project, the investigated pond gained new aesthetic and ecological qualities.

  7. A new index to assess chemicals increasing the greenhouse effect based on their toxicity to algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Zhang, Xiaoxian; Tian, Dayong; Gao, Ya; Lin, Zhifen; Liu, Ying; Kong, Lingyun

    2015-11-01

    CO2, as the typical greenhouse gas causing the greenhouse effect, is a major global environmental problem and has attracted increasing attention from governments. Using algae to eliminate CO2, which has been proposed as an effective way to reduce the greenhouse effect in the past decades, can be disturbed by a growing number of artificial chemicals. Thus, seven types of chemicals and Selenastrum capricornutum (algae) were examined in this study, and the good consistency between the toxicity of artificial chemicals to algae and the disturbance of carbon fixation by the chemicals was revealed. This consistency showed that the disturbance of an increasing number of artificial chemicals to the carbon fixation of algae might be a "malware" worsening the global greenhouse effect. Therefore, this study proposes an original, promising index to assess the risk of deepening the greenhouse effect by artificial chemicals before they are produced and marketed.

  8. Increasing farmers' adoption of agricultural index insurance: The search for a better index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneepeerakul, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    The weather index insurance promises to provide farmers' financial resilience when struck by adverse weather conditions, owing to its minimal moral hazard, low transaction cost, and swift compensation. Despite these advantages, the index insurance has so far received low level of adoption. One of the major causes is the presence of "basis risk"—the risk of getting an insurance payoff that falls short of the actual losses. One source of this basis risk is the production basis risk—the probability that the selected weather indexes and their thresholds do not correspond to actual damages. Here, we investigate how to reduce this production basis risk, using current knowledge in non-linear analysis and stochastic modeling from the fields of ecology and hydrology. We demonstrate how the inclusion of rainfall stochasticity can reduce production basis risk while identifying events that do not need to be insured. Through these findings, we show how much we can improve farmers' adoption of agricultural index insurance under different design contexts.

  9. Agricultural chemical exposures and birth defects in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa A case – control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler Joanne

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa is one of the major users of pesticides on the African continent. The Eastern Cape is the second largest province in South Africa. There has been growing concern about the occurrence of certain birth defects which seemed to have increased in the past few years. In this paper we investigate associations between exposure to agricultural chemicals and certain birth defects. Few such studies have been undertaken in the developing world previously. Methods Between September 2000 and March 2001 a case – control study was conducted among rural women in the area of the Eastern cape to investigate the association between women's exposure to pesticides and the occurrence of birth defects. Information on birth defects was obtained from the register of the Paediatrics Department at the Cecilia Makiwane Hospital in Mdantsane, one of the largest referral hospitals in the province. The cases were children who were diagnosed with selected birth defects. The controls were children born in the same areas as the cases. Exposure information on the mothers was obtained by interview concerning from their activities in gardens and fields. Data were analysed using conditional logistic regression. Results A total of 89 case mothers and 178 control mothers was interviewed. Babies with birth defects were seven times more likely to be born to women exposed to chemicals used in gardens and fields compared to no reported exposure (Odds Ratio 7.18, 95% CI 3.99, 13.25; and were almost twice as likely to be born to women who were involved in dipping livestock used to prevent ticks (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.15, 3.14. They were also 6.5 times more likely to be born to women who were using plastic containers for fetching water (OR 6.5, 95% CI 2.2, 27.9. Some of these containers had previously contained pesticides (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.06, 3.31. Conclusions These findings suggest a link between exposure to pesticides and certain birth defects among the

  10. Centimeter-scale spatial variability in 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid mineralization increases with depth in agricultural soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badawi, Nora; Johnsen, Anders R.; Sørensen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Mineralization of organic chemicals in soil is typically studied using large homogenized samples, but little is known about the small-scale spatial distribution of mineralization potential. We studied centimeter-scale spatial distribution of 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) mineralizati...... to the groundwater if transported from the plow layer into the subsoil. © American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America.......Mineralization of organic chemicals in soil is typically studied using large homogenized samples, but little is known about the small-scale spatial distribution of mineralization potential. We studied centimeter-scale spatial distribution of 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) mineralization...... activity at different depths (8-115 cm) in a Danish agricultural soil profi le using a 96-well microplate C-radiorespirometric method for small-volume samples. The heterotrophic microbial population and specifi c MCPA degraders decreased 10- to 100-fold from the plow layer to a depth of 115 cm. MCPA...

  11. Morocco - Oum Er Rbia Irrigated Agricultural Modernization Project : Helping Farmers Increase Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Bucknall, Julia; Lamrani, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    This operation provides a $70m loan for a project that would help participating farmers in the Oum Er Rbia basin increase the productivity of their farming and to promote more sustainable use of irrigation water to overcome current and future water deficits. This would be achieved by providing participating farmers with the level of irrigation service necessary for high efficiency drip irr...

  12. Review on advanced of solar assisted chemical heat pump dryer for agriculture produce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadhel, M.I. [Solar Energy Research Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, Jalan Ayer Keroh Lama, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia); Sopian, K.; Daud, W.R.W.; Alghoul, M.A. [Solar Energy Research Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    Over the past three decades there has been nearly exponential growth in drying R and D on a global scale. Improving of the drying operation to save energy, improve product quality as well as reduce environmental effect remained as the main objectives of any development of drying system. A solar assisted chemical heat pump dryer is a new solar drying system, which have contributed to better cost-effectiveness and better quality dried products as well as saving energy. A solar collector is adapted to provide thermal energy in a reactor so a chemical reaction can take place. This reduces the dependency of the drying technology on fossil energy for heating. In this paper a review on advanced of solar assisted chemical heat pump dryer is presented (the system model and the results from experimental studies on the system performance are discussed). The review of heat pump dryers and solar assisted heat pump dryer is presented. Description of chemical heat pump types and the overview of chemical heat pump dryer are discussed. The combination of chemical heat pump and solar technology gives extra efficiency in utilizing energy. (author)

  13. Alteration of gene expression in human cells treated with the agricultural chemical diazinon: possible interaction in fetal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankame, T; Hokanson, R; Fudge, R; Chowdhary, R; Busbee, D

    2006-05-01

    Agricultural chemicals frequently alter human health or development, typically because they have endocrine agonist or antagonist activities and alter hormone-regulation of gene expression. The insecticide, diazinon, was evaluated for gene expression disrupting activity using MCF-7 cells, an estrogen-dependent human cell line, to examine the capacity of the insecticide to disrupt gene expression essential for morphological development, immune system development or function, and/or central nervous system development and function. MCF-7 cells were treated with 30, 50 or 67 ppm diazinon, and gene expression was measured in treated cells compared to expression in untreated or estrogen-treated cells. DNA microarray analysis of diazinon-treated cells showed significant up- or down-regulation of a large number of genes compared to untreated cells. Of the 600 human genes on the Phase 1 chip utilized for these studies, two specific genes--calreticulin and TGF-beta3--were selected for corroboration using quantitative real time PCR (qrtPCR). qrtPCR, completed to assess gene expression levels for calreticulin and TGFbeta3, confirmed results showing significant up-regulation of these two genes obtained from the microarray data. These studies were designed to provide baseline data on the gene expression-altering capacity of a specific chemical, diazinon, and allow a partial assessment of the potentially deleterious effects associated with exposure of human cells to this chemical. Currently, it is not known whether results from cells in vitro can be extrapolated to human health consequences of chemical exposure.

  14. Global potential to increase crop production through water management in rainfed agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rost, Stefanie; Gerten, Dieter; Hoff, Holger; Lucht, Wolfgang [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Research Domain of Climate Impacts and Vulnerabilities, Telegraphenberg A62, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Falkenmark, Malin [Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Rockstroem, Johan, E-mail: gerten@pik-potsdam.d [Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI), Kraeftriket 2B, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-12-15

    This modeling study explores-spatially explicitly, for current and projected future climate, and for different management intensity levels-the potential for increasing global crop production through on-farm water management strategies: (a) reducing soil evaporation ('vapor shift') and (b) collecting runoff on cropland and using it during dry spells ('runoff harvesting'). A moderate scenario, implying both a 25% reduction in evaporation and a 25% collection of runoff, suggests that global crop production can be increased by 19%, which is comparable with the effect of current irrigation (17%). Climate change alone (three climate models, SRES A2r emissions and population, constant land use) will reduce global crop production by 9% by 2050, which could be buffered by a vapor shift level of 50% or a water harvesting level of 25%. Even if realization of the beneficial effects of rising atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration upon plants was ensured (by fertilizer use) in tandem with the above moderate water management scenario, the water available on current cropland will not meet the requirements of a world population of 9-10 billion.

  15. Modelling the Fate of Xenobiotic Trace Chemicals via Wastewater Treatment and Agricultural Resource Reuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polesel, Fabio

    As a result of widespread human activities, pharmaceuticals and biocides are ubiquitously present at trace levels in the environment. Large amounts of these substances, also identified as xenobiotic trace chemicals (XTCs), are released daily from: (i) households and healthcare facilities, following...... design limitations. These chemicals are thus eventually released to the environment, e.g. in freshwater bodies receiving WWTP effluents, representing a threat to living organisms. WWTPs have been generally identified as a major point source of XTC emissions to the environment. Nevertheless, due...... to the high number of marketed and consumed chemicals, and to the uncertainties associated to sampling and analytical methodologies, quantifying the elimination of XTCs during wastewater treatment still remains a challenge. Developing robust modelling tools to predict the fate of XTCs in WWTPs can help...

  16. Teaching Reforms and Practices of General Chemistry in Agricultural Universities%Guangzhou Chemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁厚群; 胡春燕; 李艳霞; 孙婷婷; 王义华

    2016-01-01

    General Chemistry is an important public basic course in agriculture, forestry, animal science, bioengineering, food engineering, environment engineering majors, etc, in agricultural universities. The main problems during teaching course were analyzed, and according to the curriculum characteristics and the teaching objectives, the teaching contents, patternsand methods were reformedand implemented. The students were found to be more interested in General Chemistry,and their practical handing capabilities were cultivated. The teaching qualityand teaching effect were obviously improved.%《普通化学》是面向高等农业院校农学、林学、动科、生工、食品、环工等专业的一门重要公共基础课。课程组分析课程存在的主要问题,结合本课程特点和教学目标,在教学内容、教学模式、教学方法等方面进行了教学改革与实践。通过这几年的教学改革与实践,不仅学生的学习兴趣和动手实践能力有了很大的进步,教学质量和教学效果也有了明显的提高。

  17. Modelling effects of chemical exposure on birds wintering in agricultural landscapes: The western burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelman, Catherine A.; Grant, William E.; Mora, Miguel A.; Woodin, Marc

    2012-01-01

    We describe an ecotoxicological model that simulates the sublethal and lethal effects of chronic, low-level, chemical exposure on birds wintering in agricultural landscapes. Previous models estimating the impact on wildlife of chemicals used in agro-ecosystems typically have not included the variety of pathways, including both dermal and oral, by which individuals are exposed. The present model contains four submodels simulating (1) foraging behavior of individual birds, (2) chemical applications to crops, (3) transfers of chemicals among soil, insects, and small mammals, and (4) transfers of chemicals to birds via ingestion and dermal exposure. We demonstrate use of the model by simulating the impacts of a variety of commonly used herbicides, insecticides, growth regulators, and defoliants on western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) that winter in agricultural landscapes in southern Texas, United States. The model generated reasonable movement patterns for each chemical through soil, water, insects, and rodents, as well as into the owl via consumption and dermal absorption. Sensitivity analysis suggested model predictions were sensitive to uncertainty associated with estimates of chemical half-lives in birds, soil, and prey, sensitive to parameters associated with estimating dermal exposure, and relatively insensitive to uncertainty associated with details of chemical application procedures (timing of application, amount of drift). Nonetheless, the general trends in chemical accumulations and the relative impacts of the various chemicals were robust to these parameter changes. Simulation results suggested that insecticides posed a greater potential risk to owls of both sublethal and lethal effects than do herbicides, defoliants, and growth regulators under crop scenarios typical of southern Texas, and that use of multiple indicators, or endpoints provided a more accurate assessment of risk due to agricultural chemical exposure. The model should prove

  18. Modelling effects of chemical exposure on birds wintering in agricultural landscapes: The western burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelman, C.A.; Grant, W.E.; Mora, M.A.; Woodin, M.

    2012-01-01

    We describe an ecotoxicological model that simulates the sublethal and lethal effects of chronic, low-level, chemical exposure on birds wintering in agricultural landscapes. Previous models estimating the impact on wildlife of chemicals used in agro-ecosystems typically have not included the variety of pathways, including both dermal and oral, by which individuals are exposed. The present model contains four submodels simulating (1) foraging behavior of individual birds, (2) chemical applications to crops, (3) transfers of chemicals among soil, insects, and small mammals, and (4) transfers of chemicals to birds via ingestion and dermal exposure. We demonstrate use of the model by simulating the impacts of a variety of commonly used herbicides, insecticides, growth regulators, and defoliants on western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) that winter in agricultural landscapes in southern Texas, United States. The model generated reasonable movement patterns for each chemical through soil, water, insects, and rodents, as well as into the owl via consumption and dermal absorption. Sensitivity analysis suggested model predictions were sensitive to uncertainty associated with estimates of chemical half-lives in birds, soil, and prey, sensitive to parameters associated with estimating dermal exposure, and relatively insensitive to uncertainty associated with details of chemical application procedures (timing of application, amount of drift). Nonetheless, the general trends in chemical accumulations and the relative impacts of the various chemicals were robust to these parameter changes. Simulation results suggested that insecticides posed a greater potential risk to owls of both sublethal and lethal effects than do herbicides, defoliants, and growth regulators under crop scenarios typical of southern Texas, and that use of multiple indicators, or endpoints provided a more accurate assessment of risk due to agricultural chemical exposure. The model should prove

  19. Increased human occupation and agricultural development accelerates the population contraction of an estuarine delphinid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenzhi; Karczmarski, Leszek; Xia, Jia; Zhang, Xiyang; Yu, Xinjian; Wu, Yuping

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few thousand years, human development and population expansion in southern China have led to local extirpation and population contraction of many terrestrial animals. At what extent this early human-induced environmental change has also affected coastal marine species remains poorly known. We investigated the demographic history of the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in the Pearl River Delta (PRD); an obligatory inshore species known for its susceptibility to anthropogenic impacts in one of China’s most developed coastal regions. Although the deltaic evolution of PRD has been influenced by climate since the Holocene, ~74% reduction of the dolphin’s effective population size occurred within the last 2000 years, consistent with ~61% habitat contraction during this period. This considerable and recent population contraction may have been due to land use practices and deforestation in the upper/middle Pearl River region, all leading to increasing sedimentation rate in the estuarine area. As anthropogenic impacts within the drainage of Pearl River affected a vast area, coastal dolphins and large terrestrial mammals in southern China may share a similar demographic history, whilst the demographic and biogeographic history of the PRD humpback dolphins may be symptomatic of similar processes that this species may have undergone elsewhere in the region. PMID:27759106

  20. Effects of organic versus conventional management on chemical and biological parameters in agricultural soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeningen, van A.D.; Vos, de O.J.; Korthals, G.W.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2006-01-01

    A comparative study of organic and conventional arable farming systems was conducted in The Netherlands to determine the effect of management practices on chemical and biological soil properties and soil health. Soils from thirteen accredited organic farms and conventionally managed neighboring farm

  1. Physical and chemical properties of selected agricultural byproduct-based activated carbons and their ability to adsorb geosmin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chilton; Losso, Jack N; Marshall, Wayne E; Rao, Ramu M

    2002-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate selected physical and chemical properties of agricultural byproduct-based activated carbons made from pecan shells and sugarcane bagasse, and compare those properties to a commercial coal-based activated carbon as well as to compare the adsorption efficiency of these carbons for geosmin. Comparison of the physical and chemical properties of pecan shell- and bagasse-based carbons to the commercial carbon, Calgon Filtrasorb 400, showed that pecan shell carbon, but not the bagasse carbon, compared favorably to Filtrasorb 400, especially in terms of surface area, bulk density, ash and attrition. A carbon dosage study done in a model system showed the amount of geosmin adsorbed to be greater for Filtrasorb 400 and the bagasse-based carbon at low carbon concentrations than for the pecan shell carbons, but geosmin adsorption was similar in all carbons at higher carbon dosages. Application of the Freundlich isotherm model to the adsorption data showed that carbons made by steam activation of pecan shells or sugarcane bagasse had geosmin adsorption characteristics most like those of the commercial carbon. In terms of physical, chemical and adsorptive properties, steam-activated pecan shell carbon most resembled the commercial carbon and has the potential to replace Filtrasorb 400 in applications involving removal of geosmin from aqueous environments.

  2. Urbanization and agriculture increase exports and differentially alter elemental stoichiometry of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from tropical catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gücker, Björn; Silva, Ricky C S; Graeber, Daniel; Monteiro, José A F; Boëchat, Iola G

    2016-04-15

    Many tropical biomes are threatened by rapid land-use change, but its catchment-wide biogeochemical effects are poorly understood. The few previous studies on DOM in tropical catchments suggest that deforestation and subsequent land use increase stream water dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations, but consistent effects on DOM elemental stoichiometry have not yet been reported. Here, we studied stream water DOC concentrations, catchment DOC exports, and DOM elemental stoichiometry in 20 tropical catchments at the Cerrado-Atlantic rainforest transition, dominated by natural vegetation, pasture, intensive agriculture, and urban land cover. Streams draining pasture could be distinguished from those draining natural catchments by their lower DOC concentrations, with lower DOM C:N and C:P ratios. Catchments with intensive agriculture had higher DOC exports and lower DOM C:P ratios than natural catchments. Finally, with the highest DOC concentrations and exports, as well as the highest DOM C:P and N:P ratios, but the lowest C:N ratios among all land-use types, urbanized catchments had the strongest effects on catchment DOM. Thus, urbanization may have alleviated N limitation of heterotrophic DOM decomposition, but increased P limitation. Land use-especially urbanization-also affected the seasonality of catchment biogeochemistry. While natural catchments exhibited high DOC exports and concentrations, with high DOM C:P ratios in the rainy season only, urbanized catchments had high values in these variables throughout the year. Our results suggest that urbanization and pastoral land use exerted the strongest impacts on DOM biogeochemistry in the investigated tropical catchments and should thus be important targets for management and mitigation efforts.

  3. Increased chemical weathering during the deglacial to mid-Holocene summer monsoon intensification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miriyala, Pavan; Sukumaran, N. P.; Nath, B. Nagender; Ramamurty, P. B.; Sijinkumar, A. V.; Vijayagopal, B.; Ramaswamy, V.; Sebastian, Tyson

    2017-03-01

    Chemical weathering and the ensuing atmospheric carbon dioxide consumption has long been considered to work on geological time periods until recently when some modelling and natural records have shown that the weathering-related CO2 consumption can change at century to glacial-interglacial time scale. Last glacial to interglacial transition period is a best test case to understand the interplay between Pco2-temperature-chemical weathering when a pulse of rapid chemical weathering was initiated. Here we show, from a high resolution 54 ka record from the Andaman Sea in the northern Indian Ocean, that the chemical weathering responds to deglacial to mid-Holocene summer monsoon intensification in the Myanmar watersheds. The multi-proxy data (Al/K, CIA, Rb/Sr, 87Sr/86Sr for degree of weathering and 143Nd/144Nd for provenance) reveal an increase in silicate weathering with initiation of interglacial warm climate at ~17.7 ka followed by a major change at 15.5 ka. Inferred changes in chemical weathering have varied in tandem with the regional monsoonal proxies (δ18Osw-salinity changes of Northern Indian Ocean, effective Asian moisture content and δ18O records of Chinese caves) and are synchronous with changes in summer insolation at 30°N and δ18O of GISP2 implying that chemical weathering was not a later amplifier but worked in tandem with global climate change.

  4. Increased chemical weathering during the deglacial to mid-Holocene summer monsoon intensification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miriyala, Pavan; Sukumaran, N. P.; Nath, B. Nagender; Ramamurty, P. B.; Sijinkumar, A. V.; Vijayagopal, B.; Ramaswamy, V.; Sebastian, Tyson

    2017-01-01

    Chemical weathering and the ensuing atmospheric carbon dioxide consumption has long been considered to work on geological time periods until recently when some modelling and natural records have shown that the weathering-related CO2 consumption can change at century to glacial-interglacial time scale. Last glacial to interglacial transition period is a best test case to understand the interplay between Pco2-temperature-chemical weathering when a pulse of rapid chemical weathering was initiated. Here we show, from a high resolution 54 ka record from the Andaman Sea in the northern Indian Ocean, that the chemical weathering responds to deglacial to mid-Holocene summer monsoon intensification in the Myanmar watersheds. The multi-proxy data (Al/K, CIA, Rb/Sr, 87Sr/86Sr for degree of weathering and 143Nd/144Nd for provenance) reveal an increase in silicate weathering with initiation of interglacial warm climate at ~17.7 ka followed by a major change at 15.5 ka. Inferred changes in chemical weathering have varied in tandem with the regional monsoonal proxies (δ18Osw-salinity changes of Northern Indian Ocean, effective Asian moisture content and δ18O records of Chinese caves) and are synchronous with changes in summer insolation at 30°N and δ18O of GISP2 implying that chemical weathering was not a later amplifier but worked in tandem with global climate change. PMID:28303943

  5. BP to Increase Production Capacity of PTA at BP Zhuhai Chemical

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    BP has announced a strategic plan for its substantial development in China. It is actively proceeding with its project to increase its production capacity of purified terephthalic acid, or PTA, at the BP Zhuhai Chemical Company Limited facility i n Guangdong, China.

  6. Analysis of the Farmers Economic Behavior to Reduce the Environmental Effects of Agricultural Chemical Inputs (a Case Study of Kashaf- Rood Basin in Mashhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Aghasafari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is the analysis of the farmers economic behavior to reduce the adverse environmental effects of agricultural chemical inputs by using contingent valuation approach and Tobit model by Heckman's two stage. To achieve the desired goal, 100 questionnaires collected by a random sampling from farmers of Kashaf- rood basin in Mashhad city in 2013. Results showed that variables of age, education, type of agricultural activity, index 2 (farmers agree with the adverse effects of overuse of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, index 5 (farmers agree with investments to protect the soil and water, Sex, number of households employed in agriculture, experience in the use of soil and water conservation practices, total area under cultivation and index 4 (farmers agree with well being of available soil and water have a significant impact on the farmers financial participation to reduce the adverse environmental effects of chemical fertilizers. also, variables of age, education, total amount annual consumption of chemical pesticides per year, sex, main job, number of households employed in agriculture, type of agricultural activity, net savings of agriculture, land ownership status, total amount annual consumption of fertilizer per year, index 1 (farmers agree with benefits of preventing soil washing, index 4 (farmers agree with well being of available soil and water and index 5 (farmers agree with investments to protect the soil and water have a significant impact on the farmers financial participation to reduce the adverse environmental effects of chemical pesticides. According to the study results, Suggestions is presented for reducing the adverse environmental impacts of chemical inputs.

  7. Agricultural Extension Messages Using Video on Portable Devices Increased Knowledge about Seed Selection, Storage and Handling among Smallholder Potato Farmers in Southwestern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Campenhout, Bjorn; Vandevelde, Senne; Walukano, Wilberforce; Van Asten, Piet

    2017-01-01

    To feed a growing population, agricultural productivity needs to increase dramatically. Agricultural extension information, with its public, non-rival nature, is generally undersupplied, and public provision remains challenging. In this study, simple agricultural extension video messages, delivered through Android tablets, were tested in the field to determine if they increased farmers’ knowledge of recommended practices on (i) potato seed selection and (ii) seed storage and handling among a sample of potato farmers in southwestern Uganda. Using a field experiment with ex ante matching in a factorial design, it was established that showing agricultural extension videos significantly increased farmers’ knowledge. However, results suggested impact pathways that went beyond simply replicating what was shown in the video. Video messages may have triggered a process of abstraction, whereby farmers applied insights gained in one context to a different context. PMID:28122005

  8. Development of hazard analysis by critical control points (HACCP) procedures to control organic chemical hazards in the agricultural production of raw food commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropkins, Karl; Ferguson, Andrew; Beck, Angus J

    2003-01-01

    Hazard Analysis by Critical Control Points (HACCP) is a systematic approach to the identification, assessment, and control of hazards in the food chain. Effective HACCP requires the consideration of all chemical microbiological, and physical hazards. However, current procedures focus primarily on microbiological and physical hazards, while chemical aspects of HACCP have received relatively little attention. In this article we discuss the application of HACCP to organic chemical contaminants and the problems that are likely to be encountered in agriculture. We also present generic templates for the development of organic chemical contaminant HACCP procedures for selected raw food commodities, that is, cereal crops,raw meats, and milk.

  9. Chemical Changes Associated with Increased Acid Resistance of Er:YAG Laser Irradiated Enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Manuela Díaz-Monroy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. An increase in the acid resistance of dental enamel, as well as morphological and structural changes produced by Er:YAG laser irradiation, has been reported. Purpose. To evaluate the chemical changes associated with acid resistance of enamel treated with Er:YAG laser. Methods. Forty-eight enamel samples were divided into 4 groups (n=12. Group I (control; Groups II, III, and IV were irradiated with Er:YAG at 100 mJ (12.7 J/cm2, 200 mJ (25.5 J/cm2, and 300 mJ (38.2 J/cm2, respectively. Results. There were significant differences in composition of irradiated groups (with the exception of chlorine and in the amount of calcium released. Conclusions. Chemical changes associated with an increase in acid resistance of enamel treated with Er:YAG laser showed a clear postirradiation pattern characterized by a decrease in C at.% and an increase in O, P, and Ca at.% and no changes in Cl at.%. An increased Ca/P ratio after Er:YAG laser irradiation was associated with the use of higher laser energy densities. Chemical changes produced by acid dissolution showed a similar trend among experimental groups. Stable or increased Ca/P ratio after acid dissolution was observed in the irradiated groups, with reduction of Ca released into the acid solution.

  10. An investigation analysis on agricultural chemical marketing management in Fangchenggang City%防城港市农药经营管理情况调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑德剑

    2009-01-01

    农药作为防治农作物病虫害的特殊商品,它的使用对确保农业生产丰收起着关键性作用,随着使用量的逐年增加,其经营利润也凸显出来,因此而产生了一系列的经营和管理的问题.本文通过实地调查与资料调查相结合的办法,对防城港市农药经营管理进行了调查,结果表明,农药经营管理存在经营不规范、安全意识不高、监管不到位等问题,并对存在的问题进行了深入的分析,提出了规范农药市场的经营管理应对策略.%As the special commodities for controlling crop diseases and insects, agricultural chemical's utilization makes a key function on ensure farming harvest and along with their application increase yearly, their profit is becoming bigger and bigger and a series of problems in marketing management are occurred. Based on field investigation and data collection, this paper has analyzed the management situation of agricultural chemical in Fangchenggang City, and the results show that there are some problems such as nonstandard marketing, lower security awareness, weaker supervision etc. This paper has also analyzed the existing problems and put forward measures to enhance marketing management.

  11. The relationship between chemical-induced kidney weight increases and kidney histopathology in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Evisabel A; Yan, Zhongyu; Zhao, Q Jay

    2015-07-01

    The kidney is a major site of chemical excretion, which results in its propensity to exhibit chemically-induced toxicological effects at a higher rate than most other organs. Although the kidneys are often weighed in animal toxicity studies, the manner in which these kidney weight measurements are interpreted and the value of this information in predicting renal damage remains controversial. In this study we sought to determine whether a relationship exists between chemically-induced kidney weight changes and renal histopathological alterations. We also examined the relative utility of absolute and relative (kidney-to-body weight ratio) kidney weight in the prediction of renal toxicity. For this, data extracted from oral chemical exposure studies in rats performed by the National Toxicology Program were qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated. Our analysis showed a statistically significant correlation between absolute, but not relative, kidney weight and renal histopathology in chemically-treated rats. This positive correlation between absolute kidney weight and histopathology was observed even with compounds that statistically decreased terminal body weight. Also, changes in absolute kidney weight, which occurred at subchronic exposures, were able to predict the presence or absence of kidney histopathology at both subchronic and chronic exposures. Furthermore, most increases in absolute kidney weight reaching statistical significance (irrespective of the magnitude of change) were found to be relevant for the prediction of histopathological changes. Hence, our findings demonstrate that the evaluation of absolute kidney weight is a useful method for identifying potential renal toxicants.

  12. The Influence of Agricultural Mechanization on the Development of Agricultural Economy in Chongqing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changsheng; QIU

    2015-01-01

    The impact of the agricultural mechanization development on the agricultural economy has caught public attention. In this paper,the role of the agricultural mechanization in the agricultural economic development of Chongqing is analyzed with the qualitative and quantitative methods based on econometrics and agricultural engineering theory,and its contribution rate is 30. 6%. Moreover,the development of agricultural mechanization of the agricultural economy will play a leading role in the 21 st century,and will change the traditional economic development mode featured by increasing agricultural labor and chemical fertilizer. The quality and quantity of agricultural labor force mastering modern science technology is the key to the development of modern agricultural economy.

  13. Can Exposure to Environmental Chemicals Increase the Risk of Diabetes Type 1 Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Bodin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is an autoimmune disease, where destruction of beta-cells causes insulin deficiency. The incidence of T1DM has increased in the last decades and cannot entirely be explained by genetic predisposition. Several environmental factors are suggested to promote T1DM, like early childhood enteroviral infections and nutritional factors, but the evidence is inconclusive. Prenatal and early life exposure to environmental pollutants like phthalates, bisphenol A, perfluorinated compounds, PCBs, dioxins, toxicants, and air pollutants can have negative effects on the developing immune system, resulting in asthma-like symptoms and increased susceptibility to childhood infections. In this review the associations between environmental chemical exposure and T1DM development is summarized. Although information on environmental chemicals as possible triggers for T1DM is sparse, we conclude that it is plausible that environmental chemicals can contribute to T1DM development via impaired pancreatic beta-cell and immune-cell functions and immunomodulation. Several environmental factors and chemicals could act together to trigger T1DM development in genetically susceptible individuals, possibly via hormonal or epigenetic alterations. Further observational T1DM cohort studies and animal exposure experiments are encouraged.

  14. Water-quality, water-level, and discharge data associated with the Mississippi embayment agricultural chemical-transport study, 2006-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Melinda S.; Rose, Claire E.; Coupe, Richard H.

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, the Agricultural Chemicals: Sources, Transport and Fate study team (Agricultural Chemicals Team, ACT) of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program began a study in northwestern Mississippi to evaluate the influence of surface-water recharge on the occurrence of agriculturally related nutrients and pesticides in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer. The ACT study was composed in the Bogue Phalia Basin, an indicator watershed within the National Water-Quality Assessment Program Mississippi Embayment Study Unit and utilized several small, subbasins within the Bogue Phalia to evaluate surface and groundwater interaction and chemical transport in the Basin. Data collected as part of this ACT study include water-quality data from routine and incident-driven water samples evaluated for major ions, nutrients, organic carbon, physical properties, and commonly used pesticides in the area; discharge, gage height and water-level data for surface-water sites, the shallow alluvial aquifer, and hyporheic zone; additionally, agricultural data and detailed management activities were reported by land managers for farms within two subbasins of the Bogue Phalia Basin—Tommie Bayou at Pace, MS, and an unnamed tributary to Clear Creek near Napanee, MS.

  15. Experimental design strategy: weak reinforcement leads to increased hit rates and enhanced chemical diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Mateusz; Wassermann, Anne Mai; Glick, Meir; Lounkine, Eugen

    2015-05-26

    High Throughput Screening (HTS) is a common approach in life sciences to discover chemical matter that modulates a biological target or phenotype. However, low assay throughput, reagents cost, or a flowchart that can deal with only a limited number of hits may impair screening large numbers of compounds. In this case, a subset of compounds is assayed, and in silico models are utilized to aid in iterative screening design, usually to expand around the found hits and enrich subsequent rounds for relevant chemical matter. However, this may lead to an overly narrow focus, and the diversity of compounds sampled in subsequent iterations may suffer. Active learning has been recently successfully applied in drug discovery with the goal of sampling diverse chemical space to improve model performance. Here we introduce a robust and straightforward iterative screening protocol based on naı̈ve Bayes models. Instead of following up on the compounds with the highest scores in the in silico model, we pursue compounds with very low but positive values. This includes unique chemotypes of weakly active compounds that enhance the applicability domain of the model and increase the cumulative hit rates. We show in a retrospective application to 81 Novartis assays that this protocol leads to consistently higher compound and scaffold hit rates compared to a standard expansion around hits or an active learning approach. We recommend using the weak reinforcement strategy introduced herein for iterative screening workflows.

  16. Chemical properties of urban waste ash produced by open burning on the Jos Plateau: implications for agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquini, M W; Alexander, M J

    2004-02-05

    Urban centres produce most of the world's waste and between a third and a half goes uncollected. The answer to the problem of waste disposal lies partly in agriculture, as waste can be extremely nutrient-rich. In the last decade there has been a tremendous increase in the developing world in total city area under informal food production and there are many examples of waste recycling onto the urban or peri-urban plots. Farmers on the Jos Plateau, Nigeria, have developed a successful soil fertility management strategy based on the combination of inorganic fertilisers, manure and urban waste ash. This study sought to provide some preliminary data on urban waste ash produced by open burning and used in farming in a developing country. Ash samples were collected from different locations around Jos and tested for C, N, pH, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd and Pb. It was found that ash is an effective liming material (because of the high pH, and high Ca, Mg and K contents), and has the potential to contribute significant quantities of micro-nutrients such as Mn, Zn and Cu. Ash, however, is far from being a homogenous material and its variability means that its fertilising potential will vary between batches and that, even if mean and median levels are low, there is the risk of the formation of localised areas of soil with excessive heavy metal contents (this is particularly the case with Pb). Further research is required to determine the plant-availability of these elements in the ash and to assess the wider environmental and health implications of uncontrolled, open burning of waste as a means of producing ash for agricultural purposes.

  17. Practical implications of increasing 'natural living' through suckling systems in organic dairy calf rearing; Theme: Values in Organic Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, J.P.; Langhout, D.J.

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of suckling systems in organic dairy calf rearing has the potential to enhance animal welfare in terms of ‘natural living’ and to live up to consumers’ expectations about organic agriculture. This study describes the implications of suckling systems in a practical organic dairy cont

  18. Increasing nutrient use efficiency in West-African agriculture: the impact of micro-topography on nutrient leaching from cattle and sheep manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, J.; Powell, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    In African agriculture, availability of nutrients for crop production can be increased using external inputs such as mineral fertiliser. However, for many African farmers the large scale use of external inputs will remain beyond reach for the foreseeable future. There is, therefore, also a need for

  19. Urbanization and agriculture increase exports and differentially alter elemental stoichiometry of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from tropical catchments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gücker, Björn; Silva, Ricky C. S.; Graeber, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    ) concentrations, but consistent effects on DOM elemental stoichiometry have not yet been reported. Here, we studied stream water DOC concentrations, catchment DOC exports, and DOM elemental stoichiometry in 20 tropical catchments at the Cerrado–Atlantic rainforest transition, dominated by natural vegetation......, pasture, intensive agriculture, and urban land cover. Streams draining pasture could be distinguished from those draining natural catchments by their lower DOC concentrations, with lower DOM C:N and C:P ratios. Catchments with intensive agriculture had higher DOC exports and lower DOM C:P ratios than...... natural catchments. Finally, with the highest DOC concentrations and exports, as well as the highest DOM C:P and N:P ratios, but the lowest C:N ratios among all land-use types, urbanized catchments had the strongest effects on catchment DOM. Thus, urbanization may have alleviated N limitation...

  20. The 5th World Congress of chemical engineering: Technologies critical to a changing World. Volume II: Agriculture, food biotechnology biomedical electric power process safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Volume 2 of the proceedings from the 5th World Congress of Chemical Engineering covers four major topic areas from which papers were selected for the database: Agriculture, Food; Biotechnology; Electric Power, and Process Safety. Pertinent subtopics include: Renewable Resource Engineering; Special Processes in the Food Industry; Advances in Metabolite Production; Advances in Fermentation and Cell Culture Engineering; Coal and Nuclear Central Station Power Plants; Large Natural Gas Fired Power Stations; Distributed Generation; Potential Impact of Biomass Energy; and Chemical Hazards in Plant Design. 29 papers were selected from Volume 1 for the database.

  1. Chemical stress induced by heliotrope (Heliotropium europaeum L.) allelochemicals and increased activity of antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulghader, Kalantar; Nojavan, Majid; Naghshbandi, Nabat

    2008-03-15

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the allelopathic potential of heliotrope on some biochemical processes of dodder. The preliminary experiments revealed that the effect of aqueous extract of leaves of heliotrope is higher than its seeds and roots. So, the aqueous extract of leaves was used in remaining experiments. Leaf extracts of 5 g powder per 100 mL H2O inhibited the germination of dodder seeds up to 95% and that of radish up to 100%. While, the aqueous extract of vine leaves which is a non-allelopathic plant did not have any inhibitory effect on these seeds. Vine leaf was used as a control to show that the inhibitory effect of heliotrope is due to an inhibitory compound but not due to the concentration. The leaf extract of heliotrope at 0.0, 0.1, 1.0, 2, 3, 4 and 5 g powder per 100 mL H2O reduced the radish seedling growth from 14 cm to about 0.5 cm and that of dodder from 7.5 cm to about 0.25 cm. The effects of heliotrope allelochemicals on some physiological and biochemical processes of radish was also Investigated. The activity of auxin oxidase increased in leaves and roots of radish. Suggesting that the reduced radish growth is due to the decreased active auxin levels in its leaves and roots. The activity of alpha-amylase was reduced, so reduction of starch degradation and lack of respiratory energy is the prime reason of germination inhibition in dodder and radish seeds. The level of soluble sugars increased. This is an indication of reduction of the activity of some respiratory enzymes and reduced consumption of these sugars. Proline levels were also increased, indicating that, the chemical stress is induced by leaf extract. Finally, the activities of GPX and CAT which are antioxidant enzymes were increased, along with increased extract concentration. These finding shows that the chemical stress induced by leaf extract produces super oxide (O2*) and H2O2, which is neutralized to H2O and O2 by these enzymes.

  2. Increasing the understanding of chemical concepts: The effectiveness of multiple exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bius, Janet H.

    Chemistry is difficult because it has multilevels of knowledge with each level presenting challenges in vocabulary, abstract thinking, and symbolic language. Students have to be able to transfer between levels to understand the concepts and the theoretical models of chemistry. The cognitive theories of constructivism and cognitive-load theory are used to explain the difficulties novice learners have with the subject of chemistry and methods to increase success for students. The relationship between external representations, misconceptions and topics on the success of students are addressed. If students do not know the formalisms associated with chemical diagrams and graphs, the representations will decrease student success. Misconceptions can be formed when new information is interpreted based on pre-existing knowledge that is faulty. Topics with large amount of interacting elements that must be processed simultaneously are considered difficult to understand. New variables were created to measure the number of times a student is exposed to a chemical concept. Each variable was coded according to topic and learning environment, which are the lecture and laboratory components of the course, homework assignments and textbook examples. The exposure variables are used to measure the success rate of students on similar exam questions. Question difficulty scales were adapted for this project from those found in the chemical education literature. The exposure variables were tested on each level of the difficulty scales to determine their effect at decreasing the cognitive demand of these questions. The subjects of this study were freshmen science majors at a large Midwest university. The effects of the difficulty scales and exposure variables were measured for those students whose exam scores were in the upper one-fourth percentile, for students whose test scores were in the middle one-half percentile, and the lower one-fourth percentile are those students that scored the

  3. Physical-chemical pretreatment as an option for increased sustainability of municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mels, A.R.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords : municipal wastewater treatment, physical-chemical pretreatment, chemically enhanced primary treatment, organic polymers, environmental sustainabilityMost of the currently applied municipal wastewater treatment plants in The Netherlands are based on the activated sludge process and include

  4. Inventions in the nanotechnological area considerably increase wear- and chemical resistance of construction products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The invention «Reinforced flaked element made of natural or conglomerate stone and its multilayer protective coating (RU 2520193» is referred to construction materials. Reinforced flaked element made of natural or conglomerate stone consists of: natural or conglomerate materials as the basis; multilayer coating which protects the mentioned basis from chemical substances and wearing mechanical factors influencing on this element where the multilayer coating includes at least three layers formed by one or many film-forming compositions which comprise top layer with scratch-resistant nanoparticles and encircled with polyester, melamine, phenolic, acryl or epoxy resin (or any combination of them which provides protection against scratches; damper intermediate layer made of epoxy and/or acryl resin which provides impact resistant; lower layer adjoining to the basis and containing particles of Al2O3 or silicon carbide plus acryl polymer and providing resistance to abrasive wear. Technical result is increased wear- and chemical resistance of flaked elements from natural or conglomerate materials. The invention «Fine organic suspension of carbon metal-containing nanostructures and the method to produce it (RU 2515858» is referred to the area of physical and colloid chemistry and can be used to obtain polymer compositions. Fine organic suspension of carbon metal-containing nanostructures is produced by interaction between nanostructures and polyethylenepolyamine. At first the powder of carbon metalcontaining nanostructures (which are nanoparticles of 3d-metal such as copper, cobalt, nickel stabilized in carbon nanostructures is mechanically milled, then it is mechanically ground with polyethylenepolyamine introduced portionally unless and until the content of nanostructures is less 1 g/ml. The invention results in decreased power inputs as the obtained fine organic suspension of carbon and metal-containing nanostructures is able to recover due to

  5. Pretreated cheese whey wastewater management by agricultural reuse: chemical characterization and response of tomato plants Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. under salinity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prazeres, Ana R; Carvalho, Fátima; Rivas, Javier; Patanita, Manuel; Dôres, Jóse

    2013-10-01

    The agricultural reuse of pretreated industrial wastewater resulting from cheese manufacture is shown as a suitable option for its disposal and management. This alternative presents attractive advantages from the economic and pollution control viewpoints. Pretreated cheese whey wastewater (CWW) has high contents of biodegradable organic matter, salinity and nutrients, which are essential development factors for plants with moderate to elevated salinity tolerance. Five different pretreated CWW treatments (1.75 to 10.02 dS m(-1)) have been applied in the tomato plant growth. Fresh water was used as a control run (average salinity level=1.44 dS m(-1)). Chemical characterization and indicator ratios of the leaves, stems and roots were monitored. The sodium and potassium leaf concentrations increased linearly with the salinity level in both cultivars, Roma and Rio Grande. Similar results were found in the stem sodium content. However, the toxic sodium accumulations in the cv. Roma exceeded the values obtained in the cv. Rio Grande. In this last situation, K and Ca uptake, absorption, transport and accumulation capacities were presented as tolerance mechanisms for the osmotic potential regulation of the tissues and for the ion neutralization. Consequently, Na/Ca and Na/K ratios presented lower values in the cv. Rio Grande. Na/Ca ratio increased linearly with the salinity level in leaves and stems, regardless of the cultivar. Regarding the Na/K ratio, the values demonstrated competition phenomena between the ions for the cv. Rio Grande. Despite the high chloride content of the CWW, no significant differences were observed for this nutrient in the leaves and stems. Thus, no nitrogen deficiency was demonstrated by the interaction NO3(-)/Cl(-). Nitrogen also contributes to maintain the water potential difference between the tissues and the soil. Na, P, Cl and N radicular concentrations were maximized for high salinity levels (≥2.22 dS m(-1)) of the pretreated CWW.

  6. MAM-An Aquivalence-based Dynamic Mass Balance Model for the Fate of Non-Volatile Organic Chemicals in the Agricultural Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Batiha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A Multimedia Agricultural Model (MAM for predicting the fate and transport of Non-Volatile Organic Chemicals (NVOCs in the agricultural environment was presented. It is an expanded and modified version of the three compartmental model introduced by Batiha and co-authors in 2007, which is an aquivalence-based level IV. MAM considered five environmental compartments to include the air, water, soil, sediment and vegetation. It calculates the complete steady-state mass budgets for the air, water and particulate organic carbon between the model compartments. MAM compartments were connected by advective and intermedia transport processes. Degradation can take place in every compartment. The mass balances for each of the compartments result in a system of five differential equations, solved numerically to yield estimates of concentrations, masses, transport fluxes and reaction rates as a function of time. All the equations required for MAM calculations were provided.

  7. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Occupational Exposure to Agricultural Pesticide Chemical Groups and Active Ingredients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Schinasi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes results from a systematic review and a series of meta-analyses of nearly three decades worth of epidemiologic research on the relationship between non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL and occupational exposure to agricultural pesticide active ingredients and chemical groups. Estimates of associations of NHL with 21 pesticide chemical groups and 80 active ingredients were extracted from 44 papers, all of which reported results from analyses of studies conducted in high-income countries. Random effects meta-analyses showed that phenoxy herbicides, carbamate insecticides, organophosphorus insecticides and the active ingredient lindane, an organochlorine insecticide, were positively associated with NHL. In a handful of papers, associations between pesticides and NHL subtypes were reported; B cell lymphoma was positively associated with phenoxy herbicides and the organophosphorus herbicide glyphosate. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was positively associated with phenoxy herbicide exposure. Despite compelling evidence that NHL is associated with certain chemicals, this review indicates the need for investigations of a larger variety of pesticides in more geographic areas, especially in low- and middle-income countries, which, despite producing a large portion of the world’s agriculture, were missing in the literature that were reviewed.

  8. Increased capsaicin-induced secondary hyperalgesia in patients with multiple chemical sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Helle; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Mosbech, Holger;

    2011-01-01

    in experimental pain models to provoke peripheral and central sensitization. In patients with symptoms elicited by odorous chemicals capsaicin-induced secondary hyperalgesia and temporal summation were assessed as markers for abnormal central nociceptive processing together with neurogenic inflammation (flare).......the underlying cause of pathophysiological mechanisms triggering multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) remains disputed.Recently, alterations in the central nervous system, for example,central sensitization, similar to various chronic pain disorders, have been suggested. Capsaicin is used...

  9. A threshold area ratio of organic to conventional agriculture causes recurrent pathogen outbreaks in organic agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adl, S; Iron, D; Kolokolnikov, T

    2011-05-01

    Conventional agriculture uses herbicides, pesticides, and chemical fertilizers that have the potential to pollute the surrounding land, air and water. Organic agriculture tries to avoid using these and promotes an environmentally friendly approach to agriculture. Instead of relying on herbicides, pesticides and chemical fertilizers, organic agriculture promotes a whole system approach to managing weeds, pests and nutrients, while regulating permitted amendments. In this paper, we consider the effect of increasing the total area of agricultural land under organic practices, against a background of conventional agriculture. We hypothesized that at a regional scale, organic agriculture plots benefit from existing in a background of conventional agriculture, that maintains low levels of pathogens through pesticide applications. We model pathogen dispersal with a diffusive logistic equation in which the growth/death rate is spatially heterogeneous. We find that if the ratio of the organic plots to conventional plots remains below a certain threshold l(c), the pest population is kept small. Above this threshold, the pest population in the organic plots grows rapidly. In this case, the area in organic agriculture will act as a source of pest to the surrounding region, and will always infect organic plots as they become more closely spaced. Repeated localized epidemics of pest outbreaks threaten global food security by reducing crop yields and increasing price volatility. We recommend that regional estimates of this threshold are necessary to manage the growth of organic agriculture region by region.

  10. Effects of chemical compositions and ensiling on the biogas productivity and degradation rates of agricultural and food processing by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, Gopi Krishna; Kim, Sang Hun

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of chemical compositions and ensiling on the biogas productivity and degradation rates of agricultural and food processing by-products (AFPBPs) using the biogas potential test. The AFPBPs were classified based on their chemical compositions (i.e., carbohydrate, protein and fat contents). The biogas and methane potentials of AFPBPs were calculated to range from 450 to 777 mL/g volatile solids (VS) and 260-543 mL/g VS, respectively. AFPBPs with high fat and protein contents produced significantly higher amounts of biogas than AFPBPs with high carbohydrate and low fat contents. The degradation rate was faster for AFPBPs with high carbohydrate contents compared to AFPBPs with high protein and fat contents. The lag phase and biogas production duration were lower when using ensiled AFPBPs than when using nonsilage AFPBPs. Among the four different silages tested, two silages significantly improved biogas production compared to the nonsilage AFPBPs.

  11. Consequences of a government-controlled agricultural price increase on fishing and the coral reef ecosystem in the republic of kiribati.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila M W Reddy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Economic development policies may have important economic and ecological consequences beyond the sector they target. Understanding these consequences is important to improving these policies and finding opportunities to align economic development with natural resource conservation. These issues are of particular interest to governments and non-governmental organizations that have new mandates to pursue multiple benefits. In this case study, we examined the direct and indirect economic and ecological effects of an increase in the government-controlled price for the primary agricultural product in the Republic of Kiribati, Central Pacific. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted household surveys and underwater visual surveys of the coral reef to examine how the government increase in the price of copra directly affected copra labor and indirectly affected fishing and the coral reef ecosystem. The islands of Kiribati are coral reef atolls and the majority of households participate in copra agriculture and fishing on the coral reefs. Our household survey data suggest that the 30% increase in the price of copra resulted in a 32% increase in copra labor and a 38% increase in fishing labor. Households with the largest amount of land in coconut production increased copra labor the most and households with the smallest amount of land in coconut production increased fishing the most. Our ecological data suggests that increased fishing labor may result in a 20% decrease in fish stocks and 4% decrease in coral reef-builders. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We provide empirical evidence to suggest that the government increase in the copra price in Kiribati had unexpected and indirect economic and ecological consequences. In this case, the economic development policy was not in alignment with conservation. These results emphasize the importance of accounting for differences in household capital and taking a systems approach to policy design and

  12. Chemical inhibition of autophagy: Examining its potential to increase the specific productivity of recombinant CHO cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Eric; Kim, Che Lin; Kim, Mi Gyeom; Lee, Jae Seong; Lee, Gyun Min

    2016-09-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells activate and undergo apoptosis and autophagy for various environmental stresses. Unlike apoptosis, studies on increasing the production of therapeutic proteins in CHO cells by targeting the autophagy pathway are limited. In order to identify the effects of chemical autophagy inhibitors on the specific productivity (qp ), nine chemical inhibitors that had been reported to target three different phases of autophagy (metformin, dorsomorphin, resveratrol, and SP600125 against initiation and nucleation; 3-MA, wortmannin, and LY294002 against elongation, and chloroquine and bafilomycin A1 against autophagosome fusion) were used to treat three recombinant CHO (rCHO) cell lines: the Fc-fusion protein-producing DG44 (DG44-Fc) and DUKX-B11 (DUKX-Fc) and antibody-producing DG44 (DG44-Ab) cell lines. Among the nine chemical inhibitors tested, 3-MA, dorsomorphin, and SP600125 significantly increased the qp of DG44-Fc and DUKX-Fc. In contrast, for DG44-Ab, only 3-MA significantly increased the qp . The autophagy-inhibiting activity of the nine chemical inhibitors on the rCHO cell lines was evaluated through Western blot analysis and flow cytometry. Unexpectedly, some chemical inhibitors did not exhibit any apparent inhibition activity on autophagy. The chemical inhibitors that enhanced the qp , 3-MA, dorsomorphin, and SP600125, exhibited instead an increased autophagic flux. Taken all together, the chemical inhibition of autophagy was not effective in increasing the qp in rCHO cell lines and the positive effect of 3-MA, dorsomorphin, and SP600125 on the qp was not due to the inhibition of autophagy. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1953-1961. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Agricultural land use and human presence around breeding sites increase stress-hormone levels and decrease body mass in barn owl nestlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasi, Bettina; Béziers, Paul; Roulin, Alexandre; Jenni, Lukas

    2015-09-01

    Human activities can have a suite of positive and negative effects on animals and thus can affect various life history parameters. Human presence and agricultural practice can be perceived as stressors to which animals react with the secretion of glucocorticoids. The acute short-term secretion of glucocorticoids is considered beneficial and helps an animal to redirect energy and behaviour to cope with a critical situation. However, a long-term increase of glucocorticoids can impair e.g. growth and immune functions. We investigated how nestling barn owls (Tyto alba) are affected by the surrounding landscape and by human activities around their nest sites. We studied these effects on two response levels: (a) the physiological level of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, represented by baseline concentrations of corticosterone and the concentration attained by a standardized stressor; (b) fitness parameters: growth of the nestlings and breeding performance. Nestlings growing up in intensively cultivated areas showed increased baseline corticosterone levels late in the season and had an increased corticosterone release after a stressful event, while their body mass was decreased. Nestlings experiencing frequent anthropogenic disturbance had elevated baseline corticosterone levels, an increased corticosterone stress response and a lower body mass. Finally, breeding performance was better in structurally more diverse landscapes. In conclusion, anthropogenic disturbance affects offspring quality rather than quantity, whereas agricultural practices affect both life history traits.

  14. Environmentally Friendly Propylene/Propane Recovery Process Increases Economic Benefits to Daqing Chemical Research Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ "The process for recovering propylene/propane from Oxo-synthesis purge gas" performed by Daqing Chemical Re-search Center has been granted the Heilongjiang Governor's Special Award. This technology since its application at Daqing Petrochemical Company starting at the end of 2001 has contributed to effective materials utilization and envi-ronmental protection.

  15. Influence of chemical properties of biomass plant agricultural origin on outlays energy incurred during the production of pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur KRASZKIEWICZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, was analysed made the measurements of the content of water, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulphur and chlorine in plant biomass of agricultural origin in the context of the impact of these features on the energy expenditures incurred in its pelleting. For the examined raw materials statistical analysis results showed negative linear trend between energy expenditures and: water content, total sulfur and chlorine. Positive linear trend between energy expenditures and: contents of carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen. Wherein the coefficients of correlation expenditures energy and: carbon, hydrogen and chlorine are significant p<0.05.

  16. Chemical injuries from assaults: An increasing trend in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaitan Peter

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This paper describes chemical injuries, which presented to us and were managed at a burn unit in Nigeria. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the etiologies of these injuries, the extent of the injuries as well as to suggest possible ways to prevent chemical injuries in our environment. Materials and Methods: We carried out a retrospective review of chemical burns treated at our center. Our sources of information were the burn unit admission registers, case notes of the patients and operation registers. The results were collated and then analyzed. Results: Twenty eight patients presented with chemical burn injuries during the study period between January 2000 and December 2003, constituting 5.7% of all patients with burns treated within that period. Seventeen (60.7% of the patients were males while 11 (29.3% were females with a mean age of 20.6 years. The injuries were sustained from assault in 21 (75%, armed robbery attacks in five (17.8% and suicide attempts in two (7.1%. The agents were usually unknown. Late presentation was observed in all the patients. Raw eggs, palm oil, gentian violet and engine oil were the substances applied immediately after the injuries. Complications observed included septicemia, respiratory distress, blindness, renal failure, mentosternal contractures, ectropion, axillary contractures, hypertrophic scars, keloids and skin depigmentation. Conclusion: Chemical burn injuries are mainly due to assaults in Nigeria and are usually extensive and presented late. Education of the people and penalty for any offender will reduce the current spate of such injuries.

  17. Stability increase of fuel clad with zirconium oxynitride thin film by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jee, Seung Hyun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, 134 Sinchon Dong, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Materials Research and Education Center, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Auburn University, 275 Wilmore Labs, AL 36849-5341 (United States); Kim, Jun Hwan; Baek, Jong Hyuk [Recycled Fuel Development Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O. Box 105, Yuseong, Daejeon, 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong-Joo [Materials Research and Education Center, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Auburn University, 275 Wilmore Labs, AL 36849-5341 (United States); Kang, Seong Sik [Regulatory Research Division, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, 19, Guseong-Dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon, 305-338 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Young Soo, E-mail: yoonys@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, 134 Sinchon Dong, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-01

    A zirconium oxynitride (ZON) thin film was deposited onto HT9 steel as a cladding material by a metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) in order to prevent a fuel-clad chemical interaction (FCCI) between a U-10 wt% Zr metal fuel and a clad material. X-ray diffraction spectrums indicated that the mixture of structures of zirconium nitride, oxide and carbide in the MOCVD grown ZON thin films. Also, typical equiaxial grain structures were found in plane and cross sectional images of the as-deposited ZON thin films with a thickness range of 250-500 nm. A depth profile using auger electron microscopy revealed that carbon and oxygen atoms were decreased in the ZON thin film deposited with hydrogen gas flow. Diffusion couple tests at 800 Degree-Sign C for 25 hours showed that the as-deposited ZON thin films had low carbon and oxygen content, confirmed by the Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy, which showed a barrier behavior for FCCI between the metal fuel and the clad. This result suggested that ZON thin film cladding by MOCVD, even with the thickness below the micro-meter level, has a high possibility as an effective FCCI barrier. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zirconium oxynitride (ZON) deposited by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prevention of fuel cladding chemical interaction (FCCI) investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interfusion reduced by between metal fuel (U-10 wt% Zr) and a HT9 cladding material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrogenation of the ZON during growth improved the FCCI barrier performance.

  18. Chemically-induced oxidative stress increases the vulnerability of PC12 cells to rotenone-induced toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Martje W G D M; Westerink, Remco H S

    2014-01-01

    In vitro models, including the widely used PC12 cell line, can increase insight into cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying neurodegenerative processes. An important determinant for the vulnerability of cells for chemical insults may be the endogenous level of oxidative stress. To test this hy

  19. Chemical mutagenesis--a promising technique to increase metal concentration and extraction in sunflowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehnevajova, Erika; Herzig, Rolf; Federer, Guido; Erismann, Karl-Hans; Schwitzguébel, Jean-Paul

    2007-01-01

    Since most of the metal-hyperaccumulating wild plants only produce very low biomass and many high-yielding crops accumulate only moderate amounts of metals, the current research is mainly focused on overcoming these limitations and the optimization of metal phytoextraction. The main goal of the present study was the improvement of metal concentration and extraction properties of Helianthus annuus L by chemical mutagenesis (the non-GMO approach). Sunflowers--hybrid cultivar Salut and inbred lines-were treated with the chemical mutagen ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). The effect of chemical mutagenesis on metal concentration in and extraction by new sunflower M1 and M2 mutants was directly assessed on a metal-contaminated field in Raft, Switzerland. Mutants of the M2 generation showed a 2-3 times higher metal shoot concentration than the control plants. The best M2 sunflower "giant mutant" 14/185/04 showed a significantly enhanced metal extraction ability: 7.5 times for Cd, 9.2 times for Zn, and 8.2 times for Pb in aboveground parts, as compared to the control plants. Theoretical calculations for the phytoextraction potential of new sunflower variants note that the best sunflower mutant can produce up to 26 t dry matter per hectare and remove 13.3 kg Zn per hectare and year at the sewage sludge contaminated site of Raft; that is a gain factor of 9 compared to Zn extraction by sunflower controls. Furthermore, the use of sunflower oil and biomass for technical purposes (lubricants, biodiesel, biogas) should produce an additional value and improve the economical balance of phytoextraction.

  20. Potential chemical and microbiological risks on human health from urban wastewater reuse in agriculture. Case study of wastewater effluents in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Ivan; Tomàs, Núria; Mas, Jordi; García-Reyes, Juan Fracisco; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2010-05-01

    Potential health risks derived from wastewater reuse in agriculture have been evaluated with Risk Assessment modelling techniques, in a case study involving the effluents of two Spanish wastewater treatment plants. One of the plants applies primary and secondary treatment, and the other one applies an additional tertiary treatment. Health risks were assessed on the basis of ingesting contaminated food, due to exposure to: (i) 22 chemical pollutants, namely pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), and priority pollutants included in the European Framework Directive, and (ii) microorganisms, namely enterovirus. Chemical Risk Assessment has been carried out following the European Commission's technical guidelines, while risks from exposure to viruses have been evaluated by means of Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment, assuming a virus to coliform ratio of 1:10(5). The results of the chemical assessment show that there is a margin of safety above 100 for all substances, with the exception of gemfibrozil, for which the mean margin of safety (MOS) is above 100, but the lower bound of MOS with a 95 % confidence interval lies in the 3-4 range. A MOS under 100 was also found for 2,3,7,8-TCDD in one of the effluents. The assessment of risks from viruses shows a very low probability of infection. The overall results show that risks are lower for the plant applying tertiary treatment, especially concerning microbiological parameters.

  1. Participatory approach: from problem identification to setting strategies for increased productivity and sustainability in small scale irrigated agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habtu, Solomon; Ludi, Eva; Jamin, Jean Yves; Oates, Naomi; Fissahaye Yohannes, Degol

    2014-05-01

    Practicing various innovations pertinent to irrigated farming at local field scale is instrumental to increase productivity and yield for small holder farmers in Africa. However the translation of innovations from local scale to the scale of a jointly operated irrigation scheme is far from trivial. It requires insight on the drivers for adoption of local innovations within the wider farmer communities. Participatory methods are expected to improve not only the acceptance of locally developed innovations within the wider farmer communities, but to allow also an estimation to which extend changes will occur within the entire irrigation scheme. On such a base, more realistic scenarios of future water productivity within an irrigation scheme, which is operated by small holder farmers, can be estimated. Initial participatory problem and innovation appraisal was conducted in Gumselassa small scale irrigation scheme, Ethiopia, from Feb 27 to March 3, 2012 as part of the EAU4FOOD project funded by EC. The objective was to identify and appraise problems which hinder sustainable water management to enhance production and productivity and to identify future research strategies. Workshops were conducted both at local (Community of Practices) and regional (Learning Practice Alliance) level. At local levels, intensive collaboration with farmers using participatory methods produced problem trees and a "Photo Safari" documented a range of problems that negatively impact on productive irrigated farming. A range of participatory methods were also used to identify local innovations. At regional level a Learning Platform was established that includes a wide range of stakeholders (technical experts from various government ministries, policy makers, farmers, extension agents, researchers). This stakeholder group did a range of exercise as well to identify major problems related to irrigated smallholder farming and already identified innovations. Both groups identified similar problems

  2. Modification of reservoir chemical and physical factors in steamfloods to increase heavy oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yortsos, Y.C.

    1996-12-31

    Thermal methods, and particularly steam injection, are currently recognized as the most promising for the efficient recovery of heavy oil. Despite significant progress, however, important technical issues remain open. Specifically, still inadequate is our knowledge of the complex interaction between porous media and the various fluids of thermal recovery (steam, water, heavy oil, gases, and chemicals). While, the interplay of heat transfer and fluid flow with pore- and macro-scale heterogeneity is largely unexplored. The objectives of this contract are to continue previous work and to carry out new fundamental studies in the following areas of interest to thermal recovery: displacement and flow properties of fluids involving phase change (condensation-evaporation) in porous media; flow properties of mobility control fluids (such as foam); and the effect of reservoir heterogeneity on thermal recovery. The specific projects are motivated by and address the need to improve heavy oil recovery from typical reservoirs as well as less conventional fractured reservoirs producing from vertical or horizontal wells. During this past quarter, work continued on: the development of relative permeabilities during steam displacement; the optimization of recovery processes in heterogeneous reservoirs by using optical control methods; and in the area of chemical additives, work continued on the behavior of non-Newtonian fluid flow and on foam displacements in porous media.

  3. [Effects of agricultural activities and transgenic crops on agricultural biodiversity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-Tao; Luo, Hong-Bing; Li, Jun-Sheng; Huang, Hai; Liu, Yong-Bo

    2014-09-01

    Agricultural biodiversity is a key part of the ecosystem biodiversity, but it receives little concern. The monoculture, environmental pollution and habitat fragmentation caused by agricultural activities have threatened agricultural biodiversity over the past 50 years. To optimize agricultural management measures for crop production and environmental protection, we reviewed the effects of agricultural activities, including cultivation patterns, plastic mulching, chemical additions and the cultivation of transgenic crops, on agricultural biodiversity. The results showed that chemical pesticides and fertilizers had the most serious influence and the effects of transgenic crops varied with other factors like the specific transgene inserted in crops. The environmental risk of transgenic crops should be assessed widely through case-by-case methods, particularly its potential impacts on agricultural biodiversity. It is important to consider the protection of agricultural biodiversity before taking certain agricultural practices, which could improve agricultural production and simultaneously reduce the environmental impacts.

  4. Geologic research in support of sustainable agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, L.P.; Herring, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The importance and role of the geosciences in studies of sustainable agriculture include such traditional research areas as, agromineral resource assessments, the mapping and classification of soils and soil amendments, and the evaluation of landscapes for their vulnerability to physical and chemical degradation. Less traditional areas of study, that are increasing in societal importance because of environmental concerns and research into sustainable systems in general, include regional geochemical studies of plant and animal trace element deficiencies and toxicities, broad-scale water quality investigations, agricultural chemicals and the hydrogeologic interface, and minimally processed and ion-exchange agrominerals. We discuss the importance and future of phosphate in the US and world based on human population growth, projected agromineral demands in general, and the unavailability of new, high-quality agricultural lands. We also present examples of studies that relate geochemistry and the hydrogeologic characteristics of a region to the bioavailability and cycling of trace elements important to sustainable agricultural systems. ?? 1993.

  5. Influence of resting and pine sawdust application on chemical changes in post-agricultural soil and the ectomycorrhizal community of growing Scots pine saplings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małecka Monika

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in chemical compounds and in ectomycorrhizal structure were determined for Scots pine growing on post agricultural soil lying fallow for 3, 6 and 15 years, after amendment with pine sawdust. Soil without any amendments was used as the control treatment. Comparing the ectomycorrhizal structure 15 years after the application of pine sawdust revealed no significant differences in abundance or species richness between soil with and without organic enrichment. The results showed that the ectomycorrhizal status depends on soil conditions (soil pH, nitrogen content, which remain unaffected by saw dust application. In all treatments, the most frequently occurring ectomycorrhizae genera were Dermocybe, Hebeloma, Suillus, Tomentella and Tricholoma. Two species (Paxillus involutus, Amanita muscaria were specific to the control plots that lay fallow for 15 years.

  6. A nontoxic polypeptide oligomer with a fungicide potency under agricultural conditions which is equal or greater than that of their chemical counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Sara; Carreira, Alexandra; Freitas, Regina; Pinheiro, Ana Margarida; Ferreira, Ricardo Boavida

    2015-01-01

    There are literally hundreds of polypeptides described in the literature which exhibit fungicide activity. Tens of them have had attempted protection by patent applications but none, as far as we are aware, have found application under real agricultural conditions. The reasons behind may be multiple where the sensitivity to the Sun UV radiation can come in first place. Here we describe a multifunctional glyco-oligomer with 210 kDa which is mainly composed by a 20 kDa polypeptide termed Blad that has been previously shown to be a stable intermediary product of β-conglutin catabolism. This oligomer accumulates exclusively in the cotyledons of Lupinus species, between days 4 and 12 after the onset of germination. Blad-oligomer reveals a plethora of biochemical properties, like lectin and catalytic activities, which are not unusual per si, but are remarkable when found to coexist in the same protein molecule. With this vast range of chemical characteristics, antifungal activity arises almost as a natural consequence. The biological significance and potential technological applications of Blad-oligomer as a plant fungicide to agriculture, its uniqueness stems from being of polypeptidic in nature, and with efficacies which are either equal or greater than the top fungicides currently in the market are addressed.

  7. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity of Essential oil obtained from DCM Extracts of Psoralea corylifolia against Agricultural pest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Gupta

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The insecticidal activity of essential oils obtained from DCM extracts of Psoralea corylifolia (Fabaceae against pupa of Epilachna insect was investigated in a series of laboratory experiments. Insecticidal activity was determined at 24 ± 4⁰C and 68 ± 5% R.H., in dark conditions. The DCM extracts of the dried seeds of the plants were subjected to Column chromatography and the oil obtained was then subjected to hydrodistillation using a Clevenger type apparatus. The major components in these essential oils are identified using GC-MS spectroscopy and their insecticidal activity was tested. The predominant components in the oil of Psoralea corylifolia are toluene, alpha-pinene, L-beta-pinene, beta-pinene, 3-carene, limonene, Gamma terpinene, terpinolene, alpha santolina alcohol, 4-terpineol, Cyclohexene, 1-methyl-4-(1-methyl ethenyl, caryophyllene, alpha caryophyllene, thumbergene. The mortality rate of the agricultural pests was checked against 1%, 5% and 10% conc. of essential oil. The essential oil from Psoralea corylifolia shows strong toxic effect against pupa of Epilachna insect. Finding insecticidal activity is of great importance as using plant extracts as insecticides, are biodegrable and do not leave toxic residues results in better crop and better human health.

  8. Analysis of Input and Output of China’s Agriculture Based on Canonical Correlation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    I select effective irrigated area, consumption of agricultural chemical fertilizer, electricity consumed in rural areas, and total power of agricultural machinery as input variables of China’s agriculture; I select grain, bean, tobacco, oil-bearing crop and fruit as output variables of China’s agriculture. By using the data of China Statistical Yearbook in 2010, based on the analysis method of canonical correlation, I conduct research on the input and output of China’s agriculture. The results show that consumption of chemical fertilizer has the biggest impact on the agricultural output of China, followed by the input of total power of agricultural machinery; the canonical variable of agricultural output of China is mainly impacted by grain, oil-bearing crop and fruit; in terms of the selected variables, the output increase of grain, oil-bearing crop and fruit in China arises from the input increase of agricultural chemical fertilizer and machinery, and there is high-degree correlation between the two. According to the conclusions, the policy suggestions are put forward as follows: gradually decrease consumption of chemical fertilizer; increase the use of modern agricultural machinery; increase agricultural irrigation input.

  9. Effective Factors in Achieving Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Sharghi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The indiscriminate use of chemical inputs led to severe degradation of resources in Iran. Therefore, considering the increasing population and growing demand of agricultural products, it seems necessary to achieve a sustainable agriculture. In this study, sustainable agriculture refers to a kind of agriculture which is ecologically appropriate, economically justifiable, and socially desirable. Approach: There were two objectives for this study .The first objective of this study was to identify the effective factors in achieving sustainable agriculture. The second objective was to categorize the effective factors in achieving sustainable agriculture. In this study the Delphi technique has been used. Sustainable agriculture expert researchers of statistical and related issues were 56 scholars selected from the experts in the research centers of Tehran and Yazd provinces. The instruments used in data collection were three series of questionnaires sent to the researchers via email, fax and mail. Results: Findings have shown that the researchers have identified effective factors in achieving sustainable agriculture in Iran as the sections of Infrastructure, policy-making, economy, society, participation, research, extension and education. From the 35 factors exposed to the researchers, the factors of attainment of researches related to sustainable agriculture by agricultural research institutions in Iran, Interaction and participation of researchers, extension educators, farmers and policy-makers of sustainable agriculture, attempt to give priority to those who are the most appropriate from the standpoint of practically creating interactive, logical as well as flexible planning system between different sections dealing with sustainable agriculture have gained the agreement of 100% researchers. Conclusion: The important conclusion is that the communication between extension, farmers and policymaker should be strengthened. So

  10. The surprisingly small but increasing role of international agricultural trade on the European Union’s dependence on mineral phosphorus fertiliser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesme, Thomas; Roques, Solène; Metson, Geneviève S.; Bennett, Elena M.

    2016-02-01

    Phosphorus (P) is subject to global management challenges due to its importance to both food security and water quality. The European Union (EU) has promoted policies to limit fertiliser over-application and protect water quality for more than 20 years, helping to reduce European P use. Over this time period, the EU has, however, become more reliant on imported agricultural products. These imported products require fertiliser to be used in distant countries to grow crops that will ultimately feed European people and livestock. As such, these imports represent a displacement of European P demand, possibly allowing Europe to decrease its apparent P footprint by moving P use to locations outside the EU. We investigated the effect of EU imports on the European P fertiliser footprint to better understand whether the EU’s decrease in fertiliser use over time resulted from P demand being ‘outsourced’ to other countries or whether it truly represented a decline in P demand. To do this, we quantified the ‘virtual P flow’ defined as the amount of mineral P fertiliser applied to agricultural soils in non-EU countries to support agricultural product imports to the EU. We found that the EU imported a virtual P flow of 0.55 Tg P/yr in 1995 that, surprisingly, decreased to 0.50 Tg P/yr in 2009. These results were contrary to our hypothesis that trade increases would be used to help the EU reduce its domestic P fertiliser use by outsourcing its P footprint abroad. Still, the contribution of virtual P flows to the total P footprint of the EU has increased by 40% from 1995 to 2009 due to a dramatic decrease in domestic P fertiliser use in Europe: in 1995, virtual P was equivalent to 32% of the P used as fertiliser domestically to support domestic consumption but jumped to 53% in 2009. Soybean and palm tree products from South America and South East Asia contributed most to the virtual P flow. These results demonstrate that, although policies in the EU have successfully

  11. Modification of reservoir chemical and physical factors in steamfloods to increase heavy oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Thermal methods, and particularly steam injection, are currently recognized as the most promising for the efficient recovery of heavy oil. Despite significant progress, however, important technical issues remain open. Specifically, still inadequate is our knowledge of the complex interaction between porous media and the various fluids of thermal recovery (steam, water, heavy oil, gases, and chemicals). While, the interplay of heat transfer and fluid flow with pore- and macro-scale heterogeneity is largely unexplored. The objectives of this contract are to continue previous work and to carry out new fundamental studies in the following areas of interest to thermal recovery: displacement and flow properties of fluids involving phase change (condensation-evaporation) in porous media; flow properties of mobility control fluids (such as foam); and the effect of reservoir heterogeneity on thermal recovery. The specific projects are motivated by and address the need to improve heavy oil recovery from typical reservoirs as well as less conventional fractured reservoirs producing from vertical or horizontal wells. During this quarter work continued on: development of relative permeabilities during steam injection; optimization of recovery processes in heterogeneous reservoirs by using optimal control methods; and behavior of non-Newtonian fluid flow and on foam displacements in porous media.

  12. CHEMICAL VALORIZATION OF AGRICULTURAL BY-PRODUCTS: ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF XYLAN-BASED ANTIOXIDANTS FROM ALMOND SHELL BIOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ebringerová

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of non-cellulosic polysaccharides from both almond shells and their solid residue after autohydrolysis using a two-step alkaline extraction without and in combination with short ultrasonic treatment was investigated. The obtained polysaccharide preparations were characterized by yield, chemical composition and structural features, and the antioxidant activity of the water-soluble preparations was discussed in relation to the content of phenolics. The results suggested that, depending on the extraction conditions used, xylan associated to various extent with pectic polysaccharides and phenolics can be prepared, and the reaction time significantly shortened by application of ultrasound. The xylan polymers might serve as biopolymer sources in native form or after targeted modification for production of value-added substances and polysaccharide-based antioxidants, applicable in food, cosmetics and other areas.

  13. Innovative Programs in Agricultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Vocational Association, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Developmental programs resulting from the increased emphasis on off-farm agricultural occupations and considered innovative by state wupervisors of agricultural education are described: (1) 17 high school vocational agriculture programs in horticulture, agricultural mechanics, forestry and conservation, agriculture and distribution, cooperative…

  14. Influence of a combination of agricultural chemicals on embryos of the endangered gold-striped salamander (Chioglossa lusitanica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Santaliestra, M E; Fernández-Benéitez, M J; Lizana, M; Marco, A

    2011-05-01

    Pollution from agrochemicals may be contributing to the global decline of amphibian populations. Environmentally relevant concentrations of a fertiliser, ammonium nitrate, and a commercial formulation of the herbicide glyphosate Roundup Plus were tested on the embryonic development of Chioglossa lusitanica. This study introduces new data at three different levels. First, we provide previously unknown information about hatchling traits of C. lusitanica. Second, we present the first ecotoxicological study of this endangered species, to which environmental pollution is considered a major threat. Third, we conduct the first experiment with an amphibian species exposed to a mixture of a glyphosate-based herbicide and a nitrogenous fertiliser. Control individuals hatched with an average (±SD) total length of 18.77 (±2.02) mm and at an average Harrison's developmental stage of 44.58 (±1.24). Mean hatching time among controls was 11.52 (±1.29) weeks. None of the chemicals or their interaction produced lethal effects; however, a significant interaction was found when analysing total length at hatching. Individuals exposed to the herbicide hatched at a larger size than controls, and this effect was especially clear when the fertiliser was added to the water. The absence of pollutant-related mortality or severe sublethal effects is in agreement with most studies indicating a high tolerance of amphibian embryos to agrochemicals. However, further research considering other life stages and additional natural factors (i.e., predators, food availability) is needed to estimate the ecological impact of chemical mixtures on C. lusitanica.

  15. Methylotrophic bacteria in sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Tomar, Rajesh Singh; Lade, Harshad; Paul, Diby

    2016-07-01

    Excessive use of chemical fertilizers to increase production from available land has resulted in deterioration of soil quality. To prevent further soil deterioration, the use of methylotrophic bacteria that have the ability to colonize different habitats, including soil, sediment, water, and both epiphytes and endophytes as host plants, has been suggested for sustainable agriculture. Methylotrophic bacteria are known to play a significant role in the biogeochemical cycle in soil ecosystems, ultimately fortifying plants and sustaining agriculture. Methylotrophs also improve air quality by using volatile organic compounds such as dichloromethane, formaldehyde, methanol, and formic acid. Additionally, methylotrophs are involved in phosphorous, nitrogen, and carbon cycling and can help reduce global warming. In this review, different aspects of the interaction between methylotrophs and host plants are discussed, including the role of methylotrophs in phosphorus acquisition, nitrogen fixation, phytohormone production, iron chelation, and plant growth promotion, and co-inoculation of these bacteria as biofertilizers for viable agriculture practices.

  16. USSR Report, Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    rations for ruminant animals. Its preparation from corn of milky-waxy ripeness, assuming the observance of all of the technological requirements, makes...combines of the agricultural chemicals association or on the kolkhozes and sovkhozes for the preservation of liquid preservatives or special means of...Tatar combine of the agricultural chemicals association, liquid preserv- atives are kept in wide-diameter polytheylene pipes.. A storage unit with

  17. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  18. Increased Tensile Strength of Carbon Nanotube Yarns and Sheets through Chemical Modification and Electron Beam Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sandi G.; Williams, Tiffany S.; Baker, James S.; Sola, Francisco; Lebron-Colon, Marisabel; McCorkle, Linda S.; Wilmoth, Nathan G.; Gaier, James; Chen, Michelle; Meador, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The inherent strength of individual carbon nanotubes offers considerable opportunity for the development of advanced, lightweight composite structures. Recent work in the fabrication and application of carbon nanotube (CNT) forms such as yarns and sheets has addressed early nanocomposite limitations with respect to nanotube dispersion and loading; and has pushed the technology toward structural composite applications. However, the high tensile strength of an individual CNT has not directly translated to macro-scale CNT forms where bulk material strength is limited by inter-tube electrostatic attraction and slippage. The focus of this work was to assess post processing of CNT sheet and yarn to improve the macro-scale strength of these material forms. Both small molecule functionalization and e-beam irradiation was evaluated as a means to enhance tensile strength and Youngs modulus of the bulk CNT material. Mechanical testing results revealed a tensile strength increase in CNT sheets by 57 when functionalized, while an additional 48 increase in tensile strength was observed when functionalized sheets were irradiated; compared to unfunctionalized sheets. Similarly, small molecule functionalization increased yarn tensile strength up to 25, whereas irradiation of the functionalized yarns pushed the tensile strength to 88 beyond that of the baseline yarn.

  19. Chemical Chaperones Increasing Expression Level of Soluble Single-chain Fv Antibody(scFv2F3)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Glutathione peroxidase (GPX) is a selenoenzyme that protects the biomembrane and other cellular components against oxidative damage. The selenium-containing single chain Fv fragment of monoclonal antibody 2F3 (SescFv2F3 ) is a kind of GPX mimic and it has a wide clinical applications because of its high activity and low antigenicity. Se-scFv2F3 is generated by the chemical modification of the single chain Fy fragment of monoclonal antibody 2F3 ( scFv2F3 ), which can be expressed in E. coli. In this article, the effect of chemical chaperones, such as glycerol, glucose, and β-cyclodextrin added to the culture medium, on the expression of soluble scFv2F3 was investigated. The expression level was evaluated by the determination of soluble scFv2F3 contents in the whole cell lysates.The results suggest that both glycerol and β-cyclodextrin greatly increase the expression level of soluble scFv2F3, and β-cyclodextrin is found to be more effective compared with glycerol. Glucose has a slight effect on the expression level of soluble scFv2F3. This is the first example, wherein β-cyclodextrin has been used as a chemical chaperone during the cell culture to improve the expression level of recombinant proteins. In addition, chemical chaperones are found to decrease the toxic effect of IPTG on cells.

  20. Application of Chemical Regulating Technology for Utilization of Water and Fertilizer in Dry-land Agriculture%化学调控技术在旱地水肥利用中的应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨培岭; 廖人宽; 任树梅; 李云开

    2013-01-01

    The issue on the theme of efficient utilization of water and fertilizer in dry-land agriculture was discussed.The mechanism of action of three typical chemical agents (soil conditioner-PAM,water retaining agent-SAP,antitranspirant-FA) in regulation of water and fertilizer and its application methods were introduced.Research of chemical regulating technology on four important parts were emphatically reviewed (enhancement of the accumulation of water and fertilizer,improvement of the soil and water conservation,improvement of the utilization of crop to water and fertilizer,increasing of the crop yield and quality) in dry-land agriculture production.Finally,the future important research directions were proposed.%围绕旱地农业生产中的水肥资源高效利用展开讨论,主要介绍了以3种典型化学调控制剂(土壤改良剂PAM、土壤保水剂SAP和蒸腾抑制剂FA)为代表的化学调控技术在旱地农业水肥资源利用方面的调控机制和应用方法,重点对化学调控技术在旱地农业生产中的增强水肥保蓄、提高坡地水土保持、改善作物水肥利用性能及提升作物品质和产量4个重要环节上的应用研究进行了综述,最后提出未来化学调控技术在旱地农业中应用的重点研究方向.

  1. Determination of the composition of the organic matter chemically stabilized by agricultural soil clay minerals: Spectroscopy and Density Fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oufqir, Sofia; Bloom, Paul; Toner, Brandy; Hatcher, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    The interactions between soil organic matter and clay minerals are considered important processes because of their ability to sequester C in soil for long periods of time, and hence control C in the global C cycle when present. However, differing results have been reported regarding the composition of the soil organic matter - aromatic fractions versus aliphatic fractions - associated with clay minerals. To clarify this critical issue and better understand the C sequestration process in soils, we aimed to determine the nature of the chemically bound natural organic matter on clay surfaces, and to probe the speciation and spatial distribution of C in the soil clay nanoparticles using direct spectroscopic measurements namely solid-state CP-MAS and DP-MAS 13C NMR spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), and scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM). We tested the hypotheses that peptides and polysaccharides are stabilized by the smectite-illite clay while the lipids and black carbon are a separate phase; and that they are evenly distributed on clay surfaces. A soil clay fraction (5.5% organic C) was isolated from the surface of a prairie soil (Mollisol) in southwestern Minnesota, characterized by a pH 6.0, 32.5% clay content, and 3.7% organic carbon, using a sonication-sedimentation-siphoning process in distilled water. Then was subjected to density separation combined with low energy ultrasonic dispersion to separate the free organic and black C (light fraction) from the chemically bound C (heavy fraction). The XRD results indicated a dominance of interstratified smectite-illite clays in soil. The 13C-NMR spectra of the soil clay fraction suggested that polysaccharides and polypeptides are the prevailing components of the organic matter associated with the mineral clay, with only a minor component of aromatic C. The light fraction has strong alkyl C-H bands characteristic of fatty acids plus strong C-O bands characteristic of polysaccharides, including

  2. Chemical Inhibitors of Non-Homologous End Joining Increase Targeted Construct Integration in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arras, Samantha D M; Fraser, James A

    2016-01-01

    The development of a biolistic transformation protocol for Cryptococcus neoformans over 25 years ago ushered in a new era of molecular characterization of virulence in this previously intractable fungal pathogen. However, due to the low rate of homologous recombination in this species, the process of creating targeted gene deletions using biolistic transformation remains inefficient. To overcome the corresponding difficulty achieving molecular genetic modifications, members of the Cryptococcus community have investigated the use of specific genetic backgrounds or construct design strategies aimed at reducing ectopic construct integration via non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). One such approach involves deletion of components of the NHEJ-associated Ku heterodimer. While this strategy increases homologous recombination to nearly 100%, it also restricts strain generation to a ku80Δ genetic background and requires subsequent complex mating procedures to reestablish wild-type DNA repair. In this study, we have investigated the ability of known inhibitors of mammalian NHEJ to transiently phenocopy the C. neoformans Ku deletion strains. Testing of eight candidate inhibitors revealed a range of efficacies in C. neoformans, with the most promising compound (W7) routinely increasing the rate of gene deletion to over 50%. We have successfully employed multiple inhibitors to reproducibly enhance the deletion rate at multiple loci, demonstrating a new, easily applied methodology to expedite acquisition of precise genetic alterations in C. neoformans. Based on this success, we anticipate that the use of these inhibitors will not only become widespread in the Cryptococcus community, but may also find use in other fungal species as well.

  3. Farming systems dynamics: impact of increasing population density and the availability of land resources on changes in agricultural systems. The case of Sukumaland, Tanzania.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meertens, H.C.C.; Fresco, L.O.; Stoop, W.A.

    1996-01-01

    The changes in agricultural production systems over the period 1875 till 1990 have been analysed for three districts belonging to Sukumaland, Tanzania. The analysis is based on historic information for the early period, on data from agricultural studies conducted in 1945 and 1961, and on recent fiel

  4. Physical and chemical properties of a durably efficacious ammonium bicarbonate as a fertilizer and its yield-increasing mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志明; 李继云; 冯元琦; 毕庶春; 伍蔚民

    1997-01-01

    A new fertilizer of cocrystal type,known as durably efficacious ammonium bicarbonate (DEAB),has been developed by adding a certain amount of dicyandiamide (DCD) as an ammonia-stabilizing agent to ammonium bearbenate(AB)during the process of its production.As compared with AB,DEAB was found to have a reduction of direct volatilization loss by 53%,a fertilizer availability period prolonged from 35-45 to 90-110 d,and an increase in the rate of nitrogen in fertilizer being utilized by 5.9%-10.2%,and a saving of the amount of fertilizer to be ap-phed by 20%-30% for the same level of yield,or an increase of the crop yield by over 10% for the same level of ni-tregen fertilization;in addition,it was found to show usually a function of promoting the crop to early mature.It can be apptied as basal dressing all in one time to soil and thus also used as a labour-saving and crop yield-increasing fertil-izer for is non-mtertillage,plastics film covering and water-saving agriculture

  5. A Farming Revolution: Sustainable Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinkenborg, Verlyn

    1995-01-01

    Growing realization of the economic, social, and environmental costs of conventional agriculture has led many U.S. farmers to embrace and become advocates for agricultural practices that limit the need for pesticides and chemical fertilizers, decrease soil erosion, and improve soil health. Some hope that sustainable agriculture can promote smaller…

  6. Increasing significance of advanced physical/chemical processes in the development and application of sustainable wastewater treatment systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wim RULKENS

    2008-01-01

    The awareness of the problem of the scarcity of water of high quality has strongly changed the approach of wastewater treatment. Currently, there is an increasing need for the beneficial reuse of treated wastewater and to recover valuable products and energy from the wastewater. Because microbiological treatment methods are, only to a limited part, able to satisfy these needs, the role and significance of physical/chemical pro-cesses in wastewater treatment are gaining more and more interest. The specific future role and aim of the various physical/chemical treatment processes can be categorized in five groups: improvement of the perform-ance of microbiological treatment processes, achieve-ment of the high quality required for reuse of the effluent, recovery of valuable components and energy from the wastewater for beneficial reuse, desalination of brackish water and seawater, and treatment of con-centrated liquid or solid waste residues produced in a wastewater treatment process. Development of more environmentally sustainable wastewater treatment chains in which physical/chemical processes play a cru-cial role, also requires application of process control and modeling strategies. This is briefly introduced by the elaboration of treatment scenarios for three specific wastewaters.

  7. Agricultural lung diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkhorn, S R; Garry, V F

    2000-01-01

    Agriculture is considered one of the most hazardous occupations. Organic dusts and toxic gases constitute some of the most common and potentially disabling occupational and environmental hazards. The changing patterns of agriculture have paradoxically contributed to both improved working conditions and increased exposure to respiratory hazards. Animal confinement operations with increasing animal density, particularly swine confinement, have contributed significantly to increased intensity an...

  8. {sup 37}Cl, {sup 15}N, {sup 13}C isotopic analysis of common agro-chemicals for identifying non-point source agricultural contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annable, W.K. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada)]. E-mail: wkannabl@uwaterloo.ca; Frape, S.K. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Shouakar-Stash, O. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Shanoff, T. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Drimmie, R.J. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Harvey, F.E. [School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588-0517 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    The isotopic compositions of commercially available herbicides were analyzed to determine their respective {sup 15}N, {sup 13}C and {sup 37}Cl signatures for the purposes of developing a discrete tool for tracing and identifying non-point source contaminants in agricultural watersheds. Findings demonstrate that of the agrochemicals evaluated, chlorine stable isotopes signatures range between {delta}{sup 37}Cl = -4.55 per mille and +3.40 per mille , whereas most naturally occurring chlorine stable isotopes signatures, including those of road salt, sewage sludge and fertilizers, vary in a narrow range about the Standard Mean Ocean Chloride (SMOC) between -2.00 per mille and +1.00 per mille . Nitrogen stable isotope values varied widely from {delta}{sup 15}N = -10.86 per mille to +1.44 per mille and carbon stable isotope analysis gave an observed range between {delta}{sup 13}C = -37.13 per mille and -21.35 per mille for the entire suite of agro-chemicals analyzed. When nitrogen, carbon and chlorine stable isotope analyses were compared in a cross-correlation analysis, statistically independent isotopic signatures exist suggesting a new potential tracer tool for identifying herbicides in the environment.

  9. 农业机械化与农民增收关系研究%Study on The Relationship Between the Agricultural Mechanization and Increasing Farmers' income

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹; 刘亚莉

    2015-01-01

    农民增收的根本是提高劳动生产率,农业机械化从根本上提高了劳动生产率,是促进农民增收的重要前提和关键要素。农业机械化的发展水平对农民增收农业增效起着至关重要的作用。对农业现代化具有重要的意义。%The root of the farmers'income is to improve the labor productivity,agricultural mechanization fundamentally im-proves the labor productivity,and is an important premise and key elements to promote peasants' income.The development of a-gricultural mechanization level of farmers'income agricultural efficiency plays a vital role and has vital significance to the mod-ernization of agriculture.

  10. Agricultural policy schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2016-01-01

    in agricultural policy and they have different functions and impacts. Market price support and deficiency payments are two very important instruments in agricultural policy; however, they belong to two different support regimes or support systems. Market price support operates in the so-called high price system...... of direct support, while market prices are left undistorted at, or close to, world market level. The two different support systems have very different implications for agricultural production, financing, markets, and other aspects; still, there is an income transfer to agriculture in both systems. During...... the last decades, the composition of agricultural support has changed significantly. Market price support has decreased, and direct support has increased....

  11. Chemical sympathectomy increases neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in tumor-bearing rats but does not influence cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvathova, Lubica; Tillinger, Andrej; Sivakova, Ivana; Mikova, Lucia; Mravec, Boris; Bucova, Maria

    2015-01-15

    The sympathetic nervous system regulates many immune functions and modulates the anti-tumor immune defense response, too. Therefore, we studied the effect of 6-hydroxydopamine induced sympathectomy on selected hematological parameters and inflammatory markers in rats with Yoshida AH130 ascites hepatoma. We found that chemically sympathectomized tumor-bearing rats had significantly increased neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, leukocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio, and plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha. Although our findings showed that sympathetic denervation in tumor-bearing rats led to increased neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, that is an indicator of the disease progression, we found no significant changes in tumor growth and survival of sympathectomized tumor-bearing rats.

  12. Enhanced superconductivity of SmFeAsO co-doped by Scandium and Fluorine to increase chemical inner pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Haijie; Zheng, Ming; Fang, Aihua; Yang, Jianhua [CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Huang, Fuqiang, E-mail: huangfq@mail.sic.ac.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Xie, Xiaoming; Jiang, Mianheng [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Sm{sub 1-x/3}Sc{sub x/3}FeAsO{sub 1-x}F{sub x} (x=0.09-0.27) were synthesized by the mechanical alloying and subsequent low temperature rapid sintering (2 h at 950 Degree-Sign C). The superconducting transition temperature (T{sub c}) increased with the doping level of x. The optimal doping achieved a T{sub c} up to 53.5 K in Sm{sub 0.93}Sc{sub 0.07}FeAsO{sub 0.79}F{sub 0.21}. The higher T{sub c} value was attributed to the increased chemical inner pressure from local lattice distortion induced by smaller-size dopants, which was further confirmed by Sm{sub 1-x}Sc{sub x}FeAsO{sub 0.88}F{sub 0.12} (x=0.04, 0.08, 0.12). Accordingly, larger lattice distortion can enhance the superconductivity below the doping limit. Similar phenomenon was also observed in the La{sub 1-x}Y{sub x}FeAsO{sub 0.8}F{sub 0.2} (x=0.4, 0.5, 0.6). - Graphical abstract: The introduction of Sc{sup 3+} and F{sup -} in SmFeAsO leads to higher chemical inner pressure generated by larger lattice distortion, which is the reason of the improved T{sub c}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The superconducting properties of Sm{sub 1-x/3}Sc{sub x/3}FeAsO{sub 1-x}F{sub x} are investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The co-doping of Sc{sup 3+} and F{sup -} in SmFeAsO leads to higher chemical inner pressure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher chemical inner pressure is beneficial to the superconductivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The co-doped samples of La{sub 1-x}Y{sub x}FeAsO{sub 0.8}F{sub 0.2} further demonstrate the assumption.

  13. SymDex: increasing the efficiency of chemical fingerprint similarity searches for comparing large chemical libraries by using query set indexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, David; Fang, Jianwen

    2012-08-27

    The large sizes of today's chemical databases require efficient algorithms to perform similarity searches. It can be very time consuming to compare two large chemical databases. This paper seeks to build upon existing research efforts by describing a novel strategy for accelerating existing search algorithms for comparing large chemical collections. The quest for efficiency has focused on developing better indexing algorithms by creating heuristics for searching individual chemical against a chemical library by detecting and eliminating needless similarity calculations. For comparing two chemical collections, these algorithms simply execute searches for each chemical in the query set sequentially. The strategy presented in this paper achieves a speedup upon these algorithms by indexing the set of all query chemicals so redundant calculations that arise in the case of sequential searches are eliminated. We implement this novel algorithm by developing a similarity search program called Symmetric inDexing or SymDex. SymDex shows over a 232% maximum speedup compared to the state-of-the-art single query search algorithm over real data for various fingerprint lengths. Considerable speedup is even seen for batch searches where query set sizes are relatively small compared to typical database sizes. To the best of our knowledge, SymDex is the first search algorithm designed specifically for comparing chemical libraries. It can be adapted to most, if not all, existing indexing algorithms and shows potential for accelerating future similarity search algorithms for comparing chemical databases.

  14. The UK Released a Strategy for Agricultural Technologies to Increase Its Agricultural Competitiveness%英国实施《农业技术战略》以提高农业竞争力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨艳萍; 董瑜

    2015-01-01

    英国政府于 2013 年 7 月发布了一份《农业技术战略》政策报告,旨在解决英国农业科技成果转化的瓶颈问题,以提高英国农业产业竞争力。该报告从农业科技投入、农业食品供应链和全球市场等方面,对英国农业现状进行了分析,并提出了相应的行动计划和成果评价考核指标。随后,英国政府启动了相关的配套设施和研究项目,以促进农业科技成果的转化。通过对上述各方面内容进行详细介绍和分析,以期为我国农业科技成果转移、转化等相关工作提供参考。%The British government released a policy reportA UKStrategy forAgriculturalTechnology in July 2013. In this strategy, the bottleneck in translating high quality agricultural research into practical applications was focused on to strengthen the agricultural competitiveness of th UK. Moreover, the current situations of the British agriculture were analyzed in detail in this report, including the investment in agri-tech, the food and farming supply chain, and the global markets. In addition, the corresponding actions and indicators for assessing this strategy were also proposed in the policy report. A variety of programs have been implemented since the strategy was released to improve the transformation for agricultural science and technology achievements. Herein, we present detailed summary of this strategy and introduction of related programs. That will be a useful reference for the transformation of agricultural S&T achievements in our country.

  15. Amoebas as mimivirus bunkers: increased resistance to UV light, heat and chemical biocides when viruses are carried by amoeba hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boratto, Paulo V M; Dornas, Fábio P; Andrade, Kétyllen R; Rodrigues, Rodrigo; Peixoto, Felipe; Silva, Lorena C F; La Scola, Bernard; Costa, Adriana Oliveira; de Almeida, Gabriel Magno Freitas; Kroon, Erna G; Abrahão, Jônatas S

    2014-05-01

    Amoebas of the genus Acanthamoeba are protists that are associated with human disease and represent a public health concern. They can harbor pathogenic microorganisms, acting as a platform for pathogen replication. Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus (APMV), the type species of the genus Mimivirus, family Mimiviridae, represents the largest group of amoeba-associated viruses that has been described to date. Recent studies have demonstrated that APMV and other giant viruses may cause pneumonia. Amoebas can survive in most environments and tolerate various adverse conditions, including UV light irradiation, high concentrations of disinfectants, and a broad range of temperatures. However, it is unknown how the amoebal intracellular environment influences APMV stability and resistance to adverse conditions. Therefore, in this work, we evaluated the stability of APMV, either purified or carried by the amoeba host, under extreme conditions, including UV irradiation, heat and exposure to six different chemical biocides. After each treatment, the virus was titrated in amoebas using the TCID50 method. APMV was more stable in all resistance tests performed when located inside its host. Our results demonstrate that Acanthamoeba acts as a natural bunker for APMV, increasing viral resistance to extreme physical and chemical conditions. The data raise new questions regarding the survival of APMV in nature and in hospital environments.

  16. Sulfonamides identified as plant immune-priming compounds in high-throughput chemical screening increase disease resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiteru eNoutoshi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant activators are agrochemicals that protect crops from diseases by activating the plant immune system. To isolate lead compounds for use as practical plant activators, we screened 2 different chemical libraries composed of various bioactive substances by using an established screening procedure that can selectively identify immune-priming compounds. We identified and characterized a group of sulfonamide compounds—sulfameter, sulfamethoxypyridazine, sulfabenzamide, and sulfachloropyridazine—among the various isolated candidate molecules. These sulfonamide compounds enhanced the avirulent Pseudomonas-induced cell death of Arabidopsis suspension cell cultures and increased disease resistance in Arabidopsis plants against both avirulent and virulent strains of the bacterium. These compounds did not prevent the growth of pathogenic bacteria in minimal liquid media at 200 µM. They also did not induce the expression of defense-related genes in Arabidopsis seedlings, at least not at 24 and 48 h after treatment, suggesting that they do not act as salicylic acid analogs. In addition, although sulfonamides are known to be folate biosynthesis inhibitors, the application of folate did not restore the potentiation effects of the sulfonamides on pathogen-induced cell death. Our data suggest that sulfonamides potentiate Arabidopsis disease resistance by their novel chemical properties.

  17. Groundwater recharge and agricultural contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhlke, J.K.

    2002-01-01

    Agriculture has had direct and indirect effects on the rates and compositions of groundwater recharge and aquifer biogeochemistry. Direct effects include dissolution and transport of excess quantities of fertilizers and associated materials and hydrologic alterations related to irrigation and drainage. Some indirect effects include changes in water-rock reactions in soils and aquifers caused by increased concentrations of dissolved oxidants, protons, and major ions. Agrilcultural activities have directly or indirectly affected the concentrations of a large number of inorganic chemicals in groundwater, for example NO3-, N2, Cl, SO42-, H+, P, C, K, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, and As, as well a wide variety of pesticides and other organic compounds. For reactive contaminants like NO3-, a combination of chemical, isotopic, and environmental-tracer analytical approaches might be required to resolve changing inputs from subsequent alterations as causes of concentration gradients in groundwater. Groundwater records derived from multi-component hydrostratigraphic data can be used to quantify recharge rates and residence times of water and dissolved contaminants, document past variations in recharging contaminant loads, and identify natural contaminant-remediation processes. These data indicate that many of the world's surficial aquifers contain transient records of changing agricultural contamination from the last half of the 20th century. The transient agricultural groundwater signal has important implications for long-term trends and spatial heterogeneity in discharge.

  18. Impacts of climate change on indirect human exposure to pathogens and chemicals from agriculture Impactos das mudanças climáticas sobre a exposição humana indireta a elementos patogênicos e químicos da agricultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair Boxall

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is likely to affect the nature of pathogens/ chemicals in the environment and their fate and transport. We assess the implications of climate change for changes in human exposures to pathogens/chemicals in agricultural systems in the UK and discuss the effects on health impacts, using expert input and literature on climate change; health effects from exposure to pathogens/chemicals arising from agriculture; inputs of chemicals/pathogens to agricultural systems; and human exposure pathways for pathogens/chemicals in agricultural systems. We established the evidence base for health effects of chemicals/pathogens in the agricultural environment; determined the potential implications of climate change on chemical/pathogen inputs in agricultural systems; and explored the effects of climate change on environmental transport and fate of various contaminants. We merged data to assess the implications of climate change in terms of indirect human exposure to pathogens/chemicals in agricultural systems, and defined recommendations on future research and policy changes to manage adverse increases in risks.É provável que a mudança climática afete a natureza, destino e transporte de elementos patogênicos/químicos no ambiente . Avaliamos as implicações das mudanças climáticas em mudanças na exposição humana a elementos patogênicos/químicos nos sistemas agrícolas no Reino Unido e discutimos os efeitos sobre os impactos à saúde, usando a contribuição de especialistas e literatura; efeitos à saúde da exposição a elementos patogênicos/químicos provenientes da agricultura; introdução de elementos químicos/patogênicos e caminhos de exposição humana a elementos patogênicos/químicos nos sistemas agrícolas. Definimos a base de evidência para efeitos de saúde de elementos químicos/patogênicos no ambiente agrícola; determinamos as possíveis implicações da mudança climática na introdução de elementos qu

  19. Enhanced superconductivity of SmFeAsO co-doped by Scandium and Fluorine to increase chemical inner pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haijie; Zheng, Ming; Fang, Aihua; Yang, Jianhua; Huang, Fuqiang; Xie, Xiaoming; Jiang, Mianheng

    2012-10-01

    Sm1-x/3Scx/3FeAsO1-xFx (x=0.09-0.27) were synthesized by the mechanical alloying and subsequent low temperature rapid sintering (2 h at 950 °C). The superconducting transition temperature (Tc) increased with the doping level of x. The optimal doping achieved a Tc up to 53.5 K in Sm0.93Sc0.07FeAsO0.79F0.21. The higher Tc value was attributed to the increased chemical inner pressure from local lattice distortion induced by smaller-size dopants, which was further confirmed by Sm1-xScxFeAsO0.88F0.12 (x=0.04, 0.08, 0.12). Accordingly, larger lattice distortion can enhance the superconductivity below the doping limit. Similar phenomenon was also observed in the La1-xYxFeAsO0.8F0.2 (x=0.4, 0.5, 0.6).

  20. Increased expression of transforming growth factor-β and receptors in primary human airway fibroblasts from chemical inhalation patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monireh Sadat Mirzamani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The widespread use of sulfur mustard  (SM as a chemical warfare agent in the  past century has proved its long-lasting toxic effects. Despite a lot of research over the past decades on Iranian veterans, there are still major gaps in the SM literature. Transforming growth  factor  (TGF-β,  a  cytokine  that  affects  many  different  cell processes,  has  an important role in the lungs of patients with some of chronic airway diseases, especially with respect to airway remodeling in mustard lung.Primary airway fibroblasts from epibronchial biopsies were cultured, and gene expression of TGF-β1, TGF-β2, TbR-I and TbR-II in fibroblasts of SM injured patients and controls were investigated. Expression of TGF-βs and receptors was measured by RT-PCR. Protein level of TGF-β1was surveyed by western blot.Our  findings revealed that expression levels of TGF-β1,  TGF-β2,  TbR-I and TbR-II were upregulated in the  airway fibroblasts of  SM exposed patients  in comparison  with control samples. TGF-β1 expression was shown to be markedly increased in primary lung fibroblasts of chemically injured patients.Our  novel data, suggested that  over-expression of TGF-β  molecule and receptors  in primary airway fibroblasts of mustard gas injured patients may be involved in progression of airway remodeling of these patients.

  1. Agricultural Production Efficiency of Chongqing Based on DEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Literatures about agricultural production efficiency are reviewed.Concept of DEA Method,as well as the definition methods of effective DEA and scale efficiency increase are introduced.According to the relevant statistical data in the years 1997-2007 in Chongqing Municipality,efficiency of agricultural economy is calculated from the year 1997 to 2007 by DEA method and the scale efficiency is also analyzed by taking the total output of agriculture,forestry,animal husbandry and fishery industry as the output index.And the input index includes total workforce in agriculture,forestry,animal husbandry and fishery,the total sown area of crops,the total power of agricultural machinery,chemical fertilizer application,the draft animal,and the effective irrigation area.Result shows that Chongqing City became a municipality directly under the central government;its agricultural production efficiency is still low.And the sustainable development capacity of agricultural is weak in Chongqing,and the agricultural resources are not fully used.Based on this,related suggestions are put forward to improve the agricultural production efficiency of Chongqing,such as implementing an appropriate management scale of land,improving the organization degree of peasant households and the rate of industrialization management,enhancing the quality of the rural labor force,strengthening the agricultural science and technology input and extension,perfecting the construction of rural infrastructure,and improving the rate of resource utilization.

  2. Earthworm tolerance to residual agricultural pesticide contamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givaudan, Nicolas; Binet, Françoise; Le Bot, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates if acclimatization to residual pesticide contamination in agricultural soils is reflected in detoxification, antioxidant enzyme activities and energy budget of earthworms. Five fields within a joint agricultural area exhibited different chemical and farming histories from ...

  3. Productivity Growth in China’s Agriculture During 1985-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhou; ZHANG Hai-peng

    2013-01-01

    This paper made an empirical analysis of China’s agricultural growth path and inlfuential factors using the province-level panel data of agricultural inputs and outputs during 1985-2010. The ifndings indicate that the increase in agricultural inputs and TFP contributed 40.6 and 55.2% to the agricultural output growth, respectively; China’s agriculture had jumped out of the pattern which output growth was mainly driven by increasing input. Of the total inputs, chemical fertilizer had the most important contribution to the output growth, followed by mechanical inputs. The contribution of land and labor was negative. China’s agricultural output growth belonged to the type of induced technology innovation. China’s agricultural TFP growth had characteristics of lfuctuations over time and unbalanced between regions, but the gap between the eastern, the middle, and the western regions has been narrowed.

  4. The Increasing Prevalence in Intersex Variation from Toxicological Dysregulation in Fetal Reproductive Tissue Differentiation and Development by Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Alisa L.; Phipps, Laura M.; Tiwari, Sweta; Rudraraju, Hemanth; Dokpesi, Philip O.

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of children are born with intersex variation (IV; ambiguous genitalia/hermaphrodite, pseudohermaphroditism, etc.). Evidence shows that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the environment can cause reproductive variation through dysregulation of normal reproductive tissue differentiation, growth, and maturation if the fetus is exposed to EDCs during critical developmental times in utero. Animal studies support fish and reptile embryos exhibited IV and sex reversal when exposed to EDCs. Occupational studies verified higher prevalence of offspring with IV in chemically exposed workers (male and female). Chemicals associated with endocrine-disrupting ability in humans include organochlorine pesticides, poly-chlorinated biphenyls, bisphenol A, phthalates, dioxins, and furans. Intersex individuals may have concurrent physical disorders requiring lifelong medical intervention and experience gender dysphoria. An urgent need exists to determine which chemicals possess the greatest risk for IV and the mechanisms by which these chemicals are capable of interfering with normal physiological development in children. PMID:27660460

  5. The Use of Weed Control Robot (WCR for Achieve to the Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Sani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Today, weeds control is very difficult because they are resistant to the herbicide due to excessive use of chemical herbicides in agriculture. Many studies have shown that mechanical and biological control of weeds can be much less damage to the environment of chemical herbicides. Develop of biological herbicides in agriculture was slow due to high prices and this subject the researchers to move toward the elimination of agricultural weed mechanically. This work was originally done by a many number of workers because and workers' rights didn’t work was ultimately economic value. Now solve this subject by the use of robotic technology in agriculture has been studied and a many number of agricultural researchers with the help of computer scientists move towards making robots to remove the weeds. Of course this is difficult due to excessive weeds similar to the plants, but the final results will help to increase crop and save the environment by eliminating chemical herbicides.

  6. Agriculture, pesticides, food security and food safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fernando P. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Departamento de Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, P-2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)]. E-mail: carvalho@itn.pt

    2006-11-15

    Decades ago, agrochemicals were introduced aiming at enhancing crop yields and at protecting crops from pests. Due to adaptation and resistance developed by pests to chemicals, every year higher amounts and new chemical compounds are used to protect crops, causing undesired side effects and raising the costs of food production. Eventually, new techniques, including genetically modified organisms (GMOs) resistant to pests, could halt the massive spread of agrochemicals in agriculture fields. Biological chemical-free agriculture is gaining also more and more support but it is still not able to respond to the need for producing massive amounts of food. The use of agrochemicals, including pesticides, remains a common practice especially in tropical regions and South countries. Cheap compounds, such as DDT, HCH and lindane, that are environmentally persistent, are today banned from agriculture use in developed countries, but remain popular in developing countries. As a consequence, persistent residues of these chemicals contaminate food and disperse in the environment. Coordinated efforts are needed to increase the production of food but with a view to enhanced food quality and safety as well as to controlling residues of persistent pesticides in the environment.

  7. Impact of an increasing supply of bioenergy sources on the sustainability of agricul-tural enterprises, evaluated with the Criteria System for Sustainable Agriculture (CSSA); Folgenabschaetzung einer zunehmenden Bereitstellung von Bioenergietraegern auf die Nachhaltigkeit landwirtschaftlicher Unternehmen, bewertet mit dem Kriteriensystem Nachhaltige Landwirtschaft (KSNL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitschuh, Thorsten; Eckert, Hans; Maier, Uta; Gernand, Ulrich; Mueller, Anja [Thueringer Landesanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft (TLL), Jena (Germany); Verband fuer Agrarforschung und Bildung Thueringen e.V., Jena (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    The report investigates how an increasing supply of bioenergy sources affects the sustainability situation of farms at different sites and with different structures. The ''Criteria System for Sustainable Agriculture'' (CSSA) was used as analysis and assessment criteria system. The CSSA is based on 34 selected criteria in the field of economy, environment and social conditions. Each criterion indicates a defined pres-sure or state and evaluates the results on the basis of defined tolerance ranges. In the study short-term scenarios of an increasing provision of bioenergy based on real data from agricultural farms were evaluated with the CSSA system. Altogether, 30 scenarios were analysed. As a result the most sustainable scenario for the supply of bioenergy was identified for each farm considered. Using this approach, the most important adaptation reactions of agricultural enterprises were determined and evaluated. Potential applications of the explained procedure are the ex-ante simulation and ex- ante evaluation of agricultural processes and the creation and evaluation of sup-port programmes. (orig.)

  8. MODERNIZATION OF AGRICULTURE VS SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz KUSZ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the correlation between the need to modernise agriculture and sustainable development. Modernisation of agriculture aiming only at increasing the efficiency of production, if implemented in accordance with the principles of sustainable development, enabled reduction in the negative external effects. Modernisation of agriculture is supposed to ensure productivity growth without imposing any threats to the natural environment and the well-being of animals, reduced impoverishment in rural areas as well as to ensure food security, growth in the profitability of farms, improvement to the efficiency of use of natural resources. Therefore, in the near future, the agriculture – environment relation will be subject to change taking into account, on the one hand, concern about the natural environment, and, on the other, pressure on increasing the efficiency of production. The above challenges will be addressed by the need to implement efficient and, at the same time, environmentally-friendly production technologies and relevant legal instruments which oblige agricultural producers to protect the natural environment.

  9. Agricultural Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  10. Researches on Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organization Promoting Agricultural Insurance Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The advantages of cooperative economic organization being the effective carrier of agricultural insurance development are analyzed. Firstly, cooperative economic organization promotes scale management and solves the problem of decentralized operation of small households. Secondly, cooperative economic organization can settle the problem of peasants’ low systematization. Thirdly, cooperative economic organization can largely reduce the costs of agricultural insurance operation. Fourthly, cooperative organization decreases moral risks as well as adverse selection to some extent. Lastly, cooperative organization, to a certain degree, reduces the risks of agricultural production and increases the insurability of agricultural risks. Meanwhile, limitations of agricultural cooperative economic organization being the carrier of agricultural insurance operation are pointed out. Firstly, cooperative economic organization has limited coverage and small size of organization, which is harmful to the diversification of agricultural risks. Secondly, cooperative economic organization lacks capital funds and its development is not standard, which is not perfect for the function exertion as a carrier. Lastly, members of professional cooperative organization have low cultural qualities, which restrict the implementation of agricultural insurance. The modes of farmers’ cooperative economic organization promoting agricultural insurance development are proposed, including mode of agricultural insurance cooperative ( mutual corporation), mode of "leading enterprises (companies) + professional cooperative organization (planting majors) + insurance" and mode of professional cooperatives serving as agricultural insurance agent. Last of all, the promoting role of agricultural insurance in agricultural cooperative economic organization is briefly illustrated.

  11. Chemical and microbiological water quality of subsurface agricultural drains during a field trial of liquid dairy manure effluent application rate and varying tillage practices, Upper Tiffin Watershed, southeastern Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Sheridan Kidd; Duris, Joseph W.

    2008-01-01

    A field trial was done in the Upper Tiffin River Watershed, in southeastern Michigan, to determine the influence of liquid dairy manure effluent (LDME) management practices on the quality of agricultural subsurface-drain water. Samples from subsurface drains were analyzed for nutrients, fecal-coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria, antibiotics, chemicals typically detected in wastewater, and the occurrence of genes indicating the presence of shiga-toxin-producing E. coli, or of bovine-specific Bacteroidetes bacteria. Samples were collected from November 2, 2006, to March 20, 2007, from eight subsurface drains under field plots that received no LDME and no tillage (controls) or received 4,000 or 8,000 gallons per acre (gal/acre) of LDME and either no tillage or two different types of tillage. The two types of tillage tested were (1) ground-driven, rotary, subsurface cultivation and (2) rolling-tine aeration. Samples were collected before LDME application and at 4 hours, and 1, 2, 6, 7, and 14 days post-application. Nutrient concentrations were high in subsurface-drain water throughout the field-trial period and could not be attributed to the field-trial LDME application. Of the 59 drain-water samples, including those collected before LDME application and control samples for each date, 56 had concentrations greater than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), Ecoregion VI recommended surface-water criterion for total phosphorus, and all samples had concentrations greater than the recommended total nitrogen criterion. Nitrate + nitrite nitrogen concentration exceeded 20 milligrams per liter for every sample and contributed most to the total nitrogen concentrations. Substantial increases in drain-water concentrations of organic and ammonia nitrogen and total phosphorus were found for all treatments, including controls, at 14 days post-application after 0.84 inch of rainfall over 2 days. E. coli concentrations exceeded the USEPA recreational

  12. Agricultural water demand, water quality and crop suitability in Souk-Alkhamis Al-Khums, Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abunnour, Mohamed Ali; Hashim, Noorazuan Bin Md.; Jaafar, Mokhtar Bin

    2016-06-01

    Water scarcity, unequal population distribution and agricultural activities increased in the coastal plains, and the probability of seawater intrusion with ground water. According to this, the quantitative and qualitative deterioration of underground water quality has become a potential for the occurrence, in addition to the decline in agricultural production in the study area. This paper aims to discover the use of ground water for irrigation in agriculture and their suitability and compatibility for agricultural. On the other hand, the quality is determines by the cultivated crops. 16 random samples of regular groundwater are collected and analyzed chemically. Questionnaires are also distributed randomly on regular basis to farmers.

  13. Research achievements in Bangladesh agriculture using nuclear techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattar, M.A. [Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Mymensingh, (Bangladesh)

    1997-10-01

    Application of isotope and radiation techniques in Bangladesh agriculture has been initiated in 1961 with the establishment of Atomic Energy Agricultural Research Centre, Dhaka under the then Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission. The activity of the centre was strengthened and upgraded to the level of an institute as a constituent organization of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission in 1972. It was further reorganized, made an autonomous research organization under the Ministry of Agriculture in 1982 and renamed as Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture. The other organizations involved in nuclear agricultural research are Institute of Food and Radiation Biology and Bangladesh Agricultural University. A number of technologies have been developed using nuclear techniques that imparted on agricultural development. Sixteen new crops were developed using physical (200-700 Gy gamma rays) and chemical mutagen (NaN{sub 3}). Soil fertility and plant nutrition technologies were developed using both stable and radio isotopes. The improved feeding strategies and utilization of locally available low quality feed material (rice straw) were determined using {sup 51}Cr-EDTA and {sup 125}I in order to have better livestock growth and reproduction ability. Several constraints related to nuclear research were identified. Increased government commitment and international cooperation are of the utmost importance for effective utilization of the benefits of nuclear technology and to face the increasing demand for food for the ever increasing population in years to come 32 refs., 1 tab.

  14. World competitiveness and agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van Zyl

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of a changing environment in which market factors and greater world trade and competitiveness are increasingly becoming the only criteria for success, a framework for the analysis of world competitiveness is initially developed. This is followed by a discussion on the growth of productivity in agriculture, as well as an exposition of the role of agricultural research. Thirdly, price factors and the terms of trade are discussed, followed by a summary of policy implications.

  15. Nitrate in ground water and water sources used by riparian trees in an agricultural watershed: A chemical and isotopic investigation in southern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komor, Stephen C.; Magner, J.

    1996-01-01

    This study evaluates processes that affect nitrate concentrations in groundwater beneath riparian zones in an agricultural watershed. Nitrate pathways in the upper 2 m of groundwater were investigated beneath wooded and grass-shrub riparian zones next to cultivated fields. Because trees can be important components of the overall nitrate pathway in wooded riparian zones, water sources used by riparian trees and possible effects of trees on nitrate concentrations in groundwater were also investigated. Average nitrate concentrations in shallow groundwater beneath the cultivated fields were 5.5 mg/L upgradient of the wooded riparian zone and 3.5 mg/L upgradient of the grass-shrub zone. Shallow groundwater beneath the fields passed through the riparian zones and discharged into streams that had average nitrate concentrations of 8.5 mg/L (as N). Lateral variations of δD values in groundwater showed that mixing among different water sources occurred beneath the riparian zones. In the wooded riparian zone, nitrate concentrations in shallow groundwater were diluted by upwelling, nitrate-poor, deep groundwater. Upwelling deep groundwater contained ammonium with a δ15N of 5‰ that upon nitrification and mixing with nitrate in shallow groundwater caused nitrate δ15N values in shallow groundwater to decrease by as much as 19.5‰. Stream water penetrated laterally beneath the wooded riparian zone as far as 19 m from the stream's edge and beneath the grass-shrub zone as far as 27 m from the stream's edge. Nitrate concentrations in shallow groundwater immediately upgradient of where it mixed with stream water averaged 0.4 mg/L in the wooded riparian zone and 0.8 mg/L near the grass-shrub riparian zone. Nitrate concentrations increased toward the streams because of mixing with nitrate-rich stream water. Because nitrate concentrations were larger in stream water than shallow groundwater, concentrated nitrate in the streams cannot have come from shallow groundwater at these

  16. Increasing solar cell efficiencies based on Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} after a specific chemical and oxidant treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canava, B.; Etcheberry, A. [Institut de Reactivite, Electrochimie et Microporosites (UMR CNRS 8637), Universite de Versailles, 45 Avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles (France); Roussel, O.; Guillemoles, J.F.; Lincot, D. [Institut de Recherche et de Developpement sur l' Energie Photovoltaique (UMR 7174 CNRS-ENSCP-EDF - EDF R and D), Centre de Chatou, 6 quai Watier, 78400 Chatou (France)

    2006-09-15

    Oxidative etching treatments based on bromine water mixtures have been studied on polycrystalline thin films of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}. This treatment enables preparation of planar, smooth and specular surfaces whose chemical properties are well defined, despite the small thickness of the layers ({approx}2 {mu}m). After device completion, the electronic properties (I-V curve, spectral response) were studied and correlated to device performances. Theses conditions allow to re-engineer damaged or aged surfaces of CIGS and to recover high photovoltaic performances. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Agricultural Technology, Risk, and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Tarp, Finn

    2000-01-01

    Interactions between agricultural technology improvements, risk-reducing behavior, and gender roles in agricultural production in Mozambique are examined. The analysis employs a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model that explicitly incorporates key features of the economy. These include......: detailed accounting of marketing margins, home consumption, risk, and gender roles in agricultural production. Our results show that agricultural technology improvements benefit both male and female occupants of rural households. Due to economic interactions, agricultural technology improvements...... are particularly compelling when combined with marketing system improvements. Moreover, technological change in cassava appears to be a particularly strong lever for increasing female and overall household welfare, especially when risk is considered....

  18. Bioprospecting bacterial and fungal volatiles for sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchiswamy, Chidananda Nagamangala; Malnoy, Mickael; Maffei, Massimo E

    2015-04-01

    Current agricultural practice depends on a wide use of pesticides, bactericides, and fungicides. Increased demand for organic products indicates consumer preference for reduced chemical use. Therefore, there is a need to develop novel sustainable strategies for crop protection and enhancement that do not rely on genetic modification and/or harmful chemicals. An increasing body of evidence indicates that bacterial and fungal microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) might provide an alternative to the use of chemicals to protect plants from pathogens and provide a setting for better crop welfare. It is well known that MVOCs can modulate the physiology of plants and microorganisms and in this Opinion we propose that MVOCs can be exploited as an ecofriendly, cost-effective, and sustainable strategy for agricultural practices.

  19. Fermentation Results and Chemical Composition of Agricultural Distillates Obtained from Rye and Barley Grains and the Corresponding Malts as a Source of Amylolytic Enzymes and Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Balcerek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the efficiency of rye and barley starch hydrolysis in mashing processes using cereal malts as a source of amylolytic enzymes and starch, and to establish the volatile profile of the obtained agricultural distillates. In addition, the effects of the pretreatment method of unmalted cereal grains on the physicochemical composition of the prepared mashes, fermentation results, and the composition of the obtained distillates were investigated. The raw materials used were unmalted rye and barley grains, as well as the corresponding malts. All experiments were first performed on a semi-technical scale, and then verified under industrial conditions in a Polish distillery. The fermentable sugars present in sweet mashes mostly consisted of maltose, followed by glucose and maltotriose. Pressure-thermal treatment of unmalted cereals, and especially rye grains, resulted in higher ethanol content in mashes in comparison with samples subjected to pressureless liberation of starch. All agricultural distillates originating from mashes containing rye and barley grains and the corresponding malts were characterized by low concentrations of undesirable compounds, such as acetaldehyde and methanol. The distillates obtained under industrial conditions contained lower concentrations of higher alcohols (apart from 1-propanol than those obtained on a semi-technical scale.

  20. Stronger management needed to protect agricultural environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai Shikui

    1983-01-01

    This article examines environmental issues and management in developed agricultural areas of China. Agricultural environmental management is defined as the adoption of countermeasures by applying the theories and methods of environmental science and management science and abiding by economic laws and ecological laws to prevent pollution of the agricultural environment and destruction of the agro-ecology by man; to coordinate the relationship between the development of agricultural production and the protection of the agricultural environment and to satisfy increasing demands for agricultural by-products. Topics considered include the basis for developing agricultural environmental management, the present condition of the agricultural environment in China, and several management proposals.

  1. Optimal cofactor swapping can increase the theoretical yield for chemical production in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, Zachary A.; Feist, Adam

    2014-01-01

    specificity of central metabolic enzymes (especially GAPD and ALCD2x) is shown to increase NADPH production and increase theoretical yields for native products in E. coli and yeast-including l-aspartate, l-lysine, l-isoleucine, l-proline, l-serine, and putrescine-and non-native products in E. coli-including 1...

  2. Topical Hazard Evaluation Program of Candidate Insect Repellent AI3-30180-c, US Department of Agriculture Proprietary Chemical, April 1982 - September 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-10

    irritation photochemical chemical and 10 percent reaction under test con- irritation in humans. (wlv) Oil of Bergamot ditions. 2 * - Study No. 75-51-0367-85...control (oil of Bergamot ), than unirradiated skin areas. a and diluent were applied to additional skin areas to serve as unirradiated control sites

  3. Topical Hazard Evaluation Program of Candidate Insect Repellent A13-38349a US Department of Agriculture Proprietary Chemicals, July 1981-January 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-16

    reaction (w/v) Oil of Bergamot irritation reaction under test (positive control) in 95% under test conditions and is ethyl alcohol was conditions, not...the rabbits, 0.05 mL cation and irradiation of the test chemical, caused greater irritant positive control (oil of effects than in un- Bergamot ) and

  4. 蚯蚓堆肥处理对不同物料农化性质的影响%Effect of Earthworm Composting on Agriculture Chemical Characteristics of Different Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳; 鄢海印; 杜亚琴; 梁俊文; 刘可星

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The objective was to study the change of the main agriculture chemical characteristics between raw material and earthworm faces. [ Method] Earthworm composted different ratio cattle manure,liquid,sludge and litter. [ Result] The results showed that pH closed to 7 and the contents of EC all increased. But compared the raw material with earthworm faces,the contents of the total N and available N descended excepted the treatment of 30% cattle manure + 70% sludge. The total P increased by 0 to 101.8% and available phosphorus increased by 13.6% to 57.2% ,the contents of available K increased by 6.9% to 33.7%. Earthworm composting accelerated the decomposition of organic matter. On the whole,the two treatments of 30% cattle manure + 70% sludge and 100% litter increased the most contents of available nutrient.And the quanity of bacteria,actinomycetes and fungus were higher than those of the treatment of 100% cattle manure. [Conclusion] By earthworm composting,it could increase the contents of available nutrient and the number of microorganism. 30% cattle manure + 70% sludge and 100% litter were the best.%[目的]研究蚯蚓堆肥前后进料和出料的主要农化性质的变化.[方法]蚯蚓堆肥处理不同比例的牛粪、药渣、污泥、枯枝落叶.[结果]pH趋于中性,EC增加;与进料相比,出料的全氮和速效氮含量(除30%牛粪+70%污泥处理外)表现出下降趋势;全磷和速效磷的含量均增加,增幅分别为0~101.8%,13.6%~57.2%;速效钾含量均增加,增幅为6.9%~33.7%;蚯蚓堆肥加快了有机物的分解,各处理有机质含量与进科相比都呈下降的趋势;整体上,30%牛粪+70%污泥和100%枯枝落叶2个处理的速效养分含量增加最多.蚯蚓堆制处理后,总体上各处理的细菌、放线菌、真菌数量均大于对照(100%牛粪).[结论]经过蚯蚓堆肥处理后,整体上能使速效养分含量和微生物数量增加,其中30%牛粪+70%污泥和100%枯枝落叶的效果最好.

  5. Biologically produced succinic acid: A new route to chemical intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Alternative Feedstocks (AF) program is forging new links between the agricultural community and the chemicals industry through support of research and development (R & D) that uses `green` feedstocks to produce chemicals. The program promotes cost-effective industrial use of renewable biomass as feedstocks to manufacture high-volume chemical building blocks. Industrial commercialization of such processes would stimulate the agricultural sector by increasing the demand of agricultural and forestry commodities. New alternatives for American industry may lie in the nation`s forests and fields. The national laboratory consortium has undertaken a joint R&D project with the Michigan Biotechnology Institute to demonstrate the feasibility of producing a chemical intermediate, succinic acid, and various derivatives, from renewable agricultural resources.

  6. Multidecadal increases in the Yukon River Basin of chemical fluxes as indicators of changing flowpaths, groundwater, and permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toohey, R. C.; Herman-Mercer, N. M.; Schuster, P. F.; Mutter, E. A.; Koch, J. C.

    2016-12-01

    The Yukon River Basin, underlain by discontinuous permafrost, has experienced a warming climate over the last century that has altered air temperature, precipitation, and permafrost. We investigated a water chemistry database from 1982 to 2014 for the Yukon River and its major tributary, the Tanana River. Significant increases of Ca, Mg, and Na annual flux were found in both rivers. Additionally, SO4 and P annual flux increased in the Yukon River. No annual trends were observed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from 2001 to 2014. In the Yukon River, Mg and SO4 flux increased throughout the year, while some of the most positive trends for Ca, Mg, Na, SO4, and P flux occurred during the fall and winter months. Both rivers exhibited positive monthly DOC flux trends for summer (Yukon River) and winter (Tanana River). These trends suggest increased active layer expansion, weathering, and sulfide oxidation due to permafrost degradation throughout the Yukon River Basin.

  7. Effects of residential and agricultural land uses on the chemical quality of baseflow of small streams in the Croton Watershed, southeastern New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisig, Paul M.

    2000-01-01

    Data on the chemical quality of baseflow from 33 small streams that drain basins of differing land-use type and intensity within the Croton watershed were collected seasonally for 1 year to identify and characterize the quality of ground-water contributions to surface water. The watershed includes twelve of New York City's water-supply reservoirs. Baseflow samples were collected a minimum of three days after the most recent precipitation and were analyzed for major ions, boron, and nutrients.

  8. Increasing significance of advanced physical/chemical processes in the development and application of sustainable wastewater treatment systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulkens, W.H.

    2008-01-01

    The awareness of the problem of the scarcity of water of high quality has strongly changed the approach of wastewater treatment. Currently, there is an increasing need for the beneficial reuse of treated wastewater and to recover valuable products and energy from the wastewater. Because microbiologi

  9. Public Investment and Environrnental Sustainability of Agricultural Production in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Jing; Li Yousheng

    2004-01-01

    The excessive application of fertilizer and pesticides in grain production in China has posed a threat to the environrnental sustainability of agricultural production. One of the major reasons of the increasing usage of chemical inputs by farmers is their trying to reach higher yields, especially in absence of adequate public inputs, such as development and extension of appropriate technology and necessary production infrastructure, etc. Based on the cropspecific data of the past 20 years, this paper examines how the public investments in agricultural researches could impact on the reduction of farmers' private material inputs of major grain crops in China. It manifests that the increased investments in public sector, especially in agricultural researches, is a favorable and effective way to reduce farmers' private material inputs and should be given a priority consideration in the policy emendation to increase yields and improve production sustainability.

  10. Alternative Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Will the popularization of bioenergy, a new source for powering China, trigger another agricultural revolution? Skyrocketing energy prices, especially the oil shock in the first half of 2005, are pushing China to seek more substitutes for gasoline. A number of cities are turning to ethanol-blended gas made from com. Starting this month, the sale of regular gasoline will be brought to an end in nine of China's

  11. 提高化肥利用率 发展低碳农业%Rise in Utilization Ratio of Chemical Fertilizers and Development of Low-Carbon Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵建华; 沈静; 陈绍荣; 杨树祥; 朱树丽; 施红贵

    2012-01-01

    提高肥料利用率、创新肥料生产技术是发展低碳经济的需要.提高农作物吸收养分能力、测土平衡施肥、开发新型肥料、利用有机废弃资源生产有机肥、加速秸秆应用研究是提高肥料利用率的有效途径,不仅可减轻化肥对环境的污染,而且还可以增强农作物的抗病、抗寒、抗高温的能力,提高农业投入产出比,进而实现农业低碳经济.%Rise in fertilizer utilization ratio and innovation in fertilizer production technology are necessary for the development of low-carbon economy. Improvement on nutrient absorption ability of crops, balanced fertilizer application based on soil analysis, development of new types of fertilizers, utilization of abandoned organic waste resources for the production of organic manures, and speeding up of application study of straw are effective ways to improve fertilizer utilization ratio, thereby not only lessening environment pollution by chemical fertilizers, but also improving the ability of crops to resist diseases, cold and high temperature , raising the ratio of agricultural input to output, and then realizing low-carbon economy in agriculture.

  12. Morphological and chemical diversity in the Type IV glandular trichomes of Solananeae (S. sisymbrifolium and N. glauca) as germplasm resources for agricultural and food uses

    OpenAIRE

    Cesio, Verónica; Dutra,Carmelo; Moyna,Patrick; Heinzen, Horacio

    2006-01-01

    Morphological variation in type IV trichomes in Ss and Ng was studied through SEM. The differences can be related to chemical differences in the excreted sugar esters. Ng trichomes exude two fractions, one of glucose tri-esters and the other one of sucrose tetra-esters, in a 3:7 ratio. The main acid found forming these esthers, is 3-methylvalerianic acid, in consonance to those secreted by other Solanaceae. Esters from Ss are novel structures, which can also be separated into three fractions,...

  13. Parameterisation of LCI/LCIA models of agricultural systems emissions under future pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cosme, Nuno Miguel Dias; Dijkman, Teunis Johannes; Birkved, Morten

    . Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been dealing with the environmental impacts from emissions and resources consumption from human activities including agriculture. Several approaches for inventory (LCI) and impact assessment (LCIA) modelling of agricultural activities have been published recently....... To enhance the agriculture yield by adding nutrients and chemicals, humans will potentially increase the magnitude of the resulting emission flows to the ecosphere. The linearity of the emissions’ fate and impact modelling suggests the assertion that the more nutrients or chemicals we apply in these systems......Agricultural production currently faces two important challenges that need to be overcome in the next decades. Firstly, the expected increase of the global human population will put more pressure on productive ecosystems to accommodate the growing need for food. Secondly, climate change...

  14. Linking nutrition-health-agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural production is intimately linked with health and nutrition as a form of income, a source of food, and a cause of disease. Citing a variety of previous studies, this presentation demonstrates the complexity of the relationships among agriculture and food consumption, food safety, infection, and stunting. The authors demonstrate that increasing agricultural production does not necessarily result in improved nutrition: Although more food may be available, this greater yield may suppl...

  15. Environmental Issues Related to Chemical Fertilizer Use in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAOZHIHONG

    1996-01-01

    The current status of chemical fertilizers production and consumption in China as well as their important roles in Chinese modern agriculture are discussed with special concerns to the environmental issues related to chemical fertilizer use.On the one hand.the total amount of chemical fertilizer produced is insufficient to meet the agricultural needs.On the other hand.the production and consumption of chemical fertilizers in China are obviously not balanced.In some areas over application of nitrogen fertilizers and loss of phosphate fertilizer due to soil erosion have resulted in some undesirable environmental problems such as increase of nitrate in water and eutrophication of water bodies.Maximum scientific uses of organic manures in combination with reasonable use of chemical fertilizers are part of good practices not only in increasuing soil productivity and keeping sustainable agriculture development but also in minimizing their detrimental effects on the environment.

  16. AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION IN INDIA: CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    India is an agricultural country. At the time of independence our country faced food shortages. Later on due to green revolution we became self sufficient in food grain production despite population increase. One of the important factors in success of green revolution is the role played by agricultural graduates. After independence, state agricultural universities were established in all the states to impart education in the field of agriculture. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New D...

  17. Tracer Study of Agricultural Graduates in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Mugisha, Johnny; Nkwasibwe, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    There has been increased demand for food not only on the African continent but globally. This has been largely attributed to the high population growth with changing food preferences. This calls for the transformation of Africa’s agriculture and food systems through transforming agricultural production, markets, agricultural education and training institutions. Agricultural training institutions such as universities and agricultural colleges have a lot to contribute but they need to run relev...

  18. Reducing air and water pollutants in precision agriculture using robotic system

    OpenAIRE

    González-de-Soto, Mariano

    2016-01-01

    [EN]In the last decades there has been a large increase in environmental pollution. The incessant use of fossil fuels generates large air pollution with consequent climate change, in addition to the health problems caused by these pollutant emissions. These fuels are the main energy source for mobile vehicles, such as agricultural ones. Another problem generated in the current intensive agriculture is the use of chemicals to combat undesired pests that undermine and damage the production. Man...

  19. Emerging Agricultural Biotechnologies for Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jennifer A; Gipmans, Martijn; Hurst, Susan; Layton, Raymond; Nehra, Narender; Pickett, John; Shah, Dilip M; Souza, Thiago Lívio P O; Tripathi, Leena

    2016-01-20

    As global populations continue to increase, agricultural productivity will be challenged to keep pace without overtaxing important environmental resources. A dynamic and integrated approach will be required to solve global food insecurity and position agriculture on a trajectory toward sustainability. Genetically modified (GM) crops enhanced through modern biotechnology represent an important set of tools that can promote sustainable agriculture and improve food security. Several emerging biotechnology approaches were discussed in a recent symposium organized at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry meeting in San Francisco, CA, USA. This paper summarizes the innovative research and several of the new and emerging technologies within the field of agricultural biotechnology that were presented during the symposium. This discussion highlights how agricultural biotechnology fits within the context of sustainable agriculture and improved food security and can be used in support of further development and adoption of beneficial GM crops.

  20. Biosurfactants in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, Dhara P; Cameotra, Swaranjit S

    2013-02-01

    Agricultural productivity to meet growing demands of human population is a matter of great concern for all countries. Use of green compounds to achieve the sustainable agriculture is the present necessity. This review highlights the enormous use of harsh surfactants in agricultural soil and agrochemical industries. Biosurfactants which are reported to be produced by bacteria, yeasts, and fungi can serve as green surfactants. Biosurfactants are considered to be less toxic and eco-friendly and thus several types of biosurfactants have the potential to be commercially produced for extensive applications in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and food industries. The biosurfactants synthesized by environmental isolates also has promising role in the agricultural industry. Many rhizosphere and plant associated microbes produce biosurfactant; these biomolecules play vital role in motility, signaling, and biofilm formation, indicating that biosurfactant governs plant-microbe interaction. In agriculture, biosurfactants can be used for plant pathogen elimination and for increasing the bioavailability of nutrient for beneficial plant associated microbes. Biosurfactants can widely be applied for improving the agricultural soil quality by soil remediation. These biomolecules can replace the harsh surfactant presently being used in million dollar pesticide industries. Thus, exploring biosurfactants from environmental isolates for investigating their potential role in plant growth promotion and other related agricultural applications warrants details research. Conventional methods are followed for screening the microbial population for production of biosurfactant. However, molecular methods are fewer in reaching biosurfactants from diverse microbial population and there is need to explore novel biosurfactant from uncultured microbes in soil biosphere by using advanced methodologies like functional metagenomics.

  1. O vozmozhnostjah ispol'zovanija istoricheskogo opyta tehnologij povyshenija plodorodija pochv v Vostochnoj Prussii v sel'skohozjajstvennom predprinimatel'stve Kaliningradskoj oblasti [On the possibility to adopt the historical practice of applying technologies for land fertility increase in Eastern Prussia at agricultural enterprises of the Kaliningrad region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levina Roza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the features of East Prussian land use system, whose crucial component was technologies for land fertility increase. A special package of measures in the framework of melioration and irrigation activities accounted for the high productivity of agriculture in this territory despite the fact that the local climate conditions can hardly be called perfect according to the well-known principles of agricultural science. The authors offer an overview of scientific approaches to the reconstruction and practical application of ideas and principles of progressive agriculture consistent with a more general area of organic agriculture. Special attention is paid to the modern agricultural practice in the territory of the Kaliningrad region — former East Prussia — and the possibilities to use the methods for increasing land fertility that were intensively employed by Prussians.

  2. Heat shock increases oxidative stress to modulate growth and physico-chemical attributes in diverse maize cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Iqbal; Ashraf, Muhammad Arslan; Rasheed, Rizwan; Iqbal, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Ashraf, Shamila

    2016-10-01

    The present investigation was conducted to appraise the physiochemical adjustments in contrasting maize cultivars, namely, PakAfgoi (tolerant) and EV-5098 (sensitive) subjected to heat shock. Seven-day-old seedlings were exposed to heat shock for different time intervals (1, 3, 6, 24, 48 and 72 h) and data for various physiochemical attributes determined to appraise time course changes in maize. After 72 h of heat shock, the plants were grown under normal conditions for 5 d and data for different growth attributes and photosynthetic pigments recorded. Exposure to heat shock reduced growth and photosynthetic pigments in maize cultivars. The plants exposed to heat shock for up to 3 h recovered growth and photosynthetic pigments when stress was relieved. A time course rise in the relative membrane permeability, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde contents was recorded particularly in the EV-5098 indicating that heat shock-induced oxidative stress. Activities of different enzymatic antioxidants greatly altered due to heat shock. For instance, an increase in superoxide dismutase activity was recorded in both maize cultivars. The activity of ascorbate peroxidase was greater in Pak-Afgoi. However, the peroxidase and catalase activities were higher in plants of EV-5098. Heat shock caused a significant rise in the proline and decline in the total free amino acids. Overall, the performance of Pak-Afgoi was better in terms of having lesser oxidative damage and greater cellular levels of proline. The results suggested that oxidative stress indicators (relative membrane permeability, H2O2 and malondialdehyde) and proline can be used as markers for heat shock tolerant plants.

  3. Pyrolysis of agricultural residues. Part II. Yield and chemical composition of tars and oils produced from cotton stalks, and assessment of lignin structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahmy, Y.; Mobarak, F.; Schweers, W.

    1982-01-01

    The pyrolysis of cotton stalks at 400-600 degrees resulted in the production of char and tar in highest yield, and the increase of temperature within this range decreased the yield of tar and phenolic compounds in the tar but increased the ratio of neutrals to acids in the tar. On decreasing the particle size of stalks, the total yield of tar remained almost constant regardless of pyrolysis temperature but that of phenols increased while that of neutrals and acids decreased. The distribution of syringol and guaiacol in phenolic products indicated that lignin in stalks belongs to the guaiacyl-syringyl type.

  4. Agricultural lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkhorn, S R; Garry, V F

    2000-08-01

    Agriculture is considered one of the most hazardous occupations. Organic dusts and toxic gases constitute some of the most common and potentially disabling occupational and environmental hazards. The changing patterns of agriculture have paradoxically contributed to both improved working conditions and increased exposure to respiratory hazards. Animal confinement operations with increasing animal density, particularly swine confinement, have contributed significantly to increased intensity and duration of exposure to indoor air toxins. Ongoing research has implicated bacterial endotoxins, fungal spores, and the inherent toxicity of grain dusts as causes of upper and lower airway inflammation and as immunologic agents in both grain and animal production. Animal confinement gases, particularly ammonia and hydrogen sulfide, have been implicated as additional sources of respiratory irritants. It has become evident that a significant percentage of agricultural workers have clinical symptoms associated with long-term exposure to organic dusts and animal confinement gases. Respiratory diseases and syndromes, including hypersensitivity pneumonitis, organic dust toxic syndrome, chronic bronchitis, mucous membrane inflammation syndrome, and asthmalike syndrome, result from ongoing acute and chronic exposures. In this review we focus upon the emerging respiratory health issues in a changing agricultural economic and technologic environment. Environmental and occupational hazards and exposures will be emphasized rather than clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods of prevention, from both engineering controls and personal respiratory perspectives, are also addressed.

  5. Chapter B. Physical, Chemical, and Biological Responses of Streams to Increasing Watershed Urbanization in the Piedmont Ecoregion of Georgia and Alabama, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, M. Brian; Calhoun, Daniel L.

    2007-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program?s effort to assess the physical, chemical, and biological responses of streams to urbanization, 30 wadable streams were sampled near Atlanta, Ga., during 2002?2003. Watersheds were selected to minimize natural factors such as geology, altitude, and climate while representing a range of urban development. A multimetric urban intensity index was calculated using watershed land use, land cover, infrastructure, and socioeconomic variables that are highly correlated with population density. The index was used to select sites along a gradient from low to high urban intensity. Response variables measured include stream hydrology and water temperature, instream habitat, field properties (pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity), nutrients, pesticides, suspended sediment, sulfate, chloride, Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentrations, and characterization of algal, invertebrate and fish communities. In addition, semipermeablemembrane devices (SPMDs)?passive samplers that concentrate hydrophobic organic contaminants such as polycyclicaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)?were used to evaluate water-quality conditions during the 4 weeks prior to biological sampling. Changes in physical, chemical, and biological conditions were evaluated using both nonparametric correlation analysis and nonmetric multidimensional scaling (MDS) ordinations and associated comparisons of dataset similarity matrices. Many of the commonly reported effects of watershed urbanization on streams were observed in this study, such as altered hydrology and increases in some chemical constituent levels. Analysis of water-chemistry data showed that specific conductance, chloride, sulfate, and pesticides increased as urbanization increased. Nutrient concentrations were not directly correlated to increases in development, but were inversely correlated to percent forest in the watershed. Analyses of SPMD-derived data showed that

  6. Comparison and Analysis of Chemical Characteristics of Typical Agricultural Biomass%典型农业生物质化学特性的比较与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王璐; 黄历; 陶懿伟; 刘荣厚

    2014-01-01

    The rice straw, corn stalks, rape straw and cotton stalks from Anhui , Jiangxi and Shanghai were used as test samples .In order to deduce a proper energy utilization method of them , their chemical characteristics were analyzed and compared .The results show that rice straw is more suitable for producing ethanol .Corn stalks are more likely to be con-verted into CO , CO2 in thermo-chemical conversion , while cotton stalks are easily converted into CH 4 .Cotton stalks and corn stalks are not suitable for pyrolysis to produce bio-oil .Rape straw is not suitable for direct combustion for power generation .The research provides a reference for raw material selection for biomass energy production and utilization .%以安徽省、江西省和上海市的典型生物质农作物秸秆(水稻秸秆、玉米秸秆、油菜秸秆和棉花秸秆)作为研究对象,通过测试生物质的化学组成特性,比较分析不同种类秸秆性质的异同,推断不同秸秆适宜的能源化利用途径。结果表明:玉米秸秆热化学转换时更易转化为 CO、CO2,棉花秸秆热化学转换时更易转化为 CH4;棉花秸秆不适合热裂解液化生成生物油,其次为玉米秸秆;水稻秸秆更适合生产乙醇;油菜秸秆不适于直燃发电。本研究可以为3个地区不同类型生物质能源利用时的原料选择及热化学转化设备的改进提供参考。

  7. GABA-A receptor antagonists increase firing, bursting and synchrony of spontaneous activity in neuronal networks grown on microelectrode arrays: a step towards chemical "fingerprinting"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessment of effects on spontaneous network activity in neurons grown on MEAs is a proposed method to screen chemicals for potential neurotoxicity. In addition, differential effects on network activity (chemical "fingerprints") could be used to classify chemical modes of action....

  8. Synthesis of nanocrystalline silicon thin films using the increase of the deposition pressure in the hot-wire chemical vapour deposition technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Rath

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured thin silicon-based films have been deposited using the hot-wire chemical vapour deposition (HWCVD technique at the University of the Western Cape. A variety of techniques including optical and infrared spectroscopy, Raman scattering spectroscopy, X-rays diffraction (XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM have been used for characterisation of the films. The electrical measurements show that the films have good values of photoresponse, and the photocurrent remains stable after several hours of light soaking. This contribution will discuss the characteristics of the hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon thin films deposited using increased process chamber pressure at a fixed hydrogen dilution ratio in monosilane gas.

  9. Biofertilizers: a potential approach for sustainable agriculture development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanty, Trishna; Bhattacharjee, Surajit; Goswami, Madhurankhi; Bhattacharyya, Purnita; Das, Bannhi; Ghosh, Abhrajyoti; Tribedi, Prosun

    2017-02-01

    The worldwide increase in human population raises a big threat to the food security of each people as the land for agriculture is limited and even getting reduced with time. Therefore, it is essential that agricultural productivity should be enhanced significantly within the next few decades to meet the large demand of food by emerging population. Not to mention, too much dependence on chemical fertilizers for more crop productions inevitably damages both environmental ecology and human health with great severity. Exploitation of microbes as biofertilizers is considered to some extent an alternative to chemical fertilizers in agricultural sector due to their extensive potentiality in enhancing crop production and food safety. It has been observed that some microorganisms including plant growth promoting bacteria, fungi, Cyanobacteria, etc. have showed biofertilizer-like activities in the agricultural sector. Extensive works on biofertilizers have revealed their capability of providing required nutrients to the crop in sufficient amounts that resulted in the enhancement of crop yield. The present review elucidates various mechanisms that have been exerted by biofertilizers in order to promote plant growth and also provides protection against different plant pathogens. The aim of this review is to discuss the important roles and applications of biofertilizers in different sectors including agriculture, bioremediation, and ecology.

  10. Against the Grain: The Influence of Changing Agricultural Management on the Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    The rise of modern agriculture was one of the most transformative events in human history, and has forever changed our relationship to the natural world. By clearing tropical forests, practicing subsistence agriculture on marginal lands and intensifying industrialized farmland production, agricultural practices are changing the worldês landscapes in pervasive ways. In the past decade, we have made tremendous progress in monitoring agricultural expansion from satellites, and modeling associated environmental impacts. In the past decade, the Earth System Science research community has begun to recognize the importance of agricultural lands, particularly as they continue expanding at the expense of important natural ecosystems, potentially altering the planetês carbon cycle and climate. With the advent of new remote sensing and global modeling methods, several efforts have documented the expansion of agricultural lands, the corresponding loss of natural ecosystems, and how this may influence the earth system. But the geographic expansion of agricultural lands is not the whole story. While significant agricultural expansion (or extensification) has occurred in the past few decades, the intensification of agricultural practices Ð under the aegis of the -Green Revolution" Ð has dramatically altered the relationship between humans and environmental systems across the world. Simply put, many of the worldês existing agricultural lands are being used much more intensively as opportunities for agricultural expansion are being exhausted elsewhere. In the last 40 years, global agricultural production has more than doubled Ð although global cropland has increased by only 12% Ð mainly through the use of high yielding varieties of grain, increased reliance on irrigation, massive increases in chemical fertilization, and increased mechanization. Indeed, in the past 40 years there has been a 700% increase in global fertilizer use and a 70% increase in irrigated cropland area

  11. Chemical characterization of ash generated from alfalfa stem gasification: Agricultural and environmental implications. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, C.; Mozaffari, M.; Russelle, M.; Nater, E.

    1997-10-30

    This progress report provides results of Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedures (TCLP) and Synthetic Leachate Test Procedure (SLTP) for the alfalfa stem ash. The TCLP simulates solute leaching in landfill by using acetic acid as a solvent and SLTP simulates potential for leaching from synthetic acid rain. This report also provides information on detailed chemical characterization of organic and inorganic constituents of the ash. The analysis performed includes information on compounds that may represent a potential risk to human or animal health and those constituents that may have beneficial use as soil amendments and conditioners. A sample of the fly (filter) ash from the test burn conducted in Finland was received in May 1997 and used for initial investigation. Three additional fly ash samples and one sample of bottom ash (reactor bed ash) were received in June 1997. The samples were either tested at the University of Minnesota or sent to a reputable laboratory, and various tests were conducted according to the standard methods. The result of the comprehensive tests conducted in May 1997 (report submitted previously) were used as a screening procedure for conducting tests on June 1997 samples. To provide a more comprehensive representation of ash characteristics the results for fly ash received in May are presented along with results from fly ash samples received in July. The average, range and coefficient of variation (CV) are provided. The TCLP and SLTP tests conducted in the laboratory indicated that the concentration of heavy metals were below or close to the detection limits for fly and bottom ash samples (Tables 1 and 2). The ash was also characterized for a number of classes of organic compounds that may pose potential environmental or health risks. These are polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), total and individual dioxin and furan compounds.

  12. AGRICULTURAL USES OF SEAWEEDS EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Popescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine bioactive substances extracted from seaweed are currently used in food, animal feed, as a raw material in the industry and have therapeutic applications. Most of the products based on marine algae are extracted from Brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum. The use of extracts of seaweed in agriculture is beneficial because the amount of chemical fertilizers and obtaining organic yield.

  13. Long-term combined chemical and manure fertilizations increase soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in aggregate fractions at three typical cropland soils in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y T; Zhang, W J; Xu, M G; Tong, X G; Sun, F X; Wang, J Z; Huang, S M; Zhu, P; He, X H

    2015-11-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN) are important factors of soil fertility. However, effects of the combined chemical fertilizer and organic manure or straw on these factors and their relationships are less addressed under long-term fertilizations. This study addressed changes in SOC, TN, MBC and MBN at 0-20 cm soil depth under three 17 years (September 1990-September 2007) long-term fertilization croplands along a heat and water gradient in China. Four soil physical fractions (coarse free and fine free particulate organic C, cfPOC and ffPOC; intra-microaggregate POC, iPOC; and mineral associated organic C, MOC) were examined under five fertilizations: unfertilized control, chemical nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) (NPK), NPK plus straw (NPKS, hereafter straw return), and NPK plus manure (NPKM and 1.5NPKM, hereafter manure). Compared with Control, manure significantly increased all tested parameters. SOC and TN in fractions distributed as MOC > iPOC > cfPOC > ffPOC with the highest increase in cfPOC (329.3%) and cfPTN (431.1%), and the lowest in MOC (40.8%) and MTN (45.4%) under manure. SOC significantly positively correlated with MBC, cfPOC, ffPOC, iPOC and MOC (R(2) = 0.51-0.84, P fertilization for improving soil fertility while straw return should take into account climate factors in Chinese croplands.

  14. Sustainability and Competitiveness of Romanian Farms through Organic Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Ionela Aceleanu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the development of any sector involves respecting the principles of sustainability, which means economic, social and environmental development. Moreover, organic farming is a very important field for ensuring sustainable development. Romania has great potential for the development of organic agriculture, especially due to the large number of available farmland and reduced use of fertilizers and other chemicals. However, the development of organic farming in Romania is in an early stage, due to the numerous problems that Romanian agriculture is still facing. Concern for the environment should be reflected at the level of production processes and consumption. As market demand influences and stimulates production, we can ask the question to what extent stimulating the consumption of organic products through green marketing can boost organic agriculture development and competitiveness of Romanian farms. Using several methods of research, such as analysis, synthesis, comparison, statistical methods and by calling on studies, reports and data series on organic farming in the EU and Romania, this paper highlights Romania's position in terms of the level of development of organic agriculture and recommends several ways to improve the outcomes obtained by Romania in the field. Moreover, based on regression equations, the trend of convergence of Romanian organic agriculture development in relation to the EU countries is analysed. The paper demonstrates that one of the measures that can be taken by Romanian farms is green marketing strategy development that can stimulate both consumption and production of organic products. Therefore, with increasing interest in the development of organic agriculture in Romania, green marketing can play an increasingly important role in promoting the benefits of consuming organic products, thus contributing to business development of organic products as well as to the development of Romanian agriculture

  15. Use of potassium permanganate integrated chemical-biological treatment schemes of wastewaters from agricultural industry; Aplicacion de permanganato potasico en sistemas de tratamiento integrado quimico-biologico en las aguas residuales de la industria agricola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medialdea, J. M.; Arnaiz, M. C.; Isac, L.; Ruiz, C.; Valentin, R.; Martinez, M. F.; Garcia, S.; Lebrato, J. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Cuenca, I.

    2000-07-01

    Present study assesses the applicability of a treatment scheme based on the combination of anaerobic biological digestion and chemical oxidation by potassium permanganate, in the purification of winery wastewaters. Biological digestion, performed using an experimental 1-liter reactor that operated discontinuously with completely mixed input and a mesophilic regime (35 degree centigree), removed 65% and 78% of water COD and BOD, and contributed 82,27% to the system global efficiency. Further chemical oxidation of effluent by Aquox -potassium permanganate eliminated 40% of residual COD, although contributed only 17,73% to global purification efficiency. However, effluent chemical oxidation at a dosage of 35 mg KMnO{sub 4}/L significantly increased effluent biodegradability. Results demonstrated the feasibility of analyzed working scheme and provide a positive valuation on the use of KMnO{sub 4} in the treatment of winery wastewaters. (Author) 24 refs.

  16. The Impact of Price on Chemical Fertilizer Demand in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John K.Dagsvik

    2012-01-01

    Since 1998,the national policies on chemical fertilizer in China have been concentrated in limiting price plus subsidizing,abolishing agricultural tax,giving direct subsidies to farmers,and other aspects.In order to analyze the impact of national policies on the consumption of chemical fertilizer,this article selects the consumption of chemical fertilizer per unit,chemical fertilizer price index and farmers’net income in different provinces during the period 1998-2007 as variables,to conduct regression analysis of chemical fertilizer expenditure function,and calculate the price elasticity and income elasticity of chemical fertilizer demand in different provinces over the decade based on the regression results.The results show that at present the basic consumption of chemical fertilizer for agricultural development in China is 0.35 t/hm 2 ,and the consumption of chemical fertilizer is excessive in some provinces;the chemical fertilizer market has not been really established,and the price has little impact on demand.This indicates that the chemical fertilizer is essential for agricultural economic development,and it increases along with the increase of farmers’income; the intervention of the national policy in chemical fertilizer price is a fundamental reason for the rising demand for chemical fertilizer.This also to some extent indicates that the policy effect of merely using environmental taxes to change farmers’consumption of chemical fertilizer is limited;there is a need to transform the existing policies purely promoting agricultural economic development,toward giving different subsidies in accordance with whether the farmers’fertilization pattern is beneficial to the environment.

  17. Value and Development Countermeasures for Modern Agriculture in Suzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weidong; JIN

    2013-01-01

    With advance of urbanization and industrialization, modern agricultural development in Chinas economic developed areas (CEDAs) is greatly restricted by traditional concept. To speed up the development of modern agriculture in CEDAs, this paper takes Suzhou City as an example from theories supporting modern agricultural development. It demonstrates agriculture in CEDAs plays an important role in adjusting supply of agricultural and sideline products, reserving rural labor employment, protecting ecological environment, increasing farmers income, and passing on agricultural culture. It contends that CEDAs should take reserving basic farmland as prerequisite; take adequate supply of primary agricultural products, protection of living environment, maintenance of agricultural landscape, and inheritance of farming culture as objectives; establish perfect modern agricultural system through firmly setting up modern agricultural value concept; increase local public finance input; increase agricultural functional value from technical and management levels, to realize increase of farmers income, promote sustainable development of agriculture, promote integrated urban and rural development, as well as harmonious development of human and nature.

  18. TRANSFORMATION OF MODERN AGRICULTURE INTO ORGANIC AGRICULTURE AT SUBAK WANGAYA BETAN, PENEBEL DISTRICT, TABANAN REGENCY, BALI PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euis Dewi Yuliana

    2012-11-01

    select for analyzing the data. In this third stage, the selecteddata were analyzed and interpreted. In the fourth stage, the results were constructed andreported.Based on the analysis conducted, three findings could be reported. First,agricultural transformation has taken place at Subak Wangaya Betan, from agrochemical based modern agriculture in which inorganic, chemical pesticide and hybrid varieties areused into organic agriculture in which no chemical substances are used. The agriculturaltransformation has not been suddenly conducted; it has been a planned process, has beenconducted through a highly systematic mechanism with many stages and has consumed alot of time and needed in-depth studies. Second, many factors have led to the agriculturaltransformation taking place at Subak Wangaya Betan. They are external factors such aspolitical, economic, social, cultural and ecological aspects and internal factors such as thenegative side of green revolution implementation, natural resources, cooperative farmers,and adherent farmers. They are all equally strong and synergize in encouraging andaccelerating the agricultural transformation. Third, it turns out that the agriculturaltransformation taking place at Subak Wangaya Betan has several implications andmeanings. The implications are that the ideology adhered to by the farmers has changed,the establishment of new institutions, an increase in the farmers’ income, improved ricefield ecosystem and environment. The meanings of organic agriculture are spiritualmeaning, empowerment meaning and welfare meaning.

  19. Chemical and biochemical properties of Stagnic Albeluvisols organic matter as result of long-term agricultural management and native forest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astover, Alar; Kõlli, Raimo; Wojciech Szajdak, Lech

    2010-05-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is considered to be as the most important factor in soil forming, development and continuous functioning. Sequestrated into SOM organic carbon concentrations, pools and residence time in soil, as well acting intensity of interconnected with SOM edaphon are soil type specific or characteristic to certain soil types. In depending on soil moisture regime, calcareousness and clay content for each soil type certain soil organic carbon (SOC) retaining capacity and its vertical distribution pattern are characteristic. However, land use change (crop rotation, continuous cropping, no-tillage, melioration, rewetting) has greatest influence mainly on fabric of epipedon and biological functions of soil cover. Stagnic Albeluvisols are largely distributed at Tartu County. They form here more than half from arable soils. The establishment of long-term field trial and forest research area in these regions for biochemical analysis of Stagnic Albeluvisols' organic matter is in all respects justified. In 1989, an international long-term experiment on the organic nitrogen or IOSDV (Internationale Organische Stickstoffdauerdiingungsversuche) with three-field crop rotation (potato - spring wheat - spring barley) was started at Eerika near Tartu (58° 22.5' N; 26° 39.8' E) on Stagnic Albeluvisol. The main aims of this study were to determine the long-term effects of cropping systems on physico-chemical properties of soils and their productivity. The design of this field experiment is similar to other European network of IOSDV experiments. Before the establishment of this experiment in 1989 it was in set-aside state (5-6 years) as field-grass fallow. It was used as arable land in condition of state farm during 1957-83. Average agrochemical characteristics of the plough horizon of soil in the year of establishment were the following: humus content 17.1 g kg-1, total nitrogen content 0.9 g kg-1, C:N ratio 11 and pHKCl 6.3. DL soluble phosphorus content was 44 mg

  20. Soil biota and agriculture production in conventional and organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrama, Maarten; de Haan, Joj; Carvalho, Sabrina; Kroonen, Mark; Verstegen, Harry; Van der Putten, Wim

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable food production for a growing world population requires a healthy soil that can buffer environmental extremes and minimize its losses. There are currently two views on how to achieve this: by intensifying conventional agriculture or by developing organically based agriculture. It has been established that yields of conventional agriculture can be 20% higher than of organic agriculture. However, high yields of intensified conventional agriculture trade off with loss of soil biodiversity, leaching of nutrients, and other unwanted ecosystem dis-services. One of the key explanations for the loss of nutrients and GHG from intensive agriculture is that it results in high dynamics of nutrient losses, and policy has aimed at reducing temporal variation. However, little is known about how different agricultural practices affect spatial variation, and it is unknown how soil fauna acts this. In this study we compare the spatial and temporal variation of physical, chemical and biological parameters in a long term (13-year) field experiment with two conventional farming systems (low and medium organic matter input) and one organic farming system (high organic matter input) and we evaluate the impact on ecosystem services that these farming systems provide. Soil chemical (N availability, N mineralization, pH) and soil biological parameters (nematode abundance, bacterial and fungal biomass) show considerably higher spatial variation under conventional farming than under organic farming. Higher variation in soil chemical and biological parameters coincides with the presence of 'leaky' spots (high nitrate leaching) in conventional farming systems, which shift unpredictably over the course of one season. Although variation in soil physical factors (soil organic matter, soil aggregation, soil moisture) was similar between treatments, but averages were higher under organic farming, indicating more buffered conditions for nutrient cycling. All these changes coincide with

  1. Compatibility of Isaria fumosorosea (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae Blastospores with Agricultural Chemicals Used for Management of the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasco B. Avery

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Biorational insecticides are being increasingly emphasized for inclusion in integrated pest management programs for invasive insects. The entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria fumosorosea, can be used to help manage the Asian citrus psyllid with minimal impact on beneficial arthropods, but its effectiveness may be compromised by agrochemicals used to control concurrent arthropod pests and diseases. We evaluated the compatibility of I. fumosorosea blastospores with a range of spray oils and copper-based fungicides registered for use in citrus groves. Results of laboratory and greenhouse tests showed a range of responses of the fungus to the different materials, including compatibility and incompatibility. Overall, I. fumosorosea growth in vitro was reduced least by petroleum-based materials and most by botanical oils and borax, and some of the copper-based fungicides, suggesting that tank mixing of I. fumosorosea with these latter products should be avoided. However, equivalent negative effects of test materials on fungal pathogenicity were not always observed in tests with adult psyllids. We hypothesize that some oils enhanced adherence of blastospores to the insect cuticle, overcoming negative impacts on germination. Our data show that care should be taken in selecting appropriate agrochemicals for tank-mixing with commercial formulations of entomopathogenic fungi for management of citrus pests. The prospects of using I. fumosorosea for managing the invasive Asian citrus psyllid and other citrus pests are discussed.

  2. Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Caporali

    Full Text Available In the framework of the 16th National Meeting of the Italian Ecological Society (“Global Change, Ecological Diversity and Sustainability”, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, 19-22 September 2006, a symposium was devoted to “Agroecology and Sustainable Development”. A major goal of this symposium was to contribute to keeping the dialogue among the experts of the various disciplines alive. Sustainability of agriculture is a challenge for society world wide. Universities and society as a whole have a responsibility in re-examining current perception of nature, of the world and of human society in the light of natural resources depletion, increasing pollution and social inequalities. The urgency to address sustainability issues is increasingly being reflected in the manner in which institutions of higher education around the world are giving priority to the teaching, research and practice of sustainability. The University of Tuscia is involved in international initiatives concerning teaching and research in Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture.

  3. Agriculture ideas and modernization of agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Kangmin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of agriculture has its own history from primitive agriculture, traditional agriculture to modem agriculture. Is it a historical road we must follow?Human being had experienced a long history of living on collection and hunting for about 2,000 to 3,000 millenniums since human being appeared on earth. After we settled down, another 10 millenniums passed. Human being began to cultivate crops and raise animals. Thus, we entered the primitive agriculture stage. The primitive agriculture lasted for 7,000 years to get our food security on primitive crop cultivation and animal raising.

  4. Practicing Conservation Agriculture to mitigate and adapt to Climate Change in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khresat, Saeb

    2016-04-01

    Climate change scenarios indicate that Jordan and the Middle East could suffer from reduced agricultural productivity and water availability among other negative impacts. Based on the projection models for the area, average temperature in Jordan is projected to increase between 1.2 and 1.6 °C by 2050. Projections for precipitation trends are projected to decrease by 16% by the year 2050. Evaporation is likely to increase due to higher temperatures. This is likely to increase the incidence of drought potential since precipitation is projected to decrease. The dominant form of agriculture system in Jordan is based on intensive tillage. This form of tillage has resulted in large losses of organic soil carbon, weaker soil structure, and cause compaction. It has negative effects on soil aeration, root development and water infiltration among other factors. There is a need to transform farming practices to conservation agriculture to sequester carbon so that climate change mitigation becomes an inherent property of future farming systems. Conservation Agriculture, a system avoiding or minimizing soil disturbance, combined with soil cover and crop diversification, is considered to be a sustainable production system that can also sequester carbon unlike tillage agriculture. Conservation agriculture promotes minimal disturbance of the soil by tillage (zero tillage), balanced application of chemical inputs and careful management of residues and wastes. This study was conducted to develop a clear understanding of the impacts and benefits of the two most common types of agriculture, traditional tillage agriculture and conservation agriculture with respect to their effects on land productivity and on soil carbon pools. The study results indicated that conservation agriculture contributed to the reduction of the farming systems' greenhouse gas emissions and enhance its role as carbon sinks. Also, it was found that by shifting to conservation agriculture labor cost needed for

  5. Occupational Allergic Hazards of Agricultural Chemicals and Its Prevention%对农药引起敏感性疾病的综合、系统预防体系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    上田厚; 原田幸一; 大森昭子; 魏长年; 今村和彦; 韦庆军; 皆本景子

    2005-01-01

    .The main methods are the inhalation provocation test for the immediate-type allergy and the patch testing and the guinea pig maximization test for the delayed-type allergy,now developing the method using cultured cells .At the present time,a comprehensive-organized-consecutive control model is tried to be settled to detect the allergenic effect of the pesticides and to establish appropriate control measures for the workers,based on the results from our investigations. Our moded is consisted of 6 steps and figured as a flow chart as follows:1)Detecting suspected chemicals and agricultural works to develop allergy and allergic workers by field surveys;2)Biblio graphical references on allergenic effect to the suspected chemicals and works;3)Confirmation of propriety to reported allergenic effect;4)If no report on allergenic effect to the suspected chemicals,experimental investigation is settled to confirm allergenic effect;5)If confirmed the allergenic effect,experimental determination on dose-effect and dose-response relationships of allergenic effect to the suspected chemicals;6)Establishment and conducting the control measures for agricultural workers and work conditions. Finally,it is proposea to found the regional allergy and immunoloy center to manage above control system effectively.

  6. Do You See What I See? Examining the Epistemic Barriers to Sustainable Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Michael S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the epistemic barriers to sustainable agriculture, which are those aspects of food production that are not readily revealed by direct perception: such as decreases in rates of soil and nutrient loss, increases in levels of beneficial soil micro-organisms, and reductions in the amount of chemicals leaching into the water table.…

  7. Laboratory tests to assess optimal agricultural residue traits for an abrasive weed control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the biggest challenges to organic agricultural production and herbicide resistant crops in industrialized countries today is the non-chemical control of weed plants. Studies of new tools and methods for weed control have been motivated by an increased consumer demand for organic produce and c...

  8. Noxious chemical stimulation of rat facial mucosa increases intracranial blood flow through a trigemino-parasympathetic reflex--an experimental model for vascular dysfunctions in cluster headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottselig, R; Messlinger, K

    2004-03-01

    Cluster headache is characterized by typical autonomic dysfunctions including facial and intracranial vascular disturbances. Both the trigeminal and the cranial parasympathetic systems may be involved in mediating these dysfunctions. An experimental model was developed in the rat to measure changes in lacrimation and intracranial blood flow following noxious chemical stimulation of facial mucosa. Blood flow was monitored in arteries of the exposed cranial dura mater and the parietal cortex using laser Doppler flowmetry. Capsaicin (0.01-1 mm) applied to oral or nasal mucosa induced increases in dural and cortical blood flow and provoked lacrimation. These responses were blocked by systemic pre-administration of hexamethonium chloride (20 mg/kg). The evoked increases in dural blood flow were also abolished by topical pre-administration of atropine (1 mm) and [Lys1, Pro2,5, Arg3,4, Tyr6]-VIP (0.1 mm), a vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) antagonist, onto the exposed dura mater. We conclude that noxious stimulation of facial mucosa increases intracranial blood flow and lacrimation via a trigemino-parasympathetic reflex. The blood flow responses seem to be mediated by the release of acetylcholine and VIP within the meninges. Similar mechanisms may be involved in the pathogenesis of cluster headache.

  9. Climate-smart agriculture for food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipper, Leslie; Thornton, Philip; Campbell, Bruce M.; Baedeker, Tobias; Braimoh, Ademola; Bwalya, Martin; Caron, Patrick; Cattaneo, Andrea; Garrity, Dennis; Henry, Kevin; Hottle, Ryan; Jackson, Louise; Jarvis, Andrew; Kossam, Fred; Mann, Wendy; McCarthy, Nancy; Meybeck, Alexandre; Neufeldt, Henry; Remington, Tom; Sen, Pham Thi; Sessa, Reuben; Shula, Reynolds; Tibu, Austin; Torquebiau, Emmanuel F.

    2014-12-01

    Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) is an approach for transforming and reorienting agricultural systems to support food security under the new realities of climate change. Widespread changes in rainfall and temperature patterns threaten agricultural production and increase the vulnerability of people dependent on agriculture for their livelihoods, which includes most of the world's poor. Climate change disrupts food markets, posing population-wide risks to food supply. Threats can be reduced by increasing the adaptive capacity of farmers as well as increasing resilience and resource use efficiency in agricultural production systems. CSA promotes coordinated actions by farmers, researchers, private sector, civil society and policymakers towards climate-resilient pathways through four main action areas: (1) building evidence; (2) increasing local institutional effectiveness; (3) fostering coherence between climate and agricultural policies; and (4) linking climate and agricultural financing. CSA differs from 'business-as-usual' approaches by emphasizing the capacity to implement flexible, context-specific solutions, supported by innovative policy and financing actions.

  10. Cycling of Organoarsenic Compounds in Agricultural Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, M. E.; Chambers, D. B.; White, J. S.

    2004-12-01

    The use of the organoarsenical roxarsone, added to poultry feed to increase weight gain, results in elevated arsenic concentrations (10-50 mg/kg) in poultry litter. This litter is extensively applied to crop fields and pastures, both as a fertilizer and as a waste disposal technique, in agricultural regions. Using a combination of field sampling and laboratory experiments, we investigated the sources and sinks of arsenic within soils and natural waters in an agricultural watershed in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia, USA, an area of intense poultry production. Surface, ground, and soil waters were collected in an instrumented field site to examine arsenic and other litter-derived species in different hydrologic compartments and different settings within the field site. We collected soil cores of the Frederick series, common in the Shenandoah Valley, from several areas experiencing different litter application histories in the valley to examine relationships between arsenic and physico-chemical properties of the soils. Last, we conducted a series of batch experiments to examine adsorption and biotransformation characteristics of roxarsone within Ap and Bt soil horizons of the Frederick soils. Results of these combined studies document a complex yet intriguing cycling of arsenic through the watershed, which will provide useful information for management of poultry litter in agricultural watersheds.

  11. BIODYNAMIC AGRICULTURE - ECO-FRIENDLY AGRICULTURAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselka Vlahova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodynamic agriculture is undoubtedly the oldest organized agricultural movement in the world. It is considered as an organic agricultural farming approach and determined as the oldest organized alternative agricultural movement in the world. In 1924 Rudolf Steiner – an Austrian natural scientist and philosopher, carried out a series of eight lectures in Koberwitz, currently Kobierzyce- Poland, where he formulated his visions on changes in agriculture and revealed his spiritual and scientific concepts about the connection between nature and agriculture by determining the important role of agriculture for the future of humanity and thus he became known as “the father of anthroposophy”. The great ecological effect of the application of the biodynamic agriculture is expressed in soil preservation and preservation of the living organisms in the soil, as well as maintenance of the natural balance in the vegetable and animal kingdom.

  12. Study Increasing Agricultural Using Land and Decreasing Construction Using Land in Heze City%菏泽市建设用地增减挂钩工作探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚世萍

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the work for increasing agricultural using land and decreasing construction using land in Heze city has been analyzed,It is regarded that this work is an integral part of the policy platform, an important starting point for the overall performance of their duties, and"in the specification development, in the development of norms" is the inevitable path. Therefore, the establishment of project reserve base can promote the index configu⁃ration market, and come into the development of a virtuous circle orbit.%该文分析了菏泽市城乡建设用地增减挂钩工作,认为其是一个不可或缺的政策平台,是全面履职的一个重要抓手,建设用地增减挂钩试点工作“在规范中发展,在发展中规范”是必然路径。因此,建立增减挂钩项目储备库,可以推进挂钩指标配置市场化,并步入良性循环的发展轨道。

  13. Reform and Practice of Organic Chemical Curriculum of Applied Chemistry in Agricultural Colleges%农业院校应化专业有机化学课程改革与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽波; 徐雅琴

    2012-01-01

    针对农业院校有机化学教学特点,对教学过程中存在的问题提出改革措施,编写了有机化学教材;采用现代教学手段、理论联系实际改善课堂教学结构;注重理论课与实验课的交叉渗透,增设开放性实验,提高了教学效果。%Aimed at the teaching characteristics of organic chemistry in agricultural colleges,the paper puts forward the reform measures for the problems in the teaching process,writes teaching materials in organic chemistry;improves classroom teaching structure by modern teaching way and linking theory with practice;pays attention to the penetration of theoretical and experimental curriculum,increases open experiments,and enhances the teaching effect.

  14. Agricultural Education at Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Donald E.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses educational reform in the context of agricultural education. Covers a recent report on agricultural education reform by the National Academy of Sciences, state legislative initiatives, and several recommendations for the future of agricultural education. (CH)

  15. Agricultural Tariff Tracker

    Data.gov (United States)

    Foreign Agricultural Service, Department of Agriculture — The Agricultural Tariff Tool is a web application that queries tariff schedules and rate information resulting from Free Trade Agreements (FTAs). All...

  16. Urban Agriculture Guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.J.; Jansma, J.E.; Dekking, A.J.G.; Klieverik, M.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The Urban Agriculture Guide describes the experiences, learning moments, tips and tricks of those involved in the initiatives of urban agriculture and an indication is provided of what is required to develop urban agriculture further in the Netherlands

  17. Empirical Analysis of Agricultural Production Efficiency in Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses the agricultural production efficiency of all cities and areas in Shaanxi Province in the period 2006-2009 using data envelopment analysis method,and compares the agricultural production efficiency between all cities and areas.The results show that the agricultural production efficiency and scale efficiency of agriculture of Shaanxi Province are high on the whole,but the efficiency of agricultural technology is very low,agricultural development still relies on factor inputs,and the driving role of technological progress is not conspicuous.Finally the following countermeasures are put forward to promote agricultural productivity in Shaanxi Province:improve the construction of agricultural infrastructure,and increase agricultural input;accelerate the project of extending agricultural technology into households,and promote the conversion and use rate of agricultural scientific and technological achievements;establish and improve industrial system of agriculture,and speed up the building of various agricultural cooperative economic organizations.

  18. Problems of Agricultural Technological Innovation in China and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongbo; LIU; Ren; LIU; Huazhen; LIU

    2013-01-01

    Major problems of agricultural technological innovation in China were summarized as below: first,poor agricultural science and technology system; second,deficient technological promotion system; third,shortage of agricultural professionals; fourth,serious shortage of science and technology input. In view of these problems,the following suggestions were given to improve the innovation of agricultural technology in China. ( 1) Restructuring agricultural research institutes,establishing cooperative innovation centers,improving agricultural technological innovation system; ( 2) Specifying the direction of research projects,improving scientific research level of technicians,so as to improve the agricultural technological innovation capacity; ( 3) Improving promotion and service stations in towns,organizing technological service teams of agricultural universities and colleges,establishing agricultural technological promotion systems; ( 4) Increasing input in agricultural technological innovation by attracting government input,enterprise investment and other financial support; ( 5) Cultivating more talents of agricultural technology,training leading agricultural technicians,grassroots agricultural service staff and practical talents.

  19. Análisis multivariado de propiedades químicas en Oxisoles con diferentes niveles de intervención agrícola Multivariate analysis of chemical properties in Oxisols with different levels of intervention agricultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús H Camacho-Tamayo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available La intervención humana en la producción agrícola influye directamente en la calidad del suelo, promoviendo alteraciones en las propiedades físicas y químicas, mediante el uso de fertilizantes, correctivos y prácticas de labranza. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar los cambios en las propiedades químicas de dos Oxisoles (Typic Hapludox y Typic Haplustox, con diferentes niveles de intervención (cultivos de pasto Brachiaria y rotaciones de maíz y soya, en el municipio de Puerto López (Meta-Colombia. Las muestras fueron tomadas en 42 puntos, distanciados 25 m perpendicularmente, entre 0 y 0.10 m y 0.10 y 0.20 m de profundidad, para un total de 168 muestras en los dos lotes. Los datos fueron analizados mediante análisis de varianza y técnicas de análisis multivariado, a través de componentes principales y agrupamiento jerárquico. Las propiedades estudiadas fueron carbono orgánico, pH, acidez intercambiable, aluminio intercambiable, P, Ca, Mg, P, Na, capacidad de intercambio catiónica efectiva (CICE, suma de bases y saturación de bases. La intervención agrícola se ve reflejada principalmente en la capa superficial del suelo, donde se presentaron los mayores valores de CO, Ca, Mg, K, P, SB y CICE, debido a la presencia de residuos de cosecha, así como a la aplicación de fertilizantes y correctivos.Human intervention in agricultural production affects directly soil quality by promoting changes in physical and chemical properties through the use of fertilizers, correctives and tillage practices (Brachiria and corn- soybean. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the chemical properties of two Oxisols (Typic Hapludox y Typic Haplustox with different intervention levels, in the municipality of Puerto Lopez (Meta-Colombia. Samples were taken at 42 points, spaced 25 m perpendicularly between 0-0, 10 my 0.10 and 0.20 m of deep, for a total of 168 samples in both fields. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance

  20. Gender Equality in Agricultural Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jayakumar

    2016-05-01

    Increased women’s enrollment in agricultural courses” as one among the strategies when addressing gender issues in the education and training components of agricultural development projects. In this context the study was carried out to ascertain the representation of women and their academic achievement in agricultural education. The study revealed that almost equal representation was found for women in agricultural course and they were also provided better quality education in their schooling, in the form of English medium education and education in private schools. Recent trends for the past four years showed a higher percentage of enrollments of women in agricultural course than men. The growth rate was also higher for the female students. Women also showed a significantly higher percentage of academic achievement than men. These positive indicators provide sufficient signals for equality of women in agricultural course and have positive implications for development of the agricultural sector in future.

  1. Journal of Integrative Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Scope Journal of Integrative Agriculture (JIA), formerly Agricultural Sciences in China (ASC), founded in 2002, is an official publication of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS). JIA seeks to publish those papers that are influential and will significantly advance scientific understanding in agriculture fields worldwide.

  2. Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geophysical methods continue to show great promise for use in agriculture. The term “agricultural geophysics” denotes a subdiscipline of geophysics that is focused only on agricultural applications. The Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics was compiled to include a comprehensive overview of the geoph...

  3. Sustainable agriculture - selected papers

    OpenAIRE

    Krasowicz, Stanisław; Wrzaszcz, Wioletta; Zegar, Jozef St.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of research on socially sustainable agriculture. Features of sustainable agriculture. Sustainability of private farms in the light of selected criteria. Subsistence agricultural holdings and the sustainable development of agriculture. Sustainable farms in the light of the FADN data. Description of organic holdings in Poland.

  4. Weather extremes could affect agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-05-01

    As Earth's climate warms, agricultural producers will need to adapt. Changes, especially increases in extreme events, are already having an impact on food production, according to speakers at a 1 May session on agriculture and food security at the AGU Science Policy Conference. Christopher Field, director of the Department of Global Ecology at the Carnegie Institution for Science of Washington, D. C., pointed out the complex factors that come into play in understanding food security, including spatially varying controls and stresses, incomplete models, and the potential for threshold responses. Factors that are likely to cause problems include increasing population; increasing preference for meat, which needs more land and energy inputs to produce; climate change; and increasing use of agricultural lands for biomass energy.

  5. Technology for Increasing Geothermal Energy Productivity. Computer Models to Characterize the Chemical Interactions of Goethermal Fluids and Injectates with Reservoir Rocks, Wells, Surface Equiptment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nancy Moller Weare

    2006-07-25

    This final report describes the results of a research program we carried out over a five-year (3/1999-9/2004) period with funding from a Department of Energy geothermal FDP grant (DE-FG07-99ID13745) and from other agencies. The goal of research projects in this program were to develop modeling technologies that can increase the understanding of geothermal reservoir chemistry and chemistry-related energy production processes. The ability of computer models to handle many chemical variables and complex interactions makes them an essential tool for building a fundamental understanding of a wide variety of complex geothermal resource and production chemistry. With careful choice of methodology and parameterization, research objectives were to show that chemical models can correctly simulate behavior for the ranges of fluid compositions, formation minerals, temperature and pressure associated with present and near future geothermal systems as well as for the very high PT chemistry of deep resources that is intractable with traditional experimental methods. Our research results successfully met these objectives. We demonstrated that advances in physical chemistry theory can be used to accurately describe the thermodynamics of solid-liquid-gas systems via their free energies for wide ranges of composition (X), temperature and pressure. Eight articles on this work were published in peer-reviewed journals and in conference proceedings. Four are in preparation. Our work has been presented at many workshops and conferences. We also considerably improved our interactive web site (geotherm.ucsd.edu), which was in preliminary form prior to the grant. This site, which includes several model codes treating different XPT conditions, is an effective means to transfer our technologies and is used by the geothermal community and other researchers worldwide. Our models have wide application to many energy related and other important problems (e.g., scaling prediction in petroleum

  6. Polymer in Agriculture: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Puoci

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In agricultural field, polymers are widely used for many applications. Although they were used, in the first time, just as structural materials (inhert polymers, in the last decades functionalized polymers revolutionized the agricultural and food industry with new tools for several applications. Smart polymeric materials and smart delivery systems helped the agricultural industryto combat viruses and other crop pathogens, functionalized polymers were used to increase the efficiency of pesticides and herbicides, allowing lower doses to be used and to indirectly protect the environment through filters or catalysts to reduce pollution and clean-up existing pollutants. This report will review the key aspects of used polymers in agricultural area, highlighting current research in this field and the future impacts they may have.

  7. Determining and Accounting of Fair Value in Agricultural Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet GÖKGÖZ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological assets and agricultural products bring about the subject of agricultural production. Having biological transformation of biological assets and agricultural products via the cases such as growth, reproduction, deterioration, decay; makes the valuation of agricultural activities important. The Fair Value Approach is adopted in TAS 41, the Agricultural Activities Standard regulating agricultural activities, about the valuation of biological assets and agricultural products. In the study; determining process of biological assets and agricultural products’ fair value adopted by TAS 41 is explained. Afterwards; recording of increase and decrease, occured due to the valuation by the framework of TAS 41, through the accounts offered to the Uniform Chart of Accounts.

  8. AGRICULTURE ET BIODIVERSITÉ : APPROCHE PLURI-ÉCHELLE DE L'ÉVOLUTION D'UNE COMMUNAUTÉ DE PETITS MAMMIFÈRES ET DE DEUX RAPACES PRÉDATEURS LE LONG D'UN GRADIENT DE PAYSAGES AGRICOLES CONTRASTÉS

    OpenAIRE

    Michel, Nadia

    2006-01-01

    During the last decades, drastic changes in farming landscape structure and composition have beeninduced by changes in agricultural production methods and policies (increase of machinery use, expansion of cultivated areas to the detriment of semi-natural habitats, growing use of chemical products....). A question increasingly associated with all these changes in modern agriculture is to known if there have been impacts of agricultural intensification on biodiversity.In that way, we study a co...

  9. Concurrent Increases and Decreases in Local Stability and Conformational Heterogeneity in Cu, Zn Superoxide Dismutase Variants Revealed by Temperature-Dependence of Amide Chemical Shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Colleen M; Rumfeldt, Jessica A; Broom, Helen R; Sekhar, Ashok; Kay, Lewis E; Meiering, Elizabeth M

    2016-03-08

    The chemical shifts of backbone amide protons in proteins are sensitive reporters of local structural stability and conformational heterogeneity, which can be determined from their readily measured linear and nonlinear temperature-dependences, respectively. Here we report analyses of amide proton temperature-dependences for native dimeric Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (holo pWT SOD1) and structurally diverse mutant SOD1s associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Holo pWT SOD1 loses structure with temperature first at its periphery and, while having extremely high global stability, nevertheless exhibits extensive conformational heterogeneity, with ∼1 in 5 residues showing evidence for population of low energy alternative states. The holo G93A and E100G ALS mutants have moderately decreased global stability, whereas V148I is slightly stabilized. Comparison of the holo mutants as well as the marginally stable immature monomeric unmetalated and disulfide-reduced (apo(2SH)) pWT with holo pWT shows that changes in the local structural stability of individual amides vary greatly, with average changes corresponding to differences in global protein stability measured by differential scanning calorimetry. Mutants also exhibit altered conformational heterogeneity compared to pWT. Strikingly, substantial increases as well as decreases in local stability and conformational heterogeneity occur, in particular upon maturation and for G93A. Thus, the temperature-dependence of amide shifts for SOD1 variants is a rich source of information on the location and extent of perturbation of structure upon covalent changes and ligand binding. The implications for potential mechanisms of toxic misfolding of SOD1 in disease and for general aspects of protein energetics, including entropy-enthalpy compensation, are discussed.

  10. Potential use of a chemical leaching reject from a kaolin industry as agricultural fertilizer Uso potencial do resíduo químico lixiviado duma indústria de caulim como adubo de terras agrícolas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Rodrigues Ribeiro

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The industrial refining of kaolin involves the removal of iron oxides and hydroxides along with other impurities that cause discoloration of the final product and depreciate its commercial value, particularly undesirable if destined to the paper industry. The chemical leaching in the industrial processing requires treatments with sodium hyposulfite, metallic zinc, or sulfuric and phosphoric acids, in order to reduce, dissolve and remove ferruginous compounds. To mitigate the environmental impact, the acidic effluent from the leaching process must be neutralized, usually with calcium oxide. The resulting solid residue contains phosphorous, zinc, and calcium, among other essential nutrients for plant growth, suggesting its use as a macro and micronutrient source. Samples of such a solid industrial residue were used here to evaluate their potential as soil fertilizer in an incubation greenhouse experiment with two soil samples (clayey and medium-textured. The small pH shift generated by applying the residue to the soil was not a limiting factor for its use in agriculture. The evolution of the concentrations of exchangeable calcium, and phosphorous and zinc extractability by Mehlich-1 extractant during the incubation period confirms the potential use of this industrial residue as agricultural fertilizer.O beneficiamento industrial do caulim envolve a remoção de óxidos e hidróxidos de ferro e outras impurezas, que conferem coloração indesejável ao produto final e depreciam seu valor comercial, particularmente se destinado à indústria de papel. A lixiviação química, na linha de processamento industrial, pode ser feita com tratamentos com hipossulfito de sódio, zinco metálico e ácidos sulfúrico e fosfórico, para redução, solubilização e remoção de compostos ferruginosos. A fim de minimizar o impacto ambiental, o efluente ácido, procedente da etapa de lixiviação, deve ser inicialmente neutralizado, usualmente por óxido de c

  11. Effect of increasing the protein-to-fat ratio and reducing fat content on the chemical and physical properties of processed cheese product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinee, T P; O'Callaghan, D J

    2013-01-01

    Scientific studies indicate that the intake of dietary fat and saturated fats in the modern Western diet is excessive and contributes adversely to health, lifestyle, and longevity. In response, manufacturers of cheese and processed cheese products (PCP) are pursuing the development of products with reduced fat contents. The present study investigated the effect of altering the fat level (13.8, 18.2, 22.7, 27.9, and 32.5 g/100g) in PCP on their chemical and physical properties. The PCP were formulated in triplicate to different fat levels using Cheddar cheese, skim milk cheese, anhydrous milk fat, emulsifying salt (ES), NaCl, and water. The formulations were designed to give fixed moisture (~53 g/100g) and ES:protein ratio (0.105). The resultant PCP, and their water-soluble extracts (WSE), prepared from a macerated blend of PCP and water at a weight ratio of 1:2, were analyzed at 4d. Reducing the fat content significantly increased the firmness of the unheated PCP and reduced the flowability and maximum loss tangent (fluidity) of the melted PCP. These changes coincided with increases in the levels of total protein, water-soluble protein, water-insoluble protein, and water-soluble Ca, and a decrease in the molar ratio of water-soluble Ca to soluble P. However, both water-soluble Ca and water-soluble protein decreased when expressed as percentages of total protein and total Ca, respectively, in the PCP. The high level of protein was a major factor contributing to the deterioration in physical properties as the fat content of PCP was reduced. Diluting the protein content or reducing the potential of the protein to aggregate, and thereby form structures that contribute to rigidity, may provide a means for improving quality of reduced-fat PCP by using natural cheese with lower intact casein content and lower calcium:casein ratio, for example, or by decreasing the ratio of sodium phosphate to sodium citrate-based ES.

  12. Use of Several Plant Materials and Chemicals to inhibit Soil Urease Activity and Increase Nitrogen Recovery Rate of Urea by Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Effects of residues of 9 plants, lemon eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora Hook., P1), robust eucalyptus (E. robusta Smith, P2), Nepal camphortree (Cinnamomum glanduliferum (Wall.) Nees, P3), tea (Camellia sinensis (Linn.) O. Ktze. f., P4), oleander (Nerium indicum Mill, P5), rape (Brassica campestris L., P6),Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum L., P7), tung (Vernicia fordii (Hemsl.), P8), and croton (Croton tiglium L., P9), 7 chemicals, boric acid (C1), borax (C2), oxalic acid (C3), sodium oxalite (C4), sodium dihydrogen phosphate (C6), sodium silicate (C7) and sodium citrate (C8), and a natural organic substance,humic acid (C5), on urease activity of a neutral purple soil and recovery of urea nitrogen by maize were studied through incubation and pot experiments. Hydroquinone (HQ) was applied as the reference inhibitor. After incubation at 37 ℃ for 24 h, 7 inhibitors with higher ability to inhibit urease activity were selected and then incubated for 14 days at 25 ℃. Results of the incubation experiments showed that soil urease activity was greatly inhibited by them, and the inhibition effect followed an order of P2>P4>C3>C2>P3>C1>HQ>P1.The 7 selected materials reduced the accumulative amounts of N released from urea and the maximum urease activity by 11.7%~28.4% and 26.7%~39.7%, respectively, and postponed the N release peak by 2~4 days in the incubation period of 14 days under constant temperature, as compared to the control (no inhibitor).In the pot experiment with the 7 materials at two levels of addition, low (L) and high (H), the C1 (H), C3(H), C1 (L), P4 (L) and C2 (L) treatments could significantly increase the dry weights of the aboveground parts and the total biomass of the maize plants and the apparent recovery rate of urea-N was increased by 6.3%~32.4% as compared to the control (no hibitor).

  13. PERFORMANCE OF ECOLOGICAL AGRICULTURE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CIPRIAN APOSTOL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The term ecological agriculture has been attributed by the European Union of Romania to define this system of agriculture and is similar with terms organic agriculture or biological agriculture, which are used in other member states. One of the main goals of ecological agriculture is the production of agricultural and food products fresh and genuine through processes created to respect nature and its systems. Thus, it prohibits the use of genetically modified organisms, fertilizers and synthetic pesticides, stimulators and growth regulators, hormones, antibiotics for livestock and the use of synthetic chemical fertilizers, drastic interventions on the soil, the introduction of genetically modified organisms, in the case of the cultivated soil. The study aims to highlight the main features of ecological agriculture and its impact on the national economy. Through a descriptive and comparative analysis of specific indicators are surprising the main aspects of ecological agriculture performance in Romania and are identified investment opportunities in this sector of the national economy. Following this study, it was found that ecological agriculture in Romania is quite performant and recorded a continuous development, but mainly in the production, not in the processing and trading of natural products, which is why investment in these areas would be welcome.

  14. Beyond Conservation Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken E Giller

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance, soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals and biotechnology. Over the past ten years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub- tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture.

  15. Beyond conservation agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giller, Ken E.; Andersson, Jens A.; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals, and biotechnology. Over the past 10 years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub-) tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture. PMID:26579139

  16. 海南农垦近21年法定传染病增长态势分析%Increasing trend of legally infectious diseases in nearly 21 years in agricultural reclamation system of Hainan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐德洲; 翁勇; 刘家敬; 张世平

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨海南农垦近20年法定传染病的增长态势及变化规律,为防病工作提供科学依据. 方法 通过收集1990~2011年海南农垦甲乙丙类法定传染病年发病率和当年人口数、分析其发病率、构成比、平均增长速度等,比较乙类不同传播途径传染病及主要传染病种增长速度的差别. 结果 1990~2011年垦区法定传染病年平均报告发病率为753.70/10万,年发病率呈下降趋势,发病率最高为1996年1817.64/10万,最低为2009年96.70/10万;地区分布显示,前10年平均发病率以北部地区为主(2512.23/10万)、近10年以东部地区为主(306.38/10万).对乙类传染病发病构成比进行分析,自然疫源性及虫媒传染病从1990-2007年位居首位,2008年后发病例数迅速减少,2000年呼吸道传染病所占比例从1990年的第四位越居第二,肠道传染病从第二退居第四,至2008年及以后呼吸道传染病所占比例居首位,2011年所占比例达到60.04%;重点病种分析,血源及性传播传染病中淋病和病毒性肝炎呈下降均势,平均下降速度为10%和9.6 0%,梅毒呈上升均势,增长速度为12%,呼吸道传染病中除肺结核外,麻疹、百日咳均呈下降趋势. 结论 从农垦传染病疾病谱及变化趋势看,应加强呼吸道传染病特别是肺结核的控制工作,血源及性传播传染病病虽然呈下降趋势,但离最终的目标还很远.%Objective To explore the increasing trend of legally infectious diseases in nearly 20 years in agricultural reclamation system of Hainan Province.Methods The annual incidence of legally infectous diseases from 1990 to 2011 in agricultural reclamation system of Hainan Province were collected and analyzed epidemiologically.Results From 1990 to 2011,the average annual reported incidence of the legally infectious diseases was 753.70/100 000,showed a declining trend.The highest incidence was 1817.64/100 000 in 1996,the lowest was 96.70/100 000 in

  17. Health and safety risks in production agriculture.

    OpenAIRE

    Von Essen, S G; McCurdy, S A

    1998-01-01

    Production agriculture is associated with a variety of occupational illnesses and injuries. Agricultural workers are at higher risk of death or disabling injury than most other workers. Traumatic injury commonly occurs from working with machinery or animals. Respiratory illness and health problems from exposures to farm chemicals are major concerns, and dermatoses, hearing loss, certain cancers, and zoonotic infections are important problems. Innovative means of encouraging safe work practice...

  18. Effects of composting with earthworm on the chemical and biological properties of agricultural organic wastes: A principal component analysis%蚯蚓堆制处理对农业有机废弃物的化学及生物学影响的主成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘婷; 任宗玲; 张池; 陈旭飞; 周波; 戴军

    2012-01-01

    在实验室可控条件下,以碳氮比28.7∶1的农业有机废弃物(牛粪和稻秆)为赤子爱胜蚓(Eisenia foetida)的培养基质,研究蚯蚓的堆制作用对有机物料的化学及生物学特性的影响.结果表明:蚯蚓堆制处理30 d后,基质pH值、碳氮比显著降低,全磷显著升高,而全氮、碱解氮、可溶性碳、速效磷、微生物生物量碳、呼吸速率和微生物熵分别提高8.5%、2.6%、1.8%、6.3%、21.2%、4.4%和30.0%,有机质、呼吸熵分别降低5.0%和21.9%.蚯蚓堆制处理后物料具有较高的转化酶、酸性和碱性磷酸酶活性,较低的过氧化氢酶和脲酶活性.多元数据分析结果显示,自然堆制和蚯蚓堆制处理物料的化学和生物学特性均呈现显著的差异性.蚯蚓堆制处理优于自然堆制处理,可以明显改善有机物料的化学、生物学性质,是一种高效率处理农业有机废弃物的技术.%Taking mixed agricultural organic wastes cattle manure and rice straw (C;N = 28.7;1) as the substrate of earthworm Eisenia foetida, an experiment was conducted to study the effects of earthworm on the changes of the chemical and biological properties of wastes during vermi-compos-ting. After 30 days of vermi-composting, the substrate' s pH and C/N decreased while the total P content increased significantly, and the total N, available N, dissolved organic carbon, available P content, microbial biomass-C, respiration rate, and microbial quotient increased by 8. 5% , 2. 6% , 1. 8% , 6. 3% , 21. 2% , 4. 4% , and 30. 0% whereas the organic matter content and metabolic quotient decreased by 5.0% and 21. 9% , respectively, as compared with natural composting. Vermi-composting made the substrate have higher invertase, acid phosphatase, and alkaline phospha-tase activities but lower catalase and urease activities. Principal component analysis and discriminant analysis confirmed the significant differences in the substrate' s chemical and

  19. The agricultural and the democratic transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundlach, Erich; Paldam, Martin

    Long-run development (in income) causes a large fall in the share of agriculture commonly known as the agricultural transition. We confirm that this conventional wisdom is strongly supported by the data. Long-run development (in income) also causes a large increase in democracy known as the democ......Long-run development (in income) causes a large fall in the share of agriculture commonly known as the agricultural transition. We confirm that this conventional wisdom is strongly supported by the data. Long-run development (in income) also causes a large increase in democracy known...

  20. National Agriculture Imagery Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) acquires aerial imagery during the agricultural growing seasons in the continental U.S. A primary goal of the NAIP...

  1. Agricultural Libraries and Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Keith W., Ed.; Pisa, Maria G., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven articles address issues relating to agricultural libraries and information, including background on agricultural libraries and information, trend management, document delivery, reference services, user needs and library services, collection development, technologies for international information management, information sources,…

  2. Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Dick

    1997-01-01

    Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate…

  3. Urban Agricultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbellini, Margaret

    1991-01-01

    John Bourne High School in Queens, New York, offers an agricultural program enrolling more than 400 students. The curriculum includes agricultural career exploration, plant and animal science, summer land laboratories, and a special education component. (SK)

  4. Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Dick

    1997-01-01

    Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…

  5. Innovations in urban agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, van der J.W.; Renting, Henk; Veenhuizen, Van René

    2014-01-01

    This issuehighlights innovations in urban agriculture. Innovation and the various forms of innovations are of particular importance because urban agriculture is adapted to specific urban challenges and opportunities. Innovation is taking place continuously, exploring the multiple fundions of urban a

  6. Innovations in urban agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This issuehighlights innovations in urban agriculture. Innovation and the various forms of innovations are of particular importance because urban agriculture is adapted to specific urban challenges and opportunities. Innovation is taking place continuously, exploring the multiple fundions of urban agriculture, including food security, income generation and environmental management.

  7. Animal agriculture: symbiosis, culture or ethical conflict?

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Vonne; Olsson, I Anna S

    2006-01-01

    Several writers on animal ethics defend the abolition of most or all animal agriculture, which they consider an unethical exploitation of sentient non-human animals. However, animal agriculture can also be seen as a co-evolution over thousands of years, that has affected biology and behaviour on the one hand, and quality of life of humans and domestic animals on the other. Furthermore, animals are important in sustainable agriculture. They can increase efficiency by their ability to transform...

  8. Risk management in agricultural water use

    OpenAIRE

    Tychon, Bernard; Balaghi, Riad; Jlibene, Mohammed

    2002-01-01

    Water availability for agricultural activities will decrease in the twenty-first century. As a consequence, agricultural water management will have to improve in order to meet two challenges: satisfy the needs of an increasing world population; and alleviate the climate change impacts. One way to improve agricultural water management consists of including the ‘risk’ notion as much as possible at the different decision levels of: farmers, farmer corporations and states or associations of st...

  9. STUDY OF AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SYSTEM IN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Tushar

    2010-01-01

    The conceptual theory of agriculture marketing encompasses the fields of operations, marketing and agricultural economics. It provides an array of options to explore the linkages between the producers, traders and buyers of the markets. As efficient, integrated, and responsive marketing systems form the core of economic development, it is of critical importance for optimal use of resources and to stimulate farmers to increase their output. The approaches used for studying the agricultural ...

  10. INTEGRATION OF SEMI-SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURAL FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paun Georgeta

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Intensive agriculture, industrial type, contributed to environmental degradation and pollution. Thus, on the one hand, makes intensive use of chemicals has led to neglect of duty to maintain the natural fertility of the soil organic matter through proper fattening. On the other hand, organizing specialized industrial environments, high animal breeders, considered the only marketable livestock production, neglecting the production of manure, thus representing a break with the brutal nature of biological circuits Following the experience accumulated over two centuries, mankind has drawn valuable education obligation to safeguard the habitat of nature as a collaborator. In this respect, the main task of our times is to develop appropriate technologies humanist ideal, so that man can become a being as fully integrated into the social and cosmic environment. In the present period as a peasant household current form, is typical of developing countries. It is generated by the result of families who received income from farming and increase farm animalelor.Gospodaria organizational structure is the basic economic and agricultural economy. On the basis of the idea that organic production is the main cause of degradation of the biological quality of products is inadequate human intervention at various structural levels of the biosphere, and the most severe effects on humans resulting from the cumulation of errors relating to soil, plants and animals. Organic farming places emphasis on quality natural products, the quantity and productivity issues as a peripheral level. A balanced rural development policy for the future is not an option but a necessity, especially considering the fact that the issue of agriculture and rural development has important national connotations and is a very complex and timely in Romania Regional development is a concept that aims at stimulating and diversifying economic activities, encouraging private sector investment, helping

  11. Assessment of potential impacts of climate change on agricultural development in the Lower Benue River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abah, Roland Clement; Petja, Brilliant Mareme

    2016-12-01

    Agriculture in the Lower Benue River Basin faces several challenges which threaten the future of agricultural development. This study was an assessment of potential impacts of climate change on agricultural development in the Lower Benue River Basin. Through analysis of physical and socioeconomic parameters, the study adapted an impact assessment model to rank potential impacts on agricultural development in the study area. Rainfall intensity seemed to be increasing with a gradual reduction in the number of rainy days. The average discharge at Makurdi hydrological station was 3468.24 cubic metres per second (m(3) s(-1)), and the highest peak flow discharge was 16,400 m(3) s(-1). The daily maximum temperature and annual temperature averages for the study area are gradually rising leading to increased heat stress. Physical and chemical analyses showed that the soils are moderately fertile but require effective application of inorganic and organic fertilisers. The main occupational activities in the study area are agricultural based. The identified potential impacts of climate change on agriculture were categorised under atmospheric carbon dioxides and oxides, rainfall intensity, frequency of floods and droughts, temperature intensity and variation, heat stress, surface water trends, and soil quality and fertility. The identified potential impacts related to population dynamics on agriculture were categorised under population growth, rural-urban migration, household income and infectious diseases and HIV and AIDS. Community-level mitigation strategies were proffered. Policy makers are advised to promote irrigation farming, support farmers with farm inputs and credit facilities and establish active agricultural extension services to support the sustainable development of agriculture.

  12. Chiral separation of agricultural fungicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Fernández, Virginia; García, Maria Ángeles; Marina, Maria Luisa

    2011-09-23

    Fungicides are very important and diverse environmental and agricultural concern species. Their determination in commercial formulations or environmental matrices, requires highly efficient, selective and sensitive methods. A significant number of these chemicals are chiral with the activity residing usually in one of the enantiomers. The different toxicological and degradation behavior observed in many cases for fungicide enantiomers, results in the need to investigate them separately. For this purpose, separation techniques such as GC, HPLC, supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and CE have widely been employed although, at present, HPLC still dominates chromatographic chiral analysis of fungicides. This review covers the literature concerning the enantiomeric separation of fungicides usually employed in agriculture grouping the chiral separation methodologies developed for their analysis in environmental, biological, and food samples.

  13. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES AND COMPETITION IN WORLD AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Duma

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural policies have had a guiding role inagriculture development and implicitly in their marketing. Usually they belongto each state and government and are issued in accordance with their specificclimate, social-economic and cultural background which includes food andgastronomic traditions. Agricultural policies have in view home and foreignmarket demand, as well as the socio-demographic, political and military contextat a certain point in the socio-economic development

  14. Agricultural science and ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Vaarst, Mette

    2014-01-01

    , about 20 % of the world's coral reefs and 35 % of the mangrove areas were lost (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005). In the following, the development of agricultural science will be sketched out and the role of ethics in agricultural science will be discussed. Then different views of nature that have...... shaped agriculture and the role of science in agriculture will be discussed by analyzing some of the presumptions behind the concept of ecosystem services and the way animals are viewed. Finally, the concepts of animal welfare and sustainability will be explored to show how they make vivid the connection...... between agricultural science and ethics....

  15. Adapting agriculture to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howden, S.M.; Soussana, J.F.; Tubiello, F.N.; Chhetri, N.; Dunlop, M.; Meinke, H.B.

    2007-01-01

    The strong trends in climate change already evident, the likelihood of further changes occurring, and the increasing scale of potential climate impacts give urgency to addressing agricultural adaptation more coherently. There are many potential adaptation options available for marginal change of exi

  16. USSR Report, Agriculture, No. 1395

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    possible to obtain wheat with an increased gluten content. For example, it is extremely effective to apply the agricultural device recommended by...slaughterhouse byproducts. The combine treated them until the ESSR Meat and Dairy Products Ministry forbade it. Yet it is not sensible to

  17. Income insurance in European agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.; Skees, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    The agricultural risk environment in Europe is changing, for example because of WTO agreements and governments increasingly withdrawing from disaster assistance in case of catastrophic events. In this context, some form of income insurance may be a useful risk management tool for farmers. Insuring f

  18. Maine Agricultural Foods. Project SEED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Peter; Ossenfort, Pat

    This paper describes an activity-based program that teaches students in grades 4-12 about the importance of Maine agriculture in their lives. Specifically, the goal is to increase student awareness of how the foods they eat are planted, harvested, and processed. The emphasis is on crops grown in Maine such as potatoes, broccoli, peas, blueberries,…

  19. Robotics in agriculture and forestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergerman, M.; Billingsley, J.; Reid, J.; Henten, van E.J.

    2016-01-01

    Robotics for agriculture and forestry (A&F) represents the ultimate application of one of our society’s latest and most advanced innovations to its most ancient and important industries. Over the course of history, mechanization and automation increased crop output several orders of magnitude, e

  20. EVALUATION OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF AGRICULTURAL SOILS IRRIGATED BY THE WATERS OF THE HYDROLIC BASIN OF SEBOU RIVER AND THEIR INFLUENCES ON THE TRANSFER OF TRACE ELEMENTS INTO SUGAR CROPS (THE CASE OF SUGAR CANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Benlkhoubi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted in Kenitra (northwestern Morocco to determine the physicochemical parameters and metallic concentrations at three levels: surface water of Sebou and Beht intended for irrigation, agricultural soils and sugarcane. The spectrometric analysis of source plasma emission (ICP has identified eight trace elements contained in the materials taken from zone 1 (As, Cd, Co, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cu and Cr.The obtained results showed that the interaction between the different physicochemical parameters of agricultural soils decides the transfer of the metal elements to the plants. Indeed, for the soil which is used in this agriculture (for sugar cane, its irrigation water, and the contents of Cr, Cd and As exceeds the accepted standards.The principal component analysis of the levels of trace metal supports in area 1, allowed to distinguish between the items with a high tolerance for bagasse (Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd and Pb, compared to Cr, Co, and As.

  1. The impact of mining activities on agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghatelyan, A.; Sahakyan, L.

    2009-04-01

    people exposed to a probable risk of eating contaminated food is some 55-60 thousand. The performed pilot eco-toxicological studies enabled us to conclude that 1. Mining waters from adits and industrial waters contained high concentrations of toxic (Cd, As, Hg) and ore elements (Cu, Zn). Mixing of these waters with surface streams (used for irrigation) brings to the increase in concentration of a number of compounds and heavy metals. Chemical element concentrations in the waters did not reach MAC, nevertheless there exists a real ecological risk factor stepping from high coefficients of their cumulation in bio-environments. 2.The soils of the city and neighboring villages are polluted by a number of heavy metals (Ni, Mo, Cu, Cr, As). 3.Agricultural crop pollution is dominated by Cr, Ni, Pb, Cu. In some species Mo, Zn and Hg were determined, too. The obtained data evidenced the hazard of crops use for dietary purposes. With regard for such pollution level and extension that threatens sustainable development of the territory, we consider it reasonable to execute some additional prior organizational, research and diagnostic, technological actions.

  2. Agricultural uses of thermal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caglar, K.O.

    1973-01-01

    Hot and cold mineral waters are used in two ways in agriculture: one for irrigation and other as a heat resource. Irrigation is widely applied in Turkey when the chemical composition of water is found suitable for the purpose. However as a heat resource it is almost never used. Studies showed that the hot waters of Turkey have 4665 billion kcal (equivalent of 450 thousand tons) which means green-houses can be established over an area about 4665 decar for growing vegetable and fruits. The approximate income of the green houses is estimated millions of Turkish lira.

  3. Analysis on Internal Growth Potential of Agriculture Under the Agricultural Structure Adjustment in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Conghua; TIAN; Hong; SHEN; Jian; DAI

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural structure adjustment has always been the important factors influencing Xinjiang agricultural internal income growth.On the basis of the planting scale,productivity and price in 2010,the paper measured the contributions made by agricultural structure adjustment to Xinjiang agricultural internal income growth through structural optimization.Linear programming model was established by Lingo software,to optimize the structure of planting,horticulture,animal husbandry in Xinjiang and analyze the internal agricultural income growth potential.After structure optimization,Xinjiang agricultural production value will reach 1231.44×108yuan and the farmers’income of production and management will reach 9851yuan.The greatest potential for Xinjiang agricultural internal income growth was husbandry accounting for 41.33% of the total production value.The next one was horticulture,whose share of the total production value has raised to 17.43% from 10%.Fruit industry and animal husbandry will become the pillars of future income growth.There are still some income growth spaces in Xinjiang internal agriculture though the agricultural structure adjustment.The agricultural production value will increase by 44.32%and farmers’production and management income will increase by 68.83%.That will be one of the most important ways to tap the future potential of agriculture internal income growth.

  4. Agricultural Geophysics: Past, present, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geophysical methods are becoming an increasingly valuable tool for agricultural applications. Agricultural geophysics investigations are commonly (although certainly not always) focused on delineating small- and/or large-scale objects/features within the soil profile (~ 0 to 2 m depth) over very lar...

  5. REDD+ and Climate Smart Agriculture in landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvini, G.

    2016-01-01

    Global challenges posed by an increasing food demand and climate change call for innovative mechanisms that consider both agriculture and forests. Agriculture and forests are deeply interconnected in mosaic landscapes, just as multiple pieces of the same puzzle. These pieces are handled by numerous

  6. Marx’s Agricultural Intensive Management Thought and Its Guiding Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Through analyzing Marx’s agricultural intensive management thought,this paper points out that the existence and development of agricultural management mode experience historical course and the development of agricultural intensification depends on many objective conditions.On the basis of this,it discusses the guiding significance of Marx’s agricultural intensive management thought to China’s agricultural development.It is required to fully realize basic current situations of China’s agriculture,widely popularize agricultural mechanization and electrification,speed up artificial transformation of soil structure,promote chemical application of agriculture,make rational use of water resource,and spread improved seeds.

  7. Promoting bio-fertilizers in Indian agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Nilabja Ghosh

    2003-01-01

    The green revolution brought impressive gains in food production but with insufficient concern for sustainability. In India the availability and affordability of fossil fuel based chemical fertilizers at the farm level have been ensured only through imports and subsidies. Dependence on chemical fertilizers for future agricultural growth would mean further loss in soil quality, possibilities of water contamination and unsustainable burden on the fiscal system. The Government of India has been ...

  8. Reorganization of Agricultural Extension toward Green Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. Allahyari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Considering unsustainable agricultural conditions of Iran and organizational recession and inability of current extension organization to achieve sustainability, it seems that extension systems require a new organizational structure to achieve sustainability objectives. The purpose of the present study was to identify the most appropriate characteristics for extension organization toward green agriculture in Iran context. Approach: To fulfill this objective, a sample of 120 respondents was selected through simple random sampling technique. A survey study was applied as a methodology of research. A mailed questionnaire was used to collect the data. The response rate of questionnaire was 65.83% (N = 79. Appropriate descriptive statistics such as mean scores, standard deviations and variation ratio were used. Results: Extension experts believed that among important organizational characteristics of extension system for supporting green agriculture collaboration among research, extension, education organizations, farmers' associations, NGOs, rural credit agencies, transportation companies, considering local groups and learning organization had very high importance for supporting green agriculture. According to factor analysis, the implications for extension organization were categorized into two groups consisting: (1 Holistic organizations (2 Participatory organizations that those factors explained 67.54% of the total variance of the research variables. Conclusion: Identifying suitable extension mechanisms had important role for developing extension system. Therefore, identifying extension organizational characteristics for supporting green agriculture of Iran is one of the major approaches needs to be carefully thought and accurately implemented for the extension system development.

  9. The Dualism of Asymmetric Information in Agricultural Insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Yang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric information objectively exists in the insurance market, especially in agricultural insurance, which has a great impact on the insurance contract and market operation. This paper designs two game models to analyse the dualism of asymmetric information in agricultural insurance and its reasons of forming. We find that, the particularity of agricultural production, the agricultural risk diversification and the benefits’ spillover of the agricultural insurance are the main causes of asymmetric information. Therefore, this paper puts forward that establishment of appropriate agricultural insurance mode, optimization of insurance policy design and increasing investment in science and technology, increasing farmers’ insurance consciousness and establishing supervision system

  10. Positive and negative impacts of agricultural production of liquid biofuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Hester, R.E.; Harrison, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural production of liquid biofuels can have positive effects. It can decrease dependence on fossil fuels and increase farmers’ incomes. Agricultural production of mixed perennial biofuel crops may increase pollinator and avian richness. Most types of agricultural crop-based liquid biofuel pr

  11. The Dilemmas of Modernizing Peasant Agriculture in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alao, Joseph A.

    In 1965, the Nigerian government charged Nigerian agriculture with the long term developmental task of providing: (1) an adequate and well balanced food supply for the increasing population; (2) agricultural raw materials for domestic industries; (3) agricultural export earnings; (4) employment for the increasing labor force; and (5) capital for…

  12. Agricultural Education in an Urban Charter School: Perspectives and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Kesha A.; Talbert, Brian Allen; Morris, Pamala V.

    2014-01-01

    Urban school districts are viable recruitment sources for higher education in agriculture and have the ability to play a significant role in efforts to increase agricultural education program numbers at the secondary level. Secondary school increases should lead to growth in agricultural college enrollments across the country. Increasing…

  13. Agricultural sources of contaminants of emerging concern and adverse health effects on freshwater fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillitt, Donald E.; Buxton, Herbert T.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) are generally thought of as certain classes of chemicals associated with animal feeding and production facilities. Veterinary pharmaceuticals used in animal food production systems represent one of the largest groups of CECs. In our review, we discuss the extensive increase in use of antibiotics in animal feeding operations (AFOs) around the world. AFOs are a major consumer of antibiotics and other veterinary pharmaceuticals and over the past decade there has been growing information on the occurrence, release, and fate of CECs from animal food production operations, including the application of pharmaceutical-containing manure to agricultural fields and releases from waste lagoons. Concentrations of CECs in surface and ground water in proximity to AFOs correspond to their presence in the AFO wastes. In many cases, the environmental concentrations of agriculturally-derived CECs are below toxicity thresholds. Hormones and hormone replacement compounds are a notable exception, where chemical concentrations near AFOs can exceed concentrations known to cause adverse effects on endocrine-related functions in fish. In addition, some agricultural pesticides, once thought to be safe to non-target organisms, have demonstrated endocrine-related effects that may pose threats to fish populations in agricultural regions. That is, we have pesticides with emerging concerns, thus, the concern is emerging and not necessarily the chemical. In this light, one must consider certain agricultural pesticides to be included in the list of CECs. Even though agricultural pesticides are routinely evaluated in regulatory testing schemes which have been used for decades, the potential hazards of some pesticides have only recently been emerging. Emerging concerns of pesticides in fish include interference with hormone signaling pathways; additive (or more than additive) effects from pesticide mixtures; and adverse population-level effects at

  14. Theoretical Study of Agricultural High-tech Industrialization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian; XU; Xianming; WU

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces the characteristics of the agricultural high-tech industries,and points out that the agricultural high-tech industries are intelligence-intensive and knowledge-intensive industries with the characteristics of high investment,high risk,high value-added, which focuses on constant innovation,having strong horizontal and vertical linkages with other enterprises and showing the trend of internationalization.The connotation of agricultural high-tech industrialization is analyzed as follows:Agricultural high-tech industrialization is the process of transformation of the agricultural high-tech achievements to the agricultural high-tech industries; essentially the marketization and commercialization of agricultural high technology; the manifestation of scale and level of agricultural high-tech industries; the manifestation of social impact,social status and social role of agricultural high-tech industries.The development strategies are put forward for agricultural high-tech industrialization:(1) Bringing the research of agricultural high technology into the orbit of the market economy; (2) Implementing the new mechanism to closely link agricultural high technology with modern rural enterprises; (3) Building the agricultural high-tech team with a larger size and high level; (4) Further improving the construction of the agricultural high-tech industrial development zone; (5) Solving the issues concerning agricultural intellectual property and patent; (6) Increasing policy guidance and support efforts for agricultural high-tech industries.

  15. Factors Influencing Farmers' Expectations to Sell Agricultural Land for Non-Agricultural Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollinger, Brett; Krannich, Richard S.

    2002-01-01

    In this study we identify factors that influence farmers' expectations to sell some or all of their farming operation in areas where the increase in the conversion of agricultural land has been relatively rapid. Findings indicate that the following factors increase farmers' propensity to sell some or all of the agricultural operation for…

  16. Organic Agriculture and Nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Jahanban, Leila; Davari, Mohammadreza

    2014-01-01

    Organic agriculture is a holistic production management system which promotes and enhances agro-ecosystem health, including biodiversity, biological cycles and soil biological activity. On the other hand, nanotechnology is a rapidly developing domain of research and practice, the terminology is in a state of flux and usage is evolving. Nano-applications are being applied across the entire agriculture and food sectors. In agriculture, for example, nano-pesticides and nano-sensors are changing ...

  17. Ukraine Agricultural Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The agri-food sector is an important part of the Ukrainian economy. Agriculture could make an even larger contribution to economic growth and the vitality of rural areas in Ukraine than is currently the case. Ukraine has the agro-climatic potential to be a major player on world agricultural markets. Agricultural competitiveness in Ukraine also suffers from inadequate systems to test and do...

  18. Sustainable Agricultural Marketing Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Adanacıoğlu

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable marketing is a holistic approach that puts equal emphasis on environmental, social equity, and economic concerns in the development of marketing strategies. The purpose of the study is to examine and discuss the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced throughout the World and Turkey, and to put forth suggestions to further improve the performance of agricultural marketing initiatives in Turkey. Some of the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced a...

  19. Measuring agricultural policy bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    that the agricultural price incentive bias generally perceived to exist during the 1980s was largely eliminated during the 1990s. Results also demonstrate that general equilibrium effects and country-specific characteristics are crucial for determining the sign and magnitude of agricultural bias. Our comprehensive...... protection measure is therefore uniquely suited to capture the full impact of trade policies on relative agricultural price incentives....

  20. Overview of Ecological Agriculture with High Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Guo-qin; ZHAO Qi-guo; GONG Shao-lin; SHI Qing-hua

    2012-01-01

    From the presentation, connotation, characteristics, principles, pattern, and technologies of ecological agriculture with high efficiency, we conduct comprehensive and systematic analysis and discussion of the theoretical and practical progress of ecological agriculture with high efficiency. (i) Ecological agriculture with high efficiency was first advanced in China in 1991. (ii) Ecological agriculture with high efficiency highlights "high efficiency", "ecology", and "combination". (iii) Ecological agriculture with high efficiency is characterized by diverse organisms, good environment, good structure, powerful function, good quality, high benefit, low emission, sustainability. (iv) The yield increase and efficiency increase principle of ecological agriculture with high efficiency lies in full land use, three-dimensional light use, sufficient use of season, multi-layer water consumption, efficient fertilizer consumption, symbiosis and mutual supplement, ecological disaster reduction, recycling. (v) The typical pattern of ecological agriculture with high efficiency includes three-dimensional use pattern, biological symbiosis pattern, multi-industry combination pattern, industrial extension pattern, technology-driven pattern, environmental renovation pattern, resource recycling pattern, leisure and sight-seeing pattern. (vi) The key technologies of ecological agriculture with high efficiency include resource-saving technology, water and fertilizer regulation technology, biological technology for increasing soil fertility, disaster prevention and mitigation technology, comprehensive utilization technology, water conservation technology, structural adjustment technology, energy development technology, watershed control technology, and modern high-tech technology.

  1. Acidentes químicos ampliados: um desafio para a saúde pública The increase in chemical accidents: a challenge for public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. de Freitas

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Os acidentes envolvendo substâncias perigosas nas atividades de transporte, armazenamento e produção industrial de produtos químicos constituem um sério risco à saúde e ao meio ambiente. Objetiva-se discutir, no âmbito da saúde pública, alguns dos desafios que esses tipos de acidentes colocam, principalmente para os países de economia periférica. Através da combinação de informações quantitativas e qualitativas, foram definidos e caracterizados esses tipos de acidentes e seus diversos riscos. Esses acidentes têm se apresentado com a maior gravidade nos países de economia periférica, embora a maioria deles venha ocorrendo sem o adequado registro de informações básicas para a avaliação e vigilância, como é demonstrado no caso do Rio de Janeiro (Brasil. Além da tarefa de se avaliar as conseqüências de eventos, por vezes extremamente complexos, coloca-se também, a de formular estratégias de controle e prevenção em realidades sociais que configuram um terreno fértil para a ocorrência e agravamento dos mesmos.Chemical accidents involving explosions, large fires and leakages of hazardous substances occuring during transport, storage and industrial production of chemicals constitute a real challeng to health, environmental and industrial safety professionals. The aim of this article is to discuss the main questions that this kind of accident provokes, in terms of public helth, particularly in developing countries such as Brazil. The paper defines and characterises these accidents and the various health risk they involve excluding the leakages of hazardous substances during "normal" production in industry - through the combination of quantitative and qualitative information drawn from the international literature on the subject. From some examples of chemical accidents such as occurred in Bophal (Índia, Vila Socó (Brazil, São Paulo (México and data of the World Health Organization (WHO, the authors seek to show

  2. Regionalisation of Croatian Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdo Bašić

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available After becoming self-standing state one of new needs of Croatia important for agricultural profession, farmers, policy makers and public needs was regionalization of agriculture. It is the analyse of state of agroecological conditions in agrosphere and based on results identification and territorial separation of agricultural regions as parts of agrosphere with similar conditions for plant and animal growing and similar farming systems. On this track within a special project we fi nished an inventory of agrosphere, result of which is Regionalisation of Croatian Agriculture presented in this paper. Following wise message of old Chinese proverb cited above, the starting approach is the MFCAL concept (Multifunctional Character of Agriculture and Land, which means that apart from very important and primary economic, agriculture and agricultural land (soil in human life play other roles (functions of similar importance; environmental, social, cultural and spatial, as well as the role of shaping the cultural landscape as a factor of rural development. As well, we respect the point of view prevailing in EU that all natural resources used in agriculture but at the fi rst place soil as a major one, need sustainable use and efficient protection. Using the data on Land resource potential based primarily on data of General Soil Map of Croatia (GSM in a scale of 1:50 000 and results of our research in the period 2000 – 2003, the agrosphere of Croatia is divided in three agricultural regions; Pannonian with four, Mountain with two and Adriatic with three subregions.

  3. Agriculture - reconciling ancient tensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Atkinson

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making in agriculture has tended to be driven by factors other than environmental concerns. This may be changing, and perhaps the emphases of the two creation accounts in Genesis (responsible management or 'dominion', and active care may become more important. The paper examines a number of current developments in agriculture (synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, genetic manipulation, and organic versus industrial methodologies and discusses the issues they raise for agricultural productivity and the human communities dependent on farming. The questions raised are complex; we are faced with establishing a new paradigm for agricultural practice.

  4. Malawi - Conservation Agriculture

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The randomized control trial impact evaluation tests different strategies for communicating information about agricultural technologies to smallholder maize farmers...

  5. EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISES ON DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL LAND MARKET IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubica RUMANOVSKÁ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the situation of the agricultural land market in Slovakia and in selected region of the SR – Nitra region, on the application and development of agricultural land prices in Slovakia and on the factors that influence the decisions of agricultural enterprises on the market with agricultural land. In this paper were used primary data obtained with interview method realized within the research of Department of European policies, Slovak University of Agriculture during the period 2012 – 2013 in all districts of region Nitra. The evaluation of the impact of agricultural subject on agricultural land market in Slovakia was realized by using the method of regression analysis. Based on the results from the research we can state that entrepreneurs still prefer more to rent land then to purchase a land. The main factors influencing the decision-making process of agricultural subjects are ownership fragmentation, the fragmentation of agricultural plots and business's financial situation and profitability of the purchase. Many entrepreneurs pointed to this indicator as one of the most influential in terms of increasing the market price, respectively as a reason for not signing the lease agreement. The agricultural land market in Slovakia is emerging but still not sufficiently transparent. Further development of the market will continue to be marked by the overall economic situation in agriculture, relatively low competitiveness of Slovak farmers in the European market and reduced profitability. Research showed that the most pronounced effect on the price of agricultural land and the amount of rent for agricultural land has the number of enterprises. Growing number of farms will increase the price or amount of rent for agricultural land.

  6. DIRECTIONS AND CHALLENGES IN GLOBAL AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela POPA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of global agricultural market has been at the forefront of professional studies. Expert opinions have quite differing views as to whether the world’s food production will be able to supply the huge demand of growing population. This scientific paper provides a general overview of global agricultural directions, including views on whether agricultural productivity increases will be able to keep with food demand increases and price trends. The scientific paper has focused on the present state of the agricultural market and on the analysis of the key factors defining the tasks of the agricultural sector in the near future, with a special attention to the case of Republic of Moldova.

  7. Agricultural pesticide usage and prioritization in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Eun Shil; Jeong, Mihye; Lee, Won Jin

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to review agricultural pesticide usage and trends and to identify hazardous pesticides for regulation, in terms of public health, in South Korea. The authors collected data on usage and trends of agricultural pesticides through agriculture-related databases. Criteria from the US Environmental Protection Agency classification for carcinogenicity, World Health Organization classification for acute toxicity, and European Union prioritization list for endocrine-disrupting chemicals were used for the hazard categorization of identified individual active ingredients. Pesticides to be prioritized among all pesticides used in South Korea between 2007 and 2011 were selected by taking into account the volume of usage, toxicity, and epidemiological evidence. Annual agricultural use of pesticides has increased rapidly from the 1970s to 1990s in South Korea, but has declined since 2001. The quantity of pesticides used in 2011 was reported as 19,131 tons, and was comprised of 34.7% insecticides, 28.0% fungicides, and 27.1% herbicides. The 50 pesticides with the greatest volume of usage accounted for 82.6% of the total volume of pesticides used between 2007 and 2011, with the most-used active ingredient being machine oil, followed by mancozeb and then paraquat. Organophosphates were the most used among the top 50 pesticides. A total of 24 pesticides were selected for recommendation of intensive regulation in South Korea. In conclusion, the authors described the usage and trends of overall agricultural pesticides, which would serve as a fundamental step forward in managing pesticide in terms of public health. Intensive efforts are required for the prevention of potential health effects from the 24 identified pesticides.

  8. Modification of reservoir chemical and physical factors in steamfloods to increase heavy oil recovery. [Quarterly report], January 1--March 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yortsos, Y.C. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Thermal methods, and particularly steam injection, are currently recognized as the most promising for the efficient recovery of heavy oil. Despite significant progress, however, important technical issues remain open. Specifically, still inadequate is our knowledge of the complex interaction between porous media and the various fluids of thermal recovery (steam, water, heavy oil, gases, and chemicals). While, the interplay of heat transfer and fluid flow with pore- and macro-scale heterogeneity is largely unexplored. The objectives of this contract are to continue previous work and to carry out new fundamental studies in the following areas of interest to thermal recovery: displacement and flow properties of fluids involving phase change (condensation-evaporation) in porous media; flow properties of mobility control fluids (such as foam); and the effect of reservoir heterogeneity on thermal recovery. The specific projects are motivated by and address the need to improve heavy oil recovery from typical reservoirs as well as less conventional fractured reservoirs producing from vertical or horizontal wells. During this quarter, work continued on the development of relative permeabilities during steam displacement. Most of the work concentrated on the representation of the three-phase flow in terms of a double-drainage process. Work continued on the optimization of recovery processes in heterogeneous reservoirs by using optimal control methods. The effort at present is concentrating in fine-tuning the optimization algorithm as well as in developing control methodologies with different constraints. In parallel, we continued experiments in a Hele-Shaw cell with two controlled injection wells and one production well. In the area of chemical additives work continued on the behavior of non-Newtonian fluid flow and on foam displacements in porous media.

  9. Soil, land use time, and sustainable intensification of agriculture in the Brazilian Cerrado region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabaquini, Kleber; Galvão, Lênio Soares; Formaggio, Antonio Roberto; de Aragão, Luiz Eduardo Oliveira E Cruz

    2017-02-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado area is in rapid decline because of the expansion of modern agriculture. In this study, we used extensive field data and a 30-year chronosequence of Landsat images (1980-2010) to assess the effects of time since conversion of Cerrado into agriculture upon soil chemical attributes and soybean/corn yield in the Alto do Rio Verde watershed. We determined the rates of vegetation conversion into agriculture, the agricultural land use time since conversion, and the temporal changes in topsoil (0-20 cm soil depth) and subsurface (20-40 cm) chemical attributes of the soils. In addition, we investigated possible associations between fertilization/over-fertilization and land use history detected from the satellites. The results showed that 61.8% of the native vegetation in the Alto do Rio Verde watershed was already converted into agriculture with 31% of soils being used in agriculture for more than 30 years. While other fertilizers in cultivated soils (e.g., Ca(+2), Mg(+2), and P) have been compensated over time by soil management practices to keep crop yield high, large reductions in C org (38%) and N tot (29%) were observed in old cultivated areas. Furthermore, soybean and cornfields having more than 10 years of farming presented higher values of P and Mg(+2) than the ideal levels necessary for plant development. Therefore, increased risks of over-fertilization of the soils and environmental contamination with these macronutrients were associated with soybean and cornfields having more than 10 years of farming, especially those with more than 30 years of agricultural land use.

  10. Propolis extract application in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiano Spaziani Pereira

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Propolis has been ground in various areas of science, but its application in agriculture, is a recent and almost unknown subject. In agronomy work mainly seek to explore the antibiotic and antifungal properties of propolis, but other uses have been proposed, such as plant nutrition, pest control (such as mites and even reducing water stress in plants. Despite numerous utilities proven and proposals, there are many questions, particularly for the preparation of the extract, most appropriate chemical composition for a particular use, application forms, crude propolis extract in percentages, dose minimum efficiency, efficiency, etc. Given the above, the purpose of this literature review is to present the origin and chemical composition of propolis, making methodology of propolis extract, more effective dose in the control of fungi, plant pathogenic bacteria and reduce water stress. During the study, it can be seen that the difference in propolis composition occurs mainly due to the variability of vegetable composition in the vicinity of the hive, the bees forage and chemical composition is quite complex and variable in terms of both concentration and chemicals gifts. In the extraction, there are still many gaps to be studied, including the best way to obtain the extract, with questions about the best puller, with lack of consensus in the literature. On the efficiency of this technology, there are numerous studies with promising results, which allow implementation of technology in the field and these jobs concentrated in coffee crops, beans, cucumber and tomato.

  11. Transition of fertilizer application and agricultural pollution loads: a case study in the Nhue-Day River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, P H; Harada, H; Fujii, S; Lien, N P H; Hai, H T; Anh, P N; Tanaka, S

    2015-01-01

    Rapid socio-economic development in suburban areas of developing countries has induced changes in agricultural waste and nutrient management, resulting in water pollution. The study aimed at estimating agricultural nutrient cycles and their contribution to the water environment. A material flow model of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) was developed focusing on agricultural activities from 1980 to 2010 in Trai hamlet, an agricultural watershed in Nhue-Day River basin, Vietnam. The model focused on the change in household management of human excreta and livestock excreta, and chemical fertilizer consumption. The results showed that the proportion of nutrients from compost/manure applied to paddy fields decreased from 85 to 41% for both N and P between 1980 and 2010. The nutrient inputs derived from chemical fertilizer decreased 6% between 1980 and 2000 for both N and P. Then, these nutrients increased 1.4 times for N and 1.2 times for P from 2000 to 2010. As of 2010, the total inputs to paddy fields have amounted to 435 kg-N/ha/year and 90 kg-P/ha/year. Of these nutrient inputs, 40% of N and 65% of P were derived from chemical fertilizer. Thirty per cent (30%) of total N input was discharged to the water bodies through agricultural runoff and 47% of total P input accumulated in soil.

  12. Agricultural Technology Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Board of Education, Raleigh. Agricultural Technology Education Section.

    Agricultural education programs available through North Carolina's newly created system of industrial education center, technical institutes, and community colleges are described. The information is for use by administrators, and teachers of adult agricultural courses and counselors of high school dropouts and graduates. It describes the need for…

  13. Conservation Agriculture in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á. Kertész

    2014-03-01

    Yield performance and stability, operating costs, environmental policies and programs of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP, and climate change will likely be the major driving forces defining the direction and for the extension of CA in Europe. The role of agriculture in climate change mitigation in the EU is discussed in the paper.

  14. Legislature Abolishes Agricultural Tax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

      China's 2,600-year-old agricultural tax will be rescinded as of Jan. 1,2006, after China's top legislature voted on December 27 to adopt a motion on the regulations revoking the agricultural tax.……

  15. The Urban Agriculture Circle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansma, J.E.; Chambers, Joe; Sabas, Eva; Veen, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    The lack of inclusion of urban agriculture in city planning directly affects the success of initiatives in this sector, which subsequently could impede fu-ture innovations. The poor representation of urban agriculture in planning can be attributed to a lack of understanding about its multi-functiona

  16. Theme: Marketing Agricultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staller, Bernie L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Consists of six articles on marketing agricultural education. Topics include (1) being consumer conscious, (2) cooperating with agribusiness, (3) preparing students for postsecondary education, (4) allowing concurrent enrollments, (5) saving the failing agricultural program, and (6) refocusing the curriculum toward agrimarketing. (CH)

  17. Theme: Urban Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellibee, Margaret; And Others

    1990-01-01

    On the theme of secondary agricultural education in urban areas, this issue includes articles on opportunities, future directions, and implications for the profession; creative supervised experiences for horticulture students; floral marketing, multicultural education; and cultural diversity in urban agricultural education. (JOW)

  18. Agricultural land loss in China's urbanization process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xiaoyun; Cai Yinyin; Zhu Daolin; Zhang Anlu

    2006-01-01

    In China, urbanization of agricultural land around city agglomerations increases rapidly. Rapid urbanization of agricultural land affects food supply, land value and ecological balance in the society. In China, the urban builtup area had increased by 40% from 1996 to 2003. This increase came predominantly from farmland surrounding the cities. How the ongoing urbanization of China affects its agricultural land is the focus of this paper. In current studies, we have found that population density; urbanization degree and personal income are key factors that influence the urbanization process. Based on this, relation model has been established and to predict the general trends of the urban area expansion in China in 2020. In 2020, the constructed urban area of China would be increased by 1.3 times compared with 2003. In 2020, this study anticipates the conversion of about 32, 562 sq. km. agricultural land of China for urban use.

  19. Percent Agricultural Land Cover on Steep Slopes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Clearing land for agriculture tends to increase soil erosion. The amount of erosion is related to the steepness of the slope, farming methods used and soil type....

  20. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY UNION IN IMPROVING THE AGRICULTURE LOGISTICS

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The author examines the role and significance of association Agriculture Machinery for the development and operation of agricultural machinery in the early 1960s. She stresses that the creation of workshops and maintenance sites helped the increase of the repair volume work in collective farms, which resulted in reducing the number of households made at comprehensive maintenance. She emphasizes that the enterprises of Agriculture Union system contributed to the development and strengthening o...

  1. Agriculture biotechnology report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This report provides the basis for an overall agriculture biotechnology strategy for Saskatchewan, encompassing all aspects of the biotechnology sector and supporting institutions. It presents results of a survey of over 70 industry and public sector leaders in agriculture biotechnology in order to assist Saskatchewan Agriculture & Food in defining its role and involvement in the agriculture biotechnology industry. Issues examined include: Goals for the agriculture biotechnology industry; research and development; technology transfer and commercialisation; infrastructure and services; human resources; legislation and policy; funding; future core areas of research and development; and the role of government in developing the industry. The report concludes with lists of recommendations. The supplement lists the survey questions and responses.

  2. Saline agriculture in Mediterranean environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Maggio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinization is increasingly affecting world's agricultural land causing serious yield loss and soil degradation. Understanding how we could improve crop productivity in salinized environments is therefore critical to meet the challenging goal of feeding 9.3 billion people by 2050. Our comprehension of fundamental physiological mechanisms in plant salt stress adaptation has greatly advanced over the last decades. However, many of these mechanisms have been linked to salt tolerance in simplified experimental systems whereas they have been rarely functionally proven in real agricultural contexts. In-depth analyses of specific crop-salinity interactions could reveal important aspects of plant salt stress adaptation as well as novel physiological/agronomic targets to improve salinity tolerance. These include the developmental role of root vs. shoot systems respect to water-ion homeostasis, morphological vs. metabolic contributions to stress adaptation, developmental processes vs. seasonal soil salinity evolution, residual effects of saline irrigation in non-irrigated crops, critical parameters of salt tolerance in soil-less systems and controlled environments, response to multiple stresses. Finally, beneficial effects of salinization on qualitative parameters such as stress-induced accumulation of high nutritional value secondary metabolites should be considered, also. In this short review we attempted to highlight the multifaceted nature of salinity in Mediterranean agricultural systems by summarizing most experimental activity carried out at the Department of Agricultural Engineering and Agronomy of University of Naples Federico II in the last few years.

  3. The Innovative Directions in Agriculture of Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Dinar Abdrakhmanova; Purev Byamba; Kadrinov Maulet

    2014-01-01

    In this article ways of increase of competitiveness of agrarian production, on the basis of introduction of the innovative directions in agriculture are considered. For a sustainable development of agriculture the innovative policy which basis there is an increase of efficiency of use of scientific and technical achievements has defining value. Becomes obvious that without harmonious, scientifically reasonable and balanced innovative policy, the system principle of its realization it is impos...

  4. Review Of Development And Characteristics Of Organic Agriculture In Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Petljak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, an ever increasing interest of both foreign and domestic academic and general public for organic agriculture can be observed. Organic agriculture, as a new agricultural production system, enables full utilization of farming potentials while satisfying social and economic needs and preserving natural ecosystem and environment. Act on Organic Production of Agricultural Products and Foodstuffs provides an elementary strategic frame for agricultural production development in Republic of Croatia. This article gives an overview of organic agriculture legislation in Croatia and detailed analysis of development periods of organic agriculture. Special emphasis is put on structure of organic production which highlights data on organic plant and animal production in Croatia. The paper provides a comparison between levels of organic agriculture development in the world (with the special emphasis on Europe and in Croatia, as well as the overview of main obstacles towards more significant development of organic agriculture in Republic of Croatia.

  5. Modification of chemical and physical factors in steamflood to increase heavy oil recovery. Annual report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yortsos, Y.C.

    1993-07-01

    This report covers work performed in the various physicochemical factors for the improvement of oil recovery efficiency. In this context, three general areas were studied: (i) The understanding of vapor-liquid flow in porous media, whether the flow is internal (boiling), external (steam injection) or countercurrent (as in vertical heat pipes); (ii) The effect of reservoir heterogeneity, particularly as it regards fractured systems; (iii) The flow properties of additives for the improvement of recovery efficiency, in particular the injection of caustic and foams. The studies completed under this contract involved ap three research tools, analysis, computation and experiments. We have focused on pore level modeling using pore networks and on flow visualization using Hele-Shaw cells. Experiments involving core samples were conducted for the chemical additives investigation. Finally, simulation at the pore scale, pore network scale and reservoir scale were also undertaken. Part of the work has been detailed in five DOE Technical Reports as shown at the end of this report.

  6. Chemical modification of paclitaxel (Taxol) reduces P-glycoprotein interactions and increases permeation across the blood-brain barrier in vitro and in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Antonie; Liu, Yanbin; Michaelis, Mary Lou; Himes, Richard H; Georg, Gunda I; Audus, Kenneth L

    2005-02-10

    The purpose of this work was to introduce a chemical modification into the paclitaxel (Taxol) structure to reduce interactions with the product of the multidrug resistant type 1 (MDR1) gene, P-glycoprotein (Pgp), resulting in improved blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Specifically, a taxane analogue, Tx-67, with a succinate group added at the C10 position of Taxol, was synthesized and identified as such a candidate. In comparison studies, Tx-67 had no apparent interactions with Pgp, as demonstrated by the lack of enhanced uptake of rhodamine 123 by brain microvessel endothelial cells (BMECs) in the presence of the agent. By contrast, Taxol exposure substantially enhanced rhodamine 123 uptake by BMECs through inhibition of Pgp. The transport across BMEC monolayers was polarized for both Tx-67 and Taxol with permeation in the apical to basolateral direction greater for Tx-67 and substantially reduced for Taxol relative to basolateral to apical permeation. Taxol and cyclosporin A treatments also did not enhance Tx-67 permeation across BMEC monolayers. In an in situ rat brain perfusion study, Tx-67 was demonstrated to permeate across the BBB at a greater rate than Taxol. These results demonstrate that the Taxol analogue Tx-67 had a reduced interaction with Pgp and, as a consequence, enhanced permeation across the blood-brain barrier in vitro and in situ.

  7. Modification of chemical and physical factors in steamflood to increase heavy oil recovery. Annual report, October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yortsos, Y.C.

    1994-10-01

    Thermal methods, and particularly steam injection, are currently recognized as the most promising for the efficient recovery of heavy oil. Despite significant progress, however, important technical issues remain open. Specifically, still inadequate is our knowledge of the complex interaction between porous media and the various fluids of thermal recovery (steam, water, heavy oil, gases, and chemicals). While, the interplay of heat transfer and fluid flow with pore- and macro-scale heterogeneity is largely unexplored. Objectives of this work contract are to carry out new studies in the following areas: displacement and flow properties of fluids involving phase change in porous media; flow properties of mobility control fluids (such as foam); and the effect of reservoir heterogeneity on thermal recovery. Specific projects address the need to improve heavy oil recovery from typical reservoirs as well as less conventional fractured reservoirs producing from vertical or horizontal wells. In the area of vapor-liquid flow, we present the continuation of work on the pore network modeling of bubble growth in porous media driven by the application of a prescribed heat flux or superheat. The scaling of bubble growth in porous media is also discussed. In another study we study the problem of steam injection in fractured systems using visualization in micromodels. The interplay of drainage, imbibition and bubble growth problems is discussed.

  8. Incorporation of post-translational modified amino acids as an approach to increase both chemical and biological diversity of conotoxins and conopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espiritu, Michael J; Cabalteja, Chino C; Sugai, Christopher K; Bingham, Jon-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive peptides from Conus venom contain a natural abundance of post-translational modifications that affect their chemical diversity, structural stability, and neuroactive properties. These modifications have continually presented hurdles in their identification and characterization. Early endeavors in their analysis relied on classical biochemical techniques that have led to the progressive development and use of novel proteomic-based approaches. The critical importance of these post-translationally modified amino acids and their specific assignment cannot be understated, having impact on their folding, pharmacological selectivity, and potency. Such modifications at an amino acid level may also provide additional insight into the advancement of conopeptide drugs in the quest for precise pharmacological targeting. To achieve this end, a concerted effort between the classical and novel approaches is needed to completely elucidate the role of post-translational modifications in conopeptide structure and dynamics. This paper provides a reflection in the advancements observed in dealing with numerous and multiple post-translationally modified amino acids within conotoxins and conopeptides and provides a summary of the current techniques used in their identification.

  9. Agricultural trade and employment in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandrey, Ron; Plunt, Cecilia; Jensen, Hans Grinsted;

    This report provides an overview of policy changes in South African agriculture over the past three decades, and of some of the associated impacts on output, trade patterns and employment. In agriculture, the story is one of widespread substitution of labour for capital. While the sector has shed...... more than a million jobs over the past four decades, the paper highlights its continuing role as an employment creator in rural areas, albeit mainly in low-wage occupations. As for its principal analytical contribution, this paper considers future trade liberalisation in the agricultural sector. Using...... two different economic models, we find a remarkably consistent pattern whereby agricultural trade liberalisation in the region is predicted to increase agricultural employment....

  10. Coupling of importin beta binding peptide on plasmid DNA: transfection efficiency is increased by modification of lipoplex's physico-chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escriou Virginie

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-viral vectors for gene transfer are less immunogenic than viral vectors but also less efficient. Significant effort has focused on enhancing non-viral gene transfer efficiency by increasing nuclear import of plasmid DNA, particularly by coupling nuclear localization peptidic sequences to plasmid DNA. Results We have coupled a 62-aminoacid peptide derived from hSRP1α importin beta binding domain, called the IBB peptide to plasmid DNA by using the heterobifunctional linker N-(4-azido-2,3,5,6 tetrafluorobenzyl-6-maleimidyl hexanamide (TFPAM-6. When covalently coupled to plasmid DNA, IBB peptide did not increase the efficiency of cationic lipid mediated transfection. The IBB peptide was still able to interact with its nuclear import receptor, importin β, but non-specifically. However, we observed a 20-fold increase in reporter gene expression with plasmid DNA / IBB peptide complexes under conditions of inefficient transfection. In which case, IBB was associated with plasmid DNA through self assembling ionic interaction. Conclusions The improvement of transfection activity was not due to an improved nuclear import of DNA, but rather by the modification of physicochemical properties of IBB peptide / plasmid complexes. IBB peptide increased lipoplex size and these larger complexes were more efficient for gene transfer.

  11. ANALYSIS OF DIVERSIFICATION EFFORTS IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PROCHÁZKA, Petr

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Study of agriculture enjoys less popularity over time in most of the developed countries, including Canada and the Czech Republic. Analysis in this paper provides interesting findings about activities of agricultural universities to increase enrollment into their programs. While the study is focused on Canada, it is possible to draw implications also for the Czech Republic as many of the characteristics pertaining to the education and agricultural sectors are similar. Enrollment into educational programs in agriculture in North America has been steadily declining in the last several decades. While the overall share of agriculture on national gross domestic product has also been falling, the need for qualified people in agriculture is still eminent as the shift to sustainable agriculture appears to be one of the key priorities of governments in the US and Canada. One of the ways how to facilitate interest of prospective students to study agriculture is to diversify the programs through offering of more major options. It is important to study the motivation and other stimuli for the choice of major in order to adapt the educational programs and attract more students. In the paper, factors influencing the choice of major are studied by analyzing survey data from the only agricultural college in Atlantic Canada. The results show significant differences in the socio-economic background among the prospective students based on the choice of major. For example, students interested in social sciences much more appraise more choices of major than students in biophysical fields. Based on the findings from the analysis, several recommendations are made. It is suggested, for example, that for students interested in biophysical sciences, sport plays an important role and thus, appropriate promotional campaign about recreation and sport facilities of a post-secondary agricultural educational institutions should be conducted. Analysis in this paper may serve

  12. Modification of reservoir chemical and physical factors in steamfloods to increase heavy oil recovery. [Quarterly report], January 1--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yortsos, Y.C.

    1996-07-01

    Thermal methods, and particularly steam injection, are currently recognized as the most promising for the efficient recovery of heavy oil. Despite significant progress, however, important technical issues remain open. Specifically, still inadequate is our knowledge of the complex interaction between porous media and the various fluids of thermal recovery (steam, water, heavy oil, gases, and chemicals). While, the interplay of heat transfer and fluid flow with pore- and macro-scale heterogeneity is largely unexplored. The objectives of this contract are to continue previous work and to carry out new fundamental studies in the following areas of interest to thermal recovery: displacement and flow properties of fluids involving phase change in porous media; flow properties of mobility control fluids (such as foam); and the effect of reservoir heterogeneity on thermal recovery. During this quarter, we focused on the development of relative permeabilities during steam displacement. Two particular directions were pursued: One involves the derivation of relative permeabilities based on a recently completed work on the pore-level mechanics of steam displacement. Progress has been made to relate the relative permeabilities to effects such as heat transfer and condensation, which are specific to steam injection problems. The second direction involves the development of three-phase relative permeabilities using invasion percolation concepts. We have developed models that predict the specific dependence of the permeabilities of three immiscible phases (e.g. awe, water and gas) on saturations and the saturation history. Both works are still in progress. In addition, work continues in the analysis of the stability of phase change fronts in porous media using a macroscopic approach.

  13. THE CHEMICAL TEACHING MATTER AND THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO THE WAYS OF PERFORMANCE OF THE AGRICULTURAL ENGINEER / LA DÍSCIPLINA QUÍMICA Y SU CONTRIBUCIÓN A LOS MODOS DE ACTUACIÓN DEL INGENIERO AGRÓNOMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamilé Batista Yero

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows an activity system from Chemistry for the development of the research and field experience for first year students of the agronomy career. They are aimed to contribute to the knowledge acquisition about the application of chemistry by the professional of agricultural branch, because they make use of the tools offered by chemistry as basic discipline to solve professional problems encountered at the base of their profession. The results are directed to achieve the systematization of academic, field experience and research components from a chemistry perspective for the formation of an integral professional bestowed of knowledge and abilities which contributes the foundation of their professional performance.

  14. Environmentally Sustainable Agriculture and Future Developments of the CAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsted Nielsen, Helle; Branth Pedersen, Anders; Christensen, Tove

    2009-01-01

    in the world market could increase pressure to slacken regulatory requirements on agriculture. Thus, the question of whether liberalization will hinder or promote environmentally sustainable production methods in agriculture is unresolved. This paper analyses different scenarios of agricultural policy......Recent reforms of the European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) have set in motion a process of increased market orientation in the agricultural sector, a process that will be intensified by trade liberalization if an agreement is reached under the World Trade Organization (WTO......). It is widely expected that both CAP reforms and a WTO agreement will also lead to a more environmentally friendly European agriculture. It is conceivable, however, that market demand would instead provide renewed incentives for intensive agricultural production. Opening European agriculture to more competition...

  15. Engineering Education for Agricultural and Rural Development in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewumi, B. A.

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural Engineering has transformed agricultural practices from subsistence level to medium and large-scale production via mechanisation in the developed nations. This has reduced the labour force requirements in agriculture; increased production levels and efficiency, product shelf life and product quality; and resulted into…

  16. Evaluation of Resources of Agricultural Lands Using Fuzzy Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    With ever increasing demands on agriculture, it is essential that we be able to adequately evaluate agriculture land resources. Recently, efforts have been undertaken to develop methods and tools for the purpose of evaluating agricultural land resources. However, to be successful, assessments need...

  17. A brief essay on the financialization of agricultural commodity markets

    OpenAIRE

    Girardi, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    During the 2000s agricultural commodity derivatives markets were flooded by a “wall of money” coming from financial investors. In this essay I outline the main facts about the increasing presence and impact of financial investors in agricultural commodity markets and I discuss the main empirical works that tried to assess whether financial investors have affected agricultural prices in recent years.

  18. Identifying Technical Content Training Needs of Georgia Agriculture Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peake, Jason B.; Duncan, Dennis W.; Ricketts, John C.

    2007-01-01

    The continuing trend toward increasing diversity of curriculum offered within secondary agricultural education programs is driving a change in pre-service and in-service technical training for agriculture teachers. This study looks at agriculture teachers' perceived importance of, and competence in, traditional technical competencies such as…

  19. Agriculture and private sector

    OpenAIRE

    Sahin, Sila; Prowse, Martin Philip; Weigh, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture is and will continue to be critical to the futures of many developing countries. This may or may not be because agriculture can contribute directly and/or indirectly to economic growth. But it will certainly be critical because poverty is still predominantly a rural phenomenon and this looks set to remain for the next two decades at least. The agriculture and growth evidence paper series has been developed to cover a range of issues that are of most relevance to DFID staff. The pa...

  20. Atoms in Agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, Thomas S. [University of Tennessee

    1965-01-01

    Agriculture benefits from the applications of research. Radioactive techniques have been used to study soils, plants, microbes, insects, farm animals, and new ways to use and preserve foodstuffs. Radioactive atoms are not used directly by farmers but are used in research directed by the U. S. Department of Agriculture and Atomic Energy Commission, by the agricultural experiment stations of the various states, and by numerous public and private research institutions. From such research come improved materials and methods which are used on the farm.

  1. Complexity of human and ecosystem interactions in an agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupe, Richard H.; Barlow, Jeannie R.; Capel, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of human interaction in the commercial agricultural landscape and the resulting impacts on the ecosystem services of water quality and quantity is largely ignored by the current agricultural paradigm that maximizes crop production over other ecosystem services. Three examples at different spatial scales (local, regional, and global) are presented where human and ecosystem interactions in a commercial agricultural landscape adversely affect water quality and quantity in unintended ways in the Delta of northwestern Mississippi. In the first example, little to no regulation of groundwater use for irrigation has caused declines in groundwater levels resulting in loss of baseflow to streams and threatening future water supply. In the second example, federal policy which subsidizes corn for biofuel production has encouraged many producers to switch from cotton to corn, which requires more nutrients and water, counter to national efforts to reduce nutrient loads to the Gulf of Mexico and exacerbating groundwater level declines. The third example is the wholesale adoption of a system for weed control that relies on a single chemical, initially providing many benefits and ultimately leading to the widespread occurrence of glyphosate and its degradates in Delta streams and necessitating higher application rates of glyphosate as well as the use of other herbicides due to increasing weed resistance. Although these examples are specific to the Mississippi Delta, analogous situations exist throughout the world and point to the need for change in how we grow our food, fuel, and fiber, and manage our soil and water resources.

  2. Tendencies in financing the agricultural and food sector under the common agricultural policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Brzozowska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Poland, having joined the EU, became subject to regulations that significantly changed the conditions under which its food industry functioned. As markets opened up to each other, the possibilities of sale increased and competitiveness of economic entities improved. Mobilised public funds contributed, among other things, to modernisation of agricultural holdings and food industry enterprises, improvement of their competitiveness, construction of the infrastructure and multifunctional development of rural areas. The paper discusses tendencies in financing agriculture under the Common Agricultural Policy in Poland against the production and economic situation of the agricultural and food sector.

  3. Health and safety risks in production agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Essen, S G; McCurdy, S A

    1998-10-01

    Production agriculture is associated with a variety of occupational illnesses and injuries. Agricultural workers are at higher risk of death or disabling injury than most other workers. Traumatic injury commonly occurs from working with machinery or animals. Respiratory illness and health problems from exposures to farm chemicals are major concerns, and dermatoses, hearing loss, certain cancers, and zoonotic infections are important problems. Innovative means of encouraging safe work practices are being developed. Efforts are being made to reach all groups of farmworkers, including migrant and seasonal workers, farm youth, and older farmers.

  4. Financing Sustainable Agriculture Under Climate Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ji-kun; WANG Yang-jie

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture is facing great challenge in meeting global food security and is expected to face even greater challenge under climate change. The overall goal of this paper is to examine how ifnance can be used to achieve the joint objectives of development, mitigation of and adaptation to climate change in agriculture in developing world based on literature review. The results show that agriculture is much under invested and foreign aid also has not increased appropriately to assist developing countries to maintain sustainable agriculture under climate change. There are a wide range of areas in mitigation of and adaptation to climate change that need substantial investment. Major areas and successful cases mitigation of and adaptation to climate change in agriculture that have worked in developing countries are examined. A list of areas that have worked, could work and be scaled up or transferred is identiifed and discussed. This study concludes that mainstreaming agricultural mitigation and adaptation into agricultural development programs, enhancing local capacity, and considering different stakeholders’ needs are major experiences for successfully ifnancing sustainable agriculture under climate change.

  5. Can agricultural fungicides accelerate the discovery of human antifungal drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Kyung; Klittich, Carla J R

    2015-01-01

    Twelve drugs from four chemical classes are currently available for treatment of systemic fungal infections in humans. By contrast, more than 100 structurally distinct compounds from over 30 chemical classes have been developed as agricultural fungicides, and these fungicides target many modes of action not represented among human antifungal drugs. In this article we introduce the diverse aspects of agricultural fungicides and compare them with human antifungal drugs. We propose that the information gained from the development of agricultural fungicides can be applied to the discovery of new mechanisms of action and new antifungal agents for the management of human fungal infections.

  6. Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Eva; Tubiello, Francesco; Herold, Martin

    2013-03-01

    1. Introduction Better information on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and mitigation potential in the agricultural sector is necessary to manage these emissions and identify responses that are consistent with the food security and economic development priorities of countries. Critical activity data (what crops or livestock are managed in what way) are poor or lacking for many agricultural systems, especially in developing countries. In addition, the currently available methods for quantifying emissions and mitigation are often too expensive or complex or not sufficiently user friendly for widespread use. The purpose of this focus issue is to capture the state of the art in quantifying greenhouse gases from agricultural systems, with the goal of better understanding our current capabilities and near-term potential for improvement, with particular attention to quantification issues relevant to smallholders in developing countries. This work is timely in light of international discussions and negotiations around how agriculture should be included in efforts to reduce and adapt to climate change impacts, and considering that significant climate financing to developing countries in post-2012 agreements may be linked to their increased ability to identify and report GHG emissions (Murphy et al 2010, CCAFS 2011, FAO 2011). 2. Agriculture and climate change mitigation The main agricultural GHGs—methane and nitrous oxide—account for 10%-12% of anthropogenic emissions globally (Smith et al 2008), or around 50% and 60% of total anthropogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions, respectively, in 2005. Net carbon dioxide fluxes between agricultural land and the atmosphere linked to food production are relatively small, although significant carbon emissions are associated with degradation of organic soils for plantations in tropical regions (Smith et al 2007, FAO 2012). Population growth and shifts in dietary patterns toward more meat and dairy consumption will lead to

  7. Chemically induced neuronal damage and gliosis: enhanced expression of the proinflammatory chemokine, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, without a corresponding increase in proinflammatory cytokines(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, A R; Benkovic, S A; Miller, D B; O'Callaghan, J P

    2002-01-01

    Enhanced expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines has long been linked to neuronal and glial responses to brain injury. Indeed, inflammation in the brain has been associated with damage that stems from conditions as diverse as infection, multiple sclerosis, trauma, and excitotoxicity. In many of these brain injuries, disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) may allow entry of blood-borne factors that contribute to, or serve as the basis of, brain inflammatory responses. Administration of trimethyltin (TMT) to the rat results in loss of hippocampal neurons and an ensuing gliosis without BBB compromise. We used the TMT damage model to discover the proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines that are expressed in response to neuronal injury. TMT caused pyramidal cell damage within 3 days and a substantial loss of these neurons by 21 days post dosing. Marked microglial activation and astrogliosis were evident over the same time period. The BBB remained intact despite the presence of multiple indicators of TMT-induced neuropathology. TMT caused large increases in whole hippocampal-derived monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 mRNA (1,000%) by day 3 and in MCP-1 (300%) by day 7. The mRNA levels for tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6, cytokines normally expressed during the earliest stage of inflammation, were not increased up to 21 days post dosing. Lipopolysaccharide, used as a positive control, caused large inductions of cytokine mRNA in liver, as well as an increase in IL-1beta in hippocampus, but it did not result in the induction of astrogliosis. The data suggest that enhanced expression of the proinflammatory cytokines, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6, is not required for neuronal and glial responses to injury and that MCP-1 may serve a signaling function in the damaged CNS that is distinct from its role in proinflammatory events.

  8. CHEMICAL QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF TEHRAN GROUND WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Imandel

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available For better understanding of Tehran ground water, samples were taken randomly from 340 out of 655 deep & semi deep wells in 1993, which dug by Tehran Water Supply and Sewage Engineering Company. 260 Water specimens were examined chemically and physically and compared with the 1993 World Health Organization (WHO and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO criteria and analyzed statistically. Logarithmic diagram of arithmetic mean of 53 deep wells which are now connected to Tehran water supply system showed Sodium- Sulphate category. Main chemical components of water are closely adjusted to the international standards and no overdoses were observed in any cases. Logarithmic diagram of arithmetic mean of 72 deep wells, which were rsed for the Tehran’s orbital town's drinking water, showed that chemical components of the water were Calcic-Chloride category and there were not observed any increases within the other compounds.

  9. Agricultural Drainage Well Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Locations of surface intakes for registered agriculture drainage wells according to the database maintained by IDALS. Surface intakes were located from their...

  10. Agricultural Health and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of injury from working with livestock Risk of electrocution to persons operating large equipment that can contact ... which identifies common agricultural hazards and provides safety solutions for employers and young workers to prevent accidents ...

  11. Agriculture and private sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahin, Sila; Prowse, Martin Philip; Weigh, Nadia

    and this looks set to remain for the next two decades at least. The agriculture and growth evidence paper series has been developed to cover a range of issues that are of most relevance to DFID staff. The paper is not intended to be a comprehensive overview of all issues relating to agriculture and the private......Agriculture is and will continue to be critical to the futures of many developing countries. This may or may not be because agriculture can contribute directly and/or indirectly to economic growth. But it will certainly be critical because poverty is still predominantly a rural phenomenon...... sector. It concentrates on those areas that are of particular focus for DFID policy and strategy....

  12. Agricultural Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type Progress Annual Report to the Nation Cancer Portfolio Snapshots Milestones in Cancer Research & Discovery Stories of ... the Agricultural Health Study (1994–2007). Environmental Health Perspectives 2011; online May 27, doi:10.1289/ehp. ...

  13. Agricultural Producer Certificates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — A Certified Agricultural Producer, or representative thereof, is an individual who wishes to sell regionally-grown products in the public right-of-way. A Certified...

  14. Collaboration in Agricultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Roland L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Theme articles discuss environment, food, agriculture, and renewal resources as they relate to science education, learning partnerships, collaboration in Kyrghyzstan, leadership development, opportunities for collaboration, networking, and the creation of a shared course between agribusiness and biology. (JOW)

  15. Department of Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

      Topics Animal Health Biotechnology Climate Solutions Conservation Disaster and Emergency Preparedness Employee Services Energy Environment and Natural Resources Ethics Farm Bill Food and Nutrition Food Safety Forestry Housing Assistance Laws and Regulations Organic Agriculture ...

  16. Agriculture and private sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahin, Sila; Prowse, Martin Philip; Weigh, Nadia

    Agriculture is and will continue to be critical to the futures of many developing countries. This may or may not be because agriculture can contribute directly and/or indirectly to economic growth. But it will certainly be critical because poverty is still predominantly a rural phenomenon...... and this looks set to remain for the next two decades at least. The agriculture and growth evidence paper series has been developed to cover a range of issues that are of most relevance to DFID staff. The paper is not intended to be a comprehensive overview of all issues relating to agriculture and the private...... sector. It concentrates on those areas that are of particular focus for DFID policy and strategy....

  17. Organic agriculture in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sukkel, W.; Hommes, M.

    2009-01-01

    Dutch organic agriculture has unique characteristics and peculiarities. It is still a relatively small sector compared to conventional agriculture in the Netherlands. However, its market share is growing and organic agriculture leads the way in terms of sustainability and innovations

  18. New Research in Organic Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    The book is the proceedings from the bi-annual international scientific conference on organic agriculture. The chapters are: - plant and soil interactions, - animal production systems, - traditional knowledge in sustainable agriculture, - research, education and extension in sustainable agriculture...

  19. Características químicas determinan la capacidad micotrófica arbuscular de suelos agrícolas y prístinos de Buenos Aires (Argentina Chemical characteristics as determinants of arbuscular mycotrophic ability of agricultural and pristine soils from Buenos Aires (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Covacevich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Los suelos de la provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina presentan muy buenas características físicas y químicas para la producción agrícola, así como elevada diversidad microbiana. Sin embargo, la continua explotación agrícola del suelo, con permanente extracción de nutrientes, aceleró su degradación, afectó su fertilidad natural y las poblaciones microbianas po-tencialmente benéficas como los hongos formadores de micorrizas arbusculares (HMA, aspecto que ha sido poco explorado. El objetivo de este trabajo es identificar cambios en el contenido de nutrientes en suelos sometidos a manejos agrícolas contrastantes que podrían incidir en la capacidad micotrófica de los HMA. Se tomaron muestras de suelo de 29 sitios de la provincia de Buenos Aires bajo manejo agrícola, o sin uso (prístino. Se determinaron las características químicas (CIC, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, B, P-Bray, CO y pH, así como el grado de micorrización nativa, luego de 12 semanas desde la instalación de cultivos trampa. Los valores de las características químicas fueron, en general, mayores para los sitios prístinos que para los que estuvieron bajo agricultura. Sin embargo, la intensidad de micorrización no fue significativamente diferente en relación al manejo del suelo. El análisis de componentes principales permitió agrupar por una parte los sitios que se encontraban bajo agricultura y por otra parte los sitios prístinos. El contenido de P disponible en el suelo, juntamente con el contenido de Fe parecerían ser los principales depresores de la capacidad micotrófica de los suelos analizados, particularmente en condiciones de moderado a bajo contenido de Carbono Orgánico.The soils of Buenos Aires Province (Argentina have very good physical and chemical properties for agricultural production, and also a high microbial diversity. However, the continuous cropping of agricultural soils with a high nutrient removal rate has accelerated its degradation. Consequently

  20. China agricultural outlook for 2015-2024 based on China Agricultural Monitoring and Early-warning System (CAMES)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shi-wei; LI Gan-qiong; LI Zhe-min

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal of Chinese agricultural development is to guarantee national food security and supply of major agricultural products. Hence, the scientiifc work on agricultural monitoring and early warning as wel as agricultural outlook must be strengthened. In this study, we develop the China Agricultural Monitoring and Early-warning System (CAMES) on the basis of a comparative study of domestic and international agricultural outlook models. The system is a dynamic and multi-market partial equilibrium model that integrates biological mechanisms with economic mechanisms. This system, which includes 11 categories of 953 kinds of agricultural products, could dynamical y project agricultural market supply and demand, assess food security, and conduct scenario analysis at different spatial levels, time scale levels, and macro-micro levels. Based on the CAMES, the production, consumption, and trade of the major agricultural products in China over the next decade are projected. The fol owing conclusions are drawn:i) The production of major agricultural products wil continue to grow steadily, mainly because of the increase in yield. i ) The growth of agricultural consumption wil be slightly higher than that of agricultural production. Meanwhile, a high self-sufifciency rate is expected for cereals such as rice, wheat, and maize, with the rate being stable at around 97%. i i) Agricultural trade wil continue to thrive. The growth of soybean and milk im-ports wil slow down, but the growth of traditional agricultural exports such as vegetables and fruits is expected to continue.

  1. Research on Correlation between Farmer’s Agricultural Income and Agricultural Output in China Based on Dynamic Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,we study the decision mechanism of prices of agricultural products and output of agricultural products,and establish simultaneous equation model between farmers’ agricultural income and the total output of agricultural products,to analyse the dynamic relationship between the two.The results show that farmers’ agricultural income affects output of agricultural products via price,and is also affected by output of agricultural products;the output of agricultural products is determined by the prices of agricultural products in the previous period,and if the prices of agricultural products in the previous period rise,then the total output of agricultural products in the current period increases;the prices of agricultural products are affected by output of agricultural products and urban and rural residents’ income,the urban residents’ income having greater impact;the supply elasticity of agricultural products is greater than demand elasticity,therefore,the balance between price and output can not regress after being breached,needing the government to conduct macro-control.

  2. China agricultural outlook for 2015-2024 based on China Agricultural Monitoring and Early-warning System (CAMES)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shi-wei[1,2,3; LI Gan-qiong[1,2,3; LI Zhe-min[1,2,3

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal of Chinese agricultural development is to guarantee national food security and supply of major agricultural products. Hence, the scientific work on agricultural monitoring and early warning as well as agricultural outlook must be strengthened. In this study, we develop the China Agricultural Monitoring and Early-warning System (CAMES) on the basis of a comparative study of domestic and international agricultural outlook models. The system is a dynamic and multi-market partial equilibrium model that integrates biological mechanisms with economic mechanisms. This system, which includes 11 categories of 953 kinds of agricultural products, could dynamically project agricultural market supply and demand, assess food security, and conduct scenario analysis at different spatial levels, time scale levels, and macro-micro levels. Based on the CAMES, the production, consumption, and trade of the major agricultural products in China over the next decade are projected. The following conclusions are drawn: i) The production of major agricultural products will continue to grow steadily, mainly because of the increase in yield, ii) The growth of agricultural consumption will be slightly higher than that of agricultural production. Meanwhile, a high self-sufficiency rate is expected for cereals such as rice, wheat, and maize, with the rate being stable at around 97%. iii) Agricultural trade will continue to thrive. The growth of soybean and milk im- ports will slow down, but the growth of traditional agricultural exports such as vegetables and fruits is expected to continue.

  3. Topical Hazard Evaluation Program of Candidate Insect Repellents AI3-38352a, AI3-38354a, AI3-38355a, US Department of Agriculture Proprietary Chemicals, May 1982 - November 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    irrita- chemical and of 10% (wv) A13-38357a, AI3-38360a, tion reaction under Oil of Bergamot (positive and Ar3-38361a did test conditions and control...caused a greater Irritant positive control (Oil of effect than In un- Bergamot ) and diluent were Irradiated skin areas. applied to additional skin

  4. Scoping Agriculture, Wetland Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture is identified as the main cause of wetland degradation and loss. Using a drivers, pressures, state changes, impacts and responses (DPSIR) framework to analyze 90 cases drawn from all parts of the world and all wetland types, this report assesses the character of agriculture - wetlands interactions (AWIs) and their impacts in socio-economic and ecosystem services terms. The report is a technical framework that is used to scope out the relevance and nature of AWIs, identify response...

  5. Chemical Control of Plant Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural Research Center (USDA), Beltsville, MD.

    Seven experiments are presented in this Science Study Aid to help students investigate the control of plant growth with chemicals. Plant growth regulators, weed control, and chemical pruning are the topics studied in the experiments which are based on investigations that have been and are being conducted at the U. S. Agricultural Research Center,…

  6. Options for enhancing agricultural productivity in Nigeria:

    OpenAIRE

    Nkonya, Ephraim; Pender, John L., ed.; Kato, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Since 2003, economic growth in Nigeria has been strong. Annual GDP grew by 9.1 percent per annum between 2003 and 2005 and by 6 .1 percent per annum between 2006 and 2008. Much of this growth can be attributed to the non-oil economy which has grown rapidly. This is due primarily to agriculture, which contributes approximately 35 percent to total GDP and supports 70 percent of the population. Agricultural research has been shown to be crucial in increasing agricultural productivity and reducin...

  7. Agricultural and Rural Informatization Construction in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao; ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    Currently,faced with the rapid development of information technology and increasing competition of the global economy,many countries have been very concerned about the issues of informatization concerning agriculture and rural areas. The level of informatization in the developed countries has been universally high,and some developing countries are also highly concerned about how to actively promote the rural market information service. With the increasing level of China’s economic development,agriculture and rural economy have placed a growing demand on informatization. From the overall perspective of agricultural and rural informatization,this paper gives a detailed analysis of current situation,goals,tasks and constraints about agricultural and rural informatization construction,and finally makes the corresponding recommendations.

  8. Competitiveness of Romanian Agriculture after EU Accession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela NECULITA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to determine whether after joining European Union, Romanian agriculture became more competitiveness on Unique Market. Romania need significant financial help to solve various structural problems, one of the main problems being the low competitiveness in attracting European funds. Taking all the aspects into consideration, this paper trying to develop an objective analysis of the current state of Romanian agriculture competitiveness, by means of pertinent data and statistics. Competitiveness increase, not only in agriculture, has become a primordial framework of the economic development strategies of most world countries. Agriculture can be an important asset for Romania, in the battle to become more competitive to the European level. Romania should win the market share and increase its exports to the EU market. According to European officials, Romania should find gaps on an already competitive market or to become competitive on new markets.

  9. A high-throughput chemical screen reveals that harmine-mediated inhibition of DYRK1A increases human pancreatic beta cell replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Alvarez-Perez, Juan-Carlos; Felsenfeld, Dan P; Liu, Hongtao; Sivendran, Sharmila; Bender, Aaron; Kumar, Anil; Sanchez, Roberto; Scott, Donald K; Garcia-Ocaña, Adolfo; Stewart, Andrew F

    2015-04-01

    Types 1 and 2 diabetes affect some 380 million people worldwide. Both ultimately result from a deficiency of functional pancreatic insulin-producing beta cells. Beta cells proliferate in humans during a brief temporal window beginning around the time of birth, with a peak percentage (∼2%) engaged in the cell cycle in the first year of life. In embryonic life and after early childhood, beta cell replication is barely detectable. Whereas beta cell expansion seems an obvious therapeutic approach to beta cell deficiency, adult human beta cells have proven recalcitrant to such efforts. Hence, there remains an urgent need for antidiabetic therapeutic agents that can induce regeneration and expansion of adult human beta cells in vivo or ex vivo. Here, using a high-throughput small-molecule screen (HTS), we find that analogs of the small molecule harmine function as a new class of human beta cell mitogenic compounds. We also define dual-specificity tyrosine-regulated kinase-1a (DYRK1A) as the likely target of harmine and the nuclear factors of activated T cells (NFAT) family of transcription factors as likely mediators of human beta cell proliferation and differentiation. Using three different mouse and human islet in vivo-based models, we show that harmine is able to induce beta cell proliferation, increase islet mass and improve glycemic control. These observations suggest that harmine analogs may have unique therapeutic promise for human diabetes therapy. Enhancing the potency and beta cell specificity of these compounds are important future challenges.

  10. Increasing the Biological Stability Profile of a New Chemical Entity, UPEI-104, and Potential Use as a Neuroprotectant Against Reperfusion-Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek M. Saleh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous work in our laboratory demonstrated the utility of synthetic combinations of two naturally occurring, biologically active compounds. In particular, we combined two known anti-oxidant compounds, lipoic acid and apocynin, covalently linked via an ester bond (named UPEI-100. In an animal model of ischemia-reperfusion injury (tMCAO, UPEI-100 was shown to produce equivalent neuroprotection compared to each parent compound, but at a 100-fold lower dose. However, it was determined that UPEI-100 was undetectable in any tissue samples almost immediately following intravenous injection. Therefore, the present investigation was done to determine if biological stability of UPEI-100 could be improved by replacing the ester bond with a more bio cleavage-resistant bond, an ether bond (named UPEI-104. We then compared the stability of UPEI-104 to the original parent compound UPEI-100 in human plasma as well as liver microsomes. Our results demonstrated that both UPEI-100 and UPEI-104 could be detected in human plasma for over 120 min; however, only UPEI-104 was detectable for an average of 7 min following incubation with human liver microsomes. This increased stability did not affect the biological activity of UPEI-104 as measured using our tMCAO model. Our results suggest that combining compounds using an ether bond can improve stability while maintaining biological activity.

  11. Environmental behavior and analysis of agricultural sulfur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Corey M; Woodrow, James E; Seiber, James N

    2015-11-01

    Sulfur has been widely used for centuries as a staple for pest and disease management in agriculture. Presently, it is the largest-volume pesticide in use worldwide. This review describes the sources and recovery methods for sulfur, its allotropic forms and properties and its agricultural uses, including development and potential advantages of nanosulfur as a fungicide. Chemical and microbial reactivity, interactions in soil and water and analytical methods for determination in environmental samples and foodstuffs, including inexpensive analytical methods for sulfur residues in wine, beer and other food/beverage substrates, will be reviewed. The toxicology of sulfur towards humans and agriculturally important fungi is included, with some restrictions on use to promote safety. The review concludes with areas for which more research is warranted.

  12. Fuel gas production from animal and agricultural residues and biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, D. L; Wentworth, R. L

    1978-05-30

    Progress was reported by all contractors. Topics presented include: solid waste to methane gas; pipeline fuel gas from an environmental cattle feed lot; heat treatment of organics for increasing anaerobic biodegradability; promoting faster anaerobic digestion; permselective membrane control of algae and wood digesters for increased production and chemicals recovery; anaerobic fermentation of agricultural residues; pilot plant demonstration of an anaerobic, fixed-film bioreactor for wastewater treatment; enhancement of methane production in the anaerobic diegestion of sewage; evaluation of agitation concepts for biogasification of sewage sludge; operation of a 50,000 gallon anaerobic digester; biological conversion of biomass to methane; dirt feedlot residue experiments; anaerobic fermentation of livestock and crop residues; current research on methanogenesis in Europe; and summary of EPA programs in digestion technology. (DC)

  13. Biodiversity management of organic farming enhances agricultural sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haitao; Meng, Jie; Bo, Wenjing; Cheng, Da; Li, Yong; Guo, Liyue; Li, Caihong; Zheng, Yanhai; Liu, Meizhen; Ning, Tangyuan; Wu, Guanglei; Yu, Xiaofan; Feng, Sufei; Wuyun, Tana; Li, Jing; Li, Lijun; Zeng, Yan; Liu, Shi V; Jiang, Gaoming

    2016-04-01

    Organic farming (OF) has been believed to be capable of curtailing some hazardous effects associated with chemical farming (CF). However, debates also exist on whether OF can feed a world with increasing human population. We hypothesized that some improvements on OF may produce adequate crops and reduce environmental pollutions from CF. This paper makes comparative analysis of crop yield, soil organic matter and economic benefits within the practice on Biodiversity Management of Organic Farming (BMOF) at Hongyi Organic Farm (HOF) over eight years and between BMOF and CF. Linking crop production with livestock to maximal uses of by-products from each production and avoid xenobiotic chemicals, we have achieved beneficial improvement in soil properties, effective pest and weed control, and increased crop yields. After eight years experiment, we have obtained a gradual but stable increase in crop yields with a 9.6-fold increase of net income. The net income of HOF was 258,827 dollars and 24,423 dollars in 2014 and 2007 respectively. Thus, BMOF can not only feed more population, but also increase adaptive capacity of agriculture ecosystems and gain much higher economic benefits.

  14. Biodiversity management of organic farming enhances agricultural sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haitao; Meng, Jie; Bo, Wenjing; Cheng, Da; Li, Yong; Guo, Liyue; Li, Caihong; Zheng, Yanhai; Liu, Meizhen; Ning, Tangyuan; Wu, Guanglei; Yu, Xiaofan; Feng, Sufei; Wuyun, Tana; Li, Jing; Li, Lijun; Zeng, Yan; Liu, Shi V.; Jiang, Gaoming

    2016-04-01

    Organic farming (OF) has been believed to be capable of curtailing some hazardous effects associated with chemical farming (CF). However, debates also exist on whether OF can feed a world with increasing human population. We hypothesized that some improvements on OF may produce adequate crops and reduce environmental pollutions from CF. This paper makes comparative analysis of crop yield, soil organic matter and economic benefits within the practice on Biodiversity Management of Organic Farming (BMOF) at Hongyi Organic Farm (HOF) over eight years and between BMOF and CF. Linking crop production with livestock to maximal uses of by-products from each production and avoid xenobiotic chemicals, we have achieved beneficial improvement in soil properties, effective pest and weed control, and increased crop yields. After eight years experiment, we have obtained a gradual but stable increase in crop yields with a 9.6-fold increase of net income. The net income of HOF was 258,827 dollars and 24,423 dollars in 2014 and 2007 respectively. Thus, BMOF can not only feed more population, but also increase adaptive capacity of agriculture ecosystems and gain much higher economic benefits.

  15. Effects of irrigation efficiency on chemical transport processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Irrigation practices greatly affect sustainable agriculture development. In this study, we investigated the effects of irrigation efficiency on water flow and chemical transport in soils, which had significant impact on the environment. Field dye staining experiments were conducted at different soils with various irrigation amount. Image analysis was conducted to study the heterogeneous flow patterns and their relationships with the irrigation efficiency. Irrigation efficiency and its environmental effects were evaluated using various indictors, including application efficiency, deep percolation ratio, storage efficiency, and uniformity. Under the same irrigation condition, soil chemical distributions were more heterogeneous than soil water distributions. The distributions were mainly affected by soil texture, initial soil water content, and irrigation amount. Storage efficiency, irrigation uniformity, and deep percolation ratio increased with irrigation amount. Since the chemical distribution uniformity was lower than the water uniformity, the amount of chemical leaching increased sharply with decrease of irrigation uniformity, which resulted in high environmental risks of groundwater pollution.

  16. Plant uptake of non-ionic organic chemicals from soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, J.A.; Bell, R.M.; Davidson, J.M.; O' Connor, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    There are over 200 industrial waste land treatment sites in the United States, and a larger number of land treatment sites for municipal wastewater and sludge. Land disposal of wastes has increased during the past decade and is projected to continue to increase in the future. The study of organic chemicals in the soil environment has been dominated by agricultural chemicals (e.g., insecticides, nematicides and herbicides) and specific compounds that persist in the soil (e.g., PCB's, PBB's etc.). Therefore the document discusses methodologies utilizing simple properties of chemicals - half-life (T(sub 1/2)), log octanolwater partition coefficient (log K(sub ow)) and Henry's Law constant (Hc) - are developed to screen organic chemicals for potential plant uptake.

  17. Factors Influencing Price of Agricultural Products and Stability Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Factors leading to rise of prices of agricultural products mainly include tension of supply-demand relationship,promotion of production cost and circulation cost,and speculation of Refugee Capital(Hot Money).Factors leading to low price and difficult sales of agricultural products mainly include asymmetry of supply-demand information,lack of risk management tools for prices of agricultural products and decentralized and small-scaled operation of farmers.On the basis of these factors,this paper presents following countermeasures and suggestions for stabilizing prices of agricultural products:firstly,building long-effect mechanism for production and sales of agricultural products;secondly,expand the production and increase supply of agricultural products;thirdly,control the rising range of production cost for agricultural products;fourthly,enhance organization level of farmers;fifthly,promote innovation and development of risk management tools for prices of agricultural products.

  18. The Agricultural Export Competitiveness and Independent Innovation in Liaoning Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guimin; WANG; Haixian; XIA

    2013-01-01

    Through the vertical and horizontal analysis of agricultural export data in Liaoning Province during the period 2006-2010,we can find that Liaoning Province has already a major exporter of agricultural products,but there is no significant increase in many indicators with great fluctuation or declining trend. Meanwhile,compared with other provinces,the competitive advantages of agricultural export in Liaoning Province are not obvious,lacking competitive potential. Analysis shows that it is a strenuous task for Liaoning Province to transform from a major exporter of agricultural products to strong export province; during the course,relying on independent innovation is the fundamental guarantee. Liaoning Province should rely on independent innovation,to create new agricultural varieties,lead the international standards of agricultural products,form the brand agriculture,and improve the agricultural industry chain.

  19. Contrastive Research on Domestic and Foreign Ecological Agriculture Policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In the first place,the definitions of ecological agriculture defined by scholars both at home and abroad are introduced.In the second place,the domestic and foreign ecological agriculture policies are expounded.Through contrastive research on the domestic and foreign ecological agriculture polices,the problems in the development of ecological agriculture in China are found.By mirroring the western experiences in developing ecological agriculture,the countermeasures and relevant suggestions are put forward from the perspective of government.The first one is to increase the subsidies from the government to ecological agriculture.The second one is to clarify the standard of ecological agriculture construction.The third one is to promote the industrialization of ecological agriculture.The fourth one is to strengthen the construction of ecological demonstration region and ecological village.

  20. Global Impacts of European Agricultural and Biofuel Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Gerdien Prins

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Food supply and food distribution have been and are important issues in the global political arena. The recent emergence of biofuel policies has increased the influence of the policy arena on agricultural production. In this paper we show the regional impact of changes in the European Common Agricultural Policy and biofuel policy. Shifting trade patterns, changes in agricultural production, and expansion of agricultural area or intensification of agriculture result in changes in land use and land use emissions. Higher prices for agricultural crops on the world market together with changing production raise agricultural income. Brazil is the region the most affected. The results show that arrangements or policies will be needed to avoid negative impacts in other regions of changing agricultural or biofuel policies in the European Union.

  1. A Study of the Development of Agricultural Mechanization in Kunming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wangyun; NING; Yulan; KUANG; Yonghua; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Kunming City has entered the rapid development stage of urbanization. In the course of building the urban modern agriculture, the agricultural mechanization of Kunming City is being faced with excellent development opportunity. In this paper, the author scientifically analyzed current development situations of agricultural mechanization in Kunming City and explored existing problems in the course of development. On the basis of analysis, the author put forward recommendations, including increasing scientific research input for agricultural machinery, supporting agricultural machinery enterprises, promoting scientific and technical innovation, taking characteristic industries (such as flowers and vegetables) as pillar industry, speeding up development of modern facility agriculture, and upgrading primary processing of agricultural products. These will play significant role in the development of agricultural mechanization in Kunming City.

  2. Otters Increasing - Threats Increasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kranz

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available In some parts of Central Europe populations of otters are apparently increasing. Until recently, no research was being conducted on the ecology of otters in mainly artificial habitats like fish farms. Otters are not only a new source of conflict requiring species management, but appear once again threatened by illegal hunting. Austria is dealing with this problem using compensation for otter damage, electric fencing and translocation of problem otters. Despite a rise in illegal killing, Austria does not formally recognise this as a threat.

  3. Groundwater head controls nitrate export from an agricultural lowland catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musolff, Andreas; Schmidt, Christian; Rode, Michael; Lischeid, Gunnar; Weise, Stephan M.; Fleckenstein, Jan H.

    2016-10-01

    Solute concentration variability is of fundamental importance for the chemical and ecological state of streams. It is often closely related to discharge variability and can be characterized in terms of a solute export regime. Previous studies, especially in lowland catchments, report that nitrate is often exported with an accretion pattern of increasing concentrations with increasing discharge. Several modeling approaches exist to predict the export regime of solutes from the spatial relationship of discharge generating zones with solute availability in the catchment. For a small agriculturally managed lowland catchment in central Germany, we show that this relationship is controlled by the depth to groundwater table and its temporal dynamics. Principal component analysis of groundwater level time series from wells distributed throughout the catchment allowed derivation of a representative groundwater level time series that explained most of the discharge variability. Groundwater sampling revealed consistently decreasing nitrate concentrations with an increasing thickness of the unsaturated zone. The relationships of depth to groundwater table to discharge and to nitrate concentration were parameterized and integrated to successfully model catchment discharge and nitrate export on the basis of groundwater level variations alone. This study shows that intensive and uniform agricultural land use likely results in a clear and consistent concentration-depth relationship of nitrate, which can be utilized in simple approaches to predict stream nitrate export dynamics at the catchment scale.

  4. Chemistry of subsurface drain discharge from an agricultural polder soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesterberg, D.; Vos, de B.; Raats, P.A.C.

    2006-01-01

    Protecting groundwater and surface water quality in drained agricultural lands is aided by an understanding of soil physical and chemical processes affecting leaching of plant nutrients and other chemical constituents, and discharge from subsurface drains. Our objectives were to determine which chem

  5. An improved model for estimating pesticide emissions for agricultural LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkman, Teunis Johannes; Birkved, Morten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2011-01-01

    Credible quantification of chemical emissions in the inventory phase of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is crucial since chemicals are the dominating cause of the human and ecotoxicity-related environmental impacts in Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA). When applying LCA for assessment of agricultural...

  6. Climate change and agricultural transformation in the Oaxaca Valley, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilley, F.B.

    1993-01-01

    The Valley of Oaxaca, a semi-arid region in the central highlands of southern Mexico, provides a case study through which to develop a methodology for climate change impact assessment. The causes and impacts of climate change originate in dialectic processes within a nexus of inter-dependent social, technical, environmental, cultural and academic production relations. Agriculture is the most important economic activity in the Valley, and rain-fed maize the most important crop. Harvest failures from droughts occur one year in four. Annual rainfall varies with large-scale convection of water vapor transported from the Pacific and Gulf of Mexico during summer, upper-air disturbances caused by hurricanes and El Ninos. Variations in maize yields and losses have roughly moisture availability during August. Yields and losses can be predicted using precipitation during this time, or directly from atmospheric circulation. Contemporary agriculture in the Valley of Oaxaca has both traditional and modern sectors, of which both may appear within individual communities and households. The traditional sector consists of semi-autonomous rural communities using traditional technology for subsistence farming. The modern sector uses tractors, irrigation pumps, agricultural chemicals and hybrid seeds to produce cash crops and dairy products. The evidence for climate change in the Valley is ambiguous and contradictory. Under wet or dry scenarios, climate change affects the rate and pathway of the absorption of Oaxaca's traditional rural communities into the wage labor market of the larger capitalist system. Increased moisture availability would raise land productivity, promoting cash cropping and development of the modern market-oriented agricultural sector and leading to land consolidation and rural-to-urban migration. Decreased moisture availability would inhibit cash-cropping but also lead to rural-to-urban migration due to decreased land productivity.

  7. Analyzing Agricultural Agglomeration in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available There has been little scholarly research on Chinese agriculture’s geographic pattern of agglomeration and its evolutionary mechanisms, which are essential to sustainable development in China. By calculating the barycenter coordinates, the Gini coefficient, spatial autocorrelation and specialization indices for 11 crops during 1981–2012, we analyze the evolutionary pattern and mechanisms of agricultural agglomeration. We argue that the degree of spatial concentration of Chinese planting has been gradually increasing and that regional specialization and diversification have progressively been strengthened. Furthermore, Chinese crop production is moving from the eastern provinces to the central and western provinces. This is in contrast to Chinese manufacturing growth which has continued to be concentrated in the coastal and southeastern regions. In Northeast China, the Sanjiang and Songnen plains have become agricultural clustering regions, and the earlier domination of aquaculture and rice production in Southeast China has gradually decreased. In summary, this paper provides a political economy framework for understanding the regionalization of Chinese agriculture, focusing on the interaction among the objectives, decisionmaking behavior, path dependencies and spatial effects.

  8. Challenges for chemical sciences in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čeković Živorad

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemistry and chemical engineering have changed very significantly in the last half century. From classical sciences they have broadened their scope into biology, medicine, physics, material science, nanotechnology, computation and advanced methods of process engineering and control. The applications of chemical compounds, materials and knowledge have also dramatically increased. The development of chemical sciences in the scientifically most advanced countries, at the end of the last century was extrapolated to the next several decades in this review and challenges for chemists and chemical engineers are described. Research, discovery and invention across the entire spectrum of activities in the chemical sciences, from fundamental molecular-level chemistry to large-scale chemical processing technology are summarized. The strong integration of chemical science and engineering into all other natural sciences, agriculture, environmental science, medicine, as well as into physics, material science and information technology is discussed. Some challenges for chemists and chemical engineers are reviewed in the following fields: i synthesis and manufacturing of chemical products, ii chemistry for medicine and biology, iii new materials, iv chemical and physical transformations of materials, v chemistry in the solving of energy problems (generation and savings, vi environmental chemistry: fundamental and practical challenges.

  9. Effect of Agricultural Practices on Hydrology and Water Chemistry in a Small Irrigated Catchment, Yakima River Basin, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Kathleen A.; Johnson, Henry M.

    2009-01-01

    The role of irrigation and artificial drainage in the hydrologic cycle and the transport of solutes in a small agricultural catchment in central Washington's Yakima Valley were explored using hydrologic, chemical, isotopic, age-dating, and mineralogical data from several environmental compartments, including stream water, ground water, overland flow, and streambed pore water. A conceptual understanding of catchment hydrology and solute transport was developed and an inverse end-member mixing analysis was used to further explore the effects of agriculture in this small catchment. The median concentrations of major solutes and nitrates were similar for the single field site and for the catchment outflow site, indicating that the net effects of transport processes for these constituents were similar at both scales. However, concentrations of nutrients were different at the two sites, suggesting that field-scale variations in agricultural practices as well as nearstream and instream biochemical processes are important components of agricultural chemical transformation and transport in this catchment. This work indicates that irrigation coupled with artificial drainage networks may exacerbate the ecological effects of agricultural runoff by increasing direct connectivity between fields and streams and minimizing potentially mitigating effects (denitrification and dilution, for example) of longer subsurface pathways.

  10. Human Nutrition Research Conducted at State Agricultural Experiment Stations and 1890/Tuskegee Agricultural Research Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driskell, Judy A.; Myers, John R.

    1989-01-01

    Cooperative State Research Service-administered and state-appropriated State Agriculture Experiment Station funds for human nutrition research increased about two-fold from FY70-FY86, while the percentage of budget expended for this research decreased. (JOW)

  11. Changes in agricultural carbon emissions and factors that influence agricultural carbon emissions based on different stages in Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Chuanhe; Yang, Degang; Xia, Fuqiang; Huo, Jinwei

    2016-11-01

    Xinjiang’s agricultural carbon emissions showed three stages of change, i.e., continued to rise, declined and continued to rise, during 1991–2014. The agriculture belonged to the “low emissions and high efficiency” agriculture category, with a lower agricultural carbon emission intensity. By using the logarithmic mean divisia index decomposition method, agricultural carbon emissions were decomposed into an efficiency factor, a structure factor, an economy factor, and a labour factor. We divided the study period into five stages based on the changes in efficiency factor and economy factor. Xinjiang showed different agricultural carbon emission characteristics at different stages. The degree of impact on agricultural carbon emissions at these stages depended on the combined effect of planting-animal husbandry carbon intensity and agricultural labour productivity. The economy factor was the critical factor to promote the increase in agricultural carbon emissions, while the main inhibiting factor for agricultural carbon emissions was the efficiency factor. The labour factor became more and more obvious in increasing agricultural carbon emissions. Finally, we discuss policy recommendations in terms of the main factors, including the development of agricultural science and technology (S&T), the establishment of three major mechanisms and transfer of rural labour in ethnic areas.

  12. Urban Agriculture Program Planning Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemp, Paul E.; Ethridge, Jim

    Urban agriculture may be defined as those areas of agriculture that are practiced in metropolitan settings, plus knowledge and skills in agricultural subject areas which lead to vocational proficiency and improved quality of life or effective citizenship. Agriculture areas that are especially significant in urban settings include ornamental…

  13. [Musculoskeletal disorders in agriculture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Christophe; Tourne, Mathias

    2007-06-15

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are a major area of concern in the occupational world. The agricultural industry is particularly affected: 93 percent of occupational diseases in agriculture are MSD. Carpal tunnel syndrome occurs in one third of the cases. Shoulder is the second most common location. The most affected occupational areas are meat production, viticulture, market gardening, horticulture and small animal farming. This MSD phenomenon, of multifactorial origin, which has been amplifying for two decades, has led to some consensus in terms of definition and prevention strategy. The aim is to identify, limit or even suppress risk factors through worker training as well as through actions related to work organization. Regarding occupational health and safety in agriculture, two fronts of progress have been mentioned: the creation of a statistic observatory of MSD (disease, occupational area and cost) and the assessment of prevention activities. Finally, a new issue is being discussed: sustainable prevention of MSD.

  14. Data mining in agriculture

    CERN Document Server

    Mucherino, Antonio; Pardalos, Panos M

    2009-01-01

    Data Mining in Agriculture represents a comprehensive effort to provide graduate students and researchers with an analytical text on data mining techniques applied to agriculture and environmental related fields. This book presents both theoretical and practical insights with a focus on presenting the context of each data mining technique rather intuitively with ample concrete examples represented graphically and with algorithms written in MATLAB®. Examples and exercises with solutions are provided at the end of each chapter to facilitate the comprehension of the material. For each data mining technique described in the book variants and improvements of the basic algorithm are also given. Also by P.J. Papajorgji and P.M. Pardalos: Advances in Modeling Agricultural Systems, 'Springer Optimization and its Applications' vol. 25, ©2009.

  15. Contribution of Agricultural Input to Output in Hohhot City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tinghe; DENG; Jie; TIAN

    2013-01-01

    Based on the research data from the economics and management platform of Inner Mongolia Agricultural University,we analyze the changes in the input of agricultural production factors,such as farmland,labor and capital in Hohhot City. Based on the principle of econometrics,we select the agricultural production input-output data in Hohhot City during the period 1992-2010,and establish the econometric model using Cobb-Douglas production factor,to estimate the rate of contribution of agricultural input to the growth of agricultural output value,and study the quantitative relations between agricultural input and agricultural output value. The results show that in Hohhot City,the contribution of chemical fertilizer input to the growth of agricultural output value is the greatest; the contribution of mechanical power to agricultural output value is still not brought into full play; the contribution of remaining production inputs ( including technical progress) accounts for 35. 69% . In the future,Hohhot City should pay more attention to the technical input to develop agriculture.

  16. Assessment of the agricultural sustainability of Shaanxi Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Qian; Zhao Xueping

    2007-01-01

    It is significant for the study on the sustainable development of regional agriculture to monitor and measure the trend of agricultural development with an effective method. The sustainable development of regional agriculture should accord with regional population, rural economic development, social progress, resource and environmental support. This paper establishes the evaluating indicators system of sustainable development of regional agriculture,evaluates the agricultural sustainable development in Shaanxi Province with a comprehensive multi-indicator method,analyzes the support of resource and environment for regional agriculture by the resource-development index and the environment-development index, and gets the conclusion that the indicators, such as education level, the income gap between urban and rural residents, the per capita area under cultivation and the consumption of pesticides and chemical fertilizers per hectare, are the main factors to restrict agricultural sustainability, and that the pressure of the development of subsystems of population, economy and society on the subsystems of resource and environment turns out to be stronger and stronger. Agricultural environment gets better, but resource becomes one of the important factors to restrict the development of regional agriculture. In a word, this paper highlights the potentials and limitations of sustainable agriculture of Shaanxi and helps identify the development direction in the future.

  17. Correlation Analysis between Rural Tourism and Agricultural Food Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Song

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rural tourism has much economic benefits, the development of rural tourism can fully utilize rural natural resources, optimizing the agricultural structure and expanding agricultural function. In this study, we make correlation analysis between rural tourism and agricultural food marketing by using time series model. The result shows that: First, rural tourism development will promote the agricultural food marketing in short time, but this effect will reduce gradually in the long time. Second, rural tourism is the granger reason to agricultural food marketing and there exist a long-term equilibrium relationship between them. From the VAR model, we can get that rural tourism will promote agricultural food marketing growth. LnRT at lag 1 period increased 1% can drive LnFPI growth by 0.48%; LnRT at lag 2 period increased 1% can drive LnFPI growth by 0.2%, so the effect of rural tourism on agricultural food marketing is obvious.

  18. Agricultural utilization of sewage sludge: effect on the chemical and physical properties of soils and on the productivity and recovery of degraded areas/ Uso agrícola do lodo de esgoto: influência nas propriedades químicas e físicas do solo, produtividade e recuperação de áreas degradadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Tavares Filho

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is an overview of the agricultural recycling of sewage sludge and its impact on the chemical and physical properties of soils and on the productivity and recovery of degraded areas. Sewage sludge contains some of the essential plant nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorous, and micronutrients; it also has variable humidity content and is rich in organic matter. Sewage sludge also acts as a soil conditioner, improving soil structure and aggregation, thus decreasing density and increasing aeration of soils.Sewage sludge can complement other crop fertilization techniques by reducing the use of chemical fertilizers and fertilization costs as it increases nutrient availability in soils. As a result, the sludge can enhance plant development and productivity. Sludge application in degraded areas leads to a rapid growth of gramineous and leguminous plants. Plants growing in sludge-applied areas tend to be more vigorous and to cover larger areas (percentage; they also tend to have higher productivity and a better development of the root system. Soil recovery by liming and mineral fertilization can also lead to vegetation regrowth; however, the poor physical and biological soil conditions can deteriorate the cover plants before the soil is actually recovered. Sewage sludge must be processed before being used and cannot be applied directly to agricultural or forested land until biological treatments reduce the sludge organic content and promote organic matter stabilization. In the State of Paraná, Brazil, the direct application of sewage sludge on horticultural and other products that are ingested raw, is not recommended. Sludge fertilization is recommended for corn, wheat, sugarcane, sorghum, fruitiferous plants, and for forest plant species used to recover degraded areas. State regulations determine the levels of heavy metals allowed in the sludge and the maximum dosage of 50 ton biosolid matter/ha, for a 10-year period.Objetivou-se com esta revis

  19. Agricultural risk management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mogens; Oksen, Arne; Larsen, Torben U.;

    2005-01-01

    A new model for risk management in agriculture is described in the paper. The risk model is constructed as a context dependent process, which includes four main phases. The model is aimed at agricultural advisors, who wish to facilitate and disseminate risk management to farmers. It is developed...... and tested by an action research approach in an attempt to make risk management more applicable on family farms. Our obtained experiences indicate that farmers don’t apply probabilistic thinking and other concepts according to formal decision theory....

  20. Measuring Agricultural Bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn

    . For the 15 sample countries, the results indicate that the agricultural price incentive bias, which was generally perceived to exist during the 1980s, was largely eliminated during the 1990s. The results also demonstrate that general equilibrium effects and country-specific characteristics - including trade...... shares and intersectoral linkages - are crucial for determining the sign and magnitude of trade policy bias. The GE-ERP measure is therefore uniquely suited to capture the full impact of trade policies on agricultural price incentives. A Monte Carlo procedure confirms that the results are robust...

  1. Agricultural sustainability: concepts, principles and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretty, Jules

    2008-02-12

    Concerns about sustainability in agricultural systems centre on the need to develop technologies and practices that do not have adverse effects on environmental goods and services, are accessible to and effective for farmers, and lead to improvements in food productivity. Despite great progress in agricultural productivity in the past half-century, with crop and livestock productivity strongly driven by increased use of fertilizers, irrigation water, agricultural machinery, pesticides and land, it would be over-optimistic to assume that these relationships will remain linear in the future. New approaches are needed that will integrate biological and ecological processes into food production, minimize the use of those non-renewable inputs that cause harm to the environment or to the health of farmers and consumers, make productive use of the knowledge and skills of farmers, so substituting human capital for costly external inputs, and make productive use of people's collective capacities to work together to solve common agricultural and natural resource problems, such as for pest, watershed, irrigation, forest and credit management. These principles help to build important capital assets for agricultural systems: natural; social; human; physical; and financial capital. Improving natural capital is a central aim, and dividends can come from making the best use of the genotypes of crops and animals and the ecological conditions under which they are grown or raised. Agricultural sustainability suggests a focus on both genotype improvements through the full range of modern biological approaches and improved understanding of the benefits of ecological and agronomic management, manipulation and redesign. The ecological management of agroecosystems that addresses energy flows, nutrient cycling, population-regulating mechanisms and system resilience can lead to the redesign of agriculture at a landscape scale. Sustainable agriculture outcomes can be positive for food

  2. Technologies for climate change adaptation. Agriculture sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, X. (ed.) (UNEP Risoe Centre, Roskilde (Denmark)); Clements, R.; Quezada, A.; Torres, J. (Practical Action Latin America, Lima (Peru)); Haggar, J. (Univ. of Greenwich, London (United Kingdom))

    2011-08-15

    This guidebook presents a selection of technologies for climate change adaptation in the agriculture sector. A set of 22 adaptation technologies are showcased. These are based primarily on the principles of agroecology, but also include scientific technologies of climate and biological sciences complemented by important sociological and institutional capacity building processes that are required for climate change to function. The technologies cover: 1) Planning for climate change and variability. 2) Sustainable water use and management. 3) Soil management. 4) Sustainable crop management. 5) Sustainable livestock management. 6) Sustainable farming systems. 7) Capacity building and stakeholder organisation. Technologies that tend to homogenise the natural environment and agricultural production have low possibilities of success in environmental stress conditions that are likely to result from climate change. On the other hand, technologies that allow for, and promote diversity are more likely to provide a strategy which strengthens agricultural production in the face of uncertain future climate change scenarios. The 22 technologies showcased in this guidebook have been selected because they facilitate the conservation and restoration of diversity while also providing opportunities for increasing agricultural productivity. Many of these technologies are not new to agricultural production practices, but they are implemented based on the assessment of current and possible future impacts of climate change in a particular location. agroecology is an approach that encompasses concepts of sustainable production and biodiversity promotion and therefore provides a useful framework for identifying and selecting appropriate adaptation technologies for the agriculture sector. The guidebook provides a systematic analysis of the most relevant information available on climate change adaptation technologies in the agriculture sector. It has been compiled based on a literature

  3. Agricultural Foods Economic Efficiency Evaluation Based on DEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Ling Guo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of evaluation index system about the efficiency of agricultural product circular economy, this study quantitatively evaluates the efficiency of agricultural food circular economy in 11 districts and cities of Henan Province by DEA analysis. This study shows the efficiency of agricultural food circular economy has obvious differences in Henan Province. Therefore, improving the efficiency of agricultural food circular economy should adapt different measure according to local conditions, increase agricultural scientific and technological input and improve the quality of workers.

  4. Bio agricultural product market in Romania and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona BĂLĂŞESCU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The general objectives of this paper are to obtain an overview of the present market for organic agricultural products in Europe in general, and in Romania in particular. Organic agricultural production represents a small part of Romanian agricultural production and the development potential of organic agricultural production Romania is infinitely greater than what is done today. European consumers know little about the Romanian bio agriculture and even less about the huge potential of this sector. Organic food market is growing both in Europe and in Romania due to the increased interest of consumers to live healthier and improve the quality of life.

  5. Greenhouse gas emissions from Canadian prairie agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellert, B.H.; Janzen, H.H. [Agriculture and Agri-food Canada Research Centre, Lethbridge, AB, (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    There is a close relationship between soil and air quality, on the one hand, and the exchange of greenhouse gases between the earth and atmosphere, on the other. International efforts by people such as soil conservationists and climatologists to control emissions of these gases and negotiations surrounding the Kyoto Protocol have increased the debate regarding the role of agricultural activities. From evaluation of both data available before global change became important and recent research efforts, much information on greenhouse gas emissions from Canadian agriculture has been gained. A summary is included of the contribution of Canadian prairie agriculture to emissions of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane gas. A stress is placed on the subject of the carbon cycle and on how land management practices could influence soil carbon storage capacity. The potential for increasing this carbon storage capacity is described in relation to land use, historical changes in agricultural land, and recent observations on the influence of agricultural parctices, and obstacles to estimating changes in soil carbon dioxide emissions and carbon storage, and extending the estimates to large land areas are examined. Emissions of nitrous oxide and methane gas are considered in relation to the influence of agricultural management practices. (Abstract only)

  6. Agricultural pesticides and precocious puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, Samim; Goksen, Damla; Darcan, Sukran

    2014-01-01

    The onset and course of puberty is under the control of the neuroendocrine system. Factors affecting the regulation of timing and order of this system's functions may alter the onset and course of puberty. Several environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs) with significant influences on the normal course of puberty have been identified. Despite the numerous animal and human studies on EDs that may extensively affect human health, there are still several issues that need to be clarified. This chapter discusses the effects of pesticides, which constitute a significant portion of disruptors and have been increasingly used in agriculture, on precocious puberty.

  7. Agricultural-industrial technological paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Paulo Sergio Graziano; Nogueira, Luiz Augusto Horta; Cantarella, Heitor; Rossetto, Raffaella; Franco, Henrique C. Junqueira; Braunbeck, Oscar

    2012-07-01

    The chapter approaches the identification of relevant parameters, sugarcane planting, soil preparation and compaction, mechanical harvesting, straw recovery, use of residues, soil carbon sequestration, greenhouse gases emission,l other effects, production of coal as an alternative for C storage, use of biofuels (bioethanol and biodiesel) in agriculture and transport of sugarcane, estimation of diesel consumption in the sugarcane industry, scenarios considered for the use of biofuels, modelling the impacts of the adoption of biofuels - fuel consumption and emissions, energy and impact of biofuels use in bioethanol production, impact of adoption of biofuels on emissions in bioethanol production, and increase in the scale (milling capacity) of the sugar and bioethanol mills.

  8. Incorporating a constrained optimization algorithm into remote sensing/precision agriculture methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreenthaler, George W.; Khatib, Nader; Kim, Byoungsoo

    2003-08-01

    For two decades now, the use of Remote Sensing/Precision Agriculture to improve farm yields while reducing the use of polluting chemicals and the limited water supply has been a major goal. With world population growing exponentially, arable land being consumed by urbanization, and an unfavorable farm economy, farm efficiency must increase to meet future food requirements and to make farming a sustainable, profitable occupation. "Precision Agriculture" refers to a farming methodology that applies nutrients and moisture only where and when they are needed in the field. The real goal is to increase farm profitability by identifying the additional treatments of chemicals and water that increase revenues more than they increase costs and do no exceed pollution standards (constrained optimization). Even though the economic and environmental benefits appear to be great, Remote Sensing/Precision Agriculture has not grown as rapidly as early advocates envisioned. Technology for a successful Remote Sensing/Precision Agriculture system is now in place, but other needed factors have been missing. Commercial satellite systems can now image the Earth (multi-spectrally) with a resolution as fine as 2.5 m. Precision variable dispensing systems using GPS are now available and affordable. Crop models that predict yield as a function of soil, chemical, and irrigation parameter levels have been developed. Personal computers and internet access are now in place in most farm homes and can provide a mechanism for periodically disseminating advice on what quantities of water and chemicals are needed in specific regions of each field. Several processes have been selected that fuse the disparate sources of information on the current and historic states of the crop and soil, and the remaining resource levels available, with the critical decisions that farmers are required to make. These are done in a way that is easy for the farmer to understand and profitable to implement. A "Constrained

  9. Antimony bioavailability: knowledge and research perspectives for sustainable agricultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierart, Antoine; Shahid, Muhammad; Séjalon-Delmas, Nathalie; Dumat, Camille

    2015-05-30

    The increasing interest in urban agriculture highlights the crucial question of crop quality. The main objectives for environmental sustainability are a decrease in chemical inputs, a reduction in the level of pollutants, and an improvement in the soil's biological activity. Among inorganic pollutants emitted by vehicle traffic and some industrial processes in urban areas, antimony (Sb) is observed on a global scale. While this metalloid is known to be potentially toxic, it can transfer from the soil or the atmosphere to plants, and accumulate in their edible parts. Urban agriculture is developing worldwide, and could therefore increasingly expose populations to Sb. The objective of this review was in consequences to gather and interpret actual knowledge of Sb uptake and bioaccumulation by crops, to reveal investigative fields on which to focus. While there is still no legal maximal value for Sb in plants and soils, light has to be shed on its accumulation and the factors affecting it. A relative absence of data exists about the role of soil flora and fauna in the transfer, speciation and compartmentation of Sb in vegetables. Moreover, little information exists on Sb ecotoxicity for terrestrial ecosystems. A human risk assessment has finally been reviewed, with particular focus on Sb bioaccessibility.

  10. Nanotechnology in Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    An overview is given of the application of nanotechnology to agriculture. This is an active field of R&D, where a large number of findings and innovations have been reported. For example, in soil management, applications reported include nanofertilizers, soil binders, water retention aids, and nut...

  11. [Vibration on agricultural tractors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretti, Alessandro; Delvecchio, Simone; Bonomini, Francesco; di Bisceglie, Anita Pasqua; Colosio, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    In the article, details related to the diffusion of agricultural tractors in Italy are given and considerations about the effects of vibration on operators, the sources of vibration and suggestions to reduce them are presented. The acceleration values observed in Italy amongst 244 tractors and levels of worker exposure are shown by means of histograms. The relevant data variability is discussed.

  12. USSR Report, Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    evaluation of the phyto- sanitary condition of the fields were not coordinated with the calendar- phenological schedules, some agronomists were unable...During the first year following its introduction, an intensified variation of this agricultural technology enabled the Tambov grain growers to produce

  13. Teacher Education in Agriculture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Dale W.

    1977-01-01

    Urging continued high priority support to preservice and inservice professional development, especially in the area of agricultural education, the author responds to a letter from the Joint Committee on Vocational Education for the State of California indicating the committee's consideration of support reduction for teacher education in vocational…

  14. Agricultural nitrate pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Helle Tegner

    2015-01-01

    Despite the passing of almost 25 years since the adoption of the EU Nitrates Directive, agricultural nitrate pollution remains a major concern in most EU Member States. This is also the case in Denmark, although a fairly strict regulatory regime has resulted in almost a 50 per cent reduction...

  15. Goryachkin's agricultural mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinenova, Vera

    2016-03-01

    The paper contributes to the development of applied mechanics by establishing a new discipline, namely, agricultural mechanics by academician Vasilii Prohorovich Goryachkin (1868-1935) who was an apprentice of Nikolay Yegorovich Zhukovsky and a graduate of the Moscow University (current known as Moscow State University) and the Imperial Higher Technical School.

  16. Beyond conservation agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giller, K.E.; Andersson, J.A.; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and s

  17. Cohabitation: Humans & Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woodington, W.

    2012-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Smart & Bioclimatic Design. Cohabitation of humans and agriculture can be used to improve building climate, human health and the state of the world. It affects building design and requires new building components. This manual explains w

  18. Governing agricultural sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macnaghten, Philip; Carro-Ripalda, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Although GM crops are seen by their advocates as a key component of the future of world agriculture and as part of the solution for world poverty and hunger, their uptake has not been smooth nor universal: they have been marred by controversy and all too commonly their regulation has been challen

  19. Africa, Agriculture, Aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuyvenhoven, A.

    2008-01-01

    In a world that is developing fast, Africa¿s relative stagnation is a human tragedy that challenges the development profession. Although climate and geography, and their effect on local institutions, are not in Africa¿s favour, inappropriate policies (including neglect of agriculture) and weak insti

  20. Heroes of Agricultural Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weele, van der C.; Keulartz, F.W.J.

    2009-01-01

    New technology has a prominent place in the theory and practice of innovation, but the association between high tech and innovation is not inevitable. In this paper, we discuss six metaphorical heroes of agricultural innovation, starting with the dominant hero of frontier science and technology. At

  1. Agriculture. Poultry Livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for poultry, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list.…

  2. Agriculture. Beef Livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for beef livestock, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task…

  3. Scrapping Agricultural Tax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    On March 5,in his government report to the annual session of the country's top legislature,the National People's Congress,Premier Wen Jiabao set the goal to reduce the agricultural tax rate by more than one percentage point each year,

  4. African agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...

  5. Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  6. Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Adjustment of Agricultural Structure on Agricultural Economic Growth in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    We conduct empirical analysis of the contribution of various sectors of agriculture in Xinjiang to agricultural economic growth,and the impact of adjustment of these sectors on agricultural economic growth.The results show that the growth of farming has the greatest force to drive the growth of total agricultural output in Xinjiang,followed by animal husbandry;the rate of contribution of these two production sectors,farming and animal husbandry,not only shows high-frequency fluctuation,but also shows reverse fluctuation;the effect arising from adjustment of farming is gradually spreading to animal husbandry,forestry and fishery one by one,but the spreading rate is low.Finally the countermeasures and proposals are put forward to further adjust agricultural structure and promote agricultural economic growth of Xinjiang under the Twelfth Five-Year Plan as follows:adjust the industrial structure steadily,address the industry convergence and broaden the income-increase channels for the farmers;strengthen the input to adjustment of agricultural structure;stick to the combination of internal adjustment and external adjustment of agricultural industry.

  7. Indian Agricultural Marketing- A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel-Ul-Rehman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture in India has directly or indirectly continued to be the source of livelihood to majority of the population. Indian agriculture has seen a lot of changes in its structure. India, predominantly an agricultural economy, has healthy signs of transformation in agriculture and allied activities. India has seen agriculture as a precious tool of economic development as other sectors of production depend on it. Efficient backward and forward integration with agriculture has led to globally competitive production system in terms of cost and quality. Cooperatives seem to be well positioned to coordinate product differentiation at the farm level and to integrate forward into value added processing activities.. Indian agriculture can be balanced and made efficient through proper and better management practices. The present study brings out past and present scenario of agricultural marketing prevailing in India, its challenges and future recommendations. Moreover the opportunities provide by agricultural marketing should be tapped effectively by the marketers.

  8. Agricultural Science and Technologv Parks Initiated in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yisheng

    2003-01-01

    @@ Agricultural S&T parks (ASTPs) constitute the bases for demonstrating modern agricultural practice engaged in intensive production and commercial operations with S&T achievements as their pillars and agricultural infrastructures as the mainstay. The emergence of ASTPs is a new economic phenomenon during the past decade, and among the 400-plus such parks, 36 are State ASTPs set up with the approval of the State Council. These ASTPs have created a benign environmental condition for the advance of agricultural science and technology in China and for the development of newand high-tech-based industries in the agricultural sector, and accordingly, they have played an important role in promoting modern agriculture, in enlivening rural economy, in increasing the income of farmers, and in restructuring agriculture.

  9. Public Expenditures and Agricultural Growth in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souleymane Ouedraogo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes public funding in the agricultural sector in Burkina Faso and assesses its impact on agricultural growth. Based on data collected from several sources (finance acts over the period 1983-2008, Automated Prediction Instrument (IPA, World Bank and National agricultural statistics over 26 years (from 1983 to 2008, the agricultural production has been modelled by using an error correction model and Cobb-Douglas function. The econometric analysis results show that public funding has a positive impact on agricultural production in the short term. A 9% growth rate of public funding over the period 2009-2015, causes an average agricultural production of 6.75% over the period. So, it is necessary for the State to increase funding in the agricultural sector to achieve a better growth of the domestic production and to meet the Millennium Development Goals regarding hunger reduction over the period 2009-2015.

  10. Chemical Composition and Anti -fungal Properties of Xinjiang Propolis Extracts against Agricultural Phytopathogenic Fungi%新疆产蜂胶提取物对农作物病原真菌的抗性作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿米尼姑丽·买买提; 木塔力甫·艾买提; 尼砸木·艾海提; 布威海丽且姆·阿巴拜科日; 依米提·热合曼

    2011-01-01

    [目的]分析新疆蜂胶的化学成分并研究其抗菌活性.[方法]用超声波提取法提取蜂胶,采用GC-MS联用技术鉴定其化学成分,通过最小抑菌浓度试验和抑菌试验来测定蜂胶的抗真菌活性.[结果]从蜂胶的乙醇提取物中鉴定出23种化合物.蜂胶对不同真菌表现出不同的抗菌活性,对不同植物病原真菌的抑菌率为16.7%~39.6%,最小抑菌浓度为2.0~4.0 mg/mL.[结论]新疆蜂胶具有广谱的抑菌活性,对某些重要植物病原菌有一定防控作用.%[Objective] The purpose of this project was to analyze the chemical composition of Xinjiang propolis extracts and investigate its antifungi activity. [ Method ] Ultrasonic was used to extract propolis and Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry were applied to identify its chemical composition. Through the tests of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and mycelial growth inhabitation, its antifungal activity assays were determined. [ Result] twenty - three compounds were identified in ethanol - extracted propolis (EEP). Propolis displayed different antifungi actions depending on the type of fungi tested. It showed the antifungi activity range was from 16.7% to 39.6% and minimum inhibitory concentration range was from 2.0 to 4. Omg/ mL against the tested phytopathogenic fungi as a mycelial growth inhibitor. [ Conclusion ] The results obtained in this study demonstrated that Xinjiang propolis extracts possessed a wide range spectrum of fungistatic activity and could become an alternative to controlling certain important plant fungal diseases.

  11. The rise of Brazilian agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Vink, Nick; Sandrey, Ron

    2014-01-01

    of Brazilian agricultural policies, namely farmer support, the research and technology transfer system and land issues. The implications for South African agriculture can be summarized as the recognition that history, geography, the development path and agricultural policies all matter. The article......The purpose of this article is to explore some of the possible lessons for South African agriculture from the Brazilian experience. To this end, the article discusses the performance of Brazilian agriculture in terms of land and labour use, production, and exports. This is followed by aspects...... then identifies five important lessons for agricultural development in South Africa....

  12. 78 FR 77604 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 966 Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This proposed... ``order.'' The order is effective under the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (7...

  13. 76 FR 50703 - Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 984 Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This... Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (7 U.S.C. 601-674), hereinafter referred to as...

  14. Chemical characterization of the lignins of corn and soybean agricultural residues Caracterização química das ligninas dos resíduos agrícolas de milho e de soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O.S. Saliba

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Corn (CR and soybean (SR culture wastes were submitted to extraction with organic solvents for lignin isolation (LGS. The obtained lignin was chemically characterized, and based on studies of functional groups and microanalyses, it was possible to determine the minimum formula. LGS of CR has characteristics that resemble wood and of bamboo lignin, possessing a larger amount of methoxyl groups and vanillin.Foram utilizados dois restos de cultura, resíduo de milho (CR e resíduo da cultura de soja (SR e o material foi submetido à extração com solventes orgânicos para isolamento da lignina (LGS. A lignina assim obtida foi caracterizada quimicamente. Com base em estudos de grupos funcionais e microanálise foi possível determinar a fórmula mínima para as ligninas. A LGS de CR tem características que a assemelham à lignina de madeira e do bambu, apresentando maior quantidade de grupos metoxila e de vanilina derivada.

  15. Estonian agriculture works to increase exports / Ella Karapetyan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karapetyan, Ella

    2009-01-01

    Eesti põllumajanduse seisust. Eesti Toiduainetööstuse Liit, tootjad ja kaubandusketid algatasid kampaania Eesti toidu populariseerimiseks ning kodumaist kaupa hakkab eristama Eesti rahvuslipu värvides märgistus

  16. Deep ploughing increases agricultural soil organic matter stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara, Viridiana; Don, Axel; Well, Reinhard; Nieder, Rolf

    2016-08-01

    Subsoils play an important role within the global C cycle, since they have high soil organic carbon (SOC) storage capacity due to generally low SOC concentrations. However, measures for enhancing SOC storage commonly focus on topsoils. This study assessed the long-term storage and stability of SOC in topsoils buried in arable subsoils by deep ploughing, a globally applied method for breaking up hard pans and improving soil structure to optimize crop growing conditions. One effect of deep ploughing is translocation of SOC formed near the surface into the subsoil, with concomitant mixing of SOC-poor subsoil material into the 'new' topsoil. Deep-ploughed croplands represent unique long-term in situ incubations of SOC-rich material in subsoils. In this study, we sampled five loamy and five sandy soils that were ploughed to 55-90 cm depth 35-50 years ago. Adjacent, similarly managed but conventionally ploughed subplots were sampled as reference. The deep-ploughed soils contained on average 42 ± 13% more SOC than the reference subplots. On average, 45 years after deep ploughing, the 'new' topsoil still contained 15% less SOC than the reference topsoil, indicating long-term SOC accumulation potential in the topsoil. In vitro incubation experiments on the buried sandy soils revealed 63 ± 6% lower potential SOC mineralisation rates and also 67 ± 2% lower SOC mineralisation per unit SOC in the buried topsoils than in the reference topsoils. Wider C/N ratio in the buried sandy topsoils than in the reference topsoils indicates that deep ploughing preserved SOC. The SOC mineralisation per unit SOC in the buried loamy topsoils was not significantly different from that in the reference topsoils. However, 56 ± 4% of the initial SOC was preserved in the buried topsoils. It can be concluded that deep ploughing contributes to SOC sequestration by enlarging the storage space for SOC-rich material.

  17. Chemicals for worldwide aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnick, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    Regulations and therapeutants or other safe chemicals that are approved or acceptable for use in the aquaculture industry in the US, Canada, Europe and Japan are presented, discussing also compounds that are unacceptable for aquaculture. Chemical use practices that could affect public health are considered and details given regarding efforts to increase the number of registered and acceptable chemicals.

  18. Agricultural trade and the global phosphorus cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipanski, M.; Bennett, E.; Riskin, S.; Porder, S.

    2012-12-01

    Trends of increasing agricultural trade, increased concentration of livestock production systems, and increased human consumption of livestock products influence the distribution of nutrients across the global landscape. Phosphorus (P) represents a unique management challenge as we are rapidly depleting mineable reserves of this essential and non-renewable resource. At the same time, its overuse can lead to pollution of aquatic ecosystems. We analyzed the relative contributions of food crop, feed crop, and livestock product trade to P flows through agricultural soils for twelve countries from 1961 to 2007. We then used case studies of P fertilizer use in the world's three major soybean export regions: Iowa (USA), Mato Grosso (Brazil), and Buenos Aires (Argentina) to examine the influence of historical P management and soil types on agriculture's environmental consequences. Due to the intensification of agricultural production, average soil surface P balances more than tripled from 6 to 21 kg P per ha between 1961 and 2007 for the twelve study countries. Consequently, countries that are primarily agricultural exporters carried increased risks for water pollution or, for Argentina, reduced soil fertility due to soil P mining to support exports. In 2007, nations imported food and feed from regions with higher apparent P fertilizer use efficiencies than if those crops were produced domestically. However, this was largely because imports were sourced from regions depleting soil P resources to support export crop production. In addition, the pattern of regional specialization and intensification of production systems also reduced the potential to recycle P resources, with greater implications for livestock production than crop production. In a globalizing world, it will be increasingly important to integrate biophysical constraints of our natural resources and environmental impacts of agricultural systems into trade policy and agreements and to develop mechanisms that

  19. Advanced Agriculture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrinivas R. Zanwar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the advanced system which improves agriculture processes like cultivation on ploughed land, based on robotic platform. We have developed a robotic vehicle having four wheels and steered by DC motor. The advanced autonomous system architecture gives us the opportunity to develop a complete new range of agricultural equipment based on small smart machines. The machine will cultivate the farm by considering particular rows and specific column at fixed distance depending on crop. The obstacle detection problem will also be considered, sensed by infrared sensor. The whole algorithm, calculation, processing, monitoring are designed with motors & sensor interfaced with microcontroller. The result obtained through example activation unit is also presented. The dc motor simulation with feedforward and feedback technique shows precise output. With the help of two examples, a DC motor and a magnetic levitation system, the use of MATLAB and Simulink for modeling, analysis and control is designed.

  20. The global view: issues affecting US production agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Peter

    2010-07-01

    This paper discusses small events occurring among developing countries, particularly but not exclusively in Asia, and their subsequent large impacts on net food exporting countries in the world, particularly, but not exclusively, located in the Western hemisphere. A Green Revolution II is underway as a result where the world's agricultural system will produce more (output) with less (inputs). Agriculture will meet the rapidly growing demand for bio-based foods, fuels, feeds, and fiber while reducing input usage, preserving the natural environment, and maintaining native ecosystems. In turn agricultural workers will receive a health dividend as chemical usage falls, automation, metering, and sensing technologies rise, and exposure to harsh environmental, both natural and man-made, conditions is reduced. This paper was prepared for the Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Conference, "Be Safe, Be Profitable: Protecting Workers in Agriculture," January 27-28, 2010, Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas.

  1. Chemical Composition of Salmon Ovary Outer Membrane and Its Protein Increases Fecal Mucins Content in C57BL/6J and Type 2 Diabetic/Obese KK-Ay Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayato Maeda

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Salmon ovary outer membrane (SOM is a byproduct of the salmon industry; however, the effective utilization of SOM for food materials and supplements is anticipated as the demand for fish and seafood increases worldwide. The purposes of the present study were to assess the chemical composition of SOM, the characteristics of SOM protein (SOMP, and its effects on serum and fecal biochemical parameters in mice. SOM contained high levels of crude protein (61.9 g/100 g and crude lipid (18.9 g/100 g. The protein pattern of SOMP was different from those of fish muscle protein and roe; it was abundant in collagen, as calculated from the hydroxyproline content. In addition, SOMP exhibited lower protein digestibility during in vitro digestion analyses compared with casein. Male C57BL/6J and KK-Ay mice were fed a casein-based semi-purified diet or a diet with replacement of part of the dietary protein (50% by SOMP for four weeks. Mice fed the diet containing SOMP showed elevated fecal nitrogen and mucins contents and reduced levels of serum liver injury markers and fecal ammonia. These results show for the first time that chemical composition of SOM, and SOMP, contain a resistant protein fraction and a large amount of collagen. Therefore, SOM is a potential source of marine collagen and functional food material for promoting the health of the liver and colon.

  2. Pontos de abastecimento de pulverizadores agrícolas: uma revisão comparando os modelos em uso Agricultural chemical handling pads: a review comparing the models in use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Gebler

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Pontos de abastecimento de pulverizadores são locais destinados ao preparo das caldas agroquímicas e carregamento de equipamentos de pulverização agrícola, classificados pela legislação ambiental e trabalhista como equipamento de segurança ambiental. Há suficiente bibliografia técnica que recomenda e descreve os processos construtivos e de manejo de tais locais, mas há pouca clareza sobre como se chegou a esta forma consensual, aliado ao pouco embasamento científico de seus benefícios e riscos agregados. Alguns aspectos como impermeabilização, constituição do material, manejo do piso e dos resíduos de agroquímicos, interferem na capacidade de evitar que os possíveis contaminantes atinjam o solo e as águas, interferindo no descarte final. Aspectos funcionais ainda carecem de respostas, como a possibilidade do piso reter e armazenar o contaminante e se tornar um emissor a longo prazo, a definição do tempo de vida útil do equipamento, dentre outros. Recentemente houve avanços na filosofia construtiva dos pontos de abastecimento de pulverizadores, com a introdução da remediação de resíduos in situ, através da biodegradação, ganhando denominações, como biobeds, dentre outras. O objetivo desta revisão é discutir as diferentes formas de pisos e manejo nestes locais, seus riscos e a possibilidade de se tornarem um passivo ambiental.Sprayers handling pads, among other designations, are described as sites intended for the preparation of pesticides and load of agricultural pulverization equipments. By the environmental and labour legislation, these points are seen as environmental security equipment in the rural surroundings (environment. There is enough technical bibliography that describes the constructive and handling processes of such sites, but there is insufficient clarity about how this consensual manner was reached, with little scientific basis about its collective advantages and risks. Some aspects such as the

  3. Agricultural rent-seeking in developing countries: an empirical investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Recent increases in demand for agricultural land has fuelled academic, as well as public, interest in the potential effects of high value agricultural land, particularly in developing countries. The dominating question seems to be: will increasing demand for agricultural land imply land grabbing...... or rural development? This article finds empirical support for a proposed theory which suggests that the extent of agricultural rent-seeking, in the form of large-scale land acquisitions, is determined by the relative political power of an elite and a farmer group. © 2014 Taylor & Francis....

  4. The Reorganization of Agricultural Extension Toward Sustainable Agricultural Development in Eastern Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadalla. A. E. Omar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The specific objectives of Sustainable agricultural development are to enhance food security; to increase productivity and competitiveness of the sector; to deepen linkages with other sectors; to create new sources of growth for the sector; and to conserve and utilize natural resources in a sustainable basis. The agricultural extension services can play a crucial role in providing this network of information on sustainable agricultural education. Thus, the role of agricultural extension is very important to support Sustainable agricultural development which is moving from production to a wider set of sustainability and environmental objectives may need to change their extension approach. To fulfill this objective, a sample of 46 Managers, Deputy Directors, respondents was selected through simple of sampling technique. A survey study was applied as a methodology of research .A questionnaire was used to collect the data and Analysis of descriptive statistics. Results: According to factor analysis, the implications for sustainable agricultural development were categorized into two groups consisting: (a The Decentralization (b The Pluralism. That decentralization is high with Delegate the local committees (local leaders, farmers’ organizations and agricultural credit organizations for the dissemination of sustainable agricultural development programs and for the collection of taxes and financial charges from the farmers due to the extension services and loans of 67.4�0.While 69.6 �0of Managers and Deputy Directors mentioned that high performance of Pluralism is Providing training for farmers organizations’ staff. To achieve this participation, extension organizations would need to formally of decentralization and Pluralism or transfer the control of specific program planning and management functions to the system levels of local Agricultural extension, Private sector organizations, Farmers organizations and Education organizations where

  5. European Agricultural Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Timothy J.

    1997-01-01

    This bulletin is a supplement to the Europe Team's Situation and Outlook Series and expands upon material traditionally presented as an appendix in the annual Europe Report. This report presents an extensive statistical database on European agriculture. The geographic scope covers most of the countrias of Europe, including the 15 member states of the European Union (Austria. Belgium. Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy. Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, a...

  6. Risk governance in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Bachev, Hrabrin

    2008-01-01

    This paper identifies and assesses the efficiency of major modes for risk governance in agriculture on the base of Bulgarian dairy farming. Firstly, the New Institutional and Transaction Costs Economics is incorporated and a framework for analysis of the governance of natural, market, private, and social (institutional) risks presented. Next, the pace and challenges of the dairy farming development during the post-communist transition and EU integration is outlined. Third, major types of risk...

  7. Agricultural and urban pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehmer, M. L.

    1972-01-01

    The degradation produced by the introduction of agricultural and urban wastes into estuarine systems, with emphasis on the Chesapeake Bay area, is discussed. The subjects presented are: (1) effects of sediment loading and (2) organic and nutrient loading problems. The impact of high turbidity on the biological life of the bay is analyzed. The sources of nutrients which produce over-enrichment of the waters and the subsequent production of phytoplankton are examined.

  8. Entomophagy and space agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, N.; Ishikawa, Y.; Takaoki, M.; Yamashita, M.; Nakayama, S.; Kiguchi, K.; Kok, R.; Wada, H.; Mitsuhashi, J.; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Supplying food for human occupants remains one of the primary issues in engineering space habitation Evidently for long-term occupation on a distant planet it is necessary to start agriculture on site Historically humans have consumed a variety of animals and it is required to fill our nutritional need when they live in space Among many candidate group and species of animal to breed in space agriculture insects are of great interest since they have a number of advantages over mammals and other vertebrates or invertebrates About 70-75 of animal species is insects and they play an important role in materials recycle loop of terrestrial biosphere at their various niche For space agriculture we propose several insect species such as the silkworm Bombyx mori the drugstore beetle Stegobium paniceum and the termite Macrotermes subhyalinus Among many advantages these insects do not compete with human in terms of food resources but convert inedible biomass or waste into an edible food source for human The silkworm has been domesticated since 5 000 years ago in China Silk moth has lost capability of flying after its domestication history This feature is advantageous in control of their breeding Silkworm larvae eat specifically mulberry leaves and metamorphose in their cocoon Silk fiber obtained from cocoon can be used to manufacture textile Farming system of the drugstore beetle has been well established Both the drugstore beetle and the termite are capable to convert cellulose or other inedible biomass

  9. Severe situation of rural nonpoint source pollution and efficient utilization of agricultural wastes in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2015-11-01

    Rural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution caused by agricultural wastes has become increasingly serious in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA), significantly affecting the reservoir water quality. The grim situation of rural NPS pollution in the TGRA indicated that agrochemicals (chemical fertilizer and pesticide) were currently the highest contributor of rural NPS pollution (50.38%). The harmless disposal rates of livestock excrement, crop straws, rural domestic refuse, and sewage also cause severe water pollution. More importantly, the backward agricultural economy and the poor environmental awareness of farmers in the hinterland of the TGRA contribute to high levels of rural NPS pollution. Over the past decade, researchers and the local people have carried out various successful studies and practices to realize the effective control of rural NPS pollution by efficiently utilizing agricultural wastes in the TGRA, including agricultural waste biogas-oriented utilization, crop straw gasification, decentralized land treatment of livestock excrement technology, and crop straw modification. These technologies have greatly increased the renewable resource utilization of agricultural wastes and improved water quality and ecological environment in the TGRA.

  10. AN ATTEMPT TO ASSESS THE IMPACT OF AGRICULTURE ON THE ENVIRONMENT IN THE COUNTRIES OF CENTRAL-EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Szuba-Barańska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study was to identify and evaluate the progress of implementation of selected assumptions on sustainability of agriculture in countries of CentralEastern Europe in relation to environmental protection. Data from the input-output balance sheets and the European Environmental Accounts were used to realize the aim of the study. The analysis considered material fl ows to and from agriculture, pollution, and the production and consumption of biomass. The share of the participation of agribusiness sphere I, including mainly services, as well as the fuel, energy and chemical industries, has been increasing in the material infl ows to agriculture in the countries of CentralEastern Europe. This indicates production modernization, associated with a higher load on the environment. The highest emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants into the environment per 1,000 euro GDP were recorded in Lithuania, Romania and Latvia. The Czech Republic, Slovenia and Slovakia have the lowest values of emissions. In Latvia, there was no overall reduction in pollution emitted by agriculture in 2008–2012. Emission of these pollutants per 1,000 euro GDP and 1 ha UAA (utilized agricultural area of agricultural land decreased in most countries in the analysis. In EU countries of Central-Eastern Europe, a reduction in direct material input and domestic consumption of biomass from agriculture per one euro of GDP is reported. These changes indicate a decrease in the intensity of use of natural resources (dematerialising economy, which is consistent with the objectives of sustainable development. In countries where agriculture is better developed, the implementation of pro-environmental goals of sustainable development takes place to a greater extent than in countries with lower levels of socio-economic development.

  11. [Brazilian colonization in the Paraguayan agricultural frontier].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupert, R F

    1991-04-01

    This work briefly describes Brazilian colonization of the Paraguayan agricultural frontier, analyzes factors responsible for expelling population from Brazil and for attracting Brazilians to Paraguay, and assesses the economic and social consequences of immigration to the area. Paraguay's vast and sparsely populated agricultural frontier in areas outside the Central subregion underwent a process of intense colonization from the early 1960s to the mid-1980s. The Paraguayan government initiated an ambitious colonization program in 1963 to increase production, relieve population pressure and subdivision of small parcels in the Central subregion, encourage agricultural modernization, and produce a more diversified agriculture. Paraguayan agriculture in the early 1960s suffered from excessive concentration of land in a few hands and resulting exclusion of around 3/4 of workers from ownership and from any possibility of obtaining credit to fund technological improvements. Results of studies 2 decades after implementation of the colonization plan suggest that it has failed in significant areas. Although a considerable population redistribution alleviated pressure in the Central subregion, it apparently resulted more from spontaneous movement of peasants outside the colonization areas than from the official program. Concentration of lands is now occurring in the colonization area. Assistance for agricultural modernization and diversification of production in the peasant sector has been minimal. On the other hand, production of soy, wheat, and cotton for export increased substantially, because of an entrepreneurial agriculture capitalized by foreign as well as national interests The unmet goals of the colonization program would have required structural reforms rather than simple spatial redistribution of the population. Many of the colonists in the 1970s were Brazilian families displaced by mechanized agriculture in the southern states of Parana, Santa Catarina, and Rio

  12. Agricultural Technology, Risk, and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Tarp, Finn

    2000-01-01

    Interactions between agricultural technology improvements, risk-reducing behavior, and gender roles in agricultural production in Mozambique are examined. The analysis employs a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model that explicitly incorporates key features of the economy. These include...

  13. The Research on Countermeasures of Green Agricultural Development in Jiangsu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Firstly,the thesis introduces the connotation of green agriculture,indicating that the green agriculture has 4 characteristics,namely openness,continuity,high efficiency and standardization,compared with the traditional agricultural development model.Secondly,the advantages of developing green agriculture in Jiangsu Province are discussed,namely rich agricultural resources,notable technological advantage,solid agricultural foundation,high quality of agricultural products,great market prospect of green consumption,and notable policy advantage.In view of the increasing shortage of natural resources,increasing restriction of rural labor force,increasing deterioration of rural environment,inadequate popularization of green agriculture,and fierce competition at home and abroad,the restricted factors of developing green agriculture in Jiangsu Province are introduced.Finally,in view of the agricultural concept innovation,green agricultural system innovation,agricultural technology innovation,agricultural management innovation,operation system innovation,ecological system innovation,development of tourism agriculture and regional differentiation development strategy,the relevant countermeasures and suggestions are put forward,in order to explore a new agricultural development model for Jiangsu’s modern agricultural development.

  14. Biogas - agriculture and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, L.; Birkmose, T. [The Danish Agricultural Advisory Centre, Aarhus (Denmark)

    1997-08-01

    Cultivating the soil always leads to a higher loss of nutrients to the surrounding environment than the loss recorded from natural areas. Loss of nitrogen by leaching may have the effect that the set limit for nitrate of 50 mg NO{sub 3} per litre of water is exceeded in areas, where the water supply is based on ground water. Furthermore, nitrogen leaching may lead to eutrophication followed by oxygen depletion in inland waterways whereas it has hardly any significant environmental impact in freshwater areas. Ammonia volatilization followed by deposition influences nutrient-poor bio-topes like heaths, marshland etc. Increasing importance is attached to the loss of phosphorus from farmland as the discharge of sewage from urban areas and industries are reduced due to effective chemical and biological treatment plants. Environmental problems related to loss phosphorus is primarily eutrophication of freon water lakes. Nitrous oxide(N{sub 2}O), resulting from denitrification of nitrate in the soil, and the emission of methane contribute considerably to the greenhouse effect. Both nitrous oxide and the emission of methane are influenced by the volume of animal production, but no certain data on the connection and the importance are available. Loss of nutrients from farm production is primarily related to animal production. The largest environmental impact concerns the loss of nutrients in areas, where the live-stock production is very intensive in large compact areas and, where the produced amount of nutrients in animal manure and other organic manures exceed the requirements of the crops. (EG) 13 refs.

  15. Climate Variability is Influencing Agricultural Expansion and Output in a Key Agricultural Region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, S. A.; Cohn, A.; VanWey, L.; Mustard, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last decade, the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso has both expanded and intensified its agricultural production to become the country's leading producer of soy, corn, and cotton. Yet this increase in agricultural production may be threatened due to changes in the region's climate stemming from deforestation caused by the agricultural expansion itself. The sensitivity of Mato Grosso's agriculture to climate variability has important implications for both climate change mitigation and climate adaptation. The vast bulk of research on the drivers of land use change in the region has examined economic and institutional drivers. Leveraging a novel remote sensing-derived dataset classifying shifts between single (cultivating one commercial crop per growing season) and double cropping (cultivating two commercial crops per growing season), we investigated the influence of climate variability on land use change during the period 2000 to 2011. Over the past decade, over half of Mato Grosso's farm area transitioned from single cropping to double cropping. We used regression analysis (controlling for space and time fixed effects) to show monthly rainfall, monthly temperature, agricultural commodity prices, and agricultural revenue to be the main drivers of adoption of double cropping and reversion to single cropping in the region. The influence of climate varies as much as five orders of magnitude across these outcomes, with both temperature and precipitation exhibiting the largest climatic influence on the transition from single to double cropping. Temperature consistently proves to be more important, explaining three times more of the variance than precipitation for each outcome. Months at the beginning of a given first crop season, the end of that first crop season, and middle of the subsequent second crop season are particularly important for planting decisions in the subsequent growing year. Fitting our land transition models using remote-sensing derived

  16. Existing chemicals: international activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purchase, J F

    1989-01-01

    The standards of care used in the protection of the health and safety of people exposed to chemicals has increased dramatically in the last decade. Standards imposed by regulation and those adopted by industry have required a greater level of knowledge about the hazards of chemicals. In the E.E.C., the 6th amendment of the dangerous substances directive imposed the requirement that al new chemicals should be tested according to prescribed programme before introduction on to the market. The development of a European inventory of existing chemicals was an integral part of the 6th amendment. It has now become clear that increased standards of care referred to above must be applied to the chemicals on the inventory list. There is, however, a considerable amount of activity already under way in various international agencies. The OECD Chemicals Programme has been involved in considering the problem of existing chemicals for some time, and is producing a priority list and action programme. The International Programme on Chemical Safety produces international chemical safety cards, health and safety guides and environmental health criteria documents. The international register of potentially toxic compounds (part of UNEP) has prepared chemical data profiles on 990 compounds. The International Agency for Research on Cancer prepared monographs on the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man. So far 42 volumes have been prepared covering about 900 substances. IARC and IPCS also prepare periodic reports on ongoing research on carcinogenicity or toxicity (respectively) of chemicals. The chemical industry through ECETOC (the European Chemical Industry Ecology and Toxicology Centre) has mounted a major initiative on existing chemicals. Comprehensive reviews of the toxicity of selected chemicals are published (Joint Assessment of Commodity Chemicals). In its technical report no. 30 ECETOC lists reviews and evaluations by major national and international organisations, which provides

  17. Effect of Agricultural Intervention on the Spatial Variability of some Soils Chemical Properties in the Eastern Plains of Colombia Efecto de la Intervención Agrícola sobre la Variabilidad Espacial de algunas Propiedades Químicas de Suelos en los Llanos Orientales de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús H Camacho-Tamayo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Growing demand for food exerts pressure on natural resources and may lead to the expansion of agricultural frontiers in developing countries. Most of this pressure appears in tropical zones, in native savannahs, with naturally infertile soils prone to degradation. Crop management in these regions is based on generalized estimates, leaving aside the inherent soil variability, leading to low production efficiency and high risk of environmental damage. This study aims at determining the spatial variability of some chemical properties, including organic carbon, pH, exchangeable acidity, exchangeable aluminum, P, Ca, Mg, K and Na for two Oxisols with different levels of agricultural intervention, in Puerto Lopez, Colombia, in order to identify guidelines for site-specific management. A forty-two point grid (25´ 25 m was established for samplings at two depths: 0-100 and 100-200 mm. Descriptive statistics and geostatistics were used to analyze soil properties spatial dependence. Variogram models were obtained and from them maps of properties were drawn using ordinary punctual kriging. The results showed that spatial variability of the soil chemical properties depends upon the use of amendments, fertilizing methods, tillage and the inherent characteristics of each variable analyzed. A greater influence of the agricultural intervention on spatial variability was evident in the upper 100 mm of soil. Spatial dependence was found for most of the studied soil properties. However, K and Na presented variograms with pure nugget effects and/or very short ranges. The information generated is a base to derive guidelines for site-specific agricultureLa creciente demanda por alimentos ejerce presión sobre los recursos naturales y puede conducir a la ampliación de la frontera agrícola en países en desarrollo. Esto ocurre principalmente en zonas tropicales, en sabanas nativas, con suelos de baja fertilidad y susceptibles a degradación. El manejo de cultivos en

  18. SANITARY SEWAGE REUSE IN AGRICULTURAL CROP IRRIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane Bittencourt Barroso

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The water availability was exceeded by demand, becoming a limiting factor in irrigated agriculture. This study aimed to provide a general theoretical framework on the issue of water reuse for agricultural purposes. This is due to the fact that we need a prior knowledge of the state of the art concerning the matter. To that end, we performed a review of irrigated agriculture, the effects on cultivated land and the development of agricultural crops as well as aspects of security to protect groups at risk. The amount of macro and micronutrients in the effluent may reduce or eliminate the use of commercial fertilizers. And this addition of organic matter acts as a soil conditioner, increasing its capacity to retain water. Depending on the characteristics of sewage, the practice of irrigation for long periods may lead to accumulation of toxic compounds and the significant increase of salinity. The inhibition of plant growth by salinity may be due to osmotic effect, causing drought and / or specific effects of ions, which can cause toxicity or nutritional imbalance. The minimization of human exposure to the practice of agricultural reuse is based on a set of mitigation measures that must be implemented by the authorities responsible for operating and monitoring systems for water recycling. It is concluded that the use of sewage depends on management of irrigation, monitoring of soil characteristics and culture.

  19. Occupational health and safety of workers in agriculture and horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, P

    2000-01-01

    Working in agriculture and horticulture gives considerable job satisfaction. The tasks are often interesting; you can see the result of your own work, watch your crop grow and mature; you have an affinity with nature and can follow the changes in the seasons. However, today it is a dangerous work environment fraught with occupational injuries and diseases due to hazardous situations and to physiological, physical, biological, chemical, psychological, and sociological factors. The ongoing rapid development may, on the other hand, bring about many changes during the next decades with more farmers and growers switching to organic production. Moreover, increased awareness of animal welfare also may lead to improved working conditions. Large-scale operations with fewer family-operated agricultural businesses might mean fewer injuries among children and older farmers. A consequence of large-scale operations may also be better regulation of working conditions. The greater use of automation technology eliminates many harmful working postures and movements when milking cows and carrying out other tasks. Information technology offers people the opportunity to gain more knowledge about their work. Labeling food produced in a worker-friendly work environment may give the consumers a chance to be involved in the process.

  20. Radiation exposure due to agricultural uses of phosphate fertilizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khater, Ashraf E.M. [National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Physics Department, College of Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 1145 (Saudi Arabia)], E-mail: khater_ashraf@yahoo.com; AL-Sewaidan, H.A. [Physics Department, College of Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 1145 (Saudi Arabia)

    2008-09-15

    Radiological impacts of phosphate rocks mining and manufacture could be significant due to the elevated radioactivity contents of the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), such as {sup 238}U series, {sup 232}Th series and {sup 40}K, in some phosphate deposits. Over the last decades, the land reclamation and agriculture activities in Saudi Arabia and other countries have been widely expanded. Therefore, the usage of chemical fertilizers is increased. Selected phosphate fertilizers samples were collected and the specific activities of NORM were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer based on a hyper pure germanium detector and alpha spectrometer based on surface barrier detector. The obtained results show remarkable wide variations in the radioactivity contents of the different phosphate fertilizer samples. The mean (ranges) of specific activities for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Po, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K, and radium equivalent activity are 75 (3-283), 25 (0.5-110), 23 (2-74), 2818 (9-6501) Bq/kg and 283 (7-589) Bq/kg, respectively. Based on dose calculations, the increment of the public radiation exposure due to the regular agricultural usage of phosphate fertilizers is negligible. Its average value 1 m above the ground is about 0.12 nGy/h where the world average value due to the NORM in soil is 51 nGy/h. Direct radiation exposures of the farmers due to phosphate fertilizers application was not considered in our study.