WorldWideScience

Sample records for agricultural ammonia emission

  1. A new inventory of ammonia emissions from Irish agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, B. P.; Carton, O. T.; O'Toole, P.; Misselbrook, T. H.

    Agriculture plays a vital role in the Irish economy, accounting for 3.5% of the gross domestic product (GDP) in 2000. Grassland farming and, in particular, cattle rearing and dairying accounts for more than 90% of farming activity. In addition, there have been significant increases in the number of sheep, pigs and poultry over the last twenty years. As a consequence, gaseous nitrogen (N) emissions have shown a clear upward trend. Following the adoption of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Gothenburg protocol (Protocol to the 1979 convention on long-range transboundary air pollution to abate acidification, eutrophication and ground-level ozone. United Nations Economic Commissions for Europe (UNECE), Geneva.), Ireland has to achieve a 9% reduction in national ammonia (NH 3) emissions between 1990 and 2010. The agricultural sector accounts for virtually all NH 3 emissions in Ireland. It is on this basis that a new inventory of NH 3 emissions from agriculture has been produced. This paper describes the adoption of the UK national inventory model to Irish agricultural systems, the results of model calculations and the measures available to enable compliance with national targets and areas within the inventory, which require further investigation. Estimated total emissions from Irish agriculture were 89.9 and 91.8 kt NH 3-N for 1991 and 2010, respectively. Cattle farming accounts for more than 75% of total emissions. The largest emission factors found included 46.9 g NH 3-N lu -1 d -1 for cattle housing, 29.5 g NH 3-N lu -1 d -1 for pig housing and 150 g NH 3-N lu -1 d -1 for housed broilers (lu being equivalent to 500 kg live weight). In addition, model predictions for the year 2010 showed that without any abatement strategies being implemented, NH 3 emissions would exceed the agreed national emission reduction target by 12%. It was also found that strategies for reducing emissions from the land spreading of manure offer the greatest potential to

  2. Comparison of models used for national agricultural ammonia emission inventories in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reidy, B; Dämmgen, U; Döhler, H;

    2008-01-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emissions from agriculture commonly account for >80% of the total NH3 emissions. Accurate agricultural NH3 emission inventories are therefore required for reporting within the framework of the Gothenburg Protocol of the UN Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution. To allow...... different European countries, were compared using standard datasets. Two scenarios for slurry-based systems were run separately for dairy cattle and for pigs, with three different levels of model standardisation: (a) standardised inputs to all models (FF scenario); (b) standard N excretion, but national...

  3. Improved temporal resolution in process-based modelling of agricultural soil ammonia emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuning, J. D.; Pattey, E.; Edwards, G.; Van Heyst, B. J.

    An emerging environmental issue in Canada is how to quantify the contribution of agricultural soil emissions of ammonia (NH 3) to environmental pollution. Emission inventories are essential to predict these emissions and their subsequent atmospheric transportation, transformation, and deposition. Due to the high spatial and temporal variability associated with NH 3 emissions, emission inventories based on measurements become expensive and emission factors lose accuracy. Process-based models are capable of accounting for the complex soil interactions, but current models lack temporal refinement and few models consider NH 3 emissions. This paper presents the development of a one-dimensional (vertical), time-dependent model capable of predicting NH 3 emissions from a slurry applied to a bare soil. The model is based on chemical, physical and biological relationships that govern soil heat, moisture, and nitrogen movement. Processes considered include convection, diffusion, decomposition, nitrification, denitrification, and surface to atmosphere transport. The model is tested with experimental data from Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada which conducted NH 3 measurements following application of dairy cattle slurry to a bare field. An investigation into the sensitivity of emissions to pH and slurry infiltration rate is conducted and model predictions are best fit to measurements based on this investigation. Testing demonstrated the model's ability to predict the large NH 3 emissions immediately following application and subsequent emission trends associated with diurnal patterns that emission factors cannot capture. Results showed that model performance could benefit from a more in depth measurement program and empirical or process models of surface pH. Potential exists for the model to become a useful tool in predicting emissions on local, regional, or national scales.

  4. Comparison of models used for national agricultural ammonia emission inventories in Europe: Liquid manure systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, B.; Dämmgen, U.; Döhler, H.; Eurich-Menden, B.; van Evert, F. K.; Hutchings, N. J.; Luesink, H. H.; Menzi, H.; Misselbrook, T. H.; Monteny, G.-J.; Webb, J.

    Ammonia (NH 3) emissions from agriculture commonly account for >80% of the total NH 3 emissions. Accurate agricultural NH 3 emission inventories are therefore required for reporting within the framework of the Gothenburg Protocol of the UN Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution. To allow a co-ordinated implementation of the Protocol, different national inventories should be comparable. A core group of emission inventory experts therefore developed a network and joint programme to achieve a detailed overview of the best inventory techniques currently available and compiled and harmonized the available knowledge on emission factors (EFs) for nitrogen (N)-flow emission calculation models and initiated a new generation of emission inventories. As a first step in summarizing the available knowledge, six N-flow models, used to calculate national NH 3 emissions from agriculture in different European countries, were compared using standard datasets. Two scenarios for slurry-based systems were run separately for dairy cattle and for pigs, with three different levels of model standardisation: (a) standardised inputs to all models (FF scenario); (b) standard N excretion, but national values for EFs (FN scenario); (c) national values for N excretion and EFs (NN scenario). Results of the FF scenario showed very good agreement among models, indicating that the underlying N flows of the different models are highly similar. As a result of the different national EFs and N excretion rates, larger differences among the results were observed for the FN and the NN scenarios. Reasons for the differences were primarily attributed to differences in the agricultural practices and climatic factors reflected in the EFs and the N excretion rates. The scientific debate necessary to understand the variation in the results generated awareness and consensus concerning available scientific data and the importance of specific processes not yet included in some models.

  5. Modeling Spatial and Temporal Variability in Ammonia Emissions from Agricultural Fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, S.; Koloutsou-Vakakis, S.; Rood, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Ammonia (NH3), is an important component of the reactive nitrogen cycle and a precursor to formation of atmospheric particulate matter (PM). Predicting regional PM concentrations and deposition of nitrogen species to ecosystems requires representative emission inventories. Emission inventories have traditionally been developed using top down approaches and more recently from data assimilation based on satellite and ground based ambient concentrations and wet deposition data. The National Emission Inventory (NEI) indicates agricultural fertilization as the predominant contributor (56%) to NH3 emissions in Midwest USA, in 2002. However, due to limited understanding of the complex interactions between fertilizer usage, farm practices, soil and meteorological conditions and absence of detailed statistical data, such emission estimates are currently based on generic emission factors, time-averaged temporal factors and coarse spatial resolution. Given the significance of this source, our study focuses on developing an improved NH3 emission inventory for agricultural fertilization at finer spatial and temporal scales for air quality modeling studies. Firstly, a high-spatial resolution 4 km x 4 km NH3 emission inventory for agricultural fertilization has been developed for Illinois by modifying spatial allocation of emissions based on combining crop-specific fertilization rates with cropland distribution in the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions model. Net emission estimates of our method are within 2% of NEI, since both methods are constrained by fertilizer sales data. However, we identified localized crop-specific NH3 emission hotspots at sub-county resolutions absent in NEI. Secondly, we have adopted the use of the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) Biogeochemistry model to simulate the physical and chemical processes that control volatilization of nitrogen as NH3 to the atmosphere after fertilizer application and resolve the variability at the hourly scale

  6. Ammonia Emissions from agricultural fertilizer in China: From 1978 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, P.

    2015-12-01

    The quantification of ammonia (NH3) emissions is essential to the more accurate quantification of atmospheric nitrogen deposition, improved air quality and the assessment of ammonia-related agricultural policy and climate mitigation strategies. Chinese agricultural fertilizer (CAF), which is widely used in China, is the nation's largest source of NH3 emissions. The quantity, geographic distribution and historical trends of these emissions remain largely uncertain. In this paper, a new CAF NH3 (CAF_NH3) emissions inventory has been compiled that exhibits the following improvements: (1) a 1 ´1 km gridded map on the county level was developed for 2008; (2) a combined bottom-up and top-down method was used for the local correction of emission factors (EFs) and parameters; (3) time trends were derived for 1978-2008 in which the spatial and temporal patterns and the uncertainties associated with the inventory were quantified; and (4) a sensitivity test was performed in which a province-level disaggregated map was compared with CAF_NH3 emissions for 2008. The total CAF_NH3 emissions for 2008 were 8.4 TgNH3·yr-1 (a 6.6-9.8 Tg interquartile range). From 1978 to 2008, annual NH3 emissions fluctuated with three peaks (1987, 1996 and 2005), and total emissions increased from 3.2 to 8.4 Tg at an annual rate of 3.0%. During the study period, the contribution of livestock manure spreading increased from 37.0% to 45.5% because of changing fertilization practices and the rapid increase in egg, milk and meat consumption. The average contribution of synthetic fertilizer, which has a positive effect on crop yields, was approximately 38.3% (minimum: 33.4%; maximum: 42.7%). With rapid urbanization causing a decline in the rural population, the contribution of the rural excrement sector varied widely between 20.3% and 8.5%. The average contributions of cake fertilizer and straw returning were approximately 3.8% and 4.5%, respectively, thus small and stable. Collectively, the CAF NH3

  7. High-resolution inventory of ammonia emissions from agricultural fertilizer in China from 1978 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, P.; Liao, Y. J.; Lin, Y. H.; Zhao, C. X.; Yan, C. H.; Cao, M. N.; Wang, G. S.; Luan, S. J.

    2016-02-01

    The quantification of ammonia (NH3) emissions is essential to the more accurate quantification of atmospheric nitrogen deposition, improved air quality and the assessment of ammonia-related agricultural policy and climate mitigation strategies. The quantity, geographic distribution and historical trends of these emissions remain largely uncertain. In this paper, a new Chinese agricultural fertilizer NH3 (CAF_NH3) emissions inventory has been compiled that exhibits the following improvements: (1) a 1 × 1 km gridded map on the county level was developed for 2008; (2) a combined bottom-up and top-down method was used for the local correction of emission factors (EFs) and parameters; (3) the temporal patterns of historical time trends for 1978-2008 were estimated and the uncertainties were quantified for the inventories; and (4) a sensitivity test was performed in which a province-level disaggregated map was compared with CAF_NH3 emissions for 2008. The total CAF_NH3 emissions for 2008 were 8.4 TgNH3 yr-1 (a 6.6-9.8 Tg interquartile range). From 1978 to 2008, annual NH3 emissions fluctuated with three peaks (1987, 1996 and 2005), and total emissions increased from 3.2 to 8.4 Tg at an annual rate of 3.0 %. During the study period, the contribution of livestock manure spreading increased from 37.0 to 45.5 % because of changing fertilization practices and the rapid increase in egg, milk, and meat consumption. The average contribution of synthetic fertilizer, which has a positive effect on crop yields, was approximately 38.3 % (minimum: 33.4 %; maximum: 42.7 %). With rapid urbanization causing a decline in the rural population, the contribution of the rural excrement sector varied widely between 20.3 % and 8.5 %. The average contributions of cake fertilizer and straw returning were approximately 3.8 and 4.5 %, respectively, thus small and stable. Collectively, the CAF_NH3 emissions reflect the nation's agricultural policy to a certain extent. An effective approach to

  8. The Impact of Changing Climate on Ammonia Emissions from Agriculture and the Associated Climate Forcings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, D. S.; Riddick, S. N.; Hess, P. G. M.

    2015-12-01

    Agriculture is the largest anthropogenic source of ammonia (NH3) on a global scale with major contributions from the application of synthetic fertilizer and manure from livestock. While strict controls are placed on the emissions of many industrial pollutants, NH3 concentrations are expected to increase this century. In addition to future expansion of agricultural activities that could lead to greater NH3 emissions, NH3 emissions are affected by changes in temperature and precipitation. Here we use a newly developed agricultural N pathways model running in a global terrestrial model (Community Land Model v4.0) to estimate future NH3 emissions from manure and synthetic fertilizer application, and the impact of changing climate on these emissions and other N pathways (runoff, denitrification, etc.). We include future increases in the application of manure and synthetic fertilizer that are consistent with a middle-of-the-road projection of population growth and per capita caloric intake. Combined with atmospheric forcing that follows RCP8.5, NH3 emissions increase by about 50% and 90% between years 2010 and 2100 from synthetic fertilizer and manure, respectively. Roughly 25% of this increase can be attributed to the changing climate, mainly increased global temperatures over the 21st century. We show associated changes in ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate aerosol concentrations and radiative forcings, the results of a set of additional simulations using the Community Atmosphere Model v5.0 and an offline radiative transfer scheme. This work suggests that projections of global NH3 concentrations need to take changes in climate into account.

  9. Bottom-up uncertainty estimates of global ammonia emissions from global agricultural production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beusen, A.H.W.; Bouwman, A.F.; Heuberger, P.S.C.; Drecht, van G.; Hoek, van der K.W.

    2008-01-01

    Here we present an uncertainty analysis of NH3 emissions from agricultural production systems based on a global NH3 emission inventory with a 5×5 min resolution. Of all results the mean is given with a range (10% and 90% percentile). The uncertainty range for the global NH3 emission from agricultura

  10. Global Seabird Ammonia Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddick, S. N.; Blackall, T. D.; Dragosits, U.; Daunt, F. H.; Braban, C. F.; Tang, Y. S.; Trathan, P.; Wanless, S.; Sutton, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    Seabird colonies represent a major source of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) in remote coastal and marine systems in temperate, tropical and polar regions. Previous studies have shown that NH3 emissions from Scottish seabird colonies were substantial - of similar magnitude to the most intensive agricultural point source emissions. The UK data were used to model global seabird NH3 emissions and suggested that penguins are a major source of emissions on and around the Antarctic continent. The largest seabird colonies are in the order of millions of seabirds. Due to the isolation of these colonies from anthropogenic nitrogen sources, they may play a major role in the nitrogen cycle within these ecosystems. A global seabird database was constructed and used in conjunction with a species-specific seabird bioenergetics model to map the locations of NH3 emissions from seabird colonies. The accuracy of the modelled emissions was validated with field data of NH3 emissions measured at key seabird colonies in different climatic regions of the world: temperate (Isle of May, Scotland), tropical (Ascension Island) and polar (Signy Island, South Georgia). The field data indicated good agreement between modelled and measured NH3 emissions. The measured NH3 emissions also showed the variability of emission with climate. Climate dependence of seabird NH3 emissions may have further implications under a changing global climate. Seabird colonies represent NH3 emission ‘hotspots’, often far from anthropogenic sources, and are likely to be the major source of nitrogen input to these remote coastal ecosystems. The direct manuring by seabirds at colony locations may strongly influence species richness and biodiversity. The subsequent volatilisation and deposition of NH3 increases the spatial extent of seabird influence on nitrogen cycling in their local ecosystem. As many seabird populations are fluctuating due to changing food supply, climate change or anthropogenic pressures, these factors

  11. Evolution of farm and manure management and their influence on ammonia emissions from agriculture in Switzerland between 1990 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupper, Thomas; Bonjour, Cyrill; Menzi, Harald

    2015-02-01

    The evolution of farm and manure management and their influence on ammonia (NH3) emissions from agriculture in Switzerland between 1990 and 2010 was modeled. In 2010, total agricultural NH3 emissions were 48,290 t N. Livestock contributed 90% (43,480 t N), with the remaining 10% (4760 t N) coming from arable and fodder crops. The emission stages of grazing, housing/exercise yard, manure storage and application produced 3%, 34%, 17% and 46%, respectively, of livestock emissions. Cattle, pigs, poultry, small ruminants, horses and other equids accounted for 78%, 15%, 3%, 2% and 2%, respectively, of the emissions from livestock and manure management. Compared to 1990, total NH3 emissions from agriculture and from livestock decreased by 16% and 14%, respectively. This was mainly due to declining livestock numbers, since the emissions per animal became bigger for most livestock categories between 1990 and 2010. The production volume for milk and meat remained constant or increased slightly. Other factors contributing to the emission mitigation were increased grazing for cattle, the growing importance of low-emission slurry application techniques and a significant reduction in the use of mineral fertilizer. However, production parameters enhancing emissions such as animal-friendly housing systems providing more surface area per animal and total volume of slurry stores increased during this time period. That such developments may counteract emission mitigation illustrates the challenge for regulators to balance the various aims in the striving toward sustainable livestock production. A sensitivity analysis identified parameters related to the excretion of total ammoniacal nitrogen from dairy cows and slurry application as being the most sensitive technical parameters influencing emissions. Further improvements to emission models should therefore focus on these parameters.

  12. The potential for tree planting strategies to reduce local and regional ecosystem impacts of agricultural ammonia emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bealey, W J; Dore, A J; Dragosits, U; Reis, S; Reay, D S; Sutton, M A

    2016-01-01

    Trees are very effective at capturing both gaseous and particulate pollutants from the atmosphere. But while studies have often focussed on PM and NOx in the urban environment, little research has been carried out on the tree effect of capturing gaseous emissions of ammonia in the rural landscape. To examine the removal or scavenging of ammonia by trees a long-range atmospheric model (FRAME) was used to compare two strategies that could be used in emission reduction policies anywhere in the world where nitrogen pollution from agriculture is a problem. One strategy was to reduce the emission source strength of livestock management systems by implementing two 'tree-capture' systems scenarios - tree belts downwind of housing and managing livestock under trees. This emission reduction can be described as an 'on-farm' emission reduction policy, as ammonia is 'stopped' from dispersion outside the farm boundaries. The second strategy was to apply an afforestation policy targeting areas of high ammonia emission through two planting scenarios of increasing afforestation by 25% and 50%. Both strategies use trees with the aim of intercepting NH3 emissions to protect semi-natural areas. Scenarios for on-farm emission reductions showed national reductions in nitrogen deposition to semi-natural areas of 0.14% (0.2 kt N-NHx) to 2.2% (3.15 kt N-NHx). Scenarios mitigating emissions from cattle and pig housing gave the highest reductions. The afforestation strategy showed national reductions of 6% (8.4 kt N-NHx) to 11% (15.7 kt N-NHx) for 25% and 50% afforestation scenarios respectively. Increased capture by the planted trees also showed an added benefit of reducing long range effects including a decrease in wet deposition up to 3.7 kt N-NHx (4.6%) and a decrease in export from the UK up to 8.3 kt N-NHx (6.8%). PMID:26413804

  13. Emission, transmission, deposition and environmental effects of ammonia from agricultural sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erisman, J.W. [ECN Clean Fossil Fuels, Petten (Netherlands); Dammgen, U. [Federal Agricultural Research Centre, Institute of Agroecology, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2005-05-01

    Air pollution in Europe has been regarded as a severe problem for several decades, the adverse effects being: the influence on the physical properties of the atmosphere itself, in particular its energy balance (global warming), and visibility; the influence on atmospheric chemistry (formation and destruction of both ground level and stratospheric ozone); the input of chemicals into terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems causing acidification and eutrophication leading to forest decline as well as changes in ecosystem structure and function; the effects on human health and welfare (the respiratory system). Since the sulfur dioxide problem seems to have been solved to a large extent in most countries in Western Europe, atmospheric nitrogen compounds are considered a major source of acidification. As most natural and near-natural ecosystems have developed with nitrogen as a limiting factor, increased inputs of reactive atmospheric nitrogen cause changes in their structure, function and nutrient dynamics. These effects are attributed to surplus nutrition (eutrophication) of the respective systems as the result of increased nitrogen inputs. At first it seemed logical to connect them with sources similar to those for sulfur (power plants, combustion engines, domestic heating); however, it soon became clear that reduced nitrogen (ammonia and ammonium in particulates) also plays a major role. This review is to collate the present state of knowledge with regard to ammonia emissions, its atmospheric transport and chemistry as well as its deposition and the resulting effects. It restricts itself to a description of the situation in Europe.

  14. Ammonia Emissions from the Agriculture Sector of Argentina in a Context of Changing Technologies and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawidowski, L. E.

    2015-12-01

    Agriculture is a key sector of the Argentinean economy, accounting for 6 to 8 5% of the GDP in the last ten years. Argentina switched in the 90´s from an articulated co-evolution between extensive livestock and crop farming, with annual rotation of crops and livestock, to intensive decoupled practices. Under these new production schemes, ecosystems were supplied with more nutrients, generating increasing levels of wastes. Other changes have also occurred, associated with the shift of the agricultural frontier and the consequent reduction in the cattle stock. In addition, changes related to climate through the strong increase in rainfall in the 80s and 90s in the west Pampas, helped to boost agricultural development. The agriculture sector accounts for practically all NH3 emissions in Argentina, however no inventory has been thus far available. To bridge this gap and particularly to have accurate input information to run coupled atmospheric chemistry models for secondary inorganic aerosols, we estimated 2000-2012 NH3 emissions, both at national and spatially disaggregated levels. Of particular interest for us was also temporal disaggregation as crops growing and temperature exhibit strong seasonal variability. As no NH3 inventory was available we also estimated related N2O emissions to verify our estimates with those of national GHG emission inventory (NEI). National NH3 emissions in 2012 amounted to 309.9 Gg, use of fertilizers accounted for 43.6%, manure management 18,9%, manure in pasture 36,0% and agricultural waste burning 1.5%. Our N2O estimates are in good agreement with the GHG-NEI. NH3 estimates in the EDGAR database for 2008 are 84.0% higher than ours for this year, and exhibit more significant differences per category, namely 113,6% higher for use of fertilizers and about 500% higher for agricultural waste burning. Urea dominates national NH3 emissions, accounting for 32,8% of the total and its use for wheat and corn crops dominates the trend.

  15. High resolution inventory of re-estimating ammonia emissions from agricultural fertilizer in China from 1978 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, P.; Lin, Y. H.; Liao, Y. J.; Zhao, C. X.; Wang, G. S.; Luan, S. J.

    2015-09-01

    The quantification of ammonia (NH3) emissions is essential to the more accurate quantification of atmospheric nitrogen deposition, improved air quality and the assessment of ammonia-related agricultural policy and climate mitigation strategies. The quantity, geographic distribution and historical trends of these emissions remain largely uncertain. In this paper, a new Chinese agricultural fertilizer NH3 (CAF_NH3) emissions inventory has been compiled that exhibits the following improvements: (1) a 1 km × 1 km gridded map on the county level was developed for 2008, (2) a combined bottom-up and top-down method was used for the local correction of emission factors (EFs) and parameters, (3) the spatial and temporal patterns of historical time trends for 1978-2008 were estimated and the uncertainties were quantified for the inventories, and (4) a sensitivity test was performed in which a province-level disaggregated map was compared with CAF_NH3 emissions for 2008. The total CAF_NH3 emissions for 2008 were 8.4 Tg NH3 yr-1 (a 6.6-9.8 Tg interquartile range). From 1978 to 2008, annual NH3 emissions fluctuated with three peaks (1987, 1996 and 2005), and total emissions increased from 3.2 to 8.4 Tg at an annual rate of 3.0 %. During the study period, the contribution of livestock manure spreading increased from 37.0 to 45.5 % because of changing fertilization practices and the rapid increase in egg, milk and meat consumption. The average contribution of synthetic fertilizer, which has a positive effect on crop yields, was approximately 38.3 % (minimum: 33.4 %; maximum: 42.7 %). With rapid urbanization causing a decline in the rural population, the contribution of the rural excrement sector varied widely between 20.3 and 8.5 %. The average contributions of cake fertilizer and straw returning were approximately 3.8 and 4.5 %, respectively, thus small and stable. Collectively, the CAF_NH3 emissions reflect the nation's agricultural policy to a certain extent. An effective

  16. Mitigate emissions of Ammonia from Nitrogen fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammonia emissions are one of the main causes of acidification and eutrophication processes, and one of the most important contributors to the formation of secondary PM. The European NEC Directive 2001/81/CE introduced compulsory national emission ceiling for different pollutants and fixed for each countries a national ceiling for ammonia emissions to be reached in 2010. Agriculture plays a crucial role by emitting more than 90% of the total ammonia emissions. The main sources are livestock and fertilizer uses. In our activities we have studied the effects of different strategies to reduce Nitrogen fertilizer use and specifically Urea in Italy at the year 2010 and 2020. Different measures and techniques have been evaluated to estimate their effects as a potential options to mitigate emissions: fertilization, controlled release of fertilizers and biological agriculture. Each one of this option has been evaluated in terms of NH3 emission abatement showing that they could together provide good result in reducing ammonia air emission

  17. Ammonia emissions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    The NEC (National Emission Ceiling) directive has set targets for the 2010 ammonia emissions from a number of European countries. The target will be reached by most EU-countries and the total emission for EU-27 has been reduced by 22% from 1990 to 2007. Denmark is one of the countries with the...... technology is adopted quicker and that the farm has the right location. It is concluded that the new application process so far has not lived up to the high expectations at the outset. Despite this, the paper concludes that Denmark is likely to reduce emission by 50% from 1990 to 2020 and reach the likely...

  18. Reducing ammonia emission from agriculture using the BATNEEC approach in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    analysis in this paper shows how cost-effectiveness analyses (CEA) and analysis of the cost for the farmers (affordability) can be used to point out relevant BAT (Best Available Technology) technologies. The article discusses how the cut-off values are to some extent political as it can be difficult to set...... objective cut-off levels for the sector costs. The article describes different approaches on how to calculate affordability and finishes with a description of the final regulation as it has been implemented in Denmark. It shows that a stricter emission target on larger farms has counteracted the economics...

  19. Ammonia emissions in Europe, part II: How ammonia emission abatement strategies affect secondary aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Anna M.; Aulinger, Armin; Bieser, Johannes; Matthias, Volker; Quante, Markus

    2016-02-01

    In central Europe, ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate make up a large fraction of fine particles which pose a threat to human health. Most studies on air pollution through particulate matter investigate the influence of emission reductions of sulphur- and nitrogen oxides on aerosol concentration. Here, we focus on the influence of ammonia (NH3) emissions. Emission scenarios have been created on the basis of the improved ammonia emission parameterization implemented in the SMOKE for Europe and CMAQ model systems described in part I of this study. This includes emissions based on future European legislation (the National Emission Ceilings) as well as a dynamic evaluation of the influence of different agricultural sectors (e.g. animal husbandry) on particle formation. The study compares the concentrations of NH3, NH4+, NO3 -, sulphur compounds and the total concentration of particles in winter and summer for a political-, technical- and behavioural scenario. It was found that a reduction of ammonia emissions by 50% lead to a 24% reduction of the total PM2.5 concentrations in northwest Europe. The observed reduction was mainly driven by reduced formation of ammonium nitrate. Moreover, emission reductions during winter had a larger impact than during the rest of the year. This leads to the conclusion that a reduction of the ammonia emissions from the agricultural sector related to animal husbandry could be more efficient than the reduction from other sectors due to its larger share in winter ammonia emissions.

  20. A spatial ammonia emission inventory for pig farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebolledo, Boris; Gil, Antonia; Pallarés, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric emissions of ammonia (NH3) from the agricultural sector have become a significant environmental and public concern as they have impacts on human health and ecosystems. This work proposes an improved methodology in order to identify administrative regions with high NH3 emissions from pig farming and calculates an ammonia density map (kg NH3-N ha-1), based on the number of pigs and available agricultural land, terrain slopes, groundwater bodies, soil permeability, zones sensitive to nitrate pollution and surface water buffer zones. The methodology has been used to construct a general tool for locating ammonia emissions from pig farming when detailed information of livestock farms is not available.

  1. Ammonia emission time profiles based on manure transport data improve ammonia modelling across north western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, C.; Kranenburg, R.; Kuenen, J. J. P.; Van den Bril, B.; Verguts, V.; Schaap, M.

    2016-04-01

    Accurate modelling of mitigation measures for nitrogen deposition and secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) episodes requires a detailed representation of emission patterns from agriculture. In this study the meteorological influence on the temporal variability of ammonia emissions from livestock housing and application of manure and fertilizer are included in the chemistry transport model LOTOS-EUROS. For manure application, manure transport data from Flanders (Belgium) were used as a proxy to derive the emission variability. Using improved ammonia emission variability strongly improves model performance for ammonia, mainly by a better representation of the spring maximum. The impact on model performance for SIA was negligible as explained by the limited, ammonia rich region in which the emission variability was updated. The contribution of Flemish agriculture to modelled annual mean ammonia and SIA concentrations in Flanders were quantified at respectively 7-8 and 1-2 μg/m3. A scenario study was performed to investigate the effects of reducing ammonia emissions from manure application during PM episodes by 75%, yielding a maximum reduction in modelled SIA levels of 1-3 μg/m3 during episodes. Year-to-year emission variability and a soil module to explicitly model the emission process from manure and fertilizer application are needed to further improve the modelling of the ammonia budget.

  2. Reducing ammonia emissions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.

    The NEC directive has set targets for the 2010 ammonia emissions from a number of European countries. The target will be reached by most EU-countries and the total emission for EU-27 has been reduced by 22% from 1990 to 2007. Denmark is one of the countries with the largest reductions since 1990...... not lived up to the high expectations at the outset. Despite this, the paper concludes that Denmark is likely to reduce emission by 50% from 1990 to 2020 and reach the likely 2020 NEC ceiling....

  3. Improving ammonia emissions in air quality modelling for France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaoui-Laguel, Lynda; Meleux, Frédérik; Beekmann, Matthias; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Génermont, Sophie; Cellier, Pierre; Létinois, Laurent

    2014-08-01

    We have implemented a new module to improve the representation of ammonia emissions from agricultural activities in France with the objective to evaluate the impact of such emissions on the formation of particulate matter modelled with the air quality model CHIMERE. A novel method has been set up for the part of ammonia emissions originating from mineral fertilizer spreading. They are calculated using the one dimensional 1D mechanistic model “VOLT'AIR” which has been coupled with data on agricultural practices, meteorology and soil properties obtained at high spatial resolution (cantonal level). These emissions display high spatiotemporal variations depending on soil pH, rates and dates of fertilization and meteorological variables, especially soil temperature. The emissions from other agricultural sources (animal housing, manure storage and organic manure spreading) are calculated using the national spatialised inventory (INS) recently developed in France. The comparison of the total ammonia emissions estimated with the new approach VOLT'AIR_INS with the standard emissions provided by EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme) used currently in the CHIMERE model shows significant differences in the spatiotemporal distributions. The implementation of new ammonia emissions in the CHIMERE model has a limited impact on ammonium nitrate aerosol concentrations which only increase at most by 10% on the average for the considered spring period but this impact can be more significant for specific pollution episodes. The comparison of modelled PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm) and ammonium nitrate aerosol with observations shows that the use of the new ammonia emission method slightly improves the spatiotemporal correlation in certain regions and reduces the negative bias on average by 1 μg m-3. The formation of ammonium nitrate aerosol depends not only on ammonia concentrations but also on nitric acid availability, which

  4. Atmospheric Fate and Transport of Agricultural Dust and Ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiranuma, N.; Brooks, S. D.; Thornton, D. C.; Auvermann, B. W.; Fitz, D. R.

    2008-12-01

    Agricultural fugitive dust and odor are significant sources of localized air pollution in the semi-arid southern Great Plains. Daily episodes of ground-level fugitive dust emissions from the cattle feedlots associated with increased cattle activity in the early evenings are routinely observed, while consistently high ammonia is observed throughout the day. Here we present measurements of aerosol size distributions and concentrations of gas and particulate phase ammonia species collected at a feedlot in Texas during summers of 2006, 2007 and 2008. A GRIMM sequential mobility particle sizer and GRIMM 1.108 aerosol spectrometer were used to determine aerosol size distributions in the range of 10 nm to 20 µm aerodynamic diameter at the downwind and upwind edges of the facility. Using aqueous scrubbers, simultaneous measurements of both gas phase and total ammonia species present in the gas and particle phases were also collected. In addition to the continuous measurements at the edges of the facility, coincident aerosol and ammonia measurements were obtain at an additional site further downwind (~3.5 km). Taken together our measurements will be used to quantify aerosol and ammonia dispersion and transport. Relationships between the fate and transport of the aerosols and ammonia will be discussed.

  5. Estimate of changes in agricultural terrestrial nitrogen pathways and ammonia emissions from 1850 to present in the Community Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddick, S. N.; Ward, D. S.; Hess, P.; Mahowald, N.; Massad, R. S.; Holland, E. A.

    2015-09-01

    Nitrogen applied to the surface of the land for agricultural purposes represents a significant source of reactive nitrogen (Nr) that can be emitted as a gaseous Nr species, be denitrified to atmospheric nitrogen (N2), run-off during rain events or form plant useable nitrogen in the soil. To investigate the magnitude, temporal variability and spatial heterogeneity of nitrogen pathways on a global scale from sources of animal manure and synthetic fertilizer, we developed a mechanistic parameterization of these pathways within a global terrestrial model. The parameterization uses a climate dependent approach whereby the relationships between meteorological variables and biogeochemical processes are used to calculate the volatilization of ammonia (NH3), nitrification and run-off of Nr following manure or fertilizer application. For the year 2000, we estimate global NH3 emission and Nr dissolved during rain events from manure at 21 and 11 Tg N yr-1, respectively; for synthetic fertilizer we estimate the NH3 emission and Nr run-off during rain events at 12 and 5 Tg N yr-1, respectively. The parameterization was implemented in the Community Land Model from 1850 to 2000 using a transient simulation which predicted that, even though absolute values of all nitrogen pathways are increasing with increased manure and synthetic fertilizer application, partitioning of nitrogen to NH3 emissions from manure is increasing on a percentage basis, from 14 % of nitrogen applied (3 Tg NH3 yr-1) in 1850 to 18 % of nitrogen applied in 2000 (22 Tg NH3 yr-1). While the model confirms earlier estimates of nitrogen fluxes made in a range of studies, its key purpose is to provide a theoretical framework that can be employed within a biogeochemical model, that can explicitly respond to climate and that can evolve and improve with further observation.

  6. Ammonia emissions in Europe, part I: Development of a dynamical ammonia emission inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Anna; Aulinger, Armin; Bieser, Johannes; Matthias, Volker; Quante, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen input from agricultural ammonia emissions into the environment causes numerous environmental and health problems. The purpose of this study is to present and evaluate an improved ammonia emission inventory based on a dynamical temporal parameterization suitable to compare and assess ammonia abatement strategies. The setup of the dynamical time profile (DTP) consists of individual temporal profiles for ammonia emissions, calculated for each model grid cell, depending on temperature, crop type, fertilizer and manure application, as well as on local legislation. It is based on the method of Skjøth et al., 2004 and Gyldenkærne et al., 2005. The method has been modified to cover the study area and to improve the performance of the emission model. To compare the results of the dynamical approach with the results of the static time profile (STP) the ammonia emission parameterizations have been implemented in the SMOKE for Europe emission model. Furthermore, the influence on secondary aerosol formation in the North Sea region and possible changes triggered through the use of a modified temporal distribution of ammonia emissions were analysed with the CMAQ chemistry transport model. The results were evaluated with observations of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP). The correlation coefficient of NH3 improved significantly for 12 out of 16 EMEP measurement stations and an improvement in predicting the Normalized Mean Error can be seen for particulate NH4+ and NO3-. The prediction of the 95th percentile of the daily average concentrations has improved for NH3, NH4+ and NO3-. The NH3 concentration modelled with the STP is 157% higher in winter, and about 22% lower in early summer than the one modelled with the new DTP. Consequently, the influence of the DTP on the formation of secondary aerosols is particularly noticeable in winter, when the PM2.5 concentration is 25% lower in comparison to the use of STP for temporal disaggregation. Besides

  7. Estimate of changes in agricultural terrestrial nitrogen pathways and ammonia emissions from 1850 to present in the Community Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddick, Stuart; Ward, Daniel; Hess, Peter; Mahowald, Natalie; Massad, Raia; Holland, Elisabeth

    2016-06-01

    Nitrogen applied to the surface of the land for agricultural purposes represents a significant source of reactive nitrogen (Nr) that can be emitted as a gaseous Nr species, be denitrified to atmospheric nitrogen (N2), run off during rain events or form plant-useable nitrogen in the soil. To investigate the magnitude, temporal variability and spatial heterogeneity of nitrogen pathways on a global scale from sources of animal manure and synthetic fertilizer, we developed a mechanistic parameterization of these pathways within a global terrestrial land model, the Community Land Model (CLM). In this first model version the parameterization emphasizes an explicit climate-dependent approach while using highly simplified representations of agricultural practices, including manure management and fertilizer application. The climate-dependent approach explicitly simulates the relationship between meteorological variables and biogeochemical processes to calculate the volatilization of ammonia (NH3), nitrification and runoff of Nr following manure or synthetic fertilizer application. For the year 2000, approximately 125 Tg N yr-1 is applied as manure and 62 Tg N yr-1 is applied as synthetic fertilizer. We estimate the resulting global NH3 emissions are 21 Tg N yr-1 from manure (17 % of manure production) and 12 Tg N yr-1 from fertilizer (19 % of fertilizer application); reactive nitrogen runoff during rain events is calculated as 11 Tg N yr-1 from manure and 5 Tg N yr-1 from fertilizer. The remaining nitrogen from manure (93 Tg N yr-1) and synthetic fertilizer (45 Tg N yr-1) is captured by the canopy or transferred to the soil nitrogen pools. The parameterization was implemented in the CLM from 1850 to 2000 using a transient simulation which predicted that, even though absolute values of all nitrogen pathways are increasing with increased manure and synthetic fertilizer application, partitioning of nitrogen to NH3 emissions from manure is increasing on a percentage basis, from

  8. Ammonia assessment from agriculture: U.S. status and needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneja, Viney P; Blunden, Jessica; James, Kristen; Schlesinger, William H; Knighton, Raymond; Gilliam, Wendell; Jennings, Greg; Niyogi, Dev; Cole, Shawn

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that human activities accelerate the production of reactive nitrogen on a global scale. Increased nitrogen emissions may lead to environmental impacts including photochemical air pollution, reduced visibility, changes in biodiversity, and stratospheric ozone depletion. In the last 50 yr, emissions of ammonia (NH3), which is the most abundant form of reduced reactive nitrogen in the atmosphere, have significantly increased as a result of intensive agricultural management and greater livestock production in many developed countries. These agricultural production practices are increasingly subject to governmental regulations intended to protect air resources. It is therefore important that an accurate and robust agricultural emission factors database exist to provide valid scientific support of these regulations. This paper highlights some of the recent work that was presented at the 2006 Workshop on Agricultural Air Quality in Washington, D.C. regarding NH3 emissions estimates and emission factors from agricultural sources in the U.S. and Europe. In addition, several best management practices are explored as the scientific community attempts to maximize the beneficial use of reactive nitrogen while simultaneously minimizing negative environmental impacts. PMID:18389937

  9. Evaluation of ammonia emissions from broiler litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia emissions from poultry litter results in air pollution and can cause high levels of ammonia in poultry houses, which negatively impacts bird performance. The objectives of this study were to: (1) conduct a nitrogen (N) mass balance in broiler houses by measuring the N inputs (bedding, chick...

  10. Quantification of reductions in ammonia emissions from fertiliser urea and animal urine in grazed pastures with urease inhibitors for agriculture inventory: New Zealand as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggar, Surinder; Singh, J; Giltrap, D L; Zaman, M; Luo, J; Rollo, M; Kim, D-G; Rys, G; van der Weerden, T J

    2013-11-01

    Urea is the key nitrogen (N) fertiliser for grazed pastures, and is also present in excreted animal urine. In soil, urea hydrolyses rapidly to ammonium (NH4(+)) and may be lost as ammonia (NH3) gas. Unlike nitrous oxide (N2O), however, NH3 is not a greenhouse gas although it can act as a secondary source of N2O, and hence contribute indirectly to global warming and stratospheric ozone depletion. Various urease inhibitors (UIs) have been used over the last 30 years to reduce NH3 losses. Among these, N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (nBTPT), sold under the trade name Agrotain®, is currently the most promising and effective when applied with urea or urine. Here we conduct a critical analysis of the published and non-published data on the effectiveness of nBTPT in reducing NH3 emission, from which adjusted values for FracGASF (fraction of total N fertiliser emitted as NH3) and FracGASM (fraction of total N from, animal manure and urine emitted as NH3) for the national agriculture greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory are recommended in order to provide accurate data for the inventory. We use New Zealand as a case study to assess and quantify the overall reduction in NH3 emission from urea and animal urine with the application of UI nBTPT. The available literature indicates that an application rate of 0.025% w/w (nBTPT per unit of N) is optimum for reducing NH3 emissions from temperate grasslands. UI-treated urine studies gave highly variable reductions (11-93%) with an average of 53% and a 95% confidence interval of 33-73%. New Zealand studies, using UI-treated urea, suggest that nBTPT (0.025% w/w) reduces NH3 emissions by 44.7%, on average, with a confidence interval of 39-50%. On this basis, a New Zealand specific value of 0.055 for FracGASF FNUI (fraction of urease inhibitor treated total fertiliser N emitted as NH3) is recommended for adoption where urea containing UI are applied as nBTPT at a rate of 0.025% w/w. Only a limited number of published data sets are

  11. Study of Ammonia Emissions in a Ventilated Pig Pen

    OpenAIRE

    Rong, Li

    2011-01-01

    Pig productions cause a wide emission of odors, such as ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and methane (CH4). Ammonia is one of the most important emissions for evaluating the air quality either in animal buildings or atmospheric environment. In studies of ammonia emission from animal buildings reported in literature, little effort has been made to investigate the accuracy of current Henry’s law constant for modeling ammonia mass transfer process and study ammonia emissions in a full scal...

  12. Modelling of ammonia emissions from dairy cow houses

    OpenAIRE

    Monteny, G.J.

    2000-01-01

    Dairy cow husbandry contributes to environmental acidification through the emission of ammonia. In-depth knowledge on the processes and variable factors that play a role in the emission of ammonia from dairy cow houses benefits the production of emission data, the development of low emission housing systems, and evaluation of emission levels in a farming system approach. A mechanistic simulation model for the ammonia emission from dairy cow houses was developed to facilitate this.An ammonia p...

  13. A high-resolution ammonia emission inventory in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin; Song, Yu; Li, Mengmeng; Li, Jianfeng; Huo, Qing; Cai, Xuhui; Zhu, Tong; Hu, Min; Zhang, Hongsheng

    2012-03-01

    The existence of gas-phase ammonia (NH3) in the atmosphere and its interaction with other trace chemical species could have a substantial impact on tropospheric chemistry and global climate change. China is a large agricultural country with an enormous animal population, tremendous nitrogen fertilizer consumption and, consequently, a large emission of NH3. Despite the importance of NH3 in the global nitrogen (N) cycle, considerable inaccuracies and uncertainty exist regarding its emission in China. In this study, a comprehensive NH3 emission inventory was compiled for China on a 1 km × 1 km grid, which is suitable for input to atmospheric models. We attempted to estimate NH3 emissions accurately by taking into consideration as many native experiment results as possible and parameterizing the emission factors (EFs) by the ambient temperature, soil acidity and other factors. The total NH3emission in China was approximately 9.8 Tg in 2006. The emission sources considered included livestock excreta (5.3 Tg), fertilizer application (3.2 Tg), agricultural soil (0.2 Tg), nitrogen-fixing plants (0.05 Tg), crop residue compost (0.3 Tg), biomass burning (0.1 Tg), urine from rural populations (0.2 Tg), chemical industry (0.2 Tg), waste disposal (0.1 Tg) and traffic (0.1 Tg). The regions with the highest emission rates are located in Central and Southwest China. Seasonally, the peak ammonia emissions occur in spring and summer.

  14. Net summertime emission of ammonia from corn and triticale fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Undine; Smith, Jeremy; Brümmer, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Recent advancements in laser spectrometry offer new opportunities to investigate ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of environmentally relevant trace gases. In this study, we used a quantum cascade laser (QCL) absorption spectrometer to continuously measure high-frequency concentrations of ammonia and the net exchange between an agricultural site and the atmosphere based on the eddy-covariance approach. The footprint was split into two main sectors, one planted with corn (Zea mays) and the other one with triticale. Ammonia concentrations were highly variable between 2 and almost 100 ppb with an average value of 8.1 ppb during the observation period from April to September 2015. While both deposition and emission of ammonia was observed, the total campaign exchange resulted in a loss of 3.3 kg NH3-N ha‑1. Highest average emission fluxes of 65 ng N m‑2 s‑1 were recorded after fertilization at the beginning of the campaign in April and May. Afterwards the exchange of ammonia with the atmosphere decreased considerably, but the site remained on average a consistent source with sporadic lower peaks and an average flux of 13 ng N m‑2 s‑1. While management in the form of fertilization was the main driver for ammonia concentration and exchange at the site, biophysical controls from temperature, wind regime, and surface wetness are also presented.

  15. Ammonia emission inventory for the state of Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Maser, Colette R.; Brown, Nancy J.

    2003-12-17

    Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) is the only significant gaseous base in the atmosphere and it has a variety of impacts as an atmospheric pollutant, including the formation of secondary aerosol particles: ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate. NH{sub 3} preferentially forms ammonium sulfate; consequently ammonium nitrate aerosol formation may be limited by the availability of NH{sub 3}. Understanding the impact of emissions of oxides of sulfur and nitrogen on visibility, therefore, requires accurately determined ammonia emission inventories for use in air quality models, upon which regulatory and policy decisions increasingly depend. This report presents an emission inventory of NH{sub 3} for the state of Wyoming. The inventory is temporally and spatially resolved at the monthly and county level, and is comprised of emissions from individual sources in ten categories: livestock, fertilizer, domestic animals, wild animals, wildfires, soil, industry, mobile sources, humans, and publicly owned treatment works. The Wyoming NH{sub 3} inventory was developed using the Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) Ammonia Model as framework. Current Wyoming-specific activity data and emissions factors obtained from state agencies and published literature were assessed and used as inputs to the CMU Ammonia Model. Biogenic emissions from soils comprise about three-quarters of the Wyoming NH{sub 3} inventory, though emission factors from soils are highly uncertain. Published emission factors are scarce and based on limited measurements. In Wyoming, agricultural land, rangeland, and forests comprise 96% of the land area and essentially all of the estimated emissions from soils. Future research on emission rates of NH{sub 3} for these land categories may lead to a substantial change in the magnitude of soil emissions, a different inventory composition, and reduced uncertainty in the inventory. While many NH{sub 3} inventories include annual emissions, air quality modeling studies require finer temporal

  16. Modelling of ammonia emissions from dairy cow houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteny, G.J.

    2000-01-01

    Dairy cow husbandry contributes to environmental acidification through the emission of ammonia. In-depth knowledge on the processes and variable factors that play a role in the emission of ammonia from dairy cow houses benefits the production of emission data, the development of low emission housing

  17. Options and Costs of Controlling Ammonia Emissions in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Klaassen, G.

    1994-01-01

    Ammonia emissions contribute to acidification in Europe. The major emission sources are livestock and fertilizer use. This study presents the costs of controlling ammonia emissions in 33 regions in Europe. Abatement options include low nitrogen feed, stable adaptations, covering manure storage, cleaning stable air, and low ammonia applications of manure. Cost estimates are based on country- and technology-specific data. The structure of livestock population and fertilizer use mean that th...

  18. Atmospheric Ammonia Emissions from a Dairy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumburg, B. P.; Filipy, J. M.; Bays, J.; Mount, G. H.; Yonge, D.; Lamb, B. K.; Johnson, K.; Kincaid, R.

    2002-12-01

    Gaseous ammonia (NH3) emissions at high concentrations can damage human and animal respiratory systems. NH3 environmental impacts include aerosol formation, altering atmospheric chemistry, terrestrial and aquatic eutrophication, soil acidification and global warming. Preindustrial NH3 emissions are estimated to be 21 Tg yr-1 while current emissions are estimated to be 47 Tg yr-1 with most of the increase coming from domestic animals (Galloway et al., 1995). There is a lack of detailed emission data from the United States and there are many problems with applying emissions estimates from Europe due to the difference in farming practices between the two regions. Feed and manure management practices can have a large impact on emissions. We are studying NH3 emissions at the WSU dairy located near Pullman, WA to provide a detailed emission inventory of the various sources at the dairy. The dairy has approximately 170 milking cows housed in open air barns and the waste from the milking cows is stored in liquid slurry lagoons until it is applied to grass fields in the late summer. NH3 is measured using a short-path spectroscopic absorption near 200 nm with a sensitivity of a few ppbv and a time resolution of a few seconds. The open air short-path method is advantageous because it is self calibrating and avoids inlet wall adherence which is a major problem for most NH3 measurement techniques. As part of the detailed emission inventory, NH3 fluxes were determined from the milking stalls, main slurry lagoon and the application of slurry to the fields with a large sprinkler using a SF6 tracer technique and a dense point Gaussian plume model. NH3 emission fluxes from various parts of the dairy will be presented.

  19. Study of Ammonia Emissions in a Ventilated Pig Pen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Li

    Pig productions cause a wide emission of odors, such as ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and methane (CH4). Ammonia is one of the most important emissions for evaluating the air quality either in animal buildings or atmospheric environment. In studies of ammonia emission from animal buildings...... emission rate was measured in a wind tunnel under different airflow and ammonium solution temperatures. This investigation provides a general understanding for the influence of velocity, turbulence intensity and temperature on the ammonia emissions. The relationship between ammonia emissions and boundary...... layer thickness of velocity are shown linearly under different ammonium solution temperatures. Using the experiment data measured in the wind tunnel including velocity, concentration and temperature profiles and emission rate, this study adopts computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to investigate the...

  20. Measurement of Ammonia Emission Following Surface Application of Urea Fertilizer from Irrigated Paddy Rice Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md.Toufiq Iqbal; TIAN Guang-ming; LIANG Xin-qiang; Fatima Rukshana

    2005-01-01

    Ammonia emission is one of the most important pathways of nitrogen loss from agricultural cultivated field. In this paper, we report the measurement of ammonia emission from paddy rice field obtained by surface application of urea fertilizer with water management. The main objective of the present study were to assess the amount of NH3 emission and the loss of nitrogen from paddy field as affected by various N doses, i.e., 0 (control), 90 (N1), 180 (N2), 270 (N3) and 360 (N4) kg ha-1, following field surface application of urea fertilizer with water management. Ammonia emissions were measured by continuous airflow enclosure method from plots fertilized with the application of surface urea. Increase in urea-N dosage increased NH3 emission thatwas measured from paddy rice field. Ammonia emission started immediately and was almost complete within 12 days after top dressing of urea application to the soils. Ammonia emissions were nearly constant in all treatments from 12 days after fertilizer application. Highest ammonia emission rate was 28 g/day and total amount of ammonia emission was 56.21 kg ha-1 for 360 kg N ha-1 dose. No remarkable observation was found about temperature for ammonia emission. Due to proper water management practices less emission was observed throughout the experiment period. The results also show that N loss through NH3 emission accounted for 11 to 16% during the ricegrowing season. These magnitudes of loss of N appear to be most important for environmental point of view.

  1. Spatial and temporal variations in ammonia emissions - a freely accessible model code for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Geels, Camilla; Berge, H.; Gyldenkærne, Steen; Fagerli, H.; Ellermann, Thomas; Frohn, Lise; Christensen, Jesper Heile; Hansen, Kaj Mantzius; Hansen, Kristina; Hertel, Ole

    2011-01-01

    demonstrates how local climate and local management can be accounted for in CTMs by applying a modular approach for deriving data as input to a dynamic ammonia emission model for Europe. Default data are obtained from information in the RAINS system, and it is demonstrated how this dynamic emission model based......Deriving a parameterisation of ammonia emissions for use in chemistry-transport models (CTMs) is a complex problem as the emission varies locally as a result of local climate and local agricultural management. In current CTMs such factors are generally not taken into account. This paper...

  2. Atmospheric ammonia over China: emission estimates and impacts on air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Zhao, Yuanhong; Chen, Youfan; Henze, Daven

    2016-04-01

    Ammonia (NH3) in the atmosphere is an important precursor of inorganic aerosols, and its deposition through wet and dry processes can cause adverse effects on ecosystems. The ammonia emissions over China are particularly large due to intensive agricultural activities, yet our current estimates of Chinese ammonia emissions and associated consequences on air quality are subject to large errors. Here we use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and its adjoint model to better quantify this issue. The TES satellite observations of ammonia concentrations and surface measurements of wet deposition fluxes are assimilated into the model to constrain the ammonia emissions over China. Optimized emissions show a strong seasonal variability with emissions in summer a factor of 3 higher than winter. We improve the bottom-up estimate of Chinese ammonia emissions from fertilizer use by using more practical feritilizer application rates for different crop types, which explains most of the discrepancies between our top-down estimates and prior emission estimates. We further use the GEOS-Chem adjoint at 0.25x0.3125 degree resolution to examine the sources contributing to the PM2.5 air pollution over North China. We show that wintertime PM2.5 over Beijing is largely contributed by residential and industrial sources, and ammonia emissions from agriculture activities. PM2.5 concentrations over North China are particularly sensitive to NH3 emissions in cold seasons due to strong nitrate formation. By converting shorted-lived nitric acid to aerosol nitrate, NH3 significantly promotes the regional transport influences of PM2.5 sources.

  3. Development and application of the integrated nitrogen model MITERRA-EUROPE . Task 1 Service contract "Integrated measures in agriculture to reduce ammonia emissions"

    OpenAIRE

    Velthof, G.L.; Oudendag, D.A.; Oenema, O.

    2007-01-01

    The objective is to have developed and applied a methodology allowing to assess and quantify the effects and costs of various policies and measures aiming at reducing the impact of agriculture on water air pollution and climate change. Both ancillary benefits and trade offs of measures have to be identified. In this report, the integrated approach of task 1 is described: development of an integrated approach. The model MITERRA-EUROPE is developed in this project. It is a model that can be use...

  4. CO2 emissions and mitigation potential in China's ammonia industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant pressure from increasing CO2 emissions and energy consumption in China's industrialization process has highlighted a need to understand and mitigate the sources of these emissions. Ammonia production, as one of the most important fundamental industries in China, represents those heavy industries that contribute largely to this sharp increasing trend. In the country with the largest population in the world, ammonia output has undergone fast growth spurred by increasing demand for fertilizer of food production since 1950s. However, various types of technologies implemented in the industry make ammonia plants in China operate with huge differences in both energy consumption and CO2 emissions. With consideration of these unique features, this paper attempts to estimate the amount of CO2 emission from China's ammonia production, and analyze the potential for carbon mitigation in the industry. Based on the estimation, related policy implications and measures required to realize the potential for mitigation are also discussed.

  5. Mapping Atmospheric Ammonia Emissions Using a Mobile Quantum Cascade Laser-based Open-path Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, K.; Tao, L.; Miller, D. J.; Khan, M. A.; Zondlo, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Ammonia (NH3) is a key precursor to atmospheric fine particulate matter, with strong implications for regional air quality and global climate change. Despite the importance of atmospheric ammonia, its spatial/temporal variation is poorly characterized, and the knowledge of its sources, sinks, and transport is severely limited. Existing measurements suggest that traffic exhaust may provide significant amounts of ammonia in urban areas, which cause greater impacts on particulate matter formation and urban air quality. To capture the spatial and temporal variation of ammonia emissions, a portable, low power sensor with high time resolution is necessary. We have developed a portable open-path ammonia sensor with a detection limit of 0.5 ppbv ammonia for 1 s measurements. The sensor has a power consumption of about 60 W and is capable of running on a car battery continuously for 24 hours. An additional laser has been coupled to the sensor to yield concurrent N2O and CO measurements as tracers for determining various sources. The overall sensor prototype fits on a 60 cm × 20 cm aluminum breadboard. Roadside measurements indicated NH3/CO emission ratios of 4.1±5.4 ppbv/ppmv from a fleet of 320 vehicles, which agree with existing on-ramp measurements. Urban measurements in the Baltimore and Washington, DC metropolitan areas have shown significant ammonia mixing ratios concurrent with carbon monoxide levels from the morning and evening rush hours. On-road measurements of our open-path sensor have also been performed continuously from the Midwest to Princeton, NJ including urban areas such as Pittsburgh, tunnels, and relatively clean conditions. The emission ratios of ammonia against CO and/or CO2 help identify the sources and amounts of both urban and agricultural ammonia emissions. Preliminary data from both spatial mapping, monitoring, and vehicle exhaust measurements suggest that urban ammonia emissions from fossil fuel combustion are significant and may provide an

  6. Modeling of ammonia emission in the USA and EU countries using an artificial neural network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenković, Lidija J; Antanasijević, Davor Z; Ristić, Mirjana Đ; Perić-Grujić, Aleksandra A; Pocajt, Viktor V

    2015-12-01

    Ammonia emissions at the national level are frequently estimated by applying the emission inventory approach, which includes the use of emission factors, which are difficult and expensive to determine. Emission factors are therefore the subject of estimation, and as such they contribute to inherent uncertainties in the estimation of ammonia emissions. This paper presents an alternative approach for the prediction of ammonia emissions at the national level based on artificial neural networks and broadly available sustainability and economical/agricultural indicators as model inputs. The Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) architecture was optimized using a trial-and-error procedure, including the number of hidden neurons, activation function, and a back-propagation algorithm. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to reduce mutual correlation between the inputs. The obtained results demonstrate that the MLP model created using the PCA transformed inputs (PCA-MLP) provides a more accurate prediction than the MLP model based on the original inputs. In the validation stage, the MLP and PCA-MLP models were tested for ammonia emission predictions for up to 2 years and compared with a principal component regression model. Among the three models, the PCA-MLP demonstrated the best performance, providing predictions for the USA and the majority of EU countries with a relative error of less than 20%. PMID:26201663

  7. Danish emission inventory for agriculture. Inventories 1985 - 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjorth Mikkelsen, M.; Albrektsen, R.; Gyldenkaerne, S.

    2011-02-15

    By regulations given in international conventions Denmark is obliged to work out an annual emission inventory and document the methodology. The National Environmental Research Institute (NERI) at Aarhus University (AU) in Denmark is responsible for calculating and reporting the emissions. This report contains a description of the emissions from the agricultural sector from 1985 to 2009. Furthermore, the report includes a detailed description of methods and data used to calculate the emissions, which is based on national methodologies as well as international guidelines. For the Danish emissions calculations and data management an Integrated Database model for Agricultural emissions (IDA) is used. The emission from the agricultural sector includes emission of the greenhouse gases methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), particulate matter (PM), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) and other pollutants related to the field burning of agricultural residue such as NO{sub x}, CO{sub 2}, CO, SO{sub 2}, heavy metals, dioxin and PAH. The ammonia emission from 1985 to 2009 has decreased from 119 300 tonnes of NH{sub 3} to 73 800 tonnes NH{sub 3}, corresponding to a 38 % reduction. The emission of greenhouse gases has decreased by 25 % from 12.9 M tonnes CO{sub 2} equivalents to 9.6 M tonnes CO{sub 2} equivalents from 1985 to 2009. Improvements in feed efficiency and utilisation of nitrogen in livestock manure are the most important reasons for the reduction of both the ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions. (Author)

  8. Managing Ammonia Emissions From Screwworm Larval Rearing Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagel, Agustin; Phillips, Pamela; Chaudhury, Muhammad; Skoda, Steven

    2016-02-01

    Mass production, sterilization, and release of screwworms (Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel)) that were competitive in the field significantly contributed to the successful application of the sterile insect technique for eradication of screwworms from continental North America. Metabolic byproducts resulting from protein-rich diets required for larval screwworms lead to ammonia liberation, sometimes at high levels, within the mass rearing facility. Until recently a sodium polyacrylate gel bulking agent was used for the larval media and adsorbed much of the ammonia. A need to replace the gel with an environmentally "friendly" bulking agent, while not increasing ammonia levels in the rearing facility, led to a series of experiments with the objective of developing procedures to reduce ammonia emissions from the larval media bulked with cellulose fiber. Additives of ammonia-converting bacteria, potassium permanganate, and Yucca schidigera Roezl ex Otrgies powder extract, previously reported to reduce ammonia levels in organic environments, were evaluated. Ammonia-converting bacteria did not have a positive effect. Addition of Y. schidigera powder extract (∼1% of total volume), potassium permanganate (∼250 ppm), and a combination of these two additives (at these same concentrations) kept ammonia at equivalent levels as when larval media was bulked with gel. Potassium permanganate also had sufficient antimicrobial properties that the use of formaldehyde in the diet was not necessary. Further testing is needed, at a mass rearing level, before full implementation into the screwworm eradication program. PMID:26468514

  9. Effects of conservation tillage practices on ammonia emissions from Loess Plateau rain-fed winter wheat fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Zhou, Chunju; Li, Na; Han, Kun; Meng, Yuan; Tian, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Linquan

    2015-03-01

    Ammonia emissions from agricultural activities contribute to air pollution. For the rain-fed winter wheat system in the Loess Plateau there is a lack of information about ammonia emissions. Current study aimed to provide field data on ammonia emissions affected by conservation tillage practices and nitrogen applications. A two-year field experiment was conducted during 2011-2013 wheat growing seasons followed a split-plot design. Main plots consisted of one conventional tillage (CT, as the control) and five conservation tillage systems, i.e., stalk mulching (SM), film mulching (FM), ridge tillage (RT), ridge tillage with film mulch on the ridge (RTfm), and ridge tillage with film mulch on the ridge and stalk mulch in the furrow (RTfmsm); while subplots consisted of two nitrogen application rates, i.e., 0 and 180 kg N ha-1. Ammonia emissions were measured using an acid trapping method with vented chambers. Results showed ammonia fluxes peaked during the first 10 days after fertilization. On average, nitrogen application increased ammonia emissions by 26.5% (1.31 kg N ha-1) compared with treatments without nitrogen application (P soil ammonium, moisture, and temperature. Tillage systems had significant effects on ammonia emissions. On average, conservation tillage practices reduced ammonia emissions by 7.7% (0.46 kg N ha-1) compared with conventional tillage (P effective. Deep-band application of nitrogen fertilizer, stalk mulches, and film mulches were responsible for reductions in ammonia emissions from nitrogen fertilization in conservation tillage systems, thus they were recommended to reduce ammonia emissions from winter wheat production regions in the southern Loess Plateau.

  10. Carbon footprint and ammonia emissions of California beef production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beef production is a recognized source of greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia (NH3) emissions; however, little information exists on the net emissions from beef production systems. A partial life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted using the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM) to estimate GHG and NH3 ...

  11. Process-based modelling of ammonia emission over a urine patch - Towards developing a field scale emission model for regional use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moring, Andrea; Vieno, Massimo; Doherty, Ruth; Sutton, Mark A.

    2014-05-01

    This work investigates the influence of meteorological factors on ammonia related atmospheric processes, with a special focus on emission from grazing. For this purpose we are developing a process-based model (GAG: Generation of Ammonia from Grazing) driven by meteorology that can simulate the ammonia emission from a field covered by urine patches. The aim of this work is to implement the GAG model into the EMEP atmospheric chemical transport model (ACTM), and examine the changes of surface ammonia concentrations under future climate scenarios. The research is carried out within the framework of the ECLAIRE project (Effects of Climate Change on Air Pollution and Response Strategies for European Ecosystems). To estimate the sensitivity of surface concentrations of ammonia to a temperature dependent emission approach, we applied a temperature function in the EMEP model for the agricultural ammonia emissions from the UK. With the original emissions the resulting surface ammonia concentration has a bimodal seasonal tendency, with a peak in the beginning of the spring when agricultural management starts and with a second maximum during the autumn when fertilizer is typically spread. With our new temperature dependent approach the seasonal cycle became unimodal with a peak in June. This significant difference supports the need for a dynamic emission approach in ACTMs. The GAG model currently works for a single urine patch. Before it calculates the ammonia emission flux over the urine patch the model simulates the ammoniacal nitrogen budget and the water budget under the patch. The preliminary results for emission fluxes are in good agreement with the measurements. However, the differences highlight that further improvements are necessary.

  12. Ammonia-Oxidizer Communities in an Agricultural Soil treated with Contrasting Nitrogen Sources.

    OpenAIRE

    Mussie Y. Habteselassie; Li eXu; Norton, Jeanette M.

    2013-01-01

    The community of ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes was examined in an agricultural soil treated for 6 seasons with contrasting nitrogen (N) sources. Molecular tools based on the gene encoding ammonia monooxygenase were used to characterize the ammonia oxidizer communities and their abundance. Soil DNA was extracted from soils sampled from silage corn plots that received no additional N (control), dairy waste compost (DC), liquid dairy waste (LW), and ammonium sulfate (AS) treatments at approxima...

  13. Ammonia and methane emissions from cattle and dairy feedlots in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golston, L.; Pan, D.; Stanton, L. G.; Tao, L.; Sun, K.; Zondlo, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are recognized as a major contributor of both methane and ammonia to the atmosphere. Ammonia is released by volatilization of urea and nitrogen containing wastes from the feedlot surface and waste management systems, while methane is produced from enteric fermentation and primarily exhaled into the atmosphere. Our objective was to survey plumes downwind of open lot feedyards near Greeley, Colorado and surrounding areas, to quantify the spatial and temporal variability of agricultural emissions in this area. Research was conducted during the month-long NASA DISCOVER-AQ campaign in July-August 2014, with over 4000 km of on-road measurements. Methane and ammonia concentrations were measured using open-path laser spectroscopy, along with water vapor, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide on a roof-mounted, mobile platform. The open-path design enables high resolution measurements of ammonia with minimized sampling issues. Concurrent measurements during the campaign by other groups on stationary and aircraft platforms help characterize the meteorological conditions and atmospheric chemistry. We present measurements from 65 of the 67 registered CAFOs in Weld County, which contain up to 660,000 cattle-equivalent animals units. The ammonia to methane enhancement ratio, ΔNH3:ΔCH4, was positively skewed with a median of 0.14 ± 0.04 ppmv/ppmv, consistent with our previous measurements during DISCOVER-AQ California. Due to the much greater variability of ammonia compared to methane, the emissions ratio is used to provide an estimate of feedyard ammonia emissions, with results divided for cattle, dairy, and sheep. Using the most recent emissions estimates of methane, we calculated a total of ≈28.8 TgNH3/yr released globally from feedlots alone, nearly as large as the IPCC's estimate of 30.4 Tg/yr from all agriculture sources. This discrepancy suggests feedyard ammonia is underrepresented in current inventories and models, and

  14. Measures to reduce ammonia emissions in pig production

    OpenAIRE

    Botermans, Jos; Gustafsson, Gösta; Jeppsson, Knut-Håkan; Brown, Nils; Rodhe, Lena

    2010-01-01

    In this literature review, measures of reducing the ammonia (NH3) emissions from pig production are described, with focus on systems that can be used under Swedish conditions. The entire production chain with feed, housing, manure storage and application on the field is described and taken into consideration. However, in order to limit the study, the production of crops for feed is not included. As compared to many other countries, emissions of NH3 in Swedish pig production are already low, d...

  15. Ammonia emissions in tunnel-ventilated broiler houses

    OpenAIRE

    KAO Lima; DJ de Moura; TMR Carvalho; LGF Bueno; RA Vercellino

    2011-01-01

    Gas production in broiler houses and their emissions are closely related to the microclimate established inside the house according to air temperature, humidity, and velocity. Therefore, the internal house environment is influenced by building typology and ventilation system. The objective of the present study was to evaluate ammonia emission rates in broiler houses equipped with different ventilation systems (negative or positive pressure) and litter conditions (new or built-up). The environ...

  16. Nitrogenous fertilizers: Global distribution of consumption and associated emissions of nitrous exide and ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Elaine

    1994-12-01

    The global distribution of nitrogen input via application of chemical nitrogenous fertilizers to agricultural ecosystems is presented. The suite of 1° (latitude/longitude) resolution data bases includes primary data on fertilizer consumption, as well as supporting data sets defining the distribution and intensity of agriculture associated with fertilizer use. The data were developed from a variety of sources and reflect conditions for the mid-1980s. East Asia, where fertilizer use is increasing at ˜10%/year, accounted for ˜37% of the total, while North America and western Europe, where fertilizer use is leveling off, accounted for 17% and 14% of global use, respectively. Former centrally planned economies of Europe consumed one fifth of the 1984 total, but rapid increases in the 1980s are slowing, and consumption trends are variable. The most widely used chemical nitrogenous fertilizer is urea which accounted for 40% of the world's total in the mid-1980s. While almost every country consumes urea, ˜75% of the large East Asian fertilizer use is supplied by this one fertilizer. Ammonium nitrate, used primarily in the former centrally planned economies of Europe, in West Asia, and in Africa, accounted for about one quarter of global consumption. These data were used to estimate distributions of the annual emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) and of ammonia (NH3) associated with the use of fertilizers. Applying published ranges of emission coefficients for fertilizer types in the data base yields a median emission of 0.1 Tg N2O-N, with lower and upper values of 0.03 and 2.0 Tg N2O-N in 1984. This equals fertilizers and represents fertilizers during the 1980s corresponds to a ˜4% rise in the release of N2O-N, yearly increases in emissions from fertilizer use are fertilizer-derived nitrous oxide emissions are available for agricultural environments in the tropics/subtropics, where ˜40% of fertilizer N is consumed and where consumption is increasing rapidly, relative

  17. Paecilomyces variotii: A Fungus Capable of Removing Ammonia Nitrogen and Inhibiting Ammonia Emission from Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiyun; Liu, Guohua; Cai, Huiyi; Shi, Pengjun; Chang, Wenhuan; Zhang, Shu; Zheng, Aijuan; Xie, Qing; Ma, Jianshuang

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emissions from animal manure are a significant environmental and public concern. Despite the numerous studies regarding NH3 emissions from manure, few of them have considered microbial nitrification approaches, especially fungal nitrification. In this study, a filamentous fungus was isolated from chicken manure and was used for nitrification. The species was Paecilomyces variotii by morphological characteristics and 18S rDNA gene sequencing. It played the biggest role in the removal of ammonium at pH 4.0–7.0, C/N ratio of 10–40, temperature of 25–37°C, shaking speed of 150 rpm, and with glucose as the available carbon source. Further analysis revealed that all ammonium was removed when the initial ammonium concentration was less than 100 mg/L; 40% ammonium was removed when the initial ammonium concentration was 1100 mg/L. The results showed that the concentration of ammonia from chicken manure with strain Paecilomyces variotii was significantly lower than that in the control group. We concluded that Paecilomyces variotii has good potential for future applications in in situ ammonium removal as well as ammonia emissions control from poultry manure. PMID:27348533

  18. Air Emissions from Agriculture in Austria and Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDERL M.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A comparative picture of the trends in GHG emissions during 1990 – 2007 in Austria and Romania, within EU –27 tendencies context, with accent on agriculture sources is presented. The green house gases (GHG emissions fromagriculture in EU – 27 during 1990 and 2007 are mainly represented by methane (CH4 nitrous oxide (N2O andammonia (NH3. In Austria, all sectors have a decreasing tendency during the analyzed interval. In Romania, duringanalyzed interval, the GHG emissions from Romanian sector agriculture had the same decreasing tendency. The maindriving force in methane and nitrous oxide decrease, in both studied situations (Austrian and Romanian agriculturalsectors, respectively, is the declining number of animals. Concerning the ammonia emissions, the decrease was theresult of improvement in different sectors: housing, storage, spreading, and animal diets.

  19. Effect of Heat Fluxes on Ammonia Emission from Swine Waste Lagoon Based on Neural Network Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    N. Lovanh; A. Quintanar; M. Rysz; J. Loughrin; Mahmood, R.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding factors that affect ammonia emissions from swine waste lagoons or any animal waste receptacles is a necessary first step in deploying potential remediation options. In this study, we examined the various meteorological factors (i.e., air temperatures, solar radiation and heat fluxes) that potentially affect ammonia emissions from swine waste lagoon. Ammonia concentrations were monitored using a photoacoustic gas analyzer. The ammonia emissions from ...

  20. Ammonia emissions in the United States, European Union, and China derived by high-resolution inversion of ammonium wet deposition data: Interpretation with a new agricultural emissions inventory (MASAGE_NH3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We use the adjoint of a global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to optimizeammonia (NH3European Union, and China by inversion of 2005–2008 network data for NH+4 wet deposition fluxes. Optimized emissions are derive...

  1. Cost Functions for Controlling Ammonia Emissions in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Klaassen, G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a submodule which computes the costs of controlling ammonia emissions in 27 European countries. The submodule will be incorporated into the RAINS (Regional Acidification INformation and Simulation) model. Abatement options included are low nitrogen feed, stable adaptations, covering manure storage, biofiltration and low nitrogen applications of manure. Cost estimates are based on country-, animal-, and technology specific data such as the stable size and fertilizer price, ...

  2. Carbon footprint and ammonia emissions of California beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse-Lawson, K R; Rotz, C A; Oltjen, J W; Mitloehner, F M

    2012-12-01

    Beef production is a recognized source of greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia (NH(3)) emissions; however, little information exists on the net emissions from beef production systems. A partial life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted using the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM) to estimate GHG and NH(3) emissions from representative beef production systems in California. The IFSM is a process-level farm model that simulates crop growth, feed production and use, animal growth, and the return of manure nutrients back to the land to predict the environmental impacts and economics of production systems. Ammonia emissions are determined by summing the emissions from animal housing facilities, manure storage, field applied manure, and direct deposits of manure on pasture and rangeland. All important sources and sinks of methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide are predicted from primary and secondary emission sources. Primary sources include enteric fermentation, manure, cropland used in feed production, and fuel combustion. Secondary emissions occur during the production of resources used on the farm, which include fuel, electricity, machinery, fertilizer, and purchased animals. The carbon footprint is the net exchange of all GHG in carbon dioxide equivalent (CO(2)e) units per kg of HCW produced. Simulated beef production systems included cow-calf, stocker, and feedlot phases for the traditional British beef breeds and calf ranch and feedlot phases for Holstein steers. An evaluation of differing production management strategies resulted in ammonia emissions ranging from 98 ± 13 to 141 ± 27 g/kg HCW and carbon footprints of 10.7 ± 1.4 to 22.6 ± 2.0 kg CO(2)e/kg HCW. Within the British beef production cycle, the cow-calf phase was responsible for 69 to 72% of total GHG emissions with 17 to 27% from feedlot sources. Holstein steers that entered the beef production system as a by-product of dairy production had the lowest carbon footprint because the emissions

  3. Broadcast urea reduces N2O emissions but increases NO emissions compared with conventional and shallow-applied anhydrous ammonia in a coarse-textured soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantifying nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) fluxes from corn (Zea Mays L.) production fields under contrasting fertilizer regimes is essential for identifying ways of mitigating agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Despite the importance of anhydrous ammonia (AA) and urea as N fert...

  4. Micro-simulation as a tool to assess policy concerning non-point source pollution: the case of ammonia in Dutch agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Kruseman, G.; Blokland, P.W.; Bouma, F.; Luesink, H.H.; Vrolijk, H.C.J.

    2008-01-01

    Non-point source pollution is notoriously difficult to asses. A relevant example is ammonia emissions in the Netherlands. Since the mid 1980s the Dutch government has sought to reduce emissions through a wide variety of measures, the effect of which in turn is monitored using modeling techniques. This paper presents the current generation of mineral emission models from agriculture based on micro-simulation of farms in combination with a spatial equilibrium model for the dispersion of manure ...

  5. Micro-simulation as a tool to assess policy concerning non-point source pollution: the case of ammonia in Dutch agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Kruseman, Gideon; Blokland, Pieter-Willem; Bouma, Foppe; Luesink, Harry H.; Mokveld, Lennard J.; Vrolijk, Hans C.J.

    2008-01-01

    Non-point source pollution is notoriously difficult to assess. A relevant example is ammonia emissions in the Netherlands. Since the mid 1980s the Dutch government has sought to reduce emissions through a wide variety of measures, the effect of which in turn is monitored using modeling techniques. This paper presents the current generation of mineral emission models from agriculture based on micro-simulation of farms in combination with a spatial equilibrium model for the dispersion of manure...

  6. Ammonia emissions from cattle urine and dung excreted on pasture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laubach, J; Taghizadeh-Toosi, Arezoo; Gibbs, S J; Sherlock, R R; Kelliher, F M; Grover, S P P

    2013-01-01

    Twelve cattle were kept for three days in a circular area of 16 m radius on short pasture and fed with freshly-cut pasture. Ammonia (NH3) emissions from the urine and dung excreted by the cattle were measured with a micrometeorological mass-balance method, during the cattle presence and for 10...... subsequent days. Daily-integrated emission rates peaked on Day 3 of the experiment (last day of cattle presence) and declined steadily for five days thereafter. Urine patches were the dominant sources for these emissions. On Day 9, a secondary emissions peak occurred, with dung pats likely to be the main...... sources. This interpretation is based on simultaneous observations of the pH evolution in urine patches and dung pats created next to the circular plot. Feed and dung samples were analysed to estimate the amounts of nitrogen (N) ingested and excreted. Total N volatilised as NH3 was 19.8 (± 0.9)% of N...

  7. An assessment of ammonia emissions from dairy facilities in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, J D; Dou, Z; Ramberg, C F

    2001-10-26

    A survey of 715 Holstein dairy farms in Pennsylvania was used to construct demographics for the average Holstein dairy farm. The average Holstein dairy farm was composed of 69 lactating cows; 11 nonlactating, pregnant cows; 44 heifers; and 18 calves. Milk production averaged 27.3 kg (60.0 lb). Crop area averaged 73.6 ha. Milk production, crop area and type, average county yields, and herd animal groups were used to construct a typical feeding program for these farms. Typical rations were constructed for six feeding groups (three milk production groups, one nonlactating group, two heifer groups) to meet milk production, pregnancy, and growth requirements. Rations were constructed based on three forage qualities (excellent, average, and poor) typically observed on Pennsylvania dairy farms. Data for animal description (milk production, body weight, growth, and pregnancy status) and ration components and amounts consumed for each animal group were input into the excretion model of the Dairy Nutrient Planner computer program (DNP). Excretion of fecal N and dry matter (DM), urinary N, and total P and K were produced for each animal group and used to assess potential volatile losses of N. Work at the Marshak Dairy, New Bolton Center, indicates the majority of urinary N is rapidly lost as ammonia from dairy facilities. Based on this observation, the losses of N as ammonia were estimated to be 4.63, 4.62, and 4.28 tonne/year for the farm with excellent, average, and poor quality forages, respectively. Volatile losses of N may be reduced most by controlling levels of urea in urine. Urinary N may be reduced through dietary manipulation of protein and carbohydrate sources. Conversion of urea to ammonia may be reduced by altering the pH of barn floors and gutters. Entrapment of ammonia may be accomplished by acidification of manure slurry. Atmospheric ammonia contributes to acid rain, eutrophication of estuaries and lakes, and particulate air pollution. Reduction of ammonia

  8. An Assessment of Ammonia Emissions from Dairy Facilities in Pennsylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Ferguson

    2001-01-01

    . Reduction of ammonia emissions from dairy barns can significantly reduce atmospheric pollution and improve air and water quality.

  9. Managing ammonia emissions from livestock production in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Around 75% of European ammonia (NH3) emissions come from livestock production. Emissions occur at all stages of manure management: from buildings housing livestock; during manure storage; following manure application to land; and from urine deposited by livestock on pastures during grazing. Ammoniacal nitrogen (total ammoniacal-nitrogen, TAN) in livestock excreta is the main source of NH3. At each stage of manure management TAN may be lost, mainly as NH3, and the remainder passed to the next stage. Hence, measures to reduce NH3 emissions at the various stages of manure management are interdependent, and the accumulative reduction achieved by combinations of measures is not simply additive. This TAN-flow concept enables rapid and easy estimation of the consequences of NH3 abatement at one stage of manure management (upstream) on NH3 emissions at later stages (downstream), and gives unbiased assessment of the most cost-effective measures. We conclude that rapid incorporation of manures into arable land is one of the most cost-effective measures to reduce NH3 emissions, while covering manure stores and applying slurry by band spreader or injection are more cost-effective than measures to reduce emissions from buildings. These measures are likely to rank highly in most European countries. - Reducing NH3 emissions following spreading of manures to land ranks highly because of the large abatement potential and relatively small cost

  10. Managing ammonia emissions from livestock production in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, J. [ADAS Research, Woodthorne, Wergs Road, Wolverhampton WV6 8TQ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: jim.webb@adas.co.uk; Menzi, H. [Swiss College of Agriculture, Laenggasse 85, CH-3052 Zollikofen (Switzerland); Pain, B.F. [Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research, North Wyke, Okehampton, Devon EX20 2SB (United Kingdom); Misselbrook, T.H. [Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research, North Wyke, Okehampton, Devon EX20 2SB (United Kingdom); Daemmgen, U. [Federal Agricultural Research Centre, Institute of Agroecology, Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Hendriks, H. [National Reference Centre, Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality, Ede (Netherlands); Doehler, H. [KTBL, Bartningstrasse 49, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2005-06-15

    Around 75% of European ammonia (NH{sub 3}) emissions come from livestock production. Emissions occur at all stages of manure management: from buildings housing livestock; during manure storage; following manure application to land; and from urine deposited by livestock on pastures during grazing. Ammoniacal nitrogen (total ammoniacal-nitrogen, TAN) in livestock excreta is the main source of NH{sub 3}. At each stage of manure management TAN may be lost, mainly as NH{sub 3}, and the remainder passed to the next stage. Hence, measures to reduce NH{sub 3} emissions at the various stages of manure management are interdependent, and the accumulative reduction achieved by combinations of measures is not simply additive. This TAN-flow concept enables rapid and easy estimation of the consequences of NH{sub 3} abatement at one stage of manure management (upstream) on NH{sub 3} emissions at later stages (downstream), and gives unbiased assessment of the most cost-effective measures. We conclude that rapid incorporation of manures into arable land is one of the most cost-effective measures to reduce NH{sub 3} emissions, while covering manure stores and applying slurry by band spreader or injection are more cost-effective than measures to reduce emissions from buildings. These measures are likely to rank highly in most European countries. - Reducing NH{sub 3} emissions following spreading of manures to land ranks highly because of the large abatement potential and relatively small cost.

  11. Suppression of Ammonia Volatilization from Urea-Based Fertilizers Using Urease Inhibitors: A Reasonably Available Control Technology for Agriculture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robarge, W. P.

    2015-12-01

    Ammonia loss from fertilizers can impact formation of atmospheric aerosols, as well as contribute to nitrogen (N) deposition in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Urea is the predominant form of N fertilizer used worldwide due to its high N content (46.6% N) and low cost. Once in contact with soil or vegetation, urea is hydrolyzed to ammonium via naturally occurring urease enzymes. Losses of N from surface applied urea as ammonia can exceed 30%. To address this issue, various physical and chemical mechanisms have been incorporated into granular urea. The most common approach is incorporation of urease inhibitors such as N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT). We have been investigating ammonia volatilization from urea granules (+/- urease inhibitors) in various field and laboratory controlled experiments for the past several years. Laboratory experiments are conducted with a customized growth chamber system designed to continuously measure ammonia volatilization. Field measurements are conducted using a passive sampler technology with an acid-coated trap in PVC cylinders, or annular denuder technology using flow-through PVC chambers. Daily exchanges of acid-coated denuder tubes enhance the sensitivity of ammonia volatilization measurements for the urease-inhibitor treated product. Loss of N from commercial urea granules has ranged from 6 - ~ 35%, depending on ambient temperature. This loss typically occurs within the first 5-10 days under field conditions. Some urease-inhibitors can minimize loss of N via volatilization (crop yields or NUE, but the consistency of inhibitors incorporating NBPT suggest that these formulations represent a reasonable available control technology for use in agriculture to reduce ammonia emissions.

  12. Ammonia emissions from deciduous forest after leaf fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, K.; Sørensen, L. L.; Hertel, O.; Geels, C.; Skjøth, C. A.; Jensen, B.; Boegh, E.

    2013-07-01

    The understanding of biochemical feedback mechanisms in the climate system is lacking knowledge in relation to bi-directional ammonia (NH3) exchange between natural ecosystems and the atmosphere. We therefore study the atmospheric NH3 fluxes during a 25-day period during autumn 2010 (21 October to 15 November) for the Danish beech forest Lille Bøgeskov to address the hypothesis that NH3 emissions occur from deciduous forests in relation to leaf fall. This is accomplished by using observations of vegetation status, NH3 fluxes and model calculations. Vegetation status was observed using plant area index (PAI) and leaf area index (LAI). NH3 fluxes were measured using the relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) method. The REA-based NH3 concentrations were compared to NH3 denuder measurements. Model calculations of the atmospheric NH3 concentration were obtained with the Danish Ammonia MOdelling System (DAMOS). The relative contribution from the forest components to the atmospheric NH3 flux was assessed using a simple two-layer bi-directional canopy compensation point model. A total of 57.7% of the fluxes measured showed emission and 19.5% showed deposition. A clear tendency of the flux going from deposition of -0.25 ± 0.30 μg NH3-N m-2 s-1 to emission of up to 0.67 ± 0.28 μg NH3-N m-2 s-1 throughout the measurement period was found. In the leaf fall period (23 October to 8 November), an increase in the atmospheric NH3 concentrations was related to the increasing forest NH3 flux. Following leaf fall, the magnitude and temporal structure of the measured NH3 emission fluxes could be adequately reproduced with the bi-directional resistance model; it suggested the forest ground layer (soil and litter) to be the main contributing component to the NH3 emissions. The modelled concentration from DAMOS fits well the measured concentrations before leaf fall, but during and after leaf fall, the modelled concentrations are too low. The results indicate that the missing contribution

  13. Ammonia emissions from deciduous forest after leaf fall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hansen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of biochemical feedback mechanisms in the climate system is lacking knowledge in relation to bi-directional ammonia (NH3 exchange between natural ecosystems and the atmosphere. We therefore study the atmospheric NH3 fluxes during a 25-day period during autumn 2010 (21 October to 15 November for the Danish beech forest Lille Bøgeskov to address the hypothesis that NH3 emissions occur from deciduous forests in relation to leaf fall. This is accomplished by using observations of vegetation status, NH3 fluxes and model calculations. Vegetation status was observed using plant area index (PAI and leaf area index (LAI. NH3 fluxes were measured using the relaxed eddy accumulation (REA method. The REA-based NH3 concentrations were compared to NH3 denuder measurements. Model calculations of the atmospheric NH3 concentration were obtained with the Danish Ammonia MOdelling System (DAMOS. The relative contribution from the forest components to the atmospheric NH3 flux was assessed using a simple two-layer bi-directional canopy compensation point model. A total of 57.7% of the fluxes measured showed emission and 19.5% showed deposition. A clear tendency of the flux going from deposition of −0.25 ± 0.30 μg NH3-N m−2 s−1 to emission of up to 0.67 ± 0.28 μg NH3-N m−2 s−1 throughout the measurement period was found. In the leaf fall period (23 October to 8 November, an increase in the atmospheric NH3 concentrations was related to the increasing forest NH3 flux. Following leaf fall, the magnitude and temporal structure of the measured NH3 emission fluxes could be adequately reproduced with the bi-directional resistance model; it suggested the forest ground layer (soil and litter to be the main contributing component to the NH3 emissions. The modelled concentration from DAMOS fits well the measured concentrations before leaf fall, but during and after leaf fall, the modelled concentrations are too low. The results indicate that the

  14. Ammonia emissions from cattle urine and dung excreted on pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Laubach

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve cattle were kept for three days in a circular area of 16 m radius on short pasture and fed with freshly-cut pasture. Ammonia (NH3 emissions from the urine and dung excreted by the cattle were measured with a micrometeorological mass-balance method, during the cattle presence and for 10 subsequent days. Daily-integrated emission rates peaked on Day 3 of the experiment (last day of cattle presence and declined steadily for five days thereafter. Urine patches were the dominant sources for these emissions. On Day 9, a secondary emissions peak occurred, with dung pats likely to be the main sources. This interpretation is based on simultaneous observations of the pH evolution in urine patches and dung pats created next to the circular plot. Feed and dung samples were analysed to estimate the amounts of nitrogen (N ingested and excreted. Total N volatilised as NH3 was 19.8 (± 0.9% of N intake and 22.4 (± 1.3% of N excreted. The bimodal shape of the emissions time series allowed to infer separate estimates for volatilisation from urine and dung, respectively, with the result that urine accounted for 88.6 (± 2.6% of the total NH3 emissions. The emissions from urine represented 25.5 (± 2.0% of the excreted urine-N, while the emissions from dung amounted to 11.6 (± 2.7% of the deposited dung-N. Emissions from dung may have continued after Day 13 but were not resolved by the measurement technique. A simple resistance model shows that the magnitude of the emissions from dung is controlled by the resistance of the dung crust.

  15. Are ammonia emissions from field-applied slurry substantially over-estimated in European emission inventories?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sintermann

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The EMEP/EEA guidebook 2009 for agricultural emission inventories reports an average ammonia (NH3 emission factor (EF by volatilisation of 55% of the applied total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN content for cattle slurry, and 35% losses for pig slurry, irrespective of the type of surface or slurry characteristics such as dry matter content and pH. In this review article, we compiled over 350 measurements of EFs published between 1991 and 2011. The standard slurry application technique during the early years of this period, when a large number of measurements were made, was spreading by splash plate, and as a result reference EFs given in many European inventories are predominantly based on this technique. However, slurry application practices have evolved since then, while there has also been a shift in measurement techniques and investigated plot sizes. We therefore classified the available measurements according to the flux measurement technique or measurement plot size and year of measurement. Medium size plots (usually circles between 20 to 50 m radius generally yielded the highest EFs. The most commonly used measurement setups at this scale were based on the Integrated Horizontal Flux method (IHF or the ZINST method (a simplified IHF method. Several empirical models were published in the years 1993 to 2003 predicting NH3 EFs as a function of meteorology and slurry characteristics (Menzi et al., 1998; Søgaard et al., 2002. More recent measurements show substantially lower EFs which calls for new measurement series in order to validate the various measurement approaches against each other and to derive revised inputs for inclusion into emission inventories.

  16. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agricultural Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennetzen, Eskild Hohlmann

    unit. This dissertation presents results and comprehensions from my PhD study on the basis of three papers. The overall aim has been to develop a new identity-based framework, the KPI, to estimate and analyse GHG emissions from agriculture and LUC and apply this on national, regional and global level...... well in relation to what is actually produced. The KPI framework is scale independent and can be applied at any level from field and farm to global agricultural production. Paper I presents the first attempt to develop the KPI identity framework and, as a case study, GHG emissions from Danish crop...... that do not allow for decoupling. In Paper III agricultural production and GHG emissions since 1970, are analysed for nine world regions. Decoupling of emissions from production shows vast regional differences. In general, the more developed regions show the lowest emissions per unit of agricultural...

  17. Danish emission inventories for agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth; Albrektsen, Rikke; Gyldenkærne, Steen

    By regulations given in international conventions Denmark is obliged to work out an annual emission inventory and document the methodology. The National Environmental Research Institute (NERI) at Aarhus University (AU) in Denmark is responsible for calculating and reporting the emissions. This re......By regulations given in international conventions Denmark is obliged to work out an annual emission inventory and document the methodology. The National Environmental Research Institute (NERI) at Aarhus University (AU) in Denmark is responsible for calculating and reporting the emissions...

  18. Ammonia emissions from urea application to permanent pasture on a volcanic soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, F.; Martínez-Lagos, J.; Alfaro, M.; Misselbrook, T.

    2012-12-01

    Agriculture is the largest source of ammonia (NH3) emission to the atmosphere, deriving mainly from livestock urine and manures, but fertilizer applications to pastures and crops also represent an important source. In Chile, where agriculture and cattle production are important activities (accounting for 4.5% of GDP along with the forestry sector), there are very few published data regarding NH3 emissions from pasture and crop fertilization. This study aimed to provide the first empirical field data for Chile on N losses due to NH3 volatilization following urea application to permanent pasture on a volcanic soil and to assess the influence of environmental conditions on emissions. Four field experiments were carried out on a volcanic acid soil using the micrometeorological integrated horizontal flux (IHF) mass balance method. Measurements were made in winter 2005 and 2007, and spring 2007 and 2008 following urea N fertilization to a permanent pasture at a rate equivalent to 100 kg N ha-1. Cumulative NH3 emissions over the measurement period were 1.4 and 7.7 kg N ha-1 for winter applications, and 12.2 and 26.7 kg N ha-1 for spring dressings. These N losses due to NH3 volatilization are within the range of emissions reported elsewhere. Consideration of urea application timing in Chile, with regards to weather and soil conditions, could have important consequences on minimising potential N losses via volatilization with associated financial benefits to farmers.

  19. Implications of ammonia emissions for fine aerosol formation and visibility impairment. A case study from the Lower Fraser Valley, British Columbia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmie, R.J.; Pryor, S.C.

    1998-01-01

    ammonia and ammonium measurements to explain: (i) the observed temporal and spatial variability of fine inorganic aerosol composition and concentrations in the valley, and (ii) the severity and spatial variability of visibility degradation in the LFV. It is proposed here that advection of urban emissions...... of nitrogen and sulphur oxides over agricultural areas in the eastern and central valley with higher ammonia emissions favours subsequent ammonium nitrate and sulphate formation. This leads to higher fine mass concentrations and lowest visibility in the predominantly agricultural regions of the...

  20. Agricultural sources of greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author described different sources of greenhouse gas emissions resulting from agricultural activities and the process by which carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane are generated on Canadian farms. The author also proposed some practices that would contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. A brief description of the greenhouse effect was also provided with special emphasis on the agricultural sector. In 1996, the Canadian agricultural sector was responsible for approximately 10 per cent of greenhouse gas emissions in the country. Given the increase in farm animals and more intensive agricultural activities, it is estimated that greenhouse gas emissions generated by the agricultural sector will increase by 20 per cent by 2010 if current practices remain in effect. The most optimistic scenarios indicate that the agricultural sector could achieve or even exceed Canada's Kyoto Protocol commitments mainly through organic material sequestration in soils. The possibility for farmers to sell greenhouse gas credits could motivate farmers into adopting various practices that reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. However, the author indicated that the best motivation for farmers is the fact that adopting such practices would also lead to more efficient agricultural production. 5 refs., 4 figs

  1. Anticipated changes in the emissions of green-house gases and ammonia from pork production due to shifts from fattening of barrows towards fattening of boars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dämmgen, Ulrich; Berk, Andreas; Otten, Caroline;

    2013-01-01

    Greenhouse gases and of ammonia emissions from pork production will change when fattening of barrows switches towards to fattening of (intact) boars. The results of an accurate feeding experiment allow for the differentiation of the effects on emissions of gender (differentiating in boars, barrows...... related effect of increased numbers of animals produced. The fattening of intact boars as compared to barrows is associated with a reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases and of ammonia per animal. For ammonia, all scenarios result in reduced emissions, most markedly when this shift is combined with...... and gilts) and of diet composition. The modified fattening pig module of the agricultural emission model GAS-EM was used to estimate emissions in 2020 when the fattening of barrows will no longer be common practice. The scenarios also reflect the effect of the expected increased weight gains and the...

  2. Modeling of pesticide emissions from agricultural ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong

    2012-04-01

    Pesticides are applied to crops and soils to improve agricultural yields, but the use of pesticides has become highly regulated because of concerns about their adverse effects on human health and environment. Estimating pesticide emission rates from soils and crops is a key component for risk assessment for pesticide registration, identification of pesticide sources to the contamination of sensitive ecosystems, and appreciation of transport and fate of pesticides in the environment. Pesticide emission rates involve processes occurring in the soil, in the atmosphere, and on vegetation surfaces and are highly dependent on soil texture, agricultural practices, and meteorology, which vary significantly with location and/or time. To take all these factors into account for simulating pesticide emissions from large agricultural ecosystems, this study coupled a comprehensive meteorological model with a dynamic pesticide emission model. The combined model calculates hourly emission rates from both emission sources: current applications and soil residues resulting from historical use. The coupled modeling system is used to compute a gridded (36 × 36 km) hourly toxaphene emission inventory for North America for the year 2000 using a published U.S. toxaphene residue inventory and a Mexican toxaphene residue inventory developed using its historical application rates and a cropland inventory. To my knowledge, this is the first such hourly toxaphene emission inventory for North America. Results show that modeled emission rates have strong diurnal and seasonal variations at a given location and over the entire domain. The simulated total toxaphene emission from contaminated agricultural soils in North America in 2000 was about 255 t, which compares reasonably well to a published annual estimate. Most emissions occur in spring and summer, with domain-wide emission rates in April, May and, June of 36, 51, and 35 t/month, respectively. The spatial distribution of emissions depends

  3. Towards a climate-dependent paradigm of ammonia emission and deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, M.A.; Reis, S.; Riddick, S.N.; Dragosits, U.; Nemitz, E.; Tang, Y.S.; Braban, C.F.; Vieno, M.; Dore, A.J.; Mitchell, R.F.; Wanless, S.; Daunt, F.; Fowler, D. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Edinburgh, Bush Estate, Penicuik EH26 0QB (United Kingdom); Blackall, T.D. [Department of Geography, Strand Campus, Kings College London, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Theobald, M.R. [Higher Technical School of Agricultural Engineering, Technical University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Milford, C. [Izana Atmospheric Research Center, Meteorological State Agency of Spain (AEMET), Santa Cruz de Tenerife 38071 (Spain); Flechard, C.R. [INRA, Agrocampus Ouest, UMR 1069 SAS, 65 rue de St. Brieuc, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Loubet, B.; Massad, R.; Cellier, P.; Personne, E. [UMR INRA-AgroParisTech Environnement et Grandes Cultures, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon (France); Coheur, P.F.; Clarisse, L.; Van Damme, M.; Ngadi, Y. [Spectroscopie de l' atmosphere, Chimie Quantique et Photophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), 50 avenue F. D. Roosevelt, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Clerbaux, C. [Universite Paris 06, Universite Versailles-St. Quentin, UMR8190, CNRS/INSU, LATMOS-IPSL, Paris (France); Geels, C.; Hertel, O. [Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, P.O. Box 358, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Ambelas Skjoeth, C. [National Pollen and Aerobiology Research Unit, University of Worcester, Henwick Grove, Worcester WR2 6AJ (United Kingdom); Wichink Kruit, R.J. [TNO, Climate, Air and Sustainability, P.O. Box 80015, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Pinder, R.W.; Bash, J.O.; Walker, J.T. [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Research Triangle Park, 109 T.W. Alexander Drive, Durham, NC 27711 (United States); Simpson, D. [Norwegian Meteorological Institute, EMEP MSC-W, P.O. Box 43-Blindern, 0313 Oslo (Norway); Horvath, L. [Plant Ecology Research Group of Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Botany and Ecophysiology, Szent Istvan University, Pater K. utca 1, 2100 Goedoello (Hungary); Misselbrook, T.H. [Rothamsted Research, Sustainable Soils and Grassland Systems, North Wyke, Okehampton EX20 2SB (United Kingdom); Bleeker, A. [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Dentener, F. [European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, via Enrico Fermi 2749, 21027 Ispra (Italy); De Vries, W. [Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Droevendaalsesteeg 4, 6708 PB Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    Existing descriptions of bi-directional ammonia (NH3) land-atmosphere exchange incorporate temperature and moisture controls, and are beginning to be used in regional chemical transport models. However, such models have typically applied simpler emission factors to upscale the main NH3 emission terms. While this approach has successfully simulated the main spatial patterns on local to global scales, it fails to address the environment- and climate-dependence of emissions. To handle these issues, we outline the basis for a new modelling paradigm where both NH3 emissions and deposition are calculated online according to diurnal, seasonal and spatial differences in meteorology. We show how measurements reveal a strong, but complex pattern of climatic dependence, which is increasingly being characterized using ground-based NH3 monitoring and satellite observations, while advances in process-based modelling are illustrated for agricultural and natural sources, including a global application for seabird colonies. A future architecture for NH3 emission-deposition modelling is proposed that integrates the spatio-temporal interactions, and provides the necessary foundation to assess the consequences of climate change. Based on available measurements, a first empirical estimate suggests that 5{sup o}C warming would increase emissions by 42 per cent (28-67%). Together with increased anthropogenic activity, global NH3 emissions may increase from 65 (45-85) Tg N in 2008 to reach 132 (89-179) Tg by 2100.

  4. Fugitive methane emissions from an agricultural biodigester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of agricultural biodigesters provides a strategy for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions while generating energy. The GHG reduction associated with a biodigester will be affected by fugitive emissions from the facility. The objective of this study was to measure fugitive methane (CH4) emissions from a Canadian biodigester. The facility uses anaerobic digestion to produce biogas from cattle manure and other organic feedstock, which is burnt to generate electricity (1 MW capacity) and heat. An inverse dispersion technique was used to calculate emissions. Fugitive emissions were related to the operating state of the biodigester, and over four seasonal campaigns the emission rate averaged 3.2, 0.8, and 26.6 kg CH4 hr-1 for normal operations, maintenance, and flaring periods, respectively. During normal operations the average fugitive emission rate corresponded to 3.1% of the CH4 gas production rate. -- Highlights: → Biodigesters reduce greenhouse gas emissions. → Net emission reduction affected by fugitive emissions. → Fugitive CH4 measured at agricultural biodigester (1 MW generating capacity). → Emissions were 3.1% of gas production. → Emissions lower than assumed in carbon credit protocols.

  5. UN ECE-Convention on long-range transboundary air pollution. Task Force on Reactive Nitrogen. Systematic cost-benefit analysis of mitigation measures for agricultural ammonia emissions, supporting national costing analysis; UN ECE-Luftreinhaltekonvention. Task Force on Reactive Nitrogen. Systematische Kosten-Nutzen-Analyse von Minderungsmassnahmen fuer Ammoniakemissionen in der Landwirtschaft fuer nationale Kostenabschaetzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doehler, Helmut; Eurich-Menden, Brigitte; Roessler, Regina; Vandre, Robert; Wulf, Sebastian [Kuratorium fuer Technik und Bauwesen in der Landwirtschaft e.V. (KTBL), Darmstadt (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In this project, the methods for the determination of the expenses for the reduction of agricultural ammonia emissions were updated, and the costs of selected, representative mitigation measures suitable for Germany's agriculture were newly calculated. The reduction costs are determined based on the ratio of the extra costs for the reduction measure and the emission reduction in comparison with a reference system. Protein-adapted feeding in pig fattening generally leads to lower expenses for feedstuff, which provides negative reduction costs (- Euro 3.5 to - Euro 13.5 per kg of NH{sub 3} depending on the reference system). Pig fattening in naturally ventilated housing causes reduction costs of Euro 9.2 per kg of NH{sub 3} as compared with forced-ventilated animal houses. However, this amount cannot always be exclusively attributed to ammonia emission reduction (allocation) because naturally ventilated houses are generally built for the improvement of animal welfare and animal health. Single and multiple-stage air purification techniques in forced-ventilated pig fattening houses are a technically efficient, though costintensive reduction measure (Euro 4,6 - Euro 8,6 per kg of NH{sub 3}). Solid covers for pig slurry stores (concrete ceiling, tent) are characterized by high investment expenses and a long service life causes moderate reduction costs (Euro 1.1 - Euro 2.5 per kg of NH{sub 3}). Floating covers (plastic sheet, granules) are almost cost-neutral given reduction costs of Euro 0.3 to Euro 0.9 per kg of NH{sub 3} (pig slurry) if the fertilizer value of the conserved nitrogen is included in the calculation. Cattle slurry requires significantly higher extra costs for the covering of slurry stores because the natural floating cover itself reduces emissions (Euro 1.3 to Euro 12 per kg of NH{sub 3}). If annual spreading performances are low (1,000 to 3,000 m{sup 3}/a), only promptly incorporation of cattle and pig slurry is cost-effective. If spreading

  6. Towards a climate-dependent paradigm of ammonia emission and deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Mark A.; Reis, Stefan; Riddick, Stuart N.; Dragosits, Ulrike; Nemitz, Eiko; Theobald, Mark R.; Tang, Y. Sim; Braban, Christine F.; Vieno, Massimo; Dore, Anthony J.; Mitchell, Robert F.; Wanless, Sarah; Daunt, Francis; Fowler, David; Blackall, Trevor D.; Milford, Celia; Flechard, Chris R.; Loubet, Benjamin; Massad, Raia; Cellier, Pierre; Personne, Erwan; Coheur, Pierre F.; Clarisse, Lieven; Van Damme, Martin; Ngadi, Yasmine; Clerbaux, Cathy; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Geels, Camilla; Hertel, Ole; Wichink Kruit, Roy J.; Pinder, Robert W.; Bash, Jesse O.; Walker, John T.; Simpson, David; Horváth, László; Misselbrook, Tom H.; Bleeker, Albert; Dentener, Frank; de Vries, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Existing descriptions of bi-directional ammonia (NH3) land–atmosphere exchange incorporate temperature and moisture controls, and are beginning to be used in regional chemical transport models. However, such models have typically applied simpler emission factors to upscale the main NH3 emission terms. While this approach has successfully simulated the main spatial patterns on local to global scales, it fails to address the environment- and climate-dependence of emissions. To handle these issues, we outline the basis for a new modelling paradigm where both NH3 emissions and deposition are calculated online according to diurnal, seasonal and spatial differences in meteorology. We show how measurements reveal a strong, but complex pattern of climatic dependence, which is increasingly being characterized using ground-based NH3 monitoring and satellite observations, while advances in process-based modelling are illustrated for agricultural and natural sources, including a global application for seabird colonies. A future architecture for NH3 emission–deposition modelling is proposed that integrates the spatio-temporal interactions, and provides the necessary foundation to assess the consequences of climate change. Based on available measurements, a first empirical estimate suggests that 5°C warming would increase emissions by 42 per cent (28–67%). Together with increased anthropogenic activity, global NH3 emissions may increase from 65 (45–85) Tg N in 2008 to reach 132 (89–179) Tg by 2100. PMID:23713128

  7. Preliminary assessment of the emission levels of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide in different production modalities in poultry farms in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Herrera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A characterization of the ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions generated by different production models in poultry farms of Costa Rica was carried out. It was found that egg production farms have the largest emissions since they mostly use management systems based on cages with pits which generates a high emission of ammonia (16 ppm. While the fattening farms had the lower emissions since they mostly use open systems, which are low ammonia emission models (6 ppm. There were no significant concentrations of hydrogen sulfide in the evaluated models, except when a mechanical removal of mounds of chicken manure, with several weeks of storage, took place. A peak of 163 ppm of hydrogen sulfide was observed during the process. The ammonia emissions were modeled for some farms using an atmospheric dispersion model, AERMOD (USEPA, to determine the impact in the surroundings. Using the results of the validated model, it was found that the ammonia concentrations around the farms met the local regulation for air quality. But in some cases is highly probable to exceed the odor threshold for ammonia, which is one of the main complaints of the population living around this kind of agricultural and livestock activities.

  8. Distinct Responses in Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea and Bacteria after Addition of Biosolids to an Agricultural Soil▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, John J.; Policht, Katherine; Grancharova, Tanya; Hundal, Lakhwinder S.

    2011-01-01

    The recently discovered ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) have been suggested as contributors to the first step of nitrification in terrestrial ecosystems, a role that was previously assigned exclusively to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). The current study assessed the effects of agricultural management, specifically amendment of soil with biosolids or synthetic fertilizer, on nitrification rates and copy numbers of archaeal and bacterial ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes. Anaerobically dige...

  9. Agricultural influences on carbon emissions and sequestration

    OpenAIRE

    Ball, Andrew S.; Pretty, Jules N.

    2002-01-01

    This report was presented at the UK Organic Research 2002 Conference. Agricultural systems contribute to carbon emissions through several mechanisms: the direct use of fossil fuels in farm operations, the indirect use of embodied energy in inputs that are energy intensive to manufacture (e.g. fertilizers), and the cultivation of soils resulting in the loss of soil organic matter. However agriculture can also sequester carbon when organic matter accumulates in the soil or above-ground woody bi...

  10. An improved data base for the description of dairy cows in the German agricultural emission model GAS-EM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dämmgen, Ulrich; Haenel, Hans-Dieter; Rösemann, Claus;

    2010-01-01

    The application of the previously published detailed model describing dairy cow husbandry in the German agricultural emission model requires an extended and improved data base. This concerns animal weights, weight gains, regional feed regimes, feeding requirements and feed properties as well...... of animal performance. The knowledge of hitherto unpublished data allows for a recalculation and revaluation of nitrogen excretions and ammonia emission factors....

  11. Ammonia-oxidising bacteria not archaea dominate nitrification activity in semi-arid agricultural soil

    OpenAIRE

    Banning, Natasha C.; Maccarone, Linda D.; Fisk, Louise M.; Murphy, Daniel V.

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidising archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) are responsible for the rate limiting step in nitrification; a key nitrogen (N) loss pathway in agricultural systems. Dominance of AOA relative to AOB in the amoA gene pool has been reported in many ecosystems, although their relative contributions to nitrification activity are less clear. Here we examined the distribution of AOA and AOB with depth in semi-arid agricultural soils in which soil organic matter content or pH had been altered, an...

  12. Effects of carbon dioxide emission, kinetically-limited reactions, and diffusive transport on ammonia emission from manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatilization of ammonia (NH3) from animal manure causes significant loss of fixed N from livestock operations. Ammonia emission from manure is the culmination of biological, chemical, and physical processes, all of which are well-understood. In this work, we present a speciation and transport mode...

  13. Ammonia-Oxidizer Communities in an Agricultural Soil treated with Contrasting Nitrogen Sources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mussie Y. Habteselassie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The community of ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes was examined in an agricultural soil treated for 6 seasons with contrasting nitrogen (N sources. Molecular tools based on the gene encoding ammonia monooxygenase were used to characterize the ammonia oxidizer communities and their abundance. Soil DNA was extracted from soils sampled from silage corn plots that received no additional N (control, dairy waste compost (DC, liquid dairy waste (LW, and ammonium sulfate (AS treatments at approximately 100 and 200 kg available N ha-1 over 6 years. The N treatment affected the quantity of ammonia oxidizers based on estimates of amoA by real-time PCR. Ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB were higher in soils from the AS200, AS100, and LW200 treatments (2.5 x107, 2.5x107, and 2.1 x107 copies g-1 soil, respectively than in the control (8.1x106copies/g while the abundance of amoA encoding archaea (AOA was not significantly affected by treatment (3.8x107copies g-1 soil, average. The ratio of AOA/AOB was higher in the control and compost treated soils, both treatments have the majority of their ammonium supplied through mineralization of organic nitrogen. Clone libraries of partial amoA sequences indicated AOB related to Nitrosospira multiformis and AOA related to uncultured Nitrososphaera similar to those described by soil fosmid 54d9 were prevalent. Profiles of the amoC-amoA intergenic region indicated that both Nitrosospira- and Nitrosomonas-type AOB were present in all soils examined. In contrast to the intergenic amoC-amoA profile results, Nitrosomonas-like clones were recovered only in the LW200 treated soil-DNA. The impact of six years of contrasting nitrogen sources applications caused changes in ammonia oxidizer abundance while the community composition remained relatively stable for both AOB and AOA.

  14. Emissions Of Greenhouse Gases From Rice Agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Aslam K. Khalil

    2009-07-16

    This project produced detailed data on the processes that affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice agriculture and their inter-relationships. It defines the shifting roles and potential future of these gases in causing global warming and the benefits and tradeoffs of reducing emissions. The major results include: 1). Mechanisms and Processes Leading to Methane Emissions are Delineated. Our experiments have tested the standard model of methane emissions from rice fields and found new results on the processes that control the flux. A mathematical mass balance model was used to unravel the production, oxidation and transport of methane from rice. The results suggested that when large amounts of organic matter are applied, the additional flux that is observed is due to both greater production and reduced oxidation of methane. 2). Methane Emissions From China Have Been Decreasing Over the Last Two Decades. We have calculated that methane emissions from rice fields have been falling in recent decades. This decrease is particularly large in China. While some of this is due to reduced area of rice agriculture, the bigger effect is from the reduction in the emission factor which is the annual amount of methane emitted per hectare of rice. The two most important changes that cause this decreasing emission from China are the reduced use of organic amendments which have been replaced by commercial nitrogen fertilizers, and the increased practice of intermittent flooding as greater demands are placed on water resources. 3). Global Methane Emissions Have Been Constant For More Than 20 Years. While the concentrations of methane in the atmosphere have been leveling off in recent years, our studies show that this is caused by a near constant total global source of methane for the last 20 years or more. This is probably because as some anthropogenic sources have increased, others, such as the rice agriculture source, have fallen. Changes in natural emissions appear small

  15. Model-predicted ammonia emission from two broiler houses with different rearing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsa Duarte Silva Lima

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia (NH3 emissions from broiler production can affect human and animal health and may cause acidification and eutrophication of the surrounding environment. This study aimed to estimate ammonia emissions from broiler litter in two systems of forced ventilation, the tunnel ventilation (TV and the dark house (DH. The experiment was carried out on eight commercial broiler houses, and the age of the birds (day, d, pH and litter temperature were recorded. Broilers were reared on built-up wood shaving litter using an average flock density of 14 bird m–2. Temperature and relative humidity inside the broiler houses were recorded in the morning during the grow-out period. A factorial experimental design was adopted, with two types of houses, four replicates and two flocks with two replicates each. A deterministic model was used to predict ammonia emissions using the litter pH and temperature, and the day of grow-out. The highest litter temperature and pH were found at 42 d of growth in both housing systems. Mean ambient air temperature and relative humidity did not differ in either system. Mean model predicted ammonia emission was higher in the DH rearing system (5200 mg NH3 m−2h−1 at 42 d than in the TV system (2700 mg NH3m−2 h−1 at 42 d. TV presented the lowest mean litter temperature and pH at 42 d of growth. In the last week of the broilers’ grow-out cycle, estimated ammonia emissions inside DH reached 5700 mg m−2h−1 in one of the flocks. Ammonia emissions were higher inside DH, and they did not differ between flocks. Assuming a broiler market weight in Brazil of close to 2 kg, ammonia emissions were equivalent to 12 g NH3 bird-marketed−1. Model-predicted ammonia emissions provided comprehensible estimations and might be used in abatement strategies for NH3 emission.

  16. Reduction of the Livestock Ammonia Emission under the Changing Temperature during the Initial Manure Nitrogen Biomineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolandas Bleizgys

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental data were applied for the modelling optimal cowshed temperature environment in laboratory test bench by a mass-flow method. The principal factor affecting exponent growth of ammonia emission was increasing air and manure surface temperature. With the manure temperature increasing from 4°C to 30°C, growth in the ammonia emission grew fourfold, that is, from 102 to 430 mg m−2h−1. Especial risk emerges when temperature exceeds 20°C: an increase in temperature of 1°C contributes to the intensity of ammonia emission by 17 mg m−2h−1. The temperatures of air and manure surface as well as those of its layers are important when analysing emission processes from manure. Indeed, it affects the processes occurring on the manure surface, namely, dehydration and crust formation. To reduce ammonia emission from cowshed, it is important to optimize the inner temperature control and to manage air circulation, especially at higher temperatures, preventing the warm ambient air from blowing direct to manure. Decrease in mean annual temperature of 1°C would reduce the annual ammonia emission by some 5.0%. The air temperature range varied between −15°C and 30°C in barns. The highest mean annual temperature (14.6°C and ammonia emission (218 mg m−2h−1 were observed in the semideep cowshed.

  17. Measures to reduce ammonia emissions from livestock manures: now, soon and later

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenestein, C.M.; Smits, M.C.J.; Huijsmans, J.F.M.; Oenema, O.

    2011-01-01

    Various possible options to further decrease ammonia emissions from livestock manure were explored in a desk study. Techniques and their impact on the processes leading to NH3 production and volatilization are described. Research priorities are identified.

  18. Towards a climate-dependent paradigm of ammonia emission and deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Existing descriptions of bi-directional ammonia (NH3) land–atmosphere exchange incorporate temperature and moisture controls, and are beginning to be used in regional chemical transport models. However, such models have typically applied simpler emission factors to upscale ...

  19. Comparison of Techniques to Estimate Ammonia Emissions at Cattle Feedlots Using Time-Averaged and Instantaneous Concentration Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonkwiler, K. B.; Ham, J. M.; Williams, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Ammonia (NH3) that volatilizes from confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) can form aerosols that travel long distances where such aerosols can deposit in sensitive regions, potentially causing harm to local ecosystems. However, quantifying the emissions of ammonia from CAFOs through direct measurement is very difficult and costly to perform. A system was therefore developed at Colorado State University for conditionally sampling NH3 concentrations based on weather parameters measured using inexpensive equipment. These systems use passive diffusive cartridges (Radiello, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) that provide time-averaged concentrations representative of a two-week deployment period. The samplers are exposed by a robotic mechanism so they are only deployed when wind is from the direction of the CAFO at 1.4 m/s or greater. These concentration data, along with other weather variables measured during each sampler deployment period, can then be used in a simple inverse model (FIDES, UMR Environnement et Grandes Cultures, Thiverval-Grignon, France) to estimate emissions. There are not yet any direct comparisons of the modeled emissions derived from time-averaged concentration data to modeled emissions from more sophisticated backward Lagrangian stochastic (bLs) techniques that utilize instantaneous measurements of NH3 concentration. In the summer and autumn of 2013, a suite of robotic passive sampler systems were deployed at a 25,000-head cattle feedlot at the same time as an open-path infrared (IR) diode laser (GasFinder2, Boreal Laser Inc., Edmonton, Alberta, Canada) which continuously measured ammonia concentrations instantaneously over a 225-m path. This particular laser is utilized in agricultural settings, and in combination with a bLs model (WindTrax, Thunder Beach Scientific, Inc., Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada), has become a common method for estimating NH3 emissions from a variety of agricultural and industrial operations. This study will first

  20. Validation of CFD Simulation for Ammonia Emissions from an Equeous Solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Li; Elhadidib, Basman; Khalifa, Ezzat;

    2011-01-01

    as boundary condition for CFD prediction of ammonia emission. The accuracy of CFD simulation depends on many factors. In this study, the effects of appropriate geometry model, inlet turbulent parameters and three turbulence models (low-Reynolds number k–ε model, renormalization group k–ε model and...... current HLC models generally over-predict the ammonia emissions from aqueous solution in this study whereas VLE gives better agreement between simulated and measured results. A linear relation is observed between ammonia mass transfer coefficient obtained from the VLE relation and those from HLC models....

  1. Enrichment and Characterization of an Autotrophic Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaeon of Mesophilic Crenarchaeal Group I.1a from an Agricultural Soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, M.Y.; Park, S.J.; Min, D.; Kim, J.S.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Kim, G.J.; Madsen, E.L.; Rhee, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    Soil nitrification is an important process for agricultural productivity and environmental pollution. Though one cultivated representative of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea from soil has been described, additional representatives warrant characterization. We describe an ammonia-oxidizing archaeon (strain

  2. Analysis of ammonia emission from emptied pigpens; Bepaling van de ammoniakemissie uit geruimde varkensstallen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otjes, R.P.; Jongejan, P.A.C.; Erisman, J.W.

    1998-03-01

    As a consequence of the outbreak of classical swine fever in the beginning of 1997 in the Netherlands, almost all pig stables were emptied in the eastern part of the province Noord-Brabant. Pigpens contributed for about 60% to the emission of ammonia in the area. Therefore it was expected, that the ammonia concentration would have substantially declined. Because this reduction was not observed at monitoring sites, dedicated research was performed at the end of 1997 to determine whether the empty pigsty still emits ammonia. In this report the results on the research on the emissions of such empty stables are described. The emissions were determined from plume measurements using a fast ammonia sensor developed in-house. The sensor was driven wind downwards along the empty stables. Almost all farms scanned showed a detectable emission. The emission of pigpens still in use was much higher than the empty ones. However, the emission of empty pigpens was significant and estimations for the summertime indicate emission rates that would be comparable to that of stables containing pigs. It is likely that the residual emission is produced by the manure which was not removed from the stables. At the time of measurement less ammonia was emitted by the empty, unheated stables. 5 refs.

  3. High-resolution ammonia emissions inventories in China from 1980–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia (NH3 can interact in the atmosphere with other trace chemical species, which can lead to detrimental environmental consequences, such as the formation of fine particulates and ultimately global climate change. China is a major agricultural country, and livestock numbers and nitrogen fertilizer use have increased drastically since 1978, following the rapid economic and industrial development experienced by the country. In this study, comprehensive NH3 emissions inventories were compiled for China for 1980–2012. In a previous study, we parameterized emissions factors (EFs considering ambient temperature, soil acidity, and the method and rate of fertilizer application. In this study, we refined these EFs by adding the effects of wind speed and new data from field experiments of NH3 flux in cropland in northern China. We found that total NH3 emissions in China increased from 5.9 to 11.2 Tg from 1980 to 1996, and then decreased to 9.5 Tg in 2012. The two major contributors were livestock manure and synthetic fertilizer application, which contributed 80–90 % of the total emissions. Emissions from livestock manure rose from 2.87 Tg (1980 to 6.17 Tg (2005, and then decreased to 5.0 Tg (2012; beef cattle were the largest source followed by laying hens and pigs. The remarkable downward trend in livestock emissions that occurred in 2007 was attributed to a decrease in the numbers of various livestock animals, including beef cattle, goats, and sheep. Meanwhile, emissions from synthetic fertilizer ranged from 2.1 Tg (1980 to 4.7 Tg (1996, and then declined to 2.8 Tg (2012. Urea and ammonium bicarbonate (ABC dominated this category of emissions, and a decline in ABC application led to the decrease in emissions that took place from the mid-1990s onwards. High emissions were concentrated in eastern and southwestern China. Seasonally, peak NH3 emissions occurred in spring and summer. The inventories had a monthly temporal resolution and a spatial

  4. High-resolution ammonia emissions inventories in China from 1980-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Y.; Liu, M.; Song, Y.; Huang, X.; Yao, H.; Cai, X.; Zhang, H.; Kang, L.; Liu, X.; Yan, X.; He, H.; Shao, M.; Zhu, T.

    2015-10-01

    Ammonia (NH3) can interact in the atmosphere with other trace chemical species, which can lead to detrimental environmental consequences, such as the formation of fine particulates and ultimately global climate change. China is a major agricultural country, and livestock numbers and nitrogen fertilizer use have increased drastically since 1978, following the rapid economic and industrial development experienced by the country. In this study, comprehensive NH3 emissions inventories were compiled for China for 1980-2012. In a previous study, we parameterized emissions factors (EFs) considering ambient temperature, soil acidity, and the method and rate of fertilizer application. In this study, we refined these EFs by adding the effects of wind speed and new data from field experiments of NH3 flux in cropland in northern China. We found that total NH3 emissions in China increased from 5.9 to 11.2 Tg from 1980 to 1996, and then decreased to 9.5 Tg in 2012. The two major contributors were livestock manure and synthetic fertilizer application, which contributed 80-90 % of the total emissions. Emissions from livestock manure rose from 2.87 Tg (1980) to 6.17 Tg (2005), and then decreased to 5.0 Tg (2012); beef cattle were the largest source followed by laying hens and pigs. The remarkable downward trend in livestock emissions that occurred in 2007 was attributed to a decrease in the numbers of various livestock animals, including beef cattle, goats, and sheep. Meanwhile, emissions from synthetic fertilizer ranged from 2.1 Tg (1980) to 4.7 Tg (1996), and then declined to 2.8 Tg (2012). Urea and ammonium bicarbonate (ABC) dominated this category of emissions, and a decline in ABC application led to the decrease in emissions that took place from the mid-1990s onwards. High emissions were concentrated in eastern and southwestern China. Seasonally, peak NH3 emissions occurred in spring and summer. The inventories had a monthly temporal resolution and a spatial resolution of 1000

  5. High-resolution ammonia emissions inventories in China from 1980 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yaning; Liu, Mingxu; Song, Yu; Huang, Xin; Yao, Huan; Cai, Xuhui; Zhang, Hongsheng; Kang, Ling; Liu, Xuejun; Yan, Xiaoyuan; He, Hong; Zhang, Qiang; Shao, Min; Zhu, Tong

    2016-02-01

    Ammonia (NH3) can interact in the atmosphere with other trace chemical species, which can lead to detrimental environmental consequences, such as the formation of fine particulates and ultimately global climate change. China is a major agricultural country, and livestock numbers and nitrogen fertilizer use have increased drastically since 1978, following the rapid economic and industrial development experienced by the country. In this study, comprehensive NH3 emissions inventories were compiled for China for 1980-2012. In a previous study, we parameterized emissions factors (EFs) considering ambient temperature, soil acidity, and the method and rate of fertilizer application. In this study, we refined these EFs by adding the effects of wind speed and new data from field experiments of NH3 flux in cropland in northern China. We found that total NH3 emissions in China increased from 5.9 to 11.1 Tg from 1980 to 1996, and then decreased to 9.7 Tg in 2012. The two major contributors were livestock manure and synthetic fertilizer application, which contributed 80-90 % of the total emissions. Emissions from livestock manure rose from 2.86 Tg (1980) to 6.16 Tg (2005), and then decreased to 5.0 Tg (2012); beef cattle were the largest source followed by laying hens and pigs. The remarkable downward trend in livestock emissions that occurred in 2007 was attributed to a decrease in the numbers of various livestock animals, including beef cattle, goats, and sheep. Meanwhile, emissions from synthetic fertilizer ranged from 2.1 Tg (1980) to 4.7 Tg (1996), and then declined to 2.8 Tg (2012). Urea and ammonium bicarbonate (ABC) dominated this category of emissions, and a decline in ABC application led to the decrease in emissions that took place from the mid-1990s onwards. High emissions were concentrated in eastern and southwestern China. Seasonally, peak NH3 emissions occurred in spring and summer. The inventories had a monthly temporal resolution and a spatial resolution of 1000

  6. pH-dominated niche segregation of ammonia-oxidising microorganisms in Chinese agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baolan, Hu; Shuai, Liu; Wei, Wang; Lidong, Shen; Liping, Lou; Weiping, Liu; Guangming, Tian; Xiangyang, Xu; Ping, Zheng

    2014-10-01

    Ammonia-oxidising archaea (AOA) are increasingly recognised as the primary mediators of soil ammonia oxidation, particularly in acidic soils. To explore the niche segregation of AOA and ammonia-oxidising bacteria (AOB) and the potential effect of this segregation on nitrification rates and the nitrogen cycle in Chinese agricultural soils, AOA and AOB amoA gene databases were established, and 454 high-throughput sequencing was used to investigate the key factors leading to the niche segregation of these two types of microorganisms. qPCR results demonstrated that there were more functional genes for AOA than for AOB in most of the soils. AOA diversity was higher than AOB diversity in most of the soils with AOA operational taxonomic units (OTU) numbers ranging from 40 to 169 and AOB OTU numbers ranging from 18 to 105. pH was the most important factor influencing the community structure of AOA (P < 0.01) and AOB (P < 0.05), and acidophilic AOA (i.e. Nitrosotalea-related sequences) were dominant in soils with pH values below 6.0. In addition, AOA amoA gene copy numbers were significantly positively correlated with pH (P < 0.05), the ratio of AOA OTU numbers/AOB OTU numbers was significantly negatively correlated with pH (P < 0.05), and the percentage of sequences represented by the Nitrosotalea cluster was significantly negatively correlated with pH (P < 0.01). PMID:25065524

  7. Acidifier application rate impacts on ammonia emissions from US roaster chicken houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sanjay B.; Grimes, Jesse L.; Oviedo-Rondón, Edgar O.; Westerman, Philip W.

    2014-08-01

    Due to its potential environmental and public health impacts, emissions of ammonia (NH3) as well as several other gases from US livestock farms may be regulated. Broiler houses are important sources of NH3 emissions. However, there are no emissions data from roaster (8-12 wk old broilers, ˜4 kg ea.) houses. Producers treat the litter in broiler houses with acidifiers, such as sodium bisulfate (SBS, NaHSO4) to reduce ammonia production and protect bird health. However, there is very little data on the effect of acidifiers, particularly at high application rates on ammonia emissions. The impact of different SBS application rates [High (0.95-1.46 kg m-2, whole house), Medium (0.73 kg m-2, whole house), Low (0.37-0.49 kg m-2, whole house), and Control (0.37-0.49 kg m-2, brood chamber)] on ammonia emissions was evaluated in commercial roaster houses over 22 months spanning eight flocks. Ammonia emission from each fan was measured with an acid scrubber that operated only when the fan operated. Emissions were calculated using >95% measured data with the rest being estimated using robust methods. Exhaust ammonia-N concentrations were inversely correlated with the SBS application rates. Emission rates on animal unit (AU, where 1 AU = 500 kg live-mass) basis (ER, g d-1 AU-1) were reduced by 27, 13, and 5%, respectively, in the High, Medium, and Low treatments vs. the Control treatment (mean: 100 g d-1 AU-1, range: 86-114 g d-1 AU-1). Emission rates for the Control treatment measured in this study on roasters were mostly higher than ERs in the literature. Differences in ERs are not only due to diet, environmental and management conditions, but also due to measurement methods.

  8. Emissions of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane during the management of solid manures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, J; Sommer, Sven Gjedde; Kupper, Thomas;

    2012-01-01

    gaseous emissions. These emissions are in the form of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4). Ammonia forms particles in the atmosphere which reduce visibility and may also harm human health, and when deposited to land NH3 causes nutrient enrichment of soil. Nitrous oxide and CH4 contribute...... incorporation after application. Conversely, emissions following application of pig and poultry manures were 0.003 and 0.001 TAN respectively without and 0.035 and 0.089 TAN respectively with incorporation after application...

  9. Ammonia emission from a permanent grassland on volcanic soil after the treatment with dairy slurry and urea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, F.; Martínez-Lagos, J.; Alfaro, M.; Misselbrook, T.

    2014-10-01

    Ammonia (NH3) is an air pollutant largely emitted from agricultural activities including the application of livestock manures and fertilizers to grassland. This gas has been linked with important negative impacts on natural ecosystems. In southern Chile, the use of inorganic and organic fertilizers (e.g. slurries) has increased in cattle production systems over recent years, heightening the risk of N losses to the wider environment. The objectives of this study were to evaluate on permanent grasslands on a volcanic ash soil in southern Chile: 1) the N loss due to NH3 volatilization following surface application of dairy slurry and urea fertilizer; and 2) the effect of a urease inhibitor on NH3 emissions from urea fertilizer application. Small plot field experiments were conducted over spring, fall, winter and summer seasons, using a system of wind tunnels to measure ammonia emissions. Ammonia losses ranged from 1.8 (winter) to 26.0% (fall) and 3.1 (winter) to 20.5% (summer) of total N applied for urea and slurry, respectively. Based on the readily available N applied (ammoniacal N for dairy slurry and urea N for urea fertilizer), losses from dairy slurry were much greater, at 16.1 and 82.0%, for winter and summer, respectively. The use of a urease inhibitor proved to be an effective option to minimize the N loss due NH3 volatilization from urea fertilizer, with an average reduction of 71% across all seasons. The results of this and other recent studies regarding N losses suggest that ammonia volatilization is the main pathway of N loss from grassland systems in southern Chile on volcanic ash soils when urea and slurry are used as an N source. The use of good management practices, such as the inclusion of a urease inhibitor with urea fertilizer could have a beneficial impact on reducing N losses due NH3 volatilization and the environmental and economic impact of these emissions.

  10. Towards a climate-dependent paradigm of ammonia emission and deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutton, M.A.; Reis, S.; Riddick, S.N.; Dragosits, U.; Nemitz, E.; Theobald, M.R.; Tang, Y.S.; Vries, de W.

    2013-01-01

    Existing descriptions of bi-directional ammonia (NH3) land–atmosphere exchange incorporate temperature and moisture controls, and are beginning to be used in regional chemical transport models. However, such models have typically applied simpler emission factors to upscale the main NH3 emission term

  11. Measurements of ammonia emissions from spreading of manure using gradient FTIR techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, B.; Klemedtsson, L.; Bergqvist, B.;

    2000-01-01

    Emissions of biogenic trace gases from soils and plants often show strong spatial and temporal variation. Thus, there is a need for the development of area-integrating measurement techniques with good time resolution. The present paper describes area-integrated measurements of ammonia emissions a...

  12. Ammonia emissions factors from broiler litter in barns, storage, and after land application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia (NH3) emissions from poultry litter can cause high levels of NH3 in poultry rearing facilities, as well as atmospheric pollution. The objectives of this study were to: (1) measure NH3 emissions from litter in broiler houses, during storage and following land application, and (2) conduct a m...

  13. Constraining atmospheric ammonia emissions through new observations with an open-path, laser-based sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kang

    As the third most abundant nitrogen species in the atmosphere, ammonia (NH3) is a key component of the global nitrogen cycle. Since the industrial revolution, humans have more than doubled the emissions of NH3 to the atmosphere by industrial nitrogen fixation, revolutionizing agricultural practices, and burning fossil fuels. NH3 is a major precursor to fine particulate matter (PM2.5), which has adverse impacts on air quality and human health. The direct and indirect aerosol radiative forcings currently constitute the largest uncertainties for future climate change predictions. Gas and particle phase NH3 eventually deposits back to the Earth's surface as reactive nitrogen, leading to the exceedance of ecosystem critical loads and perturbation of ecosystem productivity. Large uncertainties still remain in estimating the magnitude and spatiotemporal patterns of NH3 emissions from all sources and over a range of scales. These uncertainties in emissions also propagate to the deposition of reactive nitrogen. To improve our understanding of NH3 emissions, observational constraints are needed from local to global scales. The first part of this thesis is to provide quality-controlled, reliable NH3 measurements in the field using an open-path, quantum cascade laser-based NH3 sensor. As the second and third part of my research, NH3 emissions were quantified from a cattle feedlot using eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements, and the similarities between NH3 turbulent fluxes and those of other scalars (temperature, water vapor, and CO2) were investigated. The fourth part involves applying a mobile laboratory equipped with the open-path NH3 sensor and other important chemical/meteorological measurements to quantify fleet-integrated NH3 emissions from on-road vehicles. In the fifth part, the on-road measurements were extended to multiple major urban areas in both the US and China in the context of five observation campaigns. The results significantly improved current urban NH3

  14. Global oceanic emission of ammonia: Constraints from seawater and atmospheric observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulot, F.; Jacob, D. J.; Johnson, M. T.; Bell, T. G.; Baker, A. R.; Keene, W. C.; Lima, I. D.; Doney, S. C.; Stock, C. A.

    2015-08-01

    Current global inventories of ammonia emissions identify the ocean as the largest natural source. This source depends on seawater pH, temperature, and the concentration of total seawater ammonia (NHx(sw)), which reflects a balance between remineralization of organic matter, uptake by plankton, and nitrification. Here we compare [NHx(sw)] from two global ocean biogeochemical models (BEC and COBALT) against extensive ocean observations. Simulated [NHx(sw)] are generally biased high. Improved simulation can be achieved in COBALT by increasing the plankton affinity for NHx within observed ranges. The resulting global ocean emissions is 2.5 TgN a-1, much lower than current literature values (7-23 TgN a-1), including the widely used Global Emissions InitiAtive (GEIA) inventory (8 TgN a-1). Such a weak ocean source implies that continental sources contribute more than half of atmospheric NHx over most of the ocean in the Northern Hemisphere. Ammonia emitted from oceanic sources is insufficient to neutralize sulfate aerosol acidity, consistent with observations. There is evidence over the Equatorial Pacific for a missing source of atmospheric ammonia that could be due to photolysis of marine organic nitrogen at the ocean surface or in the atmosphere. Accommodating this possible missing source yields a global ocean emission of ammonia in the range 2-5 TgN a-1, comparable in magnitude to other natural sources from open fires and soils.

  15. A process-based model of ammonia emissions from dairy cows: improved temporal and spatial resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinder, Robert W.; Pekney, Natalie J.; Davidson, Cliff I.; Adams, Peter J.

    This research has developed an integrated model of a dairy farm that predicts monthly ammonia emission factors based on farming practices and climate conditions, including temperature, wind speed, and precipitation. The model can be used to predict the seasonal and geographic variations in ammonia emission factors, which are important for accurately predicting aerosol nitrate concentrations. The model tracks the volume of manure and mass of ammoniacal nitrogen as the manure moves through the housing, storage, application, and grazing stages of a dairy farm. Most of the processes of ammonia volatilization are modeled explicitly, but poorly understood processes are parameterized and tuned to match empirical data. The tuned model has been compared to independent experimental data and is shown to be robust over the range of experimental conditions. We have characterized the differences in emissions resulting from changes in climate conditions and farming practices and found that both of these factors are significant and should be included when developing a national inventory.

  16. Quantification, Sources, and Control of Ammonia Emissions in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Marie Skybova

    2001-01-01

    The exact quantification of ammonia (NH3) emissions is the basic presumption for the fulfilment of obligations set by the CLRTAP (Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution) Protocol which was signed by the Czech Republic in 1999. Most NH3 emissions in the Czech Republic are produced during the breeding of cattle, pigs, and poultry; therefore, determinating emission factors for these kinds of animals by studying their total number, type of breeding, and subsequent disposal of manure...

  17. Impact of Physical-Chemical Properties on Ammonia Emissions of Dairy Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koirala, K.

    2015-12-01

    Ammonia emission is a major concern due to its adverse effects on animal and human health. Ionic strength and suspended solids play key roles in the ammonia volatilization process. These two parameters, however, are usually lumped together in form of totalsolids. The objective of this study was to separate the contribution of suspended solids (SS) from that of ionic strength (IS) on ammonia volatilization in liquid dairy manure. A two-way factorial experiment was conducted to simultaneously test the effects of IS and SS on ammonium dissociation: a key element of the ammonia volatilization process. The fraction of ammonia (β) in total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) was experimentally determined in a convective emission chamber, for each level of SS and IS, at a constant wind speed of 1.5 m s-1, and air and liquid temperature of 25°C. The two way analysis of variance showed a significant effect of SS concentration (p = 0.04) on fraction of ammonia in the liquid dairy manure, while the effect of ionic strength was marginal (p = 0.05). The highest dissociation of ammonium was observed in manure with the lowest SS concentration (0%) and the lowest ionic strength (0.10 mol L-1). Significant increases in suspended solids concentration and ionic strength were necessary to influence the ammonium dissociation in dairy manure. Results revealed that substantially high content of suspended solids (> 3.0%) or relatively high dilution of manure with water (30%) were necessary for these two parameters to play significant rolesin the ammonia volatilization mechanism in liquid dairy manure. Results also showed that the β was more sensitive to the changes in suspended solids concentration than in the changes in ionic strength within the ranges of SS and IS examined in this study.Overall, the SS and IS effects on ammonium dissociation (and by extension on ammonia volatilization process) were thus found negligible within the normal ranges of liquid dairy manure characteristics.

  18. Ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and particulate matter emissions from California high-rise layer houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, X.-J.; Cortus, E. L.; Zhang, R.; Jiang, S.; Heber, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide are hazardous substances that are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency through community right-to-know legislation (EPCRA, EPA, 2011). The emissions of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide from large commercial layer facilities are of concern to legislators and nearby neighbors. Particulate matter (PM 10 and PM 2.5) released from layer houses are two of seven criteria pollutants for which EPA has set National Ambient Air Quality Standards as required by the Clean Air Act. Therefore, it is important to quantify the baseline emissions of these pollutants. The emissions of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and PM from two California high-rise layer houses were monitored for two years from October 2007 to October 2009. Each house had 32,500 caged laying hens. The monitoring site was setup in compliance with a U.S. EPA-approved quality assurance project plan. The results showed the average daily mean emission rates of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide were 0.95 ± 0.67 (standard deviation) g d -1 bird -1, 1.27 ± 0.78 mg d -1 bird -1 and 91.4 ± 16.5 g d -1 bird -1, respectively. The average daily mean emission rates of PM 2.5, PM 10 and total suspended particulate (TSP) were 5.9 ± 12.6, 33.4 ± 27.4, and 78.0 ± 42.7 mg d -1 bird -1, respectively. It was observed that ammonia emission rates in summer were lower than in winter because the high airflow stabilized the manure by drying it. The reductions due to lower moisture content were greater than the increases due to higher temperature. However, PM 10 emission rates in summer were higher than in winter because the drier conditions coupled with higher internal air velocities increased PM 10 release from feathers, feed and manure.

  19. Analysis of Ammonia and Volatile Organic Amine Emissions in a Confined Poultry Facility

    OpenAIRE

    Dinh, Hanh Hong Thi

    2010-01-01

    The National Air Emission Monitoring Study (NAEMS) project was funded by the Agricultural Air Research Council (AARC) to evaluate agricultural emissions nationwide. Utah State University (USU) is conducting a parallel study on agricultural emissions at a Cache Valley poultry facility. As part of this parallel study, samples of animal feed, eggs and animal waste were collected weekly from three manure barns (designated: manure barn, barn 4 - manure belt and barn 5 - high rise) from May 2008 to...

  20. Ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from constructed wetlands treating swine wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from marsh-pond-marsh constructed wetlands treating swine wastewater were measured with closed-chamber technique using a photoacoustic multigas analyzer. Theory behind the technique was discussed and the technique was demonstrated with actual field data. Nitrous ...

  1. Phase feeding crude protein to decrease ammonia emissions from finishing beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The dietary protein requirement of cattle decreases as animals grow, and mature. Thus, it maybe possible to decrease the protein content of finishing diets to conserve nitrogen, and decrease ammonia emissions. This publicatoin gives a brief review of research conducted on phase feeding protein to ...

  2. Dietary CP and Tannin Extracts Impact Ammonia Emissions From Manure Deposited On Dairy Barn Floors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of dietary CP and Quebracho-Chestnut tannin extracts on dairy cow performance and N partitioning are reported elsewhere at this meeting. Mixtures of feces/urine from these studies were applied to lab-scale ventilated chambers to measure ammonia-N emissions (ANE) from simulated concrete ba...

  3. Use of ammonia as an additive reducing sulphur dioxide and nitric oxide emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Test results obtained on an operating object when proportioning ammonia have been presented. As analyses of the obtained results was carried out and possibilities of SO2 and NOx emission reductions by using additives was discussed in this aspect. (author). 5 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  4. Ammonia emissions from pig houses in The Netherlands, Denmark and France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Rom, H.B.; Dourmad, J.Y.

    1999-01-01

    In recent decades pig production has been intensified in most European countries. This has resulted in a surplus of manure and a serious concern about the effect of ammonia emissions on environmental acidification and the pollution of ground and surface water. In the Netherlands, Denmark and France

  5. DETERMINATION OF AMMONIA MASS EMISSION FLUX FROM HOG WASTE EFFLUENT SPRAYING OPERATION USING OPEN PATH TUNABLE DIODE LASER SPECTROSCOPY WITH VERTICAL RADIAL PLUME MAPPING ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emission of ammonia from concentrated animal feeding operations represents an increasingly important environmental issue. Determination of total ammonia mass emission flux from extended area sources such as waste lagoons and waste effluent spraying operations can be evaluated usi...

  6. Emissions of sulfur-containing odorants, ammonia, and methane from pig slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Adamsen, Anders Peter S.; Nørgaard, Jan Værum;

    2010-01-01

    from the slurry of the control treatment, which came from pigs fed according to Danish recommendations for amino acids and minerals. The emission patterns of volatile S compounds suggested an intense cycling between pools of organic S in the slurries, with urinary sulfate as the main source. Diet......Supplementation of benzoic acid to pig diets reduces the pH of urine and may thereby affect emissions of ammonia and other gases from slurry, including sulfur-containing compounds that are expected to play a role in odor emission. Over a period of 112 d, we investigated hydrogen sulfide (H2S......), methanethiol (MT), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), and dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), as well as ammonia and methane emissions from stored pig slurry. The slurry was derived from a feeding experiment with four pig diets in a factorial design with 2% (w/w) benzoic acid and 1% (w/w) methionine...

  7. Sensitivity analysis of a mechanistic model for the ammonia emission of dairy cow houses

    OpenAIRE

    Snoek, J W; Ogink, N.W.M.; Stigter, J.D.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2012-01-01

    Emission of ammonia (NH3) from animal husbandry, and specially from the dairy sector, contributes significantly to acidification and eutrophication, and affects sensitive natural areas. In the nineties Monteny (1998) introduced a mechanistic model to understand and predict the NH3 emissions from cubicle dairy cow houses. Although a limited sensitivity analysis was carried out, we still lack information that essential for further development of the model. Our aim is that the model can predict ...

  8. Ammonia-oxidising bacteria not archaea dominate nitrification activity in semi-arid agricultural soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banning, Natasha C.; Maccarone, Linda D.; Fisk, Louise M.; Murphy, Daniel V.

    2015-06-01

    Ammonia-oxidising archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) are responsible for the rate limiting step in nitrification; a key nitrogen (N) loss pathway in agricultural systems. Dominance of AOA relative to AOB in the amoA gene pool has been reported in many ecosystems, although their relative contributions to nitrification activity are less clear. Here we examined the distribution of AOA and AOB with depth in semi-arid agricultural soils in which soil organic matter content or pH had been altered, and related their distribution to gross nitrification rates. Soil depth had a significant effect on gene abundances, irrespective of management history. Contrary to reports of AOA dominance in soils elsewhere, AOA gene copy numbers were four-fold lower than AOB in the surface (0-10 cm). AOA gene abundance increased with depth while AOB decreased, and sub-soil abundances were approximately equal (10-90 cm). The depth profile of total archaea did not mirror that of AOA, indicating the likely presence of archaea without nitrification capacity in the surface. Gross nitrification rates declined significantly with depth and were positively correlated to AOB but negatively correlated to AOA gene abundances. We conclude that AOB are most likely responsible for regulating nitrification in these semi-arid soils.

  9. Study of the ammonia emission in the NGC 6334 region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caproni, A.; Abraham, Z.; Vilas-Boas, J. W. S.

    2000-09-01

    The region centered in the NGC 6334 I(N) radio continuum source was surveyed in an extension of 6' in right ascension and 12' in declination, in the NH_3(J,K) = (1,1) transition, using the Itapetinga radio telescope. The spectra show non-LTE behavior, and gradients of velocity and line-width were detected along the region. A detailed analysis of the spectra showed that the surveyed region is composed of at least three overlapped sources related to regions that are in different stages of star formation: NGC 6334 I, associated with an already known molecular bipolar outflow, NGC 6334 I(N)w, the brightest ammonia source, coincidental with the continuum source NGC 6334 I(N), and NGC 6334 I(N)e, weaker, more extended and probably less evolved than the others. The physical parameters of the last two sources were calculated in non-LTE conditions, assuming that their spectra are the superposition of the narrow line spectra produced by small dense clumps. The H_2 density, NH_3 column density, kinetic temperature, diameter and mass of the clumps were found to be very similar in the two regions, but the density of clumps is lower in the probably less evolved source NGC 6334 I(N)e. Differences between the physical parameters derived assuming LTE and non-LTE conditions are also discussed in this work.

  10. Study of ammonia emission in the NGC 6334 region

    CERN Document Server

    Caproni, A; Vilas-Boas, J W S; Caproni, Anderson; Abraham, Zulema; Vilas-Boas, Jose W. S.

    2000-01-01

    The region centered in the NGC 6334 I(N) radio continuum source was surveyed in an extension of 6 arcmin in right ascension and 12 arcmin in declination, in the NH3(J,K) = (1,1) transition, using the Itapetinga radio telescope. The spectra show non-LTE behavior, and gradients of velocity and line-width were detected along the region. A detailed analysis of the spectra showed that the surveyed region is composed of at least three overlapped sources related to regions that are in different stages of star formation: NGC 6334 I, associated with an already known molecular bipolar outflow, NGC 6334 I(N)w, the brightest ammonia source, coincidental with the continuum source NGC 6334 I(N), and NGC 6334 I(N)e, weaker, more extended and probably less evolved than the others. The physical parameters of the last two sources were calculated in non-LTE conditions, assuming that their spectra are the superposition of the narrow line spectra produced by small dense clumps. The H2 density, NH3 column density, kinetic temperat...

  11. Greenhouse gases and ammonia emissions from organic mixed crop-dairy systems: a critical review of mitigation options

    OpenAIRE

    Novak, Sandra; Fiorelli, Jean-Louis

    2010-01-01

    International audience Dairy production systems represent a significant source of air pollutants such as greenhouse gases (GHG), that increase global warming, and ammonia (NH3), that leads to eutrophication and acidification of natural ecosystems. Greenhouse gases and ammonia are emitted both by conventional and organic dairy systems. Several studies have already been conducted to design practices that reduce greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions from dairy systems. However, those studies d...

  12. GHG emissions and mitigation potential in Indian agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Sylvia; Feliciano, Diana; Sapkota, Tek; Hillier, Jon; Smith, Pete; Stirling, Clare

    2016-04-01

    India is one of the world's largest greenhouse gas (GHG) emitter, accounting for about 5% of global emissions with further increases expected in the future. The Government of India aims to reduce emission intensities by 20-25% by 2020 compared with the 2005 level. In a recent departure from past practice the reconvened Council on Climate Change stated that climate change in agriculture would include a component that would focus on reducing emissions in agriculture, particularly methane and nitrous oxide emissions. To develop recommendations for mitigation in agriculture in India, a baseline study is presented to analyse the GHG emissions from agriculture for current management (Directorate of Economics and Statistics of the government of India). This analysis is done for the two states Bihar and Haryana, which differ in their management and practises based on different climate and policies. This first analysis shows were the highest GHG emissions in agriculture is produced and were the highest mitigation potential might be. The GHG emissions and mitigation potential are calculated using the CCAFS Mitigation Option Tool (CCAFS-MOT) (https://ccafs.cgiar.org/mitigation-option-tool-agriculture#.VpTnWL826d4) with modifications for the special modelling. In a second step, stakeholder meetings provided a wide range of possible and definite scenarios (management, policy, technology, costs, etc.) for the future to mitigate emissions in agriculture as well as how to increase productivity. These information were used to create scenarios to give estimates for the mitigation potential in agriculture for India in 2020.

  13. Ammonia emissions from deciduous forest after leaf fall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristina; Sørensen, Lise Lotte; Hertel, Ole;

    2013-01-01

    15 November) for the Danish beech forest Lille Bøgeskov to address the hypothesis that NH3 emissions occur from deciduous forests in relation to leaf fall. This is accomplished by using observations of vegetation status, NH3 fluxes and model calculations. Vegetation status was observed using plant...... from deposition of −0.25 ± 0.30 μg NH3-N m−2 s−1 to emission of up to 0.67 ± 0.28 μg NH3-N m−2 s−1 throughout the measurement period was found. In the leaf fall period (23 October to 8 November), an increase in the atmospheric NH3 concentrations was related to the increasing forest NH3 flux. Following...... leaf fall, the magnitude and temporal structure of the measured NH3 emission fluxes could be adequately reproduced with the bi-directional resistance model; it suggested the forest ground layer (soil and litter) to be the main contributing component to the NH3 emissions. The modelled concentration from...

  14. Gaseous ammonia in the urban area of Rome, Italy and its relationship with traffic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrino, C.; Catrambone, M.; Di Menno Di Bucchianico, A.; Allegrini, I.

    The atmospheric concentration of gaseous ammonia has been measured during selected field campaigns from the spring of 2001 to the spring of 2002 in the urban area of Rome, at many traffic sites and at an urban background site. The concentration level at the traffic sites was in all cases about five times the background level and always much higher than the concentration in a rural near-city area. The time trend of ammonia is well correlated with the trend of a primary low-reactivity pollutant such as carbon monoxide. The concentration values of both pollutants depend on the intensity of traffic emission and on the atmospheric mixing in the boundary layer. Ammonia concentration is also dependent on the air temperature. A close link between NH 3 and CO air values has been confirmed at all the measurement stations of the Air Quality Network of Rome. These results indicate that the emissions from petrol-engine vehicles equipped with catalytic converters can be an important source of ammonia in urban areas. The implications of these findings for the chemistry of the urban atmosphere need to be carefully considered.

  15. Short-term experiments in using digestate products as substitutes for mineral (N) fertilizer: Agronomic performance, odours, and ammonia emission impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, C; Orzi, V; Carozzi, M; Acutis, M; Boccasile, G; Lonati, S; Tambone, F; D'Imporzano, G; Adani, F

    2016-03-15

    Anaerobic digestion produces a biologically stable and high-value fertilizer product, the digestate, which can be used as an alternative to mineral fertilizers on crops. However, misuse of digestate can lead to annoyance for the public (odours) and to environmental problems such as nitrate leaching and ammonia emissions into the air. Full field experimental data are needed to support the use of digestate in agriculture, promoting its correct management. In this work, short-term experiments were performed to substitute mineral N fertilizers (urea) with digestate and products derived from it to the crop silage maize. Digestate and the liquid fraction of digestate were applied to soil at pre-sowing and as topdressing fertilizers in comparison with urea, both by surface application and subsurface injection during the cropping seasons 2012 and 2013. After each fertilizer application, both odours and ammonia emissions were measured, giving data about digestate and derived products' impacts. The AD products could substitute for urea without reducing crop yields, apart from the surface application of AD-derived fertilizers. Digestate and derived products, because of high biological stability acquired during the AD, had greatly reduced olfactometry impact, above all when they were injected into soils (82-88% less odours than the untreated biomass, i.e. cattle slurry). Ammonia emission data indicated, as expected, that the correct use of digestate and derived products required their injection into the soil avoiding, ammonia volatilization into the air and preserving fertilizer value. Sub-surface injection allowed ammonia emissions to be reduced by 69% and 77% compared with surface application during the 2012 and 2013 campaigns. PMID:26780147

  16. An experimental investigation of exhaust emission from agricultural tractors

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid Gholami, Hekmat Rabbani, Ali Nejat Lorestani, Payam Javadikia, Farzad Jaliliantabar

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural machinery is an important source of emission of air pollutant in rural locations. Emissions of a specific tractor engine mainly depend on engine speed. Various driving methods and use of implements with different work capacities can affect the engine load. This study deals with the effects of types of tractors and operation conditions on engine emission. In this study two types of agricultural tractors (MF285 and U650) and some tillage implements such as centrifugal type spreader...

  17. Yield-scaled mitigation of ammonia emission from N fertilization: the Spanish case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer and field application of livestock manure are the major sources of ammonia (NH3) volatilization. This N loss may decrease crop productivity and subsequent deposition promotes environmental problems associated with soil acidification and eutrophication. Mitigation measures may have associated side effects such as decreased crop productivity (e.g. if N fertilizer application is reduced), or the release of other reactive N compounds (e.g. N2O emissions if manure is incorporated). Here, we present a novel methodology to provide an integrated assessment of the best strategies to abate NH3 from N applications to crops. Using scenario analyses, we assessed the potential of 11 mitigation measures to reduce NH3 volatilization while accounting for their side effects on crop productivity, N use efficiency (NUE) and N surplus (used as an indicator of potential N losses by denitrification/nitrification and NO3− leaching/run-off). Spain, including its 48 provinces, was selected as a case study as it is the third major producer of agricultural goods in Europe, and also the European country with the highest increase in NH3 emissions from 1990 to 2011. Mitigation scenarios comprised of individual measures and combinations of strategies were evaluated at a country- and regional level. Compared to the reference situation of standard practices for the year 2008, implementation of the most effective region-specific mitigation strategy led to 63% NH3 mitigation at the country level. Implementation of a single strategy for all regions reduced NH3 by 57% at the highest. Strategies that involved combining mitigation measures produced the largest NH3 abatement in all cases, with an 80% reduction in some regions. Among the strategies analyzed, only suppression of urea application combined with manure incorporation and incorporation of N synthetic fertilizers other than urea showed a fully beneficial situation: yield-scaled NH3 emissions were reduced by 82

  18. Yield-scaled mitigation of ammonia emission from N fertilization: the Spanish case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Cobena, A.; Lassaletta, L.; Estellés, F.; Del Prado, A.; Guardia, G.; Abalos, D.; Aguilera, E.; Pardo, G.; Vallejo, A.; Sutton, M. A.; Garnier, J.; Billen, G.

    2014-12-01

    Synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer and field application of livestock manure are the major sources of ammonia (NH3) volatilization. This N loss may decrease crop productivity and subsequent deposition promotes environmental problems associated with soil acidification and eutrophication. Mitigation measures may have associated side effects such as decreased crop productivity (e.g. if N fertilizer application is reduced), or the release of other reactive N compounds (e.g. N2O emissions if manure is incorporated). Here, we present a novel methodology to provide an integrated assessment of the best strategies to abate NH3 from N applications to crops. Using scenario analyses, we assessed the potential of 11 mitigation measures to reduce NH3 volatilization while accounting for their side effects on crop productivity, N use efficiency (NUE) and N surplus (used as an indicator of potential N losses by denitrification/nitrification and NO3- leaching/run-off). Spain, including its 48 provinces, was selected as a case study as it is the third major producer of agricultural goods in Europe, and also the European country with the highest increase in NH3 emissions from 1990 to 2011. Mitigation scenarios comprised of individual measures and combinations of strategies were evaluated at a country- and regional level. Compared to the reference situation of standard practices for the year 2008, implementation of the most effective region-specific mitigation strategy led to 63% NH3 mitigation at the country level. Implementation of a single strategy for all regions reduced NH3 by 57% at the highest. Strategies that involved combining mitigation measures produced the largest NH3 abatement in all cases, with an 80% reduction in some regions. Among the strategies analyzed, only suppression of urea application combined with manure incorporation and incorporation of N synthetic fertilizers other than urea showed a fully beneficial situation: yield-scaled NH3 emissions were reduced by 82

  19. Hot Ammonia Emission - Kinetic Temperature Gradients in Orion-Kl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T. L.; Henkel, C.; Huttemeister, S.; Dahmen, G.; Linhart, A.; Lemme, C.; Schmid-Burgk, J.

    1993-09-01

    The first astronomical detections of the (J, K) = (10,10), (11,11), (12,12), (13,13) and (14,14) doublet inversion emission lines of NH3 at 1 cm wavelength are presented. These transitions are emitted from energy levels up to 1900K above the ground state; these are the most energetic states probed by quasithermal radio emission lines. The linewidths and radial velocities are consistent with emission from the Hot Core of the Orion KL nebula. There is no systematic change in ΔVl/2 and V1st with (J, K). The spectra also show no wide linewings; these findings agree with results for inversion transitions between lower lying doublet levels. From a least squares fit to the column densities of the new NH3 inversion line data, Trot ˜ 400±40K; this exceeds the previous value based on lower lying NH3 inversion lines. A good fit to the 37 NH3 inversion lines is obtained using a model with spherical symmetry and all NH3 inversion lines thermalized. This gives n(H2)˜R-25±02, if Tk ˜ R-0.4. Comparisons are made with other Hot Core results.

  20. Quantification, Sources, and Control of Ammonia Emissions in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Skybova

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The exact quantification of ammonia (NH3 emissions is the basic presumption for the fulfilment of obligations set by the CLRTAP (Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution Protocol which was signed by the Czech Republic in 1999. Most NH3 emissions in the Czech Republic are produced during the breeding of cattle, pigs, and poultry; therefore, determinating emission factors for these kinds of animals by studying their total number, type of breeding, and subsequent disposal of manure is the solution to the problem of NH3 emissions quantification. This paper summarizes the results of 4 years of research in this area, determining the emission factors and ways of decreasing emissions from the breeding of cattle, pigs, and poultry.

  1. Tannin extracts abate ammonia emissions from simulated dairy barn floors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J M; Aguerre, M J; Wattiaux, M A

    2011-01-01

    Feeding more tannin and less crude protein (CP) to dairy cows may have synergistic impacts on reducing NH emissions from dairy barns. Three trials using lab-scale ventilated chambers with concrete floors were conducted to determine the impacts on NH emission of tannin and CP feeding, tannin feeding on urease activity in feces, and tannin application directly to the barn floor. For Trial 1, mixtures of feces and urine from lactating Holstein dairy cows () fed four levels (g kg) of dietary tannin extract [a mixture from red quebracho () and chestnut () trees]: 0 tannin (0T), 4.5 (low tannin [LT]), 9.0 (medium tannin [MT]), and 18.0 (high tannin [HT]); each fed at two levels (g kg) of dietary CP: 155 low CP (LCP) and 168 high CP (HCP) were applied to chambers. For Trial 2, urea solution was added to feces obtained from cows fed 0T, MT, and HT at HCP. For Trial 3, tannin amounts equivalent to those fed at 0T, MT, and HT were applied directly to feces-urine mixtures from 0T-HCP. For all trials, NH emissions were measured 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h after treatment application. For Trial 1, reductions in NH emission due to tannin feeding were greatest when fed at LCP: The LCP-LT and LCP-HT treatments emitted 30.6% less NH than LCP-0T, and the HCP-LT and HCP-HT treatments emitted 16.3% less NH than HCP-0T. For Trial 2, feeding tannin decreased urease activity in feces, resulting in an 11.5% reduction in cumulative NH loss. For Trial 3, the application of tannin directly to simulated barn floors also apparently decreased urease activity, resulting in an average reduction in cumulative NH emissions of 19.0%. Larger-scale trails are required to ascertain the effectiveness of tannin extracts in abating NH loss from dairy barn floors. PMID:21546676

  2. A temporally and spatially resolved ammonia emission inventory for dairy cows in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinder, Robert W.; Strader, Ross; Davidson, Cliff I.; Adams, Peter J.

    Previous inventories of ammonia emissions for the United States have not characterized the seasonal and geographic variations that are necessary for accurately predicting ambient concentrations of ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate aerosol. This research calculates the seasonal and geographic variation in ammonia emissions from dairy cows in the United States. Monthly, county-level emission factors are calculated with a process-based model of dairy farm emissions, the national distribution of farming practices, seasonal climate conditions, and animal populations. Annual, county-level emission factors are estimated to range between 13.1 and 55.5, with a national average of 23.9 kg NH 3 cow -1 yr -1. The seasonal variation of the emission factor is estimated to be as high as a factor of seven in some counties. Emissions are predicted to be the highest in the spring and fall, because of high manure application rates during the spring planting and after the fall harvest. Summer emissions are higher than winter, resulting from the temperature dependence of housing and storage emissions. In the summer and winter, the majority of emissions are from animal housing. In the spring and fall, the majority of emissions are from field applied manure. The 5% and 95% confidence interval about the national annual average emission factor is between 18 and 36 kg NH 3 cow -1 yr -1. Uncertainties in farming practices contribute most to the total uncertainty, yet uncertainty in the timing of manure application, the quantity of manure and nitrogen excreted by cows, and the physical processes of volatilization affecting applied manure are also significant.

  3. Measurement of ammonia emissions from temperate and sub-polar seabird colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddick, S. N.; Blackall, T. D.; Dragosits, U.; Daunt, F.; Newell, M.; Braban, C. F.; Tang, Y. S.; Schmale, J.; Hill, P. W.; Wanless, S.; Trathan, P.; Sutton, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    The chemical breakdown of marine derived reactive nitrogen transported to the land as seabird guano represents a significant source of ammonia (NH3) in areas far from other NH3 sources. Measurements made at tropical and temperate seabird colonies indicate substantial NH3 emissions, with emission rates larger than many anthropogenic point sources. However, several studies indicate that thermodynamic processes limit the amount of NH3 emitted from guano, suggesting that the percentage of guano volatilizing as NH3 may be considerably lower in colder climates. This study undertook high resolution temporal ammonia measurements in the field and coupled results with modelling to estimate NH3 emissions at a temperate puffin colony and two sub-polar penguin colonies (Signy Island, South Orkney Islands and Bird Island, South Georgia) during the breeding season. These emission rates are then compared with NH3 volatilization rates from other climates. Ammonia emissions were calculated using a Lagrangian atmospheric dispersion model, resulting in mean emissions of 5 μg m-2 s-1 at the Isle of May, 12 μg m-2 s-1 at Signy Island and 9 μg m-2 s-1 at Bird Island. The estimated percentage of total guano nitrogen volatilized was 5% on the Isle of May, 3% on Signy and 2% on Bird Island. These values are much smaller than the percentage of guano nitrogen volatilized in tropical contexts (31-65%). The study confirmed temperature, wind speed and water availability have a significant influence on the magnitude of NH3 emissions, which has implications for reactive nitrogen in both modern remote regions and pre-industrial atmospheric composition and ecosystem interactions.

  4. Current and future nitrous oxide emissions from African agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hickman, J.E.; Havlikova, M.; Kroeze, C.; Palm, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Most emission estimates of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) from African agriculture at a continental scale are based on emission factors, such as those developed by the IPCC Guidelines. Here we present estimates from Africa from the EDGAR database, which is derived from the IPCC emission fact

  5. Agriculture and greenhouse gases emissions reduction; Agriculture et reduction des emissions de gaz a effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leguet, B.

    2005-09-15

    In France, the agriculture is the third sector of greenhouse gases emitter. Meanwhile since 1990 this sector poorly reduces its greenhouse gases. It is necessary to find mechanisms which allow the valorization of emissions reduction. In this framework the author presents the specificities of the greenhouse gases emissions of the agricultural sector, the possible incentives of emissions reduction, the reduction projects in France and abroad. (A.L.B.)

  6. A process-based model for ammonia emission from urine patches, GAG (Generation of Ammonia from Grazing): description and sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Móring, Andrea; Vieno, Massimo; Doherty, Ruth M.; Laubach, Johannes; Taghizadeh-Toosi, Arezoo; Sutton, Mark A.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper a new process-based, weather-driven model for ammonia (NH3) emission from a urine patch has been developed and its sensitivity to various factors assessed. The GAG model (Generation of Ammonia from Grazing) is capable of simulating the TAN (total ammoniacal nitrogen) and the water content of the soil under a urine patch and also soil pH dynamics. The model tests suggest that ammonia volatilization from a urine patch can be affected by the possible restart of urea hydrolysis after a rain event as well as CO2 emission from the soil. The vital role of temperature in NH3 exchange is supported by our model results; however, the GAG model provides only a modest overall temperature dependence in total NH3 emission compared with the literature. This, according to our findings, can be explained by the higher sensitivity to temperature close to urine application than in the later stages and may depend on interactions with other nitrogen cycling processes. In addition, we found that wind speed and relative humidity are also significant influencing factors. Considering that all the input parameters can be obtained for larger scales, GAG is potentially suitable for field and regional scale application, serving as a tool for further investigation of the effects of climate change on ammonia emissions and deposition.

  7. ThermoEnergy Ammonia Recovery Process for Municipal and Agricultural Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex G. Fassbender

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ammonia Recovery Process (ARP is an award-winning, low-cost, environmentally responsible method of recovering nitrogen, in the form of ammonia, from various dilute waste streams and converting it into concentrated ammonium sulfate. The ThermoEnergy Biogas System utilizes the new chemisorption-based ARP to recover ammonia from anaerobically digested wastes. The process provides for optimal biogas production and significantly reduced nitrogen levels in the treated water discharge. Process flows for the ammonia recovery and ThermoEnergy biogas processes are presented and discussed. A comparison with other techniques such as biological nitrogen removal is made. The ARP technology uses reversible chemisorption and double salt crystal precipitation to recover and concentrate the ammonia. The ARP technology was successfully proven in a recent large-scale field demonstration at New York City’s Oakwood Beach Wastewater Treatment Plant, located on Staten Island. This project was a joint effort with Foster Wheeler Environmental Corporation, the Civil Engineering Research Foundation, and New York City Department of Environmental Protection. Independent validated plant data show that ARP consistently recovers up to 99.9% of the ammonia from the city’s centrate waste stream (derived from dewatering of sewage sludge, as ammonium sulfate. ARP technology can reduce the nitrogen (ammonia discharged daily into local bodies of water by municipalities, concentrated animal farming operations, and industry. Recent advances to ARP enhance its performance and economic competitiveness in comparison to stripping or ammonia destruction technologies.

  8. Effect of nitrogen fertilization and residue management practices on ammonia emissions from subtropical sugarcane production

    Science.gov (United States)

    mudi, Sanku Datta; Wang, Jim J.; Dodla, Syam Kumar; Arceneaux, Allen; Viator, H. P.

    2016-08-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emission from soil is a loss of nitrogen (N) nutrient for plant production as well as an issue of air quality, due to the fact that it is an active precursor of airborne particulate matters. Ammonia also acts as a secondary source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emission when present in the soil. In this study, the impacts of different sources of N fertilizers and harvest residue management schemes on NH3 emissions from sugarcane production were evaluated based on an active chamber method. The field experiment plots consisting of two sources of N fertilizer (urea and urea ammonium nitrate (UAN)) and two common residue management practices, namely residue retained (RR) and residue burned (RB), were established on a Commerce silt loam. The NH3 volatilized following N fertilizer application was collected in an impinger containing diluted citric acid and was subsequently analyzed using ion chromatography. The NH3 loss was primarily found within 3-4 weeks after N application. Average seasonal soil NH3 flux was significantly greater in urea plots with NH3-N emission factor (EF) twice or more than in UAN plots (2.4-5.6% vs. 1.2-1.7%). The RR residue management scheme had much higher NH3 volatilization than the RB treatment regardless of N fertilizer sources, corresponding to generally higher soil moisture levels in the former. Ammonia-N emissions in N fertilizer-treated sugarcane fields increased with increasing soil water-filled pore space (WFPS) up to 45-55% observed in the field. Both N fertilizer sources and residue management approaches significantly affected NH3 emissions.

  9. A simple model for assessing ammonia emission from ammoniacal fertilisers as affected by pH and injection into soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyord, T.; Schelde, K. M.; Søgaard, H. T.; Jensen, L. S.; Sommer, S. G.

    Ammonia (NH 3) volatilisation following the application of ammoniacal fertilisers and liquid manure to agricultural land is a significant source of atmospheric NH 3, which not only poses a risk to the environment, but may also result in a loss of plant available nitrogen (N). This study examined the potential for reducing NH 3 emission through acidifying an ammoniacal solution and by injecting the solution. The combination of the two technologies was studied and a model for predicting the most optimal treatment was developed. In the laboratory, ammonium (NH 4+) hydroxide (aqueous NH 3) was dissolved in water (pH 11) and injected into a loamy sand soil. The NH 3 emission was measured with a dynamic chamber technology. Injecting the solution to 10 mm below the soil surface reduced NH 3 emission by 10% compared to surface application, and injection to 30 mm reduced emission by 20% compared to surface application. Acidifying the ammoniacal solution by adding sulphuric acid and reducing pH to 10 reduced the emission by 60% at a 10 mm injection depth and 90% at 30 mm compared with non-acidified and surface-spread ammoniacal solution. The results show that there is an important interaction of pH and injection depth and that there is a need for models predicting a combined effect. This type of model could contribute to reduce cost and energy (traction force) by providing the optimal combination of acidifying and injection depth that gives a specific reduction in NH 3 emission, which in this study was reducing pH to 10 and inject the fertiliser to 30 mm below surface. This study showed that relatively simple models can predict the NH 3 emission from injected ammoniacal fertilisers, but that there is still a need for developing algorithms that predict the effect of pH, including the pH buffering capacity of the fertiliser and the soil.

  10. Spatial variability of ammonia and methane dairy emissions in the Central Valley, California with open-path mobile measurements during NASA DISCOVER-AQ 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D. J.; Sun, K.; Tao, L.; Zondlo, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) is an important fine aerosol gas-phase precursor, with implications for regional air quality and climate change. Atmospheric methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas, with high uncertainties in the partitioning of various emission sources. Ammonia and methane agricultural emissions are highly variable in space and time and are highly uncertain, with a lack of widespread, in-situ measurements. We characterize the spatial variability of dairy livestock emissions by performing high resolution (5 Hz), in-situ, on-road mobile measurements of NH3, CH4, CO2, N2O, CO and H2O simultaneously with open-path sensors mounted on a passenger vehicle. This suite of multiple trace gas measurements allows for emission ratio calculations and separation of agricultural, petrochemical and combustion emission signatures. Mobile measurements were performed in the Tulare County dairy farm region (~120 dairy farms sampled downwind) in the Central Valley, California during NASA DISCOVER-AQ in winter 2013. We calculate the ΔNH3/ΔCH4 and ΔNH3/ΔCO2 emission ratios for each dairy farm sampled downwind. Emission plumes from individual farms are isolated based on known dairy farm locations and high resolution (1 km) surface wind field simulations. Background concentrations are subtracted to calculate the emission ratios. We find high spatial variability of ammonia and methane concentrations, with localized maximums of >1 ppmv NH3 downwind of individual dairy farms. The spatial extent of individual farm emission plumes are evaluated for NH3, CH4 and CO2, which all show well-defined enhancements localized to the dairy farms near the roadside (typical sampling proximity of ≤ 50 m). The NH3 concentrations are correlated with the distance from each dairy farm. The observed median concentration within 100 m downwind of the dairy farms is 63 ppbv NH3, with the 95th percentile at 417 ppbv NH3 and decreases to background conditions at ~500 m distance downwind. The

  11. Effects of Different Concentrations of Ammonia Nitrogen on N2O Emission in the Process of Partial Nitrification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN; Lin; KONG; Qiang; ZHANG; Jian; MIAO; Ming-sheng

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to discuss the effects of different concentrations of ammonia nitrogen on N2O emission in the process of partial nitrification. [Method] By using a sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) under intermittent aeration, the influences of various concentrations of influent ammonia nitrogen on nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from partial nitrification were analyzed. [Result] When the concentration of influent ammonia nitrogen varied from 200 to 400 mg/L, the changing trends of DO and ORP value were consistent during the process of partial nitrification, and the concentration ratio of NO-2-N to NH+4-N in effluent water reached 1∶1, with lower NO-3-N level. In addition, ammonia nitrogen concentration in the influent had significant effects on N2O emission in the process of partial nitrification, that is, the higher the ammonia nitrogen concentration, the more the N2O emission. When ammonia nitrogen concentration was 400 mg/L, N2O emission was up to about 37 mg. [Conclusion] N2O emission in the process of partial nitrification might be related to the concentrations of NH+4 and NO-2.

  12. Effects of Different Concentrations of Ammonia Nitrogen on N_2O Emission in the Process of Partial Nitrification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN; Lin; KONG; Qiang; ZHANG; Jian; MIAO; Ming-sheng

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to discuss the effects of different concentrations of ammonia nitrogen on N2O emission in the process of partial nitrification. [Method] By using a sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) under intermittent aeration, the influences of various concentrations of influent ammonia nitrogen on nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from partial nitrification were analyzed. [Result] When the concentration of influent ammonia nitrogen varied from 200 to 400 mg/L, the changing trends of DO and ORP value were consistent during the process of partial nitrification, and the concentration ratio of NO-2-N to NH+4-N in effluent water reached 1∶1, with lower NO-3-N level. In addition, ammonia nitrogen concentration in the influent had significant effects on N2O emission in the process of partial nitrification, that is, the higher the ammonia nitrogen concentration, the more the N2O emission. When ammonia nitrogen concentration was 400 mg/L, N2O emission was up to about 37 mg. [Conclusion] N2O emission in the process of partial nitrification might be related to the concentrations of NH+4 and NO-2.

  13. ATMOSPHERIC AMMONIA EMISSIONS FROM THE LIVESTOCK SECTOR: DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A PROCESS-BASED MODELING APPROACH

    Science.gov (United States)

    We propose multi-faceted research to enhance our understanding of NH3 emissions from livestock feeding operations. A process-based emissions modeling approach will be used, and we will investigate ammonia emissions from the scale of the individual farm out to impacts on region...

  14. Mitigation of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane emissions from manure management chains: a meta-analysis and integrated assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yong, Y.; Velthof, G.L.; Oenema, O.

    2015-01-01

    Livestock manure contributes considerably to global emissions of ammonia (NH3) and greenhouse gases (GHG), especially methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Various measures have been developed to mitigate these emissions, but most of these focus on one specific gas and/or emission source. Here, we

  15. An Empirical Study on China’s Regional Carbon Emissions of Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Li Pang; Jingyuan Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Based on China’s carbon emissions of agriculture, the authors appraise the area differentiation of carbon emissions of agriculture; examine the influential factors of agricultural carbon emissions in China. The results show that the performance of China’s agricultural carbon emissions is on the rise. The agricultural carbon emissions in the west of China increase rapidly. The area differentiation of agricultural carbon emissions in China decreases. In general, the major driver of carbon e...

  16. A comprehensive ammonia emission inventory with high-resolution and its evaluation in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Shuiyuan Cheng; Lang, Jianlei; Chen, Dongsheng; Zhao, Beibei; Liu, Chao; Xu, Ran; Li, Tingting

    2015-04-01

    A comprehensive ammonia (NH3) emission inventory for the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region was developed based on the updated source-specific emission factors (EFs) and the county-level activity data obtained from a full-coverage investigation launched in the BTH region for the first time. The NH3 emission inventory within 1 km × 1 km grid was generated using source-based spatial surrogates with geographical information system (GIS) technology. The total NH3 emission was 1573.7 Gg for the year 2010. The contributions from livestock, farmland, human, biomass burning, chemical industry, fuel combustion, waste disposal and on-road mobile source were approximately 56.6%, 28.6%, 7.2%, 3.4%, 1.1%, 1.3%, 1.0% and 0.8%, respectively. Among different cities, Shijiazhang, Handan, Xingtai, Tangshan and Cangzhou had higher NH3 emissions. Statistical analysis aiming at county-level emission of 180 counties in BTH indicated that the NH3 emission in most of the counties were less than 16 Gg. The maximum value of the county level emission was approximately 25.5 Gg. Higher NH3 emission was concentrated in the areas with more rural and agricultural activity. Monthly, higher NH3 emission occurred during the period from April to September, which could be attributed to the temperature and timing of planting practice. The validity of the estimated emissions were further evaluated from multiple perspectives covering (1) uncertainty analysis based on Monte Carlo simulation, (2) comparison with other studies, (3) quantitative analysis of improvement in spatial resolution of activity data, and (4) verification based on a comparison of the simulated and observed surface concentrations of ammonium. The detailed and validated ammonia emission inventory could provide valuable information for understanding air pollution formation mechanisms and help guide decision-making with respect to control strategies.

  17. Development of a concept that combines the production of biogas with the elimination of ammonia in agricultural wastes; Developpement d'un concept combine de production de biogaz et d'elimination de l'ammoniac applique aux effluents agricoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruteau, H.; Membrez, Y; Dovat, J.; Tacchini, C. [Erep SA, Aclens (Switzerland); Villegas, J.; Holliger, Ch. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Laboratoire de Biotechnologie Environnementale (LBE), Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2007-09-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on the development of a concept that allows the production of biogas whilst eliminating ammonia-emissions in agricultural wastes. The authors state that the biological treatment of ammonia using classical procedures of nitrification / de-nitrification faces two major problems: cost and complexity. The results of experimental research conducted at the Environmental Biotechnology Laboratory at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne, Switzerland, on the digested effluent of an existing biogas installation are presented and discussed. The production of biogas and ammonia emissions are examined along with recent developments in this area. The installation examined is described and its characteristics are discussed. An experimental installation for the treatment of ammonia emissions is described. The results of the experiments are presented and discussed. Feasibility and costs are also examined.

  18. Agriculture and the greenhouse gas emissions: A literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agriculture contributes to the greenhouse effect by increasing carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane emissions. This literature review examines agricultural sources and sinks of greenhouse gases as well as factors affecting emissions. Options for mitigating emissions are presented as well the results of greenhouse gas emission measurements on Finnish agricultural soils. In addition, some basic information is given about Finnish agriculture, and the estimation of emissions using the IPCC Guidelines is described. Carbon dioxide sources include decomposition of soil organic matter, combustion and liming. The agricultural sector can mitigate CO2 emissions by increasing carbon stocks in soils and vegetation, reducing fossil fuel consumption, and increasing the production of bioenergy. There is little opportunity to decrease the amount of liming in Finland. The main nitrous oxide sources are nitrification and denitrification. N2O emissions can be reduced by enhancing plants' ability to compete for soil nitrogen and by keeping the rate of emission processes as low and the duration of emissions as short as possible. Special attention should be paid to manure management because manure contains abundant nitrogen that can be lost as N2O. Improvements in the protein feeding of livestock could also reduce potential N2O emissions from manure. Methane is emitted, for example, in the course of enteric fermentation and the anaerobic decomposition of organic matter in manure. The emission of CH4 from soils depends on the relative amounts of methane production and consumption. Cattle with high productivity emit less methane per unit of milk or meat than do animals with low productivity. The number of breeding animals could be reduced by improving animal reproduction efficiency. Methane emitted from manure should be utilized as an energy source, or the formation of it should be prevented by keeping manure under aerobic conditions

  19. Estimating pesticide emissions for LCA of agricultural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    Emission data for pesticides from agricultural product systems may be based on national and international pesticide usage statistics, but these only provide information on the applied dose. When the field is considered as part of the technosphere, the emissions from the system are those quantitie...

  20. Ammonia and methane dairy emission plumes in the San Joaquin Valley of California from individual feedlot to regional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David J.; Sun, Kang; Tao, Lei; Pan, Da; Zondlo, Mark A.; Nowak, John B.; Liu, Zhen; Diskin, Glenn; Sachse, Glen; Beyersdorf, Andreas; Ferrare, Richard; Scarino, Amy Jo

    2015-09-01

    Agricultural ammonia (NH3) emissions are highly uncertain, with high spatiotemporal variability and a lack of widespread in situ measurements. Regional NH3 emission estimates using mass balance or emission ratio approaches are uncertain due to variable NH3 sources and sinks as well as unknown plume correlations with other dairy source tracers. We characterize the spatial distributions of NH3 and methane (CH4) dairy plumes using in situ surface and airborne measurements in the Tulare dairy feedlot region of the San Joaquin Valley, California, during the NASA Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality 2013 field campaign. Surface NH3 and CH4 mixing ratios exhibit large variability with maxima localized downwind of individual dairy feedlots. The geometric mean NH3:CH4 enhancement ratio derived from surface measurements is 0.15 ± 0.03 ppmv ppmv-1. Individual dairy feedlots with spatially distinct NH3 and CH4 source pathways led to statistically significant correlations between NH3 and CH4 in 68% of the 69 downwind plumes sampled. At longer sampling distances, the NH3:CH4 enhancement ratio decreases 20-30%, suggesting the potential for NH3 deposition as a loss term for plumes within a few kilometers downwind of feedlots. Aircraft boundary layer transect measurements directly above surface mobile measurements in the dairy region show comparable gradients and geometric mean enhancement ratios within measurement uncertainties, even when including NH3 partitioning to submicron particles. Individual NH3 and CH4 plumes sampled at close proximity where losses are minimal are not necessarily correlated due to lack of mixing and distinct source pathways. Our analyses have important implications for constraining NH3 sink and plume variability influences on regional NH3 emission estimates and for improving NH3 emission inventory spatial allocations.

  1. The FAOSTAT database of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture, including crop and livestock production, forestry and associated land use changes, are responsible for a significant fraction of anthropogenic emissions, up to 30% according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Yet while emissions from fossil fuels are updated yearly and by multiple sources—including national-level statistics from the International Energy Agency (IEA)—no comparable efforts for reporting global statistics for agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU) emissions exist: the latest complete assessment was the 2007 IPCC report, based on 2005 emission data. This gap is critical for several reasons. First, potentially large climate funding could be linked in coming decades to more precise estimates of emissions and mitigation potentials. For many developing countries, and especially the least developed ones, this requires improved assessments of AFOLU emissions. Second, growth in global emissions from fossil fuels has outpaced that from AFOLU during every decade of the period 1961–2010, so the relative contribution of the latter to total climate forcing has diminished over time, with a need for regular updates. We present results from a new GHG database developed at FAO, providing a complete and coherent time series of emission statistics over a reference period 1961–2010, at country level, based on FAOSTAT activity data and IPCC Tier 1 methodology. We discuss results at global and regional level, focusing on trends in the agriculture sector and net deforestation. Our results complement those available from the IPCC, extending trend analysis to a longer historical period and, critically, beyond 2005 to more recent years. In particular, from 2000 to 2010, we find that agricultural emissions increased by 1.1% annually, reaching 4.6 Gt CO2 yr−1 in 2010 (up to 5.4–5.8 Gt CO2 yr−1 with emissions from biomass burning and organic soils included). Over the same decade 2000

  2. Ammonia emissions from pig and cattle slurry in the field and utilization of slurry nitrogen in crop production

    OpenAIRE

    Mattila, Pasi

    2006-01-01

    Volatilization of ammonia (NH3) from animal manure is a major pathway for nitrogen (N) losses that cause eutrophication, acidification, and other environmental hazards. In this study, the effect of alternative techniques of manure treatment (aeration, separation, addition of peat) and application (broadcast spreading, band spreading, injection, incorporation by harrowing) on ammonia emissions in the field and on nitrogen uptake by ley or cereals was studied. The effect of a mixture of slurry ...

  3. An assessment of nitrification inhibitors to reduce nitrous oxide emissions from UK agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A trial was conducted consisting of 14 experiments across sites in England of contrasting soil type and annual rainfall to assess the effectiveness of nitrification inhibitors (predominantly dicyandiamide (DCD) but limited assessment also of 3, 4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) and a commercial product containing two pyrazole derivatives) in reducing direct nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from fertilizer nitrogen (N), cattle urine and cattle slurry applications to land. Measurements were also made of the impact on ammonia (NH3) volatilization, nitrate (NO3−) leaching, crop yield and crop N offtake. DCD proved to be very effective in reducing direct N2O emissions following fertilizer and cattle urine applications, with mean reduction efficiencies of 39, 69 and 70% for ammonium nitrate, urea and cattle urine, respectively. When included with cattle slurry a mean, non-significant reduction of 56% was observed. There were no N2O emission reductions observed from the limited assessments of the other nitrification inhibitors. Generally, there were no impacts of the nitrification inhibitors on NH3 volatilization, NO3− leaching, crop yield or crop N offtake. Use of DCD could give up to 20% reduction in N2O emissions from UK agriculture, but cost-effective delivery mechanisms are required to encourage adoption by the sector. Direct N2O emissions from the studied sources were substantially lower than IPCC default values and development of UK country-specific emission factors for use in inventory compilation is warranted. (paper)

  4. Comparing gibbs energy relationships for ammonia volatilizations from agricultural soils for potato production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil drought, that can be enhanced by global warming increases ammonia (NH3) volatilization. This laboratory study was conducted with two soils: Krome Gravelly Loam (KGL) from Florida and Warden Silt Loam (WSL) from Washington State and two fertilizers: Ammonium sulfate [(NH4)2SO4] or ammonium nitra...

  5. Agriculture's role in greenhouse gas emissions and capture

    OpenAIRE

    Greenhouse Gas Working Group

    2010-01-01

    This working paper addresses changes in climate and how the rising global temperature can be partially attributed to an increasing concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere. Six percent of all US GHG emissions, including CO2, CH4, and N2O, are released from agricultural activities. This paper offers solutions to sequester carbon and reduce the amount of GHGs that are emitted by upgrading agricultural systems and switching to more sustainable practices. A full life cycle analy...

  6. Spatial and temporal dynamics of methane emissions from agricultural sources in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, P.H.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural activities contribute significantly to the global methane budget. Agricultural sources of methane are influenced by land-use change, including changes in agricultural area, livestock keeping and agricultural management practices. A spatially explicit inventory of methane emissions from

  7. Emissions of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane from cattle manure heaps: effect of compaction and covering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, D. R.

    The effect of compaction and covering during storage of beef cattle ( Bos taurus) farmyard manure (FYM) on ammonia (NH 3), nitrous oxide (N 2O) and methane (CH 4) emissions was determined. Gaseous emission measurements were made over three separate storage periods of between 90 and 109 days. The effect of the different storage treatments on manure chemical composition was also determined. Compaction was carried out as the manure was put into store and the compacted manures covered with plastic sheeting. Compaction and covering significantly reduced NH 3 emissions from manure by over 90% during the first summer storage period (PMethane emissions from cattle FYM were unaffected by treatment over the first storage period and were decreased by compaction in the second storage period yet was increased by compaction during the third storage period. It would appear that compacting and covering manure heaps does have the potential to reduce emissions of both NH 3 and N 2O when the manure contains relatively high ammonium-N contents. Additional benefits are that N and K are retained in the manure heap for agronomic benefit.

  8. Atmospheric Ammonia Emissions and a Nitrogen Mass Balance for a Dairy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumburg, B. P.; Mount, G. H.; Filipy, J. M.; Lamb, B.; Yonge, D.; Wetherelt, S.

    2003-12-01

    Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) emissions have many impacts on the environment and human health. Environmental NH3 impacts include terrestrial and aquatic eutrophication, soil acidification, and aerosol formation. Aerosols affect global radiative transfer and have been linked to human health effects. The global emissions of NH3 are estimated to be 45 Tg N yr-1 (Dentener and Crutzen, 1994) with most of the emissions coming from domestic animals. The largest per animal emission come from dairy cows at 33 kg N animal{-1} year{-1} versus 10 kg N animal{-1} {-1} for cattle. On a global scale the emissions uncertainty is about 25%, but local emissions are highly uncertain (Bouwman et al., 1997). Local emissions determination is required for proper treatment in air pollution models. The main sources of emission from dairies are the cow stalls where urea and manure react to form NH3, the storage lagoons where NH3 is the end product of microbial degradation and the disposal of the waste. There have been numerous studies of NH3 emissions in Europe but farming practices are quite different in Europe than in the U.S.. The impact of these differences on emissions is unknown. We have been studying the NH3 emissions from the Washington State University dairy for three years to develop a detailed emission model for use in a regional air pollution model. NH3 is measured using a short-path spectroscopic absorption near 200 nm with a sensitivity of a few ppbv and a time resolution of a few seconds. The open air short-path method is advantageous because it is self calibrating and avoids inlet wall adherence which is a major problem for most NH3 measurement techniques. A SF6 tracer technique has been used to measure fluxes from the three main emission sources: the cow stalls, anaerobic lagoon and the waste application to grass fields using a sprinkler system. Estimated yearly emissions from each source will be compared to a nitrogen mass balance model for the dairy.

  9. Ammonia emissions from beech forest after leaf fall - measurements and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, K.; Sørensen, L. L.; Hertel, O.; Geels, C.; Skjøth, C. A.; Jensen, B.; Boegh, E.

    2012-11-01

    The understanding of biochemical feed-back mechanisms in the climate system is lacking knowledge in relation to bi-directional ammonia (NH3) exchange between natural ecosystems and the atmosphere. We therefore study the atmospheric NH3 fluxes during a 25 days period during autumn 2010 (21 October-15 November) for the Danish beech forest, Lille Bøgeskov, to address the hypothesis that NH3 emissions occur from deciduous forests in relation to leaf fall. This is accomplished by using observations of vegetation status, NH3 fluxes and model calculations. Vegetation status was observed using plant area index (PAI) and leaf area index (LAI). NH3 fluxes were measured using the relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) method. The REA based NH3 concentrations were compared to NH3 denuder measurements. Model calculations were obtained with the Danish Ammonia MOdelling System (DAMOS). 57.7% of the fluxes measured showed emission and 19.5% showed deposition. The mean NH3 flux was 0.087 ± 0.19 μg NH3-N m-2 s-1. A clear tendency of the flux going from negative (deposition) to positive (emission) fluxes of up to 0.96 ± 0.40 μg NH3-N m-2 s-1 throughout the measurement period was found. In the leaf fall period (23 October-8 November), an increase in the atmospheric NH3 concentrations was related to the increasing forest NH3 flux. The modelled concentration from DAMOS fits well the measured concentrations before leaf fall. During and after leaf fall, the modelled concentrations are too low. The results indicate that the missing contribution to atmospheric NH3 concentration from vegetative surfaces related to leaf fall are of a relatively large magnitude. We therefore conclude that emissions from deciduous forests are important to include in model calculations of atmospheric NH3 for forest ecosystems. Finally, diurnal variations in the measured NH3 concentrations were related to meteorological conditions, forest phenology and the spatial distribution of local anthropogenic NH3 sources

  10. Ammonia emissions from beech forest after leaf fall – measurements and modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hansen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of biochemical feed-back mechanisms in the climate system is lacking knowledge in relation to bi-directional ammonia (NH3 exchange between natural ecosystems and the atmosphere. We therefore study the atmospheric NH3 fluxes during a 25 days period during autumn 2010 (21 October–15 November for the Danish beech forest, Lille Bøgeskov, to address the hypothesis that NH3 emissions occur from deciduous forests in relation to leaf fall. This is accomplished by using observations of vegetation status, NH3 fluxes and model calculations. Vegetation status was observed using plant area index (PAI and leaf area index (LAI. NH3 fluxes were measured using the relaxed eddy accumulation (REA method. The REA based NH3 concentrations were compared to NH3 denuder measurements. Model calculations were obtained with the Danish Ammonia MOdelling System (DAMOS. 57.7% of the fluxes measured showed emission and 19.5% showed deposition. The mean NH3 flux was 0.087 ± 0.19 μg NH3-N m−2 s−1. A clear tendency of the flux going from negative (deposition to positive (emission fluxes of up to 0.96 ± 0.40 μg NH3-N m−2 s−1 throughout the measurement period was found. In the leaf fall period (23 October–8 November, an increase in the atmospheric NH3 concentrations was related to the increasing forest NH3 flux. The modelled concentration from DAMOS fits well the measured concentrations before leaf fall. During and after leaf fall, the modelled concentrations are too low. The results indicate that the missing contribution to atmospheric NH3 concentration from vegetative surfaces related to leaf fall are of a relatively large magnitude. We therefore conclude that emissions from deciduous forests are important to include in model calculations of atmospheric NH

  11. Modeling of nitric oxide emissions from temperate agricultural ecosystems.

    OpenAIRE

    Rolland, Marie-Noëlle; Gabrielle, Benoît; Laville, Patricia; Serça, Dominique; Cortinovis, Jérôme; Larmanou, Eric; Lehuger, Simon; Cellier, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    48 p. Arable soils are a significant source of nitric oxide (NO), most of which is derived from nitrogen fertilizers. Precise estimates of NO emissions from these soils are thus essential to devise strategies to mitigate the impact of agriculture on tropospheric ozone regulation. This paper presents the implementation of a soil NO emissions submodel within the environmentally-orientated soil crop model, CERES-EGC. The submodel simulates the NO production via nitrification pathway, as modul...

  12. Emissions from Open burning of Used Agricultural Pesticide Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions from simulated open burning of used agricultural pesticide containers were sampled for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAHs), and particle matter (PM10 and PM2.5). Clean high density polyethyl...

  13. Energy-Efficiency and Air-Pollutant Emissions-Reduction Opportunities for the Ammonia Industry in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ding [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chen, Wenying [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China)

    2015-06-01

    As one of the most energy-intensive and polluting industries, ammonia production is responsible for significant carbon dioxide (CO2) and air-pollutant emissions. Although many energy-efficiency measures have been proposed by the Chinese government to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and improve air quality, lack of understanding of the cost-effectiveness of such improvements has been a barrier to implementing these measures. Assessing the costs, benefits, and cost-effectiveness of different energy-efficiency measures is essential to advancing this understanding. In this study, a bottom-up energy conservation supply curve model is developed to estimate the potential for energy savings and emissions reductions from 26 energy-efficiency measures that could be applied in China’s ammonia industry. Cost-effective implementation of these measures saves a potential 271.5 petajoules/year for fuel and 5,443 gigawatt-hours/year for electricity, equal to 14% of fuel and 14% of electricity consumed in China’s ammonia industry in 2012. These reductions could mitigate 26.7 million tonnes of CO2 emissions. This study also quantifies the co-benefits of reducing air-pollutant emissions and water use that would result from saving energy in China’s ammonia industry. This quantitative analysis advances our understanding of the cost-effectiveness of energy-efficiency measures and can be used to augment efforts to reduce energy use and environmental impacts.

  14. Ammonia emissions from a naturally and a mechanically ventilated broiler house in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano B. Mendes

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted with the aim of monitoring NH3 emissions from a mechanically and a naturally ventilated broiler house (MVB and NVB, respectively and calculate their ammonia emission factors (fNH3. Bird stocking density was 13.5 and 11.1 birds m-2 for the MVB and NVB, respectively. The marketing age was 43 days and bedding consisted of dried coffee husks in its first time of use. Ventilation rates were calculated with the metabolic carbon dioxide mass balance method. Values of fNH3 were 0.32 ± 0.10 and 0.27 ± 0.07 g bird-1 d-1 for the MVB and NVB, respectively, and are in agreement to what was presented in other studies performed under similar conditions. The fNH3 estimated on yearly basis was 58 g bird-place-1 year-1. It was concluded that the different types of ventilation system between the studied broiler barns did not significantly affect emissions in the modeling process. The results obtained help providing reliable methodology for the determination of a solid database on NH3 emission factors for tropical conditions that can be used for future inventories, when performed in a sufficient number of barns that is representative for the Brazilian scenario.

  15. Particle Reduction Strategies - PAREST. Agricultural emissions. Sub-report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The German agricultural emission inventory is designed as an instrument of policy advice. The essential aim is to describe the emitting processes so that options for reducing emissions can be quantified. The German agricultural emission model GAS-EM uses in the field of NH3 emissions from soils and plants in the EMEP / CORINAIR Guidebook (EMEP / CORINAIR, 2002) proposed methods. These differ in emission factors between several types of fertilizers and their application to acre or grassland in function of the average spring temperature. In the field of emissions from animal husbandry GAS-EM follows a material flow approach, where initially the energy and nutrient requirements for a given power (here are weight, weight gain, milk yield, number of piglets, etc. involved) the excretion of metabolizable carbon compounds and the N excretion can be calculated with feces and urine. Subsequently, for all animal species emissions of nitrogen species NH3, NO, N2O and N2 from the grazing, indoor housing, storage and distribution of farm fertilizers calculated.

  16. Applying an Inverse Model to Estimate Ammonia Emissions at Cattle Feedlots Using Three Different Observation-Based Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonkwiler, K. B.; Ham, J. M.; Nash, C.

    2014-12-01

    Accurately quantifying emissions of ammonia (NH3) from confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) is vital not only to the livestock industry, but essential to understanding nitrogen cycling along the Front Range of Colorado, USA, where intensive agriculture, urban sprawl, and pristine ecosystems (e.g., Rocky Mtn Nat'l Park) lie within 100-km of each other. Most observation-based techniques for estimating NH3 emissions can be expensive and highly technical. Many methods rely on concentration observations on location, which implicitly depends on weather conditions. A system for sampling NH3 using on-site weather data was developed to allow remote measurement of NH3 in a simple, cost-effective way. These systems use passive diffusive cartridges (Radiello, Sigma-Aldrich) that provide time-averaged concentrations representative of a typical two-week deployment. Cartridge exposure is robotically managed so they are only visible when winds are 1.4 m/s or greater from the direction of the CAFO. These concentration data can be coupled with stability parameters (measured on-site) in a simple inverse model to estimate emissions (FIDES, UMR Environnement et Grandes Cultures). Few studies have directly compared emissions estimates of NH3 using concentration data obtained from multiple measurement systems at different temporal and spatial scales. Therefore, in the summer and autumn of 2014, several conditional sampler systems were deployed at a 25,000-head cattle feedlot concomitant with an open-path infrared laser (GasFinder2, Boreal Laser Inc.) and a Cavity Ring Down Spectrometer (CRDS) (G1103, Picarro Inc.) which each measured instantaneous NH3 concentrations. This study will test the sampler technology by first comparing concentration data from the three different methods. In livestock research, it is common to estimate NH3 emissions by using such instantaneous data in a backward Lagrangian stochastic (bLs) model (WindTrax, Thunder Beach Sci.) Considering this, NH3 fluxes

  17. Emissions of ammonia and greenhouse gases during combined pre-composting and vermicomposting of duck manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jinzhi [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environment Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Hu, Zhengyi, E-mail: zhyhu@ucas.ac.cn [College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Xu, Xingkai [State Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Physics and Atmospheric Chemistry, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Jiang, Xia; Zheng, Binghui [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environment Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Liu, Xiaoning [College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Pan, Xubin [Institute of Plant Quarantine, Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine, Beijing 100029 (China); Kardol, Paul [Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, S 90183 Umeå (Sweden)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Earthworms significantly decreased emissions of N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4}, but had a marginal effect on CO{sub 2} emission. • NH{sub 3}, N{sub 2}O, and CH{sub 4} emissions were significantly reduced by reed straw and zeolite, CO{sub 2} emission was increased by reed straw. • Combined pre-composting and vermicomposting with reed straw and zeolite would be recommended for disposal of duck manure. - Abstract: Combined pre-composting and vermicomposting has shown potential for reclamation of solid wastes, which is a significant source of ammonia (NH{sub 3}), and greenhouse gases (GHG), including nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), methane (CH{sub 4}), and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Earthworms and amendments may both affect physico-chemical characteristics that control gas-producing processes, and thus affect NH{sub 3} and GHG emissions. Here, we used two-way ANOVA to test the effects of addition of reed straw and combined addition of reed straw and zeolite on NH{sub 3} and GHG emissions during pre-composting of duck manure, either with or without a follow-up phase of vermicomposting. Results showed that cumulative N{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and CO{sub 2} emissions during pre-composting and vermicomposting ranged from 92.8, 5.8, and 260.6 mg kg{sup −1} DM to 274.2, 30.4, and 314.0 mg kg{sup −1} DM, respectively. Earthworms and amendments significantly decreased N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emissions. Emission of CO{sub 2} was not affected by earthworms, but increased in responses to addition of reed straw. Cumulative NH{sub 3} emission ranged from 3.0 to 8.1 g kg{sup −1} DM, and was significantly decreased by reed straw and zeolite addition. In conclusion, combined pre-composting and vermicomposting with reed straw and zeolite addition would be strongly recommended in mitigating emissions of N{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and NH{sub 3} from duck manure. Moreover, this method also provides nutrient-rich products that can be used as a fertilizer.

  18. Emissions of ammonia and greenhouse gases during combined pre-composting and vermicomposting of duck manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Earthworms significantly decreased emissions of N2O and CH4, but had a marginal effect on CO2 emission. • NH3, N2O, and CH4 emissions were significantly reduced by reed straw and zeolite, CO2 emission was increased by reed straw. • Combined pre-composting and vermicomposting with reed straw and zeolite would be recommended for disposal of duck manure. - Abstract: Combined pre-composting and vermicomposting has shown potential for reclamation of solid wastes, which is a significant source of ammonia (NH3), and greenhouse gases (GHG), including nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), and carbon dioxide (CO2). Earthworms and amendments may both affect physico-chemical characteristics that control gas-producing processes, and thus affect NH3 and GHG emissions. Here, we used two-way ANOVA to test the effects of addition of reed straw and combined addition of reed straw and zeolite on NH3 and GHG emissions during pre-composting of duck manure, either with or without a follow-up phase of vermicomposting. Results showed that cumulative N2O, CH4, and CO2 emissions during pre-composting and vermicomposting ranged from 92.8, 5.8, and 260.6 mg kg−1 DM to 274.2, 30.4, and 314.0 mg kg−1 DM, respectively. Earthworms and amendments significantly decreased N2O and CH4 emissions. Emission of CO2 was not affected by earthworms, but increased in responses to addition of reed straw. Cumulative NH3 emission ranged from 3.0 to 8.1 g kg−1 DM, and was significantly decreased by reed straw and zeolite addition. In conclusion, combined pre-composting and vermicomposting with reed straw and zeolite addition would be strongly recommended in mitigating emissions of N2O, CH4, and NH3 from duck manure. Moreover, this method also provides nutrient-rich products that can be used as a fertilizer

  19. Management controls on nitrous oxide emissions from row crop agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, I.; Shcherbak, I.; Millar, N.; Robertson, G. P.

    2011-12-01

    Agriculture is a significant source of the potent greenhouse gas (GHG) nitrous oxide (N2O), accounting for ~70% of total anthropic N2O emissions in the US primarily as a result of N fertilizer application. Emissions of N2O are the largest contributor to the global warming potential of row-crop agriculture. Management, including choice of crop type and rotation strongly impacts N2O emissions, but continuous emissions data from row-crops over multiple rotations are lacking. Empirical quantification of these long-term emissions and the development of crop- and rotation-specific N2O emission factors are vital for improving estimates of agricultural GHG emissions, important for informing management practices to reduce agriculture's GHG footprint, and developing mitigation protocols for environmental markets. Over 20 years we measured soil N2O emissions and calculated crop and management specific emission factors in four continuous rotations of corn (Zea mays) - soybean (Glycine max) - wheat (Triticum aestivum) under conventional tillage (CT), zero tillage (NT), low chemical input (LI), and biologically (Org) based management. Two of these systems (LI and Org) included winter cover crops, red clover (Trifolium pratense) or ray (Secale cereale). While average soil N2O fluxes in all systems where similar (2.9±0.2 to 3.8±0.5 g N2O-N ha-1 d-1), there was a significant interaction of total emissions with crop and phase. Surprisingly, the lowest total emissions from the corn period of the rotation were from CT, and the highest from LI, with 608±4 and 983±8 g N2O-N ha-1 crop year-1, respectively. Total emissions during the wheat period of the rotation showed the opposite trend, with total emissions of 942±7 and 524±38 g N2O-N ha-1 crop year-1, for CT ant LI, respectively. Total emissions from the soybean period of the rotation were highest under NT and lowest under CT management (526±5 and 296±2 g N2O-N ha-1 crop year-1, respectively). Emission efficiency, N2O emitted

  20. Agriculture. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study investigates the impact of agriculture on the earth's atmosphere. It describes the natural carbon cycle, the socioeconomic factors that influence it, and the climate effects. The climatic relevance of gaseous sulphur and nitrogen compounds, methane and other hydrocarbons, and ammonia emissions from biological and agricultural process is discussed. (SR)

  1. Micro-simulation as a tool to assess policy concerning non-point source pollution: the case of ammonia in Dutch agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruseman, G.; Blokland, P.W.; Bouma, F.; Luesink, H.H.; Vrolijk, H.C.J.

    2008-01-01

    Non-point source pollution is notoriously difficult to asses. A relevant example is ammonia emissions in the Netherlands. Since the mid 1980s the Dutch government has sought to reduce emissions through a wide variety of measures, the effect of which in turn is monitored using modeling techniques. Th

  2. Study on the Influence of Velocity, Turbulence Intensity and Temperature on Ammonia Emission Rate in a Wind Tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Li; Nielsen, Peter V.; Zhang, Guoqiang

    2009-01-01

    Odor emissions from manure in livestock buildings are an important issue which concerns the human health and air quality as well as animals. Ammonia is one of the most important odors in pig houses. The objective of this paper is to investigate the influence of local velocity, turbulence intensit...

  3. Irrigation and lava meal use reduce ammonia emission and improve N utilization when solid cattle manure is applied to grassland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shah, G.M.; Shah, G.A.; Groot, J.C.J.; Oenema, O.; Lantinga, E.A.

    2012-01-01

    Considerable losses of nitrogen (N) may occur during and after surface-application of solid cattle manure to grassland. These losses are due mainly to the emission of ammonia (NH3) and represent a threat to the environment. Consequently, N fertilizer value of the manure is reduced. Therefore, adjust

  4. Growth-promoting technologies decrease the carbon footprint, ammonia emissions, and costs of California beef production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improved animal performance is suggested as one of the most effective mitigation strategies to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia (NH3) emissions from livestock production per unit of product produced. However, little information exists on the effects of increased animal productivity on the net...

  5. Estimating NH3 emissions from agricultural fertilizer application in China using the bi-directional CMAQ model coupled to an agro-ecosystem model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Fu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric ammonia (NH3 plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry. China is one of the largest NH3 emitting countries with the majority of NH3 emissions coming from the agricultural practices, such as fertilizer application and livestock. The current NH3 emission estimates in China are mainly based on pre-defined emission factors that lack the temporal or spatial details, which are needed to accurately predict NH3 emissions. In this study, we estimate, for the first time, the NH3 emission from the agricultural fertilizer application in China online using an agricultural fertilizer modeling system coupling a regional air quality model (the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality model, CMAQ and an agro-ecosystem model (the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model, EPIC, which improves the spatial and temporal resolution of NH3 emission from this sector. Cropland area data of 14 crops from 2710 counties and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS land use data are combined to determine the crop distribution. The fertilizer application rate and method for different crop are collected at provincial or agriculture-regional level. The EPIC outputs of daily fertilizer application and soil characteristics are inputed into the CMAQ model and the hourly NH3 emission are calculated online with CMAQ running. The estimated agricultural fertilizer NH3 emission in this study is about 3 Tg in 2011. The regions with the highest modeled emission rates are located in the North China Plain. Seasonally, the peak ammonia emissions occur from April to July.Compared with previous researches, this method considers more influencing factors, such as meteorological fields, soil and the fertilizer application, and provides improved NH3 emission with higher spatial and temporal resolution.

  6. A process-based model for ammonia emission from urine patches, GAG (Generation of Ammonia from Grazing): description and sensitivity analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Móring, Andrea; Vieno, Massimo; M. Doherty, Ruth;

    2016-01-01

    content of the soil under a urine patch and also soil pH dynamics. The model tests suggest that ammonia volatilization from a urine patch can be affected by the possible restart of urea hydrolysis after a rain event as well as CO2 emission from the soil. The vital role of temperature in NH3 exchange is...... may depend on interactions with other nitrogen cycling processes. In addition, we found that wind speed and relative humidity are also significant influencing factors. Considering that all the input parameters can be obtained for larger scales, GAG is potentially suitable for field and regional scale...

  7. Estimation of nitrous oxide and methane emission from Polish agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Purchała

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Estimation results of nitrous oxide and methane emission from Polish agriculture in 2006 are presented for voivodeship territorial units. The data for the estimation were taken from the Central Statistical Office’s Regional Data Bank. The methodology used complies with the tier-1 approach in the 1996 IPCC Methodology Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories with the changes introduced in 2006. Emission estimation results, broken into categories in accordance with the methodology and additionally into animal and plant production, are presented in Gg and in Gg mln ha-1. The main part of methane emission originated from enteric fermentation, with the minimum of 68% in the Greater Poland voivodeship to the maximum of 89% in the Podlachian voivodeship. The smallest total methane emission was in the Lubusz voivodeship (7 Gg and the biggest in the Masovian (90 Gg. Expressed in Gg mln ha-1, the total methane emission was the smallest in the West Pomeranian voivodeship (11 Gg mln ha-1 and the biggest in the Podlachian (61 Gg mln ha-1. The lowest total nitrous oxide emission of 1.4 Gg was in the Lubusz voivodeship and the highest of 8.2 Gg in the Greater Poland voivodeship. The differences are due to dissimilar agricultural land area and to different animal production intensity in the voivodeships.

  8. Effects of acidifying pig diets on emissions of ammonia, methane and sulfur from slurry during storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard;

    2014-01-01

    pH and NH3 emissions, which were considerably reduced by the three acidifying diets. The +BA diet decreased NH3 emission by 28%, the +CaCl2 diet by 37%, and the combined +BA and +CaCl2 diet by 40%. Acidifying diets had no effect on S cycling or emission of volatile S compounds under the prevailing......Ammonia (NH3) volatilization from intensive livestock production is a threat to natural ecosystems. This study investigated pig diet manipulation by 1% (w/w) benzoic acid (BA) amendment and lowering of dietary electrolyte balance through substituting 1.4% (w/w) CaCO3 with 2.0% (w/w) CaCl2. Urine...... and feces were collected separately from twenty-four pigs fed one of four diets (Control, +BA, +CaCl2, +BA+CaCl2) in metabolic cages, and mixed as slurry. During 103 days of storage, all acidifying diets consistently reduced pH in the slurry by 0.4 - 0.6 units. There was a strong relationship between slurry...

  9. An Extensive Survey of Gaseous Emissions from Rice Paddy Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redeker, K. R.; Meinardi, S.; Blake, D.; Sass, R.; Cicerone, R.

    2002-05-01

    Rice agriculture currently occupies nearly 1% of the available land surface area of the globe. Increased population over the next few decades will drive the need for further expansion of global agriculture. Understanding atmospheric chemistry and climate change requires us to study small changes in relatively poorly quantified gases. In order to fully describe the effects of changing land use it is imperative to understand the relative shift in emissions post and prior to agricultural use for all relevant compounds. During the 2000 growing season we sampled over a commercial rice field in Houston TX. Our study surveyed over 45 separate compounds (up to C7), covering alkanes, alkenes, aromatics, isoprene, DMS, halocarbons, CFCs, and alkyl nitrates. We compare and include results from previous studies to complement our emissions. We include emissions from control plots (unplanted with rice, but flooded) that allows us to determine whether emissions are rice-plant dependent or are inherent in the rice paddy environment itself. Biomass burning estimates are calculated for fields where residue burning is practiced.

  10. Differentiation of nitrous oxide emission factors for agricultural soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) direct soil emissions from agriculture are often estimated using the default IPCC emission factor (EF) of 1%. However, a large variation in EFs exists due to differences in environment, crops and management. We developed an approach to determine N2O EFs that depend on N-input sources and environmental factors. The starting point of the method was a monitoring study in which an EF of 1% was found. The conditions of this experiment were set as the reference from which the effects of 16 sources of N input, three soil types, two land-use types and annual precipitation on the N2O EF were estimated. The derived EF inference scheme performed on average better than the default IPCC EF. The use of differentiated EFs, including different regional conditions, allows accounting for the effects of more mitigation measures and offers European countries a possibility to use a Tier 2 approach. - Highlights: → We developed an N2O emission factor inference scheme for agricultural soils. → This scheme accounts for different N-input sources and environmental conditions. → The derived EF inference scheme performed better than the default IPCC EF. → The use of differentiated EFs allows for better accounting of mitigation measures. - Emission factors for nitrous oxide from agricultural soils are derived as a function of N-input sources and environmental conditions on the basis of empirical information.

  11. Dietary crude protein and tannin impact dairy manure chemistry and ammonia emissions from incubated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J M; Aguerre, M J; Wattiaux, M A

    2011-01-01

    Excess crude protein (CP) in dairy cow diets is excreted mostly as urea nitrogen (N), which increases ammonia (NH) emissions from dairy farms and heightens human health and environmental concerns. Feeding less CP and more tannin to dairy cows may enhance feed N use and milk production, abate NH emissions, and conserve the fertilizer N value of manure. Lab-scale ventilated chambers were used to evaluate the impacts of CP and tannin feeding on slurry chemistry, NH emissions, and soil inorganic N levels after slurry application to a sandy loam soil and a silt loam soil. Slurry from lactating Holstein dairy cows (Bos taurus) fed two levels of dietary CP (low CP [LCP], 155 g kg; high CP [HCP], 168 g kg) each fed at four levels of dietary tannin extract, a mixture from red quebracho (Schinopsis lorentzii) and chestnut (Castanea sativa) trees (0 tannin [0T]; low tannin [LT], 4.5 g kg; medium tannin [MT], 9.0 g kg; and high tannin [HT], 18.0 g kg) were applied to soil-containing lab-scale chambers, and NH emissions were measured 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h after slurry application. Emissions from the HCP slurry were 1.53 to 2.57 times greater ( < 0.05) than from the LCP slurry. At trial's end (48 h), concentrations of inorganic N in soils were greater ( < 0.05) in HCP slurry-amended soils than in LCP slurry-amended soils. Emissions from HT slurry were 28 to 49% lower ( < 0.05) than emissions from 0T slurry, yet these differences did not affect soil inorganic N levels. Emissions from the sandy loam soil were 1.07 to 1.15 times greater ( < 0.05) than from silt loam soil, a result that decreased soil inorganic N in the sandy loam compared with the silt loam soil. Larger-scale and longer-term field trails are needed to ascertain the effectiveness of feeding tannin extracts to dairy cows in abating NH loss from land-applied slurry and the impact of tannin-containing slurry on soil N cycles. PMID:22031559

  12. Estimation of pesticide emissions for LCA of agricultural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Birkved, Morten

    2002-01-01

    from the system are only those fractions of the applied dose which reach the environment surrounding the field. The routes of emission may be direct through wind drift or indirect through evaporation, leaching, or surface run-off. Based on existing tools for hazard or risk assessment of pesticides, a......Inventory data for the use of pesticides in agricultural or forestry product systems are typically based on the applied dose and the contents of different ingredients in the commercial pesticide product. Normally in LCA, the field is considered as part of the technosphere, and then the emissions...

  13. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agricultural Wetlands in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, H.; Fatah, L.; Nursyamsi, D.; Kazuyuki, I.

    2011-12-01

    At the forum G20 meeting in 2009, Indonesian President delivered Indonesia's commitment to reduce national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 26% in 2020 by unilateral action and by 41% with support of other countries. To achieve the target, Indonesian government has put forestry, agriculture (including peatlands), energy, industry and transportation as main responsible sectors. Development of crop with low GHG emissions, increasing C sequestration and the use of organic fertilizers are among the activities to be carried out in 2010-2020 period to minimize GHG emissions from agricultural sectors. Three experiments have been carried out to elucidate the reflectivity of crop selection, soil ameliorants and organic fertilizers on GHG emissions from agricultural wetlands in Borneo. Firstly, gas samples were collected in weekly basis from oil palm, paddy, and vegetables fields and analyzed for methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations by a gas chromatography. Secondly, coal fly ash, dolomite and ZnSO4 were incorporated into a pot containing peat and/or alluvial soils taken from wetlands in South Kalimantan. The air samples were taken and analyzed for CH4 by a gas chromatography. Finally, microbial consortium are isolated from soil, sediment and cow dung. The microbes were then propagated and used in a rice straw composting processes. The CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from composting vessel were measured at one, two and four weeks of composting processes. The results showed that shifting the use of peatlands for oil palm to vegetable field reduced the GHG emissions by about 74% and that to paddy field reduce the GHG emissions by about 82%. The CH4 emissions from paddy field can be further reduced by applying dolomite. However, the use of coal fly ash and ZnSO4 increased CH4 emissions from peat soil cultivated to rice. The use of microbe isolated from saline soil could reduce GHG emissions during the composting of rice straw. The social aspect of GHG reduction in

  14. Direct and indirect nitrous oxide emissions from agricultural soils, 1990 - 2003. Background document on the calculation method for the Dutch National Inventory Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2005 the Dutch method to calculate the nitrous oxide emissions from agricultural soils has fully complied with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Good Practice Guidelines. In order to meet the commitments of the Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, nitrous oxide emissions have to be reported annually in the Dutch National Inventory Report (NIR). Countries are encouraged to use country-specific data rather than the default values provided by the IPCC. This report describes the calculation schemes and data sources used for nitrous oxide emissions from agricultural soils in the Netherlands. The nitrous oxide emissions, which contribute to the greenhouse effect, occur due to nitrification and denitrification processes. They include direct emissions from agricultural soils due to the application of animal manure and fertilizer nitrogen and the manure production in the meadow. Also included are indirect emissions resulting from the subsequent leaching of nitrate to ground water and surface waters, and from deposition of ammonia that had volatilized as a result of agricultural activities. Before 2005 indirect emissions in the Netherlands were calculated using a method that did not compare well with IPCC definitions and categories. The elaborate explanation here should facilitate reviewing by experts. Finally, the report also presents an overview of the nitrous oxide emissions from agricultural soils and the underlying data used in the 1990 - 2003 period

  15. Fossil Fuel Combustion-Related Emissions Dominate Atmospheric Ammonia Sources during Severe Haze Episodes: Evidence from (15)N-Stable Isotope in Size-Resolved Aerosol Ammonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuepeng; Tian, Shili; Liu, Dongwei; Fang, Yunting; Zhu, Xiaying; Zhang, Qiang; Zheng, Bo; Michalski, Greg; Wang, Yuesi

    2016-08-01

    The reduction of ammonia (NH3) emissions is urgently needed due to its role in aerosol nucleation and growth causing haze formation during its conversion into ammonium (NH4(+)). However, the relative contributions of individual NH3 sources are unclear, and debate remains over whether agricultural emissions dominate atmospheric NH3 in urban areas. Based on the chemical and isotopic measurements of size-resolved aerosols in urban Beijing, China, we find that the natural abundance of (15)N (expressed using δ(15)N values) of NH4(+) in fine particles varies with the development of haze episodes, ranging from -37.1‰ to -21.7‰ during clean/dusty days (relative humidity: ∼ 40%), to -13.1‰ to +5.8‰ during hazy days (relative humidity: 70-90%). After accounting for the isotope exchange between NH3 gas and aerosol NH4(+), the δ(15)N value of the initial NH3 during hazy days is found to be -14.5‰ to -1.6‰, which indicates fossil fuel-based emissions. These emissions contribute 90% of the total NH3 during hazy days in urban Beijing. This work demonstrates the analysis of δ(15)N values of aerosol NH4(+) to be a promising new tool for partitioning atmospheric NH3 sources, providing policy makers with insights into NH3 emissions and secondary aerosols for regulation in urban environments. PMID:27359161

  16. Aerosol emissions from biochar-amended agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, S.; Sharratt, B. S.; Li, J. J.; Olshvevski, S.; Meng, Z.; Zhang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural production is a major contributor to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and associated global warming. In this regard, novel carbon sequestration strategies such as large-scale biochar application may provide sustainable pathways to increase the terrestrial storage of carbon in agricultural areas. Biochar has a long residence time in the soil and hence understanding the soil properties affected by biochar addition needs to be investigated to identify the tradeoffs and synergies of large-scale biochar application. Even though several studies have investigated the impacts of biochar application on a variety of soil properties, very few studies have investigated the impacts on soil erosion, in particular wind (aeolian) erosion and subsequent particulate emissions. Using a combination of wind tunnel studies and laboratory experiments, we investigated the dust emission potential of biochar-amended agricultural soils. We amended biochar (unsieved or sieved to appropriate particle size; application rates ranging from 1 - 5 % of the soil by weight) to three soil types (sand, sandy loam, and silt loam) and estimated the changes in threshold shear velocity for wind erosion and dust emission potential in comparison to control soils. Our experiments demonstrate that emissions of fine biochar particles may result from two mechanisms (a) very fine biochar particles (suspension size) that are entrained into the air stream when the wind velocity exceeds the threshold, and (b) production of fine biochar particles originating from the abrasion by quartz grains. The results indicate that biochar application significantly increased particulate emissions and more interestingly, the rate of increase was found to be higher in the intermediate range of biochar application. As fine biochar particles effectively adsorb/trap contaminants and pathogens from the soil, the preferential erosion of fine biochar particles by wind may lead to concentration of contaminants in the

  17. Sensitivity of nitrate aerosols to ammonia emissions and to nitrate chemistry: implications for present and future nitrate optical depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Paulot

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We update and evaluate the treatment of nitrate aerosols in the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL atmospheric model (AM3. Accounting for the radiative effects of nitrate aerosols generally improves the simulated aerosol optical depth, although nitrate concentrations at the surface are biased high. This bias can be reduced by increasing the deposition of nitrate to account for the near-surface volatilization of ammonium nitrate or by neglecting the heterogeneous production of nitric acid to account for the inhibition of N2O5 reactive uptake at high nitrate concentrations. Globally, uncertainties in these processes can impact the simulated nitrate optical depth by up to 25 %, much more than the impact of uncertainties in the seasonality of ammonia emissions (6 % or in the uptake of nitric acid on dust (13 %. Our best estimate for present-day fine nitrate optical depth at 550 nm is 0.006 (0.005–0.008. We only find a modest increase of nitrate optical depth (2 (−40 % and ammonia (+38 % from 2010 to 2050. Nitrate burden is projected to increase in the tropics and in the free troposphere, but to decrease at the surface in the midlatitudes because of lower nitric acid concentrations. Our results suggest that better constraints on the heterogeneous chemistry of nitric acid on dust, on tropical ammonia emissions, and on the transport of ammonia to the free troposphere are needed to improve projections of aerosol optical depth.

  18. Positron emission tomography of hepatic first-pass metabolism of ammonia in pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, S; Munk, O L; Roelsgaard, K;

    2001-01-01

    scan data were analysed by a model of sinusoidal zonation of ammonia metabolism with periportal urea formation and perivenous formation of glutamine. The hepatic extraction fraction of (13)NH(3) was 0.73+/-0.16 (mean+/-SD, n=7 pigs). Values of clearance of ammonia to urea and to glutamine were obtained......, as were rate constants for washout of these two metabolites. Overall, the modelling showed half of the ammonia uptake to be converted to urea and half to glutamine. The washout rate constant for glutamine was about one-tenth of that for urea. We conclude that hepatic first-pass metabolism of ammonia...

  19. Semi-empirical process-based models for ammonia emissions from beef, swine, and poultry operations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuilling, Alyssa M.; Adams, Peter J.

    2015-11-01

    Farm-level ammonia emissions factors in the literature vary by an order of magnitude due to variations in manure management practices and meteorology, and it is essential to capture this variability in emission inventories used for atmospheric modeling. Loss of ammonia to the atmosphere is modeled here through a nitrogen mass balance with losses controlled by mass transfer resistance parameters, which vary with meteorological conditions and are tuned to match literature-reported emissions factors. Variations due to management practices are captured by having tuned parameters that are specific to each set of management practices. The resulting farm emissions models (FEMs) explain between 20% and 70% of the variability in published emissions factors and typically estimate emission factors within a factor of 2. The r2 values are: 0.53 for swine housing (0.67 for shallow-pit houses); 0.48 for swine storage; 0.29 for broiler chickens; 0.70 for layer chickens; and 0.21 for beef feedlots (0.36 for beef feedlots with more farm-specific input data). Mean fractional error was found to be 22-44% for beef feedlots, swine housing, and layer housing; fractional errors were greater for swine lagoons (90%) and broiler housing (69%). Unexplained variability and errors result from model limitations, measurement errors in reported emissions factors, and a lack of information about measurement conditions.

  20. Determinants of Nitrous Oxide Emission from Agricultural Drainage Waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emissions of the powerful greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) from agricultural drainage waters are poorly quantified and its determinants are not fully understood. Nitrous oxide formation in agricultural soils is known to increase in response to N fertiliser application, but the response of N2O in field drainage waters is unknown. This investigation combined an intensive study of the direct flux of N2O from the surface of a fertilised barley field with measurement of dissolved N2O and nitrate (NO3) concentrations in the same field's drainage waters. Dissolved N2O in drainage waters showed a clear response to field N fertilisation, following an identical pattern to direct N2O flux from the field surface. The range in N2O concentrations between individual field drains sampled on the same day was large, indicating considerable spatial variability exists at the farm scale. A consistent pattern of very rapid outgassing of the dissolved N2O in open drainage ditches was accentuated at a weir, where increased turbulence led to a clear drop in dissolved N2O concentration. This study underlines the need for carefully planned sampling campaigns wherever whole farm or catchment N2O emission budgets are attempted. It adds weight to the argument for the downward revision of the IPCC emission factor (EF5-g) for NO3 in drainage waters

  1. Determinants of nitrous oxide emission from agricultural drainage waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emissions of the powerful greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) from agricultural drainage waters are poorly quantified and its determinants are not fully understood. Nitrous oxide formation in agricultural soils is known to increase in response to N fertiliser application, but the response of N2O in field drainage waters is unknown. This investigation combined an intensive study of the direct flux of N2O from the surface of a fertilised barley field with measurement of dissolved N2O and nitrate (NO3) concentrations in the same field's drainage waters. Dissolved N2O in drainage waters showed a clear response to field N fertilisation, following an identical pattern to direct N2O flux from the field surface. The range in N2O concentrations between individual field drains sampled on the same day was large, indicating considerable spatial variability exists at the farm scale. A consistent pattern of very rapid outgassing of the dissolved N2O in open drainage ditches was accentuated at a weir, where increased turbulence led to a clear drop in dissolved N2O concentration. This study underlines the need for carefully planned sampling campaigns wherever whole farm or catchment N2O emission budgets are attempted. It adds weight to the argument for the downward revision of the IPCC emission factor (EF5-g) for NO3 in drainage waters

  2. An experimental investigation of exhaust emission from agricultural tractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Gholami, Hekmat Rabbani, Ali Nejat Lorestani, Payam Javadikia, Farzad Jaliliantabar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural machinery is an important source of emission of air pollutant in rural locations. Emissions of a specific tractor engine mainly depend on engine speed. Various driving methods and use of implements with different work capacities can affect the engine load. This study deals with the effects of types of tractors and operation conditions on engine emission. In this study two types of agricultural tractors (MF285 and U650 and some tillage implements such as centrifugal type spreader, boom type sprayer and rotary tiller were employed. Some of the exhausted gases from both tractors in each condition were measured such as, hydrocarbon (HC, carbon monoxide (CO, carbon dioxide (CO2, oxygen (O2 and nitrogen oxide (NO. Engine oil temperature was measured at every step for both types of tractors. Difference between steady-state condition and operation conditions was evaluated. The results showed all exhaust gases that measured and engine oil temperature at every operation conditions are higher than steady-state condition. A general conclusion of the work was that, using various implements and employing different types of tractors effect on engine emissions. The results of variance analysis showed all exhausted gases had a significant relationship with types of implements used at 1%. Also, all exhausted gases except CO had a significant relationship with types of tractors. A further conclusion was that NO emission increased as engine oil temperature increased. The final conclusion was about the difference between MF285 and U650; using U650 at operation conditions is better than MF285 in terms of pollution.

  3. Is there a Long-Term Relationship between Agricultural GHG Emissions and Productivity Growth? The Case of Italian Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Coderoni, Silvia; Esposti, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    The paper adopts a long single-country panel dataset (Italian regions) to analyse the relationship between agricultural GreenHouse Gases (GHG) emissions and agricultural productivity growth and, thus, to assess emissions sustainability. The modelling approach and the empirical specification include the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) as one of the possible outcomes. The hypothesis of emission sustainability is assessed by estimating alternative panel model specifications with conventional a...

  4. New Maser Emission from Nonmetastable Ammonia in NGC 7538. II. Green Bank Telescope Observations Including Water Masers

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffman, Ian M

    2011-01-01

    We present new maser emission from ^{14}NH_3 (9,6) in NGC 7538. Our observations include the known spectral features near v_LSR = -60 km/s and -57 km/s and several more features extending to -46 km/s. In three epochs of observation spanning two months we do not detect any variability in the ammonia masers, in contrast to the >10-fold variability observed in other ^{14}NH_3 (9,6) masers in the Galaxy over comparable timescales. We also present observations of water masers in all three epochs for which emission is observed over the velocity range -105 km/s < v_LSR < -4 km/s, including the highest velocity water emission yet observed from NGC 7538. Of the remarkable number of maser species in IRS 1, H_2O and, now, ^{14}NH_3 are the only masers known to exhibit emission outside of the velocity range -62 km/s < v_LSR < -51 km/s. However, we find no significant intensity or velocity correlations between the water emission and ammonia emission. We also present a non-detection in the most sensitive search...

  5. An ecoregion-specific ammonia emissions inventory of Ontario dairy farming: Mitigation potential of diet and manure management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Lilong; Kröbel, Roland; MacDonald, Douglas; Bittman, Shabtai; Beauchemin, Karen A.; Janzen, H. Henry; McGinn, Sean M.; Vanderzaag, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    The Canadian ammonia (NH3) emissions model and a survey of dairy farm practices were used to quantify effects of management on emissions from dairy farms in Ontario Canada. Total NH3 emissions from dairy farming were 21 Gg NH3-N yr-1 for the four ecoregions of the province. Annual emission rates ranged from 12.8 (for calves in ecoregions of Manitoulin-Lake Simcoe-Frontenac) to 50 kg NH3-N animal-1 yr-1 (for lactating cows in ecoregions of St. Lawrence Lowlands) (mean of 27 kg NH3-N animal-1 yr-1). The St. Lawrence Lowlands ecoregion had the highest emission rate because more dairy manure was managed as solid manure in that ecoregion. Total dairy cattle N intake (diet-N) was 81 Gg N yr-1, 23% of which was retained in animal products (e.g., milk, meat, and fetus), 47% was returned to the land, and 30% was emitted as gas (i.e., NH3-N, N2O-N, NO-N, and N2-N) and nitrate-N leaching/runoff. Ammonia volatilization constituted the largest loss of diet-N (26%), as well as manure-N (34%). Reducing the fraction of solid manure by 50% has the potential to mitigate NH3 emissions by 18% in Ontario ecoregions.

  6. A process-based model for ammonia emission from urine patches, GAG (Generation of Ammonia from Grazing: description, validation and sensitivity analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Móring

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new process-based, weather-driven model for ammonia (NH3 emission from a urine patch has been developed and its sensitivity to various factors assessed. This model, the GAG model (Generation of Ammonia from Grazing was developed as a part of a suite of weather-driven NH3 exchange models, as a necessary basis for assessing the effects of climate change on NH3 related atmospheric processes. GAG is capable of simulating the TAN (Total Ammoniacal Nitrogen content, pH and the water content of the soil under a urine patch. To calculate the TAN budget, GAG takes into account urea hydrolysis as a TAN input and NH3 volatilization as a loss. In the water budget, in addition to the water content of urine, precipitation and evaporation are also considered. In the pH module we assumed that the main regulating processes are the dissociation and dissolution equilibria related to the two products of urea hydrolysis: ammonium and bicarbonate. Finally, in the NH3 exchange flux calculation we adapted a canopy compensation point model that accounts for exchange with soil pores and stomata as well as deposition to the leaf surface. We validated our model against measurements, and carried out a sensitivity analysis. The validation showed that the simulated parameters (NH3 exchange flux, soil pH, TAN budget and water budget are well captured by the model (r > 0.5 for every parameter at p 3 emission. In addition, our results suggested that more sophisticated simulation of CO2 emission in the model could potentially improve the modelling of pH. The sensitivity analysis highlighted the vital role of temperature in NH3 exchange; however, presumably due to the TAN limitation, the GAG model currently provides only a modest overall temperature dependence in total NH3 emission compared with the values in the literature. Since all the input parameters can be obtained for study at larger scales, GAG is potentially suitable for larger scale application, such as

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural and restored Delta peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, S. H.; Sturtevant, C. S.; Koteen, L. E.; Matthes, J. H.; Verfaillie, J. G.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2013-12-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in California was drained and converted to agriculture over a century ago, and since then has experienced high rates of soil subsidence due to peat oxidation. To help reverse subsidence and capture carbon there is growing interest in converting drained agricultural land-use types to flooded conditions. Restored wetlands and rice agriculture have been proposed as a flooded land-use type with high CO2 sequestration potential for this region. However, flooding may increase the emission of methane (CH4) as well as the loss of water via evapotranspiration. We conducted multiple years of simultaneous eddy covariance measurements at conventional drained agricultural sites (a pasture and a corn field) and flooded land-use types (a rice paddy and two restored wetlands) to assess the impact of drained to flooded land-use change on CO2, CH4, and evaporation fluxes. We found that the drained sites were net greenhouse gas (GHG) sources, releasing between 134-350 g-C m-2 yr-1 as CO2 and up to 10 g-C m-2 yr-1 as CH4. Conversely, the restored wetlands were net sinks of atmospheric CO2, sequestering up to 450 g-C m-2 yr-1. However, they were also large sources of CH4, with emissions ranging from 40 to 57 g-C m-2 yr-1. In terms of the full annual GHG budget (assuming that 1 g-CH4 equals 25 g-CO2 with respect to the greenhouse effect over a time horizon of 100 years), the restored wetlands could be either GHG sources or sinks. Annual net CO2 exchange at the rice paddy ranged from -283 g-C m-2 to 95 g-C m-2 depending on management practices, and the site was always a moderate source of CH4. The flooded land-use types evaporated 45-200% more water than the pasture or corn sites. Therefore, from a subsidence perspective, restored wetlands and rice appear to provide a benefit for Delta sustainability as they are predominantly large carbon sinks. However, flooding also has secondary effects on the GHG budget through increased CH4 emissions and higher rates

  8. Sensitivity of nitrate aerosols to ammonia emissions and to nitrate chemistry: implications for present and future nitrate optical depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulot, F.; Ginoux, P.; Cooke, W. F.; Donner, L. J.; Fan, S.; Lin, M.-Y.; Mao, J.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L. W.

    2016-02-01

    We update and evaluate the treatment of nitrate aerosols in the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) atmospheric model (AM3). Accounting for the radiative effects of nitrate aerosols generally improves the simulated aerosol optical depth, although nitrate concentrations at the surface are biased high. This bias can be reduced by increasing the deposition of nitrate to account for the near-surface volatilization of ammonium nitrate or by neglecting the heterogeneous production of nitric acid to account for the inhibition of N2O5 reactive uptake at high nitrate concentrations. Globally, uncertainties in these processes can impact the simulated nitrate optical depth by up to 25 %, much more than the impact of uncertainties in the seasonality of ammonia emissions (6 %) or in the uptake of nitric acid on dust (13 %). Our best estimate for fine nitrate optical depth at 550 nm in 2010 is 0.006 (0.005-0.008). In wintertime, nitrate aerosols are simulated to account for over 30 % of the aerosol optical depth over western Europe and North America. Simulated nitrate optical depth increases by less than 30 % (0.0061-0.010) in response to projected changes in anthropogenic emissions from 2010 to 2050 (e.g., -40 % for SO2 and +38 % for ammonia). This increase is primarily driven by greater concentrations of nitrate in the free troposphere, while surface nitrate concentrations decrease in the midlatitudes following lower concentrations of nitric acid. With the projected increase of ammonia emissions, we show that better constraints on the vertical distribution of ammonia (e.g., convective transport and biomass burning injection) and on the sources and sinks of nitric acid (e.g., heterogeneous reaction on dust) are needed to improve estimates of future nitrate optical depth.

  9. Climate protection and emission trading in the agriculture; Klimaschutz und Emissionshandel in der Landwirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luenenbuerger, Benjamin

    2013-01-15

    The percentage of the agriculture in the greenhouse-gas emissions in Germany amounts 7.1% in the year 2010. Despite its importance, climate protection instruments in the area of the German agriculture are still not developed. There are hardly special regulatory, informational or market-based instruments for the climate protection in the agriculture. The question arises whether the emission trading can be a suitable instrument for climate protection in the agriculture. Thus, the opportunities of the emission trading in the agriculture are investigated. Moreover, alternative and additional instruments of climate protection are considered with respect to the agriculture.

  10. EVALUATION OF AEROSOL EMISSIONS DOWNSTREAM OF AN AMMONIA-BASED SO2 SCRUBBER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis L. Laudal

    2002-04-01

    Depending on the size and type of boiler, the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments required specific reductions in SO{sub 2} emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. To meet these requirements, SO{sub 2} reduction strategies have included installing scrubbing technology, switching to a more expensive low-sulfur coal, or purchasing SO{sub 2} allowances. It is expected that over the next 10 years there will be an increase in the price of low-sulfur coals, but that higher-sulfur coal costs will remain the same. Technologies must be strongly considered that allow the use of high-sulfur fuels while at the same time meeting current and future SO{sub 2} emission limits. One such technology is the ammonia based flue gas desulfurization (FGD) (NH{sub 3}-based FGD) system manufactured by Marsulex Environmental Technologies (MET). The MET scrubber is a patented NH{sub 3}-based FGD process that efficiently converts SO{sub 2} (>95%) into a fertilizer product, ammonium sulfate ([NH{sub 4}]{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). A point of concern for the MET technology, as well as other FGD systems, is the emission of sulfuric acid/SO{sub 3} aerosols that could result in increased opacity at the stack. This is a direct result of firing high-sulfur fuels that naturally generate more SO{sub 3} than do low-sulfur coals. SO{sub 3} is formed during the coal combustion process. SO{sub 3} is converted to gaseous H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} by homogeneous condensation, leading to a submicron acid fume that is very difficult to capture in a dry electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The condensed acid can also combine with the fly ash in the duct and scale the duct wall, potentially resulting in corrosion of both metallic and nonmetallic surfaces. Therefore, SO{sub 3} in flue gas can have a significant impact on the performance of coal-fired utility boilers, air heaters, and ESPs. In addition to corrosion problems, excess SO{sub 3} emissions can result in plume opacity problems. Thus the Energy & Environmental Research

  11. Ammonia in the environment: From ancient times to the present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, M.A.; Erisman, J.W.; Dentener, F.; Moller, D. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Penicuik (United Kingdom). Edinburgh Research Station

    2008-12-15

    Recent research on atmospheric ammonia has made good progress in quantifying sources/sinks and environmental impacts. This paper reviews the achievements and places them in their historical context. It considers the role of ammonia in the development of agricultural science and air chemistry, showing how these arose out of foundations in 18th century chemistry and medieval alchemy, and then identifies the original environmental sources from which the ancients obtained ammonia. Ammonia is revealed as a compound of key human interest through the centuries, with a central role played by sal ammoniac in alchemy and the emergence of modern science. The review highlights how recent environmental research has emphasized volatilization sources of ammonia. Conversely, the historical records emphasize the role of high-temperature sources, including dung burning, coal burning, naturally burning coal seams and volcanoes. Present estimates of ammonia emissions from these sources are based on few measurements, which should be a future priority.

  12. U.S. agriculture's role in a greenhouse gas emission mitigation world: An economic perspective

    OpenAIRE

    McCarl, Bruce A.; Schneider, U.

    2000-01-01

    This paper assesses the role of agriculture as potential source or sink for greenhouse gasses. The authors evaluate the impacts of international mitigation agreements on the agricultural sector. They discuss emission trading markets, the marginal cost of agricultural carbon sequestration versus non-agricultural abatement options, and the long term outlook for agricultures role. They suggest that the benefits of agricultural mitigation strategies may decrease over time as other industries deve...

  13. Effects of reed straw, zeolite, and superphosphate amendments on ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from stored duck manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J Z; Hu, Z Y; Zhou, X Q; An, Z Z; Gao, J F; Liu, X N; Jiang, L L; Lu, J; Kang, X M; Li, M; Hao, Y B; Kardol, P

    2012-01-01

    Stored poultry manure can be a significant source of ammonia (NH) and greenhouse gases (GHGs), including nitrous oxide (NO), methane (CH), and carbon dioxide (CO) emissions. Amendments can be used to modify physiochemical properties of manure, thus having the potential to reduce gas emissions. Here, we lab-tested the single and combined effects of addition of reed straw, zeolite, and superphosphate on gas emissions from stored duck manure. We showed that, over a period of 46 d, cumulative NH emissions were reduced by 61 to 70% with superphosphate additions, whereas cumulative NO emissions were increased by up to 23% compared with the control treatment. Reed straw addition reduced cumulative NH, NO, and CH emissions relative to the control by 12, 27, and 47%, respectively, and zeolite addition reduced cumulative NH and NO emissions by 36 and 20%, respectively. Total GHG emissions (as CO-equivalents) were reduced by up to 27% with the additions of reed straw and/or zeolite. Our results indicate that reed straw or zeolite can be recommended as amendments to reduce GHG emissions from duck manure; however, superphosphate is more effective in reducing NH emissions. PMID:22751065

  14. Nitrous oxide emission related to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and mitigation options from N fertilization in a tropical soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Johnny R.; Cassman, Noriko A.; Kielak, Anna M.; Pijl, Agata; Carmo, Janaína B.; Lourenço, Kesia S.; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J.; Cantarella, Heitor; Kuramae, Eiko E.

    2016-07-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) from nitrogen fertilizers applied to sugarcane has high environmental impact on ethanol production. This study aimed to determine the main microbial processes responsible for the N2O emissions from soil fertilized with different N sources, to identify options to mitigate N2O emissions, and to determine the impacts of the N sources on the soil microbiome. In a field experiment, nitrogen was applied as calcium nitrate, urea, urea with dicyandiamide or 3,4 dimethylpyrazone phosphate nitrification inhibitors (NIs), and urea coated with polymer and sulfur (PSCU). Urea caused the highest N2O emissions (1.7% of N applied) and PSCU did not reduce cumulative N2O emissions compared to urea. NIs reduced N2O emissions (95%) compared to urea and had emissions comparable to those of the control (no N). Similarly, calcium nitrate resulted in very low N2O emissions. Interestingly, N2O emissions were significantly correlated only with bacterial amoA, but not with denitrification gene (nirK, nirS, nosZ) abundances, suggesting that ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, via the nitrification pathway, were the main contributors to N2O emissions. Moreover, the treatments had little effect on microbial composition or diversity. We suggest nitrate-based fertilizers or the addition of NIs in NH4+-N based fertilizers as viable options for reducing N2O emissions in tropical soils and lessening the environmental impact of biofuel produced from sugarcane.

  15. Nitrous oxide emission related to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and mitigation options from N fertilization in a tropical soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Johnny R; Cassman, Noriko A; Kielak, Anna M; Pijl, Agata; Carmo, Janaína B; Lourenço, Kesia S; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J; Cantarella, Heitor; Kuramae, Eiko E

    2016-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) from nitrogen fertilizers applied to sugarcane has high environmental impact on ethanol production. This study aimed to determine the main microbial processes responsible for the N2O emissions from soil fertilized with different N sources, to identify options to mitigate N2O emissions, and to determine the impacts of the N sources on the soil microbiome. In a field experiment, nitrogen was applied as calcium nitrate, urea, urea with dicyandiamide or 3,4 dimethylpyrazone phosphate nitrification inhibitors (NIs), and urea coated with polymer and sulfur (PSCU). Urea caused the highest N2O emissions (1.7% of N applied) and PSCU did not reduce cumulative N2O emissions compared to urea. NIs reduced N2O emissions (95%) compared to urea and had emissions comparable to those of the control (no N). Similarly, calcium nitrate resulted in very low N2O emissions. Interestingly, N2O emissions were significantly correlated only with bacterial amoA, but not with denitrification gene (nirK, nirS, nosZ) abundances, suggesting that ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, via the nitrification pathway, were the main contributors to N2O emissions. Moreover, the treatments had little effect on microbial composition or diversity. We suggest nitrate-based fertilizers or the addition of NIs in NH4(+)-N based fertilizers as viable options for reducing N2O emissions in tropical soils and lessening the environmental impact of biofuel produced from sugarcane. PMID:27460335

  16. N-13 ammonia for the noninvasive evaluation of myocardial blood flow by positron emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kinetics and characteristics of nitrogen-13 labelled ammonia as an indicator of blood flow in the myocardium were evaluated in open-chest dogs. Its utility as an imaging agent was tested in animals and man

  17. N-13 ammonia for the noninvasive evaluation of myocardial blood flow by positron emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schelbert, H.R.; Phelps, M.E.

    1979-01-01

    The kinetics and characteristics of nitrogen-13 labelled ammonia as an indicator of blood flow in the myocardium were evaluated in open-chest dogs. Its utility as an imaging agent was tested in animals and man. (PSB)

  18. A process-based model for ammonia emission from urine patches, GAG (Generation of Ammonia from Grazing): description, validation and sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Móring, A.; Vieno, M.; Doherty, R. M.; Laubach, J.; Taghizadeh-Toosi, A.; Sutton, M. A.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper a new process-based, weather-driven model for ammonia (NH3) emission from a urine patch has been developed and its sensitivity to various factors assessed. This model, the GAG model (Generation of Ammonia from Grazing) was developed as a part of a suite of weather-driven NH3 exchange models, as a necessary basis for assessing the effects of climate change on NH3 related atmospheric processes. GAG is capable of simulating the TAN (Total Ammoniacal Nitrogen) content, pH and the water content of the soil under a urine patch. To calculate the TAN budget, GAG takes into account urea hydrolysis as a TAN input and NH3 volatilization as a loss. In the water budget, in addition to the water content of urine, precipitation and evaporation are also considered. In the pH module we assumed that the main regulating processes are the dissociation and dissolution equilibria related to the two products of urea hydrolysis: ammonium and bicarbonate. Finally, in the NH3 exchange flux calculation we adapted a canopy compensation point model that accounts for exchange with soil pores and stomata as well as deposition to the leaf surface. We validated our model against measurements, and carried out a sensitivity analysis. The validation showed that the simulated parameters (NH3 exchange flux, soil pH, TAN budget and water budget) are well captured by the model (r > 0.5 for every parameter at p CO2 emission in the model could potentially improve the modelling of pH. The sensitivity analysis highlighted the vital role of temperature in NH3 exchange; however, presumably due to the TAN limitation, the GAG model currently provides only a modest overall temperature dependence in total NH3 emission compared with the values in the literature. Since all the input parameters can be obtained for study at larger scales, GAG is potentially suitable for larger scale application, such as in regional atmospheric and ecosystem models.

  19. The annual ammonia budget of fertilised cut grassland – Part 1: Micrometeorological flux measurements and emissions after slurry application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Spirig

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Two commercial ammonia (NH3 analysers were customised to allow continuous measurements of vertical concentration gradients. The gradients were used to derive ammonia exchange fluxes above a managed grassland site at Oensingen (Switzerland by application of the aerodynamic gradient method (AGM. The semi-continuous measurements during 1.5 years covered five complete growth-cut cycles and included six applications of liquid cattle slurry. The average accuracy of the flux measurements during conditions of well established turbulence was 20% and the detection limit 10 ng NH3 m−2 s−1, hence sufficient for studying the background exchange of NH3. Quantifying emissions after slurry applications required the application of elaborate interpolations because of difficulties capturing the initial emissions during manure spreading in some parts of the experiments. The emissions were also calculated with a mass balance method (MBM yielding similar fluxes. NH3 losses after slurry application expressed as percentage of emitted nitrogen versus applied total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN varied between 4 and 19%, which is lower than typical values for broadspreading of liquid manure. The comparatively low emission factors appear to be a consequence of the rather thin slurry applied here and soil properties favouring ammonium adsorption.

  20. Noninvasive quantification of regional blood flow in the human heart using N-13 ammonia and dynamic positron emission tomographic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of regional myocardial blood flow by conventional scintigraphic techniques is limited to the qualitative assessment of regional tracer distribution. Dynamic imaging with positron emission tomography allows the quantitative delineation of myocardial tracer kinetics and, hence, the measurement of physiologic processes such as myocardial blood flow. To test this hypothesis, positron emission tomographic imaging in combination with N-13 ammonia was performed at rest and after pharmacologically induced vasodilation in seven healthy volunteers. Myocardial and blood time-activity curves derived from regions of interest over the heart and ventricular chamber were fitted using a three compartment model for N-13 ammonia, yielding rate constants for tracer uptake and retention. Myocardial blood flow (K1) averaged 88 +/- 17 ml/min per 100 g at rest and increased to 417 +/- 112 ml/min per 100 g after dipyridamole infusion (0.56 mg/kg) and handgrip exercise. The coronary reserve averaged 4.8 +/- 1.3 and was not significantly different in the septal, anterior and lateral walls of the left ventricle. Blood flow values showed only a minor dependence on the correction for blood metabolites of N-13 ammonia. These data demonstrate that quantification of regional myocardial blood flow is feasible by dynamic positron emission tomographic imaging. The observed coronary flow reserve after dipyridamole is in close agreement with the results obtained by invasive techniques, indicating accurate flow estimates over a wide range. Thus, positron emission tomography may provide accurate and noninvasive definition of the functional significance of coronary artery disease and may allow the improved selection of patients for revascularization

  1. Noninvasive quantification of regional blood flow in the human heart using N-13 ammonia and dynamic positron emission tomographic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchins, G.D.; Schwaiger, M.; Rosenspire, K.C.; Krivokapich, J.; Schelbert, H.; Kuhl, D.E. (Univ. of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor (USA))

    1990-04-01

    Evaluation of regional myocardial blood flow by conventional scintigraphic techniques is limited to the qualitative assessment of regional tracer distribution. Dynamic imaging with positron emission tomography allows the quantitative delineation of myocardial tracer kinetics and, hence, the measurement of physiologic processes such as myocardial blood flow. To test this hypothesis, positron emission tomographic imaging in combination with N-13 ammonia was performed at rest and after pharmacologically induced vasodilation in seven healthy volunteers. Myocardial and blood time-activity curves derived from regions of interest over the heart and ventricular chamber were fitted using a three compartment model for N-13 ammonia, yielding rate constants for tracer uptake and retention. Myocardial blood flow (K1) averaged 88 +/- 17 ml/min per 100 g at rest and increased to 417 +/- 112 ml/min per 100 g after dipyridamole infusion (0.56 mg/kg) and handgrip exercise. The coronary reserve averaged 4.8 +/- 1.3 and was not significantly different in the septal, anterior and lateral walls of the left ventricle. Blood flow values showed only a minor dependence on the correction for blood metabolites of N-13 ammonia. These data demonstrate that quantification of regional myocardial blood flow is feasible by dynamic positron emission tomographic imaging. The observed coronary flow reserve after dipyridamole is in close agreement with the results obtained by invasive techniques, indicating accurate flow estimates over a wide range. Thus, positron emission tomography may provide accurate and noninvasive definition of the functional significance of coronary artery disease and may allow the improved selection of patients for revascularization.

  2. A laboratory study of agricultural crop residue combustion in China: Emission factors and emission inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hefeng; Ye, Xingnan; Cheng, Tiantao; Chen, Jianmin; Yang, Xin; Wang, Lin; Zhang, Renyi

    The burning of agricultural crop residue represents a major source of trace gases (CO, CO 2, NO, NO 2, and NO x) and particulate matter on a regional and global scale. This study investigates the gaseous and particulate emissions from the burning of rice, wheat and corn straws, which are three major agricultural crop residues in China, using a self-built burning stove and an aerosol chamber. Emission factors of CO 2, CO, NO, NO 2 and NO x were measured to be 791.3, 64.2, 1.02, 0.79 and 1.81 g kg -1 for rice straw, 1557.9, 141.2, 0.79, 0.32 and 1.12 g kg -1 for wheat straw, and 1261.5, 114.7, 0.85, 0.43 and 1.28 g kg -1 for corn straw, respectively. The corresponding emission factors of particle number are 1.8 × 10 13, 1.0 × 10 13, and 1.7 × 10 13 particles kg -1, respectively. The total emissions of CO, CO 2, and NO x from rice, wheat and corn straw burnings in China for the year 2004 were estimated to be 22.59, 252.92, and 0.28 Tg, respectively. The percentages of CO, CO 2, and NO x to the total emissions were 13.9%, 15.3%, and 31.4% for rice straw, 32.9%, 32.5%, and 20.9% for wheat straw, and 53.2%, 52.2%, and 47.6% for corn straw, respectively. In addition, the emission allocations of agricultural crop residue burning were also plotted in different regions of China using a simple geographic information system (GIS).

  3. Changes in CO2 Emissions Induced by Agricultural Inputs in China over 1991–2014

    OpenAIRE

    Xiuhong Wang

    2016-01-01

    Increase in CO2 emissions induced by agricultural inputs in China since its socialist market economic reforms may hinder its sustainable economic development. More attention has been paid to changes in agricultural land use and overall land use benefit; however, relatively less attention has been paid to changes in CO2 emissions induced by agricultural inputs in China since the reforms. The carbon footprint (CF) variation for total agricultural production, the effects of different inputs on t...

  4. The importance of vehicle emissions as a source of atmospheric ammonia in the megacity of Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yunhua; Zou, Zhong; Deng, Congrui; Huang, Kan; Collett, Jeffrey L.; Lin, Jing; Zhuang, Guoshun

    2016-03-01

    Agricultural activities are a major source contributing to NH3 emissions in Shanghai and most other regions of China; however, there is a long-standing and ongoing controversy regarding the contributions of vehicle-emitted NH3 to the urban atmosphere. From April 2014 to April 2015, we conducted measurements of a wide range of gases (including NH3) and the chemical properties of PM2.5 at hourly resolution at a Shanghai urban supersite. This large data set shows NH3 pollution events, lasting several hours with concentrations 4 times the annual average of 5.3 µg m-3, caused by the burning of crop residues in spring. There are also generally higher NH3 concentrations (mean ± 1 σ) in summer (7.3 ± 4.9 µg m-3; n = 2181) because of intensive emissions from temperature-dependent agricultural sources. However, the NH3 concentration in summer was only an average of 2.4 µg m-3 or 41 % higher than the average NH3 concentration of other seasons. Furthermore, the NH3 concentration in winter (5.0 ± 3.7 µg m-3; n = 2113) was similar to that in spring (5.1 ± 3.8 µg m-3; n = 2198) but slightly higher, on average, than that in autumn (4.5 ± 2.3 µg m-3; n = 1949). Moreover, other meteorological parameters like planetary boundary layer height and relative humidity were not major factors affecting seasonal NH3 concentrations. These findings suggest that there may be some climate-independent NH3 sources present in the Shanghai urban area. Independent of season, the concentrations of both NH3 and CO present a marked bimodal diurnal profile, with maxima in the morning and the evening. A spatial analysis suggests that elevated concentrations of NH3 are often associated with transport from regions west-northwest and east-southeast of the city, areas with dense road systems. The spatial origin of NH3 and the diurnal concentration profile together suggest the importance of vehicle-derived NH3 associated with daily commuting in the urban environment. To further examine vehicular NH3

  5. The importance of vehicle emissions as a source of atmospheric ammonia in the megacity of Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Chang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural activities are a major source contributing to NH3 emissions in Shanghai and most other regions of China; however, there is a long-standing and ongoing controversy regarding the contributions of vehicle-emitted NH3 to the urban atmosphere. From April 2014 to April 2015, we conducted measurements of a wide range of gases (including NH3 and the chemical properties of PM2.5 at hourly resolution at a Shanghai urban supersite. This large dataset shows NH3 pollution events, lasting several hours with concentrations four times the annual average of 5.3 μg m-3, caused by the burning of crop residues in spring. There are also generally higher NH3 concentrations (mean ± 1σ in summer (7.3 ± 4.9 μg m-3; n = 2181 because of intensive emissions from temperature-dependent agricultural sources. However, the NH3 concentration in summer was only an average of 2.4 μg m-3 or 41 % higher than the average NH3 concentration of other seasons. Furthermore, the NH3 concentration in winter (5.0 ± 3.7 μg m-3; n = 2113 was similar to that in spring (5.1 ± 3.8 μg m-3; n = 2204 but slightly higher, on average, than that in autumn (4.5 ± 2.3 μg m-3; n = 1949. Moreover, other meteorological parameters like planetary boundary layer height and relative humidity were not major factors affecting seasonal NH3 concentrations. These findings suggest that there may be some climate-independent NH3 sources present in the Shanghai urban area. Independent of season, the concentrations of both NH3 and CO present a marked bimodal diurnal profile, with maxima in the morning and the evening. A spatial analysis suggests that elevated concentrations of NH3 are often associated with transport from regions west-northwest and east-southeast of the city, areas with dense road systems. The spatial origin of NH3 and the diurnal concentration profile together suggest the importance of vehicle-derived NH3 associated with daily commuting in the urban environment. To further

  6. Managing soil organic carbon in agriculture: the net effect on greenhouse gas emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Marland, Gregg; West, Tristram O.; Schlamadinger, Bernhard; Canella, Lorenza

    2011-01-01

    A change in agricultural practice can increase carbon sequestration in agricultural soils. To know the net effect on greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere, however, we consider associated changes in CO2 emissions resulting from the consumption of fossil fuels, emissions of other greenhouse gases and effects on land productivity and crop yield. We also consider how these factors will evolve over time. A change from conventional tillage to no-till agriculture, based on data for average pra...

  7. Emission factor of ammonia (NH3) from on-road vehicles in China: tunnel tests in urban Guangzhou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammonia (NH3) is the primary alkaline gas in the atmosphere that contributes to formation of secondary particles. Emission of NH3 from vehicles, particularly gasoline powered light duty vehicles equipped with three-way catalysts, is regarded as an important source apart from emissions from animal wastes and soils, yet measured emission factors for motor vehicles are still not available in China, where traffic-related emission has become an increasingly important source of air pollutants in urban areas. Here we present our tunnel tests for NH3 from motor vehicles under ‘real world conditions’ in an urban roadway tunnel in Guangzhou, a central city in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in south China. By attributing all NH3 emissions in the tunnel to light-duty gasoline vehicles, we obtained a fuel-based emission rate of 2.92 ± 0.18 g L−1 and a mileage-based emission factor of 229.5 ± 14.1 mg km−1. These emission factors were much higher than those measured in the United States while measured NO x emission factors (7.17 ± 0.60 g L−1 or 0.56 ± 0.05 g km−1) were contrastingly near or lower than those previously estimated by MOBILE/PART5 or COPERT IV models. Based on the NH3 emission factors from this study, on-road vehicles accounted for 8.1% of NH3 emissions in the PRD region in 2006 instead of 2.5% as estimated in a previous study using emission factors taken from the Emission Inventory Improvement Program (EIIP) in the United States. (letter)

  8. Growth and slaughter performance, nitrogen balance and ammonia emission from slurry in pigs fed high fibre diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Matteo Crovetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to determine digestibility, nitrogen balance and ammonia emission from excreta, in the typical Italian heavy pig during the last phase of growth, when fed diets with a high fibre content. In comparison with a traditional control diet (C, two diets with 12 and 24% wheat bran (WB12 and WB24 and two other diets with 12 and 24% dried beet pulp (BP12 and BP24 were tested. Totally 76 Landrace x Large White fattening barrows, from 45 to 170 kg live weight distributed in 16 pens, were utilized in the trial. Thirty pigs were allocated to 6 metabolic cages in 5 consecutive periods in order to have 6 observations per treatment. For diets C, WB12 and WB24 daily weight gain (DWG, feed conversion ratio (FCR and slaughtering performances were also registered, on 20 pigs per dietary treatment. Growing and slaughter performances were similar for pigs fed C and WB12 diets, whilst diet WB24 determined a significant (P<0.05 decrease in performances (growth and feed conversion in the first period of fattening and a lower dressing percentage at slaughter (85.5, 84.4 and 82.5% for C, WB12 and WB24, respectively. Comparing the diets with the same level of inclusion of the fibrous feeds, WB diets had a lower OM and energy digestibility, while BP diets registered a lower protein but a higher fibre digestibility. Consistently with other experiments, BP diets determined an increase of faecal and a reduction of urinary N, as a percentage of the intake N, as well as a decrease of ammonia emission from the slurries (- 16.6 and -25.3% for BP12 and BP24, in comparison with C diet. For the WB diets the reduction of urinary N and the increase in faecal N were less marked and a reduction of ammonia emissions was not registered.

  9. Communicating the uncertainty in estimated greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Alice E; Glendining, Margaret J; Lark, R Murray; Perryman, Sarah A M; Gordon, Taylor; Whitmore, Andrew P

    2015-09-01

    In an effort to mitigate anthropogenic effects on the global climate system, industrialised countries are required to quantify and report, for various economic sectors, the annual emissions of greenhouse gases from their several sources and the absorption of the same in different sinks. These estimates are uncertain, and this uncertainty must be communicated effectively, if government bodies, research scientists or members of the public are to draw sound conclusions. Our interest is in communicating the uncertainty in estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture to those who might directly use the results from the inventory. We tested six methods of communication. These were: a verbal scale using the IPCC calibrated phrases such as 'likely' and 'very unlikely'; probabilities that emissions are within a defined range of values; confidence intervals for the expected value; histograms; box plots; and shaded arrays that depict the probability density of the uncertain quantity. In a formal trial we used these methods to communicate uncertainty about four specific inferences about greenhouse gas emissions in the UK. Sixty four individuals who use results from the greenhouse gas inventory professionally participated in the trial, and we tested how effectively the uncertainty about these inferences was communicated by means of a questionnaire. Our results showed differences in the efficacy of the methods of communication, and interactions with the nature of the target audience. We found that, although the verbal scale was thought to be a good method of communication it did not convey enough information and was open to misinterpretation. Shaded arrays were similarly criticised for being open to misinterpretation, but proved to give the best impression of uncertainty when participants were asked to interpret results from the greenhouse gas inventory. Box plots were most favoured by our participants largely because they were particularly favoured by those who worked

  10. Research on Spatial-Temporal Characteristics and Driving Factor of Agricultural Carbon Emissions in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yun; ZHANG Jun-biao; HE Ya-ya

    2014-01-01

    Macroscopic grasp of agricultural carbon emissions status, spatial-temporal characteristics as well as driving factors are the basic premise in further research on China’s agricultural carbon emissions. Based on 23 kinds of major carbon emission sources including agricultural materials inputs, paddy ifeld, soil and livestock breeding, this paper ifrstly calculated agricultural carbon emissions from 1995 to 2010, as well as 31 provinces and cities in 2010 in China. We then made a decomposed analysis to the driving factors of carbon emissions with logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) model. The results show:(1) The amount of agricultural carbon emissions is 291.1691 million t in 2010. Compared with 249.5239 million t in 1995, it increased by 16.69%, in which, agricultural materials inputs, paddy ifeld, soil, enteric fermentation, and manure management accounted for 33.59, 22.03, 7.46, 17.53 and 19.39%of total agricultural carbon emissions, respectively. Although the amount exist ups and downs, it shows an overall trend of cyclical rise; (2) There is an obvious difference among regions:the amount of agricultural carbon emissions from top ten zones account for 56.68%, while 9.84%from last 10 zones. The traditional agricultural provinces, especially the major crop production areas are the main source regions. Based on the differences of carbon emission rations, 31 provinces and cities are divided into ifve types, namely agricultural materials dominant type, paddy ifeld dominant type, enteric fermentation dominant type, composite factors dominant type and balanced type. The agricultural carbon emissions intensity in west of China is the highest, followed by the central region, and the east zone is the lowest; (3) Compared with 1995, efifciency, labor and structure factors cut down carbon emissions by 65.78, 27.51 and 3.19%, respectively;while economy factor increase carbon emissions by 113.16%.

  11. Growth and slaughter performance, nitrogen balance and ammonia emission from slurry in pigs fed high fibre diets

    OpenAIRE

    Gian Matteo Crovetto; Luca Malagutti; Gianluca Galassi

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the work was to determine digestibility, nitrogen balance and ammonia emission from excreta, in the typical Italian heavy pig during the last phase of growth, when fed diets with a high fibre content. In comparison with a traditional control diet (C), two diets with 12 and 24% wheat bran (WB12 and WB24) and two other diets with 12 and 24% dried beet pulp (BP12 and BP24) were tested. Totally 76 Landrace x Large White fattening barrows, from 45 to 170 kg live weight distributed in 16...

  12. Decomposition of China's CO2 emissions from agriculture utilizing an improved Kaya identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Ou, Qingxiang; Chen, Yulu

    2014-11-01

    In recent decades, China's agriculture has been experiencing flourishing growth accompanied by rising pesticide consumption, fertilizer consumption, energy consumption, etc. and increasing CO2 emissions. Analyzing the driving forces of agricultural CO2 emissions is key requirements for low-carbon agricultural policy formulation and decomposition analysis is widely used for this purpose. This study estimates the agricultural CO2 emissions in China from 1994 to 2011 and applies the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) as the decomposition technique. Change in agricultural CO2 emissions is decomposed from 1994 to 2011 and includes a measure of the effect of agricultural subsidy. Results illustrate that economic development acts to increase CO2 emissions significantly. Agricultural subsidy acts to reduce CO2 emissions effectively and has increased in recent years. Policy is needed to significantly optimize agricultural subsidy structure and change agricultural development pathway, if China's low-carbon agriculture target is to be achieved. This requires not only decreasing pesticide consumption, fertilizer consumption, energy consumption, etc. but also transformation of China's agricultural development path for optimal outcomes. PMID:24994108

  13. Acid wash scrubbing as a countermeasure for ammonia emissions from a postcombustion CO2 Capture Plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khakharia, P.M.; Huizinga, A.; Jurado Lopez, C.; Sanchez Sanchez, C.; Miguel Mercader, F. de; Vlugt, T.J.H.; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2014-01-01

    Amine-based absorption-desorption processes are considered to be the state-of-the-art technology for CO2 capture. However, the typical amines used are susceptible to oxidative and thermal degradation. Ammonia is formed as a result of oxidative solvent degradation. Because of the volatility of ammoni

  14. A regional mass balance model based on total ammoniacal nitrogen for estimating ammonia emissions from beef cattle in Alberta Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Lilong; Kröbel, Roland; Janzen, H. Henry; Beauchemin, Karen A.; McGinn, Sean M.; Bittman, Shabtai; Atia, Atta; Edeogu, Ike; MacDonald, Douglas; Dong, Ruilan

    2014-08-01

    Animal feeding operations are primary contributors of anthropogenic ammonia (NH3) emissions in North America and Europe. Mathematical modeling of NH3 volatilization from each stage of livestock manure management allows comprehensive quantitative estimates of emission sources and nutrient losses. A regionally-specific mass balance model based on total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) content in animal manure was developed for estimating NH3 emissions from beef farming operations in western Canada. Total N excretion in urine and feces was estimated from animal diet composition, feed dry matter intake and N utilization for beef cattle categories and production stages. Mineralization of organic N, immobilization of TAN, nitrification, and denitrification of N compounds in manure, were incorporated into the model to account for quantities of TAN at each stage of manure handling. Ammonia emission factors were specified for different animal housing (feedlots, barns), grazing, manure storage (including composting and stockpiling) and land spreading (tilled and untilled land), and were modified for temperature. The model computed NH3 emissions from all beef cattle sub-classes including cows, calves, breeding bulls, steers for slaughter, and heifers for slaughter and replacement. Estimated NH3 emissions were about 1.11 × 105 Mg NH3 in Alberta in 2006, with a mean of 18.5 kg animal-1 yr-1 (15.2 kg NH3-N animal-1 yr-1) which is 23.5% of the annual N intake of beef cattle (64.7 kg animal-1 yr-1). The percentage of N intake volatilized as NH3-N was 50% for steers and heifers for slaughter, and between 11 and 14% for all other categories. Steers and heifers for slaughter were the two largest contributors (3.5 × 104 and 3.9 × 104 Mg, respectively) at 31.5 and 32.7% of total NH3 emissions because most growing animals were finished in feedlots. Animal housing and grazing contributed roughly 63% of the total NH3 emissions (feedlots, barns and pastures contributed 54.4, 0.2 and 8.1% of

  15. Fluctuations in ammonia oxidizing communities across agricultural soils are driven by soil structure and pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele C ePereira e Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The milieu in soil in which microorganisms dwell is never constant. Conditions such as temperature, water availability, pH and nutrients frequently change, impacting the overall functioning of the soil system. To understand the effects of such factors on soil functioning, proxies (indicators of soil function are needed that, in a sensitive manner, reveal normal amplitude of variation. Thus, the so-called normal operating range (NOR of soil can be defined. In this study we determined different components of nitrification by analyzing, in eight agricultural soils, how the community structures and sizes of ammonia oxidizing bacteria and archaea (AOB and AOA, respectively, and their activity, fluctuate over spatial and temporal scales. The results indicated that soil pH and soil type are the main factors that influence the size and structure of the AOA and AOB, as well as their function. The nitrification rates varied between 0.11 ± 0.03 µgN.h-1.gdw-1 and 1.68 ± 0.11 µgN.h-1.gdw-1, being higher in soils with higher clay content (1.09 ± 0.12 µgN.h-1.gdw-1 and lower in soils with lower clay percentages (0.27 ± 0.04 µgN.h-1.gdw-1. Nitrifying activity was driven by soil pH, mostly related to its effect on AOA but not on AOB abundance. Regarding the influence of soil parameters, clay content was the main soil factor shaping the structure of both the AOA and AOB communities. Overall, the potential nitrifying activities were higher and more variable over time in the clayey than in the sandy soils. Whereas the structure of AOB fluctuated more (62.7 ± 2.10% the structure of AOA communities showed lower amplitude of variation (53.65 ± 3.37%. Similar trends were observed for the sizes of these communities. The present work represents a first step towards defining a NOR for soil nitrification. Moreover, the clear effect of soil texture established here suggests that the NOR should be defined in a soil-type-specific manner.

  16. Process-based Modeling of Ammonia Emission from Beef Cattle Feedyards with the Integrated Farm Systems Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrip, Heidi M; Rotz, C Alan; Hafner, Sasha D; Todd, Richard W; Cole, N Andy

    2014-07-01

    Ammonia (NH) volatilization from manure in beef cattle feedyards results in loss of agronomically important nitrogen (N) and potentially leads to overfertilization and acidification of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. In addition, NH is involved in the formation of atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM), which can affect human health. Process-based models have been developed to estimate NH emissions from various livestock production systems; however, little work has been conducted to assess their accuracy for large, open-lot beef cattle feedyards. This work describes the extension of an existing process-based model, the Integrated Farm Systems Model (IFSM), to include simulation of N dynamics in this type of system. To evaluate the model, IFSM-simulated daily per capita NH emission rates were compared with emissions data collected from two commercial feedyards in the Texas High Plains from 2007 to 2009. Model predictions were in good agreement with observations and were sensitive to variations in air temperature and dietary crude protein concentration. Predicted mean daily NH emission rates for the two feedyards had 71 to 81% agreement with observations. In addition, IFSM estimates of annual feedyard emissions were within 11 to 24% of observations, whereas a constant emission factor currently in use by the USEPA underestimated feedyard emissions by as much as 79%. The results from this study indicate that IFSM can quantify average feedyard NH emissions, assist with emissions reporting, provide accurate information for legislators and policymakers, investigate methods to mitigate NH losses, and evaluate the effects of specific management practices on farm nutrient balances. PMID:25603064

  17. Evaluation of the inverse dispersion modelling method for estimating ammonia multi-source emissions using low-cost long time averaging sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubet, Benjamin; Carozzi, Marco

    2015-04-01

    Tropospheric ammonia (NH3) is a key player in atmospheric chemistry and its deposition is a threat for the environment (ecosystem eutrophication, soil acidification and reduction in species biodiversity). Most of the NH3 global emissions derive from agriculture, mainly from livestock manure (storage and field application) but also from nitrogen-based fertilisers. Inverse dispersion modelling has been widely used to infer emission sources from a homogeneous source of known geometry. When the emission derives from different sources inside of the measured footprint, the emission should be treated as multi-source problem. This work aims at estimating whether multi-source inverse dispersion modelling can be used to infer NH3 emissions from different agronomic treatment, composed of small fields (typically squares of 25 m side) located near to each other, using low-cost NH3 measurements (diffusion samplers). To do that, a numerical experiment was designed with a combination of 3 x 3 square field sources (625 m2), and a set of sensors placed at the centre of each field at several heights as well as at 200 m away from the sources in each cardinal directions. The concentration at each sensor location was simulated with a forward Lagrangian Stochastic (WindTrax) and a Gaussian-like (FIDES) dispersion model. The concentrations were averaged over various integration times (3 hours to 28 days), to mimic the diffusion sampler behaviour with several sampling strategy. The sources were then inferred by inverse modelling using the averaged concentration and the same models in backward mode. The sources patterns were evaluated using a soil-vegetation-atmosphere model (SurfAtm-NH3) that incorporates the response of the NH3 emissions to surface temperature. A combination emission patterns (constant, linear decreasing, exponential decreasing and Gaussian type) and strengths were used to evaluate the uncertainty of the inversion method. Each numerical experiment covered a period of 28

  18. Decoupling of greenhouse gas emissions from global agricultural production: 1970-2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennetzen, Eskild H; Smith, Pete; Porter, John R

    2016-02-01

    Since 1970 global agricultural production has more than doubled; contributing ~1/4 of total anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) burden in 2010. Food production must increase to feed our growing demands, but to address climate change, GHG emissions must decrease. Using an identity approach, we estimate and analyse past trends in GHG emission intensities from global agricultural production and land-use change and project potential future emissions. The novel Kaya-Porter identity framework deconstructs the entity of emissions from a mix of multiple sources of GHGs into attributable elements allowing not only a combined analysis of the total level of all emissions jointly with emissions per unit area and emissions per unit product. It also allows us to examine how a change in emissions from a given source contributes to the change in total emissions over time. We show that agricultural production and GHGs have been steadily decoupled over recent decades. Emissions peaked in 1991 at ~12 Pg CO2 -eq. yr(-1) and have not exceeded this since. Since 1970 GHG emissions per unit product have declined by 39% and 44% for crop- and livestock-production, respectively. Except for the energy-use component of farming, emissions from all sources have increased less than agricultural production. Our projected business-as-usual range suggests that emissions may be further decoupled by 20-55% giving absolute agricultural emissions of 8.2-14.5 Pg CO2 -eq. yr(-1) by 2050, significantly lower than many previous estimates that do not allow for decoupling. Beyond this, several additional costcompetitive mitigation measures could reduce emissions further. However, agricultural GHG emissions can only be reduced to a certain level and a simultaneous focus on other parts of the food-system is necessary to increase food security whilst reducing emissions. The identity approach presented here could be used as a methodological framework for more holistic food systems analysis. PMID:26451699

  19. Global emissions of PM10 and PM2.5 from agricultural tillage and harvesting operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.; Tong, D.; Lee, P.

    2014-12-01

    Soil particles emitted during agricultural activities is a major recurring source contributing to atmospheric aerosol loading. Emission inventories of agricultural dust emissions have been compiled in several regions. These inventories, compiled based on historic survey and activity data, may reflect the current emission strengths that introduce large uncertainties when they are used to drive chemical transport models. In addition, there is no global emission inventory of agricultural dust emissions required to support global air quality and climate modeling. In this study, we present our recent efforts to develop a global emission inventory of PM10 and PM2.5 released from field tillage and harvesting operations using an emission factors-based approach. Both major crops (e.g., wheat and corn) and forage production were considered. For each crop or forage, information of crop area, crop calendar, farming activities and emission factors of specified operations were assembled. The key issue of inventory compilation is the choice of suitable emission factors for specified operations over different parts of the world. Through careful review of published emission factors, we modified the traditional emission factor-based model by multiplying correction coefficient factors to reflect the relationship between emission factors, soil texture, and climate conditions. Then, the temporal (i.e., monthly) and spatial (i.e., 0.5º resolution) distribution of agricultural PM10 and PM2.5 emissions from each and all operations were estimated for each crop or forage. Finally, the emissions from individual crops were aggregated to assemble a global inventory from agricultural operations. The inventory was verified by comparing the new data with the existing agricultural fugitive dust inventory in North America and Europe, as well as satellite observations of anthropogenic agricultural dust emissions.

  20. Spatial-Temporal Characteristics and LMDI-Based Impact Factor Decomposition of Agricultural Carbon Emissions in Hotan Prefecture, China

    OpenAIRE

    Chuanhe Xiong; Degang Yang; Jinwei Huo

    2016-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions from the agricultural ecosystem account for 7%–20% of the world’s total greenhouse gas emissions, while approximately 17% of China’s carbon emissions are from agriculture. In this study, based on the scientific calculation system of carbon emissions in agriculture, we calculated the carbon emissions of agriculture in the Hotan prefecture between 1999 and 2013 and analyzed their spatial-temporal characteristics; next, we used the LMDI model to study the driving factors...

  1. Yield-scaled mitigation of ammonia emission from N fertilization: the Spanish case

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz-Cobena, A.; Lassaletta, L.; Estellés, F.; Del Prado, A; Guardia, G.; Abalos, D.; Aguilera, E.; Pardo, G.; Vallejo, A.; Sutton, M. A.; Garnier, J.; Billen, G

    2014-01-01

    International audience Synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer and field application of livestock manure are the major sources of ammonia (NH3) volatilization. This N loss may decrease crop productivity and subsequent deposition promotes environmental problems associated with soil acidification and eutrophication. Mitigation measures may have associated side effects such as decreased crop productivity (e. g. if N fertilizer application is reduced), or the release of other reactive N compounds (e...

  2. Assessment of global and regional left ventricular function by electrocardiographic gated N-13 ammonia positron emission tomography in patients with coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrocardiographic gated 13N-ammonia positron emission tomography (PET) enables simultaneous assessment of myocardial blood flow and left ventricular (LV) function. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of gated 13N-ammonia PET for evaluating global and regional LV function in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) in comparison with conventional left ventriculography (LVG). Fifty-four patients with CAD underwent gated 13N-ammonia PET and LVG. The LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes (LVEDV, LVESV) and ejection fraction (LVEF) by gated 13N-ammonia PET were calculated using Cedars-Sinai automated quantitative gated single photon emission computed tomography (QGS) and compared with those obtained by LVG. The regional wall motion (RWM) was visually scored, and compared with that on LVG. There were good correlations between the 2 methods for LVEF, LVEDV and LVESV (R=0.828, R=0.821 and R=0.874 respectively). The RWM assessed by gated 13N-ammonia PET also agreed well with that by LVG (complete agreement was 70.4%, κ=0.58). Gated 13N-ammonia PET combined with QGS works reasonably well for the assessment of both global and regional LV function in CAD patients, although additional calibration may be necessary. (author)

  3. Mitigation of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane emissions from manure management chains: a meta-analysis and integrated assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yong; Velthof, Gerard L; Oenema, Oene

    2015-03-01

    Livestock manure contributes considerably to global emissions of ammonia (NH3 ) and greenhouse gases (GHG), especially methane (CH4 ) and nitrous oxide (N2 O). Various measures have been developed to mitigate these emissions, but most of these focus on one specific gas and/or emission source. Here, we present a meta-analysis and integrated assessment of the effects of mitigation measures on NH3 , CH4 and (direct and indirect) N2 O emissions from the whole manure management chain. We analysed the effects of mitigation technologies on NH3 , CH4 and N2 O emissions from individual sources statistically using results of 126 published studies. Whole-chain effects on NH3 and GHG emissions were assessed through scenario analysis. Significant NH3 reduction efficiencies were observed for (i) housing via lowering the dietary crude protein (CP) content (24-65%, compared to the reference situation), for (ii) external slurry storages via acidification (83%) and covers of straw (78%) or artificial films (98%), for (iii) solid manure storages via compaction and covering (61%, compared to composting), and for (iv) manure application through band spreading (55%, compared to surface application), incorporation (70%) and injection (80%). Acidification decreased CH4 emissions from stored slurry by 87%. Significant increases in N2 O emissions were found for straw-covered slurry storages (by two orders of magnitude) and manure injection (by 26-199%). These side-effects of straw covers and slurry injection on N2 O emission were relatively small when considering the total GHG emissions from the manure chain. Lowering the CP content of feed and acidifying slurry are strategies that consistently reduce NH3 and GHG emissions in the whole chain. Other strategies may reduce emissions of a specific gas or emissions source, by which there is a risk of unwanted trade-offs in the manure management chain. Proper farm-scale combinations of mitigation measures are important to minimize impacts of

  4. Evaluating Policy Options to Reduce N2O Emissions from US Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Klotz, Richard; Gurung, Ram; Ogle, Stephen; Paustian, Keith; Sheehan, John; Antonio M. Bento

    2015-01-01

    If emissions from a sector are unobservable, direct emissions policies are unlikely to be extended to this sector. However, alternative policies based on observable quantities may be able to reduce emissions from the unregulated source at costs similar to a first-best policy. This paper evaluates the costs of policy instruments for reducing GHG emissions from cropland agriculture, a large source of emissions that are unobservable, using an integrated biophysical and economic model. Results su...

  5. Colorimetric polymer-metal nanocomposite sensor of ammonia for the agricultural industry of confined animal feeding operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkisov, Sergey S.; Czarick, Michael; Fairchild, Brian D.; Liang, Yi; Kukhtareva, Tatiana; Curley, Michael J.

    2014-02-01

    The proposed colorimetric sensor of ammonia for the confined animal feeding industry uses the method of optoelectronic spectroscopic measurement of the reversible change of the color of a nanocomposite reagent film in response to ammonia. The film is made of a gold nanocolloid in a polymer matrix with an ammonia-sensitive indicator dye additive. The response of the indicator dye (increase of the optical absorption between 550 and 650 nm) is enhanced by the nanoparticles (˜8 nm in size) in two ways: (a) concentration of the optical field near the nanoparticle due to the plasmon resonance and (b) catalytic acceleration of the chemical reaction of deprotonization of the indicator dye in the presence of ammonia and water vapor. This enhancement helps to miniaturize the sensing element without compromising its sensitivity of <1 parts per million (ppm) for the range 0 to 100 ppm. The sensor underwent field tests in commercial poultry farms in Georgia and Arkansas and was compared against a scientific-grade photoacoustic gas analyzer. The coefficient of correlation between the sensor and the photoacoustic data for several weeks of continuous side-by-side operation in a commercial poultry house was ˜0.9 and the linear regression slope was 1.0. The conclusions on the necessary improvements were made.

  6. Ammonia and odour emissions from UK pig farms and nitrogen leaching from outdoor pig production. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, J; Broomfield, Mark; Jones, Stephanie; Donovan, Brian

    2014-02-01

    We reviewed specific literature for emissions of ammonia (NH3) and odours from all stages of pig production together with nitrogen (N) leaching from raising pigs outdoors. Emissions of NH3 decrease with decreases in the crude protein (CP) content of pig diets, at all stages of manure management. The CPs of pig diets have been greatly reduced by matching the CP content to the protein required at each stage of the animals' growth and by using synthetic essential amino acids to minimise total CP intake. The CP contents of the dietary ingredients needed to provide energy for the animals impose further limits to reductions in dietary CP. Housing systems have been designed and evaluated which offer potential for reducing NH3 emissions. However such designs may not be applicable at all stages of the pigs' development and the careful management needed to ensure their effective working may be costly and difficult to implement on commercial farms. The factors behind odour emissions are less well characterised. Reducing diet CP to 160 g CP kg(-1) has been shown to reduce odour emissions but further CP reductions may increase them. Some reductions in odour emissions from buildings can be achieved by careful management of the ventilation rate but the most effective measures to reduce emissions of NH3 and odours are to cover slurry stores and to inject slurry into soil. Changes in the feeding and management of outdoor pigs mean that N leaching losses may be up to 50% less than previously reported. No studies have been undertaken that compare the N leached from pigs raised outdoors, versus that arising from the application of pig manure from an equal number of housed pigs. As a precursor to any field study, current models could be used to provide a first estimate of any systematic differences. PMID:24211346

  7. Controlled-release urea commingled with rice seeds reduced emission of ammonia and nitrous oxide in rice paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuechao; Zhang, Min; Li, Yuncong; Fan, Xiaohui; Geng, Yuqing

    2013-11-01

    Reduction of ammonia (NH) and nitrous oxide (NO) emission and enhanced nitrogen (N) fertilizer use efficiency have been investigated with different N fertilizer management and application methods for irrigated rice production. Few studies have examined NH and NO emissions from rice paddy soil when commingling controlled release urea with rice seeds. The objective of this study was to assess NH volatilization and NO emission from a novel controlled-release urea formulation (CRU-180) when commingled at the full application rate with seeds in a single application during the preparation of plant plugs at the nursery stage. The experiment was conducted as a factorial design with two fertilizer sources (conventional urea and CRU-180), four rates (0, 100, 200, and 300 kg N ha), and three replicates. The entire amount of CRU-180 was incorporated into each plug with germinated seed. The conventional urea was split into four applications based on the standard practice for fertilizer application. The CRU-180 treatments reduced the NH and NO concentration in the paddy flood water and paddy soil solution as compared with the conventional urea treatments. The percentage of applied N fertilizer emitted as NH volatilization and NO emission in the CRU-180 treatments was only about 10% of that from the conventional urea treatments at the same N application rate. The application of CRU-180 with seeds offers a novel N fertilizer management technique, a method to reduce environmental impacts associated with rice production and the cost of rice production. PMID:25602407

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions related to agriculture and land-use practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the effects of increasing trace gas concentrations and concomitant climate change on agriculture which are likely to be substantial. With cropland and pasture now covering 2, CH4, and N2O. Land clearing for agriculture and other purposes is responsible for 10 to 30% of total net CO2 emissions; the rest is due to fossil fuel combustion. In addition, intentional burning of agricultural wastes, grasslands, and forests makes a significant contribution to global emissions of CO, CH4, NOx and N2O. Methane emissions from anaerobic respiration in rice (Oryza sativa L.) paddies and domestic animal remains account for 30 to 50% of the global total, making agriculture the dominant anthropogenic source of this gas. The amount of N2O emitted as a result of N fertilizer applications is highly uncertain, but may be on the order of 10% of total N2O emissions. Future agricultural greenhouse gas emissions will be affected by population growth, economic development, and agricultural practices. Greenhouse gas emissions are likely to increase substantially in the future unless steps are taken to control them. Investigating potential approaches to reducing these emissions while expanding production presents a major challenge to the agricultural research community

  9. Manual on measurement of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrous oxide and methane are two of the gases primarily responsible for atmospheric warming, or the ''greenhouse effect''. Agricultural activities are an important source of methane and nitrous oxide emissions, but quantitation of these sources is generally lacking. This manual describes techniques to evaluate current emissions from diverse animal and crop production practices and suggests methods for decreasing these emissions. Refs, figs and tabs

  10. Analysis of carbon emission efficiency and optimization of low carbon for agricultural land intensive use%农地集约利用的碳排放效率分析与低碳优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游和远; 吴次芳

    2014-01-01

    There is a dilemma between raising the intensive use level of agricultural land and controlling carbon emissions from agricultural land use. Carbon emissions from agricultural land use can be considered as a cost, and the suitable intensive use level of agricultural land should acquire a good efficiency of carbon emissions from agricultural land use. First, an assessment model for evaluating agricultural land use intensity was established in this article, and the input-output indices of agricultural land intensive use were selected. The input-output indices of agricultural land intensive use were composed of labor input per unit of agricultural land, capital input per unit of agricultural land, technique input per unit of agricultural land, value-added of agriculture per unit of agricultural land, grain products per unit of agricultural land, income from household business per unit of agricultural land, and ammonia-nitrogen emission from agriculture per unit of agricultural land. Secondly, the intensity values of agricultural land intensive use in 31 provinces were computed. Thirdly, based on a slacks-based measure model, the input-output indices were established. The input-output indices applied in the slacks-based measure model were composed of labor input per unit of agricultural land, capital input per unit of agricultural land, technique input per unit of agricultural land, value-added of agriculture per ton of carbon emission, grain products per ton of carbon emission, income from household business per ton of carbon emission, and ammonia-nitrogen emission from agriculture per ton of carbon emission. Fourthly, this article calculated the total efficiency values, technical efficiency values, and scale efficiency values of carbon emission from agricultural land intensive use in 31 provinces and designed an input-output optimization of agricultural land intensive use. Lastly, low-carbon optimization strategies for agricultural land use in provinces whose total

  11. Reduction of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from a SCGT/CC by Ammonia Solution Absorption – Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Lombardi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of carbon dioxide from the flue gases of a semi-closed gas turbine combined cycle (SCGT/CC by means of absorption in ammonia aqueous solutions has been studied. The absorption system has been simulated by means of Aspen PlusTM. The main variables of the removal system have been varied in order to understand their influence on system performance. With reference to the SCGT/CC case study, the removal of CO2, considering a removal efficiency of 89%, dramatically decreases the overall cycle efficiency from 53 to 41%, with the main contribution to this decrease being due to the power consumption for flue gas compression up to the absorption unit pressure. CO2 specific emissions pass from 390 to 57 kg/MWh.

  12. Developments in greenhouse gas emissions and net energy use in Danish agriculture - How to achieve substantial CO2 reduction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Tommy; Olesen, Jørgen E; Petersen, Søren O;

    2011-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture are a significant contributor to total Danish emissions. Consequently, much effort is currently given to the exploration of potential strategies to reduce agricultural emissions. This paper presents results from a study estimating agricultural GHG e...

  13. Modeling the effect of heat fluxes on ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from an anaerobic swine waste treatment lagoon using artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding factors that affect ammonia and nitrous emissions from anaerobic swine waste treatment lagoons or any animal waste receptacles is a necessary first step in deploying potential remediation options. In this study, we examined the various meteorological factors (i.e., air temperatures, s...

  14. Effects of liquid aluminum chloride additions to poultry litter on broiler performance, ammonia emissions, soluble phosphorus, total volatile fatty acids, and nitrogen contents of litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies have shown that the use of aluminum sulfate (Al2(SO4)3.14H2O) and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) additions to animal manures are more effective than other chemicals in reducing ammonia (NH3) emissions and phosphorus (P) solubility. Although the use of alum has been intensively used in the ...

  15. Tackling agricultural diffuse pollution: What might uptake of farmer-preferred measures deliver for emissions to water and air?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, A L; Zhang, Y S; Winter, M; Inman, A; Jones, J I; Johnes, P J; Cleasby, W; Vrain, E; Lovett, A; Noble, L

    2016-03-15

    Mitigation of agricultural diffuse pollution poses a significant policy challenge across Europe and particularly in the UK. Existing combined regulatory and voluntary approaches applied in the UK continue to fail to deliver the necessary environmental outcomes for a variety of reasons including failure to achieve high adoption rates. It is therefore logical to identify specific on-farm mitigation measures towards which farmers express positive attitudes for higher future uptake rates. Accordingly, a farmer attitudinal survey was undertaken during phase one of the Demonstration Test Catchment programme in England to understand those measures towards which surveyed farmers are most receptive to increasing implementation in the future. A total of 29 on-farm measures were shortlisted by this baseline farm survey. This shortlist comprised many low cost or cost-neutral measures suggesting that costs continue to represent a principal selection criterion for many farmers. The 29 measures were mapped onto relevant major farm types and input, assuming 95% uptake, to a national scale multi-pollutant modelling framework to predict the technically feasible impact on annual agricultural emissions to water and air, relative to business as usual. Simulated median emission reductions, relative to current practise, for water management catchments across England and Wales, were estimated to be in the order sediment (20%)>ammonia (16%)>total phosphorus (15%)≫nitrate/methane (11%)>nitrous oxide (7%). The corresponding median annual total cost of the modelled scenario to farmers was £3ha(-1)yr(-1), with a corresponding range of -£84ha(-1)yr(-1) (i.e. a net saving) to £33ha(-1)yr(-1). The results suggest that those mitigation measures which surveyed farmers are most inclined to implement in the future would improve the environmental performance of agriculture in England and Wales at minimum to low cost per hectare. PMID:26789365

  16. Mobile measurements of ammonia: Sources and spatial variations in the Wallis region and Zurich (Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elser, Miriam; El Haddad, Imad; Bruns, Emily; Pieber, Simone; Wolf, Robert; Krishna Kumar, Nivedita; Prévôt, André; Baltensperger, Urs

    2014-05-01

    Ammonia (NH3) has negative impacts on human health, climate, ecosystems and materials. Moreover, it is also an important precursor for the formation of secondary aerosols in the form of ammonium salts (ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate and ammonium chloride). Previous studies have shown that the vast majority of the ammonia emissions come from the agricultural sector (mostly from livestock farming and fertilizing activities). Other sources such as road transport, waste deposit, energy use and supply can also contribute to the ammonia levels in the urban areas. High concentrations of ammonia are commonly measured at the National Air Pollution Monitoring Network (NABEL) stations in Switzerland. Mobile measurements of ammonia and other pollutants (including BC, CO2, NOx and NR-PM) were conducted in the Wallis region and in Zurich in 2013 to study the spatial distribution of ammonia in Switzerland and identify its major emission sources in these regions. A new heated inlet setup was developed to improve the response time of the ammonia measurements, so that even very local sources could be identified. For both, the Wallis region and Zurich, it was observed that the background values of ammonia have a regional origin, as other pollutants affected by regional changes show similar background trends. These regional background values varied between 5 to 10 ppb during the different days of measurements. Moreover, no big differences were observed in the background values between the city center, the surrounding areas, the highway and the rural areas. The major local source of ammonia observed during these measurements was road transport, producing increases on the NH3 levels up to 4 times the background values. Based on emission factors estimated from tunnel measurements, the traffic was estimated to contribute between 20 -30% of the measured ammonia levels on a daily average in Zurich. Other sources of ammonia that can also contribute significantly to the levels of ammonia

  17. Nutritional and Environmental Effects on Ammonia Emissions from Dairy Cattle Housing: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougouin, Adeline; Leytem, April; Dijkstra, Jan; Dungan, Robert S; Kebreab, Ermias

    2016-07-01

    Nitrogen excreted in dairy manure can be potentially transformed and emitted as NH, which can create livestock and human respiratory problems and be an indirect source of NO. The objectives of this study were to: (i) investigate environmental factors influencing NH emissions from dairy housing; and (ii) identify key explanatory variables in the NH emissions prediction from dairy housing using a meta-analytical approach. Data from 25 studies were used for the preliminary analysis, and data from 10 studies reporting 87 treatment means were used for the meta-analysis. Season and flooring type significantly affected NH emissions. For nutritional effect analysis, the between-study variability (heterogeneity) of mean NH emission was estimated using random-effect models and had a significant effect ( housing by developing predictive models that could determine variables with strong association with NH emissions. PMID:27380059

  18. The effect of climate and climate change on ammonia emissions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Geels, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    to a standard Danish pig stable with 1000 animals and display how emissions from this source would vary geographically throughout central and northern Europe and from year to year. In view of future climate changes, we also evaluate the potential future changes in emission by including temperature projections...... from an ensemble of climate models. The results point towards four overall issues. (1) Emissions can easily vary by 20% for different geographical locations within a country due to overall variations in climate. The largest uncertainties are seen for large countries such as the UK, Germany and France....... (2) Annual variations in overall climate can at specific locations cause uncertainties in the range of 20 %. (3) Climate change may increase emissions by 0–40% in central to northern Europe. (4) Gradients in existing emission inventories that are seen between neighbour countries (e.g. between the UK...

  19. A new method for estimating greenhouse gases and ammonia emissions from livestock buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrancos, José; Briz, Susana; Nolasco, Dácil; Melián, Gladys; Padilla, Germán; Padrón, Eleazar; Fernández, Isabel; Pérez, Nemesio; Hernández, Pedro A.

    2013-08-01

    It is widely known that carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are the main greenhouse gases contributing to global climate change. Emission factors for the aforementioned gases have been proposed in order to calculate the contribution of livestock farming to global climate change. However, these emission factors depend on many additional factors such as the housing system, environmental conditions, etc., which implies some uncertainties in their estimation. Therefore, works that aim at improving experimental calculation of these emissions are crucial to provide reliable estimates of the emissions produced by livestock. The purpose of this work was to apply a new methodology inspired by the accumulation chamber method to estimate emission rates from livestock buildings. The work was based on measuring the increase of gas emissions inside the livestock building by means of the remote sensing technique Open-Path FTIR (OP-FTIR). Previously to the measurements, livestock building cattle was confined outside of the building. Utilization of fan ventilation system favoured the homogenization of air inside the building. This experiment proved that evolution of CH4 and CO2 concentrations inside the livestock building behaved like an accumulation chamber unlike the N2O which did not show such behaviour. Results showed CH4, CO2 and NH3 emissions of 167 ± 54,700 ± 200 and 1.3 ± 0.2 kg head-1 year-1, respectively. One of the main parameters affecting the estimated emission factors is the type of animal feeding. Therefore, it is essential to investigate the influence of food composition on CH4 and CO2 emission in a relative larger number of operating cattle buildings since the methodology herein proposed is an easy and cheap tool to study livestock emission factors and their variability.

  20. The contribution of Slovenian biogas plants to the reduction of agricultural sector green house emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Romana MARINŠEK LOGAR; Neža NOVAK; Vodovnik, Maša

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture is a source of emissions of the greenhouse gas methane into the environment. These emissions can be reduced by appropriate storage of animal slurry and manure, with proper fertilization and processing of organic agricultural waste into biogas, where methane is captured and used as an energy source. Biogas is a renewable source of energy that is produced by microbial anaerobic digestion in biogas plants. As a substrate in biogas plants using different types of organic biomass such ...

  1. Biochar amendment and greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils

    OpenAIRE

    Case, Sean

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of biochar amendment on soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and to elucidate the mechanisms behind these effects. I investigated the suppression of soil carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in a bioenergy and arable crop soil, at a range of temperatures and with or without wetting/drying cycles. More detailed investigation on the underlying mechanisms focused on soil N2O emissions. I tested how biochar alter...

  2. N2O emission in short-cut simultaneous nitrification and denitrification process: dynamic emission characteristics and succession of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yingyan; Li, Ping; Wu, Jinhua; Zhu, Nengwu; Wu, Pingxiao; Wang, Xiangde

    2014-01-01

    A sequencing batch airlift reactor was used to investigate the characteristics of nitrous oxide (N2O) emission and the succession of an ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) community. The bioreactor could successfully switch from the complete simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) process to the short-cut SND process by increasing the influent pH from 7.0-7.3 to 8.0-8.3. The results obtained showed that, compared with the complete SND process, the TN removal rate and SND efficiency were improved in the short-cut SND process by approximately 13 and 11%, respectively, while the amount of N2O emission was nearly three times larger than that in the complete SND process. The N2O emission was closely associated to nitrite accumulation. Analysis of the AOB microbial community showed that nitrifier denitrification by Nitrosomonas-like AOB could be an important pathway for the enhancement of N2O emission in the short-cut SND process. PMID:24960019

  3. The effect of agricultural trade liberalisation on land-use related greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, R.W.; Stehfest, E.; Woltjer, G.B.; Eickhout, B.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the effects of agricultural trade liberalisation and concomitant changes in agricultural areas and livestock production on greenhouse gas emissions using the coupled LEITAP–IMAGE modelling system. The results indicate that liberalisation leads to an increase in total greenhouse g

  4. The potential for land sparing to offset greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Anthony; Green, Rhys; Bateman, Ian; Broadmeadow, Mark; Bruce, Toby; Burney, Jennifer; Carey, Pete; Chadwick, David; Crane, Ellie; Field, Rob; Goulding, Keith; Griffiths, Howard; Hastings, Astley; Kasoar, Tim; Kindred, Daniel; Phalan, Ben; Pickett, John; Smith, Pete; Wall, Eileen; Zu Ermgassen, Erasmus K. H. J.; Balmford, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions from global agriculture are increasing at around 1% per annum, yet substantial cuts in emissions are needed across all sectors. The challenge of reducing agricultural emissions is particularly acute, because the reductions achievable by changing farming practices are limited and are hampered by rapidly rising food demand. Here we assess the technical mitigation potential offered by land sparing--increasing agricultural yields, reducing farmland area and actively restoring natural habitats on the land spared. Restored habitats can sequester carbon and can offset emissions from agriculture. Using the UK as an example, we estimate net emissions in 2050 under a range of future agricultural scenarios. We find that a land-sparing strategy has the technical potential to achieve significant reductions in net emissions from agriculture and land-use change. Coupling land sparing with demand-side strategies to reduce meat consumption and food waste can further increase the technical mitigation potential--however, economic and implementation considerations might limit the degree to which this technical potential could be realized in practice.

  5. Experimental investigation of nitrogen based emissions from an ammonia fueled SI-engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westlye, Fredrik Ree; Ivarsson, Anders; Schramm, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    causes the NO emissions to peak around 35% rather than 10% excess air, as is typical in HC fueled SI-engines. However the magnitude of NO emissions are comparable to that of measurements conducted with gasoline due to lower flame temperatures. Nitrogen dioxide levels are higher when comparing with...... gasoline, but has a relatively low share of the total NOx emissions (3-4%). Nitrous oxide is a product of NH2 reacting with NO 2 and NH reacting with NO. The magnitude is largely affected by ignition timing due to the temperature development during expansion and the amount of excess air, as increased...

  6. Characterizing ammonia emissions from swine farms in eastern North Carolina: part 2--potential environmentally superior technologies for waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneja, Viney P; Arya, S Pal; Rumsey, Ian C; Kim, D-S; Bajwa, K; Arkinson, H L; Semunegus, H; Dickey, D A; Stefanski, L A; Todd, L; Mottus, K; Robarge, W P; Williams, C M

    2008-09-01

    The need for developing environmentally superior and sustainable solutions for managing the animal waste at commercial swine farms in eastern North Carolina has been recognized in recent years. Program OPEN (Odor, Pathogens, and Emissions of Nitrogen), funded by the North Carolina State University Animal and Poultry Waste Management Center (APWMC), was initiated and charged with the evaluation of potential environmentally superior technologies (ESTs) that have been developed and implemented at selected swine farms or facilities. The OPEN program has demonstrated the effectiveness of a new paradigm for policy-relevant environmental research related to North Carolina's animal waste management programs. This new paradigm is based on a commitment to improve scientific understanding associated with a wide array of environmental issues (i.e., issues related to the movement of N from animal waste into air, water, and soil media; the transmission of odor and odorants; disease-transmitting vectors; and airborne pathogens). The primary focus of this paper is on emissions of ammonia (NH3) from some potential ESTs that were being evaluated at full-scale swine facilities. During 2-week-long periods in two different seasons (warm and cold), NH3 fluxes from water-holding structures and NH3 emissions from animal houses or barns were measured at six potential EST sites: (1) Barham farm--in-ground ambient temperature anaerobic digester/energy recovery/greenhouse vegetable production system; (2) BOC #93 farm--upflow biofiltration system--EKOKAN; (3) Carrolls farm--aerobic blanket system--ISSUES-ABS; (4) Corbett #1 farm--solids separation/ gasification for energy and ash recovery centralized system--BEST; (5) Corbett #2 farm--solid separation/ reciprocating water technology--ReCip; and (6) Vestal farm--Recycling of Nutrient, Energy and Water System--ISSUES-RENEW. The ESTs were compared with similar measurements made at two conventional lagoon and spray technology (LST) farms (Moore

  7. Controlling greenhouse gas emissions in Spain: what are the costs for agricultural sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourne, M.; Childs, J.; Philippidis, G.; Feijoo, M.

    2012-11-01

    Employing a recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the Spanish economy, this study explicitly aims to characterise the potential impact of Kyoto and European Union environmental policy targets on specific agricultural activities up to 2020. The model code is modified to characterise the emissions trading scheme (ETS), emissions quotas and carbon taxes, whilst emissions reductions are applied to all six registered greenhouse gases (GHGs). Compared to a business-as-usual baseline scenario, by 2020, GDP and employment fall 2.1% and 2.4%, respectively, whilst the retail price index rises 3.4%. In agriculture, the indices of output (4.3% fall), and supply price (7.7% rise) perform relatively worse, whilst there is a concomitant cumulative fall in aggregate farm incomes of1,510 million by 2020. The more notable impact in agriculture is attributed to its relatively higher emissions intensity. Consequently, we record an agricultural marginal abatement cost estimate of 86 ton -1 of CO{sub 2} equivalent by 2020, which is consistent with other estimates in the literature. In addition, we find that the optimal mix of emissions reductions across specific agricultural sectors is a function of the degree of substitutability of their emitting activities. In light of estimated income losses within the strategically important farm sector, a final simulation contemplates an agricultural cost-neutral emissions reduction policy akin to a cross compliance payment between 2013 and 2020. This is found to reduce food price rises, whilst altering the optimum mix of agricultural emissions reductions across specific agricultural activities. (Author) 52 refs.

  8. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions of the agriculture sector in France. Collection of territorial experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having briefly indicated the different origins of direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions by the agriculture sector, presented the technical and political context, and outlined the need for new practices to struggle against climate change and to adapt to changes to come, this publication reports some experiments undertaken in different French regions: a farm network as an animation tool to support farmers, a local partnership to conciliate town and agriculture, the development of actions on energy and greenhouse gases in agriculture, the implementation of climate and agriculture plan, a network of agricultural actors for a sustainable support of change, an agriculture with and for its territory and inhabitants, a debate on agriculture and climate

  9. Changes in CO2 Emissions Induced by Agricultural Inputs in China over 1991–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuhong Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Increase in CO2 emissions induced by agricultural inputs in China since its socialist market economic reforms may hinder its sustainable economic development. More attention has been paid to changes in agricultural land use and overall land use benefit; however, relatively less attention has been paid to changes in CO2 emissions induced by agricultural inputs in China since the reforms. The carbon footprint (CF variation for total agricultural production, the effects of different inputs on the total CF, and the changes in carbon intensity of the agricultural production system were analyzed using national level agrochemical and energy inputs data for the period 1991 to 2014. The total CF had a fluctuating upward trend, which was mainly affected by increases in nitrogen fertilizer input and energy consumption. The carbon intensity in production decreased, which indicated that the agricultural output value per unit of carbon cost gradually increased according to the market demands. However, the increase in agricultural output value per unit of carbon cost cannot outweigh the potential environmental risks induced by the increase in total carbon footprint per unit area of agricultural land. The improvements promoted by the related agricultural policies in China should aim to strike a balance between agricultural economy development and low carbon intensity in area.

  10. Examining the transport of ammonia emissions across landscapes using nitrogen isotope ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Felix, J.; Elliott, Emily M.; Gish, Timothy; Maghirang, Ronaldo; Cambal, Leah; Clougherty, Jane

    2014-10-01

    The proportion of reactive nitrogen in wet deposition attributable to ammonium (NH4+) has increased over the last three decades in the U.S. due to steadily increasing NH3 emissions and concomitant reductions in NOx emissions. The importance of examining NH3 emission sources and transport is amplified as the fraction of NH3 contributing to reactive nitrogen budget increases. Presented here is a study illustrating how the nitrogen stable isotopic composition of NH3 (δ15N-NH3) can be used to characterize the transport of NH3 emissions at the landscape-scale. To accomplish this, ambient NH3 was sampled across varying land use types (e.g. conventionally managed cornfield, tallgrass prairie, concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO), dairy operation, urban setting) and analyzed for δ15N-NH3 values. Ambient δ15N-NH3 values at a conventionally managed cornfield were used in an isotope mixing model to make first order approximations of NH3 source contributions to ambient air over the cornfield. Results suggest that while volatilized fertilizer is a primary contributor to ambient NH3 after fertilizer application, during periods of low or no fertilization, vehicle NH3 emissions can be a substantial contributor to ambient NH3 over cornfields that are adjacent to roadways. These source approximations can aid in evaluating NH3 emission abatement techniques to local landscapes. Modeled NH3 deposition flux at a CAFO was found to contribute a considerable amount of nitrogen to the landscape and δ15N-NH3 values were used to trace the livestock source contributing to this flux. Ambient NH3 concentrations and δ15N-NH3 values were measured across an urban region and δ15N-NH3 values indicated primarily fossil fuel-based emissions and large spatial variations in NH3 concentrations.

  11. On-site denitrification beds could reduce indirect greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural drainage waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrate (NO3-) laden agricultural drainage waters are non-point sources of indirect nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, which represent a significant fraction of total N2O emissions in the USA. On-site denitrification beds filled with woodchips were used to reduce NO3- under carbon rich anaerobic conditi...

  12. Greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions from composting of animal manure and other organic waste products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, Md Albarune

    on human health and ecosystem health. Thus, alternative technologies for recycling manure and utilising it as a nutrient source for crop production, while minimising the environmental costs, are important for the sustainability of the livestock and poultry sectors. Composting of animal manure and other......, but information on its effect on GHG emissions, especially nitrous oxide (N2O), is still limited. This thesis investigated the main processes and factors affecting the physicochemical composition of the compost and emissions of GHG and NH3 during composting of animal manure and other organic waste products......, within the range of flow rates and composting mixtures tested. This indicates that temperature is an important factor influencing GHG emissions during composting. Composting of nitrogen-rich manure materials with carbon-rich bulking agents proved to be an effective means of conserving nitrogen in manures...

  13. Methane emissions from digestate at an agricultural biogas plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldé, Hambaliou; VanderZaag, Andrew C; Burtt, Stephen D; Wagner-Riddle, Claudia; Crolla, Anna; Desjardins, Raymond L; MacDonald, Douglas J

    2016-09-01

    Methane (CH4) emissions were measured over two years at an earthen storage containing digestate from a mesophilic biodigester in Ontario, Canada. The digester processed dairy manure and co-substrates from the food industry, and destroyed 62% of the influent volatile solids (VS). Annual average emissions were 19gCH4m(-3)d(-1) and 0.27gCH4kg(-1)VSd(-1). About 76% of annual emissions occurred from June to October. Annual cumulative emissions from digestate corresponded to 12% of the CH4 produced within the digester. A key contributor to CH4 emissions was the sludge layer in storage, which contained as much VS as the annual discharge from the digester. These findings suggest that digestate management provides an opportunity to further enhance the benefits of biogas (i.e. reducing CH4 emissions compared to undigested liquid manure, and producing renewable energy). Potential best practices for future study include complete storage emptying, solid-liquid separation, and storage covering. PMID:27323243

  14. Methane emissions from agriculture, waste waters and dumping sites in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methane emissions released from agriculture, waste water processing and dumping sites are reviewed in this report, which is one of the national reports estimating the emissions of greenhouse gases. The most up to date information of emission sources are used as the basis for estimation of emissions. The information used cowers mainly the years 1987 and 1988. The methane emissions from live stock production in Finland was about 165 000 t/a in 1989, those from agriculture about 15 000 t/a, and those from dumping sites about 30 000 t/a. The methane emissions from municipal and industrial waste water processing have been estimated to be 37 000 t/a

  15. Managing soil organic carbon in agriculture: the net effect on greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A change in agricultural practice can increase carbon sequestration in agricultural soils. To know the net effect on greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere, however, we consider associated changes in CO2 emissions resulting from the consumption of fossil fuels, emissions of other greenhouse gases and effects on land productivity and crop yield. We also consider how these factors will evolve over time. A change from conventional tillage to no-till agriculture, based on data for average practice in the U.S.; will result in net carbon sequestration in the soil that averages 337 kg C/ha/yr for the initial 20 yr with a decline to near zero in the following 20 yr, and continuing savings in CO2 emissions because of reduced use of fossil fuels. The long-term results, considering all factors, can generally be expected to show decreased net greenhouse gas emissions. The quantitative details, however, depend on the site-specific impact of the conversion from conventional to no-till agriculture on agricultural yield and N2O emissions from nitrogen fertilizer

  16. Growth-promoting technologies decrease the carbon footprint, ammonia emissions, and costs of California beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, K R; Rotz, C A; Oltjen, J W; Mitloehner, F M

    2012-12-01

    Increased animal performance is suggested as one of the most effective mitigation strategies to decrease greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia (NH(3)) emissions from livestock production per unit of product produced. Little information exists, however, on the effects of increased animal productivity on the net decrease in emission from beef production systems. A partial life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted using the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM) to estimate GHG and NH(3) emissions from representative beef production systems in California that use various management technologies to enhance animal performance. The IFSM is a farm process model that simulates crop growth, feed production, animal performance, and manure production and handling through time to predict the performance, economics, and environmental impacts of production systems. The simulated beef production systems compared were 1) Angus-natural, with no use of growth-enhancing technologies, 2) Angus-implant, with ionophore and growth-promoting implant (e.g., estrogen/trenbolone acetate-based) application, 3) Angus-ß2-adrenergic agonists (BAA; e.g., zilpaterol), with ionophore, growth-promoting implant, and BAA application, 4) Holstein-implant, with growth implant and ionophore application, and 5) Holstein-BAA, with ionophore, growth implant, and BAA use. During the feedlot phase, use of BAA decreased NH(3) emission by 4 to 9 g/kg HCW, resulting in a 7% decrease in NH(3) loss from the full production system. Combined use of ionophore, growth implant, and BAA treatments decreased NH(3) emission from the full production system by 14 g/kg HCW, or 13%. The C footprint of beef was decreased by 2.2 kg carbon dioxide equivalent (CO(2)e)/kg HCW using all the growth-promoting technologies, and the Holstein beef footprint was decreased by 0.5 kg CO(2)e/kg HCW using BAA. Over the full production systems, these decreases were relatively small at 9% and 5% for Angus and Holstein beef, respectively. The growth

  17. PestLCI - a model for estimating field emissions of pesticides in agricultural LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkved, Morten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    product or service is a specific element of LCA termed life cycle inventory (LCI). Estimation of chemical emissions in agricultural LCA is typically based on standard emission factors which at best are determined by a few physical-chemical substance properties and the use scenario of the chemical compound...... major corner stones in any LCA, chemical emissions, and it inevitably influences the outcome of the impact assessment, where the environmental impacts are normally assumed proportional to the emissions in LCA. PestLCI is a modular model for estimation of pesticide emissions from field application to the...

  18. Unusually high soil nitrogen oxide emissions influence air quality in a high-temperature agricultural region

    OpenAIRE

    Oikawa, P. Y.; C. Ge; Wang, J.; Eberwein, J. R.; Liang, L. L.; Allsman, L. A.; Grantz, D.A.; Jenerette, G. D.

    2015-01-01

    Fertilized soils have large potential for production of soil nitrogen oxide (NOx=NO+NO2), however these emissions are difficult to predict in high-temperature environments. Understanding these emissions may improve air quality modelling as NOx contributes to formation of tropospheric ozone (O3), a powerful air pollutant. Here we identify the environmental and management factors that regulate soil NOx emissions in a high-temperature agricultural region of California. We also investigate whethe...

  19. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) satellite validations of ammonia, methanol, formic acid, and carbon monoxide over the Canadian oil sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, M. W.; McLinden, C. A.; Cady-Pereira, K. E.; Luo, M.; Moussa, S. G.; Leithead, A.; Liggio, J.; Staebler, R. M.; Akingunola, A.; Makar, P.; Lehr, P.; Zhang, J.; Henze, D. K.; Millet, D. B.; Bash, J. O.; Zhu, L.; Wells, K. C.; Capps, S. L.; Chaliyakunnel, S.; Gordon, M.; Hayden, K.; Brook, J. R.; Wolde, M.; Li, S.-M.

    2015-09-01

    The wealth of air quality information provided by satellite infrared observations of ammonia (NH3), carbon monoxide (CO), formic acid (HCOOH), and methanol (CH3OH) is currently being explored and used for number of applications, especially at regional or global scales. These applications include air quality monitoring, trend analysis, emissions, and model evaluation. This study provides one of the first direct validations of Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) satellite retrieved profiles of NH3, CH3OH, and HCOOH through comparisons with coincident aircraft profiles. The comparisons are performed over the Canadian oil sands region during the intensive field campaign (August-September~2013) in support of the Joint Canada-Alberta Implementation Plan for the Oil Sands Monitoring (JOSM). The satellite/aircraft comparisons over this region during this period produced errors of: (i) + 0.08 ± 0.25 ppbv for NH3, (ii) + 7.5 ± 23 ppbv for CO, (iii) + 0.19 ± 0.46 ppbv for HCOOH, and (iv) -1.1 ± 0.39 ppbv for CH3OH. These values mostly agree with previously estimated retrieval errors; however, the relatively large negative bias in CH3OH and the significantly greater positive bias for larger HCOOH and CO values observed during this study warrant further investigation. Satellite and aircraft ammonia observations during the field campaign are also used in an initial effort to perform preliminary evaluations of Environment Canada's Global Environmental Multi-scale - Modelling Air quality and CHemistry (GEM-MACH) air quality modelling system at high-resolution (2.5 km × 2.5 km). These initial results indicate model under-prediction of ~ 0.6 ppbv (~ 60 %) for NH3, during the field campaign period. The TES-model CO comparison differences are ~ +20 ppbv (~ +20 %), but given that under these conditions the TES/aircraft comparisons also show a small positive TES CO bias indicates that the overall model under-prediction of CO is closer to ~ 10 % at 681 hPa (~ 3 km) during this

  20. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES satellite validations of ammonia, methanol, formic acid, and carbon monoxide over the Canadian oil sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. W. Shephard

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The wealth of air quality information provided by satellite infrared observations of ammonia (NH3, carbon monoxide (CO, formic acid (HCOOH, and methanol (CH3OH is currently being explored and used for number of applications, especially at regional or global scales. These applications include air quality monitoring, trend analysis, emissions, and model evaluation. This study provides one of the first direct validations of Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES satellite retrieved profiles of NH3, CH3OH, and HCOOH through comparisons with coincident aircraft profiles. The comparisons are performed over the Canadian oil sands region during the intensive field campaign (August–September~2013 in support of the Joint Canada–Alberta Implementation Plan for the Oil Sands Monitoring (JOSM. The satellite/aircraft comparisons over this region during this period produced errors of: (i + 0.08 ± 0.25 ppbv for NH3, (ii + 7.5 ± 23 ppbv for CO, (iii + 0.19 ± 0.46 ppbv for HCOOH, and (iv -1.1 ± 0.39 ppbv for CH3OH. These values mostly agree with previously estimated retrieval errors; however, the relatively large negative bias in CH3OH and the significantly greater positive bias for larger HCOOH and CO values observed during this study warrant further investigation. Satellite and aircraft ammonia observations during the field campaign are also used in an initial effort to perform preliminary evaluations of Environment Canada's Global Environmental Multi-scale – Modelling Air quality and CHemistry (GEM-MACH air quality modelling system at high-resolution (2.5 km × 2.5 km. These initial results indicate model under-prediction of ~ 0.6 ppbv (~ 60 % for NH3, during the field campaign period. The TES-model CO comparison differences are ~ +20 ppbv (~ +20 %, but given that under these conditions the TES/aircraft comparisons also show a small positive TES CO bias indicates that the overall model under-prediction of CO is closer to ~ 10 % at 681 hPa (~ 3 km

  1. Mitigation strategies for methane emissions from agricultural sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duxbury, J.M. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Anthropogenic emissions of CH{sub 4} account for 70% of total global emissions of this greenhouse gas. Current anthropogenic emissions of CH{sub 4} in the US are estimated to be between 24-30 Tg CH{sub 4} or 7-9% of the global anthropogenic total. By comparison the US is responsible for 27% of anthropogenic emissions of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel use. Table 1 shows that the major anthropogenic sources of CH{sub 4} in the US are landfills (37%), domestic livestock and livestock waste (31%) and the coal mining/natural gas/petroleum industries (28%). On a global basis it is estimated that US landfills contribute 30% to the global landfill total, whereas livestock (including waste) and the coal mining/natural gas/petroleum industries each contribute about 8% to their respective global totals. The US is an insignificant contributor (< 1%) to global emissions of CH{sub 4} from rice paddies.

  2. Ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from a modern U.S. swine breeding-gestation-farrowing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinn, John P.; Xin, Hongwei; Shepherd, Timothy A.; Li, Hong; Burns, Robert T.

    2014-12-01

    Aerial emissions from livestock production continue to be an area of attention and concern for both the potential health and environmental impacts. However, information of gaseous, especially greenhouse gas (GHG), emissions for swine breeding/gestation and farrowing production systems is limited. The purpose of this study was to quantify ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4) concentrations and emissions from a modern breeding-gestation-farrowing system located in central Iowa, USA. A 4300-sow farm was selected for the extensive field monitoring which employed a Mobile Air Emission Monitoring Unit equipped with state-of-the-art gas analyzers and a data acquisition system. The monitored portion of the farm facility consisted of a deep-pit breeding/early gestation (B/EG) barn (1800 head), a deep-pit late gestation (LG) barn (1800 head), and two shallow-pit (pull-plug) farrowing rooms (40 head per room). A dynamic flux chamber was used to monitor gaseous emissions from the external manure storage for the farrowing rooms. Data were collected for 29 consecutive months (January 2011 through June 2013). Daily indoor NH3, CO2, N2O, and CH4 concentrations (ppm, mean ± SD) were 12.0 (±7.6), 1594 (±797), 0.31 (±0.11), and 28.5 (±9.8), respectively, in the breeding/gestation barns; and 9.7 (±4.1), 1536 (±701), 0.30 (±0.10), and 78.3 (±37), respectively, in the farrowing rooms. Daily emissions per animal unit (AU, 500 kg live weight) were 35.1 g NH3, 7.46 kg CO2, 0.17 g N2O, and 263.4 g CH4 for sows in the B/EG barn; and 28.2 g NH3, 6.50 kg CO2, 0.12 g N2O, and 201.3 g CH4 for sows in the LG barn. The average daily emissions per AU (sow and piglets) of the farrowing rooms during the lactation period (birth to weaning) were: 59.7 g NH3, 16.4 kg CO2, 0.73 g N2O, and 107 g CH4. For the monitored period, the external manure storage had the following average daily emission per m2 surface area: 1.26 g NH3, 137 g CO2, and 94.8 g CH4, which

  3. Developments in greenhouse gas emissions and net energy use in Danish agriculture - How to achieve substantial CO2 reductions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture are a significant contributor to total Danish emissions. Consequently, much effort is currently given to the exploration of potential strategies to reduce agricultural emissions. This paper presents results from a study estimating agricultural GHG emissions in the form of methane, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide (including carbon sources and sinks, and the impact of energy consumption/bioenergy production) from Danish agriculture in the years 1990-2010. An analysis of possible measures to reduce the GHG emissions indicated that a 50-70% reduction of agricultural emissions by 2050 relative to 1990 is achievable, including mitigation measures in relation to the handling of manure and fertilisers, optimization of animal feeding, cropping practices, and land use changes with more organic farming, afforestation and energy crops. In addition, the bioenergy production may be increased significantly without reducing the food production, whereby Danish agriculture could achieve a positive energy balance. - Highlights: → GHG emissions from Danish agriculture 1990-2010 are calculated, including carbon sequestration. → Effects of measures to further reduce GHG emissions are listed. → Land use scenarios for a substantially reduced GHG emission by 2050 are presented. → A 50-70% reduction of agricultural emissions by 2050 relative to 1990 is achievable. → Via bioenergy production Danish agriculture could achieve a positive energy balance. - Scenario studies of greenhouse gas mitigation measures illustrate the possible realization of CO2 reductions for Danish agriculture by 2050, sustaining current food production.

  4. Unusually high soil nitrogen oxide emissions influence air quality in a high-temperature agricultural region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, P. Y.; Ge, C.; Wang, J.; Eberwein, J. R.; Liang, L. L.; Allsman, L. A.; Grantz, D. A.; Jenerette, G. D.

    2015-11-01

    Fertilized soils have large potential for production of soil nitrogen oxide (NOx=NO+NO2), however these emissions are difficult to predict in high-temperature environments. Understanding these emissions may improve air quality modelling as NOx contributes to formation of tropospheric ozone (O3), a powerful air pollutant. Here we identify the environmental and management factors that regulate soil NOx emissions in a high-temperature agricultural region of California. We also investigate whether soil NOx emissions are capable of influencing regional air quality. We report some of the highest soil NOx emissions ever observed. Emissions vary nonlinearly with fertilization, temperature and soil moisture. We find that a regional air chemistry model often underestimates soil NOx emissions and NOx at the surface and in the troposphere. Adjusting the model to match NOx observations leads to elevated tropospheric O3. Our results suggest management can greatly reduce soil NOx emissions, thereby improving air quality.

  5. Potential application of Alcaligenes faecalis strain No. 4 in mitigating ammonia emissions from dairy wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neerackal, George M; Ndegwa, Pius M; Joo, Hung-Soo; Wang, Xiang; Frear, Craig S; Harrison, Joseph H; Beutel, Marc W

    2016-04-01

    This research examined the potential mitigation of NH3 emissions from dairy manure via an enhanced aerobic bio-treatment with bacterium Alcaligenes faecalis strain No. 4. The studies were conducted in aerated batch reactors using air and pure oxygen. Aeration with air and oxygen removed approximately 40% and 100% total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN), respectively. Intermittent oxygenation (every 2 or 4 h) reduced oxygen consumption by 95%, while attaining nearly identical TAN removal to continuous aeration. The results revealed that adequate oxygen supply and supplementing dairy wastewater with carbon are essential for this bioprocess. Based on the nitrogen mass balance, only 4% of TAN was released as NH3 gas, while the majority was retained in either the microbial biomass (58%) or converted to nitrogen gas (36%). The mass balance results reveal high potential for environmentally friendly bio-treatment of dairy wastewater using A. faecalis strain No. 4 with respect to NH3 emissions. PMID:26845217

  6. Development and application of a mechanistic model to estimate emission of nitrous oxide from UK agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mechanistic model of N2O emission from agricultural soil (DeNitrification-DeComposition - DNDC) was modified for application to the UK, and was used as the basis of an inventory of N2O emission from UK agriculture in 1990. UK-specific input data were added to DNDC's database and the ability to simulate daily C and N inputs from grazing animals and applied animal waste was added to the model. The UK version of the model, UK-DNDC, simulated emissions from 18 different crop types on the 3 areally dominant soils in each county. Validation of the model at the field scale showed that predictions matched observations well. Emission factors for the inventory were calculated from estimates of N2O emission from UK-DNDC, in order to maintain direct comparability with the IPCC approach. These, along with activity data, were included in a transparent spreadsheet format. Using UK-DNDC, the estimate of N2O-N emission from UK current agricultural practice in 1990 was 50.9Gg. This total comprised 31.7Gg from the soil sector, 5.9Gg from animals and 13.2Gg from the indirect sector. The range of this estimate (using the range of soil organic C for each soil used) was 30.5-62.5Gg N. Estimates of emissions in each sector were compared to those calculated using the IPCC default methodology. Emissions from the soil and indirect sectors were smaller with the UK-DNDC approach than with the IPCC methodology, while emissions from the animal sector were larger. The model runs suggested a relatively large emission from agricultural land that was not attributable to current agricultural practices (33.8Gg in total, 27.4Gg from the soil sector). This 'background' component is partly the result of historical agricultural land use. It is not normally included in inventories of emission, but would increase the total emission of N2O-N from agricultural land in 1990 to 78.3Gg. (Author)

  7. Dynamics of air temperature, velocity and ammonia emissions in enclosed and conventional pig housing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J I; Park, K-H; Jeon, J H; Choi, H L; Barroga, A J

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to compare the dynamics of air temperature and velocity under two different ventilation and housing systems during summer and winter in Korea. The NH3 concentration of both housing systems was also investigated in relation to the pig's growth. The ventilation systems used were; negative pressure type for the enclosed pig house (EPH) and natural airflow for the conventional pig house (CPH). Against a highly fluctuating outdoor temperature, the EPH was able to maintain a stable temperature at 24.8 to 29.1°C during summer and 17.9 to 23.1°C during winter whilst the CPH had a wider temperature variance during summer at 24.7 to 32.3°C. However, the temperature fluctuation of the CPH during winter was almost the same with that of EPH at 14.5 to 18.2°C. The NH3 levels in the CPH ranged from 9.31 to 16.9 mg/L during summer and 5.1 to 19.7 mg/L during winter whilst that of the EPH pig house was 7.9 to 16.1 mg/L and 3.7 to 9.6 mg/L during summer and winter, respectively. These values were less than the critical ammonia level for pigs with the EPH maintaining a lower level than the CPH in both winter and summer. The air velocity at pig nose level in the EPH during summer was 0.23 m/s, enough to provide comfort because of the unique design of the inlet feature. However, no air movement was observed in almost all the lower portions of the CPH during winter because of the absence of an inlet feature. There was a significant improvement in weight gain and feed intake of pigs reared in the EPH compared to the CPH (phousing systems, a stable indoor temperature was necessary to minimize the impact of an avoidable and highly fluctuating outdoor temperature. The EPH consistently maintained an effective indoor airspeed irrespective of season; however the CPH had defective and stagnant air at pig nose level during winter. Characteristics of airflow direction and pattern were consistent relative to housing system during both summer and winter but not of airspeed. The

  8. Nordic agriculture air and climate

    OpenAIRE

    Antman, Anne; Brubæk, Stein; Andersen, Bente Hessellund; Lindqvist, Kajsa; Markus-Johansson, Miriam; Sørensen, Jacob; Teerikangas, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    This report constitutes the main outputs of the project “Pathways to a Nordic food system that contributes to reduced emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants”. The overall goals are to present the baseline data regarding the Nordic agricultural sector, its greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions, the regulatory framework and support systems, and conflicts of interest. The report aims to describe pathways to a Nordic food system that contributes to achieving the climate target of below 2...

  9. Impaired myocardial blood flow reserve in subjects with metabolic syndrome analyzed using positron emission tomography and N-13 labeled ammonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coronary vasomotor response might be impaired in metabolic syndrome (MS); however, the precise abnormality has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to assess coronary-vasomotor response in MS subjects using N-13 labeled ammonia and positron emission tomography. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured at rest and during adenosine infusion in MS subjects (n = 13, MS group) with no definite evidence of heart disease and in subjects without MS (n = 14, non-MS group). Coronary vascular resistance (CVR) was calculated by dividing the mean aortic blood pressure by MBF. Myocardial blood flow reserve (MFR) was calculated as the ratio of the MBF during adenosine infusion to that during rest. Blood chemical parameters were measured to evaluate their relationship with MFR. During adenosine infusion, MBF was lower (p = 0.0085) and CVR higher (p = 0.0128) in the MS group than in the non-MS group and MFR was significantly lower in the MS group than in the non-MS group (2.13 ± 0.99 vs. 3.38 ± 0.95, p = 0.0027). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (p < 0.05) and the presence of hypertension (p < 0.05) were independent determinants of MFR. The results indicate that MFR was impaired in MS subjects, suggesting that an abnormal coronary microvascular response occurred in these subjects. This abnormality may have been partially due to insulin resistance and hypertension. (orig.)

  10. Impaired myocardial blood flow reserve in subjects with metabolic syndrome analyzed using positron emission tomography and N-13 labeled ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teragawa, Hiroki; Kihara, Yasuki [Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Morita, Koichi; Tamaki, Nagara [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Shishido, Hiroki; Otsuka, Nobuaki; Hirokawa, Yutaka [Hiroshima Heiwa Clinic, Hiroshima (Japan); Chayama, Kazuaki [Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Molecular Science and Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    Coronary vasomotor response might be impaired in metabolic syndrome (MS); however, the precise abnormality has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to assess coronary-vasomotor response in MS subjects using N-13 labeled ammonia and positron emission tomography. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured at rest and during adenosine infusion in MS subjects (n = 13, MS group) with no definite evidence of heart disease and in subjects without MS (n = 14, non-MS group). Coronary vascular resistance (CVR) was calculated by dividing the mean aortic blood pressure by MBF. Myocardial blood flow reserve (MFR) was calculated as the ratio of the MBF during adenosine infusion to that during rest. Blood chemical parameters were measured to evaluate their relationship with MFR. During adenosine infusion, MBF was lower (p = 0.0085) and CVR higher (p = 0.0128) in the MS group than in the non-MS group and MFR was significantly lower in the MS group than in the non-MS group (2.13 {+-} 0.99 vs. 3.38 {+-} 0.95, p = 0.0027). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (p < 0.05) and the presence of hypertension (p < 0.05) were independent determinants of MFR. The results indicate that MFR was impaired in MS subjects, suggesting that an abnormal coronary microvascular response occurred in these subjects. This abnormality may have been partially due to insulin resistance and hypertension. (orig.)

  11. Preliminary study of ammonia emissions from naturally ventilated fattening pig houses in the south-east China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, K.; Ye, Z.; Li, H. [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou City (China). School of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on an experimental simulation in which ammonia emissions from naturally ventilated pig houses were monitored and the ventilation airflow rate was estimated. Two identical pig houses and the same number of pigs were used in the study. Natural ventilation was used in the experimental pig house while the reference pig house had mechanical ventilation. Both houses had the same air temperature and relative humidity. The ventilation airflow rate of the experimental pig house was estimated by calculating the ventilation airflow rate in the reference pig house. The ventilation airflow rate of the experimental pig house was also estimated based on heat pressure theory. The room air temperature and relative humidity were found to be related to inlet air temperature and relative humidity for both ventilation systems. After 19 days, the average air temperature in the room with mechanical ventilation was about 4.1 degrees C higher than inlet air temperature, but the relative humidity was lower by 7.1 per cent. In the room with natural ventilation, the average air temperature after 19 days was about 3.9 degrees C higher than inlet air temperature, but the relative humidity was lower by 4.3 per cent.

  12. Influence of different fibre sources in diets for growing pigs on chemical composition of faeces and slurry and ammonia emission from slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Jørgen; Chwalibog, André; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    The present study was carried out to investigate how three different fibre sources, sugar beet pulp, soya bean hulls and pectin residue, in diets for growing pigs influenced the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in faeces, pH-value in faeces and slurry, excretion of nitrogen in urine...... and faeces and ammonia emission from slurry under dynamic conditions. Eight castrated crossbreed pigs (30-80 kg live weight) were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin-square design with one control diet and three fibre containing diets. The ammonia emission was measured continuously over 46 h from an open...... with sugar beet pulp and pectin residue. The fibre diets influenced the excretion of nitrogen because nitrogen was repartitioned from urine to faeces. The pH-value in faeces was significantly lower for the fibre diets (6.57-6.73) compared to the control diet (7.00). There was a tendency for a diet...

  13. Ammonia volatilization from crop residues and frozen green manure crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruijter, F. J.; Huijsmans, J. F. M.; Rutgers, B.

    2010-09-01

    Agricultural systems can lose substantial amounts of nitrogen (N). To protect the environment, the European Union (EU) has adopted several directives that set goals to limit N losses. National Emission Ceilings (NEC) are prescribed in the NEC directive for nitrogen oxides and ammonia. Crop residues may contribute to ammonia volatilization, but sufficient information on their contribution to the national ammonia volatilization is lacking. Experiments were carried out with the aim to assess the ammonia volatilization of crop residues left on the soil surface or incorporated into the soil under the conditions met in practice in the Netherlands during late autumn and winter. Ammonia emission from residues of broccoli, leek, sugar beet, cut grass, fodder radish (fresh and frozen) and yellow mustard (frozen) was studied during two winter seasons using volatilization chambers. Residues were either placed on top of soil or mixed with soil. Mixing residues with soil gave insignificant ammonia volatilization, whereas volatilization was 5-16 percent of the N content of residues when placed on top of soil. Ammonia volatilization started after at least 4 days. Total ammonia volatilization was related to C/N-ratio and N concentration of the plant material. After 37 days, cumulative ammonia volatilization was negligible from plant material with N concentration below 2 percent, and was 10 percent of the N content of plant material with 4 percent N. These observations can be explained by decomposition of plant material by micro-organisms. After an initial built up of the microbial population, NH 4+ that is not needed for their own growth is released and can easily emit as NH 3 at the soil surface. The results of the experiments were used to estimate the contribution of crop residues to ammonia volatilization in the Netherlands. Crop residues of arable crops and residues of pasture topping may contribute more than 3 million kg NH 3-N to the national ammonia volatilization of the

  14. Canadian economic and emissions model for agriculture : report 2 : preliminary results of selected scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulshreshtha, S.N. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada) Dept. of Agricultural Economics; Boehm, M. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Centre for Studies in Agriculture, Law and Environment; Bonneau, M. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Regina, SK (Canada); Giraldez, J.C. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1999-04-01

    A modelling study was conducted in which greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from major crops and livestock enterprises were estimated in a gas by gas basis. The Canadian Economic and Emissions Model for Agriculture (CEEMA) was specifically developed for this purpose. The model was calibrated for the base year 1990 and was used to estimate emission levels for the year 2010. Carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide are the three atmospheric gases that are generally recognized as the major GHGs. Several agricultural activities, such as use of fuel for running machinery and the use of fertilizer can generate these gases. Other practices can actually reduce GHG emissions (for example, increasing the amount of organic matter stored in the soil). According to the model, it was determined that during the period 1990 to 2010, anthropogenic emissions from agriculture will decrease from 61.4 Mt per year to 57.5 Mt per year. Seven strategies were tested to assess the effectiveness of mitigative measures and production paths. This report is the second in a series of three technical reports which will describe the integrated agro-ecological economic modelling system that can be used to assess the economic and the GHG emission impacts of agricultural policies at regional and national levels. 34 refs., 15 tabs., 9 figs., 3 appendices.

  15. Monitoring of greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural and forest soils

    OpenAIRE

    Ferre',

    2009-01-01

    Global climate change is becoming a central issue in contemporary science as well as politics. There is a long-lasting debate about the cause of the climate change: anthropogenic activity versus the natural cycle. However, a scientific consensus is coming a conclusion that the contemporary climate change is mainly caused by anthropogenic emissions of the greenhouse gases (GHG), including carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4). The main objective of the thesis is the ...

  16. Protocol voor meting van ammoniakemissie uit huisvestingssystemen in de veehouderij 2010 = Measurement protocol for ammonia emission from housing systems in livestock production 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Ogink, N.W.M.; Mosquera Losada, J.; Hol, J.M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Dit rapport beschrijft een nieuw uitgewerkt meetprotocol voor ammoniakemissies uit huisvestingssystemen in de veehouderij. De belangrijkste wijziging ten opzichte van eerdere benaderingen betreft de voorwaarde op meerdere bedrijfslocaties te meten. Het protocol wordt toegelicht voor meerdere diercategorieën.A new measurement protocol for the determination of ammonia emissions of animal housing systems is elaborated. The main deviation from previous approaches is the requirement of multi-farms...

  17. Environmental assessment of three egg production systems--Part II. Ammonia, greenhouse gas, and particulate matter emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, T A; Zhao, Y; Li, H; Stinn, J P; Hayes, M D; Xin, H

    2015-03-01

    As an integral part of the Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES) Project, this study simultaneously monitored air emissions of 3 commercially operated egg production systems at the house level and associated manure storage over 2 single-cycle flocks (18 to 78 wk of age). The 3 housing systems were 1) a conventional cage house (CC) with a 200,000-hen capacity (6 hens in a cage at a stocking density of 516 cm2/hen), 2) an enriched colony house (EC) with a 50,000-hen capacity (60 hens per colony at a stocking density of 752 cm2/hen), and 3) an aviary house (AV) with a 50,000-hen capacity (at a stocking density of 1253 to 1257 cm2/hen). The 3 hen houses were located on the same farm and were populated with Lohmann white hens of the same age. Indoor environment and house-level gaseous (ammonia [NH3] and greenhouse gasses [GHG], including carbon dioxide [CO2], methane [CH4], and nitrous oxide [N2O]) and particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5) emissions were monitored continually. Gaseous emissions from the respective manure storage of each housing system were also monitored. Emission rates (ERs) are expressed as emission quantities per hen, per animal unit (AU, 500 kg live BW), and per kilogram of egg output. House-level NH3 ER (g/hen/d) of EC (0.054) was significantly lower than that of CC (0.082) or AV (0.112) (P<0.05). The house-level CO2 ER (g/hen/d) was lower for CC (68.3) than for EC and AV (74.4 and 74.0, respectively), and the CH4 ER (g/hen/d) was similar for all 3 houses (0.07 to 0.08). The house-level PM ER (mg/hen/d), essentially representing the farm-level PM ER, was significantly higher for AV (PM10 100.3 and PM2.5 8.8) than for CC (PM10 15.7 and PM2.5 0.9) or EC (PM10 15.6 and PM2.5 1.7) (P<0.05). The farm-level (house plus manure storage) NH3 ER (g/hen/d) was significantly lower for EC (0.16) than for CC (0.29) or AV (0.30) (P<0.05). As expected, the magnitudes of GHG emissions were rather small for all 3 production systems. Data from this study enable

  18. Ammonia in the environment: From ancient times to the present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent research on atmospheric ammonia has made good progress in quantifying sources/sinks and environmental impacts. This paper reviews the achievements and places them in their historical context. It considers the role of ammonia in the development of agricultural science and air chemistry, showing how these arose out of foundations in 18th century chemistry and medieval alchemy, and then identifies the original environmental sources from which the ancients obtained ammonia. Ammonia is revealed as a compound of key human interest through the centuries, with a central role played by sal ammoniac in alchemy and the emergence of modern science. The review highlights how recent environmental research has emphasized volatilization sources of ammonia. Conversely, the historical records emphasize the role of high-temperature sources, including dung burning, coal burning, naturally burning coal seams and volcanoes. Present estimates of ammonia emissions from these sources are based on few measurements, which should be a future priority. - Past ammonia applications reveal new emphases in biospheric transformations

  19. Reducing emissions from agriculture to meet the 2°C target

    OpenAIRE

    Wollenberg, E.; M. Richards; Smith, P.; Havlik, P.; Obersteiner, M.; Tubiello, F.N.; M. Herold; Gerber, P; Carter, S.; Reisinger, A.; van Vuuren, D.; Dickie, A; Neufeldt, H.; Sander, B.O.; Wassmann, R.

    2016-01-01

    More than 100 countries pledged to reduce agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (Richards et al., 2015a) in the 2015 Paris Agreement of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Yet technical information about how much mitigation is needed in the sector versus how much is feasible remains poor. We identify a preliminary global target for reducing emissions from agriculture of ~1 GtCO2e/yr by 2030 to limit warming in 2100 to 2°C above pre-industrial levels. Yet plausible...

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions from Swiss agriculture since 1990: implications for environmental policies to mitigate global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions contribute significantly to global warming, and environmental protection strategies have thus to integrate emission reduction measures from this source. In Switzerland, legislation together with monetary incentives has forced primarily integrated, and to a lesser extend organic farming, both covering nowadays more than 95% of the agriculturally useful area. Though reducing greenhouse gas emissions was not a primary intention of this reorganisation, the measures were successful in reducing the overall emissions of nitrous oxide and methane by 10% relative to 1990. A reduction of the animal herd, namely of dairy cattle, non-dairy cattle and swine, and decreasing inputs of mineral N are the main contributors to the achieved emission reduction. Crop productivity was not negatively affected and milk productivity even increased, referring to the ecological potential of agricultural reorganisation that has been tapped. Total meat production declined proportional to the animal herd. Stabilised animal numbers and fertiliser use during the last 4 years refer to an exhaustion of future reduction potentials without further legislative action because this stabilisation is most likely due to the adaptation to the production guidelines. A comparison of emission trends and carbon sequestration potentials in the broader context of the EU15 reveals that nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) have been reduced more efficiently most probably due to the measures taken, but that sequestration potentials are smaller than in the EU15 mainly because of differences in the agricultural structure. The change from an intensified towards a more environmental sound integrated production has a significant reduction potential, but in any case, agriculture will remain a net GHG source in spite of emission mitigation and carbon sequestration

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions from Swiss agriculture since 1990: implications for environmental policies to mitigate global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leifeld, Jens [AGROSCOPE, Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture, Air Pollution/Climate Group, Reckenholzstrasse 191, 8046 Zurich (Switzerland)]. E-mail: jens.leifeld@fal.admin.ch; Fuhrer, Juerg [AGROSCOPE, Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture, Air Pollution/Climate Group, Reckenholzstrasse 191, 8046 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2005-08-01

    Agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions contribute significantly to global warming, and environmental protection strategies have thus to integrate emission reduction measures from this source. In Switzerland, legislation together with monetary incentives has forced primarily integrated, and to a lesser extend organic farming, both covering nowadays more than 95% of the agriculturally useful area. Though reducing greenhouse gas emissions was not a primary intention of this reorganisation, the measures were successful in reducing the overall emissions of nitrous oxide and methane by 10% relative to 1990. A reduction of the animal herd, namely of dairy cattle, non-dairy cattle and swine, and decreasing inputs of mineral N are the main contributors to the achieved emission reduction. Crop productivity was not negatively affected and milk productivity even increased, referring to the ecological potential of agricultural reorganisation that has been tapped. Total meat production declined proportional to the animal herd. Stabilised animal numbers and fertiliser use during the last 4 years refer to an exhaustion of future reduction potentials without further legislative action because this stabilisation is most likely due to the adaptation to the production guidelines. A comparison of emission trends and carbon sequestration potentials in the broader context of the EU15 reveals that nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and methane (CH{sub 4}) have been reduced more efficiently most probably due to the measures taken, but that sequestration potentials are smaller than in the EU15 mainly because of differences in the agricultural structure. The change from an intensified towards a more environmental sound integrated production has a significant reduction potential, but in any case, agriculture will remain a net GHG source in spite of emission mitigation and carbon sequestration.

  2. Regional myocardial perfusion assessed by N-13 labeled ammonia and positron emission computerized axial tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usefulness of 13NH3 as an indicator of regional myocardial perfusion suitable for positron emission computerized axial tomography (PCT) has been suggested. However, the relationship between myocardial blood flow and uptake of 13NH3 has not been examined quantitatively. It was therefore the purpose of the current investigation to quantitate the relationship of myocardial 13NH3 tissue concentration to myocardial blood flow and to examine its suitability for PCT imaging. Twelve open chest dogs were studied. In 8 of the dogs 25 imaging procedures with 13NH3 and PCT were performed. In the remaining four dogs the relationship between flow and myocardial 13NH3 tissue concentration was assessed by in vitro techniques. The PCT technique provided high quality cross-sectional images of the distribution of 13NH3 in left ventricular myocardium. No significant redistribution of 13NH3 in myocardium occurred with time. Alterations in regional myocardial blood flow resulted in changes of the regional distribution of 13NH3 that were readily appreciated on the PCT images

  3. An improved model for estimating pesticide emissions for agricultural LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkman, Teunis Johannes; Birkved, Morten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2011-01-01

    and or climate condition) and future (change climate condition of a location) differentiation. In addition, the tillage frequency is now incorporated as an input parameter. The tillage frequency has an impact on the soil permeability through its relation to the occurring frequency of macro pores in the top soil...... products, off-target pesticide emissions need to be quantified as accurately as possible because of the considerable toxicity effects associated with chemicals designed to have a high impact on biological organisms like for example insects or weed plants. PestLCI was developed to estimate the fractions...... of the applied pesticide that is emitted from a field to the surrounding environmental compartments: air, surface water, and ground water. However, the applicability of the model has been limited to 1 typical Danish soil type and 1 climatic profile obtained from the national Danish meteorological station...

  4. Activity level, emission intensity, and optimal GHG abatement policy: An application to Norwegian agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Blandford, David; Gaasland, Ivar; Vardal, Erling

    2011-01-01

    Despite the failure of the U.N. Copenhagen climate conference in December 2009 efforts are continuing to reach agreement on binding global commitments on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. At the same time, efforts are still underway to conclude the Doha Round of trade negotiations through the World Trade Organization (WTO). Both of these agreements could have a significant impact on the level of activity in agriculture and the GHG emissions that it generates. In this paper we explore strategies...

  5. Impact of different Agricultural Systems and Patterns of Consumption on Greenhouse-Gas Emissions in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Freyer, B.; Weik, S.

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural systems as well as consumer patterns influence the green house gas emissions. Therefore, we analysed different farming systems, consumption patterns and seasonal oriented food consumption. Whereas conventional production and the current meat oriented nutrition patterns lead to high green house gas emissions, there is a tremendous reduction potential, if products are organically produced and if there is a shift to vegetarian-based diets.. Nevertheless, there is a need for research...

  6. Agricultural benefits of controlling atmospheric emissions from energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cost-benefit analyses are now being used to develop pollution control strategies for different energy technologies and pollutants. In these analyses, there is significant interest in agricultural effects. Dose-response functions useful for cost-benefit analyses are available for important crops (e.g. corn, wheat, soybeans) and pollutants (e.g. sulphur dioxide, photochemical oxidants, and acid precipitation). Using dose-response functions derived from a cross-sectional analysis, crude estimates were developed of the expected increases in US soybean yields from controlling photochemical oxidant and acid deposition air pollutants. Although problems remain, preliminary modelling suggests that reducing average background growing season pH to 5.2 or 5.6 from ambient conditions (range = 4.1 to 6.3 pH) in all US soybean growing counties would result in a national-level increase in soybean yields of approx. 1%. In comparison, if seasonal average ambient oxidant concentrations (range = 36 to 71 ppb) were reduced to 40 or 25 ppb, US soybean yields would increase by approx. 5 to 9%. Simultaneous strict control of both pollutants would increase yields by approx. 10%. These analyses suggest that control of oxidant precursors (e.g. hydrocarbons from mobile sources) may be more important than the control of acid deposition precursors (e.g. sulphur and nitrogen oxides from large coal-fired utilities). Before actual regulatory decisions are made based on these data, specification and measurement errors in the predictor and assessment models must be explored more explicitly. (author)

  7. Providing low-budget estimations of carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in agricultural wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conversion of wetlands to agriculture through drainage and flooding, and the burning of wetland areas for agriculture have important implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) production and changing carbon stocks. However, the estimation of net GHG changes from mitigation practices in agricultural wetlands is complex compared to dryland crops. Agricultural wetlands have more complicated carbon and nitrogen cycles with both above- and below-ground processes and export of carbon via vertical and horizontal movement of water through the wetland. This letter reviews current research methodologies in estimating greenhouse gas production and provides guidance on the provision of robust estimates of carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in agricultural wetlands through the use of low cost reliable and sustainable measurement, modelling and remote sensing applications. The guidance is highly applicable to, and aimed at, wetlands such as those in the tropics and sub-tropics, where complex research infrastructure may not exist, or agricultural wetlands located in remote regions, where frequent visits by monitoring scientists prove difficult. In conclusion, the proposed measurement-modelling approach provides guidance on an affordable solution for mitigation and for investigating the consequences of wetland agricultural practice on GHG production, ecological resilience and possible changes to agricultural yields, variety choice and farming practice. (letter)

  8. Quantitation of the regional blood flow in the interventricular septum using positron emission tomography and nitrogen-13 ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hove, Jens D. [The Department of Cardiology, The Heart Center, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Cardiovascular PET Research Unit, Section 9201, Medical Department B, The Heart Center, Rigshospitalet, Juliane Mariesvej 24, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Gambhir, Sanjiv S. [Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States); Kofoed, Klaus F.; Freiberg, Jacob; Kelbaek, Henning [The Department of Cardiology, The Heart Center, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of spillover of activity from the right ventricle (RV) on quantitation of the regional myocardial blood flow in the septum. Thirty-one healthy volunteers, 31 patients with ischemic heart disease, 7 patients with severe congestive heart failure, and 6 heart transplant patients underwent positron emission tomography (PET) with nitrogen-13 ammonia. Quantitation of the regional myocardial blood flow in the septum was performed using both a conventional two-compartment model and a previously validated two-compartment model taking RV spillover into account. Unaccounted RV spillover resulted in significant underestimation of the regional myocardial blood flow in the septum. The amount of underestimation was primarily dependent on the magnitude of spillover and the dispersion between the right and the left ventricular input functions. In healthy volunteers, the flow error was small but significant: on average 6% (range 5%-29%, P<0.00001), compared with 27% (range 0%-88%, P<0.002) in the group of patients with severe congestive heart failure, who had the most considerable amount of RV spillover. In the group of patients with ischemic heart disease and the group of heart transplant patients the flow errors were 10% (range 0%-55%, P<0.00001) and 6% (range 1%-19%, P<0.01), respectively. It is concluded that flow quantitation in the septum is significantly affected by RV spillover, resulting in a considerable underestimation of the septal blood flow unless correction is performed. (orig.)

  9. Farm nitrogen balances in six European agricultural landscapes – a method for farming system assessment, emission hotspot identification, and mitigation measure evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Tommy; Bienkowski, J.; Bleeker, A.;

    2012-01-01

    N balances are a useful indicator for N losses and the potential for improving N management. Significant correlations to N surplus were found, both with ammonia air concentrations and nitrate levels in soils and groundwater, measured during the landscape data collection campaign from 2007–2009. This......Six agricultural landscapes in Poland (PL), the Netherlands (NL), France (FR), Italy (IT), Scotland (UK) and Denmark (DK) were studied, and a common method was developed for undertaking farm inventories and the derivation of farm nitrogen (N) balances and N surplus from the in total 222 farms and...... was concluded that N-surplus reductions of 25–50 % as compared to the present level were realistic in all landscapes. The implemented N-surplus method was thus effective at comparing and synthesizing results on farm N emissions and the potentials of mitigation options, and is recommended for use in...

  10. Spatial-Temporal Characteristics and LMDI-Based Impact Factor Decomposition of Agricultural Carbon Emissions in Hotan Prefecture, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanhe Xiong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas emissions from the agricultural ecosystem account for 7%–20% of the world’s total greenhouse gas emissions, while approximately 17% of China’s carbon emissions are from agriculture. In this study, based on the scientific calculation system of carbon emissions in agriculture, we calculated the carbon emissions of agriculture in the Hotan prefecture between 1999 and 2013 and analyzed their spatial-temporal characteristics; next, we used the LMDI model to study the driving factors of agricultural carbon emissions. The results demonstrated the following: (1 in time series, the agricultural carbon emissions showed three stages of change, i.e., “decline, continued to rise and decline”, during the period of 1999 to 2013 in the Hotan prefecture; (2 In space, the carbon emissions from agricultural land use, paddy fields, enteric fermentation, and manure management were different due to the different sizes of cities and counties. The intensity of agricultural carbon emissions was varied and high, but the agricultural production structure, agricultural carbon emissions structure and other aspects had a high degree of consistency and homogeneity in the cities and counties of the Hotan prefecture; (3 Regarding the driving mechanism, the labor factor, agricultural labor productivity, and planting-animal husbandry carbon intensity are the main factors that increase agricultural carbon emissions in the Hotan prefecture. Compared with 1999, three major factors cumulatively achieved a 199.68% carbon emission increment from 2000 to 2013, of which the labor factor cumulatively increased by 120.04%, the agricultural labor productivity factor cumulatively increased by 54.94% and the planting-animal husbandry carbon intensity factor cumulatively increased by 24.70%. The agricultural production structure factor largely inhibited agricultural carbon emissions of the Hotan prefecture, which cut 99.74% of the carbon emissions from 2000 to 2013

  11. OPEN BURNING OF AGRICULTURAL BIOMASS: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF PARTICLE-PHASE EMISSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This effort presents the physical and chemical characterization of PM2.5 emissions from simulated agricultural fires of surface residuals of two major grain crops, rice (Oryza sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L). The O2 levels and CO/CO

  12. Secondary aerosol production from agricultural gas precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies of air quality indicate that agricultural emissions may impact particulate mass concentrations through both primary and secondary processes. Increasing evidence from both laboratory and field work suggests that not only does ammonia produce secondary particulate matter, but some volatile org...

  13. Advances in understanding, models and parameterisations of biosphere-atmosphere ammonia exchange

    OpenAIRE

    C. R. Flechard; Massad, R.-S.; Loubet, B.; Personne, E.; Simpson, D.; Bash, J.O.; E. J. Cooter; Nemitz, E.; Sutton, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) dominates global emissions of total reactive nitrogen (Nr), while emissions from agricultural production systems contribute about two-thirds of global NH3 emissions; the remaining third emanates from oceans, natural vegetation, humans, wild animals and biomass burning. On land, NH3 emitted from the various sources eventually returns to the biosphere by dry deposition to sink areas, predominantly semi-natural vegetation, and by wet and dry deposition...

  14. Liquid and atmospheric ammonia concentrations from a dairy lagoon during an aeration experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumburg, Brian; Neger, Manjit; Mount, George H.; Yonge, David; Filipy, Jenny; Swain, John; Kincaid, Ron; Johnson, Kristen

    Ammonia emissions from agriculture are an environmental and human health concern, and there is increasing pressure to reduce emissions. Animal agriculture is the largest global source of ammonia emissions and on a per cow basis dairy operations are the largest emitters. The storage and disposal of the dairy waste is one area where emissions can be reduced, aerobic biological treatment of wastewater being a common and effective way of reducing ammonia emissions. An aeration experiment in a dairy lagoon with two commercial aerators was performed for 1 month. Liquid concentrations of ammonia, total nitrogen, nitrite and nitrate were monitored before, during and after the experiment and atmospheric ammonia was measured downwind of the lagoon using a short-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) instrument with 1 ppbv sensitivity. No changes in either liquid or atmospheric ammonia concentrations were detected throughout the experiment, and neither dissolved oxygen, nitrite nor nitrate could be detected in the lagoon at any time. The average ammonia concentration at 10 sampling sites in the lagoon at a depth of 0.15 m was 650 mg l -1 and at 0.90 m it was 700 mg l -1 NH 3-N. The average atmospheric ammonia concentration 50 m downwind was about 300 ppbv. The 0.90 m depth total nitrogen concentrations and total and volatile solids concentrations decreased during the experiment due to some mixing of the lagoon but the 0.15 m depth concentrations did not decrease indicating that the aerators were not strong enough to mix the sludge off the bottom into the whole water column.

  15. Spatial Variability in Nitrification Rates and Ammonia-Oxidizing Microbial Communities in the Agriculturally Impacted Elkhorn Slough Estuary, California ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Scott D Wankel; Mosier, Annika C.; Hansel, Colleen M.; Paytan, Adina; Francis, Christopher A.

    2010-01-01

    Ammonia oxidation—the microbial oxidation of ammonia to nitrite and the first step in nitrification—plays a central role in nitrogen cycling in coastal and estuarine systems. Nevertheless, questions remain regarding the connection between this biogeochemical process and the diversity and abundance of the mediating microbial community. In this study, we measured nutrient fluxes and rates of sediment nitrification in conjunction with the diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA...

  16. Programs and measures to reduce GHG emissions in agriculture and waste treatment in Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mareckova, K.; Bratislava, S.; Kucirek, S.

    1996-12-31

    Slovakia is a UN FCCC Annex I country and is obliged to limit its anthropogenic GHG emissions in the year 2000 to 1990 level. The key greenhouse gas in Slovakia is CO{sub 2} resulting mainly from fuel combustion processes. However the share of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O is approximately 20% of the total emissions on GWP basis. These gases are occurring mainly in non-energy sectors. The construction of the non-CO{sub 2} emission scenarios to reduce GHG and the uncertainty in N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emission estimation are discussed focusing on agriculture and waste treatment. The presentation will also include information on emission trends of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O since 1988. There are already implemented measures reducing GHG emissions in Slovakia, however, not motivated by global warming. A short view of implemented measures with an assessment of their benefit concerning non-CO{sub 2} GHG emissions reduction and some proposed mitigation options for agriculture and waste treatment are shown. Expected difficulties connected with preparing scenarios and with implementation of reducing measures are discussed.

  17. Agricultural productivity and greenhouse gas emissions: trade-offs or synergies between mitigation and food security?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valin, H.; Havlík, P.; Mosnier, A.; Herrero, M.; Schmid, E.; Obersteiner, M.

    2013-09-01

    In this letter, we investigate the effects of crop yield and livestock feed efficiency scenarios on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture and land use change in developing countries. We analyze mitigation associated with different productivity pathways using the global partial equilibrium model GLOBIOM. Our results confirm that yield increase could mitigate some agriculture-related emissions growth over the next decades. Closing yield gaps by 50% for crops and 25% for livestock by 2050 would decrease agriculture and land use change emissions by 8% overall, and by 12% per calorie produced. However, the outcome is sensitive to the technological path and which factor benefits from productivity gains: sustainable land intensification would increase GHG savings by one-third when compared with a fertilizer intensive pathway. Reaching higher yield through total factor productivity gains would be more efficient on the food supply side but halve emissions savings due to a strong rebound effect on the demand side. Improvement in the crop or livestock sector would have different implications: crop yield increase would bring the largest food provision benefits, whereas livestock productivity gains would allow the greatest reductions in GHG emission. Combining productivity increases in the two sectors appears to be the most efficient way to exploit mitigation and food security co-benefits.

  18. Agricultural productivity and greenhouse gas emissions: trade-offs or synergies between mitigation and food security?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this letter, we investigate the effects of crop yield and livestock feed efficiency scenarios on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture and land use change in developing countries. We analyze mitigation associated with different productivity pathways using the global partial equilibrium model GLOBIOM. Our results confirm that yield increase could mitigate some agriculture-related emissions growth over the next decades. Closing yield gaps by 50% for crops and 25% for livestock by 2050 would decrease agriculture and land use change emissions by 8% overall, and by 12% per calorie produced. However, the outcome is sensitive to the technological path and which factor benefits from productivity gains: sustainable land intensification would increase GHG savings by one-third when compared with a fertilizer intensive pathway. Reaching higher yield through total factor productivity gains would be more efficient on the food supply side but halve emissions savings due to a strong rebound effect on the demand side. Improvement in the crop or livestock sector would have different implications: crop yield increase would bring the largest food provision benefits, whereas livestock productivity gains would allow the greatest reductions in GHG emission. Combining productivity increases in the two sectors appears to be the most efficient way to exploit mitigation and food security co-benefits. (letter)

  19. Can non-point pollutions emissions from agriculture be regulated efficiently using input-output taxes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line Block; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    2012-01-01

    In many parts of Europe and North America, phosphorus loss from cultivated fields is threatening natural ecosystems. Though there are similarities to other non-point agricultural emissions like nitrogen that have been studied extensively, phosphorus is often characterized by the presence of large...... systems. Depending on the proportions of different types of farms in the agricultural sector, we find that an input-output tax system may be close to efficient, or in other cases must be supplemented with subsidy and manure reallocation schemes....... stocking capacities for phosphorus in farm soils and long time-lags between applications and emission. This makes it important to understand the dynamics of the phosphorus emission problem when designing regulatory systems. Using a model that reflects these dynamics, we evaluate alternative regulatory...

  20. Can non-point pollutions emissions from agriculture be regulated efficiently using input-output taxes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line Block; Gårn Hansen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    In many parts of Europe and North America, phosphorus loss from cultivated fields is threatening natural ecosystems. Though there are similarities to other non-point agricultural emissions like nitrogen that have been studied extensively, phosphorus is often characterized by the presence of large...... systems. Depending on the proportions of different types of farms in the agricultural sector, we find that an input-output tax system can be the core element of a close to efficient regulatory policy....... stocking capacities for phosphorus in farm soils and long time-lags between applications and emission. This makes it important to understand the dynamics of the phosphorus emission problem when designing regulatory systems. Using a model that reflects these dynamics, we evaluate alternative regulatory...

  1. Can non-point phosphorus emissions from agriculture be regulated efficiently using input-output taxes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line Bloch; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    In many parts of Europe and North America, phosphorus loss from cultivated fields is threatening natural ecosystems. Though there are similarities to other non-point agricultural emissions like nitrogen that have been studied extensively, phosphorus is often characterised by the presence of large...... systems. Depending on the proportions of different types of farms in the agricultural sector, we find that an input-output tax system may be close to efficient, or in other cases must be supplemented with subsidy and manure reallocation schemes....... stocking capacities for phosphorus in farm soils and long time-lags between applications and emission. This makes it important to understand the dynamics of the phosphorus emission problem when designing regulatory systems. Using a model that reflects these dynamics, we evaluate alternative regulatory...

  2. A process-based model for ammonia emission from urine patches, GAG (Generation of Ammonia from Grazing): description, validation and sensitivity analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Móring, A; Vieno, M.; Doherty, R M;

    2015-01-01

    development of NH3 emission. In addition, our results suggested that more sophisticated simulation of CO2 emission in the model could potentially improve the modelling of pH. The sensitivity analysis highlighted the vital role of temperature in NH3 exchange; however, presumably due to the TAN limitation...... products of urea hydrolysis: ammonium and bicarbonate. Finally, in the NH3 exchange flux calculation we adapted a canopy compensation point model that accounts for exchange with soil pores and stomata as well as deposition to the leaf surface. We validated our model against measurements, and carried out...

  3. Open burning of agricultural biomass: Physical and chemical properties of particle-phase emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Michael D.; Fine, Philip M.; Geron, Christopher D.; Kleeman, Michael J.; Gullett, Brian K.

    We present the physical and chemical characterization of particulate matter (PM 2.5) emissions from simulated agricultural fires (AFs) of surface residuals of two major grain crops, rice ( Oryza sativa) and wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.). The O 2 levels and CO/CO 2 ratios of the open burn simulations are typical of the field fires of agricultural residues. In the AF plumes, we observe predominantly accumulation mode (100-1000 nm) aerosols. The mean PM 2.5 mass emission factors from replicate burns of the wheat and rice residuals are 4.7±0.04 and 13.0±0.3 g kg -1 of dry biomass, respectively. The combustion-derived PM emissions from wheat are enriched in K (31% weight/weight, w/w) and Cl (36% w/w), whereas the PM emissions from rice are largely carbonaceous (84% w/w). Molecular level gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of PM 2.5 solvent extracts identifies organic matter that accounts for as much as 18% of the PM mass emissions. A scarcity of detailed PM-phase chemical emissions data from AFs required that comparisons among other biomass combustion groups (wildfire, woodstove, and fireplace) be made. Statistical tests for equal variance among these groups indicate that the degree to which molecular emissions vary is compound dependent. Analysis of variance testing shows significant differences in the mean values of certain n-alkane, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), oxy-PAH, and sugar marker compounds common to the biomass combustion types. Individual pairwise comparisons of means at the combustion group level confirm this result but suggest that apportioning airborne PM to these sources may require a more comprehensive use of the chemical emissions fingerprints. Hierarchical clustering of source test observations using molecular markers indicates agricultural fuels as distinct from other types of biomass combustion or biomass species. Rough approximations of the total potential PM 2.5 emissions outputs from the combustion of the wheat and rice

  4. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in China's agriculture: from farm production to food consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Qian; Cheng, Kun; Pan, Genxing

    2016-04-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture could be mitigated from both supple side and demand side. Assessing carbon footprint (CF) of agricultural production and food consumption could provide insights into the contribution of agriculture to climate change and help to identify possible GHG mitigation options. In the present study, CF of China's agricultural production was firstly assessed from site scale to national scale, and from crop production to livestock production. Data for the crop and livestock production were collected from field survey and national statistical archive, and both life cycle assessment and input-output method were employed in the estimations. In general, CF of crop production was lower than that of livestock production on average. Rice production ranked the highest CF in crop production, and the highest CFs of livestock production were observed in mutton and beef production. Methane emissions from rice paddy, emissions from fertilizer application and water irrigation exerted the largest contribution of more than 50% for CF of crop production; however, emissions from forage feeding, enteric fermentation and manure treatment made the most proportion of more than 90 % for CF of livestock production. In China, carbon efficiency was shown in a decreasing trend in recent years. According to the present study, overuse of nitrogen fertilizer caused no yield effect but significant emissions in some sites and regions of China, and aggregated farms lowered the CFs of crop production and livestock production by 3% to 25% and 6% to 60% respectively compared to household farms. Given these, improving farming management efficiency and farm intensive development is the key strategy to mitigate climate change from supply side. However, changes in food consumption may reduce GHG emissions in the production chain through a switch to the consumption of food with higher GHG emissions in the production process to food with lower GHG emissions. Thus, CFs

  5. Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on agriculture describes how climate change will affect primary agriculture production in Canada with particular focus on potential adaptation options, and vulnerability of agriculture at the farm level. Agriculture is a vital part of the Canadian economy, although only 7 per cent of Canada's land mass is used for agricultural purposes due to the limitations of climate and soils. Most parts of Canada are expected to experience warmer conditions, longer frost-free seasons and increased evapotranspiration. The impacts of these changes on agriculture will vary depending on precipitation changes, soil conditions, and land use. Northern regions may benefit from longer farming seasons, but poor soil conditions will limit the northward expansion of agricultural crops. Some of the negative impacts associated with climate change on agriculture include increased droughts, changes in pest and pathogen outbreaks, and moisture stress. In general, it is expected that the positive and negative impacts of climate change would offset each other. 74 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  6. The Scope for Reducing Emissions from Forestry and Agriculture in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Wunder

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Reducing emissions from agriculture, forestry, and other land uses is considered an essential ingredient of an effective strategy to mitigate global warming. Required changes in land use and forestry, however, often imply foregoing returns from locally more attractive resource use strategies. We assess and compare the prospects of mitigating climate change through emission reductions from forestry and agriculture in the Brazilian Amazon. We use official statistics, literature, and case study material from both old and new colonization frontiers to identify the scope for emission reductions, in terms of potential additionality, opportunity costs, technological complexity, transaction costs, and risks of economic and environmental spillover effects. Our findings point to a comparative advantage in the Brazilian Amazon of forest conservation-based over land-use modifying mitigation options, especially in terms of higher potential additionality in emission reductions. Low-cost mitigation options do exist also in use-modifying agriculture and forestry, but tend to be technologically complex thus requiring more costly intervention schemes. Our review points to a series of regional development deficits that may come to hamper attempts to tap into the large-scale climate change mitigation potential often associated with the Amazon. Low-hanging fruits for mitigation do exist, but must be carefully identified based on the performance indicators we discuss.

  7. Emission Scenarios for Methane and Nitrous Oxides from the Agricultural Sector in the EU-25

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeglund-Isaksson, L.; W. Winiwarter; Z. Klimont; I. Bertok

    2006-01-01

    This report presents three emission scenarios of non-CO2 greenhouse gases from the agricultural sector of the EU-25 until 2020. These scenarios explore the likely implications of changes in agricultural production due to the - implementations of the EU Agenda 2000 CAP Reform of 1999 and the EU Nitrates Directive of 1991 (as used for the analyses of the EU Clean Air for Europe (CAFE) programme), - the implementation of the 2003 Mid-term review of the CAP reform and from anticipated i...

  8. Role of relative myocardial perfusion reserve for evaluating stenosis severity in patients with single-vessel coronary artery disease using [13N] ammonia and positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A statistically significant correlation was observed between the severity of anatomic stenosis and coronary flow reserve in experimental animals. A similar correlation in human coronary artery disease (CAD) was shown using positron emission tomography (PET) and pharmacologic vasodilator stress. The present study tested whether the concept of relative myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR) might be superior to absolute MPR in correlating coronary stenosis determined by quantitative coronary arteriography in patients with single vessel CAD using [13N] ammonia and PET. The study group comprised 21 patients (62±10 years old; 15 men, 6 women) with normal left ventricular function who underwent angioplasty for isolated left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis. Absolute MPR, the ratio of dipyridamole-induced hyperemic blood flow to baseline blood flow by [13N] ammonia PET, and relative MPR, the ratio of MPR in regions supplied by stenosed coronary arteries to MPR in remote regions, were measured before and 3 months after angioplasty. The percent diameter stenosis was also quantified on coronary arteriograms just before the angioplasty and again at 3 months after. The study found that absolute MPR (r=0.755; p13N] ammonia PET more accurately and specifically describes stenosis severity in patients with CAD compared with absolute MPR, probably because of its independence from hemodynamic variations and the effects of coronary risk factors. (author)

  9. Mitigation of agriculture emissions in the tropics: comparing forest land-sparing options at the national level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Carter

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Emissions from agriculture-driven deforestation are of global concern, but forest land-sparing interventions such as agricultural intensification and utilization of available land offer opportunities for mitigation. In many tropical countries, where agriculture is the major driver of deforestation, interventions in the agriculture sector can reduce deforestation emissions as well as reducing emissions in the agriculture sector. Our study uses a novel approach to quantify agriculture-driven deforestation and associated emissions in the tropics. Emissions from agriculture-driven deforestation in the tropics between 2000 and 2010 are 4.3 Gt CO2 eq yr−1 (97 countries. We investigate the national potential to mitigate these emissions through forest land-sparing interventions, which can potentially be implemented under REDD+. We consider intensification, and utilization of available non-forested land as forest land-sparing opportunities since they avoid the expansion of agriculture into forested land. In addition, we assess the potential to reduce agriculture emissions on existing agriculture land, interventions that fall under climate-smart agriculture (CSA. The use of a systematic framework demonstrates the selection of mitigation interventions by considering sequentially the level of emissions, mitigation potential of various interventions, enabling environment and associated risks to livelihoods at the national level. Our results show that considering only countries with high emissions from agriculture-driven deforestation, where there is a potential for forest-sparing interventions, and where there is a good enabling environment (e.g. effective governance or engagement in REDD+, the potential to mitigate is 1.3 Gt CO2 eq yr−1 (20 countries of 78 with sufficient data. For countries where we identify agriculture emissions as priority for mitigation, up to 1 Gt CO2 eq yr−1 could be reduced from the agriculture sector including livestock. Risks

  10. Climate change impacts on agriculture in 2050 under a range of plausible socioeconomic and emissions scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies have combined climate, crop and economic models to examine the impact of climate change on agricultural production and food security, but results have varied widely due to differences in models, scenarios and input data. Recent work has examined (and narrowed) these differences through systematic model intercomparison using a high-emissions pathway to highlight the differences. This paper extends that analysis to explore a range of plausible socioeconomic scenarios and emission pathways. Results from multiple climate and economic models are combined to examine the global and regional impacts of climate change on agricultural yields, area, production, consumption, prices and trade for coarse grains, rice, wheat, oilseeds and sugar crops to 2050. We find that climate impacts on global average yields, area, production and consumption are similar across shared socioeconomic pathways (SSP 1, 2 and 3, as we implement them based on population, income and productivity drivers), except when changes in trade policies are included. Impacts on trade and prices are higher for SSP 3 than SSP 2, and higher for SSP 2 than for SSP 1. Climate impacts for all variables are similar across low to moderate emissions pathways (RCP 4.5 and RCP 6.0), but increase for a higher emissions pathway (RCP 8.5). It is important to note that these global averages may hide regional variations. Projected reductions in agricultural yields due to climate change by 2050 are larger for some crops than those estimated for the past half century, but smaller than projected increases to 2050 due to rising demand and intrinsic productivity growth. Results illustrate the sensitivity of climate change impacts to differences in socioeconomic and emissions pathways. Yield impacts increase at high emissions levels and vary with changes in population, income and technology, but are reduced in all cases by endogenous changes in prices and other variables. (paper)

  11. Application effects of coated urea and urease and nitrification inhibitors on ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from a subtropical cotton field of the Mississippi delta region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization affects both ammonia (NH3) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that have implications in air quality and global warming potential. Different cropping systems practice varying N fertilizations. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of applications of polymer-coated urea and urea treated with N process inhibitors: NBPT [N-(n-butyl)thiophosphoric triamide], urease inhibitor, and DCD [Dicyandiamide], nitrification inhibitor, on NH3 and GHG emissions from a cotton production system in the Mississippi delta region. A two-year field experiment consisting of five treatments including the Check (unfertilized), urea, polymer-coated urea (ESN), urea + NBPT, and urea + DCD was conducted over 2013 and 2014 in a Cancienne loam (Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, nonacid, hyperthermic Fluvaquentic Epiaquepts). Ammonia and GHG samples were collected using active and passive chamber methods, respectively, and characterized. The results showed that the N loss to the atmosphere following urea-N application was dominated by a significantly higher emission of N2O-N than NH3-N and the most N2O-N and NH3-N emissions were during the first 30–50 days. Among different N treatments compared to regular urea, NBPT was the most effective in reducing NH3-N volatilization (by 58–63%), whereas DCD the most significant in mitigating N2O-N emissions (by 75%). Polymer-coated urea (ESN) and NBPT also significantly reduced N2O-N losses (both by 52%) over urea. The emission factors (EFs) for urea, ESN, urea-NBPT, urea + DCD were 1.9%, 1.0%, 0.2%, 0.8% for NH3-N, and 8.3%, 3.4%, 3.9%, 1.0% for N2O-N, respectively. There were no significant effects of different N treatments on CO2-C and CH4-C fluxes. Overall both of these N stabilizers and polymer-coated urea could be used as a mitigation strategy for reducing N2O emission while urease inhibitor NBPT for reducing NH3 emission in the subtropical cotton production system of the Mississippi delta region. - Highlights

  12. Tendency in the Greenhouse Gas (GHG emissions attributable to the Agriculture subsector in Togo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokou SABI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse effect, which contributes to the climate warning, is a mechanism that occurs in the lower atmosphere because of the presence of Greenhouse Gas (GHGs. Its reinforcement by the emissions of anthropogenic greenhouse gases has harmful consequences on the climate. Togo, a developing country, contributes more to this reinforcement by the emissions related the socio-economic activities due to the Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU area. We carried out these inventories of Greenhouse Gas in accordance with the IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, version 2006, using CCNUCC software for the national inventories of GHGs. In 2004, basic year selected, based on the quality of the data, the Agriculture subsector emitted 2407.88 Gg CO2-e of direct GHGs (CH4, N2O and 252,72 Gg of GHGs precursors (NOx, CO. In Togo, these emissions have a tendency to increase passing the aggregated emissions from 2085.89 Gg CO2-e in 1990 to 2526.22 Gg CO2-e in 2008. The assessment of key categories of national emissions gave the priority to the biomass of cropland remaining cropland followed by biomass of forest land converted to cropland. These estimations will enable policy makers to take right decisions in matters of mitigation and adaptation and use them as baselines for calculations of carbon credits.

  13. Biogas in organic agriculture-effects on productivity, energy self-sufficiency and greenhouse gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pugesgaard, Siri; Olesen, Jørgen E; Jørgensen, Uffe;

    2014-01-01

    anaerobic digestion and biogas production were analyzed on a 1000 ha model farm with combined dairy and cash crop production, representing organic agriculture in Denmark. The effects on crop rotation, nitrogen flows and losses, yield, energy balance and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were evaluated for four...... production, but decreased when maize was used. Since part of the area was used for biogas production, the total output of foodstuffs from the farm was decreased. Effects on GHG emissions and net energy production were assessed by use of the whole-farm model FarmGHG. A positive farm energy balance was...

  14. Parameterisation of LCI/LCIA models of agricultural systems emissions under future pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cosme, Nuno Miguel Dias; Dijkman, Teunis Johannes; Birkved, Morten

    consequence of anthropogenic emissions is forecasted to increase the pressure on natural and semi-natural systems’ productivity through various mechanisms resulting in e.g. an increased frequency of severe weather events or loss of nutrients in soil. An aspect that both the increasing food demand and...... and protected areas for biodiversity, as well as land for bioenergy. Increasing agricultural yield may then be the best option. Accessible ways to rapidly ensure it consists of additional application of fertilisers and pesticides and an increase of their efficiency, while dealing with scarcity of...... systems, the greater the emissions and hence the impacts will be. This consequence will be illustrated by case studies describing how the impacts from fertilizer and pesticide use increase for such agricultural intensification and under future climatic circumstances. Models’ sensitivity to the varying...

  15. Evaluating greenhouse gas emissions inventories for agricultural burning using satellite observations of active fires

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Hsiao-Wen; Jin, Yufang; Giglio, Louis; Foley, Jonathan A.; Randerson, James T.

    2012-01-01

    Fires in agricultural ecosystems emit greenhouse gases and aerosols that influence climate on multiple spatial and temporal scales. Annex 1 countries of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), many of which ratified the Kyoto Protocol, are required to report emissions of CH4 and N2O from these fires annually. In this study, we evaluated several aspects of this reporting system, including the optimality of the crops targeted by the UNFCCC globally and within Annex 1...

  16. Combustible renewables and waste consumption, agriculture, CO2 emissions and economic growth in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Jebli, Mehdi; Ben Youssef, Slim

    2016-01-01

    This paper employs the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach and Granger causality tests to examine the dynamic causal links between per capita combustible renewables and waste (CRW) consumption, agricultural value added (AVA), carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and real gross domestic product (GDP) for the case of Brazil, spanning the period 1980-2011. The Fisher statistic of the Wald test confirms the existence of long-run cointegration between the considered variables. Short-run emp...

  17. Agricultural PM 10 emissions from cotton field disking in Las Cruces, NM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasumba, John; Holmén, Britt A.; Hiscox, April; Wang, Junming; Miller, David

    2011-03-01

    Various studies have shown a relationship between elevated levels of inhalable particulate matter (PM) and agricultural practices, especially in the vicinity of agricultural fields. Airborne particle concentrations and meteorological variables were measured during nine agricultural field events on a cotton field in Las Cruces, NM in March 2008. A variety of real-time and integrated PM 10 and total suspended particles (TSP) samplers were used during sampling. The field events were designed to measure particle concentrations at different heights, near (4 m) and far (20-100 m) from a disking tractor. Particle concentrations decreased with increasing distance from the ground for near-source disking events, whereas particle concentrations were almost independent of height for background events. Near-source disking event particle concentrations were 4-7 times higher than those for far-source disking and background events. Near-source disking events had PM 10 emission factors ranging from 78 to 239 mg m -2, while those for far-source disking events ranged from 8 to 89 mg m -2. PM 10 plume heights for near-source disking events were between 4 and 5.7 m, whereas those for far-source disking events were between 12 and 15 m. Meteorological variables were found to influence emission factors, with wind speed showing a nonlinear relationship with emission factors. No clear relationship was found between soil moisture content and emission factors probably because the range of soil moisture was small. Impactor data indicated 10-40% of the total mass of agricultural PM collected was less than 1 μm in diameter for the clay loam soil type. Vertical PM 10 concentration profiles showed maxima at sampling heights between 1 and 2 m above the ground.

  18. Performance and Emissions of Sunflower, Rapeseed, and Cottonseed Oils as Fuels in an Agricultural Tractor Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Athanasios Balafoutis; Spyros Fountas; Athanasios Natsis; George Papadakis

    2011-01-01

    A comparative experimental investigation was conducted to evaluate the performance and exhaust emissions of an agricultural tractor engine when fueled with sunflower oil, rapeseed oil, and cottonseed oil and their blends with diesel fuel (20/80, 40/60 and 70/30 volumetrically). Tests were also carried out with diesel fuel to be used as a reference point. Engine power, torque, BSFC, thermal efficiency, NOx and CO2 were recorded for each tested fuel. All vegetable oils resulted in normal operat...

  19. The contribution of Slovenian biogas plants to the reduction of agricultural sector green house emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana MARINŠEK LOGAR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is a source of emissions of the greenhouse gas methane into the environment. These emissions can be reduced by appropriate storage of animal slurry and manure, with proper fertilization and processing of organic agricultural waste into biogas, where methane is captured and used as an energy source. Biogas is a renewable source of energy that is produced by microbial anaerobic digestion in biogas plants. As a substrate in biogas plants using different types of organic biomass such as animal manure and slurry, crop residues, spoilt silage, waste from food processing industry and biodegradable industrial and municipal waste. Biogas can be used to produce heat and electricity or purified to biomethane as a fuel for vehicles. Digestate can be used as a high-quality fertilizer. Biogas as a renewable energy source represents a replacement for fossil fuels, thus reducing greenhouse gas emissions from fossil sources. The system of financial supports for electricity produced from biogas is applied in Slovenia. There were 24 operating biogas plants in Slovenia in year 2014. Slovenian biogas plants currently produce the majority of biogas from energy crops. As only the minority of biogas is produced from animal excrements we will primarily support the development of agricultural microbiogas plants that will use animal excrements and organic waste biomass from agri-food sector as substrates.

  20. Forest and grassland cover types reduce net greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baah-Acheamfour, Mark; Carlyle, Cameron N; Lim, Sang-Sun; Bork, Edward W; Chang, Scott X

    2016-11-15

    Western Canada's prairie region is extensively cultivated for agricultural production, which is a large source of greenhouse gas emissions. Agroforestry systems are common land uses across Canada, which integrate trees into the agricultural landscape and could play a substantial role in sequestering carbon and mitigating increases in atmospheric GHG concentrations. We measured soil CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes and the global warming potential of microbe-mediated net greenhouse gas emissions (GWPm) in forest and herbland (areas without trees) soils of three agroforestry systems (hedgerow, shelterbelt and silvopasture) over two growing seasons (May through September in 2013 and 2014). We measured greenhouse gas fluxes and environmental conditions at 36 agroforestry sites (12 sites for each system) located along a south-north oriented soil/climate gradient of increasing moisture availability in central Alberta, Canada. The temperature sensitivity of soil CO2 emissions was greater in herbland (4.4) than in forest (3.1), but was not different among agroforestry systems. Over the two seasons, forest soils had 3.4% greater CO2 emission, 36% higher CH4 uptake, and 66% lower N2O emission than adjacent herbland soils. Combining the CO2 equivalents of soil CH4 and N2O fluxes with the CO2 emitted via heterotrophic (microbial) respiration, forest soils had a smaller GWPm than herbland soils (68 and 89kgCO2ha(-1), respectively). While emissions of total CO2 were silvopasture>hedgerow>shelterbelt, soils under silvopasture had 5% lower heterotrophic respiration, 15% greater CH4 uptake, and 44% lower N2O emission as compared with the other two agroforestry systems. Overall, the GWPm of greenhouse gas emissions was greater in hedgerow (88) and shelterbelt (85) than in the silvopasture system (76kgCO2ha(-1)). High GWPm in the hedgerow and shelterbelt systems reflects the greater contribution from the monoculture annual crops within these systems. Opportunities exist for reducing soil

  1. Estimating the Impact of US Agriculture Subsidies on Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, G.; Martin, P. A.

    2006-12-01

    It has been proposed in the popular media that US agricultural subsidies contribute deleteriously to both the American diet and environment. In this view, subsidies render mostly corn-based, animal products and sweeteners artificically cheap, leading to enhanced consumption. Problems accompanying this structure mentioned include enhanced meat, fat and sugar consumption and the associated enhancement of obesity, cardiovascular diseases, type II diabetes and possible various types of cancer, as well as air, soil and water pollution. Often overlooked in these discussions is the potential enhancement of greenhouse gas emissions accompanying this policy-based steering of food consumption toward certain products at the expense of others, possibly more nutritionally and environmentally benign. If such enhancements are in fact borne out by data, the policies that give rise to them will prove to constitute government-sponsored enhancement of greenhouse gas emissions, in contrast to any climate change mitigation efforts. If so, they represent low- hanging fruits in the national effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions which may one day be launched. Agriculture subsidies impact the emissions of CO2 (by direct energy consumption), nitrous oxide (by land use alteration and manure management), and methane (by ruminant digestion and manure treatment). Quantifying the impacts of agricultural subsidies is complicated by many compounding and conflicting effects (many related to human behavior rather than the natural sciences) and the relatively short data timeseries. For example, subsidy policies change over time, certain subsidy types are introduced or eliminated, food preferences change as nutritional understanding (or propaganda) shift, etc. Despite the difficulties, such quantification is crucial to better estimate the overall effect and variability of dietary choices on greenhouse gas emissions, and ultimately minimize environmental impacts. In this study, we take preliminary

  2. Evaluating Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting Systems for Agricultural Waste Burning Using MODIS Active Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, H.; Jin, Y.; Giglio, L.; Foley, J. A.; Randerson, J. T.

    2010-12-01

    Fires in agricultural ecosystems emit greenhouse gases and aerosols that influence climate on multiple spatial and temporal scales. Annex 1 countries of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), many of which ratified the Kyoto Protocol, are required to report emissions of CO2, CH4 and N2O from these fires annually. We evaluated several aspects of this reporting system, including the optimality of the crops targeted by the UNFCCC globally and within Annex 1 countries and the consistency of emissions reporting among countries. We also evaluated the success of the individual countries in capturing interannual variability and long-term trends in agricultural fire activity. We combined global crop maps with Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) active fire detections. At a global scale, we recommend adding ground nuts, cocoa, cotton and oil palm, and removing potato, oats, pulse other and rye from the UNFCCC list of 14 crops. This leads to an overall increase of 6% of the active fires covered by the reporting system. Optimization led to a different recommended list for Annex 1 countries. Extending emissions reporting to all Annex 1 countries (from the current set of 19 countries) would increase the efficacy of the reporting system from 10% to 20%, and further including several non-Annex 1 countries (Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Thailand, Kazakhstan, Mexico and Nigeria) would capture over 58% of active fires in croplands worldwide. Analyses of interannual trends from the U.S. and Australia showed the importance of both intensity of fire use and crop production in controlling year-to-year variations in agricultural fire emissions. Remote sensing provides an efficient tool for an independent assessment of current UNFCCC emissions reporting system; and, if combined with census data, field experiments and expert opinion, has the potential for improving the robustness of the next generation inventory

  3. No tillage and liming reduce greenhouse gas emissions from poorly drained agricultural soils in Mediterranean regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Marco, Sonia; Abalos, Diego; Espejo, Rafael; Vallejo, Antonio; Mariscal-Sancho, Ignacio

    2016-10-01

    No tillage (NT) has been associated to increased N2O emission from poorly drained agricultural soils. This is the case for soils with a low permeable Bt horizon, which generates a perched water layer after water addition (via rainfall or irrigation) over a long period of time. Moreover, these soils often have problems of acidity and require liming application to sustain crop productivity; changes in soil pH have large implications for the production and consumption of soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Here, we assessed in a split-plot design the individual and interactive effects of tillage practices (conventional tillage (CT) vs. NT) and liming (Ca-amendment vs. not-amendment) on N2O and CH4 emissions from poorly drained acidic soils, over a field experiment with a rainfed triticale crop. Soil mineral N concentrations, pH, temperature, moisture, water soluble organic carbon, GHG fluxes and denitrification capacity were measured during the experiment. Tillage increased N2O emissions by 68% compared to NT and generally led to higher CH4 emissions; both effects were due to the higher soil moisture content under CT plots. Under CT, liming reduced N2O emissions by 61% whereas no effect was observed under NT. Under both CT and NT, CH4 oxidation was enhanced after liming application due to decreased Al(3+) toxicity. Based on our results, NT should be promoted as a means to improve soil physical properties and concurrently reduce N2O and CH4 emissions. Raising the soil pH via liming has positive effects on crop yield; here we show that it may also serve to mitigate CH4 emissions and, under CT, abate N2O emissions. PMID:27235901

  4. Biochar suppression of N2O emissions from an agricultural soil: effects and potential mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, S. D. C.; Whitaker, J.; McNamara, N. P.; Reay, D. S.

    2012-04-01

    Biochar is biomass that has been heated in a low-oxygen environment to between 350 and 800°C that is subsequently used as a soil amendment. As well as benefits to soil fertility, biochar has potential as a tool to mitigate climate change on a large scale due to its recalcitrance, high carbon content and observed effect of reducing soil greenhouse gas emissions. Previous studies have shown that biochar-amended soil may emit less nitrous oxide (N2O) than soil alone. Our aim was to investigate the effect of fresh, hardwood biochar on N2O emissions from a clay agricultural soil from Lincolnshire, United Kingdom with a combination of field and laboratory studies. We then investigated the mechanism to try to explain the observed suppression of N2O emissions with biochar. In biochar-amended field plots, quarterly greenhouse gas measurements over two years have recorded one occurrence of significant suppression of N2O emissions (80%), with other measurements showing generally low emissions of N2O across all treatments. In laboratory experiments, biochar suppressed N2O emissions following simulated rainfall events in a low-N agricultural soil (72 % suppression), in the same field-moist soil incubated with biochar in the field for 10 months (40 % suppression) and in a relatively high-N soil from a neighbouring field (83 % suppression). We hypothesised that biochar amendment may suppress soil N2O emissions by increasing the water holding capacity (WHC) of the soil, thus rendering the biochar-amended soil less anaerobic compared to control soil at the same gravimetric water content. Water was added to raise soil to the same WHC (87 %) with and without biochar at a range of addition rates. Biochar significantly suppressed N2O emissions with 5 % biochar addition by 67 % and 10 % biochar addition by 98 %. We concluded that the increased WHC of biochar-amended soil could not explain the suppression of N2O emissions. Subsequently, we formulated two hypotheses: (1) that biochar may

  5. The role of renewable energy and agriculture in reducing CO2 emissions: evidence for North Africa countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Jebli, Mehdi; Ben Youssef, Slim

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses panel cointegration techniques and Granger causality tests to investigate the dynamic causal links between per capita renewable energy consumption, agricultural value added (AVA), carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and real gross domestic product (GDP) for a panel of five North Africa countries spanning the period 1980-2011. In the short-run, the Granger causality tests show the existence of a bidirectional causality between CO2 emissions and agriculture, a unidirectional causali...

  6. Options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions during wastewater treatment for agricultural use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    might be exploited in the construction of new wastewater treatment facilities, especially in developing countries. - Highlights: ► Sewage treatment causes GHGs emissions from energy inputs, organic matter degradation and biological nutrient removal. ► Changes of treatment methods and extent can reduce direct on-site GHG emissions by up to 55%. ► Wastewater treatment and products' fertilizer value should accommodate intended agricultural reuse. ► Exploiting the wastewater derived GHG abatement potential would reduce the State of Israel overall GHG emissions by ≈1%.

  7. Managing agricultural emissions to the atmosphere: State of the science, fate and mitigation, and identifying research gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of agriculture on regional air quality creates significant challenges to sustainability of food supplies and to the quality of national resources. Agricultural emissions to the atmosphere can lead to many nuisances, such as smog, haze, or offensive odors. They can also create more seriou...

  8. Simulated carbon emissions from land-use change are substantially enhanced by accounting for agricultural management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is over three decades since a large terrestrial carbon sink (ST) was first reported. The magnitude of the net sink is now relatively well known, and its importance for dampening atmospheric CO2 accumulation, and hence climate change, widely recognised. But the contributions of underlying processes are not well defined, particularly the role of emissions from land-use change (ELUC) versus the biospheric carbon uptake (SL; ST = SL − ELUC). One key aspect of the interplay of ELUC and SL is the role of agricultural processes in land-use change emissions, which has not yet been clearly quantified at the global scale. Here we assess the effect of representing agricultural land management in a dynamic global vegetation model. Accounting for harvest, grazing and tillage resulted in cumulative ELUC since 1850 ca. 70% larger than in simulations ignoring these processes, but also changed the timescale over which these emissions occurred and led to underestimations of the carbon sequestered by possible future reforestation actions. The vast majority of Earth system models in the recent IPCC Fifth Assessment Report omit these processes, suggesting either an overestimation in their present-day ST, or an underestimation of SL, of up to 1.0 Pg C a−1. Management processes influencing crop productivity per se are important for food supply, but were found to have little influence on ELUC. (letter)

  9. Simulated carbon emissions from land-use change are substantially enhanced by accounting for agricultural management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, T. A. M.; Arneth, A.; Olin, S.; Ahlström, A.; Bayer, A. D.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Lindeskog, M.; Schurgers, G.

    2015-12-01

    It is over three decades since a large terrestrial carbon sink (S T) was first reported. The magnitude of the net sink is now relatively well known, and its importance for dampening atmospheric CO2 accumulation, and hence climate change, widely recognised. But the contributions of underlying processes are not well defined, particularly the role of emissions from land-use change (E LUC) versus the biospheric carbon uptake (S L; S T = S L - E LUC). One key aspect of the interplay of E LUC and S L is the role of agricultural processes in land-use change emissions, which has not yet been clearly quantified at the global scale. Here we assess the effect of representing agricultural land management in a dynamic global vegetation model. Accounting for harvest, grazing and tillage resulted in cumulative E LUC since 1850 ca. 70% larger than in simulations ignoring these processes, but also changed the timescale over which these emissions occurred and led to underestimations of the carbon sequestered by possible future reforestation actions. The vast majority of Earth system models in the recent IPCC Fifth Assessment Report omit these processes, suggesting either an overestimation in their present-day S T, or an underestimation of S L, of up to 1.0 Pg C a-1. Management processes influencing crop productivity per se are important for food supply, but were found to have little influence on E LUC.

  10. Effects of fossil diesel and biodiesel blends on the performances and emissions of agricultural tractor engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić Milan D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid growth in the energy consumption has conditioned the need for discovering the alternative energy resources which would be adapted to the existing engine constructions and which would satisfy the additional criteria related to the renewability, ecology and reliability of use. Introduction of biodiesel has been the focus of attention over the last ten years. The aim of this research is to investigate the influence of biodiesel on the performances and exhaust gas emissions of medium power agricultural tractor engines (37-66 kW. The reason for the selection of this category is that those types of tractors are most frequently used in agriculture. In this research biodiesel produced from sunflower oil was blended with fossil diesel. Biodiesel, fossil diesel and fossil diesel blends with 15, 25, 50 and 75%v/v biodiesel were tested for their influence on the engine performances and emissions. The testing was performed on a four-cylinder diesel engine with 48 kW rated power. The experimental research on the engine performances was conducted in compliance with OECD test CODE 2, and the exhaust gas emissions were tested according to the ISO 8178-4, C1. The use of biodiesel and fossil diesel blends reduced the engine power with the increase of biodiesel share in the blend. However, the exception was the blend with 15%v/v biodiesel which induced a slight increase in the engine power. Depending on the share of biodiesel in the blend all blends fuels showed increased specific fuel consumption compared to the fossil diesel. Thermal efficiency increased as a result of more complete combustion of biodiesel and fossil diesel blends. The exhaust gas emissions implied that the addition of biodiesel reduced the content of CO2 and CO, as well as the temperature of exhaust gases, but it increased the emission of NOx.

  11. China’s water–energy nexus: greenhouse-gas emissions from groundwater use for agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China is the world’s largest emitter of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and the agricultural sector in China is responsible for 17–20% of annual emissions and 62% of total freshwater use. Groundwater abstraction in China has increased rapidly from 10 km3 yr−1 in the 1950s to more than 100 km3 yr−1 in the 2000s, such that roughly 70% of the irrigated area in northern China is now groundwater-fed. Pumping of water for irrigation is one of the most energy consuming on-farm processes; however, to date this source of GHG emissions in China and elsewhere has been relatively neglected. We derive the first detailed estimate of GHG emissions from groundwater pumping for irrigation in China, using extensive village survey data from 11 provinces, broadly representative of the situation during the mid-2000s. The 11 provinces cover roughly half of China’s irrigated cropland and we upscale to the national level using government statistics for the remaining 20 provinces. Our results show emissions of 33.1 MtCO2e, just over half a per cent of the national total. Groundwater abstraction represents an important source of GHG emissions that has been rapidly increasing and which at present is largely unregulated. Water scarcity in China is already driving policies to improve water conservation. These results suggest that significant potential exists to promote the co-benefits of water and energy saving in order to meet national planning targets. (letter)

  12. Green house gas emissions from open field burning of agricultural residues in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, S; Shrivastava, Rajnish; Saxena, Mohini

    2010-10-01

    In India, about 435.98 MMT of agro-residues are produced every year, out of which 313.62 MMT are surplus. These residues are either partially utilized or un-utilised due to various constraints. To pave the way for subsequent season for agriculture activity, the excess crop residues are burnt openly in the fields, unmindful of their ill effects on the environment. The present study has been undertaken to evaluate the severity of air pollution through emission of green house gases (GHGs) due to open field burning of agro-residues in India. Open field burning of surplus agro-residues in India results in the emission of GHG. Emissions of CH4 and N2O in 1997-98 and 2006-07 have been 3.73 and 4.06 MMT CO2 equivalent, which is an increase of 8.88% over a decade. About three-fourths of GHG emissions from agro-residues burning were CH4 and the remaining one-fourth were N2O. Burning of wheat and paddy straws alone contributes to about 42% of GHGs. These GHG emissions can be avoided once the agro-residues are employed for sustainable, cost-effective and environment- friendly options like power generation. PMID:22312795

  13. Effects of crop residue returning on nitrous oxide emissions in agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Jun; Yan, Xiaoyuan

    2013-06-01

    Crop residue returning is a common practice in agricultural system that consequently influences nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Much attention has been focused on the effects of crop residue on N2O release. However, no systematic result has yet been drawn because environmental factors among different studies vary. A meta-analysis was described to integrate 112 scientific assessments of crop residue returning on N2O emissions in this study. Results showed that crop residue returning, when averaged across all studies, had no statistically significant effect on N2O release compared with control treatments. However, the range of effects of crop residue returning on N2O emission was significantly affected by synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer application, type of crop residue, specific manner in which crop residue has returned, and type of land-use. N2O release was significantly inhibited by 11.7% and 27.1% (P fertilizer and when type of land-use was paddy, respectively. While N2O emissions were significantly enhanced by 42.1% and 23.5% (P release at regional scale, and underlining that the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change guidelines should take the opposite effects of crop residue returning on upland and paddy into account when estimating the N2O emission factor of crop residue for different land-use types. Given that most of data are dominated by certain types of crop residue and specific application methods, more field data are required to reduce uncertainty.

  14. Elemental analysis of agricultural soil samples by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In agriculture, elements essential to vital processes are also called nutrients. A suitable and reliable particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) methodology for content determination of essential nutrients in soil samples was developed and its effectiveness proved. The PIXE method is applied to intermediate thickness samples, whose mass per area unit are smaller than 1 μg/cm2. Precision and accuracy of the method was estimated after repeated measurements of a single reference material: CRM PACS-2 (estuarine sediment) with a matrix quite similar to the soil samples measured. This paper reports the results of elemental measurements in soil samples. A discussion of agricultural soil sample preparation for PIXE analysis is also presented

  15. Emissions of ammonia, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide from swine wastewater during and after acidification treatment: effect of pH, mixing and aeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Xiao-Rong; Blanes-Vidal, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the effect of swine slurry acidification and acidification-aeration treatments on ammonia (NH(3)), carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) emissions during slurry treatment and subsequent undisturbed storage. The study was conducted in an experimental...... setup consisting of nine dynamic flux chambers. Three pH levels (pH = 6.0, pH = 5.8 and pH = 5.5), combined with short-term aeration and venting (with an inert gas) treatments were studied. Acidification reduced average NH(3) emissions from swine slurry stored after acidification treatment compared to...... emissions during storage of non-acidified slurry. The reduction were 50%, 62% and 77% when pH was reduce to 6.0, 5.8 and 5.5, respectively. However, it had no significant effect on average CO(2) and H(2)S emissions during storage of slurry after acidification. Aeration of the slurry for 30 min had no effect...

  16. Designing bioenergy crop buffers to mitigate nitrous oxide emissions and water quality impacts from agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, G.; Negri, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    There is a strong societal need to evaluate and understand the environmental aspects of bioenergy production, especially due to the significant increases in production mandated by many countries, including the United States. Bioenergy is a land-based renewable resource and increases in production are likely to result in large-scale conversion of land from current uses to bioenergy crop production; potentially causing increases in the prices of food, land and agricultural commodities as well as disruption of ecosystems. Current research on the environmental sustainability of bioenergy has largely focused on the potential of bioenergy crops to sequester carbon and mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and possible impacts on water quality and quantity. A key assumption in these studies is that bioenergy crops will be grown in a manner similar to current agricultural crops such as corn and hence would affect the environment similarly. This study presents a systems approach where the agricultural, energy and environmental sectors are considered as components of a single system, and bioenergy crops are used to design multi-functional agricultural landscapes that meet society’s requirements for food, energy and environmental protection. We evaluate the production of bioenergy crop buffers on marginal land and using degraded water and discuss the potential for growing cellulosic bioenergy crops such as miscanthus and switchgrass in optimized systems such that (1) marginal land is brought into productive use; (2) impaired water is used to boost yields (3); clean freshwater is left for other uses that require higher water quality; and (4) feedstock diversification is achieved that helps ecological sustainability, biodiversity, and economic opportunities for farmers. The process-based biogeochemical model DNDC was used to simulate crop yield, nitrous oxide production and nitrate concentrations in groundwater when bioenergy crops were grown in buffer strips adjacent to

  17. Mitigating Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Agricultural Landscape: The Role of Isotopic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Mohammad; Nguyen, Minh Long

    2014-05-01

    A review of studies from agricultural landscapes indicate that intensification of agricultural activities, inefficient use of reactive nitrogen (N) fertilizers and irrigation water, increasing human population and changes in their diet (more protein demand), high stocking rate (number of grazing livestock per hectare) and intensive cultivation are the major influencing factors for nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions into the atmosphere. Nitrification (both autotrophic and heterotrophic), denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) are the three major microbial processes that produce greenhouse N2O and non-greenhouse gas (N2) and can sometimes occur concurrently in a given soil system. The contribution of N2O production from each of these microbial processes is inconclusive because of the complex interactions between various microbial processes and the physical and chemical conditions in soil microsite (s). Nitrous oxide emissions across an agricultural landscape from different N inputs (chemical fertilizers and animal manure) and soil types are also extremely variable both temporally and spatially and range from 1-20% of the applied N and could therefore represent agronomic loss. The available conventional methods such as acetylene (C2H2) inhibition and helium (He) cannot accurately measure both N2O and N2 and their ratio in a given soil. The use of 15N stable isotopic technique offers the best option to measure both N2O and N2 and to identify their source (nitrification and denitrification) with a greater accuracy. Manipulating soil and fertilizer management practices can minimise these gaseous N losses. For example the combined use of urease inhibitor like (N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (nBTPT) (trade name Agrotain®) and nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) with urea (100 kg N ha-1) or animal urine (600 kg N ha-1) was shown to reduce N losses by 39-53 % via denitrification-nitrification-DNRA processes. Other farm management

  18. Overcoming the risk of inaction from emissions uncertainty in smallholder agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, N. J.; Ryan, C. M.

    2013-03-01

    The potential for improving productivity and increasing the resilience of smallholder agriculture, while also contributing to climate change mitigation, has recently received considerable political attention (Beddington et al 2012). Financial support for improving smallholder agriculture could come from performance-based funding including sale of carbon credits or certified commodities, payments for ecosystem services, and nationally appropriate mitigation action (NAMA) budgets, as well as more traditional sources of development and environment finance. Monitoring the greenhouse gas fluxes associated with changes to agricultural practice is needed for performance-based mitigation funding, and efforts are underway to develop tools to quantify mitigation achieved and assess trade-offs and synergies between mitigation and other livelihood and environmental priorities (Olander 2012). High levels of small scale variability in carbon stocks and emissions in smallholder agricultural systems (Ziegler et al 2012) mean that data intensive approaches are needed for precise and unbiased mitigation monitoring. The cost of implementing such monitoring programmes is likely to be high, and this introduces the risk that projects will not be developed in areas where there is the greatest need for agricultural improvements, which are likely to correspond with areas where existing data or research infrastructure are lacking. When improvements to livelihoods and food security are expected as co-benefits of performance-based mitigation finance, the risk of inaction is borne by the rural poor as well as the global climate. In situ measurement of carbon accumulation in smallholders' soils are not usually feasible because of the costs associated with sampling in a heterogeneous landscape, although technological advances could improve the situation (Milori et al 2012). Alternatives to in situ measurement are to estimate greenhouse gas fluxes by extrapolating information from existing

  19. Evaluating greenhouse gas emissions inventories for agricultural burning using satellite observations of active fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsiao-Wen; Jin, Yufang; Giglio, Louis; Foley, Jonathan A; Randerson, James T

    2012-06-01

    Fires in agricultural ecosystems emit greenhouse gases and aerosols that influence climate on multiple spatial and temporal scales. Annex 1 countries of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), many of which ratified the Kyoto Protocol, are required to report emissions of CH4 and N2O from these fires annually. In this study, we evaluated several aspects of this reporting system, including the optimality of the crops targeted by the UNFCCC globally and within Annex 1 countries, and the consistency of emissions inventories among different countries. We also evaluated the success of individual countries in capturing interannual variability and long-term trends in agricultural fire activity. In our approach, we combined global high-resolution maps of crop harvest area and production, derived from satellite maps and ground-based census data, with Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements of active fires. At a global scale, we found that adding ground nuts (e.g., peanuts), cocoa, cotton and oil palm, and removing potato, oats, rye, and pulse other from the list of 14 crops targeted by the UNFCCC increased the percentage of active fires covered by the reporting system by 9%. Optimization led to a different recommended list for Annex 1 countries, requiring the addition of sunflower, cotton, rapeseed, and alfalfa and the removal of beans, sugarcane, pulse others, and tuber-root others. Extending emissions reporting to all Annex 1 countries (from the current set of 19 countries) would increase the efficacy of the reporting system from 6% to 15%, and further including several non-Annex 1 countries (Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Thailand, Kazakhstan, Mexico, and Nigeria) would capture over 55% of active fires in croplands worldwide. Analyses of interannual trends from the United States and Australia showed the importance of both intensity of fire use and crop production in controlling year

  20. Influence of Biopolym Granulat effects on reductionof ammonia concentration in stables of intensive farm animals breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohuslav Čermák

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The living environment distress is connected currently not only with industrial production but also agriculture is biggest producer of toxic gas – ammonia (NH3 .Emissions of that gas originate mainly in the farm animals breeding and generate within storage and handling with farmyard manure, slurry, poultry excrements and litter. Agriculture influences considerably landscape. has impact on basic effect on soil, water and air. In assessing experiment the preparation Biopolym Granulat rumen metabolism and N-balance was found positive effects in terms of increased ammonia nitrogen, the number of ciliates and the reduction of N-compounds in feces. Confirmed the impact on the ammonia content in well-ventilated dairy stable. The economic evaluation depends on the exercise price of milk.

  1. Assessment of the impact of various mitigation options on nitrous oxide emissions caused by the agricultural sector in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kros, J.; Vries, de W.; Reinds, G.J.; Lesschen, J.P.; Velthof, G.L.

    2010-01-01

    A European Union (EU-27) wide N2O emission estimate for the agricultural sector is presented, using the INTEGRATOR model, combined with detailed GIS-based environmental data and farming data. INTEGRATOR links various modules, calculating NH3, NOx, N2O, CO2, and CH4 emissions from housing and manure

  2. Experimental analysis of CO₂ emissions from agricultural soils subjected to five different tillage systems in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buragienė, Sidona; Šarauskis, Egidijus; Romaneckas, Kęstutis; Sasnauskienė, Jurgita; Masilionytė, Laura; Kriaučiūnienė, Zita

    2015-05-01

    Intensive agricultural production strongly influences the global processes that determine climate change. Thus, tillage can play a very important role in climate change. The intensity of soil carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions, which contribute to the greenhouse effect, can vary depending on the following factors: the tillage system used, meteorological conditions (which vary in different regions of the world), soil properties, plant residue characteristics and other factors. The main purpose of this research was to analyse and assess the effects of autumn tillage systems with different intensities on CO₂ emissions from soils during different seasons and under the climatic conditions of Central Lithuania. The research was conducted at the Experimental Station of Aleksandras Stulginskis University from 2009 to 2012; and in 2014. The soils at the experimental site were classified as Eutric Endogleyic Planosol (Drainic). The investigations were conducted using five tillage systems with different intensities, typical of the Baltic Region. Deep conventional ploughing was performed at a depth of 230-250 mm, shallow ploughing was conducted at a depth of 120-150 mm, deep loosening was conducted at depths of 250-270 mm, and shallow loosening was conducted at depths of 120-150 mm. The fifth system was a no-tillage system. Overall, autumn tillage resulted in greater CO₂ emissions from the soil over both short- and long-term periods under the climatic conditions of Central Lithuania, regardless of the tillage system applied. The highest soil CO₂ emissions were observed for the conventional deep ploughing tillage system, and the lowest emissions were observed for the no-tillage system. The meteorological conditions greatly influenced the CO₂ emissions from the soil during the spring. Soil CO₂ emissions were enhanced as precipitation and the air and soil temperatures increased. Long-term investigations regarding the dynamics of CO₂ emissions from soils during the maize

  3. Quantitative measurement of regional myocardial blood flow in patients with coronary artery disease by intravenous injection of 13N-ammonia in positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of myocardial blood flow with 13N-ammonia, a technique previously employed successfully in animal experiments, was introduced into clinical use to study patients with coronary artery disease. This advance has become possible by the development of a high resolution gated scan positron emission tomographic (PET) scanner equipped with a real time decay correction mechanism, HEADTOME-IV. The information obtainable includes myocardial size and wall motion as well as the absolute quantity of blood flow in various myocardial regions. The technique is simple but requires continuous arterial blood withdrawal for calculation of the arterial input function time integral. The alternative to this technique, i.e. the computation of intra left ventricular blood pool activity by PET is also discussed. (orig.)

  4. N2O emissions from regional agricultural lands--A case study of Guizhou Province,southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To preliminarily study N2O emissions and the importance of environmental parameters on N2O flux from subtropical agroecosystem in China,N2O flux measurements were made at three cultivated agricultural lands in Guizhou Province,southwestern China.Based on the test and validation of daily N2O flux and its several associated variables between DNDC model and field measurements,DNDC model has been employed to estimate total N2O emissions from entire agricultural lands and its spatial distribution at county scale in Guizhou in 1995,and to assess the contributions of cropping practices on N2O emissions.

  5. N2O emissions from regional agricultural lands——A case study of Guizhou Province, southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文彬; 洪业汤; 陈旭晖; C.S.Li

    2000-01-01

    To preliminarily study N2O emissions and the importance of environmental parameters on N2O flux from subtropical agroecosystem in China, N2O flux measurements were made at three cultivated agricultural lands in Guizhou Province, southwestern China. Based on the test and validation of daily N2O flux and its several associated variables between DNDC model and field measurements, DNDC model has been employed to estimate total N2O emissions from entire agricultural lands and its spatial distribution at county scale in Guizhou in 1995, and to assess the contributions of cropping practices on N2O emissions.

  6. Producer and consumer responsibility for greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural production-a perspective from the Brazilian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaks, D P M; Barford, C C [Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment (SAGE), Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Wisconsin, 1710 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53726 (United States); Ramankutty, N [Department of Geography, McGill University, 805 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, QC, H3A 2K6 (Canada); Foley, J A, E-mail: zaks@wisc.ed [Institute on the Environment (IonE), University of Minnesota, 1954 Buford Avenue, St Paul, MN 55108 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Greenhouse gases from the combination of land use change and agriculture are responsible for the largest share of global emissions, but are inadequately considered in the current set of international climate policies. Under the Kyoto protocol, emissions generated in the production of agricultural commodities are the responsibility of the producing country, introducing potential inequities if agricultural products are exported. This study quantifies the greenhouse gas emissions from the production of soybeans and beef in the Amazon basin of Brazil, a region where rates of both deforestation and agricultural exports are high. Integrating methods from land use science and life-cycle analysis, and accounting for producer-consumer responsibility, we allocate emissions between Brazil and importing countries with an emphasis on ultimately reducing the greenhouse gas impact of food production. The mechanisms used to distribute the carbon emissions over time allocate the bulk of emissions to the years directly after the land use change occurred, and gradually decrease the carbon allocation to the agricultural products. The carbon liability embodied in soybeans exported from the Amazon between 1990 and 2006 was 128 TgCO{sub 2}e, while 120 TgCO{sub 2}e were embodied in exported beef. An equivalent carbon liability was assigned to Brazil for that time period.

  7. Producer and consumer responsibility for greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural production-a perspective from the Brazilian Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse gases from the combination of land use change and agriculture are responsible for the largest share of global emissions, but are inadequately considered in the current set of international climate policies. Under the Kyoto protocol, emissions generated in the production of agricultural commodities are the responsibility of the producing country, introducing potential inequities if agricultural products are exported. This study quantifies the greenhouse gas emissions from the production of soybeans and beef in the Amazon basin of Brazil, a region where rates of both deforestation and agricultural exports are high. Integrating methods from land use science and life-cycle analysis, and accounting for producer-consumer responsibility, we allocate emissions between Brazil and importing countries with an emphasis on ultimately reducing the greenhouse gas impact of food production. The mechanisms used to distribute the carbon emissions over time allocate the bulk of emissions to the years directly after the land use change occurred, and gradually decrease the carbon allocation to the agricultural products. The carbon liability embodied in soybeans exported from the Amazon between 1990 and 2006 was 128 TgCO2e, while 120 TgCO2e were embodied in exported beef. An equivalent carbon liability was assigned to Brazil for that time period.

  8. Producer and consumer responsibility for greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural production—a perspective from the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaks, D. P. M.; Barford, C. C.; Ramankutty, N.; Foley, J. A.

    2009-10-01

    Greenhouse gases from the combination of land use change and agriculture are responsible for the largest share of global emissions, but are inadequately considered in the current set of international climate policies. Under the Kyoto protocol, emissions generated in the production of agricultural commodities are the responsibility of the producing country, introducing potential inequities if agricultural products are exported. This study quantifies the greenhouse gas emissions from the production of soybeans and beef in the Amazon basin of Brazil, a region where rates of both deforestation and agricultural exports are high. Integrating methods from land use science and life-cycle analysis, and accounting for producer-consumer responsibility, we allocate emissions between Brazil and importing countries with an emphasis on ultimately reducing the greenhouse gas impact of food production. The mechanisms used to distribute the carbon emissions over time allocate the bulk of emissions to the years directly after the land use change occurred, and gradually decrease the carbon allocation to the agricultural products. The carbon liability embodied in soybeans exported from the Amazon between 1990 and 2006 was 128 TgCO2e, while 120 TgCO2e were embodied in exported beef. An equivalent carbon liability was assigned to Brazil for that time period.

  9. Carbon dioxide emissions from agricultural soils amended with livestock-derived organic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzolla, D.; Said-Pullicino, D.; Gigliotti, G.

    2009-04-01

    Carbon dioxide gas xchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, as well as the carbon sink strength of various arable land ecosystems, is of primary interest for global change research. Measures for increasing soil C inputs include the preferential use of livestock-derived organic materials (e.g. animal manure and slurries, digestate from biogas production plants and compost). The application of such materials to agricultural soils returns essential nutrients for plant growth and organic matter to maintain long-term fertility. Whether or not such practices ultimately result in sustained C sequestration at the ecosystem level will depend on their mineralization rates. This work presents preliminary results from a laboratory incubation trial to evaluate carbon dioxide fluxes from two agricultural soils (a calcareous silt loam and a silty clay loam) amended with agricultural doses of (i) pig slurry (PSL), (ii) the digestate from the anaerobic fermentation of pig slurries (AAS) and (ii) a compost from the aerobic stabilisation of the digestate (LDC). These subsequent steps of slurry stabilisation resulted in a decrease in the content of labile organic matter which was reflected in a reduction in maximum carbon dioxide emission rates from amended soils. Measurements have shown that peak emissions from soils occur immediately after application of these organic materials (within 5 days) and decrease in the order PSL > AAS > LDC. Moreover, mean cumulative emissions over the first 40 days showed that a higher percentage (about 44%) of the C added with PSL was mineralised respect to C added with AAS (39%) and LDC (25%). Although it was hypothesised that apart from the quantity and stability of the added organic materials, even soil characteristics could influence C mineralisation rates, no significant differences were observed between emission fluxes for similarly treated soils. Mean cumulative emission fluxes after 40 days from treatment were of 114, 103 and

  10. Fertilizer impact on biogenic nitric oxide emissions from agricultural soils of the Taklimakan desert (Xinjiang, China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fechner, A. D.; Behrendt, T.; Bruse, M.; Mamtimin, B.; Andreae, M. O.; Meixner, F. X.

    2012-04-01

    It is known that soil microbial processes play a crucial role in the production and consumption of atmospheric trace gases worldwide. Soils are mostly a major source of biogenic nitric oxide (NO). The main influencing factors controlling soil NO emissions are soil moisture, soil temperature, as well as nutrient availability. Adding fertilizer to agricultural soils changes the pool of nutrients and impacts the net NO emission from these soils. Irrigated and fertilized oases around the great Central Asian Taklamakan desert form the backbone of the agricultural output (80% of the Chinese cotton production) of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (NW-China). While nowadays 90% of the agricultural output is produced on just 4.3% of Xinjiang's total area, recent and future enlargement of farmland and intensification of agriculture will definitely impact the regional soil NO emission and consequently the budget of nitrogen oxides and ozone. We present a systematic laboratory study of the influence of urea (CH4N2O) and diammonium hydrogen phosphate ((NH4)2HPO4, DAP) fertilizer on NO emissions from Xinjiang soil samples. Urea is the most widely and excessively applied fertilizer in Xinjiang. Typically, about 600 kg ha-1 yr-1(in terms of mass of nitrogen) were applied to a cotton field in four separate events. In the laboratory, the fertilizer was applied accordingly, ranging from one quarter of the field amount within one of the four events (i.e. 37.5 kg ha-1 yr-1) to quadruple of that (150 kg ha-1 yr-1). Two different measurement series have been performed on six sub- samples (each out of a total of three soil samples taken in Xinjiang): the first series was conducted solely with urea fertilizer, the second one with a mixture of urea and DAP (2:1). All sub-samples were prepared in a standardized way: a fixed mass of soil (~0.06 kg, dried in field) was sieved (2 mm) and stored at 4° C. Then it was wetted up to a soil moisture tension of 1.8 pF. Subsequently, fertilizer was

  11. Application effects of coated urea and urease and nitrification inhibitors on ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from a subtropical cotton field of the Mississippi delta region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Zhou [College of Resources and Environment, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi (China); School of Plant, Environment & Soil Sciences, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Wang, Jim J., E-mail: jjwang@agcenter.lsu.edu [School of Plant, Environment & Soil Sciences, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Liu, Shuai [College of Resources and Environment, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi (China); School of Plant, Environment & Soil Sciences, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Zhang, Zengqiang, E-mail: zqzhang@nwsuaf.edu.cn [College of Resources and Environment, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi (China); Dodla, Syam K.; Myers, Gerald [School of Plant, Environment & Soil Sciences, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization affects both ammonia (NH{sub 3}) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that have implications in air quality and global warming potential. Different cropping systems practice varying N fertilizations. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of applications of polymer-coated urea and urea treated with N process inhibitors: NBPT [N-(n-butyl)thiophosphoric triamide], urease inhibitor, and DCD [Dicyandiamide], nitrification inhibitor, on NH{sub 3} and GHG emissions from a cotton production system in the Mississippi delta region. A two-year field experiment consisting of five treatments including the Check (unfertilized), urea, polymer-coated urea (ESN), urea + NBPT, and urea + DCD was conducted over 2013 and 2014 in a Cancienne loam (Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, nonacid, hyperthermic Fluvaquentic Epiaquepts). Ammonia and GHG samples were collected using active and passive chamber methods, respectively, and characterized. The results showed that the N loss to the atmosphere following urea-N application was dominated by a significantly higher emission of N{sub 2}O-N than NH{sub 3}-N and the most N{sub 2}O-N and NH{sub 3}-N emissions were during the first 30–50 days. Among different N treatments compared to regular urea, NBPT was the most effective in reducing NH{sub 3}-N volatilization (by 58–63%), whereas DCD the most significant in mitigating N{sub 2}O-N emissions (by 75%). Polymer-coated urea (ESN) and NBPT also significantly reduced N{sub 2}O-N losses (both by 52%) over urea. The emission factors (EFs) for urea, ESN, urea-NBPT, urea + DCD were 1.9%, 1.0%, 0.2%, 0.8% for NH{sub 3}-N, and 8.3%, 3.4%, 3.9%, 1.0% for N{sub 2}O-N, respectively. There were no significant effects of different N treatments on CO{sub 2}-C and CH{sub 4}-C fluxes. Overall both of these N stabilizers and polymer-coated urea could be used as a mitigation strategy for reducing N{sub 2}O emission while urease inhibitor NBPT for reducing NH{sub 3} emission

  12. The challenges of finding efficient policy measures to reduce Australia'’s agricultural greenhouse gas emissions

    OpenAIRE

    King, Helen

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive emissions trading scheme (ETS) is Australia'’s principal climate change policy instrument. There are undoubtedly benefits of full ETS coverage. However, if emissions that cannot be affordably, reasonably and accurately measured are included, these must be balanced against potential costs. This report explores why agriculture is different from other sectors. Agriculture’'s diffuse and diverse emissions are inherently difficult to measure. They also fluctuate in response to envi...

  13. Emission computed tomography of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose and 13N-ammonia in stroke and epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ECAT Positron Tomograph was used to scan normal control subjects, stroke patients at various times during recovery, and patients with partial epilepsy during EEG monitoring. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG) and 13N-Ammonia (13NH3) were used as indicators of abnormalities in local cerebral glucose utilization (LCMR/sub glc/) and relative perfusion, respectively. Hypometabolism, due to deactivation or minimal damage, was demonstrated with the 18FDG scan in deep structures and broad zones of cerebral cortex which appeared normal on x-ray CT (XCT) and /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate scans. In patients with partial epilepsy, who had unilateral or focal electrical abnormalities, interictal 18FDG scan patterns clearly showed localized regions of decreased (20 to 50%) LCMR/sub glc/, which correlated anatomically with the eventual EEG localization

  14. Farm nitrogen balances in six European agricultural landscapes – a method for farming system assessment, emission hotspot identification, and mitigation measure evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Theobald

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Six agricultural landscapes in Poland (PL, the Netherlands (NL, France (FR, Italy (IT, Scotland (UK and Denmark (DK were studied, and a common method was developed for undertaking farm inventories and the derivation of farm nitrogen (N balances and N surplus from the in total 222 farms and 11 440 ha of farmland. In all landscapes, a large variation in the farm N surplus was found, and thereby a large potential for reductions. The highest average N surpluses were found in the most livestock-intensive landscapes of IT, FR, and NL; on average 202 ± 28, 179 ± 63 and 178 ± 20 kg N ha−1yr−1, respectively. However, all landscapes showed hotspots, especially from livestock farms, including a special UK case with landless large-scale poultry farming. So, whereas the average N surplus from the land-based UK farms dominated by extensive sheep grazing was only 31 ± 10 kg N ha−1yr−1, the landscape average was similar to those of PL and DK (122 ± 20 and 146 ± 55 kg N ha−1yr−1, respectively when landless poultry were included. However, the challenge remains how to account for indirect N surpluses and emissions from such farms with a large export of manure out of the landscape. We conclude that farm N balances are a useful indicator for N losses and the potential for improving N management. Significant correlations to N surplus were found, both with ammonia air concentrations and nitrate levels in soils and groundwater, measured during the landscape data collection campaign from 2007–2009. This indicates that farm N surpluses may be used as an independent dataset for validation of measured and modelled N emissions in agricultural landscapes. However, no significant correlation was found to N measured in surface waters, probably because of the short time horizon of the study. A case study of the development in N surplus from the landscape in DK from 1998–2008 showed a 22 % reduction, related to statistically significant effects (p < 0.01 of

  15. Developments in greenhouse gas emissions and net energy use in Danish agriculture - How to achieve substantial CO{sub 2} reductions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalgaard, T., E-mail: tommy.dalgaard@agrsci.dk [Aarhus University, Department of Agroecology, Blichers Alle 20, P.O. Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele (Denmark); Olesen, J.E.; Petersen, S.O.; Petersen, B.M.; Jorgensen, U.; Kristensen, T.; Hutchings, N.J. [Aarhus University, Department of Agroecology, Blichers Alle 20, P.O. Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele (Denmark); Gyldenkaerne, S. [Aarhus University, National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Hermansen, J.E. [Aarhus University, Department of Agroecology, Blichers Alle 20, P.O. Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele (Denmark)

    2011-11-15

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture are a significant contributor to total Danish emissions. Consequently, much effort is currently given to the exploration of potential strategies to reduce agricultural emissions. This paper presents results from a study estimating agricultural GHG emissions in the form of methane, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide (including carbon sources and sinks, and the impact of energy consumption/bioenergy production) from Danish agriculture in the years 1990-2010. An analysis of possible measures to reduce the GHG emissions indicated that a 50-70% reduction of agricultural emissions by 2050 relative to 1990 is achievable, including mitigation measures in relation to the handling of manure and fertilisers, optimization of animal feeding, cropping practices, and land use changes with more organic farming, afforestation and energy crops. In addition, the bioenergy production may be increased significantly without reducing the food production, whereby Danish agriculture could achieve a positive energy balance. - Highlights: > GHG emissions from Danish agriculture 1990-2010 are calculated, including carbon sequestration. > Effects of measures to further reduce GHG emissions are listed. > Land use scenarios for a substantially reduced GHG emission by 2050 are presented. > A 50-70% reduction of agricultural emissions by 2050 relative to 1990 is achievable. > Via bioenergy production Danish agriculture could achieve a positive energy balance. - Scenario studies of greenhouse gas mitigation measures illustrate the possible realization of CO{sub 2} reductions for Danish agriculture by 2050, sustaining current food production.

  16. Climate, Health, Agricultural and Economic Impacts of Tighter Vehicle-Emission Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindell, Drew; Faluvegi, Greg; Walsh, Michael; Anenberg, Susan C.; VanDingen, Rita; Muller, Nicholas Z.; Austin, Jeff; Koch, Dorothy; Milly, George

    2011-01-01

    Non-CO2 air pollutants from motor vehicles have traditionally been controlled to protect air quality and health, but also affect climate. We use global composition climate modelling to examine the integrated impacts of adopting stringent European on-road vehicle-emission standards for these pollutants in 2015 in many developing countries. Relative to no extra controls, the tight standards lead to annual benefits in 2030 and beyond of 120,000-280,000 avoided premature air pollution-related deaths, 6.1-19.7 million metric tons of avoided ozone-related yield losses of major food crops, $US0.6-2.4 trillion avoided health damage and $US1.1-4.3 billion avoided agricultural damage, and mitigation of 0.20 (+0.14/-0.17) C of Northern Hemisphere extratropical warming during 2040-2070. Tighter vehicle-emission standards are thus extremely likely to mitigate short-term climate change in most cases, in addition to providing large improvements in human health and food security. These standards will not reduce CO2 emissions, however, which is required to mitigate long-term climate change.

  17. Exploration of ‘hot-spots’ of methane and nitrous oxide emission from the agriculture fields of Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Satyendra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agricultural soils contribute towards the emission of CH4 (mainly from paddy fields and N2O (from N-fertilizer application, the two important greenhouse gases causing global warming. Most studies had developed the inventories of CH4 and N2O emission at the country level (larger scale for India, but not many studies are available at the local scale (e.g. district level on these greenhouse gases (GHGs. Assam is an important state in the North Eastern region of India. In addition to being the regional economic hub for the entire region, agriculture is the major contributor to the state’s gross domestic product. In Assam about three-fourths of the area is under paddy cultivation and rice is the staple food. With this background, a district wise inventory of CH4 and N2O emission in the North Eastern state of Assam, India was carried out using different emission factors, viz., IPCC, Indian factors and others, to highlight the discrepancies that arose in the emission estimation of these important GHGs while used at the smaller scale i.e. district level. This study emphasizes the need for better methodologies at the local level for GHGs inventories. This study also reiterates the fact that no emission factor is universally applicable across all regions. The GHGs like CH4 and N2O are highly site and crop specific and the factors required for their inventory are driven by cultural practices, agronomic management, soil resources and socio-economic drivers. Material and methods In this study, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC methodology was used for the estimation of CH4 and N2O emission. In case of N2O emission, both direct and indirect emission from agricultural soil was estimated for the various districts of Assam. Results The CH4 (base year 2000–2001 and N2O (base year 2001–2002 emission was estimated to be 121 Gg and 1.36 Gg from rice paddy and agricultural fields of Assam state respectively. Conclusions This

  18. Climate Change and Agriculture: Can market governance mechanisms reduce emissions from the food system fairly and effectively?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnett, Tara

    2012-05-15

    Climate and agriculture are inextricably linked: the climate affects agricultural production and is itself affected by agricultural emissions. Agriculture is responsible for 30 per cent of global greenhouse gas emissions. How agriculture is practised therefore has significant potential for mitigating climate change, for providing food security and for improving the livelihoods of millions of food producers worldwide. There is growing interest in the use of market governance mechanisms for tackling climate change by giving the financial incentives to make the kinds of changes that are required. But how widely are these mechanisms being used in agriculture, and are they effective in reducing emissions? What impact do they have on adaptation and other aspects of sustainable development? Are they able to balance the competing demands of producers and consumers, the environment and food security? The key messages emerging from this study are that economic measures have a vital part to play within this regulatory context, but they need to be designed with care. To be effective, emissions from food production and consumption must be addressed together. If not, emissions reduced in one region will simply be displaced elsewhere. A balance needs to be struck by applying a mix of approaches – regulatory, economic, voluntary, and information: no single measure will be effective in achieving emissions reductions on its own. 'Soft' measures, such as voluntary agreements and information have a part to play in providing an enabling context for action, but they must be backed up by 'harder' regulatory or economic measures. Regulation, in the form of a cap on emissions, is a prerequisite for other market governance measures to function well. To be effective, MGMs need to consider the social, cultural and economic context within which they operate.

  19. Lyoluminescence of luminol in aqueous ammonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emission spectrum of lyoluminescence of luminol in aqueous ammonia was recorded on a Fuess spectrograph. A continuous emission band from 370 to 600 nm, on resolution, showed three-banded emission with peaks at 413, 463 and 545 nm. The resolved fluorescence spectrum of luminol in ammonia showed two peaks, at 407 and 446 nm. The fluorescence lifetime of luminol in aqueous ammonia solution is 0.7 ns. The lyoluminescence emission bands are explained on the basis of the reactions of colour centres with luminol during the dissolution of irradiated NaCl crystals in an aqueous ammoniated solution of luminol. (author)

  20. Process model for ammonia volatilization from anaerobic swine lagoons incorporating varying wind speeds and biogas bubbling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia volatilization from treatment lagoons varies widely with the total ammonia concentration, pH, temperature, suspended solids, atmospheric ammonia concentration above the water surface, and wind speed. Ammonia emissions were estimated with a process-based mechanistic model integrating ammonia ...

  1. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) Satellite Validations of Ammonia, Methanol, Formic Acid, and Carbon Monoxide over the Canadian Oil Sands

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The URLs link to the data archive of the Troposphere Emission Spectrometer (TES) retrievals. These include the transects included in the Canadian Tar Sands study. A...

  2. Pollutant swapping: greenhouse gas emissions from wetland systems constructed to mitigate agricultural pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer, Adam; Quinton, John; Surridge, Ben; McNamara, Niall

    2014-05-01

    Diffuse (non-point) water pollution from agricultural land continues to challenge water quality management, requiring the adoption of new land management practices. The use of constructed agricultural wetlands is one such practice, designed to trap multiple pollutants mobilised by rainfall prior to them reaching receiving water. Through capturing and storing pollutants in bottom sediments, it could be hypothesised that the abundance of nutrients stored in the anoxic conditions commonly found in these zones may lead to pollutant swapping. Under these circumstances, trapped material may undergo biogeochemical cycling to change chemical or physical form and thereby become more problematic or mobile within the environment. Thus, constructed agricultural wetlands designed to mitigate against one form of pollution may in fact offset the created benefits by 'swapping' this pollution into other forms and pathways, such as through release to the atmosphere. Pollutant swapping to the atmosphere has been noted in analogous wetland systems designed to treat municipal and industrial wastewaters, with significant fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O being recorded in some cases. However the small size, low level of engineering and variable nutrient/sediment inputs which are features of constructed agricultural wetlands, means that this knowledge is not directly transferable. Therefore, more information is required when assessing whether a wetland's potential to act as hotspot for pollution swapping outweighs its potential to act as a mitigation tool for surface water pollution. Here we present results from an on-going monitoring study at a trial agricultural wetland located in small a mixed-use catchment in Cumbria, UK. Estimates were made of CH4, CO2 and N2O flux from the wetland surface using adapted floating static chambers, which were then directly compared with fluxes from an undisturbed riparian zone. Results indicate that while greenhouse gas flux from the wetland may be

  3. Comparative energy analysis of agricultural crops used for producing ethanol and CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of biomass sources can be used for producing ethanol. Among these are sugar cane (Brazil), corn (USA), sweet sorghum (USA and Europe), sugar beets (Europe) and wheat (USA and Europe). The production of fuel alcohol worldwide has been analyzed from various perspectives: productivity, the competition between food and energy crops, the social and economic aspects and, more recently, the environmental dimension. Another relevant study is aimed at calculating the energy costs of the production and use of alcohol from sugar cane as compared to other primary sources for this fuel. The present analysis employs the methodology of energy balance, highlighting local conditions that influence how biomass is transformed into ethanol: technology, agricultural productivity, environmental conditions and an estimate of the carbon dioxide emissions from these different processes. (author)

  4. Farm nitrogen balances in six European agricultural landscapes - a method for farming system assessment, emission hotspot identification, and mitigation measure evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgaard, T.; Bienkowski, J. F.; Bleeker, A.; Drouet, J. L.; Durand, P.; Dragosits, U.; Frumau, A.; Hutchings, N. J.; Kedziora, A.; Magliulo, V.; Olesen, J. E.; Theobald, M. R.; Maury, O.; Akkal, N.; Cellier, P.

    2012-07-01

    Six agricultural landscapes in Poland (PL), the Netherlands (NL), France (FR), Italy (IT), Scotland (UK) and Denmark (DK) were studied, and a common method was developed for undertaking farm inventories and the derivation of farm nitrogen (N) balances and N surplus from the in total 222 farms and 11 440 ha of farmland. In all landscapes, a large variation in the farm N surplus was found, and thereby a large potential for reductions. The highest average N surpluses were found in the most livestock-intensive landscapes of IT, FR, and NL; on average 202 ± 28, 179 ± 63 and 178 ± 20 kg N ha-1yr-1, respectively. However, all landscapes showed hotspots, especially from livestock farms, including a special UK case with landless large-scale poultry farming. So, whereas the average N surplus from the land-based UK farms dominated by extensive sheep grazing was only 31 ± 10 kg N ha-1yr-1, the landscape average was similar to those of PL and DK (122 ± 20 and 146 ± 55 kg N ha-1yr-1, respectively) when landless poultry were included. However, the challenge remains how to account for indirect N surpluses and emissions from such farms with a large export of manure out of the landscape. We conclude that farm N balances are a useful indicator for N losses and the potential for improving N management. Significant correlations to N surplus were found, both with ammonia air concentrations and nitrate levels in soils and groundwater, measured during the landscape data collection campaign from 2007-2009. This indicates that farm N surpluses may be used as an independent dataset for validation of measured and modelled N emissions in agricultural landscapes. However, no significant correlation was found to N measured in surface waters, probably because of the short time horizon of the study. A case study of the development in N surplus from the landscape in DK from 1998-2008 showed a 22 % reduction, related to statistically significant effects (p livestock farms. Based on the large

  5. Effect of C/N ratio, aeration rate and moisture content on ammonia and greenhouse gas emission during the composting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Jiang; Frank Schuchardt; Guoxue Li; Rui Guo; Yuanqiu Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Gaseous emission (N2O,CH4 and NH3) from composting can be an important source of anthropogenic greenhouse gas and air pollution.A laboratory scale orthogonal experiment was conducted to estimate the effects of C/N ratio,aeration rate and initial moisture content on gaseous emission during the composting of pig faeces from Chinese Ganqinfen system.The resnits showed that about 23.9%to 45.6% of total organic carbon (TOC) was lost in the form of CO2 and 0.8% to 7.5% of TOC emitted as CH4.Most of the nitrogen was lost in the form of NH3,which account for 9.6% to 32.4% of initial nitrogen.N2O was also an important way of nitrogen losses and 1.5% to 7.3% of initial total nitrogen was lost as it.Statistic analysis showed that the aeration rate is the most important factor which could affect the NH3 (p =0.0189),CH4 (p =0.0113) and N2O (p =0.0493) emissions significantly.Higher aeration rates reduce the CH4 emission but increase the NH3 and N2O losses.C/N ratio could affect the NH3 (p =0.0442) and CH4 (p =0.0246) emissions significantly,but not the N2O.Lower C/N ratio caused higher NH3 and CH4 emissions.The initial moisture content can not influence the gaseous emission significantly.Most treatments were matured after 37 days,except a trial with high moisture content and a low C/N ratio.

  6. Modeling the distribution of ammonia across Europe including bi-directional surface-atmosphere exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Wichink Kruit

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A large shortcoming of current chemistry transport models for simulating the fate of ammonia in the atmosphere is the lack of a description of the bi-directional surface-atmosphere exchange. In this paper, results of an update of the dry deposition module DEPAC in the LOTOS-EUROS model are discussed. It is shown that with the new description, which includes bi-directional surface-atmosphere exchange, the modeled ammonia concentrations increase almost everywhere, in particular in agricultural source areas. The reason is that by using a compensation point the ammonia life time and transport distance is increased. As a consequence, deposition of ammonia and ammonium decreases in agricultural source areas, while it increases in large nature areas and remote regions especially in Southern Scandinavia. The inclusion of a compensation point for water reduces the dry deposition over sea and allows reproducing the observed marine background concentrations at coastal locations to a better extend. A comparison with measurements shows that the model results better represent the measured ammonia concentrations. The concentrations in nature areas are slightly overestimated, while the concentrations in agricultural source areas are still underestimated. Although the introduction of the compensation point improves the model performance, the modeling of ammonia remains challenging. Important aspects are emission patterns in space and time as well as a proper approach to deal with the high concentration gradients in relation to model resolution. In short, the inclusion of a bi-directional surface atmosphere exchange is a significant step forward for modeling ammonia.

  7. Mycotoxins in the environment: I. Production and emission from an agricultural test field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenzel, Judith; Forrer, Hans-Rudolf; Vogelgsang, Susanne; Hungerbühler, Konrad; Bucheli, Thomas D

    2012-12-18

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites that are naturally produced by fungi which infest and contaminate agricultural crops and commodities (e.g., small grain cereals, fruits, vegetables, and organic soil material). Although these compounds have extensively been studied in food and feed, only little is known about their environmental fate. Therefore, we investigated over nearly two years the occurrence of various mycotoxins in a field cropped with winter wheat of the variety Levis, which was artificially inoculated with Fusarium spp., as well as their emission via drainage water. Mycotoxins were regularly quantified in whole wheat plants (0.1-133 mg/kg(dry weight), for deoxynivalenol), and drainage water samples (0.8 ng/L to 1.14 μg/L, for deoxynivalenol). From the mycotoxins quantified in wheat (3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, deoxynivalenol, fusarenone-X, nivalenol, HT-2 toxin, T-2 toxin, beauvericin, and zearalenone), only the more hydrophilic ones or those prevailing at high concentrations were detected in drainage water. Of the total amounts produced in wheat plants (min: 2.3; max: 292 g/ha/y), 0.5-354 mg/ha/y, i.e. 0.002-0.12%, were emitted via drainage water. Hence, these compounds add to the complex mixture of natural and anthropogenic micropollutants particularly in small rural water bodies, receiving mainly runoff from agricultural areas. PMID:23145781

  8. Short communication: Impact of the intensity of milk production on ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions in Portuguese cattle farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluate the relationship between the intensity of milk production for a wide range of Portuguese commercial cattle farms and NH3 and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from manure management and enteric fermentation. A survey was carried out at 1471 commercial dairy cattle farms (Holstein-Friesian and the NH3, N2O and CH4 emissions at each stage of manure management were estimated as well as CH4 losses from enteric fermentation. Gaseous emissions were estimated by a mass flow approach and following the recommendations of IPCC guidelines. The manure management and enteric fermentation in a typical Portuguese cattle farm contributes with 7.5±0.15 g N/L milk produced as NH3 and 1.2±0.22 kg CO2 equivalent per litre of milk as GHG. Increasing milk production will significantly reduce NH3 and GHG emissions per litre of milk produced. It can be concluded that a win-win strategy for reducing NH3 and GHG emissions from dairy cattle farms will be the increase of milk production on these farms. This goal can be achieved by implementing animal breeding programs and improving feed efficiency in order to increase productivity.

  9. Effect of aluminum sulfate on litter composition and ammonia emission in a single flock of broilers up to 42 days of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, J; López, M J; Orengo, J; Martínez, S; Valverde, M; Megías, M D; Hernández, F

    2012-08-01

    New alternatives are necessary if the environmental impact linked to intensive poultry production is to be reduced, and different litter handling methods should be explored. Among these, acidifying amendments added to poultry litters has been suggested as a management practice to help reduce the potential environmental effect involved in multiple flock cycles. There have been several studies on the use of aluminum sulfate (alum) and its benefits, but almost no data are available under farm conditions in Europe. An experiment with Ross 308 broilers from 1 to 42 days of age was conducted to evaluate the effect of alum on litter composition, the solubility of some mineral elements and NH3 emission during a single flock-rearing period in commercial houses located in southeast Spain. Broilers were placed on clean wood shavings in four commercial houses, containing 20 000 broilers each. Before filling, alum was applied at a rate of 0.25 kg/m2 to the wood shavings of two poultry houses, whereas the remaining two were used as control. Litter from each poultry house was sampled every 3 to 5 days. Ammonia emissions from the poultry houses were monitored from 37 to 42 days of age. In comparison with the control group, alum treatment significantly reduced the pH level of the litter (P Alum-treated litter showed, on average, a higher electrical conductivity than the control litter (5.52 v. 3.63 dS/m). The dry matter (DM) and total N and P contents did not show differences between the treatments (P > 0.05). Regarding the NH4 +-N content, alum-treated litter showed a higher value than the untreated litter, with an average difference of 0.16 ± 0.07% (on a DM basis). On average, alum-treated litter had lower water-soluble P, Zn and Cu contents than the untreated litter. Alum noticeably reduced the in-house ammonia concentration (P alum treatment (P alum could be recommended as a way of reducing the pollution potential of European broiler facilities during a single flock cycle

  10. Potential of aeration flow rate and bio-char addition to reduce greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions during manure composting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, Md Albarune; de Neergaard, Andreas; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2014-01-01

    Aeration is an important factor influencing CO2, CH4, N2O and NH3 emissions from the composting process. Both CH4 and N2O are potent greenhouse gases (GHG) of high importance. Here, we examined the effects of high and low aeration rates together with addition of barley straw with and without bio...... composting hen manure and barley straw at low flow rates proved most effective in reducing cumulative NH3 and CH4 losses. Addition of bio-char in combination with barley straw to hen manure at both high and low flow rates reduced total GHG emissions (as CO2-equivalents) by 27-32% compared with barley straw...

  11. Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide removal using biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reducing ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from livestock facilities is an important issue for many communities and livestock producers. Ammonia has been regarded as odorous, precursor for particulate matter (PM), and contributed to livestock mortality. Hydrogen sulfide is highly toxic at elev...

  12. Searching for solutions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by agricultural policy decisions--Application of system dynamics modeling for the case of Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dace, Elina; Muizniece, Indra; Blumberga, Andra; Kaczala, Fabio

    2015-09-15

    European Union (EU) Member States have agreed to limit their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from sectors not covered by the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (non-ETS). That includes also emissions from agricultural sector. Although the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has established a methodology for assessment of GHG emissions from agriculture, the forecasting options are limited, especially when policies and their interaction with the agricultural system are tested. Therefore, an advanced tool, a system dynamics model, was developed that enables assessment of effects various decisions and measures have on agricultural GHG emissions. The model is based on the IPCC guidelines and includes the main elements of an agricultural system, i.e. land management, livestock farming, soil fertilization and crop production, as well as feedback mechanisms between the elements. The case of Latvia is selected for simulations, as agriculture generates 22% of the total anthropogenic GHG emissions in the country. The results demonstrate that there are very limited options for GHG mitigation in the agricultural sector. Thereby, reaching the non-ETS GHG emission targets will be very challenging for Latvia, as the level of agricultural GHG emissions will be exceeded considerably above the target levels. Thus, other non-ETS sectors will have to reduce their emissions drastically to "neutralize" the agricultural sector's emissions for reaching the EU's common ambition to move towards low-carbon economy. The developed model may serve as a decision support tool for impact assessment of various measures and decisions on the agricultural system's GHG emissions. Although the model is applied to the case of Latvia, the elements and structure of the model developed are similar to agricultural systems in many countries. By changing numeric values of certain parameters, the model can be applied to analyze decisions and measures in other countries. PMID:25958357

  13. Agricultural trade liberalisation and greenhouse gas emissions : a simulation study using the GTAP-IMAGE modelling framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, R.W.; Woltjer, G.B.; Tabeau, A.A.; Eickhout, B.; Stehfest, E.

    2008-01-01

    This report explores the effects of agricultural trade liberalisation on greenhouse gas emissions and on changing commodity production areas by coupling of the modeling tools GTAP and IMAGE. Four scenarios are explored with developments up tot 2050. The scenarios include a baseline, full liberalisat

  14. Nitrous oxide emissions and denitrification rates: A blueprint for smart management and remediation of agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasek, A.; Hondzo, M.; Kozarek, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    resulting in the release of nitrous oxide, a greenhouse gas with 300 times the warming potential of carbon dioxide. The investigation of nitrous oxide emissions and correlation to denitrification rates will facilitate smart management and remediation efforts of agricultural landscapes.

  15. Clinical evaluation of iterative reconstruction (ordered-subset expectation maximization) in dynamic positron emission tomography: quantitative effects on kinetic modeling with N-13 ammonia in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, Jens D; Rasmussen, Rune; Freiberg, Jacob; Holm, Søren; Kelbaek, Henning; Kofoed, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate the quantitative properties of ordered-subset expectation maximization (OSEM) on kinetic modeling with nitrogen 13 ammonia compared with filtered backprojection (FBP) in healthy subjects. METHODS AND RESULTS: Cardiac N-13 ammonia positron e...

  16. Searching for solutions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by agricultural policy decisions — Application of system dynamics modeling for the case of Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    European Union (EU) Member States have agreed to limit their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from sectors not covered by the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (non-ETS). That includes also emissions from agricultural sector. Although the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has established a methodology for assessment of GHG emissions from agriculture, the forecasting options are limited, especially when policies and their interaction with the agricultural system are tested. Therefore, an advanced tool, a system dynamics model, was developed that enables assessment of effects various decisions and measures have on agricultural GHG emissions. The model is based on the IPCC guidelines and includes the main elements of an agricultural system, i.e. land management, livestock farming, soil fertilization and crop production, as well as feedback mechanisms between the elements. The case of Latvia is selected for simulations, as agriculture generates 22% of the total anthropogenic GHG emissions in the country. The results demonstrate that there are very limited options for GHG mitigation in the agricultural sector. Thereby, reaching the non-ETS GHG emission targets will be very challenging for Latvia, as the level of agricultural GHG emissions will be exceeded considerably above the target levels. Thus, other non-ETS sectors will have to reduce their emissions drastically to “neutralize” the agricultural sector's emissions for reaching the EU's common ambition to move towards low-carbon economy. The developed model may serve as a decision support tool for impact assessment of various measures and decisions on the agricultural system's GHG emissions. Although the model is applied to the case of Latvia, the elements and structure of the model developed are similar to agricultural systems in many countries. By changing numeric values of certain parameters, the model can be applied to analyze decisions and measures in other countries. - Highlights:

  17. Searching for solutions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by agricultural policy decisions — Application of system dynamics modeling for the case of Latvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dace, Elina, E-mail: elina.dace@rtu.lv [Institute of Energy Systems and Environment, Riga Technical University, Azenes 12/1, Riga LV1048 (Latvia); Muizniece, Indra; Blumberga, Andra [Institute of Energy Systems and Environment, Riga Technical University, Azenes 12/1, Riga LV1048 (Latvia); Kaczala, Fabio [Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Faculty of Health & Life Sciences, Linnaeus University, SE-39182 Kalmar (Sweden)

    2015-09-15

    European Union (EU) Member States have agreed to limit their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from sectors not covered by the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (non-ETS). That includes also emissions from agricultural sector. Although the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has established a methodology for assessment of GHG emissions from agriculture, the forecasting options are limited, especially when policies and their interaction with the agricultural system are tested. Therefore, an advanced tool, a system dynamics model, was developed that enables assessment of effects various decisions and measures have on agricultural GHG emissions. The model is based on the IPCC guidelines and includes the main elements of an agricultural system, i.e. land management, livestock farming, soil fertilization and crop production, as well as feedback mechanisms between the elements. The case of Latvia is selected for simulations, as agriculture generates 22% of the total anthropogenic GHG emissions in the country. The results demonstrate that there are very limited options for GHG mitigation in the agricultural sector. Thereby, reaching the non-ETS GHG emission targets will be very challenging for Latvia, as the level of agricultural GHG emissions will be exceeded considerably above the target levels. Thus, other non-ETS sectors will have to reduce their emissions drastically to “neutralize” the agricultural sector's emissions for reaching the EU's common ambition to move towards low-carbon economy. The developed model may serve as a decision support tool for impact assessment of various measures and decisions on the agricultural system's GHG emissions. Although the model is applied to the case of Latvia, the elements and structure of the model developed are similar to agricultural systems in many countries. By changing numeric values of certain parameters, the model can be applied to analyze decisions and measures in other countries. - Highlights:

  18. CO2 sequestration. World CO2 emission reduction by forest plantations on agricultural land up to 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this study was to determine the possible contribution on CO2 emission reductions of new forest plantations on agricultural land which may become available in the world from now to 2050. Emission reductions have been calculated by taking into account potential changes in carbon stocks on afforested land (in biomass and soil) and replacement with biomass of fossil fuel and material such as steel, aluminium or concrete. Increase of carbon stocks in wood as building material and final conversion of wood recycled from buildings into energy to replace fossil fuel have also been taken into account. CO2 emission reductions (or carbon benefits) from afforested agricultural land become significant only after 2030 or 2050, and even at a later stage with long rotations. In the case of the latter, about 100 years are needed to get the full benefits. Forest plantations can therefore only be considered as long term options

  19. The effect of urease and nitrification inhibitors on ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from simulated urine patches in pastoral system: a two-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, M; Zaman, S; Nguyen, M L; Smith, T J; Nawaz, S

    2013-11-01

    This field study evaluated the effects of applying a combination of urease (UI) and nitrification inhibitors (NI) on ammonia (NH3) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from urine patches, using zeolite, single superphosphate (SSP) and urea fertilizer as a carrier. The trial was conducted on a Typic Haplustepts silt loam soil, near Lincoln, Canterbury, New Zealand during 2009-11. The treatments in 2009 included: a control (no urine or inhibitor), urine alone at 600 kg N ha(-1), and urine with either double inhibitor (DI) a mixture (1:7 ratio w/w) of UI (N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (nBTPT - trade name Agrotain®) and NI, dicyandiamide (DCD) or DCD alone at 10 kg ha(-1) using zeolite and SSP as carriers. In 2010 trials, both zeolite and urea were used as carriers for DI and DCD. DI-zeolite and DI-urea were equally effective and reduced the average NH3 losses from applied urine over two years by 34.6% in autumn and 40% in spring respectively. The nBTPT in DI-SSP was decomposed by the free acid produced during its dissolution and therefore increased NH3 emission as does DCD alone. DCD consistently increased NH3 emissions by 39% and 15.6% in autumn and spring respectively. Spring application resulted in NH3-N losses of 16.9% as a percentage of the total N applied compared to 8.4% in autumn. Over the two years, the DI reduced N2O emissions by 53% in autumn and 46% in spring over urine alone treatment; the equivalent reductions for DCD were 42% and 39% for autumn and spring, respectively. These results suggest that applying DI in autumn and spring using zeolite or urea carrier five days prior to grazing has the most potential to reduce NH3 and N2O losses from specific urination event than using DCD alone; and therefore warrants further research to improve its longevity. PMID:23375867

  20. Performance, digestion, nitrogen balance, and emission of manure ammonia, enteric methane, and carbon dioxide in lactating cows fed diets with varying alfalfa silage-to-corn silage ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, C; Powell, J M; Aguerre, M J; Wattiaux, M A

    2015-01-01

    Two trials were conducted simultaneously to study the effects of varying alfalfa silage (AS) to corn silage (CS) ratio in diets formulated to avoid excess protein or starch on lactating dairy cow performance, digestibility, ruminal parameters, N balance, manure production and composition, and gaseous emissions [carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and ammonia-N (NH3-N)]. In trial 1 all measurements, except gas emissions, were conducted on 8 rumen-cannulated cows in replicated 4×4 Latin squares. In trial 2, performance and emissions were measured on 16 cows randomly assigned to 1 of 4 air-flow controlled chambers in a 4×4 Latin square. Dietary treatments were fed as total mixed rations with forage-to-concentrate ratio of 55:45 [dietary dry matter (DM) basis] and AS:CS ratios of 20:80, 40:60, 60:40, and 80:20 (forage DM basis). Measurements were conducted the last 3d of each 21-d period. Treatments did not affect DM intake, DM digestibility, and milk/DM intake. However, responses were quadratic for fat-and-protein-corrected milk, fat, and protein production, which reached predicted maxima for AS:CS ratio of 50:50, 49:51, and 34:66, respectively. Nitrogen use efficiency (milk N/N intake) decreased from 31 to 24g/100g as AS:CS ratio increased from 20:80 to 80:20. Treatments did not alter NH3-N/milk-N but tended to have a quadratic effect on daily NH3-N emission. Treatments had a quadratic effect on daily CH4 emission, which was high compared with current literature; they influenced CH4 emission per unit of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intake and tended to influence CO2/NDF intake. Ruminal acetate-to-propionate ratio and total-tract NDF digestibility increased linearly with increasing AS:CS ratio. In addition, as AS:CS ratio increased from 20:80 to 80:20, NDF digested increased linearly from 2.16 to 3.24kg/d, but CH4/digested NDF decreased linearly from 270 to 190g/kg. These 2 counterbalancing effects likely contributed to the observed quadratic response in daily CH4

  1. Nitrous oxide emissions from European agriculture - an analysis of variability and drivers of emissions from field experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rees, R M; Agustin, J; Alberti, G; Ball, B C; Boeckx, P; Canterel, A; Castaldi, S; Chirinda, Ngoni; Chojnicki, B; Giebels, M; Gordon, H; Grosz, B; Horvath, R; Juszczak, R; Klemedtsson, Å K; Klemedtsson, L; Medinets, S; Machon, A; Mapanda, F; Nyamangara, J; Olesen, Jørgen E; Reay, D S; Sanchez, L; Sanz Cobena, A; Smith, K A; Sowerby, A; Sommer, M; Soussana, J F; Stenberg, M; Topp, C F E; van Cleemput, O; Vallejo, A; Watson, C A; Wuta, M

    2013-01-01

    , Zarnekow in Germany and Theix in France. Nitrous oxide emissions were measured at each site over a period of at least two years using static chambers. Emissions varied widely between sites and as a result of manipulation treatments. Average site emissions (throughout the study period) varied between 0.......0001), and 77% in the grassland sites. The annual emissions from arable sites were significantly greater than those that would be predicted by IPCC default emission factors. Variability of N2O emissions within sites that occurred as a result of manipulation treatments was greater than that resulting from...

  2. Modelling site-specific N2O emission factors from Austrian agricultural soils for targeted mitigation measures (NitroAustria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Barbara; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Kasper, Martina; Foldal, Cecilie; Schiefer, Jasmin; Kitzler, Barbara; Schwarzl, Bettina; Zethner, Gerhard; Anderl, Michael; Sedy, Katrin; Gaugitsch, Helmut; Dersch, Georg; Baumgarten, Andreas; Haas, Edwin; Kiese, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    Results from a previous project "FarmClim" highlight that the IPCC default emission factor is not able to reflect region specific N2O emissions from Austrian arable soils. The methodology is limited in identifying hot spots and hot moments of N2O emissions. When estimations are based on default emission factors no recommendations can be given on optimisation measures that would lead to a reduction of soil N2O emissions. The better the knowledge is about Nitrogen and Carbon budgets in Austrian agricultural managed soils the better the situation can be reflected in the Austrian GHG emission inventory calculations. Therefore national and regionally modelled emission factors should improve the evidence for national deviation from the IPCC default emission factors and reduce the uncertainties. The overall aim of NitroAustria is to identify the drivers for N2O emissions on a regional basis taking different soil types, climate, and agricultural management into account. We use the LandscapeDNDC model to update the N2O emission factors for N fertilizer and animal manure applied to soils. Key regions in Austria were selected and region specific N2O emissions calculated. The model runs at sub-daily time steps and uses data such as maximum and minimum air temperature, precipitation, radiation, and wind speed as meteorological drivers. Further input data are used to reflect agricultural management practices, e.g., planting/harvesting, tillage, fertilizer application, irrigation and information on soil and vegetation properties for site characterization and model initialization. While at site scale, arable management data (crop cultivation, rotations, timings etc.) is obtained by experimental data from field trials or observations, at regional scale such data need to be generated using region specific proxy data such as land use and management statistics, crop cultivations and yields, crop rotations, fertilizer sales, manure resulting from livestock units etc. The farming

  3. N2O emissions from the global agricultural nitrogen cycle – current state and future scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lotze-Campen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Reactive nitrogen (Nr is not only an important nutrient for plant growth, thereby safeguarding human alimentation, but it also heavily disturbs natural systems. To mitigate air, land, aquatic, and atmospheric pollution caused by the excessive availability of Nr, it is crucial to understand the long-term development of the global agricultural Nr cycle. For our analysis, we combine a material flow model with a land-use optimization model. In a first step we estimate the state of the Nr cycle in 1995. In a second step we create four scenarios for the 21st century in line with the SRES storylines. Our results indicate that in 1995 only half of the Nr applied to croplands was incorporated into plant biomass. Moreover, less than 10 per cent of all Nr in cropland plant biomass and grazed pasture was consumed by humans. In our scenarios a strong surge of the Nr cycle occurs in the first half of the 21st century, even in the environmentally oriented scenarios. Nitrous oxide (N2O emissions rise from 3 Tg N2O-N in 1995 to 7–9 in 2045 and 5–12 Tg in 2095. Reinforced Nr pollution mitigation efforts are therefore required.

  4. Application of food industry waste to agricultural soils mitigates green house gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, M T; Voroney, R P; Khalid, M

    2010-01-01

    Application of organic waste materials such as food processing and serving industry cooking oil waste (OFW) can recycle soil nitrate nitrogen (NO(3)-N), which is otherwise prone to leaching after the harvest of crop. Nitrogen (N) recycling will not only reduce the amount of N fertilizer application for corn crop production but is also expected to mitigate green house gas (GHG) emissions by saving energy to be used for the production of the same amount of industrial fertilizer N required for the growth of corn crop. Application of OFW at 10Mg solid ha(-1)y(-1) conserved 68 kg N ha(-1)y(-1) which ultimately saved 134 L diesel ha(-1)y(-1), which would otherwise be used for the production of fertilizer N as urea. Average fossil energy substitution value (FESV) of N conserved/recycled was calculated to be 93 US$ ha(-1)y(-1), which is about 13 million US$y(-1). Potential amount of GHG mitigation through the application of OFW to agricultural soils in Canada is estimated to be 57 Gg CO(2)Eq y(-1). PMID:19765979

  5. Reducing agricultural greenhouse gas emissions: role of biotechnology, organic systems, and consumer behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    All agricultural systems have environmental and societal costs and benefits that should be objectively quantified before recommending specific management practices. Agricultural biotechnology, which takes advantage of genetically engineered organisms (GEOs), along with organic cropping systems, econ...

  6. Lidar Based Emissions Measurement at the Whole Facility Scale: Method and Error Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate emissions from agricultural sources vary from dust created by operations and animal movement to the fine secondary particulates generated from ammonia and other emitted gases. The development of reliable facility emission data using point sampling methods designed to characterize regiona...

  7. Impact of changes in diet on the availability of land, energy demand, and greenhouse gas emissions of agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazeni, Karin; Steinmueller, Horst [Johannes Kepler Univ. (JKU Linz), Linz (Austria). Energy Inst.

    2011-12-15

    Recent scientific investigations have revealed a correlation between nutrition habits and the environmental impacts of agriculture. So, it is obviously worthwhile to study what effects a change in diet has on land use patterns, energy demand, and greenhouse gas emissions of agricultural production. This study calculates the amount of energy and emission savings as well as changes in land use that would result from different scenarios underlying a change in diet. Based on the healthy eating recommendations of the German Nutrition Society, meat consumption in Austria should decrease by about 60%, and consumption of fruits and vegetables has to increase strongly. This investigation showed that compliance with healthy eating guidelines leads to lower energy demand and a decrease in greenhouse gas emissions, largely due to a decrease in livestock numbers. Furthermore, arable land and grassland no longer needed for animal feed production becomes redundant and can possibly be used for the production of raw materials for renewable energy. The scenario examination shows that in the self-sufficiency scenario and in the import/export scenario, up to 443,100 ha and about 208,800 ha, respectively, of arable land and grassland are released for non-food uses. The cumulative energy demand of agriculture is lower by up to 38%, and the greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture decrease by up to 37% in these scenarios as against the reference situation. The land use patterns for the scenario demonstrate that animal feed production still takes up the largest share of agricultural land even though the extent of animal husbandry decreased considerably in the scenarios. (orig.)

  8. Regulations Concerning Agriculture and Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Bertora

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The main issues related to the atmospheric pollution are the stratospheric ozone depletion, the transboundary air pollution, the troposphere air quality and the climate change. The three last decades have seen the birth of several measures for the atmosphere safeguard. Agricultural activities play a key role in determining, preventing and mitigating atmospheric pollution. The emission to atmosphere of different ozone-depleting substances is regulated by the Montreal Protocol. The role of agriculture activity in ozone depletion is linked to the utilization of methyl bromide as soil sterilant and to the emission of nitrogen oxides and nitrous oxide, from agricultural soils. The Convention on long-range transboundary air pollution regulates the emission of several pollutants, i.e. sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ammonia, non methane volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants, and tropospheric ozone. The agriculture sector is responsible for a large part of the emissions of ammonia and nitrogen oxides, mainly through manure management and nitrogen fertilization, and of most persistent organic pollutants, largely used in the past as insecticides and fungicides. The increase of the greenhouse gases (GHGs concentration in the atmosphere is under the control of the Kyoto Protocol. Agriculture accounts for 59-63% of global non-CO2 GHGs emissions but at the same time it contributes to the atmospheric CO2 concentration stabilisation through the substitution of fossil fuels by biofuels and the sequestration of C in soil and vegetal biomass. In this paper we provide an outline of the numerous scientific and legislative initiatives aimed at protecting the atmosphere, and we analyse in detail the agriculture sector in order to highlight both its contribution to atmospheric pollution and the actions aimed at preventing and mitigating it.

  9. Nitrous oxide and methane emission in an artificial wetland treating polluted runoff from an agricultural catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Ülo; Tournebize, Julien; Soosaar, Kaido; Chaumont, Cedric; Hansen, Raili; Muhel, Mart; Teemusk, Alar; Vincent, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    An artificial wetland built in 2010 to reduce water pollution in a drained agricultural watershed showed real potential for pesticide and nitrate removal. The 1.2 ha off-shore wetland with a depth of from 0.1 to 1 m intercepts drainage water from a 450 ha watershed located near the village of Rampillon (03°03'37.3'' E, 48°32'16.7'' N, 70 km south-east of Paris, France). A sluice gate installed at the inlet makes it possible to close the wetland during the winter months (December - March), when no pesticides are applied and rainfall events are more frequent. The flow entering the wetland fluctuates from 0 to 120 L/s. The wetland is partially covered by Carex spp., Phragmites australis, Juncus conglomeratus, Typha latifolia and philamentous algae. Since 2011, an automatic water quality monitoring system measures water discharge, temperature, dissolved O2, conductivity pH, NO3- and DOC in both inlet and outlet. In May 2014, an automatic weather station and Campbell Irgason system for the measurement of CO2 and H2O fluxes were installed in the middle of the wetland. In May and November 2014 one-week high frequency measurement campaigns were conducted to study N2O and CH4 fluxes using 6 manually operated opaque floating static chambers and 12 floating automatic dynamic chambers. The latter were operated via multiplexer and had an incubation time of 5 minutes, whereas the gas flow was continuously measured using the Aerodyne TILDAS quantum cascade laser system. During the campaign, the reduction of NO3- concentration was measured in nine reactor pipes. Also, water samples were collected for N2O and N2 isotope analysis, and sediments were collected for potential N2 emission measurements. In May, the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 30 days, and the average NO3- concentration decreased from 24 in the inflow to 0 mg/L in the outflow. Methane flux was relatively high (average 1446, variation 0.2-113990 μg CH4-C m-2 h-1), while about 2/3 was emitted via ebullition

  10. Coronary vasodilation is impaired in both hypertrophied and nonhypertrophied myocardium of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: A study with nitrogen-13 ammonia and positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess regional coronary reserve in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, regional myocardial blood flow was measured in 23 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and 12 control subjects by means of nitrogen-13 ammonia and dynamic positron emission tomography. In patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy at baseline study, regional myocardial blood flow was 1.14 +/- 0.43 ml/min per g in the hypertrophied (20 +/- 3 mm) interventricular septum and 0.90 +/- 0.35 ml/min per g (p less than 0.05 versus septal flow) in the nonhypertrophied (10 +/- 2 mm) left ventricular free wall. These were not statistically different from the corresponding values in control subjects (1.04 +/- 0.25 and 0.91 +/- 0.21 ml/min per g, respectively, p = NS). After pharmacologically induced coronary vasodilation (dipyridamole, 0.56 mg/kg intravenously over 4 min), regional myocardial blood flow in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy increased significantly less than in control subjects both in the septum (1.63 +/- 0.58 versus 2.99 +/- 1.06 ml/min per g, p less than 0.001) and in the free wall (1.47 +/- 0.58 versus 2.44 +/- 0.82 ml/min per g, p less than 0.001). In addition, patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy who had a history of chest pain had more pronounced impairment of coronary vasodilator reserve than did those without a history of chest pain. After dipyridamole, coronary resistance in the septum decreased by 38% in patients without a history of chest pain, but decreased by only 14% in those with such a history (p less than 0.05). Coronary resistance in the free wall decreased by 45% in patients without and by 27% in those with a history of chest pain (p = 0.06)

  11. Environmental variables controlling nitric oxide :emissions from agricultural soils in the southeast united states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Lee J.; Moore, Thomas C.; Aneja, Viney P.; Robarge, Wayne P.; Pierce, Thomas E.; Geron, Chris; Gay, Bruce

    Fluxes of nitric oxide (NO) were measured during the summer of 1994 (12 July to 11 August) in the Upper Coastal Plain of North Carolina in a continuing effort to characterize NO emissions from intensively managed agricultural soils in the southeastern United States. Previous work during a similar time of year on the same soil type was characterized by severe moisture stress conditions. The summer of 1994 provided a more diverse weather pattern and as a result represented a set of measurements more typical of soil temperature and soil moisture relationships for the southeastern United States. In order to ascertain NO flux response to fertilization and crop type, measurements were made on fields with three distinct fertilizer practices and crop types, namely corn, cotton, and soybean. Average NO fluxes were 21.9 ± 18.6, 4.3 ± 3.7, and 2.1 ± 0.9 ng N m -2 s -1, respectively, for corn, cotton, and soybean. NO flux increased exponentially with soil temperature when soil water content was not limiting [> 30% Water Filled Pore Space (%WFPS)]. During conditions when soil water content was limiting, NO flux was inhibited and had no relationship with soil temperature. Above a value of 30% WFPS, increasing soil water content had no effect on NO emissions (the upper limit of %WFPS could not be estimated due to a lack of data in this regime). Below 30% WFPS, increasing soil moisture increased NO production and lower soil moistures led to decreased NO flux. Increased nitrogen fertilization rates led to higher NO fluxes. However, differences in physiological growth stages between crops confound extractable nitrogen values as decomposing root biomass in the mature corn crop added an undetermined amount of available nitrogen to the soil. Interactions between soil water content, fertilizer application, and soil temperature make it very difficult to predict day-to-day variations of NO flux from our data. There appears to be no simple relation between NO flux and the environmental

  12. Agricultural trade liberalisation on greenhouse gas emissions. A simulation study using the GTAP-IMAGE modelling framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report explores the effects of agricultural trade liberalisation on greenhouse gas emissions and on changing commodity production areas by coupling of the modeling tools GTAP (economic model) and IMAGE (environmental model). Four scenarios are explored with developments up tot 2050. The scenarios include a baseline, full liberalisation and two partial liberalisation scenarios for which the latter scenarios include removal of trade barriers or removal of milk quota by 2015 only. The results indicate that liberalisation leads to a further increase in greenhouse gas emissions adding to an already observed increase in emissions observed in the baseline scenario. CO2 emission increase is caused by vegetation clearance due to a rapid expansion of agricultural areas in South America and South East Asia. Increased methane emissions are also calculated in these areas caused by less intensive cattle farming. Global production of the commodities milk, dairy and beef does not change between full liberalisation and the baseline but clear shifts from North America and Europe to South America and South East Asia are expected

  13. RESEARCH OF LIMITED AND UNLIMITED EMISSION EFFECT ON THE ENVIRONMENT DURING THE BURNING OF ALTERNATIVE FUELS IN AGRICULTURAL TRACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Müllerová

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is aimed at the basic analysis of diesel oil and rapeseed methyl ester and evaluation of limited and unlimited emission produced by their combustion. Thereafter, test results are compared, and there is also done the evaluation of emission – greenhouse gases, dangerous exhaust gases and strong carcinogens and their contents during fuel combustion. These measurements were performed at the Research Station Agroscope ART in Tänikon (AAT in Switzerland and in cooperation with the Department of Transport and Handling (DTH, Faculty of Engineering, Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra.

  14. High-Resolution Upscaling of Closed Chamber Fluxes for N2o Emissions from China's Agricultural Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, F.; Shang, Z.; Ciais, P.; Piao, S.; Raymond, P. A.; Tao, S.; Zeng, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Moving from local toward global N2O emissions brings up numerous issues related to data processing, aggregation, tradeoffs between model quality and data quality, and prioritization of data collection and/or compilation efforts. We studied these issues in the context of modelling China's N2O emissions from agricultural soils. We developed a spatially-explicit model (PKU-N2O-Agr model) for high-resolution mapping of N2O emissions based on the idea of Hole-in-the-Pipe Model. We collected 709 site-year records (504 for upland and 205 for paddy) at 106 experimental sites across China from 1994 to 2013 and calibrated the observed N2O flux by using the Bayesian Recursive Regression Tree algorithm. The calibrated PKU-N2O-Agr model is applied to simulate China's N2O emissions from upland and paddy cropland at 1-km spatial resolution and to examine the variable importance and sensitivity for N2O emissions as well as scaling dependence of the effect-response relationships. The N2O emissions in 2008 are 615 GgN2O/yr and ~25% lower than PKU-N2O and EDGAR v4.2 global product sampled over China. The average coefficients of determination between observed and simulated results were 0.91 for upland and 0.92 for paddy cropland, which indicate the using a simplified data-driven approach with data of high resolution could produce accurate and reliable results. Emission factors (considering background emissions) for paddy and upland soils are 0.6% and 0.8% of N inputs, which are 2 times of IPCC default but half of the mean of observations, respectively. SOC is the most important for capturing the variability of N2O emissions from upland, whereas N inflow is the critical factor for paddy cropland. Different with previous works, the marginal sensitivities of environmental factors on agricultural N2O emissions are calculated, which is of great use for verifying process-based simulation model when being applied in China (e.g., DNDC). Both critical factors and the effect

  15. Applying the ecosystem service concept to air quality management in the UK: a case study for ammonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smart, James Christopher Rudd; Hicks, Kevin; Morrissey, Tim; Heinemeyer, Andreas; Sutton, Mark; Ashmore, Mike

    2011-01-01

    To date evaluation of the benefits of policies to control emissions of air pollutants in the UK has focused on human health effects, which are quantified economically, whereas ecosystem protection has only been assessed using critical levels and critical loads. This paper considers the current...... feasibility of using an ecosystem services approach to appraise alternative scenarios for controlling agricultural ammonia emissions in the UK. The effect of ammonia emission reductions on ecosystems service delivery was assessed using an impact pathway approach. A ‘weakest link’ analysis identified that...... magnitude to those for human health impacts. The ecosystem service approach thus offers the potential to provide a holistic appraisal of the effects of emission reductions, and could therefore make a valuable contribution to future air quality management. However, improvements in data collection and...

  16. Agricultural trade liberalisation and greenhouse gas emissions : a simulation study using the GTAP-IMAGE modelling framework

    OpenAIRE

    Verburg, R.W.; Woltjer, G.B.; Tabeau, A.A.; Eickhout, B.; Stehfest, E.

    2008-01-01

    This report explores the effects of agricultural trade liberalisation on greenhouse gas emissions and on changing commodity production areas by coupling of the modeling tools GTAP and IMAGE. Four scenarios are explored with developments up tot 2050. The scenarios include a baseline, full liberalisation and two partial liberalisation scenarios for which the latter scenarios include removal of trade barriers or removal of milk quota by 2015 only. The results indicate that liberalisation leads t...

  17. GRAZING MANAGEMENT, AMMONIA AND NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS: A GENERAL VIEW Manejo del pastoreo, emisiones de amoniaco y oxido nitroso: una visión general

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Núñez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The grazing management of grassland has a direct effect on nitrogen (N recycling. This is an important reason why management has become an alternative to improve the grassland production and quality, in turn to make it more suitable for the environment. However, the livestock system intensification induces changes in the natural dynamics of the N cycle, accelerating gas emmisions (e.g. ammonia, NH3 and nitrous oxide, N(20 and leaching losses from soil under grazing. When the amount of N in the environment increases, there is an impact on smog episodes, global warming, stratospheric ozone depletion, acid rain and eutrophication of fresh water. There are different techniques to evaluate the gases emitted from the soil. This klonowledge is useful to design the strategies to reduce the negative consequences of theses gases on the environment. In this review, the effect of grazing managements on N gas emissions from soils and the current techniques for N gas emission measurements in the field and laboratories conditions are discussedEl manejo del pastoreo de la pastura tiene un efecto directo en el reciclaje de nitrógeno (N. Esta es una importante razón por la cual el manejo se ha convertido en una alternativa para mejorar la producción y calidad de la pastura y a su vez hacerla más amigable con el medio ambiente. Sin embargo, la intensificación de los sistemas ganaderos inducen cambios en la dinámica natural del ciclo del N, acelerando la emisión de gases (ejemplo amoníaco, NH3 y oxido nitroso, N(20 y pérdidas por lixiviación desde suelos sometidos a pastoreo. Cuando aumenta la cantidad de N en el medio ambiente, hay un impacto sobre los episodios de smog, calentamiento global, agotamiento de la capa de ozono en la estratosfera, lluvia acida y eutroficación del agua. Existen diferentes técnicas para evaluar los gases emitidos desde el suelo. Este conocimiento es útil para diseñar estrategias para reducir las consecuencias negativas de

  18. Managing agricultural emissions to the atmosphere: state of the science, fate and mitigation, and identifying research gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, S R; McConnell, L L; Hapeman, C J; Papiernik, S K; Gao, S; Trabue, S L

    2011-01-01

    The impact of agriculture on regional air quality creates significant challenges to sustainability of food supplies and to the quality of national resources. Agricultural emissions to the atmosphere can lead to many nuisances, such as smog, haze, or offensive odors. They can also create more serious effects on human or environmental health, such as those posed by pesticides and other toxic industrial pollutants. It is recognized that deterioration of the atmosphere is undesirable, but the short- and long-term impacts of specific agricultural activities on air quality are not well known or understood. These concerns led to the organization of the 2009 American Chemical Society Symposium titled . An outcome of this symposium is this special collection of 14 research papers focusing on various issues associated with production agriculture and its effect on air quality. Topics included emissions from animal feeding operations, odors, volatile organic compounds, pesticides, mitigation, modeling, and risk assessment. These papers provide new research insights, identify gaps in current knowledge, and recommend important future research directions. As the scientific community gains a better understanding of the relationships between anthropogenic activities and their effects on environmental systems, technological advances should enable a reduction in adverse consequences on the environment. PMID:21869496

  19. Sanitisation of faecal sludge by ammonia

    OpenAIRE

    Fidjeland, Jörgen

    2015-01-01

    Faecal sludge contains valuable plant nutrients and can be used as a fertiliser in agriculture, instead of being emitted as a pollutant. As this involves a risk of pathogen transmission, it is crucial to inactivate the pathogens in faecal sludge. One treatment alternative is ammonia sanitisation, as uncharged ammonia (NH₃) inactivates pathogens. The aim of this thesis was to study how the pathogen inactivation depends on treatment factors, mainly NH₃ concentration, temperature and storage tim...

  20. Experimental analysis of CO2 emissions from agricultural soils subjected to five different tillage systems in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intensive agricultural production strongly influences the global processes that determine climate change. Thus, tillage can play a very important role in climate change. The intensity of soil carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, which contribute to the greenhouse effect, can vary depending on the following factors: the tillage system used, meteorological conditions (which vary in different regions of the world), soil properties, plant residue characteristics and other factors. The main purpose of this research was to analyse and assess the effects of autumn tillage systems with different intensities on CO2 emissions from soils during different seasons and under the climatic conditions of Central Lithuania. The research was conducted at the Experimental Station of Aleksandras Stulginskis University from 2009 to2012; and in 2014. The soils at the experimental site were classified as Eutric Endogleyic Planosol (Drainic). The investigations were conducted using five tillage systems with different intensities, typical of the Baltic Region. Deep conventional ploughing was performed at a depth of 230–250 mm, shallow ploughing was conducted at a depth of 120–150 mm, deep loosening was conducted at depths of 250–270 mm, and shallow loosening was conducted at depths of 120–150 mm. The fifth system was a no-tillage system. Overall, autumn tillage resulted in greater CO2 emissions from the soil over both short- and long-term periods under the climatic conditions of Central Lithuania, regardless of the tillage system applied. The highest soil CO2 emissions were observed for the conventional deep ploughing tillage system, and the lowest emissions were observed for the no-tillage system. The meteorological conditions greatly influenced the CO2 emissions from the soil during the spring. Soil CO2 emissions were enhanced as precipitation and the air and soil temperatures increased. Long-term investigations regarding the dynamics of CO2 emissions from soils during the maize

  1. Carbon emission and sequestration by agricultural land use : a model study for Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleeshouwers, L.M.; Verhagen, A.

    2002-01-01

    A model was developed to calculate carbon fluxes from agricultural soils. The model includes the effects of crop (species, yield and rotation), climate (temperature, rainfall and evapotranspiration) and soil (carbon content and water retention capacity) on the carbon budget of agricultural land. The

  2. Evaluation of methods for quantifying agricultural emissions of air, water and soil pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havlikova, M.; Kroeze, C.

    2006-01-01

    Integrated assessments that analyze global warming, acidification, eutrophication and ozone related problems simultaneously, need complete, detailed and consistent emission estimates that consider possible interrelations between different pollutants. We discuss three types of emission estimation met

  3. The Effect of Organic and Conventional Cropping Systems on CO2 Emission from Agricultural Soils: Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Grego

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different agricultural systems on soil organic carbon content and CO2 emission are investigated in this work. In a long-term experiment a conventional system, characterized by traditional agricultural practices (as deep tillage and chemical inputs was compared with an organic one, including green manure and organic fertilizers. Both systems have a three-year crop rotation including pea – durum wheat – tomato; the organic system is implemented with the introduction of common vetch (Vicia sativa L. and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare bicolor as cover crops. In the year 2006 (5 years after the experimentation beginning was determined the soil C content and was measured the CO2 emissions from soil. The first results showed a trend of CO2 production higher in organic soils in comparison with conventional one. Among the two compared cropping systems the higher differences of CO2 emission were observed in tomato soil respect to the durum wheat and pea soils, probably due to the vetch green manuring before the tomato transplanting. These results are in agreement with the total organic carbon content and water soluble carbon (WSC, which showed the highest values in organic soil. The first observations suggest a higher biological activity and CO2 emission in organic soil than conventional one, likely due to a higher total carbon soil content.

  4. Impact of Urban, Agricultural and Industrial Emissions on the Atmospheric Reactive Nitrogen in the Columbia River Gorge Scenic Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainord, J.; George, L. A.; Orlando, P.

    2015-12-01

    Secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) formation is not fully characterized due to inadequate knowledge of pre-cursor emissions (ammonia, NH3, and nitrogen oxides, NOx) and from incomplete understanding of reactions in model predictions involving the precursors and the chemical products such as nitric acid (HNO3). The Columbia River Gorge (CRG), located between Oregon and Washington states, has unique sources of reactive nitrogen located at both ends and experiences bimodal winds: winter easterlies and summer westerlies. Because of the unique winds, this project will utilize the CRG as an environmental flow tube as we monitor for atmospheric reactive nitrogen species at two locations within the CRG: one located on the western side and one on the east. Measurements will include total oxidized nitrogen, NOx, NH3 and HNO3 using annular denuders, and a novel method using ion exchange resins for particulate ammonium, nitrate, and sulfates. In addition, an ozone gas analyzer and meteorological conditions of temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction will be measured. Our December 2012- June 2014 NOx measurements located near the eastern end of the CRG show significantly different (pstrategy for managers to reduce NOx or NH3 emissions to minimize SIA formation.

  5. Impact of Urban, Agricultural and Industrial Emissions on the Atmospheric Reactive Nitrogen in the Columbia River Gorge Scenic Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainord, J.; George, L. A.; Orlando, P.

    2015-12-01

    Secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) formation is not fully characterized due to inadequate knowledge of pre-cursor emissions (ammonia, NH3, and nitrogen oxides, NOx) and from incomplete understanding of reactions in model predictions involving the precursors and the chemical products such as nitric acid (HNO3). The Columbia River Gorge (CRG), located between Oregon and Washington states, has unique sources of reactive nitrogen located at both ends and experiences bimodal winds: winter easterlies and summer westerlies. Because of the unique winds, this project will utilize the CRG as an environmental flow tube as we monitor for atmospheric reactive nitrogen species at two locations within the CRG: one located on the western side and one on the east. Measurements will include total oxidized nitrogen, NOx, NH3 and HNO3 using annular denuders, and a novel method using ion exchange resins for particulate ammonium, nitrate, and sulfates. In addition, an ozone gas analyzer and meteorological conditions of temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction will be measured. Our December 2012- June 2014 NOx measurements located near the eastern end of the CRG show significantly different (pmanagers to reduce NOx or NH3 emissions to minimize SIA formation.

  6. Effects of liquid aluminum chloride additions to poultry litter on broiler performance, ammonia emissions, soluble phosphorus, total volatile Fatty acids, and nitrogen contents of litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, I H; Moore, P A

    2008-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that the use of aluminum sulfate [alum, Al2(SO4)3.14H2O] and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) additions to animal manures are more effective than other chemicals in reducing ammonia (NH3) emissions and P solubility. Although the use of Al2(SO4)3.14H2O has been intensively used in the poultry industry for many years, no research has been conducted to evaluate the effect of liquid AlCl3 on these parameters. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of applying liquid AlCl3 to poultry litter on 1) broiler performance, 2) NH3 fluxes, and 3) litter chemical characteristics, including soluble reactive P, total volatile fatty acids, and N content. Eight hundred broiler chicks were placed into 16 floor pens (50 birds/pen) in a single house for 6 wk. Liquid AlCl3 treatments were sprayed on the litter surface at rates of 100, 200, and 300 g of liquid AlCl3/kg of litter; un-treated litter served as controls. At the 2 lower rates, liquid AlCl3 treatments tended to improve weight gain and feed intake but had no effect on feed conversion or mortality, whereas the higher rate (300 g/kg of litter) had a negative effect on intake. Application of 100, 200, and 300 g of liquid AlCl3 reduced NH3 fluxes by 63, 76, and 76% during the 6-wk period, respectively, compared with the controls. Liquid AlCl3 additions reduced litter soluble reactive P contents by 24, 30, and 36%, respectively, at the low, medium, and high rates. Total volatile fatty acid contents (odor precursors) in litter were reduced by 20, 50, and 51%, respectively, with 100, 200, and 300 g of liquid AlCl3/kg of litter. Liquid AlCl3 additions increased total N, inorganic N, and plant available N contents in litter. These results indicate that liquid AlCl3 additions at the lower rates can provide significant positive environmental benefits to broiler operations. PMID:18809856

  7. Effect of crop residue incorporation on soil organic carbon (SOC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in European agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Taru; Schlatter, Norman; Baumgarten, Andreas; Bechini, Luca; Krüger, Janine; Grignani, Carlo; Zavattaro, Laura; Costamagna, Chiara; Spiegel, Heide

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) improves soil physical (e.g. increased aggregate stability), chemical (e.g. cation exchange capacity) and biological (e.g. biodiversity, earthworms) properties. The sequestration of soil organic carbon (SOC) may mitigate climate change. However, as much as 25-75% of the initial SOC in world agricultural soils may have been lost due to intensive agriculture (Lal, 2013). The European Commission has described the decline of organic matter (OM) as one of the major threats to soils (COM(2006) 231). Incorporation of crop residues may be a sustainable and cost-efficient management practice to maintain the SOC levels and to increase soil fertility in European agricultural soils. Especially Mediterranean soils that have low initial SOC concentrations, and areas where stockless croplands predominate may be suitable for crop residue incorporation. In this study, we aim to quantify the effects of crop residue incorporation on SOC and GHG emissions (CO2 and N2O) in different environmental zones (ENZs, Metzger et al., 2005) in Europe. Response ratios for SOC and GHG emissions were calculated from pairwise comparisons between crop residue incorporation and removal. Specifically, we investigated whether ENZs, clay content and experiment duration influence the response ratios. In addition, we studied how response ratios of SOM and crop yields were correlated. A total of 718 response ratios (RR) were derived from a total of 39 publications, representing 50 experiments (46 field and 4 laboratory) and 15 countries. The SOC concentrations and stocks increased by approximately 10% following crop residue incorporation. In contrast, CO2 emissions were approximately six times and N2O emissions 12 times higher following crop residue incorporation. The effect of ENZ on the response ratios was not significant. For SOC concentration, the >35% clay content had significantly approximately 8% higher response ratios compared to 18-35% clay content. As the duration of the

  8. Global fire emissions and the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural, and peat fires (1997–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. van der Werf

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available New burned area datasets and top-down constraints from atmospheric concentration measurements of pyrogenic gases have decreased the large uncertainty in fire emissions estimates. However, significant gaps remain in our understanding of the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural waste, and peat fires to total global fire emissions. Here we used a revised version of the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford-Approach (CASA biogeochemical model and improved satellite-derived estimates of area burned, fire activity, and plant productivity to calculate fire emissions for the 1997–2009 period on a 0.5° spatial resolution with a monthly time step. For November 2000 onwards, estimates were based on burned area, active fire detections, and plant productivity from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS sensor. For the partitioning we focused on the MODIS era. We used burned area estimates based on Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS and Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR active fire data prior to MODIS (1997–2000 and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR derived estimates of plant productivity during the same period. Average global fire carbon emissions were 2.0 Pg yr−1 with significant interannual variability during 1997–2001 (2.8 Pg yr−1 in 1998 and 1.6 Pg yr−1 in 2001. Emissions during 2002–2007 were relatively constant (around 2.1 Pg yr−1 before declining in 2008 (1.7 Pg yr−1 and 2009 (1.5 Pg yr−1 partly due to lower deforestation fire emissions in South America and tropical Asia. During 2002–2007, emissions were highly variable from year-to-year in many regions, including in boreal Asia, South America, and Indonesia, but these regional differences cancelled out at a global level. During the MODIS era (2001–2009, most fire carbon emissions were from fires in grasslands and savannas (44

  9. Global fire emissions and the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural, and peat fires (1997-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werf, G.; Randerson, J. T.; Giglio, L.; Collatz, G. J.; Mu, M.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Morton, D. C.; Defries, R. S.; Jin, Y.; van Leeuwen, T. T.

    2010-12-01

    New burned area datasets and top-down constraints from atmospheric concentration measurements of pyrogenic gases have decreased the large uncertainty in fire emissions estimates. However, significant gaps remain in our understanding of the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural waste, and peat fires to total global fire emissions. Here we used a revised version of the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford-Approach (CASA) biogeochemical model and improved satellite-derived estimates of area burned, fire activity, and plant productivity to calculate fire emissions for the 1997-2009 period on a 0.5° spatial resolution with a monthly time step. For November 2000 onwards, estimates were based on burned area, active fire detections, and plant productivity from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. For the partitioning we focused on the MODIS era. We used burned area estimates based on Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) and Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) active fire data prior to MODIS (1997-2000) and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) derived estimates of plant productivity during the same period. Average global fire carbon emissions were 2.0 Pg yr-1 with significant interannual variability during 1997-2001 (2.8 Pg/yr in 1998 and 1.6 Pg/yr in 2001). Emissions during 2002-2007 were relatively constant (around 2.1 Pg/yr) before declining in 2008 (1.7 Pg/yr) and 2009 (1.5 Pg/yr) partly due to lower deforestation fire emissions in South America and tropical Asia. During 2002-2007, emissions were highly variable from year-to-year in many regions, including in boreal Asia, South America, and Indonesia, but these regional differences cancelled out at a global level. During the MODIS era (2001-2009), most fire carbon emissions were from fires in grasslands and savannas (44%) with smaller contributions from tropical deforestation and degradation fires (20%), woodland fires

  10. Pollutant swapping: greenhouse gas emissions from wetland systems constructed to mitigate agricultural pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Freer, Adam; Quinton, John; Surridge, Ben; McNamara, Niall P.

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse (non-point) water pollution from agricultural land continues to challenge water quality management, requiring the adoption of new land management practices. The use of constructed agricultural wetlands is one such practice, designed to trap multiple pollutants mobilised by rainfall prior to them reaching receiving water. Through capturing and storing pollutants in bottom sediments, it could be hypothesised that the abundance of nutrients stored in the anoxic conditions commonly found ...

  11. Emissions of N2O and CH4 from agricultural soils amended with two types of biogas residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biogas residues contain valuable plant nutrients, important to the crops and also to soil microorganisms. However, application of these materials to the soils may contribute to the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) causing global warming and climate change. In the present study, incubation experiment was carried out, where the emission rates of N2O and CH4 were measured after amending two soils with two types of biogas residues: (1) a regular residue from a large scale biogas plant (BR) and (2) a residue from an ultra-filtration membrane unit connected to a pilot-scale biogas plant (BRMF). The emissions of N2O and CH4 were measured at two occasions: at 24 h and at 7 days after residue amendment, respectively. Amendment with filtered biogas residues (BRMF) led to an increase in N2O emissions with about 6–23 times in organic and clay soil, respectively, in comparison to unfiltered biogas residues (BR). Methane emission was detected in small amounts when filtered biogas residue was added to the soil. Amendment of unfiltered biogas to the organic soil resulted in net consumption. In conclusion, fertilization with BRMF can be combined with risk of an increase N2O emission, especially when applied to organic soils. However, in order to transfer these results to real life agriculture, large scale field studies need to be carried out. -- Highlights: ► Membrane filtration of biogas process water is a promising method. ► Fertilization of biogas residue may increase the N2O emission from soil. ► Organic soils produced higher emissions than clay soils.

  12. Pretreatment of Biomass by Aqueous Ammonia for Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Gupta, Rajesh; Lee, Y. Y.

    The methods of pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass using aqueous ammonia are described. The main effect of ammonia treatment of biomass is delignification without significantly affecting the carbohydrate contents. It is a very effective pretreatment method especially for substrates that have low lignin contents such as agricultural residues and herbaceous feedstock. The ammonia-based pretreatment is well suited for simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) because the treated biomass retains cellulose as well as hemicellulose. It has been demonstrated that overall ethanol yield above 75% of the theoretical maximum on the basis of total carbohydrate is achievable from corn stover pretreated with aqueous ammonia by way of SSCF. There are two different types of pretreatment methods based on aqueous ammonia: (1) high severity, low contact time process (ammonia recycle percolation; ARP), (2) low severity, high treatment time process (soaking in aqueous ammonia; SAA). Both of these methods are described and discussed for their features and effectiveness.

  13. Transformation of ammonia i biological airfilters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Peter; Sørensen, Karen; Andersen, Mathias;

    2007-01-01

    Ammonia is a major compound in ventilation air from animal houses. In biological filters it is with varying efficiency transformed by physical, biological, and chemical processes and ends up as ammonium, nitrate, and nitrite dissolved in water and as dinitrogen, nitrous oxide and nitric oxide emi...... removal without too much energy consumption, waste water production, green house gas emission, or suppression of the filters odor removal efficiency.......Ammonia is a major compound in ventilation air from animal houses. In biological filters it is with varying efficiency transformed by physical, biological, and chemical processes and ends up as ammonium, nitrate, and nitrite dissolved in water and as dinitrogen, nitrous oxide and nitric oxide...... nitrite oxidation only appeared in locations with minimal ammonia and nitrite levels. Nitrous oxide emission depended on anoxic microsites, and nitric oxide production was associated with nitrite accumulation. Water and biomass management appear to be the important tools for optimization of ammonia...

  14. Energy and greenhouse-gas emissions in irrigated agriculture of SE (southeast) Spain. Effects of alternative water supply scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global warming is leading to a water resources decrease in the Mediterranean basin, where future farming resilience depends on incorporating alternative water sources and improving water-energy use efficiency. This paper assesses water and energy consumption when natural water sources are partially replaced by desalinated sea water. Initially, energy consumption, water supply and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions were recorded for the current farming practices in SE (southeast) Spain. The results of our study indicate that citrus orchards have the lowest energy consumption and GHG emissions. Annual vegetables were the least energy efficient crops. Subsequently, two alternative water supply scenarios were analysed, in which the reduction of natural water resources associated to climate change was compensated with desalinated sea water. The use of 16.8% of desalinated seawater would increase energy consumption by 32.4% and GHG emissions by 19.6%, whereas for the use of 26.5% of desalinated seawater such increases would amount to 50.0% and 30.3%, respectively. Therefore maintaining irrigated agriculture in water-stressed regions by incorporating high energy demanding non-traditional water sources could negatively contribute to combat global warming. - Highlights: • Water supply, energy consumption and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions in irrigated agriculture are very connected. • The use of desalinated sea water will increase the energy consumption, and GHG emissions will rise. • The use of non-traditional water resources enhances global warming processes. • Citrus orchards are the less sensitive crop to alternative water supplied scenarios. • Artichoke is the most sensitive crop to alternative water supplied scenarios

  15. Nördlinger Ries campaign on Soil Emissions (NORISE) - DOAS measurements of NO2 and HCHO in an agricultural region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zörner, Jan; Remmers, Julia; Dörner, Steffen; Wang, Yang; Eger, Philipp; Pöhler, Dennis; Behrendt, Thomas; Meixner, Franz; Penning de Vries, Marloes; Wagner, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Soil is a major source of total nitrogen oxide (NOx = NO + NO2) emissions with a fraction of about 15% on a global basis. Soil emissions, stemming from bacterial emissions of NO, are controlled by abiotic and microbiological processes which themselves depend on ambient environmental conditions like soil type, moisture content, temperature as well as agricultural management practices such as fertilization. In recent laboratory experiments it was found that dry soils also exhibit enhanced emissions of several volatile organic compounds (VOC) including HCHO when first wetted. At present, studies on soil emissions in humid climates are limited to point samples and laboratory measurements. Thus, a campaign was organized that is dedicated to the analysis of trace gases which are potentially emitted from soils over an entire area using ground based mini-MAX-DOAS measurements. Since soil emissions are assumed to be highest from lands predominantly used for agriculture, the Nördlinger Ries in Bavaria, Germany, a 25 km wide circular plain formed by a meteor impact about 14.5 million years ago, was chosen which nowadays is dominated by arable land. The main objective of the NORISE campaign was to characterize trace gas levels in a highly agricultural environment. The time frame, consequently, covered a whole growing season from April 2014 to January 2015. The focus was on trace gases which can be measured using the DOAS approach in the UV/VIS spectral range, i.e. NO2 and HCHO, using two mini-MAX-DOAS instruments and one long-path DOAS instrument. The retrieved NO2 and HCHO column densities were examined for long-term variations over the entire growing season and short-term events which are both linked to environmental conditions like precipitation patterns and temperature changes. In addition, the analysis of soil samples taken from fields, distinguished between organic and conventional cultivation, gives further insights into soil activities. In this work, we present

  16. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) satellite observations of ammonia, methanol, formic acid, and carbon monoxide over the Canadian oil sands: validation and model evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wealth of air quality information provided by satellite infrared observations of ammonia (NH3), carbon monoxide (CO), formic acid (HCOOH), and methanol (CH3OH) is currently being explored and used for a number of applications, especially at regional or global scales. These ap...

  17. Measurements of ammonia concentrations, fluxes and dry deposition velocities to a spruce forest 1991-1995

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.V.; Hovmand, M.F.; Hummelshøj, P.;

    1999-01-01

    The dry deposition velocities and fluxes of ammonia have been estimated from measurements of the vertical gradient of ammonia and micrometeorology above a spruce forest in western Jutland, Denmark. Measurements have been made in seven periods, each lasting about one week and covering all seasons......, i.e. an ammonia concentration below which the trees and/or the surface emit ammonia due to an equilibrium with the ammonia inside the needles or on the surface. Emission of ammonia was also observed at relatively high ammonia concentration levels (above 2 mu g NH3-N m(-3)), mainly during one...... measuring period characterized by easterly winds with dry conditions and high ammonia concentrations, and the emissions might relate to evaporation from ammonia saturated surfaces or emission from mineralization in the forest soil. In general, relatively high net deposition velocities were observed during...

  18. Particle Reduction Strategies - PAREST. Agricultural emissions. Sub-report; Strategien zur Verminderung der Feinstaubbelastung - PAREST. Landwirtschaftliche Emissionen. Teilbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daemmgen, Ulrich; Haenel, Hans-Dieter; Roesemann, Claus; Hahne, Jochen [Johann Heinrich von Thuenen-Institut (vTI), Braunschweig (Germany); Eurich-Menden, Brigitte; Grimm, Ewald; Doehler, Helmut [Kuratorium fuer Technik und Bauwesen in der Landwirtschaft e.V. (KTBL), Darmstadt (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    The German agricultural emission inventory is designed as an instrument of policy advice. The essential aim is to describe the emitting processes so that options for reducing emissions can be quantified. The German agricultural emission model GAS-EM uses in the field of NH{sub 3} emissions from soils and plants in the EMEP / CORINAIR Guidebook (EMEP / CORINAIR, 2002) proposed methods. These differ in emission factors between several types of fertilizers and their application to acre or grassland in function of the average spring temperature. In the field of emissions from animal husbandry GAS-EM follows a material flow approach, where initially the energy and nutrient requirements for a given power (here are weight, weight gain, milk yield, number of piglets, etc. involved) the excretion of metabolizable carbon compounds and the N excretion can be calculated with feces and urine. Subsequently, for all animal species emissions of nitrogen species NH{sub 3}, NO, N{sub 2}O and N{sub 2} from the grazing, indoor housing, storage and distribution of farm fertilizers calculated. [German] Das deutsche landwirtschaftliche Emissionsinventar ist als Instrument der Politikberatung konzipiert. Wesentliches Ziel ist es, die emittierenden Prozesse so zu beschreiben, dass Minderungsmoeglichkeiten quantifiziert werden koennen. Das deutsche landwirtschaftliche Emissions-Modell GAS-EM bedient sich im Bereich der NH{sub 3}-Emissionen aus Boeden und Pflanzen der im EMEP/CORINAIR-Guidebook (EMEP/CORINAIR, 2002) vorgeschlagenen Methoden. Diese unterscheiden bei den Emissionsfaktoren zwischen mehreren Duengersorten und deren Anwendung auf Acker oder Gruenland in Abhaengigkeit von der mittleren Fruehjahrstemperatur. Im Bereich der Emissionen aus der Tierhaltung verfolgt GAS-EM einen Stofffluss-Ansatz, bei dem zunaechst ueber den Energie- und Naehrstoffbedarf bei gegebener Leistung (hier werden Gewicht, Gewichtszuwachs, Milchleistung, Zahl der Ferkel u. ae. hinzugezogen) die Ausscheidungen

  19. Greenhouse gas emissions under conservation agriculture compared to traditional cultivation of maize in the central highlands of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1991, the ‘International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center’ (CIMMYT) started a field experiment in the rain fed Mexican highlands to investigate conservation agriculture (CA) as a sustainable alternative for conventional maize production practices (CT). CT techniques, characterized by deep tillage, monoculture and crop residue removal, have deteriorated soil fertility and reduced yields. CA, which combines minimum tillage, crop rotations and residue retention, restores soil fertility and increases yields. Soil organic matter increases in CA compared to CT, but increases in greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) in CA might offset the gains obtained to mitigate global warming. Therefore, CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions, soil temperature, C and water content were monitored in CA and CT treatments in 2010–2011. The cumulative GHG emitted were similar for CA and CT in both years, but the C content in the 0–60 cm layer was higher in CA (117.7 Mg C ha−1) than in CT (69.7 Mg C ha−1). The net global warming potential (GWP) of CA (considering soil C sequestration, GHG emissions, fuel use, and fertilizer and seeds production) was − 7729 kg CO2 ha−1 y−1 in 2008–2009 and − 7892 kg CO2 ha−1 y−1 in 2010–2011, whereas that of CT was 1327 and 1156 kg CO2 ha−1 y−1. It was found that the contribution of CA to GWP was small compared to that of CT. - Highlights: ► Conservation agriculture (CA) and conventional agriculture (CT) systems ► Greenhouse gasses emitted were similar from CA and CT. ► C content in the 0–60 cm layer was much higher in CA than in CT. ► The net global warming potential of CA was negative, but positive in CT. ► C sequestered in soil is far more important than GHG emitted.

  20. INVENTARIO DE GASES CON EFECTO INVERNADERO EMITIDOS POR LA ACTIVIDAD AGROPECUARIA CHILENA Inventory of greenhouse gas emissions by Chilean agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Novoa S.A.

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una estimación de los gases con efecto invernadero emitidos por la agricultura chilena. Los resultados indican que el año 1994, la agricultura chilena emitió 321,92 Gg de metano, 21,80 Gg de N2O; 2,96 Gg de NOx y 51,97 Gg de CO. Además, se estimó que las emisiones de COVNM llegan a 2,59 Gg año-1. Estas cifras expresadas como porcentaje de las emisiones del sector no energía chileno llegan a un 74,3 % para el metano, un 5,1 % para el CO; un 93,8 % para el N2O; un 9,8 % para los NOx y un 4,9 % para los COVNM. Al sumar el potencial de calentamiento de las emisiones de metano y óxidos de N resulta que la agricultura estaría emitiendo un total equivalente a 10.504 Gg de CO2 año-1. La silvicultura, el cambio de uso del suelo y la gestión de residuos del país, generan una captación neta de CO2 de 29.709 Gg año-1, por ello se reduce este excedente en un 32 % el que quedaría en 19.205 Gg.The greenhouse gas emissions from Chilean agriculture were estimated. The results showed that during 1994, Chilean agriculture emitted 321.92 Gg of methane; 21.80 Gg of N2O; 2.96 Gg of NOx and 51.97 Gg of CO. Also, agriculture generated 2.59 Gg year-1 of non-methane volatile compound emissions (NMVOC. These figures as a percentage of the non-energy sector emissions are as follows: 74.3% for methane; 5.1 % for CO; 93.8 % for N2O; 9.8 % for NOx and 4.9 % for NMVOC. Taking into account the potential warming effects of methane and nitrous oxide as CO2 equivalent amounts, agriculture is responsible for 10,504 Gg CO2 year-1. Since forestry, land-use changes and handling of residues in Chile represent a net capture of 29,709 CO2 Gg year-1, agriculture reduces this surplus to 35.4 %. So, the total surplus is about 19.205 Gg year-1.

  1. Role of microbial diversity in mitigating the emissions of the greenhouse gas n2o in relation to agricultural practices

    OpenAIRE

    Domeignoz Horta, Luiz; Spor, Aymé; Bru, David; Breuil, Marie-Christine; Bizouard, Florian; Philippot, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture is the main source of terrestrial N2O emissions. This gas is the main depleting substance of the ozone layer and contributes to about 6% of total global warming. The unique known biological process able to convert N2O is its reduction to N2 by organisms possessing the nosZ gene, which encodes the nitrous oxide reductase. A recent publication (Jones et al., Nature Climate Change, in press) showed that the abundance and the diversity of a recently discovered clade of nosZ_carrying m...

  2. Ammonia abatement by slurry acidification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O.; Hutchings, Nicholas John; Hafner, Sasha;

    2016-01-01

    Livestock production systems can be major sources of trace gases including ammonia (NH3), the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), and odorous compounds such as hydrogen sulphide (H2S). Short-term campaigns have indicated that acidification of livestock slurry during in....... The effect of acidification on emissions of H2S differed between experiments. Implications of slurry acidification for subsequent field application, including N and S availability, and soil pH, are discussed....... rates were generally high. It was concluded that the contribution from floors to NH3 emissions was <50%. There was some evidence for reduced CH4 emissions from acidified slurry, but CH4 emissions were generally low and apparently dominated by enteric fermentation. No effect on N2O emissions was observed...

  3. Dynamics of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Riparian Buffer Zones and Wetlands as Hot Spots in Agricultural Landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study considers various aspects of riparian buffer zones and wetlands for greenhouse gas emissions in agricultural landscapes of northern and north-eastern Europe. In particular, the impact of pulsing water regime, continuous loading and several alterations of environmental conditions on greenhouse gas emissions are taken into the consideration. In two case studies the isotopologue technique was used to distinguish between N2O sources in both riparian zones and constructed wetlands. Nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitrogen (N2) emissions, isotopic signatures of N2O and nitrate (NO3-) in groundwater of two differently loaded riparian grey alder stands in southern Estonia were investigated over a period of nine months. One area was a 38-year-old stand in Porijõgi (PJ), where uphill agricultural activities had been abandoned since the middle of 1990s, and the second area was a 55-year-old alder stand in Viiratsi (Vi), which still receives polluted lateral flow from uphill fields applied with pig slurry. Gas fluxes were measured in six sampling sessions, and water samples were analysed for NO3-, N2, N2O, and isotopic signatures of oxygen-18 (delta 18O, δ18O) and nitrogen-15 (delta 15N, δ15N) in N2O and NO3- in four of the six sessions. The N2O and N2 fluxes from both riparian zones did not differ significantly, being 9.6 ± 4.7 and 14.5 ± 3.9 μg N2O–N m−2 h−1, and 2 466 ± 275 and 3 083 ± 371 μg N2–N m−2 h−1 in PJ and Vi sites respectively, suggesting that gaseous N2 is the dominant gas emission from these alder stands. The isotopic signatures of N2O and NO3- were not significantly different between PJ and Vi study sites suggesting possible conversion of NO3- to N2O in both areas. The greater prevalence of N2 emissions over N2O in both areas, and the strong relationship between NO3- and N2O concentrations (r2 = 0.846, with p < 0.01) further suggested that denitrification is the main source of N2O and N2 fluxes in these grey alder stands. The dominant

  4. Nördlinger Ries campaign on Soil Emissions (NORISE) - DOAS measurements of NO2 and HCHO in an agricultural region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zörner, Jan; Remmers, Julia; Dörner, Steffen; Eger, Philipp; Pöhler, Denis; Behrendt, Thomas; Meixner, Franz; Penning de Vries, Marloes; Wagner, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Soil is a major source of total nitrogen oxide (NOx = NO + NO2) emissions with a fraction of about 15% on a global basis. Soil emissions, stemming from bacterial emissions of NO, are controlled by abiotic and microbiological processes which themselves depend on ambient environmental conditions like soil type, moisture content, temperature as well as agricultural management practices such as fertilization. In recent laboratory experiments it was found that dry soils also exhibit enhanced emissions of several volatile organic compounds (VOC) including HCHO when first wetted. A campaign dedicated to the analysis of trace gases emitted by soils was organized in the Nördlinger Ries in Bavaria, Germany, a 25 km wide circular plain, formed by a meteor impact about 14.5 million years ago and nowadays dominated by arable land. The main objective of the NORISE campaign is to characterize trace gas levels in a highly agricultural environment. The time frame, consequently, comprises a whole growing season from April 2014 to January 2015. The focus is on trace gases which can be measured using the DOAS approach in the UV/VIS spectral range, i.e. NO2 and HCHO, using two mini-MAX-DOAS instruments and one long-path DOAS instrument. The retrieved NO2 and HCHO column densities are examined for long-term variations over the entire growing season and short-term events which are both linked to environmental conditions like precipitation patterns and temperature changes. In addition, the analysis of soil samples taken from fields, distinguished between organic and conventional cultivation, gives further insights into soil activities.

  5. Feeding the world's increasing population while limiting climate change impacts: linking N2O and CH4 emissions from agriculture to population growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global demand for agricultural products, including food, is rapidly increasing due to population growth and shifts in consumption patterns. The required increase in agricultural production is predominantly to be achieved in countries with relatively low agricultural production levels at present. These are mainly developing countries and countries in transition, the so-called non-Annex I countries of the UNFCCC. However, intensification of agricultural production systems is currently closely linked to high emissions of greenhouse gases notably nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4). In this paper the relations between population growth, agricultural development and emissions of N2O and CH4 were assessed for 10 non-Annex I countries, viz. China, India, Vietnam, Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, Mongolia, Nigeria, Tanzania and South Africa. We combined FAO data on agricultural production levels, CENSUS data on population statistics and EDGAR data on N2O and CH4 emissions. The projected trends in agricultural production indicate that emissions of N2O and CH4 are expected to increase rapidly in the coming years and will level off from 2040 onwards. The results confirm the positive relation between population increase and increased emissions from agricultural activities for most countries. However, for some countries (South Africa, China and Mexico) this relation was weak or absent. Although numerous factors (e.g. changes in international trade) may have scattered the relation and we were unable to explain this decoupling, it suggests that population growth can be possible without additional emissions. The variation between the different countries and farming systems is however large and mitigation measures at farm-level should be tailored to the wide diversity in environmental conditions, regional customs and farming systems.

  6. Green House Gas Control and Agricultural Biomass for Sustainable Animal Agriculture in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Takahashi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Important green house gases (GHG attributed to animal agriculture are methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O, though carbon dioxide (CO2 contributes almost half of total greenhouse effect. Rumen CH4 production in an enteric fermentation can be accounted as the biggest anthropogenic source. Some of prebiotics and probiotics have been innovated to mitigate rumen CH4 emission. The possible use of agricultural biomass consisted of non-edible parts of crop plants such as cellulose and hemi cellulose and animal wastes was proposed as a renewable energy and nitrogen sources. The ammonia stripping from digested slurry of animal manure in biogas plant applied three options of nitrogen recycling to mitigate nitrous oxide emission. In the first option of the ammonia stripping, the effect of ammonolysis on feed value of cellulose biomass was evaluated on digestibility, energy metabolism and protein utilization. Saccharification of the NH3 treated cellulose biomass was confirmed in strictly anaerobic incubation with rumen cellulolytic bacteria, Ruminoccous flavefaciens, to produce bio-ethanol as the second option of ammonia stripping. In an attempt of NH3 fuel cell, the reformed hydrogen from the NH3 stripped from 20 liter of digested slurry in thermophilic biogas plant could generate 0.12 W electricity with proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEM as the third option.

  7. Experimental analysis of CO{sub 2} emissions from agricultural soils subjected to five different tillage systems in Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buragienė, Sidona [Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Safety, Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Studentu str. 15A, LT-53361 Akademija, Kaunas distr. (Lithuania); Šarauskis, Egidijus, E-mail: egidijus.sarauskis@asu.lt [Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Safety, Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Studentu str. 15A, LT-53361 Akademija, Kaunas distr. (Lithuania); Romaneckas, Kęstutis, E-mail: kestas.romaneckas@asu.lt [Institute of Agroecosystems and Soil Science, Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Studentu str. 11, Akademija LT-53361, Kaunas dist. (Lithuania); Sasnauskienė, Jurgita, E-mail: jurgita.sasnauskiene@asu.lt [Institute of Environment and Ecology, Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Studentu str. 11, Akademija LT-53361, Kaunas dist. (Lithuania); Masilionytė, Laura, E-mail: laura.masilionyte@gmail.com [Joniskelis Experimental Station, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, Joniskelis, LT-39301 Pasvalys distr. (Lithuania); Kriaučiūnienė, Zita, E-mail: zita.kriauciuniene@asu.lt [Experimental Station, Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Rapsu str. 7, LT-53363 Noreikiskes, Kaunas distr. (Lithuania)

    2015-05-01

    Intensive agricultural production strongly influences the global processes that determine climate change. Thus, tillage can play a very important role in climate change. The intensity of soil carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions, which contribute to the greenhouse effect, can vary depending on the following factors: the tillage system used, meteorological conditions (which vary in different regions of the world), soil properties, plant residue characteristics and other factors. The main purpose of this research was to analyse and assess the effects of autumn tillage systems with different intensities on CO{sub 2} emissions from soils during different seasons and under the climatic conditions of Central Lithuania. The research was conducted at the Experimental Station of Aleksandras Stulginskis University from 2009 to2012; and in 2014. The soils at the experimental site were classified as Eutric Endogleyic Planosol (Drainic). The investigations were conducted using five tillage systems with different intensities, typical of the Baltic Region. Deep conventional ploughing was performed at a depth of 230–250 mm, shallow ploughing was conducted at a depth of 120–150 mm, deep loosening was conducted at depths of 250–270 mm, and shallow loosening was conducted at depths of 120–150 mm. The fifth system was a no-tillage system. Overall, autumn tillage resulted in greater CO{sub 2} emissions from the soil over both short- and long-term periods under the climatic conditions of Central Lithuania, regardless of the tillage system applied. The highest soil CO{sub 2} emissions were observed for the conventional deep ploughing tillage system, and the lowest emissions were observed for the no-tillage system. The meteorological conditions greatly influenced the CO{sub 2} emissions from the soil during the spring. Soil CO{sub 2} emissions were enhanced as precipitation and the air and soil temperatures increased. Long-term investigations regarding the dynamics of CO{sub 2

  8. Surface/atmosphere exchange of ammonia over grazed pasture.

    OpenAIRE

    Plantaz, M.A.H.G.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis deals with the exchange of ammonia between the atmosphere and grazed pasture in an area of intensive livestock breeding. The term exchange is used because gaseous ammonia can be taken up (dry deposition) as well as released (emission) by this type of surface.Ammonia exchange fluxes over the grass pasture of a research farm for dairy cattle breeding at Zegveld (the Netherlands) were measured continuously from July 1992 until July 1994. The main objective was to investigate the long...

  9. Measurement of greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural sites using open-path optical remote sensing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improved characterization of distributed emission sources of greenhouse gases such as methane from concentrated animal feeding operations require more accurate methods. One promising method is recently used by the USEPA. It employs a vertical radial plume mapping (VRPM) algorithm using optical remot...

  10. Effect of beta-glucans contained in barley- and oat-based diets and exogenous enzyme supplementation on gastrointestinal fermentation of finisher pigs and subsequent manure odor and ammonia emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, C J; Sweeney, T; Lynch, M B; Gahan, D A; Callan, J J; O'Doherty, J V

    2010-04-01

    The objective of the current experiment was to evaluate the influence of dietary cereal sources of beta(1,3)(1,4)-d-glucan (beta-glucan) and enzyme supplementation on indices of environmental pollution from finisher pigs. An experiment with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was initiated to investigate the effect of dietary source of beta-glucan (barley vs. oats) and enzyme supplementation (no vs. yes) on nutrient digestibility, N utilization, intestinal fermentation, and manure odor and ammonia emissions from finisher boars (n = 4; BW = 73.9 kg; SD = 4.7). Sixteen boars were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments (n = 4/treatment): 1) barley-based diet, 2) barley-based diet + exogenous enzyme, 3) oat-based diet, and 4) oat-based diet + enzyme. The enzyme supplement used contained endo-1,3(4)-beta-glucanase and endo-1,4-beta-xylanase. Experimental diets were formulated to contain similar concentrations of DE (13.5 MJ/kg) and digestible lysine (8.8 g/kg). Pigs offered oat-based diets had reduced digestibility of DM (0.795 vs. 0.849; SEM 0.007; P = 0.001), OM (0.808 vs. 0.865; SEM 0.007; P = 0.001), GE (0.806 vs. 0.845; SEM 0.006; P = 0.002), and NDF (0.233 vs. 0.423; SEM 0.033; P effect of enzyme inclusion on oat-based diets. In conclusion, pigs offered oat-based diets harbored increased Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. populations in the proximal colon and had decreased manure odor emissions compared with those offered barley-based diets. Enzyme inclusion had no effect on manure ammonia emissions from pigs offered oat-based diets. PMID:20023128

  11. Toxic effects of ammonia on vegetation in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temple, P.J.; Harper, D.S.; Pearson, R.G.; Linzon, S.N.

    1979-12-01

    Ammonia injury to vegetation has been observed frequently in Ontario in recent years due primarily to increased agricultural use of liquid ammonia fertilizers. Of 12 major incidents of ammonia injury to vegetation investigated recently, 11 involved the manufacture, storage, or transportation of liquid ammonia fertilizer. One case involved spillage of ammonia from a large refrigeration system. Data on foliar injury symptoms and relative susceptibility to ammonia were compiled for over a hundred species of native and cultivated plants injured in these episodes. Symptoms of acute injury on woody plants usually consisted of large, irregular, dark brown or black necrotic lesions scattered over the surface of the leaf. Some thin-leaved herbaceous plants developed necrotic lesions that bleached to an ivory or light tan color. The most susceptible species were balsam poplar, red mulberry, and catnip. Maples and conifers were very resistant to foliar injury.

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions under conservation agriculture compared to traditional cultivation of maize in the central highlands of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dendooven, Luc, E-mail: dendooven@me.com [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, ABACUS, Cinvestav, Avenida Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, C.P. 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Gutierrez-Oliva, Vicente F. [Laboratory of Plant Biotechnology, Instituto Tecnologico de Tuxtla-Gutierrez, Tuxtla-Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico); Patino-Zuniga, Leonardo [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, ABACUS, Cinvestav, Avenida Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, C.P. 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Ramirez-Villanueva, Daniel A. [Departamento de Microbiologia, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas-IPN, Av. Prolongacion de Carpio y Plan de Ayala, C.P. 11340 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Verhulst, Nele [International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT), Apdo. Postal 6-641, 06600, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Luna-Guido, Marco; Marsch, Rodolfo [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, ABACUS, Cinvestav, Avenida Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, C.P. 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Montes-Molina, Joaquin; Gutierrez-Miceli, Federico A. [Laboratory of Plant Biotechnology, Instituto Tecnologico de Tuxtla-Gutierrez, Tuxtla-Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico); Vasquez-Murrieta, Soledad [Departamento de Microbiologia, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas-IPN, Av. Prolongacion de Carpio y Plan de Ayala, C.P. 11340 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Govaerts, Bram [International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT), Apdo. Postal 6-641, 06600, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2012-08-01

    In 1991, the 'International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center' (CIMMYT) started a field experiment in the rain fed Mexican highlands to investigate conservation agriculture (CA) as a sustainable alternative for conventional maize production practices (CT). CT techniques, characterized by deep tillage, monoculture and crop residue removal, have deteriorated soil fertility and reduced yields. CA, which combines minimum tillage, crop rotations and residue retention, restores soil fertility and increases yields. Soil organic matter increases in CA compared to CT, but increases in greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) in CA might offset the gains obtained to mitigate global warming. Therefore, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions, soil temperature, C and water content were monitored in CA and CT treatments in 2010-2011. The cumulative GHG emitted were similar for CA and CT in both years, but the C content in the 0-60 cm layer was higher in CA (117.7 Mg C ha{sup -1}) than in CT (69.7 Mg C ha{sup -1}). The net global warming potential (GWP) of CA (considering soil C sequestration, GHG emissions, fuel use, and fertilizer and seeds production) was - 7729 kg CO{sub 2} ha{sup -1} y{sup -1} in 2008-2009 and - 7892 kg CO{sub 2} ha{sup -1} y{sup -1} in 2010-2011, whereas that of CT was 1327 and 1156 kg CO{sub 2} ha{sup -1} y{sup -1}. It was found that the contribution of CA to GWP was small compared to that of CT. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conservation agriculture (CA) and conventional agriculture (CT) systems Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Greenhouse gasses emitted were similar from CA and CT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C content in the 0-60 cm layer was much higher in CA than in CT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The net global warming potential of CA was negative, but positive in CT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C sequestered in soil is far more important than GHG emitted.

  13. A full-scale study on efficiency and emissions of an agricultural biogas plant

    OpenAIRE

    Nägele, Hans-Joachim

    2013-01-01

    In this study we focused on process engineering for the conversion of biomass, and utilization of the gas obtained by fermentation. Several topics regarding efficiency and emissions have been addressed by conducting intensive and long-term measurements. In detail, our objectives were (1) to conduct long-term measurements of the electric energy consumption of the biogas plant and its individual components and examination of energy-saving potentials; (2) to develop a method to measure mixin...

  14. Effects of fossil diesel and biodiesel blends on the performances and emissions of agricultural tractor engines

    OpenAIRE

    Tomić Milan D.; Savin Lazar Đ.; Mićić Radoslav D.; Simikić Mirko Đ.; Furman Timofej F.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid growth in the energy consumption has conditioned the need for discovering the alternative energy resources which would be adapted to the existing engine constructions and which would satisfy the additional criteria related to the renewability, ecology and reliability of use. Introduction of biodiesel has been the focus of attention over the last ten years. The aim of this research is to investigate the influence of biodiesel on the performances and exhaust gas emissions of medium ...

  15. New technology for ammonia recovery from poultry litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abatement of gaseous ammonia in poultry houses is beneficial to both improve health/productivity of the birds and to reduce emissions into the environment surrounding the production facility. Current ammonia abatement technologies from poultry houses can be classified into four broad categories: 1) ...

  16. Regulation og non-point phosphorus emissions from the agricultural sector by use of economic incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line Block

    Loss of phosphorus (P) from the agricultural sector has, in recent decades, caused eutrophication of streams and lakes across Europe and North America. Intensive and increasing livestock production generates manure P well in excess of crop requirements. These areas are therefore key elements in the...... transporting and applying manure to fields means that increasing mineral-fertilizer prices does not generate a sufficient incentive for farmers to reallocate all P surpluses generated by livestock between farms and fields. The aim of the thesis is to increase the understanding of the long-term impacts of...... a tax on P surplus (this time defined as the difference between applied P and the level of P application recommended when soil P is taken into account). The two incentives are compared in terms of their effect on different environmental and production-related parameters over a 30-year period. The...

  17. Simulated carbon emissions from land-use change are substantially enhanced by accounting for agricultural management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pugh, T. A. M.; Arneth, A.; Olin, S.;

    2015-01-01

    It is over three decades since a large terrestrial carbon sink (S T) was first reported. The magnitude of the net sink is now relatively well known, and its importance for dampening atmospheric CO2 accumulation, and hence climate change, widely recognised. But the contributions of underlying...... quantified at the global scale. Here we assess the effect of representing agricultural land management in a dynamic global vegetation model. Accounting for harvest, grazing and tillage resulted in cumulative E LUC since 1850 ca. 70% larger than in simulations ignoring these processes, but also changed the......-day S T, or an underestimation of S L, of up to 1.0 Pg C a−1. Management processes influencing crop productivity per se are important for food supply, but were found to have little influence on E LUC....

  18. Impact of greenhouse gas metrics on the quantification of agricultural emissions and farm-scale mitigation strategies: a New Zealand case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agriculture emits a range of greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gas metrics allow emissions of different gases to be reported in a common unit called CO2-equivalent. This enables comparisons of the efficiency of different farms and production systems and of alternative mitigation strategies across all gases. The standard metric is the 100 year global warming potential (GWP), but alternative metrics have been proposed and could result in very different CO2-equivalent emissions, particularly for CH4. While significant effort has been made to reduce uncertainties in emissions estimates of individual gases, little effort has been spent on evaluating the implications of alternative metrics on overall agricultural emissions profiles and mitigation strategies. Here we assess, for a selection of New Zealand dairy farms, the effect of two alternative metrics (100 yr GWP and global temperature change potentials, GTP) on farm-scale emissions and apparent efficiency and cost effectiveness of alternative mitigation strategies. We find that alternative metrics significantly change the balance between CH4 and N2O; in some cases, alternative metrics even determine whether a specific management option would reduce or increase net farm-level emissions or emissions intensity. However, the relative ranking of different farms by profitability or emissions intensity, and the ranking of the most cost-effective mitigation options for each farm, are relatively unaffected by the metric. We conclude that alternative metrics would change the perceived significance of individual gases from agriculture and the overall cost to farmers if a price were applied to agricultural emissions, but the economically most effective response strategies are unaffected by the choice of metric. (letter)

  19. Statistical analysis of nitrous oxide emission factors from pastoral agriculture field trials conducted in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between 11 May 2000 and 31 January 2013, 185 field trials were conducted across New Zealand to measure the direct nitrous oxide (N2O) emission factors (EF) from nitrogen (N) sources applied to pastoral soils. The log(EF) data were analysed statistically using a restricted maximum likelihood (REML) method. To estimate mean EF values for each N source, best linear unbiased predictors (BLUPs) were calculated. For lowland soils, mean EFs for dairy cattle urine and dung, sheep urine and dung and urea fertiliser were 1.16 ± 0.19% and 0.23 ± 0.05%, 0.55 ± 0.19% and 0.08 ± 0.02% and 0.48 ± 0.13%, respectively, each significantly different from one another (p 12°, mean EFs were significantly lower. Thus, urine and dung EFs should be disaggregated for sheep and cattle as well as accounting for terrain. -- Highlights: • Nitrous oxide emission factors (EFs) for pastoral soils measured in 185 field trials. • For lowland, the mean (±standard error) urea nitrogen fertiliser EF was 0.5 ± 0.1%. • For lowland, mean dairy cattle urine and dung EFs were 1.2 and 0.2%, respectively. • For lowland, mean sheep urine and dung EFs were 0.6 and 0.1%, respectively. • For pastoral soils in terrain with slopes >12°, mean EFs were significantly lower. -- From 185 field trials, mean nitrous oxide emission factors for pastoral soils were 0.1% for sheep dung up to 1.2% for dairy cattle urine, while that for urea fertiliser was 0.5%

  20. Contributions of agricultural plants and soils to N2O emission in a farmland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Lee, X.; Yu, Q.; Tong, X.; Qin, Z.; MacDonald, B.

    2011-06-01

    The goal of this study was to quantify the roles of plants and soil in the N2O budget of a cropland in North China. Plant and soil N2O fluxes were measured with transparent and dark plant chambers and soil chambers, respectively, in three adjacent fields of fertilized cotton, fertilized maize and unfertilized soybean. During the observation period, the soil flux was 448 ± 89, 230 ± 74 and 90 ± 14 μg N2O m-2 h-1 in cotton, maize and soybean fields, respectively. The plant flux was 54 ± 43 and 16 ± 41 μg N2O m-2 h-1, about 10 % and 26 % to the total ecosystem flux, for the cotton and the soybean field, respectively. Ignoring the contribution of plants would cause an obvious underestimation on the ecosystem N2O flux. The influence of sunlight on plant N2O flux was insignificant. However, in the cotton field, the responses of the plant N2O flux to air temperature and soil ammonium content were significant under sunlight but insignificant under darkness, suggesting that stomatal activity might influence the release process. In the cotton field, temperature sensitivity of plant N2O emission was 1.13, much lower than the value of soil flux (5.74). No relationship was found between plant N2O flux and soil nitrate content. It was implied that nitrate reduction in plants might not be the main source of plant N2O emission under field conditions. The seasonal patterns of the soil and plant N2O emissions were similarly affected by fertilization, indicating that plants might serve as a passive conduit transporting N2O produced in the soil.

  1. Fugitive methane emissions from natural, urban, agricultural, and energy-production landscapes of eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bryce F. J.; Iverach, Charlotte P.; Lowry, Dave; Fisher, Rebecca E.; France, James L.; Nisbet, Euan G.

    2015-04-01

    Modern cavity ringdown spectroscopy systems (CRDS) enable the continuous measurement of methane concentration. This allows for improved quantification of greenhouse gas emissions associated with various natural and human landscapes. We present a subset of over 4000 km of continuous methane surveying along the east coast of Australia, made using a Picarro G2301 CRDS, deployed in a utility vehicle with an air inlet above the roof at 2.2 mAGL. Measurements were made every 5 seconds to a precision of life-cycle of energy resources to be considered.

  2. Estimating agricultural N2O emissions in France: comparison of a spatialized agro-ecosytem model (CERES-EGC) and a terrestrial biosphere model (O-CN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massad, R. S.; Prieur, V.; Boukari, E.; Lehuger, S.; Chaumartin, F.; Schultz, M.; Gabrielle, B.

    2012-04-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a major greenhouse gas and air pollutant. Considered over a 100 year period, it has 298 times more impact 'per unit weight' (Global warming potential) than carbon dioxide. The parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), including France, are committed to estimate their national nitrous oxide (N2O) budgets and to establish regional programmes of N2O emissions reductions. Agricultural activities are gradually coming into focus as a major GHG emission sector; precise regional estimates of current N2O emissions from arable land are being needed, along with possible means for mitigating emissions. The use of biogeochemical simulation models to estimate N2O fluxes from agricultural soils has obvious benefits. These models provide a unique potential to mechanistically predict N2O emissions from arable soils on both the plot-scale and the regional/national scale on daily time resolutions. In this study we apply two biogeochemical simulation models: CERES-EGC and O-CN all over France for the year 2007 in the perspective of producing an inventory of N2O emissions from croplands. Simulated total N2O emissions from agricultural soils sum up to 20.4 Gg N-N2O/yr with the CERES-EGC model and to 95.1 Gg N-N2O/yr with the O-CN model. Even though the total emissions are largely different between the two models, the temporal and spatial distributions are comparable. When compared to the EDGAR 4.2 emission database we note that O-CN overestimates the annual emissions by approximately a factor of two, whereas CERES-EGC underestimates those emissions. These differences can be explained to a certain extent by the difference in land-use types considered in each of the models and the inventories.

  3. Brazilian greenhouse gas emissions: the importance of agriculture and livestock Emissões de gases do efeito estufa do Brasil: importância da agricultura e pastagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Clemente Cerri

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Data from the 1990-1994 period presented in the "Brazil's Initial National Communication" document indicated that the country is one of the top world greenhouse gas (GHG emitters. A large majority of Brazil's GHG emissions come from deforestation mainly of the Amazon biome for agriculture and livestock land uses. This unique inventory is now out of date. Thus, the aims of this review were (i to update estimates of the GHG emissions for the Brazilian territory, (ii to estimate the sinks to provide calculations of the GHG net emissions for the 1990-2005 period, (iii to calculate the actual and estimate shares of agricultural and livestock activities, and (iv to discuss in light of the new figures and patterns the best mitigation options for Brazil. Total emissions in CO2-eq increased by 17% during the 1994-2005 period. CO2 represented 72.3% of the total, i.e. a small decrease, in favour of non-CO2 GHG, in relation to 1994 when its share was 74.1%. The increase of all GHG excluding Land Use Change and Forestry (LUCF was 41.3% over the period 1994-2005. Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT - World Resources Institute (WRI estimated a higher increase (48.9% that classified Brazil at the 69th position. Using our estimates Brazil will fall to the 78th position. But in both cases Brazil increased in clearly lower values than the tendency calculated for China and India, two major emitters, with increases of 88.8% and 62.1%, respectively. Brazil's increase is less than those presented for some countries in Annex 1 that are submitted to a quota of reduction, e.g. Spain with 55.6% of increase and New Zealand with 45.8%. Brazil also is below the average increase shown by non-Annex I countries, estimated to be 61.3%, but above the world average (28.1%. Besides the effort to curb emissions from the energy and deforestation sectors, it is now a top priority to implement a national program to promote mitigation efforts concerning the agricultural and livestock

  4. 覆盖材料和厚度对堆存牛粪氨气和温室气体排放的影响%Effects of covering materials and sawdust covering depths on ammonia and greenhouse gase emissions from cattle manure during storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海生; 左福元; 董红敏; 栾冬梅

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production is the important source of gaseous emissions (NH3 and greenhouse gases) from agriculture. Storage of animal manure is reported to be an important agricultural source of the environmentally harmful gases. Generally, ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from stored animal manure can be affected by environmental factors (temperature and wind speed) and storage stacking configuration. Most studies have focused on the emission of ammonia and greenhouse gases from slurry during storage. However, information of gaseous emissions from solid manure stored is limited. Material covering is expected to be an effective method to reduce gaseous emissions from the stored manure. Thus, two experiments were set up to study gaseous emissions during storage of the solid cattle manure, and the effect of covering depth (1, 3 and 5 cm) and two different covering materials (sawdust and straw) on emissions of ammonia and greenhouse gases. Polyvinylchloride cylindrical (30 cm in diameter and 90 cm in height) static vessels were designed and built to measure ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions in the laboratory experiment. Fresh cattle manure was collected from practicing farm of Rongchang Campus of Southwest University in Chongqing. After fully mixed, manure was filled into 12 barrels (24.2 cm in diameter and 15 cm in height). Barrels were enveloped by static vessels while measuring gaseous emissions. The stacking process commenced on May 29, 2014, and was measured for 49 days. In Experiment 1, the emissions of NH3, CH4, N2O and CO2 from an uncovered and three sawdust-covering heaps of solid cattle manure were compared. Considering that the stacking of solid manure was only 10 cm height (about 4 kg), sawdust covering depths of 1, 3 and 5 cm were selected. In Experiment 2, the emissions of NH3, CH4, N2O and CO2 were quantified using solid cattle manure (about 10 kg, 25cm stacking height) covered with sawdust (2 cm depth, 250 g) and straw (6 cm depth, 250 g) by using

  5. Effects of covering materials and sawdust covering depths on ammonia and greenhouse gase emissions from cattle manure during storage%覆盖材料和厚度对堆存牛粪氨气和温室气体排放的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海生; 左福元; 董红敏; 栾冬梅

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production is the important source of gaseous emissions (NH3 and greenhouse gases) from agriculture. Storage of animal manure is reported to be an important agricultural source of the environmentally harmful gases. Generally, ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from stored animal manure can be affected by environmental factors (temperature and wind speed) and storage stacking configuration. Most studies have focused on the emission of ammonia and greenhouse gases from slurry during storage. However, information of gaseous emissions from solid manure stored is limited. Material covering is expected to be an effective method to reduce gaseous emissions from the stored manure. Thus, two experiments were set up to study gaseous emissions during storage of the solid cattle manure, and the effect of covering depth (1, 3 and 5 cm) and two different covering materials (sawdust and straw) on emissions of ammonia and greenhouse gases. Polyvinylchloride cylindrical (30 cm in diameter and 90 cm in height) static vessels were designed and built to measure ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions in the laboratory experiment. Fresh cattle manure was collected from practicing farm of Rongchang Campus of Southwest University in Chongqing. After fully mixed, manure was filled into 12 barrels (24.2 cm in diameter and 15 cm in height). Barrels were enveloped by static vessels while measuring gaseous emissions. The stacking process commenced on May 29, 2014, and was measured for 49 days. In Experiment 1, the emissions of NH3, CH4, N2O and CO2 from an uncovered and three sawdust-covering heaps of solid cattle manure were compared. Considering that the stacking of solid manure was only 10 cm height (about 4 kg), sawdust covering depths of 1, 3 and 5 cm were selected. In Experiment 2, the emissions of NH3, CH4, N2O and CO2 were quantified using solid cattle manure (about 10 kg, 25cm stacking height) covered with sawdust (2 cm depth, 250 g) and straw (6 cm depth, 250 g) by using

  6. Flooding-induced N2O emission bursts controlled by pH and nitrate in agricultural soils

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Mette; Clough, Tim J.; Elberling, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural soils are a major source of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere. Increasing frequency and severity of flooding as predicted for large intensively cropped areas may promote temporary denitrification and N2O production but the effect of flooding events on N2O emissions is poorly studied for agricultural systems. The overall N2O dynamics during flooding of an agricultural soil and the effect of pH and NO3− concentration has been investigated based on a combinati...

  7. Effects of gaseous ammonia direct injection on performance characteristics of a spark-ignition engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • This is the very first study in utilizing direct injection of gaseous ammonia in an SI engine. • Engine combustion using direct injection of gaseous ammonia is proven feasible. • Energy efficiency using ammonia is comparable to that using gasoline. • CO emissions are decreased but emissions of NOx and HC are increased when ammonia is used. - Abstract: The effects of direct injection of gaseous ammonia on the combustion characteristics and exhaust emissions of a spark-ignition engine were investigated. Port-injection gasoline was used to enhance the burning of ammonia that was directly injected into the engine cylinder. Appropriate direct injection strategies were developed to allow ammonia to be used in spark-ignition engines without sacrifice of volumetric efficiency. Experimental results show that with gasoline providing the baseline power of 0.6 kW, total engine power could increase to 2.7 kW when the injection timing of ammonia was advanced to 370 BTDC with injection duration of 22 ms. Engine performance with use of gasoline–ammonia was compared to that with gasoline alone. For operations using gasoline–ammonia, with baseline power from gasoline at 0.6 kW the appropriate ammonia injection timing was found to range from 320 to 370 BTDC for producing 1.5–2.7 kW. The peak pressures were slightly lower than those using gasoline alone because of the lower flame of ammonia, resulting in reduction of cylinder pressure. The brake specific energy consumption (BSEC) with gasoline–ammonia was very similar to that with gasoline alone. Ammonia direct injection caused slight reductions of BSCO for all the loads studied but significantly increased BSHC because of the reduced combustion temperature of ammonia combustion. The use of ammonia resulted in increased NOx emissions because of formation of fuel NOx. Ammonia slip was also detected in the engine exhaust because of incomplete combustion

  8. An Integrated Approach to Measuring Emissions from Confined Animal Feeding Operations at the Whole Facility Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Bingham, G. E.; Hatfiels, J.; Prueger, J.H.; Wilkerson, T D; Zavyalov, V. V.; Pfeiffer, R. L.; Hipps, L.; Martin, R.; De Silva, P; Eichinger, W.

    2006-01-01

    Agricultural operations produce a variety of particulates and gases that influence air quality. Agriculture, through wind erosion, tillage and harvest operations, burning, diesel-powered machinery and animal production operations, is a source of particulate matter that can enter human lungs and cause pulmonary problems. Animal production operations can be a source of gaseous emissions such as ammonia, odor-causing volatile organic compounds, hydrogen sulfide, greenhouse gases (methane, nitrou...

  9. Statistical analysis of nitrous oxide emission factors from pastoral agriculture field trials conducted in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelliher, F M; Cox, N; van der Weerden, T J; de Klein, C A M; Luo, J; Cameron, K C; Di, H J; Giltrap, D; Rys, G

    2014-03-01

    Between 11 May 2000 and 31 January 2013, 185 field trials were conducted across New Zealand to measure the direct nitrous oxide (N2O) emission factors (EF) from nitrogen (N) sources applied to pastoral soils. The log(EF) data were analysed statistically using a restricted maximum likelihood (REML) method. To estimate mean EF values for each N source, best linear unbiased predictors (BLUPs) were calculated. For lowland soils, mean EFs for dairy cattle urine and dung, sheep urine and dung and urea fertiliser were 1.16 ± 0.19% and 0.23 ± 0.05%, 0.55 ± 0.19% and 0.08 ± 0.02% and 0.48 ± 0.13%, respectively, each significantly different from one another (p 12°, mean EFs were significantly lower. Thus, urine and dung EFs should be disaggregated for sheep and cattle as well as accounting for terrain. PMID:24361566

  10. An evaluation of the effect of greenhouse gas accounting methods on a marginal abatement cost curve for Irish agricultural greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Improving productivity was the most effective strategy to reduce emissions and costs. • The accounting methods disagreed on the total abatement potential of mitigation measures. • Thus, it may be difficult to convince farmers to adopt certain abatement measures. • Domestic offsetting and consumption based accounting are options to overcome current methodological issues. - Abstract: Marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) analysis allows the evaluation of strategies to reduce agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to some reference scenario and encompasses their costs or benefits. A popular approach to quantify the potential to abate national agricultural emissions is the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change guidelines for national GHG inventories (IPCC-NI method). This methodology is the standard for assessing compliance with binding national GHG reduction targets and uses a sector based framework to attribute emissions. There is however an alternative to the IPCC-NI method, known as life cycle assessment (LCA), which is the preferred method to assess the GHG intensity of food production (kg of GHG/unit of food). The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of using the IPCC-NI and LCA methodologies when completing a MACC analysis of national agricultural GHG emissions. The MACC was applied to the Irish agricultural sector and mitigation measures were only constrained by the biophysical environment. The reference scenario chosen assumed that the 2020 growth targets set by the Irish agricultural industry would be achieved. The comparison of methodologies showed that only 1.1 Mt of the annual GHG abatement potential that can be achieved at zero or negative cost could be attributed to agricultural sector using the IPCC-NI method, which was only 44% of the zero or negative cost abatement potential attributed to the sector using the LCA method. The difference between methodologies was because the IPCC-NI method attributes the

  11. Sulfate-nitrate-ammonium aerosols over China: response to 2000–2015 emission changes of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and ammonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We use a chemical transport model to examine the change of sulfate-nitrate-ammonium (SNA aerosols over China due to anthropogenic emission changes of their precursors (SO2, NOx and NH3 from 2000 to 2015. From 2000 to 2006, annual mean SNA concentrations increased by about 60% over China as a result of the 60% and 80% increases in SO2 and NOx emissions. During this period, sulfate is the dominant component of SNA over South China (SC and Sichuan Basin (SCB, while nitrate and sulfate contribute equally over North China (NC. Based on emission reduction targets in the 12th (2011–2015 Five-Year Plan (FYP, China's total SO2 and NOx emissions are projected to change by −16% and +16% from 2006 to 2015, respectively. The amount of NH3 emissions in 2015 is uncertain, given the lack of sufficient information on the past and present levels of NH3 emissions in China. With no change in NH3 emissions, SNA mass concentrations in 2015 will decrease over SCB and SC compared to their 2006 levels, but increase over NC where the magnitude of nitrate increase exceeds that of sulfate reduction. This suggests that the SO2 emission reduction target set by the 12th FYP, although effective in reducing SNA over SC and SCB, will not be successful over NC, for which NOx emission control needs to be strengthened. If NH3 emissions are allowed to keep their recent growth rate and increase by +16% from 2006 to 2015, the benefit of SO2 reduction will be completely offset over all of China due to the significant increase of nitrate, demonstrating the critical role of NH3 in regulating nitrate. The effective strategy to control SNA and hence PM2.5 pollution over China should thus be based on improving understanding of current NH3 emissions and putting more emphasis on controlling NH3 emissions in the future.

  12. Strategies for implementing Climate Smart Agriculture and creating marketable Greenhouse emission reduction credits, for small scale rice farmers in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, R.; Kritee, K.; Rudek, J.; Van Sanh, N.; Thu Ha, T.

    2014-12-01

    Industrial agriculture systems, mostly in developed and some emerging economies, are far different from the small holder farms that dot the landscapes in Asia and Africa. At Environmental Defense Fund, along with our partners from non-governmental, corporate, academic and government sectors and farmers, we have worked actively in India and Vietnam for the last four years to better understand how small scale farmers working on rice paddy (and other upland crops) cultivation can best deal with climate change. Some of the questions we have tried to answer are: What types of implementable best practices, both old and new, on small farm systems lend themselves to improved yields, farm incomes, climate resilience and mitigation? Can these practices be replicated everywhere or is the change more landscape and people driven? What are the institutional, cultural, financial and risk-perception related barriers that prevent scaling up of these practices? How do we innovate and overcome these barriers? The research community needs to work more closely together and leverage multiple scientific, economic and policy disciplines to fully answer these questions. In the case of small farm systems, we find that it helps to follow certain steps if the climate-smart (or low carbon) farming programs are to succeed and the greenhouse credits generated are to be marketed: Demographic data collection and plot demarcation Farmer networks and diaries Rigorous baseline determination via surveys Alternative practice determination via consultation with local universities/experts Measurements on representative plots for 3-4 years (including GHG emissions, yields, inputs, economic and environmental savings) to help calibrate biogeochemical models and/or calculate regional emission factors. Propagation of alternative practices across the landscape via local NGOs/governments Recording of parameters necessary to extrapolate representative plot GHG emission reductions to all farmers in a given