WorldWideScience

Sample records for agricultural ammonia emission

  1. Non-agricultural ammonia emissions in urban China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y. H.

    2014-03-01

    The non-agricultural ammonia (NH3) emissions in cities have received little attention but could rival agricultural sources in term of the efficiency in PM formation. The starting point for finding credible solutions is to comprehensively establish a city-specific Non-agricultural Ammonia Emission Inventory (NAEI) and identify the largest sources where efforts can be directed to deliver the largest impact. In this paper, I present a NAEI of 113 national key cities targeted on environmental protection in China in 2010, which for the first time covers NH3 emissions from pets, infants, smokers, green land, and household products. Results show that totally 210 478 Mg, the NH3 emissions from traffic, fuel combustion, waste disposal, pets, green land, human, and household products are 67 671 Mg, 56 275 Mg, 44 289 Mg, 23 355 Mg, 7509 Mg, 7312 Mg, and 4069 Mg, respectively. The NH3 emission intensity from the municipal districts ranges from 0.08 to 3.13 Mg km-2 yr-1, with a average of 0.84 Mg km-2 yr-1. The high NH3 emission intensities in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, Yangtze River Delta region and Pearl River Delta region support the view that non-agricultural NH3 sources play a key role in city-scale NH3 emissions and thus have potentially important implications for secondary PM formation (ammonium-sulfate-nitrate system) in urban agglomeration of China. Therefore, in addition to current SO2 and NOx controls, China also needs to allocate more scientific, technical, and legal resources on controlling non-agricultural NH3 emissions in the future.

  2. Ammonia emissions from non-agricultural sources in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, M. A.; Dragosits, U.; Tang, Y. S.; Fowler, D.

    A detailed literature review has been undertaken of the magnitude of non-agricultural sources of ammonia (NH 3) in the United Kingdom. Key elements of the work included estimation of nitrogen (N) excreted by different sources (birds, animals, babies, human sweat), review of miscellaneous combustion sources, as well as identification of industrial sources and use of NH 3 as a solvent. Overall the total non-agricultural emission of NH 3 from the UK in 1996 is estimated here as 54 (27-106) kt NH 3-N yr -1, although this includes 11 (6-23) kt yr -1 from agriculture related sources (sewage sludge spreading, biomass burning and agro-industry). Compared with previous estimates for 1990, component source magnitudes have changed both because of revised average emissions per source unit (emission factors) and changes in the source activity between 1990 and 1996. Sources with larger average emission factors than before include horses, wild animals and sea bird colonies, industry, sugar beet processing, household products and non-agricultural fertilizer use, with the last three sources being included for the first time. Sources with smaller emission factors than before include: land spreading of sewage sludge, direct human emissions (sweat, breath, smoking, infants), pets (cats and dogs) and fertilizer manufacture. Between 1990 and 1996 source activities increased for sewage spreading (due to reduced dumping at sea) and transport (due to increased use of catalytic converters), but decreased for coal combustion. Combined with the current UK estimates of agricultural NH 3 emissions of 229 kt N yr -1 (1996), total UK NH 3 emissions are estimated at 283 kt N yr -1. Allowing for an import of reduced nitrogen (NH x) of 30 kt N yr -1 and deposition of 230 kt N yr -1, these figures imply an export of 83 kt NH 3-N yr -1. Although export is larger than previously estimated, due to the larger contribution of non-agricultural NH 3 emissions, it is still insufficient to balance the UK

  3. A new inventory of ammonia emissions from Irish agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, B. P.; Carton, O. T.; O'Toole, P.; Misselbrook, T. H.

    Agriculture plays a vital role in the Irish economy, accounting for 3.5% of the gross domestic product (GDP) in 2000. Grassland farming and, in particular, cattle rearing and dairying accounts for more than 90% of farming activity. In addition, there have been significant increases in the number of sheep, pigs and poultry over the last twenty years. As a consequence, gaseous nitrogen (N) emissions have shown a clear upward trend. Following the adoption of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Gothenburg protocol (Protocol to the 1979 convention on long-range transboundary air pollution to abate acidification, eutrophication and ground-level ozone. United Nations Economic Commissions for Europe (UNECE), Geneva.), Ireland has to achieve a 9% reduction in national ammonia (NH 3) emissions between 1990 and 2010. The agricultural sector accounts for virtually all NH 3 emissions in Ireland. It is on this basis that a new inventory of NH 3 emissions from agriculture has been produced. This paper describes the adoption of the UK national inventory model to Irish agricultural systems, the results of model calculations and the measures available to enable compliance with national targets and areas within the inventory, which require further investigation. Estimated total emissions from Irish agriculture were 89.9 and 91.8 kt NH 3-N for 1991 and 2010, respectively. Cattle farming accounts for more than 75% of total emissions. The largest emission factors found included 46.9 g NH 3-N lu -1 d -1 for cattle housing, 29.5 g NH 3-N lu -1 d -1 for pig housing and 150 g NH 3-N lu -1 d -1 for housed broilers (lu being equivalent to 500 kg live weight). In addition, model predictions for the year 2010 showed that without any abatement strategies being implemented, NH 3 emissions would exceed the agreed national emission reduction target by 12%. It was also found that strategies for reducing emissions from the land spreading of manure offer the greatest potential to

  4. Ammonia emissions, transport, and deposition downwind of agricultural areas at local to regional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zondlo, Mark; Pan, Da; Golston, Levi; Sun, Kang; Tao, Lei

    2016-04-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emissions from agricultural areas show extreme spatiotemporal variations, yet agricultural emissions dominate the global NH3 budget and ammoniated aerosols are a dominant component of unhealthy fine particulate matter. The emissions of NH3 and their deposition near and downwind of agricultural areas is complex. As part of a multi-year field intensive along the Colorado Front Range (including the NASA DISCOVER-AQ and NSF FRAPPE field experiments), we have examined temporal emissions of NH3 from feedlots, regional transport of ammonia and ammoniated aerosols from the plains to relatively pristine regions in Rocky Mountain National Park, and dry deposition and re-emission of grassland NH3 in the park. Eddy covariance measurements at feedlots and natural grasslands in the mountains were conducted with newly-developed open-path, eddy covariance laser-based sensors for NH3 (0.7 ng NH3/m2/s detection limit at 10 Hz). These measurements were coupled with other NH3/NHx measurements from mobile laboratories, aircraft, and satellite to examine the transport of NH3 from agricultural areas to cleaner regions downwind. At the farm level, eddy covariance NH3 fluxes showed a strong diurnal component correlated with temperature regardless of the season but with higher absolute emissions in summer than winter. While farm-to-farm variability (N=62 feedlots) was high, similar diurnal trends were observed at all sites regardless of individual farm type (dairy, beef, sheep, poultry, pig). Deposition at scales of several km showed relatively small deposition (10% loss) based upon NH3/CH4 tracer correlations, though the NH3 concentrations were so elevated (up to ppmv) that these losses should not be neglected when considering near-farm deposition. Ammonia was efficiently transported at least 150 km during upslope events to the Colorado Front Range (ele. 3000-4000 m) based upon aircraft, mobile laboratory, and model measurements. The gas phase lifetime of NH3 was estimated to

  5. Improved temporal resolution in process-based modelling of agricultural soil ammonia emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuning, J. D.; Pattey, E.; Edwards, G.; Van Heyst, B. J.

    An emerging environmental issue in Canada is how to quantify the contribution of agricultural soil emissions of ammonia (NH 3) to environmental pollution. Emission inventories are essential to predict these emissions and their subsequent atmospheric transportation, transformation, and deposition. Due to the high spatial and temporal variability associated with NH 3 emissions, emission inventories based on measurements become expensive and emission factors lose accuracy. Process-based models are capable of accounting for the complex soil interactions, but current models lack temporal refinement and few models consider NH 3 emissions. This paper presents the development of a one-dimensional (vertical), time-dependent model capable of predicting NH 3 emissions from a slurry applied to a bare soil. The model is based on chemical, physical and biological relationships that govern soil heat, moisture, and nitrogen movement. Processes considered include convection, diffusion, decomposition, nitrification, denitrification, and surface to atmosphere transport. The model is tested with experimental data from Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada which conducted NH 3 measurements following application of dairy cattle slurry to a bare field. An investigation into the sensitivity of emissions to pH and slurry infiltration rate is conducted and model predictions are best fit to measurements based on this investigation. Testing demonstrated the model's ability to predict the large NH 3 emissions immediately following application and subsequent emission trends associated with diurnal patterns that emission factors cannot capture. Results showed that model performance could benefit from a more in depth measurement program and empirical or process models of surface pH. Potential exists for the model to become a useful tool in predicting emissions on local, regional, or national scales.

  6. Comparison of models used for national agricultural ammonia emission inventories in Europe: Liquid manure systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, B.; Dämmgen, U.; Döhler, H.; Eurich-Menden, B.; van Evert, F. K.; Hutchings, N. J.; Luesink, H. H.; Menzi, H.; Misselbrook, T. H.; Monteny, G.-J.; Webb, J.

    Ammonia (NH 3) emissions from agriculture commonly account for >80% of the total NH 3 emissions. Accurate agricultural NH 3 emission inventories are therefore required for reporting within the framework of the Gothenburg Protocol of the UN Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution. To allow a co-ordinated implementation of the Protocol, different national inventories should be comparable. A core group of emission inventory experts therefore developed a network and joint programme to achieve a detailed overview of the best inventory techniques currently available and compiled and harmonized the available knowledge on emission factors (EFs) for nitrogen (N)-flow emission calculation models and initiated a new generation of emission inventories. As a first step in summarizing the available knowledge, six N-flow models, used to calculate national NH 3 emissions from agriculture in different European countries, were compared using standard datasets. Two scenarios for slurry-based systems were run separately for dairy cattle and for pigs, with three different levels of model standardisation: (a) standardised inputs to all models (FF scenario); (b) standard N excretion, but national values for EFs (FN scenario); (c) national values for N excretion and EFs (NN scenario). Results of the FF scenario showed very good agreement among models, indicating that the underlying N flows of the different models are highly similar. As a result of the different national EFs and N excretion rates, larger differences among the results were observed for the FN and the NN scenarios. Reasons for the differences were primarily attributed to differences in the agricultural practices and climatic factors reflected in the EFs and the N excretion rates. The scientific debate necessary to understand the variation in the results generated awareness and consensus concerning available scientific data and the importance of specific processes not yet included in some models.

  7. Comparison of models used for national agricultural ammonia emission inventories in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reidy, B; Webb, J; Misselbrook, T H;

    2009-01-01

    Six N-flow models, used to calculate national ammonia (NH3) emissions from agriculture in different European countries, were compared using standard data sets. Scenarios for litter-based systems were run separately for beef cattle and for broilers, with three different levels of model...... standardisation: (a) standardized inputs to all models (FF scenario); (b) standard N excretion, but national values for emission factors (EFs) (FN scenario); (c) national values for N excretion and EFs (NN scenario). Results of the FF scenario for beef cattle produced very similar estimates of total losses......:N ratio in manure, there would be advantages to include C flows in mass-flow models. This would also provide an integrated model for the estimation of emissions of methane, non-methane VOCs and carbon dioxide. Estimation of these would also enable an estimate of mass loss, calculation of the N and TAN...

  8. Ammonia Emissions from agricultural fertilizer in China: From 1978 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, P.

    2015-12-01

    The quantification of ammonia (NH3) emissions is essential to the more accurate quantification of atmospheric nitrogen deposition, improved air quality and the assessment of ammonia-related agricultural policy and climate mitigation strategies. Chinese agricultural fertilizer (CAF), which is widely used in China, is the nation's largest source of NH3 emissions. The quantity, geographic distribution and historical trends of these emissions remain largely uncertain. In this paper, a new CAF NH3 (CAF_NH3) emissions inventory has been compiled that exhibits the following improvements: (1) a 1 ´1 km gridded map on the county level was developed for 2008; (2) a combined bottom-up and top-down method was used for the local correction of emission factors (EFs) and parameters; (3) time trends were derived for 1978-2008 in which the spatial and temporal patterns and the uncertainties associated with the inventory were quantified; and (4) a sensitivity test was performed in which a province-level disaggregated map was compared with CAF_NH3 emissions for 2008. The total CAF_NH3 emissions for 2008 were 8.4 TgNH3·yr-1 (a 6.6-9.8 Tg interquartile range). From 1978 to 2008, annual NH3 emissions fluctuated with three peaks (1987, 1996 and 2005), and total emissions increased from 3.2 to 8.4 Tg at an annual rate of 3.0%. During the study period, the contribution of livestock manure spreading increased from 37.0% to 45.5% because of changing fertilization practices and the rapid increase in egg, milk and meat consumption. The average contribution of synthetic fertilizer, which has a positive effect on crop yields, was approximately 38.3% (minimum: 33.4%; maximum: 42.7%). With rapid urbanization causing a decline in the rural population, the contribution of the rural excrement sector varied widely between 20.3% and 8.5%. The average contributions of cake fertilizer and straw returning were approximately 3.8% and 4.5%, respectively, thus small and stable. Collectively, the CAF NH3

  9. High-resolution inventory of ammonia emissions from agricultural fertilizer in China from 1978 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, P.; Liao, Y. J.; Lin, Y. H.; Zhao, C. X.; Yan, C. H.; Cao, M. N.; Wang, G. S.; Luan, S. J.

    2016-02-01

    The quantification of ammonia (NH3) emissions is essential to the more accurate quantification of atmospheric nitrogen deposition, improved air quality and the assessment of ammonia-related agricultural policy and climate mitigation strategies. The quantity, geographic distribution and historical trends of these emissions remain largely uncertain. In this paper, a new Chinese agricultural fertilizer NH3 (CAF_NH3) emissions inventory has been compiled that exhibits the following improvements: (1) a 1 × 1 km gridded map on the county level was developed for 2008; (2) a combined bottom-up and top-down method was used for the local correction of emission factors (EFs) and parameters; (3) the temporal patterns of historical time trends for 1978-2008 were estimated and the uncertainties were quantified for the inventories; and (4) a sensitivity test was performed in which a province-level disaggregated map was compared with CAF_NH3 emissions for 2008. The total CAF_NH3 emissions for 2008 were 8.4 TgNH3 yr-1 (a 6.6-9.8 Tg interquartile range). From 1978 to 2008, annual NH3 emissions fluctuated with three peaks (1987, 1996 and 2005), and total emissions increased from 3.2 to 8.4 Tg at an annual rate of 3.0 %. During the study period, the contribution of livestock manure spreading increased from 37.0 to 45.5 % because of changing fertilization practices and the rapid increase in egg, milk, and meat consumption. The average contribution of synthetic fertilizer, which has a positive effect on crop yields, was approximately 38.3 % (minimum: 33.4 %; maximum: 42.7 %). With rapid urbanization causing a decline in the rural population, the contribution of the rural excrement sector varied widely between 20.3 % and 8.5 %. The average contributions of cake fertilizer and straw returning were approximately 3.8 and 4.5 %, respectively, thus small and stable. Collectively, the CAF_NH3 emissions reflect the nation's agricultural policy to a certain extent. An effective approach to

  10. The Impact of Changing Climate on Ammonia Emissions from Agriculture and the Associated Climate Forcings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, D. S.; Riddick, S. N.; Hess, P. G. M.

    2015-12-01

    Agriculture is the largest anthropogenic source of ammonia (NH3) on a global scale with major contributions from the application of synthetic fertilizer and manure from livestock. While strict controls are placed on the emissions of many industrial pollutants, NH3 concentrations are expected to increase this century. In addition to future expansion of agricultural activities that could lead to greater NH3 emissions, NH3 emissions are affected by changes in temperature and precipitation. Here we use a newly developed agricultural N pathways model running in a global terrestrial model (Community Land Model v4.0) to estimate future NH3 emissions from manure and synthetic fertilizer application, and the impact of changing climate on these emissions and other N pathways (runoff, denitrification, etc.). We include future increases in the application of manure and synthetic fertilizer that are consistent with a middle-of-the-road projection of population growth and per capita caloric intake. Combined with atmospheric forcing that follows RCP8.5, NH3 emissions increase by about 50% and 90% between years 2010 and 2100 from synthetic fertilizer and manure, respectively. Roughly 25% of this increase can be attributed to the changing climate, mainly increased global temperatures over the 21st century. We show associated changes in ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate aerosol concentrations and radiative forcings, the results of a set of additional simulations using the Community Atmosphere Model v5.0 and an offline radiative transfer scheme. This work suggests that projections of global NH3 concentrations need to take changes in climate into account.

  11. Reducing ammonia emission from agriculture using the BATNEEC approach in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    This article looks at how the Best Available Technology Not Entailing Excessive Costs (BATNEEC) can be implemented in practice using the ammonia regulation in Denmark as an example. The reductions of ammonia emissions in Denmark have been achieved mainly through command and control measures. The ...

  12. Bottom-up uncertainty estimates of global ammonia emissions from global agricultural production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beusen, A.H.W.; Bouwman, A.F.; Heuberger, P.S.C.; Drecht, van G.; Hoek, van der K.W.

    2008-01-01

    Here we present an uncertainty analysis of NH3 emissions from agricultural production systems based on a global NH3 emission inventory with a 5×5 min resolution. Of all results the mean is given with a range (10% and 90% percentile). The uncertainty range for the global NH3 emission from agricultura

  13. Global Seabird Ammonia Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddick, S. N.; Blackall, T. D.; Dragosits, U.; Daunt, F. H.; Braban, C. F.; Tang, Y. S.; Trathan, P.; Wanless, S.; Sutton, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    Seabird colonies represent a major source of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) in remote coastal and marine systems in temperate, tropical and polar regions. Previous studies have shown that NH3 emissions from Scottish seabird colonies were substantial - of similar magnitude to the most intensive agricultural point source emissions. The UK data were used to model global seabird NH3 emissions and suggested that penguins are a major source of emissions on and around the Antarctic continent. The largest seabird colonies are in the order of millions of seabirds. Due to the isolation of these colonies from anthropogenic nitrogen sources, they may play a major role in the nitrogen cycle within these ecosystems. A global seabird database was constructed and used in conjunction with a species-specific seabird bioenergetics model to map the locations of NH3 emissions from seabird colonies. The accuracy of the modelled emissions was validated with field data of NH3 emissions measured at key seabird colonies in different climatic regions of the world: temperate (Isle of May, Scotland), tropical (Ascension Island) and polar (Signy Island, South Georgia). The field data indicated good agreement between modelled and measured NH3 emissions. The measured NH3 emissions also showed the variability of emission with climate. Climate dependence of seabird NH3 emissions may have further implications under a changing global climate. Seabird colonies represent NH3 emission ‘hotspots’, often far from anthropogenic sources, and are likely to be the major source of nitrogen input to these remote coastal ecosystems. The direct manuring by seabirds at colony locations may strongly influence species richness and biodiversity. The subsequent volatilisation and deposition of NH3 increases the spatial extent of seabird influence on nitrogen cycling in their local ecosystem. As many seabird populations are fluctuating due to changing food supply, climate change or anthropogenic pressures, these factors

  14. The potential for tree planting strategies to reduce local and regional ecosystem impacts of agricultural ammonia emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bealey, W J; Dore, A J; Dragosits, U; Reis, S; Reay, D S; Sutton, M A

    2016-01-01

    Trees are very effective at capturing both gaseous and particulate pollutants from the atmosphere. But while studies have often focussed on PM and NOx in the urban environment, little research has been carried out on the tree effect of capturing gaseous emissions of ammonia in the rural landscape. To examine the removal or scavenging of ammonia by trees a long-range atmospheric model (FRAME) was used to compare two strategies that could be used in emission reduction policies anywhere in the world where nitrogen pollution from agriculture is a problem. One strategy was to reduce the emission source strength of livestock management systems by implementing two 'tree-capture' systems scenarios - tree belts downwind of housing and managing livestock under trees. This emission reduction can be described as an 'on-farm' emission reduction policy, as ammonia is 'stopped' from dispersion outside the farm boundaries. The second strategy was to apply an afforestation policy targeting areas of high ammonia emission through two planting scenarios of increasing afforestation by 25% and 50%. Both strategies use trees with the aim of intercepting NH3 emissions to protect semi-natural areas. Scenarios for on-farm emission reductions showed national reductions in nitrogen deposition to semi-natural areas of 0.14% (0.2 kt N-NHx) to 2.2% (3.15 kt N-NHx). Scenarios mitigating emissions from cattle and pig housing gave the highest reductions. The afforestation strategy showed national reductions of 6% (8.4 kt N-NHx) to 11% (15.7 kt N-NHx) for 25% and 50% afforestation scenarios respectively. Increased capture by the planted trees also showed an added benefit of reducing long range effects including a decrease in wet deposition up to 3.7 kt N-NHx (4.6%) and a decrease in export from the UK up to 8.3 kt N-NHx (6.8%).

  15. The potential for tree planting strategies to reduce local and regional ecosystem impacts of agricultural ammonia emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bealey, W J; Dore, A J; Dragosits, U; Reis, S; Reay, D S; Sutton, M A

    2016-01-01

    Trees are very effective at capturing both gaseous and particulate pollutants from the atmosphere. But while studies have often focussed on PM and NOx in the urban environment, little research has been carried out on the tree effect of capturing gaseous emissions of ammonia in the rural landscape. To examine the removal or scavenging of ammonia by trees a long-range atmospheric model (FRAME) was used to compare two strategies that could be used in emission reduction policies anywhere in the world where nitrogen pollution from agriculture is a problem. One strategy was to reduce the emission source strength of livestock management systems by implementing two 'tree-capture' systems scenarios - tree belts downwind of housing and managing livestock under trees. This emission reduction can be described as an 'on-farm' emission reduction policy, as ammonia is 'stopped' from dispersion outside the farm boundaries. The second strategy was to apply an afforestation policy targeting areas of high ammonia emission through two planting scenarios of increasing afforestation by 25% and 50%. Both strategies use trees with the aim of intercepting NH3 emissions to protect semi-natural areas. Scenarios for on-farm emission reductions showed national reductions in nitrogen deposition to semi-natural areas of 0.14% (0.2 kt N-NHx) to 2.2% (3.15 kt N-NHx). Scenarios mitigating emissions from cattle and pig housing gave the highest reductions. The afforestation strategy showed national reductions of 6% (8.4 kt N-NHx) to 11% (15.7 kt N-NHx) for 25% and 50% afforestation scenarios respectively. Increased capture by the planted trees also showed an added benefit of reducing long range effects including a decrease in wet deposition up to 3.7 kt N-NHx (4.6%) and a decrease in export from the UK up to 8.3 kt N-NHx (6.8%). PMID:26413804

  16. Emission, transmission, deposition and environmental effects of ammonia from agricultural sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erisman, J.W. [ECN Clean Fossil Fuels, Petten (Netherlands); Dammgen, U. [Federal Agricultural Research Centre, Institute of Agroecology, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2005-05-01

    Air pollution in Europe has been regarded as a severe problem for several decades, the adverse effects being: the influence on the physical properties of the atmosphere itself, in particular its energy balance (global warming), and visibility; the influence on atmospheric chemistry (formation and destruction of both ground level and stratospheric ozone); the input of chemicals into terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems causing acidification and eutrophication leading to forest decline as well as changes in ecosystem structure and function; the effects on human health and welfare (the respiratory system). Since the sulfur dioxide problem seems to have been solved to a large extent in most countries in Western Europe, atmospheric nitrogen compounds are considered a major source of acidification. As most natural and near-natural ecosystems have developed with nitrogen as a limiting factor, increased inputs of reactive atmospheric nitrogen cause changes in their structure, function and nutrient dynamics. These effects are attributed to surplus nutrition (eutrophication) of the respective systems as the result of increased nitrogen inputs. At first it seemed logical to connect them with sources similar to those for sulfur (power plants, combustion engines, domestic heating); however, it soon became clear that reduced nitrogen (ammonia and ammonium in particulates) also plays a major role. This review is to collate the present state of knowledge with regard to ammonia emissions, its atmospheric transport and chemistry as well as its deposition and the resulting effects. It restricts itself to a description of the situation in Europe.

  17. High resolution inventory of re-estimating ammonia emissions from agricultural fertilizer in China from 1978 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, P.; Lin, Y. H.; Liao, Y. J.; Zhao, C. X.; Wang, G. S.; Luan, S. J.

    2015-09-01

    The quantification of ammonia (NH3) emissions is essential to the more accurate quantification of atmospheric nitrogen deposition, improved air quality and the assessment of ammonia-related agricultural policy and climate mitigation strategies. The quantity, geographic distribution and historical trends of these emissions remain largely uncertain. In this paper, a new Chinese agricultural fertilizer NH3 (CAF_NH3) emissions inventory has been compiled that exhibits the following improvements: (1) a 1 km × 1 km gridded map on the county level was developed for 2008, (2) a combined bottom-up and top-down method was used for the local correction of emission factors (EFs) and parameters, (3) the spatial and temporal patterns of historical time trends for 1978-2008 were estimated and the uncertainties were quantified for the inventories, and (4) a sensitivity test was performed in which a province-level disaggregated map was compared with CAF_NH3 emissions for 2008. The total CAF_NH3 emissions for 2008 were 8.4 Tg NH3 yr-1 (a 6.6-9.8 Tg interquartile range). From 1978 to 2008, annual NH3 emissions fluctuated with three peaks (1987, 1996 and 2005), and total emissions increased from 3.2 to 8.4 Tg at an annual rate of 3.0 %. During the study period, the contribution of livestock manure spreading increased from 37.0 to 45.5 % because of changing fertilization practices and the rapid increase in egg, milk and meat consumption. The average contribution of synthetic fertilizer, which has a positive effect on crop yields, was approximately 38.3 % (minimum: 33.4 %; maximum: 42.7 %). With rapid urbanization causing a decline in the rural population, the contribution of the rural excrement sector varied widely between 20.3 and 8.5 %. The average contributions of cake fertilizer and straw returning were approximately 3.8 and 4.5 %, respectively, thus small and stable. Collectively, the CAF_NH3 emissions reflect the nation's agricultural policy to a certain extent. An effective

  18. Ammonia Emissions from the Agriculture Sector of Argentina in a Context of Changing Technologies and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawidowski, L. E.

    2015-12-01

    Agriculture is a key sector of the Argentinean economy, accounting for 6 to 8 5% of the GDP in the last ten years. Argentina switched in the 90´s from an articulated co-evolution between extensive livestock and crop farming, with annual rotation of crops and livestock, to intensive decoupled practices. Under these new production schemes, ecosystems were supplied with more nutrients, generating increasing levels of wastes. Other changes have also occurred, associated with the shift of the agricultural frontier and the consequent reduction in the cattle stock. In addition, changes related to climate through the strong increase in rainfall in the 80s and 90s in the west Pampas, helped to boost agricultural development. The agriculture sector accounts for practically all NH3 emissions in Argentina, however no inventory has been thus far available. To bridge this gap and particularly to have accurate input information to run coupled atmospheric chemistry models for secondary inorganic aerosols, we estimated 2000-2012 NH3 emissions, both at national and spatially disaggregated levels. Of particular interest for us was also temporal disaggregation as crops growing and temperature exhibit strong seasonal variability. As no NH3 inventory was available we also estimated related N2O emissions to verify our estimates with those of national GHG emission inventory (NEI). National NH3 emissions in 2012 amounted to 309.9 Gg, use of fertilizers accounted for 43.6%, manure management 18,9%, manure in pasture 36,0% and agricultural waste burning 1.5%. Our N2O estimates are in good agreement with the GHG-NEI. NH3 estimates in the EDGAR database for 2008 are 84.0% higher than ours for this year, and exhibit more significant differences per category, namely 113,6% higher for use of fertilizers and about 500% higher for agricultural waste burning. Urea dominates national NH3 emissions, accounting for 32,8% of the total and its use for wheat and corn crops dominates the trend.

  19. Integrated measures in agriculture to reduce ammonia emissions : final summary report . Service contract "Integrated measures in agriculture to reduce ammonia emissions"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, O.; Oudendag, D.A.; Witzke, H.P.; Monteny, G.J.; Velthof, G.L.; Pietrzak, S.; Pinto, M.; Britz, W.; Schwaiger, E.; Erisman, J.W.; Vries, de W.; Grinsven, van J.J.M.; Sutton, M.

    2007-01-01

    In response to the environmental side effects of the increasing N losses from agriculture, especially during the period 1960-1990, series of environmental policies and measures has been implemented in the European Union (EU) from the early 1990s onwards. These policies and measures specifically aim

  20. Ammonia emissions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    The NEC (National Emission Ceiling) directive has set targets for the 2010 ammonia emissions from a number of European countries. The target will be reached by most EU-countries and the total emission for EU-27 has been reduced by 22% from 1990 to 2007. Denmark is one of the countries...... technology is adopted quicker and that the farm has the right location. It is concluded that the new application process so far has not lived up to the high expectations at the outset. Despite this, the paper concludes that Denmark is likely to reduce emission by 50% from 1990 to 2020 and reach the likely...

  1. Validation of CFD simulation for ammonia emissions from an aqueous solution Submitted to Computers and Electronics in Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Li; Elhadidi, B; Khalifa, H E;

    2011-01-01

    In order to model and predict ammonia emissions from animal houses, it is important to determine the concentration on the emission surface correctly. In the current literature, Henry’s law is usually used to model the mass transfer through the gas–liquid surface (e.g. manure or aqueous solution......). The objective of this study is to investigate the accuracy of three models for Henry’s law constant (HLC) as well as functions derived from experimental vapor–liquid equilibrium (VLE) properties of ammonia water to determine the concentration on the liquid ammonia solutions surface in order to be used...

  2. Comparison of models used for national agricultural ammonia emission inventories in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reidy, B; Dämmgen, U; Döhler, H;

    2008-01-01

    , larger differences among the results were observed for the FN and the NN scenarios. Reasons for the differences were primarily attributed to differences in the agricultural practices and climatic factors reflected in the EFs and the N excretion rates. The scientific debate necessary to understand...... the variation in the results generated awareness and consensus concerning available scientific data and the importance of specific processes not yet included in some models...

  3. Ammonia emissions in Europe, part II: How ammonia emission abatement strategies affect secondary aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Anna M.; Aulinger, Armin; Bieser, Johannes; Matthias, Volker; Quante, Markus

    2016-02-01

    In central Europe, ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate make up a large fraction of fine particles which pose a threat to human health. Most studies on air pollution through particulate matter investigate the influence of emission reductions of sulphur- and nitrogen oxides on aerosol concentration. Here, we focus on the influence of ammonia (NH3) emissions. Emission scenarios have been created on the basis of the improved ammonia emission parameterization implemented in the SMOKE for Europe and CMAQ model systems described in part I of this study. This includes emissions based on future European legislation (the National Emission Ceilings) as well as a dynamic evaluation of the influence of different agricultural sectors (e.g. animal husbandry) on particle formation. The study compares the concentrations of NH3, NH4+, NO3 -, sulphur compounds and the total concentration of particles in winter and summer for a political-, technical- and behavioural scenario. It was found that a reduction of ammonia emissions by 50% lead to a 24% reduction of the total PM2.5 concentrations in northwest Europe. The observed reduction was mainly driven by reduced formation of ammonium nitrate. Moreover, emission reductions during winter had a larger impact than during the rest of the year. This leads to the conclusion that a reduction of the ammonia emissions from the agricultural sector related to animal husbandry could be more efficient than the reduction from other sectors due to its larger share in winter ammonia emissions.

  4. A spatial ammonia emission inventory for pig farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebolledo, Boris; Gil, Antonia; Pallarés, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric emissions of ammonia (NH3) from the agricultural sector have become a significant environmental and public concern as they have impacts on human health and ecosystems. This work proposes an improved methodology in order to identify administrative regions with high NH3 emissions from pig farming and calculates an ammonia density map (kg NH3-N ha-1), based on the number of pigs and available agricultural land, terrain slopes, groundwater bodies, soil permeability, zones sensitive to nitrate pollution and surface water buffer zones. The methodology has been used to construct a general tool for locating ammonia emissions from pig farming when detailed information of livestock farms is not available.

  5. Danish emission inventories for agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth; Albrektsen, Rikke; Gyldenkærne, Steen

    By regulations given in international conventions Denmark is obliged to work out an annual emission inventory and document the methodology. The National Environmental Research Institute (NERI) at Aarhus University (AU) in Denmark is responsible for calculating and reporting the emissions....... This report contains a description of the emissions from the agricultural sector from 1985 to 2009. Furthermore, the report includes a detailed description of methods and data used to calculate the emissions, which is based on national methodologies as well as international guidelines. For the Danish...... emissions calculations and data management an Integrated Database model for Agricultural emissions (IDA) is used. The emission from the agricultural sector includes emission of the greenhouse gases methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), ammonia (NH3), particulate matter (PM), non-methane volatile organic...

  6. Ammonia emission time profiles based on manure transport data improve ammonia modelling across north western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, C.; Kranenburg, R.; Kuenen, J. J. P.; Van den Bril, B.; Verguts, V.; Schaap, M.

    2016-04-01

    Accurate modelling of mitigation measures for nitrogen deposition and secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) episodes requires a detailed representation of emission patterns from agriculture. In this study the meteorological influence on the temporal variability of ammonia emissions from livestock housing and application of manure and fertilizer are included in the chemistry transport model LOTOS-EUROS. For manure application, manure transport data from Flanders (Belgium) were used as a proxy to derive the emission variability. Using improved ammonia emission variability strongly improves model performance for ammonia, mainly by a better representation of the spring maximum. The impact on model performance for SIA was negligible as explained by the limited, ammonia rich region in which the emission variability was updated. The contribution of Flemish agriculture to modelled annual mean ammonia and SIA concentrations in Flanders were quantified at respectively 7-8 and 1-2 μg/m3. A scenario study was performed to investigate the effects of reducing ammonia emissions from manure application during PM episodes by 75%, yielding a maximum reduction in modelled SIA levels of 1-3 μg/m3 during episodes. Year-to-year emission variability and a soil module to explicitly model the emission process from manure and fertilizer application are needed to further improve the modelling of the ammonia budget.

  7. Reducing ammonia emissions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.

    2011-01-01

    The NEC directive has set targets for the 2010 ammonia emissions from a number of European countries. The target will be reached by most EU-countries and the total emission for EU-27 has been reduced by 22% from 1990 to 2007. Denmark is one of the countries with the largest reductions since 1990...... to the high expectations at the outset. Despite this, the paper concludes that Denmark is likely to reduce emission by 50% from 1990 to 2020 and reach the likely 2020 NEC ceiling....

  8. Ammonia in power plant emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerich, Mads; Henningsen, J. O.; Olafsson, Ari

    1990-08-01

    Ammonia monitoring is needed in most schemes for denitrification of power plant emission. In the PALAMON system we use a 500 MHz tunable, single mode, single line, CO2 laser as light source for a low pressure, high temperature, photoacoustic cell. With this cell we can resolve the sR(5,O) line of the ammonia spectrum, and suppress the interfering C02(9R30) absorption line down to a lppm NH3 detection limit. The validity of the measured ammonia concentrations is strongly dependent on details of the sampling system and on the reliability of the calibration routines. In particular calibration with certified mixtures of NH3:N2 has proved insufficient due to the multiple and long time constants caused by adsorption of ammonia to different materials in the system. Presence of water vapor in the gas greatly reduces these time constants. Therefore a number of methods for simple production of moist calibration gases from macroscopic amounts of NH3 are applied. The calibrations are translated to response from an easily managable absorber in order to allow automated recalibration of the photoacoustic response. Data from a field test of the system, and calibration data will be presented.

  9. MEASUREMENT OF AMMONIA EMISSIONS FROM MECHANICALLY VENTILATED POULTRY HOUSES USING MULTIPATH TUNABLE DIODE LASER SPECTROSCOPY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia emissions from mechanically ventilated poultry operations are an important environmental concern. Open Path Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy has emerged as a robust real-time method for gas phase measurement of ammonia concentrations in agricultural settings. ...

  10. Atmospheric Fate and Transport of Agricultural Dust and Ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiranuma, N.; Brooks, S. D.; Thornton, D. C.; Auvermann, B. W.; Fitz, D. R.

    2008-12-01

    Agricultural fugitive dust and odor are significant sources of localized air pollution in the semi-arid southern Great Plains. Daily episodes of ground-level fugitive dust emissions from the cattle feedlots associated with increased cattle activity in the early evenings are routinely observed, while consistently high ammonia is observed throughout the day. Here we present measurements of aerosol size distributions and concentrations of gas and particulate phase ammonia species collected at a feedlot in Texas during summers of 2006, 2007 and 2008. A GRIMM sequential mobility particle sizer and GRIMM 1.108 aerosol spectrometer were used to determine aerosol size distributions in the range of 10 nm to 20 µm aerodynamic diameter at the downwind and upwind edges of the facility. Using aqueous scrubbers, simultaneous measurements of both gas phase and total ammonia species present in the gas and particle phases were also collected. In addition to the continuous measurements at the edges of the facility, coincident aerosol and ammonia measurements were obtain at an additional site further downwind (~3.5 km). Taken together our measurements will be used to quantify aerosol and ammonia dispersion and transport. Relationships between the fate and transport of the aerosols and ammonia will be discussed.

  11. Airborne pollutant characteristics in an urban, industrial and agricultural complex metroplex with high emission loading and ammonia concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Chang, Li-Peng; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2014-10-01

    The size distribution of particulate mass and water-soluble ionic constituents and their gaseous precursors was investigated in a subtropical area, southern Taiwan. Field sampling and chemical analysis of particulate matter (PM) were conducted using a Micro Orifice Uniform Deposition Impactor (MOUDI) and a Nano-MOUDI, and gaseous pollutants were determined by a denuder-filter pack system. PM size mass distribution, mass concentration and ionic species concentration were measured during the day and at night in the winter and summer. Average PM concentrations in the winter were as high as 132 ± 42 μg/m(3), and PM mass concentrations in the summer were as low as 38 ± 19 μg/m(3). Generally, PM concentration was 111 ± 60 μg/m(3) at night, which was 20% higher than that in the daytime. The size-segregated mass distribution of PM mass concentration was over 85% in the 0.1-3.2 μm range. Ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate were the dominant water-soluble ionic species in PM, contributing 34%-48% of PM mass. High ammonia (12.9-49 μg/m(3)) and SO2 (2.6-27 μg/m(3)) were observed in the gas precursors. The molar ratio [Formula: see text] was 3.18 ± 1.20 at PM1.0, which indicated that the PM was rich in ammonium. Therefore, the excess ammonium could neutralize nitrate to form ammonium nitrate, after the more stable ammonium sulfate and ammonium bisulfate formation. PMID:25037046

  12. Ammonia emissions in Europe, part I: Development of a dynamical ammonia emission inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Anna; Aulinger, Armin; Bieser, Johannes; Matthias, Volker; Quante, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen input from agricultural ammonia emissions into the environment causes numerous environmental and health problems. The purpose of this study is to present and evaluate an improved ammonia emission inventory based on a dynamical temporal parameterization suitable to compare and assess ammonia abatement strategies. The setup of the dynamical time profile (DTP) consists of individual temporal profiles for ammonia emissions, calculated for each model grid cell, depending on temperature, crop type, fertilizer and manure application, as well as on local legislation. It is based on the method of Skjøth et al., 2004 and Gyldenkærne et al., 2005. The method has been modified to cover the study area and to improve the performance of the emission model. To compare the results of the dynamical approach with the results of the static time profile (STP) the ammonia emission parameterizations have been implemented in the SMOKE for Europe emission model. Furthermore, the influence on secondary aerosol formation in the North Sea region and possible changes triggered through the use of a modified temporal distribution of ammonia emissions were analysed with the CMAQ chemistry transport model. The results were evaluated with observations of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP). The correlation coefficient of NH3 improved significantly for 12 out of 16 EMEP measurement stations and an improvement in predicting the Normalized Mean Error can be seen for particulate NH4+ and NO3-. The prediction of the 95th percentile of the daily average concentrations has improved for NH3, NH4+ and NO3-. The NH3 concentration modelled with the STP is 157% higher in winter, and about 22% lower in early summer than the one modelled with the new DTP. Consequently, the influence of the DTP on the formation of secondary aerosols is particularly noticeable in winter, when the PM2.5 concentration is 25% lower in comparison to the use of STP for temporal disaggregation. Besides

  13. Estimate of changes in agricultural terrestrial nitrogen pathways and ammonia emissions from 1850 to present in the Community Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddick, Stuart; Ward, Daniel; Hess, Peter; Mahowald, Natalie; Massad, Raia; Holland, Elisabeth

    2016-06-01

    Nitrogen applied to the surface of the land for agricultural purposes represents a significant source of reactive nitrogen (Nr) that can be emitted as a gaseous Nr species, be denitrified to atmospheric nitrogen (N2), run off during rain events or form plant-useable nitrogen in the soil. To investigate the magnitude, temporal variability and spatial heterogeneity of nitrogen pathways on a global scale from sources of animal manure and synthetic fertilizer, we developed a mechanistic parameterization of these pathways within a global terrestrial land model, the Community Land Model (CLM). In this first model version the parameterization emphasizes an explicit climate-dependent approach while using highly simplified representations of agricultural practices, including manure management and fertilizer application. The climate-dependent approach explicitly simulates the relationship between meteorological variables and biogeochemical processes to calculate the volatilization of ammonia (NH3), nitrification and runoff of Nr following manure or synthetic fertilizer application. For the year 2000, approximately 125 Tg N yr-1 is applied as manure and 62 Tg N yr-1 is applied as synthetic fertilizer. We estimate the resulting global NH3 emissions are 21 Tg N yr-1 from manure (17 % of manure production) and 12 Tg N yr-1 from fertilizer (19 % of fertilizer application); reactive nitrogen runoff during rain events is calculated as 11 Tg N yr-1 from manure and 5 Tg N yr-1 from fertilizer. The remaining nitrogen from manure (93 Tg N yr-1) and synthetic fertilizer (45 Tg N yr-1) is captured by the canopy or transferred to the soil nitrogen pools. The parameterization was implemented in the CLM from 1850 to 2000 using a transient simulation which predicted that, even though absolute values of all nitrogen pathways are increasing with increased manure and synthetic fertilizer application, partitioning of nitrogen to NH3 emissions from manure is increasing on a percentage basis, from

  14. Understanding emissions of ammonia from buildings and application of fertilizers: an example from Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, M.; C. Ambelas Skjøth; M. Kryza; Dore, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    A Europe-wide dynamic ammonia (NH3) emissions model has been applied for one of the large agricultural countries in Europe, and its sensitivity on the distribution of emissions among different agricultural functions was analysed by comparing with observed ammonia concentrations and by implementing all scenarios in a chemical transport model (CTM). The results suggest that the dynamic emission model is most sensitive to emission from animal manure, in particular h...

  15. Quantification of reductions in ammonia emissions from fertiliser urea and animal urine in grazed pastures with urease inhibitors for agriculture inventory: New Zealand as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggar, Surinder; Singh, J; Giltrap, D L; Zaman, M; Luo, J; Rollo, M; Kim, D-G; Rys, G; van der Weerden, T J

    2013-11-01

    Urea is the key nitrogen (N) fertiliser for grazed pastures, and is also present in excreted animal urine. In soil, urea hydrolyses rapidly to ammonium (NH4(+)) and may be lost as ammonia (NH3) gas. Unlike nitrous oxide (N2O), however, NH3 is not a greenhouse gas although it can act as a secondary source of N2O, and hence contribute indirectly to global warming and stratospheric ozone depletion. Various urease inhibitors (UIs) have been used over the last 30 years to reduce NH3 losses. Among these, N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (nBTPT), sold under the trade name Agrotain®, is currently the most promising and effective when applied with urea or urine. Here we conduct a critical analysis of the published and non-published data on the effectiveness of nBTPT in reducing NH3 emission, from which adjusted values for FracGASF (fraction of total N fertiliser emitted as NH3) and FracGASM (fraction of total N from, animal manure and urine emitted as NH3) for the national agriculture greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory are recommended in order to provide accurate data for the inventory. We use New Zealand as a case study to assess and quantify the overall reduction in NH3 emission from urea and animal urine with the application of UI nBTPT. The available literature indicates that an application rate of 0.025% w/w (nBTPT per unit of N) is optimum for reducing NH3 emissions from temperate grasslands. UI-treated urine studies gave highly variable reductions (11-93%) with an average of 53% and a 95% confidence interval of 33-73%. New Zealand studies, using UI-treated urea, suggest that nBTPT (0.025% w/w) reduces NH3 emissions by 44.7%, on average, with a confidence interval of 39-50%. On this basis, a New Zealand specific value of 0.055 for FracGASF FNUI (fraction of urease inhibitor treated total fertiliser N emitted as NH3) is recommended for adoption where urea containing UI are applied as nBTPT at a rate of 0.025% w/w. Only a limited number of published data sets are

  16. Study of Ammonia Emissions in a Ventilated Pig Pen

    OpenAIRE

    Rong, Li

    2011-01-01

    Pig productions cause a wide emission of odors, such as ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and methane (CH4). Ammonia is one of the most important emissions for evaluating the air quality either in animal buildings or atmospheric environment. In studies of ammonia emission from animal buildings reported in literature, little effort has been made to investigate the accuracy of current Henry’s law constant for modeling ammonia mass transfer process and study ammonia emissions in a full scal...

  17. Modelling of ammonia emissions from dairy cow houses

    OpenAIRE

    Monteny, G.J.

    2000-01-01

    Dairy cow husbandry contributes to environmental acidification through the emission of ammonia. In-depth knowledge on the processes and variable factors that play a role in the emission of ammonia from dairy cow houses benefits the production of emission data, the development of low emission housing systems, and evaluation of emission levels in a farming system approach. A mechanistic simulation model for the ammonia emission from dairy cow houses was developed to facilitate this.An ammonia p...

  18. Net summertime emission of ammonia from corn and triticale fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Undine; Smith, Jeremy; Brümmer, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Recent advancements in laser spectrometry offer new opportunities to investigate ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of environmentally relevant trace gases. In this study, we used a quantum cascade laser (QCL) absorption spectrometer to continuously measure high-frequency concentrations of ammonia and the net exchange between an agricultural site and the atmosphere based on the eddy-covariance approach. The footprint was split into two main sectors, one planted with corn (Zea mays) and the other one with triticale. Ammonia concentrations were highly variable between 2 and almost 100 ppb with an average value of 8.1 ppb during the observation period from April to September 2015. While both deposition and emission of ammonia was observed, the total campaign exchange resulted in a loss of 3.3 kg NH3-N ha‑1. Highest average emission fluxes of 65 ng N m‑2 s‑1 were recorded after fertilization at the beginning of the campaign in April and May. Afterwards the exchange of ammonia with the atmosphere decreased considerably, but the site remained on average a consistent source with sporadic lower peaks and an average flux of 13 ng N m‑2 s‑1. While management in the form of fertilization was the main driver for ammonia concentration and exchange at the site, biophysical controls from temperature, wind regime, and surface wetness are also presented.

  19. Ammonia emission inventory for the state of Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Maser, Colette R.; Brown, Nancy J.

    2003-12-17

    Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) is the only significant gaseous base in the atmosphere and it has a variety of impacts as an atmospheric pollutant, including the formation of secondary aerosol particles: ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate. NH{sub 3} preferentially forms ammonium sulfate; consequently ammonium nitrate aerosol formation may be limited by the availability of NH{sub 3}. Understanding the impact of emissions of oxides of sulfur and nitrogen on visibility, therefore, requires accurately determined ammonia emission inventories for use in air quality models, upon which regulatory and policy decisions increasingly depend. This report presents an emission inventory of NH{sub 3} for the state of Wyoming. The inventory is temporally and spatially resolved at the monthly and county level, and is comprised of emissions from individual sources in ten categories: livestock, fertilizer, domestic animals, wild animals, wildfires, soil, industry, mobile sources, humans, and publicly owned treatment works. The Wyoming NH{sub 3} inventory was developed using the Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) Ammonia Model as framework. Current Wyoming-specific activity data and emissions factors obtained from state agencies and published literature were assessed and used as inputs to the CMU Ammonia Model. Biogenic emissions from soils comprise about three-quarters of the Wyoming NH{sub 3} inventory, though emission factors from soils are highly uncertain. Published emission factors are scarce and based on limited measurements. In Wyoming, agricultural land, rangeland, and forests comprise 96% of the land area and essentially all of the estimated emissions from soils. Future research on emission rates of NH{sub 3} for these land categories may lead to a substantial change in the magnitude of soil emissions, a different inventory composition, and reduced uncertainty in the inventory. While many NH{sub 3} inventories include annual emissions, air quality modeling studies require finer temporal

  20. Ammonia emission from crop residues : quantification of ammonia volatilization based on crop residue properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, de F.J.; Huijsmans, J.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of available literature data on ammonia volatilization from crop residues. From these data, a relation is derived for the ammonia emission depending on the N-content of crop residue.

  1. Modelling of ammonia emissions from dairy cow houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteny, G.J.

    2000-01-01

    Dairy cow husbandry contributes to environmental acidification through the emission of ammonia. In-depth knowledge on the processes and variable factors that play a role in the emission of ammonia from dairy cow houses benefits the production of emission data, the development of low emission housing

  2. Biofilter Treating Ammonia Gas Using Agricultural Residues Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaniya Kaosol

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Agricultural residues such as manure and sugarcane bagasse are wastes from agro-industry which has low value and requires some sustainable waste management method. In this research, a mixture of manure fertilizer and sugarcane bagasse is used as a biofilter media for an ammonia gas removal application. The aim of this research is to study the ammonia gas removal efficiency of such media. Approach: The experiments were conducted in laboratory-scale biofilters. Two inlet ammonia gas concentrations were used which are 500 and 1,000 ppm. Three ratios of manure fertilizer and sugarcane bagasse were studied including 1:3, 1:5 and 1:7 by volume. All experiments were conducted for a period of 40 days. Two Empty Bed Retention Time (EBRT of these experiments were used which is 39s and 78s. The moisture content of the biofilter media was maintained at 45-60% by adding water. Results: The maximum ammonia gas removal efficiency at 89.93% is observed from the following conditions: 500 ppm of the inlet ammonia gas concentration, the manure fertilizer and sugarcane bagasse mixture ratio of 1:5 and the EBRT of 78s. The important factors of the ammonia gas removal in biofiltration process are the inlet ammonia gas concentration and the EBRT. Conclusion: The experimental results showed that the mixture of manure fertilizer and sugarcane bagasse is an effective biofilter media for ammonia gas removal applications. However, the biofilter is more effective at low inlet ammonia gas concentration, while the ratio of manure fertilizer and sugarcane bagasse has no significant effect on the ammonia gas removal efficiency. Therefore, using both residues as biofilter media for ammonia gas removal application is an alternative sustainable way to such manage argo-industry waste.

  3. Options and Costs of Controlling Ammonia Emissions in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Klaassen, G.

    1994-01-01

    Ammonia emissions contribute to acidification in Europe. The major emission sources are livestock and fertilizer use. This study presents the costs of controlling ammonia emissions in 33 regions in Europe. Abatement options include low nitrogen feed, stable adaptations, covering manure storage, cleaning stable air, and low ammonia applications of manure. Cost estimates are based on country- and technology-specific data. The structure of livestock population and fertilizer use mean that th...

  4. Measurement of Ammonia Emission Following Surface Application of Urea Fertilizer from Irrigated Paddy Rice Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md.Toufiq Iqbal; TIAN Guang-ming; LIANG Xin-qiang; Fatima Rukshana

    2005-01-01

    Ammonia emission is one of the most important pathways of nitrogen loss from agricultural cultivated field. In this paper, we report the measurement of ammonia emission from paddy rice field obtained by surface application of urea fertilizer with water management. The main objective of the present study were to assess the amount of NH3 emission and the loss of nitrogen from paddy field as affected by various N doses, i.e., 0 (control), 90 (N1), 180 (N2), 270 (N3) and 360 (N4) kg ha-1, following field surface application of urea fertilizer with water management. Ammonia emissions were measured by continuous airflow enclosure method from plots fertilized with the application of surface urea. Increase in urea-N dosage increased NH3 emission thatwas measured from paddy rice field. Ammonia emission started immediately and was almost complete within 12 days after top dressing of urea application to the soils. Ammonia emissions were nearly constant in all treatments from 12 days after fertilizer application. Highest ammonia emission rate was 28 g/day and total amount of ammonia emission was 56.21 kg ha-1 for 360 kg N ha-1 dose. No remarkable observation was found about temperature for ammonia emission. Due to proper water management practices less emission was observed throughout the experiment period. The results also show that N loss through NH3 emission accounted for 11 to 16% during the ricegrowing season. These magnitudes of loss of N appear to be most important for environmental point of view.

  5. Understanding emissions of ammonia from buildings and application of fertilizers: an example from Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, M.; Ambelas Skjøth, C.; Kryza, M.; Dore, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    A Europe-wide dynamic ammonia (NH3) emissions model has been applied for one of the large agricultural countries in Europe, and its sensitivity on the distribution of emissions among different agricultural functions was analysed by comparing with observed ammonia concentrations and by implementing all scenarios in a chemical transport model (CTM). The results suggest that the dynamic emission model is most sensitive to emission from animal manure, in particular how animal manure and its application on fields is connected to national regulations. In contrast, the model is most robust with respect to emission from buildings and storage. To incorporate the national regulations, we obtained activity information on agricultural operations at the sub-national level for Poland, information about infrastructure on storages, and current regulations on manure practice from Polish authorities. The information was implemented in the existing emission model and was connected directly with the NWP calculations from the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF-ARW). The model was used to calculate four emission scenarios with high spatial (5 km × 5 km) and temporal resolution (3 h) for the entire year 2010. In the four scenarios, we have compared the Europe-wide default model settings against (1) a scenario that focuses on emission from agricultural buildings, (2) the existing emission method used in WRF-Chem in Poland, and (3) a scenario that takes into account Polish infrastructure and agricultural regulations. The ammonia emission was implemented into the CTM FRAME and modelled ammonia concentrations was compared with measurements. The results suggest that the default setting in the dynamic model is an improvement compared to a non-dynamical emission profile. The results also show that further improvements can be obtained on the national scale by replacing the default information on manure practice with information that is connected with local practice and national

  6. Atmospheric ammonia over China: emission estimates and impacts on air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Zhao, Yuanhong; Chen, Youfan; Henze, Daven

    2016-04-01

    Ammonia (NH3) in the atmosphere is an important precursor of inorganic aerosols, and its deposition through wet and dry processes can cause adverse effects on ecosystems. The ammonia emissions over China are particularly large due to intensive agricultural activities, yet our current estimates of Chinese ammonia emissions and associated consequences on air quality are subject to large errors. Here we use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and its adjoint model to better quantify this issue. The TES satellite observations of ammonia concentrations and surface measurements of wet deposition fluxes are assimilated into the model to constrain the ammonia emissions over China. Optimized emissions show a strong seasonal variability with emissions in summer a factor of 3 higher than winter. We improve the bottom-up estimate of Chinese ammonia emissions from fertilizer use by using more practical feritilizer application rates for different crop types, which explains most of the discrepancies between our top-down estimates and prior emission estimates. We further use the GEOS-Chem adjoint at 0.25x0.3125 degree resolution to examine the sources contributing to the PM2.5 air pollution over North China. We show that wintertime PM2.5 over Beijing is largely contributed by residential and industrial sources, and ammonia emissions from agriculture activities. PM2.5 concentrations over North China are particularly sensitive to NH3 emissions in cold seasons due to strong nitrate formation. By converting shorted-lived nitric acid to aerosol nitrate, NH3 significantly promotes the regional transport influences of PM2.5 sources.

  7. Development and application of the integrated nitrogen model MITERRA-EUROPE . Task 1 Service contract "Integrated measures in agriculture to reduce ammonia emissions"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthof, G.L.; Oudendag, D.A.; Oenema, O.

    2007-01-01

    The objective is to have developed and applied a methodology allowing to assess and quantify the effects and costs of various policies and measures aiming at reducing the impact of agriculture on water air pollution and climate change. Both ancillary benefits and trade offs of measures have to be id

  8. Study of Ammonia Emissions in a Ventilated Pig Pen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Li

    reported in literature, little effort has been made to investigate the accuracy of current Henry’s law constant for modeling ammonia mass transfer process and study ammonia emissions in a full scale pig pen from fluid dynamics by CFD simulations. This will be the main objectives of this study. The ammonia...... the accuracy of Henry’s law constants to determine the ammonia concentration in the air through the air-liquid interface. None of the present Henry’s law constant models provide a respectable agreement between simulated and measured results. A simplified model to determine the ammonia concentration in the air...... through the air-liquid interface is suggested from vapor-liquid equilibrium properties of ammonia water. Furthermore, the effects of airflow and temperature on ammonia mass transfer coefficient are also analyzed under different concentration boundary conditions determined by various Henry’s law constant...

  9. Understanding emissions of ammonia from buildings and application of fertilizers: an example from Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Werner

    2015-01-01

    To incorporate the national regulations, we obtained activity information on agricultural operations at the sub-national level for Poland, information about infrastructure on storages, and current regulations on manure practice from Polish authorities. The information was implemented in the existing emission model and was connected directly with the NWP calculations from the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF-ARW. The model was used to calculate four emission scenarios with high spatial (5 km × 5 km and temporal resolution (3 h for the entire year 2010. In the four scenarios, we have compared the Europe-wide default model settings against (1 a scenario that focuses on emission from agricultural buildings, (2 the existing emission method used in WRF-Chem in Poland, and (3 a scenario that takes into account Polish infrastructure and agricultural regulations. The ammonia emission was implemented into the CTM FRAME and modelled ammonia concentrations was compared with measurements. The results suggest that the default setting in the dynamic model is an improvement compared to a non-dynamical emission profile. The results also show that further improvements can be obtained on the national scale by replacing the default information on manure practice with information that is connected with local practice and national regulations. Implementing a dynamical approach for simulation of ammonia emission is a viable objective for all CTM models that continue to use fixed emission profiles. Such models should handle ammonia emissions in a similar way to other climate-dependent emissions (e.g. biogenic volatile organic compounds. Our results, compared with previous results from the DEHM and the GEOS-CHEM models, suggest that implementing dynamical approaches improves simulations in general, even in areas with limited information about the location of the agricultural fields, livestock and agricultural production methods such as Poland.

  10. Development and application of the integrated nitrogen model MITERRA-EUROPE . Task 1 Service contract "Integrated measures in agriculture to reduce ammonia emissions"

    OpenAIRE

    Velthof, G.L.; Oudendag, D.A.; Oenema, O.

    2007-01-01

    The objective is to have developed and applied a methodology allowing to assess and quantify the effects and costs of various policies and measures aiming at reducing the impact of agriculture on water air pollution and climate change. Both ancillary benefits and trade offs of measures have to be identified. In this report, the integrated approach of task 1 is described: development of an integrated approach. The model MITERRA-EUROPE is developed in this project. It is a model that can be use...

  11. Mapping Atmospheric Ammonia Emissions Using a Mobile Quantum Cascade Laser-based Open-path Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, K.; Tao, L.; Miller, D. J.; Khan, M. A.; Zondlo, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Ammonia (NH3) is a key precursor to atmospheric fine particulate matter, with strong implications for regional air quality and global climate change. Despite the importance of atmospheric ammonia, its spatial/temporal variation is poorly characterized, and the knowledge of its sources, sinks, and transport is severely limited. Existing measurements suggest that traffic exhaust may provide significant amounts of ammonia in urban areas, which cause greater impacts on particulate matter formation and urban air quality. To capture the spatial and temporal variation of ammonia emissions, a portable, low power sensor with high time resolution is necessary. We have developed a portable open-path ammonia sensor with a detection limit of 0.5 ppbv ammonia for 1 s measurements. The sensor has a power consumption of about 60 W and is capable of running on a car battery continuously for 24 hours. An additional laser has been coupled to the sensor to yield concurrent N2O and CO measurements as tracers for determining various sources. The overall sensor prototype fits on a 60 cm × 20 cm aluminum breadboard. Roadside measurements indicated NH3/CO emission ratios of 4.1±5.4 ppbv/ppmv from a fleet of 320 vehicles, which agree with existing on-ramp measurements. Urban measurements in the Baltimore and Washington, DC metropolitan areas have shown significant ammonia mixing ratios concurrent with carbon monoxide levels from the morning and evening rush hours. On-road measurements of our open-path sensor have also been performed continuously from the Midwest to Princeton, NJ including urban areas such as Pittsburgh, tunnels, and relatively clean conditions. The emission ratios of ammonia against CO and/or CO2 help identify the sources and amounts of both urban and agricultural ammonia emissions. Preliminary data from both spatial mapping, monitoring, and vehicle exhaust measurements suggest that urban ammonia emissions from fossil fuel combustion are significant and may provide an

  12. Danish emission inventory for agriculture. Inventories 1985 - 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjorth Mikkelsen, M.; Albrektsen, R.; Gyldenkaerne, S.

    2011-02-15

    By regulations given in international conventions Denmark is obliged to work out an annual emission inventory and document the methodology. The National Environmental Research Institute (NERI) at Aarhus University (AU) in Denmark is responsible for calculating and reporting the emissions. This report contains a description of the emissions from the agricultural sector from 1985 to 2009. Furthermore, the report includes a detailed description of methods and data used to calculate the emissions, which is based on national methodologies as well as international guidelines. For the Danish emissions calculations and data management an Integrated Database model for Agricultural emissions (IDA) is used. The emission from the agricultural sector includes emission of the greenhouse gases methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), particulate matter (PM), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) and other pollutants related to the field burning of agricultural residue such as NO{sub x}, CO{sub 2}, CO, SO{sub 2}, heavy metals, dioxin and PAH. The ammonia emission from 1985 to 2009 has decreased from 119 300 tonnes of NH{sub 3} to 73 800 tonnes NH{sub 3}, corresponding to a 38 % reduction. The emission of greenhouse gases has decreased by 25 % from 12.9 M tonnes CO{sub 2} equivalents to 9.6 M tonnes CO{sub 2} equivalents from 1985 to 2009. Improvements in feed efficiency and utilisation of nitrogen in livestock manure are the most important reasons for the reduction of both the ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions. (Author)

  13. Modeling of ammonia emission in the USA and EU countries using an artificial neural network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenković, Lidija J; Antanasijević, Davor Z; Ristić, Mirjana Đ; Perić-Grujić, Aleksandra A; Pocajt, Viktor V

    2015-12-01

    Ammonia emissions at the national level are frequently estimated by applying the emission inventory approach, which includes the use of emission factors, which are difficult and expensive to determine. Emission factors are therefore the subject of estimation, and as such they contribute to inherent uncertainties in the estimation of ammonia emissions. This paper presents an alternative approach for the prediction of ammonia emissions at the national level based on artificial neural networks and broadly available sustainability and economical/agricultural indicators as model inputs. The Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) architecture was optimized using a trial-and-error procedure, including the number of hidden neurons, activation function, and a back-propagation algorithm. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to reduce mutual correlation between the inputs. The obtained results demonstrate that the MLP model created using the PCA transformed inputs (PCA-MLP) provides a more accurate prediction than the MLP model based on the original inputs. In the validation stage, the MLP and PCA-MLP models were tested for ammonia emission predictions for up to 2 years and compared with a principal component regression model. Among the three models, the PCA-MLP demonstrated the best performance, providing predictions for the USA and the majority of EU countries with a relative error of less than 20%.

  14. Managing Ammonia Emissions From Screwworm Larval Rearing Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagel, Agustin; Phillips, Pamela; Chaudhury, Muhammad; Skoda, Steven

    2016-02-01

    Mass production, sterilization, and release of screwworms (Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel)) that were competitive in the field significantly contributed to the successful application of the sterile insect technique for eradication of screwworms from continental North America. Metabolic byproducts resulting from protein-rich diets required for larval screwworms lead to ammonia liberation, sometimes at high levels, within the mass rearing facility. Until recently a sodium polyacrylate gel bulking agent was used for the larval media and adsorbed much of the ammonia. A need to replace the gel with an environmentally "friendly" bulking agent, while not increasing ammonia levels in the rearing facility, led to a series of experiments with the objective of developing procedures to reduce ammonia emissions from the larval media bulked with cellulose fiber. Additives of ammonia-converting bacteria, potassium permanganate, and Yucca schidigera Roezl ex Otrgies powder extract, previously reported to reduce ammonia levels in organic environments, were evaluated. Ammonia-converting bacteria did not have a positive effect. Addition of Y. schidigera powder extract (∼1% of total volume), potassium permanganate (∼250 ppm), and a combination of these two additives (at these same concentrations) kept ammonia at equivalent levels as when larval media was bulked with gel. Potassium permanganate also had sufficient antimicrobial properties that the use of formaldehyde in the diet was not necessary. Further testing is needed, at a mass rearing level, before full implementation into the screwworm eradication program.

  15. Managing Ammonia Emissions From Screwworm Larval Rearing Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagel, Agustin; Phillips, Pamela; Chaudhury, Muhammad; Skoda, Steven

    2016-02-01

    Mass production, sterilization, and release of screwworms (Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel)) that were competitive in the field significantly contributed to the successful application of the sterile insect technique for eradication of screwworms from continental North America. Metabolic byproducts resulting from protein-rich diets required for larval screwworms lead to ammonia liberation, sometimes at high levels, within the mass rearing facility. Until recently a sodium polyacrylate gel bulking agent was used for the larval media and adsorbed much of the ammonia. A need to replace the gel with an environmentally "friendly" bulking agent, while not increasing ammonia levels in the rearing facility, led to a series of experiments with the objective of developing procedures to reduce ammonia emissions from the larval media bulked with cellulose fiber. Additives of ammonia-converting bacteria, potassium permanganate, and Yucca schidigera Roezl ex Otrgies powder extract, previously reported to reduce ammonia levels in organic environments, were evaluated. Ammonia-converting bacteria did not have a positive effect. Addition of Y. schidigera powder extract (∼1% of total volume), potassium permanganate (∼250 ppm), and a combination of these two additives (at these same concentrations) kept ammonia at equivalent levels as when larval media was bulked with gel. Potassium permanganate also had sufficient antimicrobial properties that the use of formaldehyde in the diet was not necessary. Further testing is needed, at a mass rearing level, before full implementation into the screwworm eradication program. PMID:26468514

  16. Overview and assessment of techniques to measure ammonia emissions from animal houses : the case of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosquera Losada, J.; Monteny, G.J.; Erisman, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    In order to comply with the ammonia (NH3) emission reduction assigned to the Netherlands development of new measures are needed, which should be supported by fast and accurate measurements to arrive at new estimates of the NH3 emission from each agricultural source. This paper gives an overview of t

  17. Urease inhibitor for reducing ammonia emissions from an open-lot beef cattle feedyard in the Texas High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reduction of ammonia (NH3) emissions from animal feeding operations is important from the perspective of environmental policy and its impact on agriculture. In laboratory studies, urease inhibitors have been effective in reducing NH3 emissions from beef cattle manure, however there has been little t...

  18. Spatial and temporal variations in ammonia emissions - a freely accessible model code for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Geels, Camilla; Berge, H.;

    2011-01-01

    demonstrates how local climate and local management can be accounted for in CTMs by applying a modular approach for deriving data as input to a dynamic ammonia emission model for Europe. Default data are obtained from information in the RAINS system, and it is demonstrated how this dynamic emission model based......Deriving a parameterisation of ammonia emissions for use in chemistry-transport models (CTMs) is a complex problem as the emission varies locally as a result of local climate and local agricultural management. In current CTMs such factors are generally not taken into account. This paper...... this domain. The model code and the obtained default values for the modelling experiments are available as supplementary information to this article for use by the modelling community on similar terms as the EMEP CTM model: the GPL licencse v3....

  19. Ammonia emissions from cattle urine and dung excreted on pasture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laubach, J; Taghizadeh-Toosi, Arezoo; Gibbs, S J;

    2013-01-01

    Twelve cattle were kept for three days in a circular area of 16 m radius on short pasture and fed with freshly-cut pasture. Ammonia (NH3) emissions from the urine and dung excreted by the cattle were measured with a micrometeorological mass-balance method, during the cattle presence and for 10 su...

  20. Ammonia emissions in tunnel-ventilated broiler houses

    OpenAIRE

    KAO Lima; DJ de Moura; TMR Carvalho; LGF Bueno; RA Vercellino

    2011-01-01

    Gas production in broiler houses and their emissions are closely related to the microclimate established inside the house according to air temperature, humidity, and velocity. Therefore, the internal house environment is influenced by building typology and ventilation system. The objective of the present study was to evaluate ammonia emission rates in broiler houses equipped with different ventilation systems (negative or positive pressure) and litter conditions (new or built-up). The environ...

  1. Nitrogenous fertilizers: Global distribution of consumption and associated emissions of nitrous exide and ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Elaine

    1994-12-01

    The global distribution of nitrogen input via application of chemical nitrogenous fertilizers to agricultural ecosystems is presented. The suite of 1° (latitude/longitude) resolution data bases includes primary data on fertilizer consumption, as well as supporting data sets defining the distribution and intensity of agriculture associated with fertilizer use. The data were developed from a variety of sources and reflect conditions for the mid-1980s. East Asia, where fertilizer use is increasing at ˜10%/year, accounted for ˜37% of the total, while North America and western Europe, where fertilizer use is leveling off, accounted for 17% and 14% of global use, respectively. Former centrally planned economies of Europe consumed one fifth of the 1984 total, but rapid increases in the 1980s are slowing, and consumption trends are variable. The most widely used chemical nitrogenous fertilizer is urea which accounted for 40% of the world's total in the mid-1980s. While almost every country consumes urea, ˜75% of the large East Asian fertilizer use is supplied by this one fertilizer. Ammonium nitrate, used primarily in the former centrally planned economies of Europe, in West Asia, and in Africa, accounted for about one quarter of global consumption. These data were used to estimate distributions of the annual emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) and of ammonia (NH3) associated with the use of fertilizers. Applying published ranges of emission coefficients for fertilizer types in the data base yields a median emission of 0.1 Tg N2O-N, with lower and upper values of 0.03 and 2.0 Tg N2O-N in 1984. This equals fertilizers and represents fertilizers during the 1980s corresponds to a ˜4% rise in the release of N2O-N, yearly increases in emissions from fertilizer use are fertilizer-derived nitrous oxide emissions are available for agricultural environments in the tropics/subtropics, where ˜40% of fertilizer N is consumed and where consumption is increasing rapidly, relative

  2. Air Emissions from Agriculture in Austria and Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDERL M.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A comparative picture of the trends in GHG emissions during 1990 – 2007 in Austria and Romania, within EU –27 tendencies context, with accent on agriculture sources is presented. The green house gases (GHG emissions fromagriculture in EU – 27 during 1990 and 2007 are mainly represented by methane (CH4 nitrous oxide (N2O andammonia (NH3. In Austria, all sectors have a decreasing tendency during the analyzed interval. In Romania, duringanalyzed interval, the GHG emissions from Romanian sector agriculture had the same decreasing tendency. The maindriving force in methane and nitrous oxide decrease, in both studied situations (Austrian and Romanian agriculturalsectors, respectively, is the declining number of animals. Concerning the ammonia emissions, the decrease was theresult of improvement in different sectors: housing, storage, spreading, and animal diets.

  3. Ammonia emissions in the United States, European Union, and China derived by high-resolution inversion of ammonium wet deposition data: Interpretation with a new agricultural emissions inventory (MASAGE_NH3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We use the adjoint of a global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to optimizeammonia (NH3China by inversion of 2005–2008 network data for NH+4 wet deposition fluxes. Optimized emissions are derive...

  4. Ammonia-Oxidizer Communities in an Agricultural Soil treated with Contrasting Nitrogen Sources.

    OpenAIRE

    Mussie Y. Habteselassie; Li eXu; Norton, Jeanette M.

    2013-01-01

    The community of ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes was examined in an agricultural soil treated for 6 seasons with contrasting nitrogen (N) sources. Molecular tools based on the gene encoding ammonia monooxygenase were used to characterize the ammonia oxidizer communities and their abundance. Soil DNA was extracted from soils sampled from silage corn plots that received no additional N (control), dairy waste compost (DC), liquid dairy waste (LW), and ammonium sulfate (AS) treatments at approxima...

  5. Paecilomyces variotii: A Fungus Capable of Removing Ammonia Nitrogen and Inhibiting Ammonia Emission from Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiyun; Liu, Guohua; Cai, Huiyi; Shi, Pengjun; Chang, Wenhuan; Zhang, Shu; Zheng, Aijuan; Xie, Qing; Ma, Jianshuang

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emissions from animal manure are a significant environmental and public concern. Despite the numerous studies regarding NH3 emissions from manure, few of them have considered microbial nitrification approaches, especially fungal nitrification. In this study, a filamentous fungus was isolated from chicken manure and was used for nitrification. The species was Paecilomyces variotii by morphological characteristics and 18S rDNA gene sequencing. It played the biggest role in the removal of ammonium at pH 4.0–7.0, C/N ratio of 10–40, temperature of 25–37°C, shaking speed of 150 rpm, and with glucose as the available carbon source. Further analysis revealed that all ammonium was removed when the initial ammonium concentration was less than 100 mg/L; 40% ammonium was removed when the initial ammonium concentration was 1100 mg/L. The results showed that the concentration of ammonia from chicken manure with strain Paecilomyces variotii was significantly lower than that in the control group. We concluded that Paecilomyces variotii has good potential for future applications in in situ ammonium removal as well as ammonia emissions control from poultry manure. PMID:27348533

  6. Cost Functions for Controlling Ammonia Emissions in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Klaassen, G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a submodule which computes the costs of controlling ammonia emissions in 27 European countries. The submodule will be incorporated into the RAINS (Regional Acidification INformation and Simulation) model. Abatement options included are low nitrogen feed, stable adaptations, covering manure storage, biofiltration and low nitrogen applications of manure. Cost estimates are based on country-, animal-, and technology specific data such as the stable size and fertilizer price, ...

  7. Carbon footprint and ammonia emissions of California beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse-Lawson, K R; Rotz, C A; Oltjen, J W; Mitloehner, F M

    2012-12-01

    Beef production is a recognized source of greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia (NH(3)) emissions; however, little information exists on the net emissions from beef production systems. A partial life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted using the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM) to estimate GHG and NH(3) emissions from representative beef production systems in California. The IFSM is a process-level farm model that simulates crop growth, feed production and use, animal growth, and the return of manure nutrients back to the land to predict the environmental impacts and economics of production systems. Ammonia emissions are determined by summing the emissions from animal housing facilities, manure storage, field applied manure, and direct deposits of manure on pasture and rangeland. All important sources and sinks of methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide are predicted from primary and secondary emission sources. Primary sources include enteric fermentation, manure, cropland used in feed production, and fuel combustion. Secondary emissions occur during the production of resources used on the farm, which include fuel, electricity, machinery, fertilizer, and purchased animals. The carbon footprint is the net exchange of all GHG in carbon dioxide equivalent (CO(2)e) units per kg of HCW produced. Simulated beef production systems included cow-calf, stocker, and feedlot phases for the traditional British beef breeds and calf ranch and feedlot phases for Holstein steers. An evaluation of differing production management strategies resulted in ammonia emissions ranging from 98 ± 13 to 141 ± 27 g/kg HCW and carbon footprints of 10.7 ± 1.4 to 22.6 ± 2.0 kg CO(2)e/kg HCW. Within the British beef production cycle, the cow-calf phase was responsible for 69 to 72% of total GHG emissions with 17 to 27% from feedlot sources. Holstein steers that entered the beef production system as a by-product of dairy production had the lowest carbon footprint because the emissions

  8. Micro-simulation as a tool to assess policy concerning non-point source pollution: the case of ammonia in Dutch agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Kruseman, G.; Blokland, P.W.; Bouma, F.; Luesink, H.H.; Vrolijk, H.C.J.

    2008-01-01

    Non-point source pollution is notoriously difficult to asses. A relevant example is ammonia emissions in the Netherlands. Since the mid 1980s the Dutch government has sought to reduce emissions through a wide variety of measures, the effect of which in turn is monitored using modeling techniques. This paper presents the current generation of mineral emission models from agriculture based on micro-simulation of farms in combination with a spatial equilibrium model for the dispersion of manure ...

  9. Micro-simulation as a tool to assess policy concerning non-point source pollution: the case of ammonia in Dutch agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Kruseman, Gideon; Blokland, Pieter-Willem; Bouma, Foppe; Luesink, Harry H.; Mokveld, Lennard J.; Vrolijk, Hans C.J.

    2008-01-01

    Non-point source pollution is notoriously difficult to assess. A relevant example is ammonia emissions in the Netherlands. Since the mid 1980s the Dutch government has sought to reduce emissions through a wide variety of measures, the effect of which in turn is monitored using modeling techniques. This paper presents the current generation of mineral emission models from agriculture based on micro-simulation of farms in combination with a spatial equilibrium model for the dispersion of manure...

  10. Ammonia emissions from livestock industries in Canada: Feasibility of abatement strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carew, Richard, E-mail: richard.carew@agr.gc.c [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre, 4200 Highway 97, P.O. Box 5000, Summerland, British Columbia, VOH1Z0 (Canada)

    2010-08-15

    An updated national ammonia (NH{sub 3}) emissions inventory was employed to study the relationship between NH{sub 3} emissions and livestock industries in Canada. Emissions from animal agriculture accounted for 322 kilotonnes (kt) or 64% of Canadian NH{sub 3} emissions in 2002. Cattle and swine accounted for the bulk of livestock emissions. The provinces of Alberta, Ontario, Quebec, and Saskatchewan accounted for 28.1%, 22.0%, 18.7%, and 13.1% of total livestock emissions, respectively. Emissions from Ontario and Quebec were attributed to the intensive production of dairy, hogs and poultry. Dairy cattle emissions per hectolitre of milk were higher in Ontario and Quebec than in other provinces, while swine emissions per livestock unit were higher than either beef or dairy cattle. A review of the abatement literature indicated diet manipulation to improve N efficiency and land spreading methods are very effective techniques to lower NH{sub 3} emissions. Future research is required to evaluate the feasibility of biofilters and feces/urine separation methods. - Livestock NH{sub 3} emissions are higher in areas characterized by intensive livestock production with diet manipulation and land spreading offering the greatest potential for NH{sub 3} abatement options.

  11. 75 FR 40765 - Hours of Service; Limited Exemption for the Distribution of Anhydrous Ammonia in Agricultural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... Management System published in the Federal Register on January 17, 2008 (73 FR 3316), or you may visit http... of the retail or wholesale distribution point (54 FR 13441). The waiver extended the agricultural... Distribution of Anhydrous Ammonia in Agricultural Operations AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...

  12. [Study on Ammonia Emission Rules in a Dairy Feedlot Based on Laser Spectroscopy Detection Method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ying; Zhang, Yu-jun; You, Kun; Wang, Li-ming; Gao, Yan-wei; Xu, Jin-feng; Gao, Zhi-ling; Ma, Wen-qi

    2016-03-01

    It needs on-line monitoring of ammonia concentration on dairy feedlot to disclose ammonia emissions characteristics accurately for reducing ammonia emissions and improving the ecological environment. The on-line monitoring system for ammonia concentration has been designed based on Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) technology combining with long open-path technology, then the study has been carried out with inverse dispersion technique and the system. The ammonia concentration in-situ has been detected and ammonia emission rules have been analyzed on a dairy feedlot in Baoding in autumn and winter of 2013. The monitoring indicated that the peak of ammonia concentration was 6.11 x 10(-6) in autumn, and that was 6.56 x 10(-6) in winter. The concentration results show that the variation of ammonia concentration had an obvious diurnal periodicity, and the general characteristic of diurnal variation was that the concentration was low in the daytime and was high at night. The ammonia emissions characteristic was obtained with inverse dispersion model that the peak of ammonia emissions velocity appeared at noon. The emission velocity was from 1.48 kg/head/hr to 130.6 kg/head/hr in autumn, and it was from 0.004 5 kg/head/hr to 43.32 kg/head/hr in winter which was lower than that in autumn. The results demonstrated ammonia emissions had certain seasonal differences in dairy feedlot scale. In conclusion, the ammonia concentration was detected with optical technology, and the ammonia emissions results were acquired by inverse dispersion model analysis with large range, high sensitivity, quick response without gas sampling. Thus, it's an effective method for ammonia emissions monitoring in dairy feedlot that provides technical support for scientific breeding.

  13. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agricultural Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennetzen, Eskild Hohlmann

    Global climate change is recognised as one of the major current challenges to humanity. At the same time, climate change is human induced and we hold the opportunity to react accordingly. While global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions continue to rise, emissions from agriculture and land-use change......-production, respectively. Only emissions from energy use have increased more than production. Our projected BAU scenarios suggest that emissions may be further decoupled by 20 – 55% giving absolute agricultural emissions in the range of 8.2 to 14.5 Pg CO2-eq. yr-1 by 2050; lower than most other suggest from estimates...

  14. Managing ammonia emissions from livestock production in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, J. [ADAS Research, Woodthorne, Wergs Road, Wolverhampton WV6 8TQ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: jim.webb@adas.co.uk; Menzi, H. [Swiss College of Agriculture, Laenggasse 85, CH-3052 Zollikofen (Switzerland); Pain, B.F. [Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research, North Wyke, Okehampton, Devon EX20 2SB (United Kingdom); Misselbrook, T.H. [Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research, North Wyke, Okehampton, Devon EX20 2SB (United Kingdom); Daemmgen, U. [Federal Agricultural Research Centre, Institute of Agroecology, Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Hendriks, H. [National Reference Centre, Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality, Ede (Netherlands); Doehler, H. [KTBL, Bartningstrasse 49, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2005-06-15

    Around 75% of European ammonia (NH{sub 3}) emissions come from livestock production. Emissions occur at all stages of manure management: from buildings housing livestock; during manure storage; following manure application to land; and from urine deposited by livestock on pastures during grazing. Ammoniacal nitrogen (total ammoniacal-nitrogen, TAN) in livestock excreta is the main source of NH{sub 3}. At each stage of manure management TAN may be lost, mainly as NH{sub 3}, and the remainder passed to the next stage. Hence, measures to reduce NH{sub 3} emissions at the various stages of manure management are interdependent, and the accumulative reduction achieved by combinations of measures is not simply additive. This TAN-flow concept enables rapid and easy estimation of the consequences of NH{sub 3} abatement at one stage of manure management (upstream) on NH{sub 3} emissions at later stages (downstream), and gives unbiased assessment of the most cost-effective measures. We conclude that rapid incorporation of manures into arable land is one of the most cost-effective measures to reduce NH{sub 3} emissions, while covering manure stores and applying slurry by band spreader or injection are more cost-effective than measures to reduce emissions from buildings. These measures are likely to rank highly in most European countries. - Reducing NH{sub 3} emissions following spreading of manures to land ranks highly because of the large abatement potential and relatively small cost.

  15. Managing ammonia emissions from livestock production in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Around 75% of European ammonia (NH3) emissions come from livestock production. Emissions occur at all stages of manure management: from buildings housing livestock; during manure storage; following manure application to land; and from urine deposited by livestock on pastures during grazing. Ammoniacal nitrogen (total ammoniacal-nitrogen, TAN) in livestock excreta is the main source of NH3. At each stage of manure management TAN may be lost, mainly as NH3, and the remainder passed to the next stage. Hence, measures to reduce NH3 emissions at the various stages of manure management are interdependent, and the accumulative reduction achieved by combinations of measures is not simply additive. This TAN-flow concept enables rapid and easy estimation of the consequences of NH3 abatement at one stage of manure management (upstream) on NH3 emissions at later stages (downstream), and gives unbiased assessment of the most cost-effective measures. We conclude that rapid incorporation of manures into arable land is one of the most cost-effective measures to reduce NH3 emissions, while covering manure stores and applying slurry by band spreader or injection are more cost-effective than measures to reduce emissions from buildings. These measures are likely to rank highly in most European countries. - Reducing NH3 emissions following spreading of manures to land ranks highly because of the large abatement potential and relatively small cost

  16. An Assessment of Ammonia Emissions from Dairy Facilities in Pennsylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Ferguson

    2001-01-01

    . Reduction of ammonia emissions from dairy barns can significantly reduce atmospheric pollution and improve air and water quality.

  17. An assessment of ammonia emissions from dairy facilities in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, J D; Dou, Z; Ramberg, C F

    2001-10-26

    A survey of 715 Holstein dairy farms in Pennsylvania was used to construct demographics for the average Holstein dairy farm. The average Holstein dairy farm was composed of 69 lactating cows; 11 nonlactating, pregnant cows; 44 heifers; and 18 calves. Milk production averaged 27.3 kg (60.0 lb). Crop area averaged 73.6 ha. Milk production, crop area and type, average county yields, and herd animal groups were used to construct a typical feeding program for these farms. Typical rations were constructed for six feeding groups (three milk production groups, one nonlactating group, two heifer groups) to meet milk production, pregnancy, and growth requirements. Rations were constructed based on three forage qualities (excellent, average, and poor) typically observed on Pennsylvania dairy farms. Data for animal description (milk production, body weight, growth, and pregnancy status) and ration components and amounts consumed for each animal group were input into the excretion model of the Dairy Nutrient Planner computer program (DNP). Excretion of fecal N and dry matter (DM), urinary N, and total P and K were produced for each animal group and used to assess potential volatile losses of N. Work at the Marshak Dairy, New Bolton Center, indicates the majority of urinary N is rapidly lost as ammonia from dairy facilities. Based on this observation, the losses of N as ammonia were estimated to be 4.63, 4.62, and 4.28 tonne/year for the farm with excellent, average, and poor quality forages, respectively. Volatile losses of N may be reduced most by controlling levels of urea in urine. Urinary N may be reduced through dietary manipulation of protein and carbohydrate sources. Conversion of urea to ammonia may be reduced by altering the pH of barn floors and gutters. Entrapment of ammonia may be accomplished by acidification of manure slurry. Atmospheric ammonia contributes to acid rain, eutrophication of estuaries and lakes, and particulate air pollution. Reduction of ammonia

  18. Ammonia emissions from deciduous forest after leaf fall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hansen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of biochemical feedback mechanisms in the climate system is lacking knowledge in relation to bi-directional ammonia (NH3 exchange between natural ecosystems and the atmosphere. We therefore study the atmospheric NH3 fluxes during a 25-day period during autumn 2010 (21 October to 15 November for the Danish beech forest Lille Bøgeskov to address the hypothesis that NH3 emissions occur from deciduous forests in relation to leaf fall. This is accomplished by using observations of vegetation status, NH3 fluxes and model calculations. Vegetation status was observed using plant area index (PAI and leaf area index (LAI. NH3 fluxes were measured using the relaxed eddy accumulation (REA method. The REA-based NH3 concentrations were compared to NH3 denuder measurements. Model calculations of the atmospheric NH3 concentration were obtained with the Danish Ammonia MOdelling System (DAMOS. The relative contribution from the forest components to the atmospheric NH3 flux was assessed using a simple two-layer bi-directional canopy compensation point model. A total of 57.7% of the fluxes measured showed emission and 19.5% showed deposition. A clear tendency of the flux going from deposition of −0.25 ± 0.30 μg NH3-N m−2 s−1 to emission of up to 0.67 ± 0.28 μg NH3-N m−2 s−1 throughout the measurement period was found. In the leaf fall period (23 October to 8 November, an increase in the atmospheric NH3 concentrations was related to the increasing forest NH3 flux. Following leaf fall, the magnitude and temporal structure of the measured NH3 emission fluxes could be adequately reproduced with the bi-directional resistance model; it suggested the forest ground layer (soil and litter to be the main contributing component to the NH3 emissions. The modelled concentration from DAMOS fits well the measured concentrations before leaf fall, but during and after leaf fall, the modelled concentrations are too low. The results indicate that the

  19. Ammonia emissions from cattle urine and dung excreted on pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Laubach

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve cattle were kept for three days in a circular area of 16 m radius on short pasture and fed with freshly-cut pasture. Ammonia (NH3 emissions from the urine and dung excreted by the cattle were measured with a micrometeorological mass-balance method, during the cattle presence and for 10 subsequent days. Daily-integrated emission rates peaked on Day 3 of the experiment (last day of cattle presence and declined steadily for five days thereafter. Urine patches were the dominant sources for these emissions. On Day 9, a secondary emissions peak occurred, with dung pats likely to be the main sources. This interpretation is based on simultaneous observations of the pH evolution in urine patches and dung pats created next to the circular plot. Feed and dung samples were analysed to estimate the amounts of nitrogen (N ingested and excreted. Total N volatilised as NH3 was 19.8 (± 0.9% of N intake and 22.4 (± 1.3% of N excreted. The bimodal shape of the emissions time series allowed to infer separate estimates for volatilisation from urine and dung, respectively, with the result that urine accounted for 88.6 (± 2.6% of the total NH3 emissions. The emissions from urine represented 25.5 (± 2.0% of the excreted urine-N, while the emissions from dung amounted to 11.6 (± 2.7% of the deposited dung-N. Emissions from dung may have continued after Day 13 but were not resolved by the measurement technique. A simple resistance model shows that the magnitude of the emissions from dung is controlled by the resistance of the dung crust.

  20. Are ammonia emissions from field-applied slurry substantially over-estimated in European emission inventories?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sintermann

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The EMEP/EEA guidebook 2009 for agricultural emission inventories reports an average ammonia (NH3 emission factor (EF by volatilisation of 55% of the applied total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN content for cattle slurry, and 35% losses for pig slurry, irrespective of the type of surface or slurry characteristics such as dry matter content and pH. In this review article, we compiled over 350 measurements of EFs published between 1991 and 2011. The standard slurry application technique during the early years of this period, when a large number of measurements were made, was spreading by splash plate, and as a result reference EFs given in many European inventories are predominantly based on this technique. However, slurry application practices have evolved since then, while there has also been a shift in measurement techniques and investigated plot sizes. We therefore classified the available measurements according to the flux measurement technique or measurement plot size and year of measurement. Medium size plots (usually circles between 20 to 50 m radius generally yielded the highest EFs. The most commonly used measurement setups at this scale were based on the Integrated Horizontal Flux method (IHF or the ZINST method (a simplified IHF method. Several empirical models were published in the years 1993 to 2003 predicting NH3 EFs as a function of meteorology and slurry characteristics (Menzi et al., 1998; Søgaard et al., 2002. More recent measurements show substantially lower EFs which calls for new measurement series in order to validate the various measurement approaches against each other and to derive revised inputs for inclusion into emission inventories.

  1. Cost-effective emission abatement in agriculture in the presence of interrelations: cases for the Netherlands and Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, J.C.; Ierland, van E.C.; Hordijk, L.; Kroeze, C.

    2005-01-01

    Agriculture contributes to global warming through emissions of nitrous oxide, and methane, and to acidification mainly through emissions of ammonia. Measures to reduce one of these gases may affect emissions of others. Policies neglecting these interrelations may be sub_optimal. This study investiga

  2. Suppression of Ammonia Volatilization from Urea-Based Fertilizers Using Urease Inhibitors: A Reasonably Available Control Technology for Agriculture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robarge, W. P.

    2015-12-01

    inhibitors incorporating NBPT suggest that these formulations represent a reasonable available control technology for use in agriculture to reduce ammonia emissions.

  3. Agricultural sources of greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author described different sources of greenhouse gas emissions resulting from agricultural activities and the process by which carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane are generated on Canadian farms. The author also proposed some practices that would contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. A brief description of the greenhouse effect was also provided with special emphasis on the agricultural sector. In 1996, the Canadian agricultural sector was responsible for approximately 10 per cent of greenhouse gas emissions in the country. Given the increase in farm animals and more intensive agricultural activities, it is estimated that greenhouse gas emissions generated by the agricultural sector will increase by 20 per cent by 2010 if current practices remain in effect. The most optimistic scenarios indicate that the agricultural sector could achieve or even exceed Canada's Kyoto Protocol commitments mainly through organic material sequestration in soils. The possibility for farmers to sell greenhouse gas credits could motivate farmers into adopting various practices that reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. However, the author indicated that the best motivation for farmers is the fact that adopting such practices would also lead to more efficient agricultural production. 5 refs., 4 figs

  4. Modeling of pesticide emissions from agricultural ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong

    2012-04-01

    Pesticides are applied to crops and soils to improve agricultural yields, but the use of pesticides has become highly regulated because of concerns about their adverse effects on human health and environment. Estimating pesticide emission rates from soils and crops is a key component for risk assessment for pesticide registration, identification of pesticide sources to the contamination of sensitive ecosystems, and appreciation of transport and fate of pesticides in the environment. Pesticide emission rates involve processes occurring in the soil, in the atmosphere, and on vegetation surfaces and are highly dependent on soil texture, agricultural practices, and meteorology, which vary significantly with location and/or time. To take all these factors into account for simulating pesticide emissions from large agricultural ecosystems, this study coupled a comprehensive meteorological model with a dynamic pesticide emission model. The combined model calculates hourly emission rates from both emission sources: current applications and soil residues resulting from historical use. The coupled modeling system is used to compute a gridded (36 × 36 km) hourly toxaphene emission inventory for North America for the year 2000 using a published U.S. toxaphene residue inventory and a Mexican toxaphene residue inventory developed using its historical application rates and a cropland inventory. To my knowledge, this is the first such hourly toxaphene emission inventory for North America. Results show that modeled emission rates have strong diurnal and seasonal variations at a given location and over the entire domain. The simulated total toxaphene emission from contaminated agricultural soils in North America in 2000 was about 255 t, which compares reasonably well to a published annual estimate. Most emissions occur in spring and summer, with domain-wide emission rates in April, May and, June of 36, 51, and 35 t/month, respectively. The spatial distribution of emissions depends

  5. Greenhouse gas emissions from Canadian prairie agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellert, B.H.; Janzen, H.H. [Agriculture and Agri-food Canada Research Centre, Lethbridge, AB, (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    There is a close relationship between soil and air quality, on the one hand, and the exchange of greenhouse gases between the earth and atmosphere, on the other. International efforts by people such as soil conservationists and climatologists to control emissions of these gases and negotiations surrounding the Kyoto Protocol have increased the debate regarding the role of agricultural activities. From evaluation of both data available before global change became important and recent research efforts, much information on greenhouse gas emissions from Canadian agriculture has been gained. A summary is included of the contribution of Canadian prairie agriculture to emissions of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane gas. A stress is placed on the subject of the carbon cycle and on how land management practices could influence soil carbon storage capacity. The potential for increasing this carbon storage capacity is described in relation to land use, historical changes in agricultural land, and recent observations on the influence of agricultural parctices, and obstacles to estimating changes in soil carbon dioxide emissions and carbon storage, and extending the estimates to large land areas are examined. Emissions of nitrous oxide and methane gas are considered in relation to the influence of agricultural management practices. (Abstract only)

  6. Using passive flux samplers to determine the ammonia emission from mechanically ventilated animal houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosquera Losada, J.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Scholtens, R.

    2003-01-01

    Ammonia emissions from animal houses are an important environmental issue in the Netherlands. The current technique in the Netherlands to measure ammonia emissions in mechanically ventilated animal houses is the chemiluminescence method (using a NOx monitor after conversion of NH3 to NO). During cam

  7. Towards a climate-dependent paradigm of ammonia emission and deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, M.A.; Reis, S.; Riddick, S.N.; Dragosits, U.; Nemitz, E.; Tang, Y.S.; Braban, C.F.; Vieno, M.; Dore, A.J.; Mitchell, R.F.; Wanless, S.; Daunt, F.; Fowler, D. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Edinburgh, Bush Estate, Penicuik EH26 0QB (United Kingdom); Blackall, T.D. [Department of Geography, Strand Campus, Kings College London, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Theobald, M.R. [Higher Technical School of Agricultural Engineering, Technical University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Milford, C. [Izana Atmospheric Research Center, Meteorological State Agency of Spain (AEMET), Santa Cruz de Tenerife 38071 (Spain); Flechard, C.R. [INRA, Agrocampus Ouest, UMR 1069 SAS, 65 rue de St. Brieuc, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Loubet, B.; Massad, R.; Cellier, P.; Personne, E. [UMR INRA-AgroParisTech Environnement et Grandes Cultures, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon (France); Coheur, P.F.; Clarisse, L.; Van Damme, M.; Ngadi, Y. [Spectroscopie de l' atmosphere, Chimie Quantique et Photophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), 50 avenue F. D. Roosevelt, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Clerbaux, C. [Universite Paris 06, Universite Versailles-St. Quentin, UMR8190, CNRS/INSU, LATMOS-IPSL, Paris (France); Geels, C.; Hertel, O. [Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, P.O. Box 358, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Ambelas Skjoeth, C. [National Pollen and Aerobiology Research Unit, University of Worcester, Henwick Grove, Worcester WR2 6AJ (United Kingdom); Wichink Kruit, R.J. [TNO, Climate, Air and Sustainability, P.O. Box 80015, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Pinder, R.W.; Bash, J.O.; Walker, J.T. [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Research Triangle Park, 109 T.W. Alexander Drive, Durham, NC 27711 (United States); Simpson, D. [Norwegian Meteorological Institute, EMEP MSC-W, P.O. Box 43-Blindern, 0313 Oslo (Norway); Horvath, L. [Plant Ecology Research Group of Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Botany and Ecophysiology, Szent Istvan University, Pater K. utca 1, 2100 Goedoello (Hungary); Misselbrook, T.H. [Rothamsted Research, Sustainable Soils and Grassland Systems, North Wyke, Okehampton EX20 2SB (United Kingdom); Bleeker, A. [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Dentener, F. [European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, via Enrico Fermi 2749, 21027 Ispra (Italy); De Vries, W. [Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Droevendaalsesteeg 4, 6708 PB Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    Existing descriptions of bi-directional ammonia (NH3) land-atmosphere exchange incorporate temperature and moisture controls, and are beginning to be used in regional chemical transport models. However, such models have typically applied simpler emission factors to upscale the main NH3 emission terms. While this approach has successfully simulated the main spatial patterns on local to global scales, it fails to address the environment- and climate-dependence of emissions. To handle these issues, we outline the basis for a new modelling paradigm where both NH3 emissions and deposition are calculated online according to diurnal, seasonal and spatial differences in meteorology. We show how measurements reveal a strong, but complex pattern of climatic dependence, which is increasingly being characterized using ground-based NH3 monitoring and satellite observations, while advances in process-based modelling are illustrated for agricultural and natural sources, including a global application for seabird colonies. A future architecture for NH3 emission-deposition modelling is proposed that integrates the spatio-temporal interactions, and provides the necessary foundation to assess the consequences of climate change. Based on available measurements, a first empirical estimate suggests that 5{sup o}C warming would increase emissions by 42 per cent (28-67%). Together with increased anthropogenic activity, global NH3 emissions may increase from 65 (45-85) Tg N in 2008 to reach 132 (89-179) Tg by 2100.

  8. Anticipated changes in the emissions of green-house gases and ammonia from pork production due to shifts from fattening of barrows towards fattening of boars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dämmgen, Ulrich; Berk, Andreas; Otten, Caroline;

    2013-01-01

    and gilts) and of diet composition. The modified fattening pig module of the agricultural emission model GAS-EM was used to estimate emissions in 2020 when the fattening of barrows will no longer be common practice. The scenarios also reflect the effect of the expected increased weight gains and the related...... effect of increased numbers of animals produced. The fattening of intact boars as compared to barrows is associated with a reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases and of ammonia per animal. For ammonia, all scenarios result in reduced emissions, most markedly when this shift is combined with increased...... weight gains. To a lesser extent, this also applies to nitric and nitrous oxide emissions. Methane emissions are less affected; increased weight gains result in increased emissions. As the greenhouse gas balance is dominated by methane emissions, the overall emission of greenhouse gases (expressed as CO2...

  9. Towards a climate-dependent paradigm of ammonia emission and deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Mark A.; Reis, Stefan; Riddick, Stuart N.; Dragosits, Ulrike; Nemitz, Eiko; Theobald, Mark R.; Tang, Y. Sim; Braban, Christine F.; Vieno, Massimo; Dore, Anthony J.; Mitchell, Robert F.; Wanless, Sarah; Daunt, Francis; Fowler, David; Blackall, Trevor D.; Milford, Celia; Flechard, Chris R.; Loubet, Benjamin; Massad, Raia; Cellier, Pierre; Personne, Erwan; Coheur, Pierre F.; Clarisse, Lieven; Van Damme, Martin; Ngadi, Yasmine; Clerbaux, Cathy; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Geels, Camilla; Hertel, Ole; Wichink Kruit, Roy J.; Pinder, Robert W.; Bash, Jesse O.; Walker, John T.; Simpson, David; Horváth, László; Misselbrook, Tom H.; Bleeker, Albert; Dentener, Frank; de Vries, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Existing descriptions of bi-directional ammonia (NH3) land–atmosphere exchange incorporate temperature and moisture controls, and are beginning to be used in regional chemical transport models. However, such models have typically applied simpler emission factors to upscale the main NH3 emission terms. While this approach has successfully simulated the main spatial patterns on local to global scales, it fails to address the environment- and climate-dependence of emissions. To handle these issues, we outline the basis for a new modelling paradigm where both NH3 emissions and deposition are calculated online according to diurnal, seasonal and spatial differences in meteorology. We show how measurements reveal a strong, but complex pattern of climatic dependence, which is increasingly being characterized using ground-based NH3 monitoring and satellite observations, while advances in process-based modelling are illustrated for agricultural and natural sources, including a global application for seabird colonies. A future architecture for NH3 emission–deposition modelling is proposed that integrates the spatio-temporal interactions, and provides the necessary foundation to assess the consequences of climate change. Based on available measurements, a first empirical estimate suggests that 5°C warming would increase emissions by 42 per cent (28–67%). Together with increased anthropogenic activity, global NH3 emissions may increase from 65 (45–85) Tg N in 2008 to reach 132 (89–179) Tg by 2100. PMID:23713128

  10. UN ECE-Convention on long-range transboundary air pollution. Task Force on Reactive Nitrogen. Systematic cost-benefit analysis of mitigation measures for agricultural ammonia emissions, supporting national costing analysis; UN ECE-Luftreinhaltekonvention. Task Force on Reactive Nitrogen. Systematische Kosten-Nutzen-Analyse von Minderungsmassnahmen fuer Ammoniakemissionen in der Landwirtschaft fuer nationale Kostenabschaetzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doehler, Helmut; Eurich-Menden, Brigitte; Roessler, Regina; Vandre, Robert; Wulf, Sebastian [Kuratorium fuer Technik und Bauwesen in der Landwirtschaft e.V. (KTBL), Darmstadt (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In this project, the methods for the determination of the expenses for the reduction of agricultural ammonia emissions were updated, and the costs of selected, representative mitigation measures suitable for Germany's agriculture were newly calculated. The reduction costs are determined based on the ratio of the extra costs for the reduction measure and the emission reduction in comparison with a reference system. Protein-adapted feeding in pig fattening generally leads to lower expenses for feedstuff, which provides negative reduction costs (- Euro 3.5 to - Euro 13.5 per kg of NH{sub 3} depending on the reference system). Pig fattening in naturally ventilated housing causes reduction costs of Euro 9.2 per kg of NH{sub 3} as compared with forced-ventilated animal houses. However, this amount cannot always be exclusively attributed to ammonia emission reduction (allocation) because naturally ventilated houses are generally built for the improvement of animal welfare and animal health. Single and multiple-stage air purification techniques in forced-ventilated pig fattening houses are a technically efficient, though costintensive reduction measure (Euro 4,6 - Euro 8,6 per kg of NH{sub 3}). Solid covers for pig slurry stores (concrete ceiling, tent) are characterized by high investment expenses and a long service life causes moderate reduction costs (Euro 1.1 - Euro 2.5 per kg of NH{sub 3}). Floating covers (plastic sheet, granules) are almost cost-neutral given reduction costs of Euro 0.3 to Euro 0.9 per kg of NH{sub 3} (pig slurry) if the fertilizer value of the conserved nitrogen is included in the calculation. Cattle slurry requires significantly higher extra costs for the covering of slurry stores because the natural floating cover itself reduces emissions (Euro 1.3 to Euro 12 per kg of NH{sub 3}). If annual spreading performances are low (1,000 to 3,000 m{sup 3}/a), only promptly incorporation of cattle and pig slurry is cost-effective. If spreading

  11. Preliminary assessment of the emission levels of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide in different production modalities in poultry farms in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Herrera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A characterization of the ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions generated by different production models in poultry farms of Costa Rica was carried out. It was found that egg production farms have the largest emissions since they mostly use management systems based on cages with pits which generates a high emission of ammonia (16 ppm. While the fattening farms had the lower emissions since they mostly use open systems, which are low ammonia emission models (6 ppm. There were no significant concentrations of hydrogen sulfide in the evaluated models, except when a mechanical removal of mounds of chicken manure, with several weeks of storage, took place. A peak of 163 ppm of hydrogen sulfide was observed during the process. The ammonia emissions were modeled for some farms using an atmospheric dispersion model, AERMOD (USEPA, to determine the impact in the surroundings. Using the results of the validated model, it was found that the ammonia concentrations around the farms met the local regulation for air quality. But in some cases is highly probable to exceed the odor threshold for ammonia, which is one of the main complaints of the population living around this kind of agricultural and livestock activities.

  12. Agricultural influences on carbon emissions and sequestration

    OpenAIRE

    Ball, Andrew S.; Pretty, Jules N.

    2002-01-01

    This report was presented at the UK Organic Research 2002 Conference. Agricultural systems contribute to carbon emissions through several mechanisms: the direct use of fossil fuels in farm operations, the indirect use of embodied energy in inputs that are energy intensive to manufacture (e.g. fertilizers), and the cultivation of soils resulting in the loss of soil organic matter. However agriculture can also sequester carbon when organic matter accumulates in the soil or above-ground woody bi...

  13. Ammonia Emission and Deposition in Scotland and Its Potential Environmental Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Sutton

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The main source of atmospheric ammonia (NH3 in Scotland is livestock agriculture, which accounts for 85% of emissions. The local magnitude of emissions therefore depends on livestock density, type, and management, with major differences occurring in various parts of Scotland. Local differences in agricultural activities therefore result in a wide range of NH3 emissions, ranging from less than 0.2 kg N ha−1 year−1 in remote areas of the Scottish Highlands to over 100 kg N ha−1 year−1 in areas with intensive poultry farming. Scotland can be divided loosely into upland and lowland areas, with NH3 emission being less than and more than 5 kg N ha−1 year−1, respectively.Many semi-natural ecosystems in Scotland are vulnerable to nitrogen deposition, including bogs, moorlands, and the woodland ground flora. Because NH3 emissions occur in the rural environment, the local deposition to sensitive ecosystems may be large, making it essential to assess the spatial distribution of NH3 emissions and deposition. A spatial model is applied here to map NH3 emissions and these estimates are applied in atmospheric dispersion and deposition models to estimate atmospheric concentrations of NH3 and NH4+, dry deposition of NH3, and wet deposition of NHx. Although there is a high level of local variability, modelled NH3 concentrations show good agreement with the National Ammonia Monitoring Network, while wet deposition is largest at high altitude sites in the south and west of Scotland. Comparison of the modelled NHx deposition fields with estimated thresholds for environmental effects (“critical loads” shows that thresholds are exceeded across most of lowland Scotland and the Southern Uplands. Only in the cleanest parts of the north and west is nitrogen deposition not a cause for concern. Given that the most intense effects occur within a few kilometres of sources, it is suggested that local spatial abatement policies would be a useful complement to

  14. Ammonia emission and deposition in Scotland and its potential environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, M A; Dragosits, U; Hellsten, S; Place, C J; Dore, A J; Tang, Y S; van Dijk, N; Love, L; Fournier, N; Vieno, M; Weston, K J; Smith, R I; Coyle, M; Roy, D; Hall, J; Fowler, D

    2004-09-02

    The main source of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) in Scotland is livestock agriculture, which accounts for 85% of emissions. The local magnitude of emissions therefore depends on livestock density, type, and management, with major differences occurring in various parts of Scotland. Local differences in agricultural activities therefore result in a wide range of NH3 emissions, ranging from less than 0.2 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) in remote areas of the Scottish Highlands to over 100 kg N ha(-1) year-1 in areas with intensive poultry farming. Scotland can be divided loosely into upland and lowland areas, with NH3 emission being less than and more than 5 kg N ha(-1) year(-1), respectively. Many semi-natural ecosystems in Scotland are vulnerable to nitrogen deposition, including bogs, moorlands, and the woodland ground flora. Because NH3 emissions occur in the rural environment, the local deposition to sensitive ecosystems may be large, making it essential to assess the spatial distribution of NH3 emissions and deposition. A spatial model is applied here to map NH3 emissions and these estimates are applied in atmospheric dispersion and deposition models to estimate atmospheric concentrations of NH3 and NH4+, dry deposition of NH3, and wet deposition of NHx. Although there is a high level of local variability, modelled NH3 concentrations show good agreement with the National Ammonia Monitoring Network, while wet deposition is largest at high altitude sites in the south and west of Scotland. Comparison of the modelled NHx deposition fields with estimated thresholds for environmental effects ("critical loads") shows that thresholds are exceeded across most of lowland Scotland and the Southern Uplands. Only in the cleanest parts of the north and west is nitrogen deposition not a cause for concern. Given that the most intense effects occur within a few kilometres of sources, it is suggested that local spatial abatement policies would be a useful complement to traditional policies that

  15. An improved data base for the description of dairy cows in the German agricultural emission model GAS-EM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dämmgen, Ulrich; Haenel, Hans-Dieter; Rösemann, Claus;

    2010-01-01

    The application of the previously published detailed model describing dairy cow husbandry in the German agricultural emission model requires an extended and improved data base. This concerns animal weights, weight gains, regional feed regimes, feeding requirements and feed properties as well...... of animal performance. The knowledge of hitherto unpublished data allows for a recalculation and revaluation of nitrogen excretions and ammonia emission factors....

  16. Ammonia emissions from deciduous forest after leaf fall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristina; Sørensen, Lise Lotte; Hertel, Ole;

    2013-01-01

    to 15 November) for the Danish beech forest Lille Bøgeskov to address the hypothesis that NH3 emissions occur from deciduous forests in relation to leaf fall. This is accomplished by using observations of vegetation status, NH3 fluxes and model calculations. Vegetation status was observed using plant...... area index (PAI) and leaf area index (LAI). NH3 fluxes were measured using the relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) method. The REA-based NH3 concentrations were compared to NH3 denuder measurements. Model calculations of the atmospheric NH3 concentration were obtained with the Danish Ammonia MOdelling...... from deposition of −0.25 ± 0.30 μg NH3-N m−2 s−1 to emission of up to 0.67 ± 0.28 μg NH3-N m−2 s−1 throughout the measurement period was found. In the leaf fall period (23 October to 8 November), an increase in the atmospheric NH3 concentrations was related to the increasing forest NH3 flux. Following...

  17. Emissions Of Greenhouse Gases From Rice Agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Aslam K. Khalil

    2009-07-16

    This project produced detailed data on the processes that affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice agriculture and their inter-relationships. It defines the shifting roles and potential future of these gases in causing global warming and the benefits and tradeoffs of reducing emissions. The major results include: 1). Mechanisms and Processes Leading to Methane Emissions are Delineated. Our experiments have tested the standard model of methane emissions from rice fields and found new results on the processes that control the flux. A mathematical mass balance model was used to unravel the production, oxidation and transport of methane from rice. The results suggested that when large amounts of organic matter are applied, the additional flux that is observed is due to both greater production and reduced oxidation of methane. 2). Methane Emissions From China Have Been Decreasing Over the Last Two Decades. We have calculated that methane emissions from rice fields have been falling in recent decades. This decrease is particularly large in China. While some of this is due to reduced area of rice agriculture, the bigger effect is from the reduction in the emission factor which is the annual amount of methane emitted per hectare of rice. The two most important changes that cause this decreasing emission from China are the reduced use of organic amendments which have been replaced by commercial nitrogen fertilizers, and the increased practice of intermittent flooding as greater demands are placed on water resources. 3). Global Methane Emissions Have Been Constant For More Than 20 Years. While the concentrations of methane in the atmosphere have been leveling off in recent years, our studies show that this is caused by a near constant total global source of methane for the last 20 years or more. This is probably because as some anthropogenic sources have increased, others, such as the rice agriculture source, have fallen. Changes in natural emissions appear small

  18. Effects of carbon dioxide emission, kinetically-limited reactions, and diffusive transport on ammonia emission from manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatilization of ammonia (NH3) from animal manure causes significant loss of fixed N from livestock operations. Ammonia emission from manure is the culmination of biological, chemical, and physical processes, all of which are well-understood. In this work, we present a speciation and transport mode...

  19. Distinct Responses in Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea and Bacteria after Addition of Biosolids to an Agricultural Soil▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, John J.; Policht, Katherine; Grancharova, Tanya; Hundal, Lakhwinder S.

    2011-01-01

    The recently discovered ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) have been suggested as contributors to the first step of nitrification in terrestrial ecosystems, a role that was previously assigned exclusively to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). The current study assessed the effects of agricultural management, specifically amendment of soil with biosolids or synthetic fertilizer, on nitrification rates and copy numbers of archaeal and bacterial ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes. Anaerobically dige...

  20. Model-predicted ammonia emission from two broiler houses with different rearing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsa Duarte Silva Lima

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia (NH3 emissions from broiler production can affect human and animal health and may cause acidification and eutrophication of the surrounding environment. This study aimed to estimate ammonia emissions from broiler litter in two systems of forced ventilation, the tunnel ventilation (TV and the dark house (DH. The experiment was carried out on eight commercial broiler houses, and the age of the birds (day, d, pH and litter temperature were recorded. Broilers were reared on built-up wood shaving litter using an average flock density of 14 bird m–2. Temperature and relative humidity inside the broiler houses were recorded in the morning during the grow-out period. A factorial experimental design was adopted, with two types of houses, four replicates and two flocks with two replicates each. A deterministic model was used to predict ammonia emissions using the litter pH and temperature, and the day of grow-out. The highest litter temperature and pH were found at 42 d of growth in both housing systems. Mean ambient air temperature and relative humidity did not differ in either system. Mean model predicted ammonia emission was higher in the DH rearing system (5200 mg NH3 m−2h−1 at 42 d than in the TV system (2700 mg NH3m−2 h−1 at 42 d. TV presented the lowest mean litter temperature and pH at 42 d of growth. In the last week of the broilers’ grow-out cycle, estimated ammonia emissions inside DH reached 5700 mg m−2h−1 in one of the flocks. Ammonia emissions were higher inside DH, and they did not differ between flocks. Assuming a broiler market weight in Brazil of close to 2 kg, ammonia emissions were equivalent to 12 g NH3 bird-marketed−1. Model-predicted ammonia emissions provided comprehensible estimations and might be used in abatement strategies for NH3 emission.

  1. Measures to reduce ammonia emissions from livestock manures: now, soon and later

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenestein, C.M.; Smits, M.C.J.; Huijsmans, J.F.M.; Oenema, O.

    2011-01-01

    Various possible options to further decrease ammonia emissions from livestock manure were explored in a desk study. Techniques and their impact on the processes leading to NH3 production and volatilization are described. Research priorities are identified.

  2. Towards a climate-dependent paradigm of ammonia emission and deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Existing descriptions of bi-directional ammonia (NH3) land–atmosphere exchange incorporate temperature and moisture controls, and are beginning to be used in regional chemical transport models. However, such models have typically applied simpler emission factors to upscale ...

  3. Comparison of Techniques to Estimate Ammonia Emissions at Cattle Feedlots Using Time-Averaged and Instantaneous Concentration Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonkwiler, K. B.; Ham, J. M.; Williams, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Ammonia (NH3) that volatilizes from confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) can form aerosols that travel long distances where such aerosols can deposit in sensitive regions, potentially causing harm to local ecosystems. However, quantifying the emissions of ammonia from CAFOs through direct measurement is very difficult and costly to perform. A system was therefore developed at Colorado State University for conditionally sampling NH3 concentrations based on weather parameters measured using inexpensive equipment. These systems use passive diffusive cartridges (Radiello, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) that provide time-averaged concentrations representative of a two-week deployment period. The samplers are exposed by a robotic mechanism so they are only deployed when wind is from the direction of the CAFO at 1.4 m/s or greater. These concentration data, along with other weather variables measured during each sampler deployment period, can then be used in a simple inverse model (FIDES, UMR Environnement et Grandes Cultures, Thiverval-Grignon, France) to estimate emissions. There are not yet any direct comparisons of the modeled emissions derived from time-averaged concentration data to modeled emissions from more sophisticated backward Lagrangian stochastic (bLs) techniques that utilize instantaneous measurements of NH3 concentration. In the summer and autumn of 2013, a suite of robotic passive sampler systems were deployed at a 25,000-head cattle feedlot at the same time as an open-path infrared (IR) diode laser (GasFinder2, Boreal Laser Inc., Edmonton, Alberta, Canada) which continuously measured ammonia concentrations instantaneously over a 225-m path. This particular laser is utilized in agricultural settings, and in combination with a bLs model (WindTrax, Thunder Beach Scientific, Inc., Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada), has become a common method for estimating NH3 emissions from a variety of agricultural and industrial operations. This study will first

  4. Ammonia-oxidising bacteria not archaea dominate nitrification activity in semi-arid agricultural soil

    OpenAIRE

    Banning, Natasha C.; Maccarone, Linda D.; Fisk, Louise M.; Murphy, Daniel V.

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidising archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) are responsible for the rate limiting step in nitrification; a key nitrogen (N) loss pathway in agricultural systems. Dominance of AOA relative to AOB in the amoA gene pool has been reported in many ecosystems, although their relative contributions to nitrification activity are less clear. Here we examined the distribution of AOA and AOB with depth in semi-arid agricultural soils in which soil organic matter content or pH had been altered, an...

  5. Ammonia-Oxidizer Communities in an Agricultural Soil treated with Contrasting Nitrogen Sources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mussie Y. Habteselassie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The community of ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes was examined in an agricultural soil treated for 6 seasons with contrasting nitrogen (N sources. Molecular tools based on the gene encoding ammonia monooxygenase were used to characterize the ammonia oxidizer communities and their abundance. Soil DNA was extracted from soils sampled from silage corn plots that received no additional N (control, dairy waste compost (DC, liquid dairy waste (LW, and ammonium sulfate (AS treatments at approximately 100 and 200 kg available N ha-1 over 6 years. The N treatment affected the quantity of ammonia oxidizers based on estimates of amoA by real-time PCR. Ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB were higher in soils from the AS200, AS100, and LW200 treatments (2.5 x107, 2.5x107, and 2.1 x107 copies g-1 soil, respectively than in the control (8.1x106copies/g while the abundance of amoA encoding archaea (AOA was not significantly affected by treatment (3.8x107copies g-1 soil, average. The ratio of AOA/AOB was higher in the control and compost treated soils, both treatments have the majority of their ammonium supplied through mineralization of organic nitrogen. Clone libraries of partial amoA sequences indicated AOB related to Nitrosospira multiformis and AOA related to uncultured Nitrososphaera similar to those described by soil fosmid 54d9 were prevalent. Profiles of the amoC-amoA intergenic region indicated that both Nitrosospira- and Nitrosomonas-type AOB were present in all soils examined. In contrast to the intergenic amoC-amoA profile results, Nitrosomonas-like clones were recovered only in the LW200 treated soil-DNA. The impact of six years of contrasting nitrogen sources applications caused changes in ammonia oxidizer abundance while the community composition remained relatively stable for both AOB and AOA.

  6. Sensitivity analysis of mechanistic models for estimating ammonia emission from dairy cow urine puddles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, J.W.; Stigter, J.D.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emission can cause acidification and eutrophication of the environment, is an indirect source of nitrous oxide, and is a precursor of fine dust. The current mechanistic NH3 emission base model for explaining and predicting NH3 emissions from dairy cow houses with cubicles, a floor and

  7. Analysis of ammonia emission from emptied pigpens; Bepaling van de ammoniakemissie uit geruimde varkensstallen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otjes, R.P.; Jongejan, P.A.C.; Erisman, J.W.

    1998-03-01

    As a consequence of the outbreak of classical swine fever in the beginning of 1997 in the Netherlands, almost all pig stables were emptied in the eastern part of the province Noord-Brabant. Pigpens contributed for about 60% to the emission of ammonia in the area. Therefore it was expected, that the ammonia concentration would have substantially declined. Because this reduction was not observed at monitoring sites, dedicated research was performed at the end of 1997 to determine whether the empty pigsty still emits ammonia. In this report the results on the research on the emissions of such empty stables are described. The emissions were determined from plume measurements using a fast ammonia sensor developed in-house. The sensor was driven wind downwards along the empty stables. Almost all farms scanned showed a detectable emission. The emission of pigpens still in use was much higher than the empty ones. However, the emission of empty pigpens was significant and estimations for the summertime indicate emission rates that would be comparable to that of stables containing pigs. It is likely that the residual emission is produced by the manure which was not removed from the stables. At the time of measurement less ammonia was emitted by the empty, unheated stables. 5 refs.

  8. Estimating Emissions of Ammonia and Methane from an Anaerobic Livestock Lagoon Using Micrometeorological Methods and Inverse Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonkwiler, K. B.; Ham, J. M.; Williams, C.

    2012-12-01

    Evaluating the impact of increased carbon and nitrogen emissions on local air quality and regional bionetworks due to animal agricultural activity is of great interest to the public, political, economic and ecological welfare of areas within the scope of these practices. Globally, livestock operations account for 64% of annual anthropogenic emissions of ammonia (NH3) [1]. Concerning methane (CH4), anaerobic lagoons from commercial dairy operations contribute the second largest share of CH4 emissions from manure in the United States[1], and additionally are a local source of NH3 as well. Anaerobic lagoons are commonly used in commercial animal agriculture and as significant local sources of greenhouse gases (GHG), there is a strong need to quantify GHG emissions from these systems. In 2012 at a commercial dairy operation in Northern Colorado, USA, measurements of CH4 were made using eddy covariance (EC), while NH3 was estimated using a combination of real-time monitoring (cavity ring-down spectroscopy as well as time-integrated passive samplers). Methane emissions have been measured at this lagoon using EC since 2011, with fluxes ranging from 0.5 mg m-2 s-1 in early summer to >2 mg m-2 s-1 in late summer and early fall. Concentration data of both CH4 and NH3 were used to estimate emissions using a 2-dimensional inverse model based on solving the advection-diffusion equation[2]. In the case of the CH4-EC data, results from the inverse model were compared with the EC-derived flux estimates for enhanced parameterization of surface geometry within the lagoon environment. The model was then applied using measured NH3 concentrations to achieve emissions estimates. While NH3 fluxes from the lagoon tend to be much lower than those of CH4 by comparison, modeling emissions of NH3 from the simple geometry of a lagoon will assist in applying the model to more complex surfaces. [1] FAO, 2006. Livestock's long shadow: Environmental issues and options. Livestock, Environment, and

  9. High-resolution ammonia emissions inventories in China from 1980–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia (NH3 can interact in the atmosphere with other trace chemical species, which can lead to detrimental environmental consequences, such as the formation of fine particulates and ultimately global climate change. China is a major agricultural country, and livestock numbers and nitrogen fertilizer use have increased drastically since 1978, following the rapid economic and industrial development experienced by the country. In this study, comprehensive NH3 emissions inventories were compiled for China for 1980–2012. In a previous study, we parameterized emissions factors (EFs considering ambient temperature, soil acidity, and the method and rate of fertilizer application. In this study, we refined these EFs by adding the effects of wind speed and new data from field experiments of NH3 flux in cropland in northern China. We found that total NH3 emissions in China increased from 5.9 to 11.2 Tg from 1980 to 1996, and then decreased to 9.5 Tg in 2012. The two major contributors were livestock manure and synthetic fertilizer application, which contributed 80–90 % of the total emissions. Emissions from livestock manure rose from 2.87 Tg (1980 to 6.17 Tg (2005, and then decreased to 5.0 Tg (2012; beef cattle were the largest source followed by laying hens and pigs. The remarkable downward trend in livestock emissions that occurred in 2007 was attributed to a decrease in the numbers of various livestock animals, including beef cattle, goats, and sheep. Meanwhile, emissions from synthetic fertilizer ranged from 2.1 Tg (1980 to 4.7 Tg (1996, and then declined to 2.8 Tg (2012. Urea and ammonium bicarbonate (ABC dominated this category of emissions, and a decline in ABC application led to the decrease in emissions that took place from the mid-1990s onwards. High emissions were concentrated in eastern and southwestern China. Seasonally, peak NH3 emissions occurred in spring and summer. The inventories had a monthly temporal resolution and a spatial

  10. High-resolution ammonia emissions inventories in China from 1980-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Y.; Liu, M.; Song, Y.; Huang, X.; Yao, H.; Cai, X.; Zhang, H.; Kang, L.; Liu, X.; Yan, X.; He, H.; Shao, M.; Zhu, T.

    2015-10-01

    Ammonia (NH3) can interact in the atmosphere with other trace chemical species, which can lead to detrimental environmental consequences, such as the formation of fine particulates and ultimately global climate change. China is a major agricultural country, and livestock numbers and nitrogen fertilizer use have increased drastically since 1978, following the rapid economic and industrial development experienced by the country. In this study, comprehensive NH3 emissions inventories were compiled for China for 1980-2012. In a previous study, we parameterized emissions factors (EFs) considering ambient temperature, soil acidity, and the method and rate of fertilizer application. In this study, we refined these EFs by adding the effects of wind speed and new data from field experiments of NH3 flux in cropland in northern China. We found that total NH3 emissions in China increased from 5.9 to 11.2 Tg from 1980 to 1996, and then decreased to 9.5 Tg in 2012. The two major contributors were livestock manure and synthetic fertilizer application, which contributed 80-90 % of the total emissions. Emissions from livestock manure rose from 2.87 Tg (1980) to 6.17 Tg (2005), and then decreased to 5.0 Tg (2012); beef cattle were the largest source followed by laying hens and pigs. The remarkable downward trend in livestock emissions that occurred in 2007 was attributed to a decrease in the numbers of various livestock animals, including beef cattle, goats, and sheep. Meanwhile, emissions from synthetic fertilizer ranged from 2.1 Tg (1980) to 4.7 Tg (1996), and then declined to 2.8 Tg (2012). Urea and ammonium bicarbonate (ABC) dominated this category of emissions, and a decline in ABC application led to the decrease in emissions that took place from the mid-1990s onwards. High emissions were concentrated in eastern and southwestern China. Seasonally, peak NH3 emissions occurred in spring and summer. The inventories had a monthly temporal resolution and a spatial resolution of 1000

  11. High-resolution ammonia emissions inventories in China from 1980 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yaning; Liu, Mingxu; Song, Yu; Huang, Xin; Yao, Huan; Cai, Xuhui; Zhang, Hongsheng; Kang, Ling; Liu, Xuejun; Yan, Xiaoyuan; He, Hong; Zhang, Qiang; Shao, Min; Zhu, Tong

    2016-02-01

    Ammonia (NH3) can interact in the atmosphere with other trace chemical species, which can lead to detrimental environmental consequences, such as the formation of fine particulates and ultimately global climate change. China is a major agricultural country, and livestock numbers and nitrogen fertilizer use have increased drastically since 1978, following the rapid economic and industrial development experienced by the country. In this study, comprehensive NH3 emissions inventories were compiled for China for 1980-2012. In a previous study, we parameterized emissions factors (EFs) considering ambient temperature, soil acidity, and the method and rate of fertilizer application. In this study, we refined these EFs by adding the effects of wind speed and new data from field experiments of NH3 flux in cropland in northern China. We found that total NH3 emissions in China increased from 5.9 to 11.1 Tg from 1980 to 1996, and then decreased to 9.7 Tg in 2012. The two major contributors were livestock manure and synthetic fertilizer application, which contributed 80-90 % of the total emissions. Emissions from livestock manure rose from 2.86 Tg (1980) to 6.16 Tg (2005), and then decreased to 5.0 Tg (2012); beef cattle were the largest source followed by laying hens and pigs. The remarkable downward trend in livestock emissions that occurred in 2007 was attributed to a decrease in the numbers of various livestock animals, including beef cattle, goats, and sheep. Meanwhile, emissions from synthetic fertilizer ranged from 2.1 Tg (1980) to 4.7 Tg (1996), and then declined to 2.8 Tg (2012). Urea and ammonium bicarbonate (ABC) dominated this category of emissions, and a decline in ABC application led to the decrease in emissions that took place from the mid-1990s onwards. High emissions were concentrated in eastern and southwestern China. Seasonally, peak NH3 emissions occurred in spring and summer. The inventories had a monthly temporal resolution and a spatial resolution of 1000

  12. Enrichment and Characterization of an Autotrophic Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaeon of Mesophilic Crenarchaeal Group I.1a from an Agricultural Soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, M.Y.; Park, S.J.; Min, D.; Kim, J.S.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Kim, G.J.; Madsen, E.L.; Rhee, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    Soil nitrification is an important process for agricultural productivity and environmental pollution. Though one cultivated representative of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea from soil has been described, additional representatives warrant characterization. We describe an ammonia-oxidizing archaeon (strain

  13. Acidifier application rate impacts on ammonia emissions from US roaster chicken houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sanjay B.; Grimes, Jesse L.; Oviedo-Rondón, Edgar O.; Westerman, Philip W.

    2014-08-01

    Due to its potential environmental and public health impacts, emissions of ammonia (NH3) as well as several other gases from US livestock farms may be regulated. Broiler houses are important sources of NH3 emissions. However, there are no emissions data from roaster (8-12 wk old broilers, ˜4 kg ea.) houses. Producers treat the litter in broiler houses with acidifiers, such as sodium bisulfate (SBS, NaHSO4) to reduce ammonia production and protect bird health. However, there is very little data on the effect of acidifiers, particularly at high application rates on ammonia emissions. The impact of different SBS application rates [High (0.95-1.46 kg m-2, whole house), Medium (0.73 kg m-2, whole house), Low (0.37-0.49 kg m-2, whole house), and Control (0.37-0.49 kg m-2, brood chamber)] on ammonia emissions was evaluated in commercial roaster houses over 22 months spanning eight flocks. Ammonia emission from each fan was measured with an acid scrubber that operated only when the fan operated. Emissions were calculated using >95% measured data with the rest being estimated using robust methods. Exhaust ammonia-N concentrations were inversely correlated with the SBS application rates. Emission rates on animal unit (AU, where 1 AU = 500 kg live-mass) basis (ER, g d-1 AU-1) were reduced by 27, 13, and 5%, respectively, in the High, Medium, and Low treatments vs. the Control treatment (mean: 100 g d-1 AU-1, range: 86-114 g d-1 AU-1). Emission rates for the Control treatment measured in this study on roasters were mostly higher than ERs in the literature. Differences in ERs are not only due to diet, environmental and management conditions, but also due to measurement methods.

  14. Towards a climate-dependent paradigm of ammonia emission and deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutton, M.A.; Reis, S.; Riddick, S.N.; Dragosits, U.; Nemitz, E.; Theobald, M.R.; Tang, Y.S.; Vries, de W.

    2013-01-01

    Existing descriptions of bi-directional ammonia (NH3) land–atmosphere exchange incorporate temperature and moisture controls, and are beginning to be used in regional chemical transport models. However, such models have typically applied simpler emission factors to upscale the main NH3 emission term

  15. Measurements of ammonia emissions from spreading of manure using gradient FTIR techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, B.; Klemedtsson, L.; Bergqvist, B.;

    2000-01-01

    Emissions of biogenic trace gases from soils and plants often show strong spatial and temporal variation. Thus, there is a need for the development of area-integrating measurement techniques with good time resolution. The present paper describes area-integrated measurements of ammonia emissions a...

  16. Ammonia emission from a permanent grassland on volcanic soil after the treatment with dairy slurry and urea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, F.; Martínez-Lagos, J.; Alfaro, M.; Misselbrook, T.

    2014-10-01

    Ammonia (NH3) is an air pollutant largely emitted from agricultural activities including the application of livestock manures and fertilizers to grassland. This gas has been linked with important negative impacts on natural ecosystems. In southern Chile, the use of inorganic and organic fertilizers (e.g. slurries) has increased in cattle production systems over recent years, heightening the risk of N losses to the wider environment. The objectives of this study were to evaluate on permanent grasslands on a volcanic ash soil in southern Chile: 1) the N loss due to NH3 volatilization following surface application of dairy slurry and urea fertilizer; and 2) the effect of a urease inhibitor on NH3 emissions from urea fertilizer application. Small plot field experiments were conducted over spring, fall, winter and summer seasons, using a system of wind tunnels to measure ammonia emissions. Ammonia losses ranged from 1.8 (winter) to 26.0% (fall) and 3.1 (winter) to 20.5% (summer) of total N applied for urea and slurry, respectively. Based on the readily available N applied (ammoniacal N for dairy slurry and urea N for urea fertilizer), losses from dairy slurry were much greater, at 16.1 and 82.0%, for winter and summer, respectively. The use of a urease inhibitor proved to be an effective option to minimize the N loss due NH3 volatilization from urea fertilizer, with an average reduction of 71% across all seasons. The results of this and other recent studies regarding N losses suggest that ammonia volatilization is the main pathway of N loss from grassland systems in southern Chile on volcanic ash soils when urea and slurry are used as an N source. The use of good management practices, such as the inclusion of a urease inhibitor with urea fertilizer could have a beneficial impact on reducing N losses due NH3 volatilization and the environmental and economic impact of these emissions.

  17. Constraining atmospheric ammonia emissions through new observations with an open-path, laser-based sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kang

    As the third most abundant nitrogen species in the atmosphere, ammonia (NH3) is a key component of the global nitrogen cycle. Since the industrial revolution, humans have more than doubled the emissions of NH3 to the atmosphere by industrial nitrogen fixation, revolutionizing agricultural practices, and burning fossil fuels. NH3 is a major precursor to fine particulate matter (PM2.5), which has adverse impacts on air quality and human health. The direct and indirect aerosol radiative forcings currently constitute the largest uncertainties for future climate change predictions. Gas and particle phase NH3 eventually deposits back to the Earth's surface as reactive nitrogen, leading to the exceedance of ecosystem critical loads and perturbation of ecosystem productivity. Large uncertainties still remain in estimating the magnitude and spatiotemporal patterns of NH3 emissions from all sources and over a range of scales. These uncertainties in emissions also propagate to the deposition of reactive nitrogen. To improve our understanding of NH3 emissions, observational constraints are needed from local to global scales. The first part of this thesis is to provide quality-controlled, reliable NH3 measurements in the field using an open-path, quantum cascade laser-based NH3 sensor. As the second and third part of my research, NH3 emissions were quantified from a cattle feedlot using eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements, and the similarities between NH3 turbulent fluxes and those of other scalars (temperature, water vapor, and CO2) were investigated. The fourth part involves applying a mobile laboratory equipped with the open-path NH3 sensor and other important chemical/meteorological measurements to quantify fleet-integrated NH3 emissions from on-road vehicles. In the fifth part, the on-road measurements were extended to multiple major urban areas in both the US and China in the context of five observation campaigns. The results significantly improved current urban NH3

  18. pH-dominated niche segregation of ammonia-oxidising microorganisms in Chinese agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baolan, Hu; Shuai, Liu; Wei, Wang; Lidong, Shen; Liping, Lou; Weiping, Liu; Guangming, Tian; Xiangyang, Xu; Ping, Zheng

    2014-10-01

    Ammonia-oxidising archaea (AOA) are increasingly recognised as the primary mediators of soil ammonia oxidation, particularly in acidic soils. To explore the niche segregation of AOA and ammonia-oxidising bacteria (AOB) and the potential effect of this segregation on nitrification rates and the nitrogen cycle in Chinese agricultural soils, AOA and AOB amoA gene databases were established, and 454 high-throughput sequencing was used to investigate the key factors leading to the niche segregation of these two types of microorganisms. qPCR results demonstrated that there were more functional genes for AOA than for AOB in most of the soils. AOA diversity was higher than AOB diversity in most of the soils with AOA operational taxonomic units (OTU) numbers ranging from 40 to 169 and AOB OTU numbers ranging from 18 to 105. pH was the most important factor influencing the community structure of AOA (P < 0.01) and AOB (P < 0.05), and acidophilic AOA (i.e. Nitrosotalea-related sequences) were dominant in soils with pH values below 6.0. In addition, AOA amoA gene copy numbers were significantly positively correlated with pH (P < 0.05), the ratio of AOA OTU numbers/AOB OTU numbers was significantly negatively correlated with pH (P < 0.05), and the percentage of sequences represented by the Nitrosotalea cluster was significantly negatively correlated with pH (P < 0.01). PMID:25065524

  19. Toxicity of profenofos to the springtail, Folsomia candida, and ammonia-oxidizers in two agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Rong; Zheng, Yuan-Ming; He, Ji-Zheng

    2012-05-01

    Extensive use of organophosphorus insecticide profenofos (PFF) for agricultural and house-hold purposes has led to serious environmental pollution, with potential risk to organisms in the ecosystem. This study examined the toxicity of PFF to the soil springtail Folsomia candida and ammonia-oxidizers through a series of toxicity tests conducted on two agricultural soils. It was found that the survival, reproduction, hsp70 gene expression of F. candida and the soil potential nitrification rate (PNR) were sensitive to the PFF, whereas no apparent change was observed in the abundance of ammonia-oxidizers. The reproduction of F. candida was the most sensitive endpoint (mean 0.10 mg/kg of EC(50) value) for PFF, although the test was more time-consuming. The results of the acute toxicity tests suggested that the survival of F. candida could be considered as the most suitable bioindicator for fast screening of PFF toxicity because of its fast and easy test procedure. In addition, the hsp70 gene expression in F. candida and the PNR could be used as important parameters for assessment of PFF toxicity. The threshold concentration based on the obtained endpoints differed in the two soils, and consequently the soil property should be considered in toxicity assessments of contaminated soils. PMID:22362510

  20. Quantification, Sources, and Control of Ammonia Emissions in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Marie Skybova

    2001-01-01

    The exact quantification of ammonia (NH3) emissions is the basic presumption for the fulfilment of obligations set by the CLRTAP (Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution) Protocol which was signed by the Czech Republic in 1999. Most NH3 emissions in the Czech Republic are produced during the breeding of cattle, pigs, and poultry; therefore, determinating emission factors for these kinds of animals by studying their total number, type of breeding, and subsequent disposal of manure...

  1. Emissions of sulfur-containing odorants, ammonia, and methane from pig slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Adamsen, Anders Peter S.; Nørgaard, Jan Værum;

    2010-01-01

    ), methanethiol (MT), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), and dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), as well as ammonia and methane emissions from stored pig slurry. The slurry was derived from a feeding experiment with four pig diets in a factorial design with 2% (w/w) benzoic acid and 1% (w/w) methionine...... and benzoic acid treatments, which caused a significant increase in emissions of especially MT, but also of DMDS. In conclusion, addition of 2% benzoic acid to pig diets effectively reduced ammonia volatilization, but interactions with dietary S may increase odor problems....

  2. Impact of Physical-Chemical Properties on Ammonia Emissions of Dairy Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koirala, K.

    2015-12-01

    Ammonia emission is a major concern due to its adverse effects on animal and human health. Ionic strength and suspended solids play key roles in the ammonia volatilization process. These two parameters, however, are usually lumped together in form of totalsolids. The objective of this study was to separate the contribution of suspended solids (SS) from that of ionic strength (IS) on ammonia volatilization in liquid dairy manure. A two-way factorial experiment was conducted to simultaneously test the effects of IS and SS on ammonium dissociation: a key element of the ammonia volatilization process. The fraction of ammonia (β) in total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) was experimentally determined in a convective emission chamber, for each level of SS and IS, at a constant wind speed of 1.5 m s-1, and air and liquid temperature of 25°C. The two way analysis of variance showed a significant effect of SS concentration (p = 0.04) on fraction of ammonia in the liquid dairy manure, while the effect of ionic strength was marginal (p = 0.05). The highest dissociation of ammonium was observed in manure with the lowest SS concentration (0%) and the lowest ionic strength (0.10 mol L-1). Significant increases in suspended solids concentration and ionic strength were necessary to influence the ammonium dissociation in dairy manure. Results revealed that substantially high content of suspended solids (> 3.0%) or relatively high dilution of manure with water (30%) were necessary for these two parameters to play significant rolesin the ammonia volatilization mechanism in liquid dairy manure. Results also showed that the β was more sensitive to the changes in suspended solids concentration than in the changes in ionic strength within the ranges of SS and IS examined in this study.Overall, the SS and IS effects on ammonium dissociation (and by extension on ammonia volatilization process) were thus found negligible within the normal ranges of liquid dairy manure characteristics.

  3. Analysis of Ammonia and Volatile Organic Amine Emissions in a Confined Poultry Facility

    OpenAIRE

    Dinh, Hanh Hong Thi

    2010-01-01

    The National Air Emission Monitoring Study (NAEMS) project was funded by the Agricultural Air Research Council (AARC) to evaluate agricultural emissions nationwide. Utah State University (USU) is conducting a parallel study on agricultural emissions at a Cache Valley poultry facility. As part of this parallel study, samples of animal feed, eggs and animal waste were collected weekly from three manure barns (designated: manure barn, barn 4 - manure belt and barn 5 - high rise) from May 2008 to...

  4. Ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and particulate matter emissions from California high-rise layer houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, X.-J.; Cortus, E. L.; Zhang, R.; Jiang, S.; Heber, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide are hazardous substances that are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency through community right-to-know legislation (EPCRA, EPA, 2011). The emissions of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide from large commercial layer facilities are of concern to legislators and nearby neighbors. Particulate matter (PM 10 and PM 2.5) released from layer houses are two of seven criteria pollutants for which EPA has set National Ambient Air Quality Standards as required by the Clean Air Act. Therefore, it is important to quantify the baseline emissions of these pollutants. The emissions of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and PM from two California high-rise layer houses were monitored for two years from October 2007 to October 2009. Each house had 32,500 caged laying hens. The monitoring site was setup in compliance with a U.S. EPA-approved quality assurance project plan. The results showed the average daily mean emission rates of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide were 0.95 ± 0.67 (standard deviation) g d -1 bird -1, 1.27 ± 0.78 mg d -1 bird -1 and 91.4 ± 16.5 g d -1 bird -1, respectively. The average daily mean emission rates of PM 2.5, PM 10 and total suspended particulate (TSP) were 5.9 ± 12.6, 33.4 ± 27.4, and 78.0 ± 42.7 mg d -1 bird -1, respectively. It was observed that ammonia emission rates in summer were lower than in winter because the high airflow stabilized the manure by drying it. The reductions due to lower moisture content were greater than the increases due to higher temperature. However, PM 10 emission rates in summer were higher than in winter because the drier conditions coupled with higher internal air velocities increased PM 10 release from feathers, feed and manure.

  5. Emissions, sinks and gas to particle conversion of amines and ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen-containing base compounds, amines and ammonia, play important roles in formation of secondary aerosols in the atmosphere, but their sources, sinks and atmospheric transformation processes are not well understood. Also, there are very limited analytical methods that are capable of measuring pptv or sub-pptv level of amines and ammonia. We have developed a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) that can detect amines and ammonia at the pptv and sub-pptv level with a 1 min of integration time. Here, we report ambient measurements of amines and ammonia made in a moderately polluted continental site (Kent, Ohio) and in a rural Southeastern U.S. forest (Centreville, Alabama). Our finding indicate that there are much more abundant gas phase amines (C1-C6) and ammonia in the polluted site than in the rural forest, highlighting the importance of constraining anthropogenic emission sources of amines. At both locations, concentrations of these base compounds show clear temperature dependence, indicating strong gas-to-particle conversion processes. Compared to ammonia, amines can partition into aerosol phases even more effectively due to lower saturation vapor pressures. Measurements in the clean rural forest show that transported biomass burning plumes are the major source of amines. These nitrogen-containing compounds effectively undergo wet deposition in the atmosphere due to high solubilities.

  6. DETERMINATION OF AMMONIA MASS EMISSION FLUX FROM HOG WASTE EFFLUENT SPRAYING OPERATION USING OPEN PATH TUNABLE DIODE LASER SPECTROSCOPY WITH VERTICAL RADIAL PLUME MAPPING ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emission of ammonia from concentrated animal feeding operations represents an increasingly important environmental issue. Determination of total ammonia mass emission flux from extended area sources such as waste lagoons and waste effluent spraying operations can be evaluated usi...

  7. Improved passive flux samplers for measuring ammonia emissions from animal houses, part 1: Basic principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, R.; Hol, J.M.G.; Wagemans, M.J.M.; Phillips, V.R.

    2003-01-01

    At present, precise, expensive and laborious methods with a high resolution in time are needed, to determine ammonia emission rates from animal houses. The high costs for equipment, maintenance and labour limit the number of sites that can be measured. This study examines a new, simpler concept for

  8. Manure ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle fed condensed tannins

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of three levels of condensed tannins fed to 27 beef feed yard steers on ammonia and GHG emissions from manure. Condensed tannins were fed at rates of 0, 0.5 and 1.0 percent on a dry matter basis. Manure and urine were collected from two periods over 6 d...

  9. Path integrated optical remote sensing technique to estimate ammonia and methane gas emissions from CAFOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA recently demonstrated the open-path optical remote sensing technology to identify hot spots and estimate mass flux of fugitive gases from closed landfill. The objective of this research is to validate this technology for estimating ammonia and methane emission from concentrated animal f...

  10. Ammonia emissions from pig houses in The Netherlands, Denmark and France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Rom, H.B.; Dourmad, J.Y.

    1999-01-01

    In recent decades pig production has been intensified in most European countries. This has resulted in a surplus of manure and a serious concern about the effect of ammonia emissions on environmental acidification and the pollution of ground and surface water. In the Netherlands, Denmark and France

  11. Ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from constructed wetlands treating swine wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from marsh-pond-marsh constructed wetlands treating swine wastewater were measured with closed-chamber technique using a photoacoustic multigas analyzer. Theory behind the technique was discussed and the technique was demonstrated with actual field data. Nitrous ...

  12. New Maser Emission from Nonmetastable Ammonia in NGC 7538. IV. Coincident Masers in Adjacent States of Para-ammonia

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffman, Ian M

    2014-01-01

    We present the first detection of para-ammonia masers in NGC 7538: multiple epochs of observation of the 14NH3 (J,K) = (10,8) and (9,8) lines. We detect both thermal absorption and nonthermal emission in the (10,8) and (9,8) transitions and the absence of a maser in the (11,8) transition. The (9,8) maser is observed to increase in intensity by 40% over six months. Using interferometric observations with a synthesized beam of 0.25", we find that the (10,8) and (9,8) masers originate at the same sky position near IRS1. With strong evidence that the (10,8) and (9,8) masers arise in the same volume, we discuss the application of pumping models for the simultaneous excitation of nonmetastable (J > K) para-ammonia states having the same value of K and consecutive values of J. We also present detections of thermal absorption in rotational states ranging in energy from E/k_B ~ 200 K to 2000 K, and several non-detections in higher-energy states. In particular, we describe the populations in eight adjacent rotational s...

  13. Implications of ammonia emissions from post-combustion carbon capture for airborne particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jinhyok; McCoy, Sean T; Adams, Peter J

    2015-04-21

    Amine scrubbing, a mature post-combustion carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology, could increase ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) due to its ammonia emissions. To capture 2.0 Gt CO2/year, for example, it could emit 32 Gg NH3/year in the United States given current design targets or 15 times higher (480 Gg NH3/year) at rates typical of current pilot plants. Employing a chemical transport model, we found that the latter emission rate would cause an increase of 2.0 μg PM2.5/m(3) in nonattainment areas during wintertime, which would be troublesome for PM2.5-burdened areas, and much lower increases during other seasons. Wintertime PM2.5 increases in nonattainment areas were fairly linear at a rate of 3.4 μg PM2.5/m(3) per 1 Tg NH3, allowing these results to be applied to other CCS emissions scenarios. The PM2.5 impacts are modestly uncertain (±20%) depending on future emissions of SO2, NOx, and NH3. The public health costs of CCS NH3 emissions were valued at $31-68 per tonne CO2 captured, comparable to the social cost of carbon itself. Because the costs of solvent loss to CCS operators are lower than the social costs of CCS ammonia, there is a regulatory interest to limit ammonia emissions from CCS.

  14. GHG emissions and mitigation potential in Indian agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Sylvia; Feliciano, Diana; Sapkota, Tek; Hillier, Jon; Smith, Pete; Stirling, Clare

    2016-04-01

    India is one of the world's largest greenhouse gas (GHG) emitter, accounting for about 5% of global emissions with further increases expected in the future. The Government of India aims to reduce emission intensities by 20-25% by 2020 compared with the 2005 level. In a recent departure from past practice the reconvened Council on Climate Change stated that climate change in agriculture would include a component that would focus on reducing emissions in agriculture, particularly methane and nitrous oxide emissions. To develop recommendations for mitigation in agriculture in India, a baseline study is presented to analyse the GHG emissions from agriculture for current management (Directorate of Economics and Statistics of the government of India). This analysis is done for the two states Bihar and Haryana, which differ in their management and practises based on different climate and policies. This first analysis shows were the highest GHG emissions in agriculture is produced and were the highest mitigation potential might be. The GHG emissions and mitigation potential are calculated using the CCAFS Mitigation Option Tool (CCAFS-MOT) (https://ccafs.cgiar.org/mitigation-option-tool-agriculture#.VpTnWL826d4) with modifications for the special modelling. In a second step, stakeholder meetings provided a wide range of possible and definite scenarios (management, policy, technology, costs, etc.) for the future to mitigate emissions in agriculture as well as how to increase productivity. These information were used to create scenarios to give estimates for the mitigation potential in agriculture for India in 2020.

  15. Methane, nitrous oxide and ammonia emissions from pigs housed on litter and from stockpiling of spent litter

    KAUST Repository

    Phillips, F. A.

    2016-05-05

    Mitigation of agricultural greenhouse gas emissions is a target area for the Australian Government and the pork industry. The present study measured methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and ammonia (NH3) from a deep-litter piggery and litter stockpile over two trials in southern New South Wales, to compare emissions from housing pigs on deep litter with those of pigs from conventional housing with uncovered anaerobic effluent-treatment ponds. Emissions were measured using open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, in conjunction with a backward Lagrangian stochastic model. Manure excretion was determined by mass balance and emission factors (EFs) were developed to report emissions relative to volatile solids and nitrogen (N) input. Nitrous oxide emissions per animal unit (1 AU ≤ 500 kg liveweight) from deep-litter sheds were negligible in winter, and 8.4 g/AU.day in summer. Ammonia emissions were 39.1 in winter and 52.2 g/AU.day in summer, while CH4 emissions were 16.1 and 21.6 g/AU.day in winter and summer respectively. Emission factors averaged from summer and winter emissions showed a CH4 conversion factor of 3.6%, an NH3-N EF of 10% and a N2O-N EF of 0.01 kg N2O-N/kg N excreted. For the litter stockpile, the simple average of summer and winter showed an EF for NH3-N of 14%, and a N2O-N EF of 0.02 kg N2O-N/kg-N of spent litter added to the stockpile. We observed a 66% and 80% decrease in emissions from the manure excreted in litter-based housing with litter stockpiling or without litter stockpiling, compared with conventional housing with an uncovered anaerobic effluent-treatment pond. This provides a sound basis for mitigation strategies that utilise litter-based housing as an alternative to conventional housing with uncovered anaerobic effluent-treatment ponds. © CSIRO 2016.

  16. Study of the ammonia emission in the NGC 6334 region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caproni, A.; Abraham, Z.; Vilas-Boas, J. W. S.

    2000-09-01

    The region centered in the NGC 6334 I(N) radio continuum source was surveyed in an extension of 6' in right ascension and 12' in declination, in the NH_3(J,K) = (1,1) transition, using the Itapetinga radio telescope. The spectra show non-LTE behavior, and gradients of velocity and line-width were detected along the region. A detailed analysis of the spectra showed that the surveyed region is composed of at least three overlapped sources related to regions that are in different stages of star formation: NGC 6334 I, associated with an already known molecular bipolar outflow, NGC 6334 I(N)w, the brightest ammonia source, coincidental with the continuum source NGC 6334 I(N), and NGC 6334 I(N)e, weaker, more extended and probably less evolved than the others. The physical parameters of the last two sources were calculated in non-LTE conditions, assuming that their spectra are the superposition of the narrow line spectra produced by small dense clumps. The H_2 density, NH_3 column density, kinetic temperature, diameter and mass of the clumps were found to be very similar in the two regions, but the density of clumps is lower in the probably less evolved source NGC 6334 I(N)e. Differences between the physical parameters derived assuming LTE and non-LTE conditions are also discussed in this work.

  17. Study of ammonia emission in the NGC 6334 region

    CERN Document Server

    Caproni, A; Vilas-Boas, J W S; Caproni, Anderson; Abraham, Zulema; Vilas-Boas, Jose W. S.

    2000-01-01

    The region centered in the NGC 6334 I(N) radio continuum source was surveyed in an extension of 6 arcmin in right ascension and 12 arcmin in declination, in the NH3(J,K) = (1,1) transition, using the Itapetinga radio telescope. The spectra show non-LTE behavior, and gradients of velocity and line-width were detected along the region. A detailed analysis of the spectra showed that the surveyed region is composed of at least three overlapped sources related to regions that are in different stages of star formation: NGC 6334 I, associated with an already known molecular bipolar outflow, NGC 6334 I(N)w, the brightest ammonia source, coincidental with the continuum source NGC 6334 I(N), and NGC 6334 I(N)e, weaker, more extended and probably less evolved than the others. The physical parameters of the last two sources were calculated in non-LTE conditions, assuming that their spectra are the superposition of the narrow line spectra produced by small dense clumps. The H2 density, NH3 column density, kinetic temperat...

  18. Greenhouse gases and ammonia emissions from organic mixed crop-dairy systems: a critical review of mitigation options

    OpenAIRE

    Novak, Sandra; Fiorelli, Jean-Louis

    2010-01-01

    International audience Dairy production systems represent a significant source of air pollutants such as greenhouse gases (GHG), that increase global warming, and ammonia (NH3), that leads to eutrophication and acidification of natural ecosystems. Greenhouse gases and ammonia are emitted both by conventional and organic dairy systems. Several studies have already been conducted to design practices that reduce greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions from dairy systems. However, those studies d...

  19. Ammonia-oxidising bacteria not archaea dominate nitrification activity in semi-arid agricultural soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banning, Natasha C.; Maccarone, Linda D.; Fisk, Louise M.; Murphy, Daniel V.

    2015-06-01

    Ammonia-oxidising archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) are responsible for the rate limiting step in nitrification; a key nitrogen (N) loss pathway in agricultural systems. Dominance of AOA relative to AOB in the amoA gene pool has been reported in many ecosystems, although their relative contributions to nitrification activity are less clear. Here we examined the distribution of AOA and AOB with depth in semi-arid agricultural soils in which soil organic matter content or pH had been altered, and related their distribution to gross nitrification rates. Soil depth had a significant effect on gene abundances, irrespective of management history. Contrary to reports of AOA dominance in soils elsewhere, AOA gene copy numbers were four-fold lower than AOB in the surface (0-10 cm). AOA gene abundance increased with depth while AOB decreased, and sub-soil abundances were approximately equal (10-90 cm). The depth profile of total archaea did not mirror that of AOA, indicating the likely presence of archaea without nitrification capacity in the surface. Gross nitrification rates declined significantly with depth and were positively correlated to AOB but negatively correlated to AOA gene abundances. We conclude that AOB are most likely responsible for regulating nitrification in these semi-arid soils.

  20. An experimental investigation of exhaust emission from agricultural tractors

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid Gholami, Hekmat Rabbani, Ali Nejat Lorestani, Payam Javadikia, Farzad Jaliliantabar

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural machinery is an important source of emission of air pollutant in rural locations. Emissions of a specific tractor engine mainly depend on engine speed. Various driving methods and use of implements with different work capacities can affect the engine load. This study deals with the effects of types of tractors and operation conditions on engine emission. In this study two types of agricultural tractors (MF285 and U650) and some tillage implements such as centrifugal type spreader...

  1. Ammonia emissions from deciduous forest after leaf fall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristina; Sørensen, Lise Lotte; Hertel, Ole;

    2013-01-01

    15 November) for the Danish beech forest Lille Bøgeskov to address the hypothesis that NH3 emissions occur from deciduous forests in relation to leaf fall. This is accomplished by using observations of vegetation status, NH3 fluxes and model calculations. Vegetation status was observed using plant...... from deposition of −0.25 ± 0.30 μg NH3-N m−2 s−1 to emission of up to 0.67 ± 0.28 μg NH3-N m−2 s−1 throughout the measurement period was found. In the leaf fall period (23 October to 8 November), an increase in the atmospheric NH3 concentrations was related to the increasing forest NH3 flux. Following...... leaf fall, the magnitude and temporal structure of the measured NH3 emission fluxes could be adequately reproduced with the bi-directional resistance model; it suggested the forest ground layer (soil and litter) to be the main contributing component to the NH3 emissions. The modelled concentration from...

  2. Gaseous ammonia in the urban area of Rome, Italy and its relationship with traffic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrino, C.; Catrambone, M.; Di Menno Di Bucchianico, A.; Allegrini, I.

    The atmospheric concentration of gaseous ammonia has been measured during selected field campaigns from the spring of 2001 to the spring of 2002 in the urban area of Rome, at many traffic sites and at an urban background site. The concentration level at the traffic sites was in all cases about five times the background level and always much higher than the concentration in a rural near-city area. The time trend of ammonia is well correlated with the trend of a primary low-reactivity pollutant such as carbon monoxide. The concentration values of both pollutants depend on the intensity of traffic emission and on the atmospheric mixing in the boundary layer. Ammonia concentration is also dependent on the air temperature. A close link between NH 3 and CO air values has been confirmed at all the measurement stations of the Air Quality Network of Rome. These results indicate that the emissions from petrol-engine vehicles equipped with catalytic converters can be an important source of ammonia in urban areas. The implications of these findings for the chemistry of the urban atmosphere need to be carefully considered.

  3. Current and future nitrous oxide emissions from African agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hickman, J.E.; Havlikova, M.; Kroeze, C.; Palm, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Most emission estimates of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) from African agriculture at a continental scale are based on emission factors, such as those developed by the IPCC Guidelines. Here we present estimates from Africa from the EDGAR database, which is derived from the IPCC emission fact

  4. Quantification, Sources, and Control of Ammonia Emissions in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Skybova

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The exact quantification of ammonia (NH3 emissions is the basic presumption for the fulfilment of obligations set by the CLRTAP (Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution Protocol which was signed by the Czech Republic in 1999. Most NH3 emissions in the Czech Republic are produced during the breeding of cattle, pigs, and poultry; therefore, determinating emission factors for these kinds of animals by studying their total number, type of breeding, and subsequent disposal of manure is the solution to the problem of NH3 emissions quantification. This paper summarizes the results of 4 years of research in this area, determining the emission factors and ways of decreasing emissions from the breeding of cattle, pigs, and poultry.

  5. Potential ammonia emissions from straw, slurry pit and concrete floor in a group housing system for sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenestein, C.M.; Hartog, den L.A.; Metz, J.H.M.

    2006-01-01

    To assess the contribution of straw bedding, concrete floors, slats, and slurry in the pits to ammonia emission in a straw-bedded group-housing system for sows, the ammonia volatilisation response of urination on the potential emitting surfaces from a sow house was studied under laboratory condition

  6. Yield-scaled mitigation of ammonia emission from N fertilization: the Spanish case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Cobena, A.; Lassaletta, L.; Estellés, F.; Del Prado, A.; Guardia, G.; Abalos, D.; Aguilera, E.; Pardo, G.; Vallejo, A.; Sutton, M. A.; Garnier, J.; Billen, G.

    2014-12-01

    Synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer and field application of livestock manure are the major sources of ammonia (NH3) volatilization. This N loss may decrease crop productivity and subsequent deposition promotes environmental problems associated with soil acidification and eutrophication. Mitigation measures may have associated side effects such as decreased crop productivity (e.g. if N fertilizer application is reduced), or the release of other reactive N compounds (e.g. N2O emissions if manure is incorporated). Here, we present a novel methodology to provide an integrated assessment of the best strategies to abate NH3 from N applications to crops. Using scenario analyses, we assessed the potential of 11 mitigation measures to reduce NH3 volatilization while accounting for their side effects on crop productivity, N use efficiency (NUE) and N surplus (used as an indicator of potential N losses by denitrification/nitrification and NO3- leaching/run-off). Spain, including its 48 provinces, was selected as a case study as it is the third major producer of agricultural goods in Europe, and also the European country with the highest increase in NH3 emissions from 1990 to 2011. Mitigation scenarios comprised of individual measures and combinations of strategies were evaluated at a country- and regional level. Compared to the reference situation of standard practices for the year 2008, implementation of the most effective region-specific mitigation strategy led to 63% NH3 mitigation at the country level. Implementation of a single strategy for all regions reduced NH3 by 57% at the highest. Strategies that involved combining mitigation measures produced the largest NH3 abatement in all cases, with an 80% reduction in some regions. Among the strategies analyzed, only suppression of urea application combined with manure incorporation and incorporation of N synthetic fertilizers other than urea showed a fully beneficial situation: yield-scaled NH3 emissions were reduced by 82

  7. Short-term experiments in using digestate products as substitutes for mineral (N) fertilizer: Agronomic performance, odours, and ammonia emission impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, C; Orzi, V; Carozzi, M; Acutis, M; Boccasile, G; Lonati, S; Tambone, F; D'Imporzano, G; Adani, F

    2016-03-15

    Anaerobic digestion produces a biologically stable and high-value fertilizer product, the digestate, which can be used as an alternative to mineral fertilizers on crops. However, misuse of digestate can lead to annoyance for the public (odours) and to environmental problems such as nitrate leaching and ammonia emissions into the air. Full field experimental data are needed to support the use of digestate in agriculture, promoting its correct management. In this work, short-term experiments were performed to substitute mineral N fertilizers (urea) with digestate and products derived from it to the crop silage maize. Digestate and the liquid fraction of digestate were applied to soil at pre-sowing and as topdressing fertilizers in comparison with urea, both by surface application and subsurface injection during the cropping seasons 2012 and 2013. After each fertilizer application, both odours and ammonia emissions were measured, giving data about digestate and derived products' impacts. The AD products could substitute for urea without reducing crop yields, apart from the surface application of AD-derived fertilizers. Digestate and derived products, because of high biological stability acquired during the AD, had greatly reduced olfactometry impact, above all when they were injected into soils (82-88% less odours than the untreated biomass, i.e. cattle slurry). Ammonia emission data indicated, as expected, that the correct use of digestate and derived products required their injection into the soil avoiding, ammonia volatilization into the air and preserving fertilizer value. Sub-surface injection allowed ammonia emissions to be reduced by 69% and 77% compared with surface application during the 2012 and 2013 campaigns.

  8. Agriculture and greenhouse gases emissions reduction; Agriculture et reduction des emissions de gaz a effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leguet, B.

    2005-09-15

    In France, the agriculture is the third sector of greenhouse gases emitter. Meanwhile since 1990 this sector poorly reduces its greenhouse gases. It is necessary to find mechanisms which allow the valorization of emissions reduction. In this framework the author presents the specificities of the greenhouse gases emissions of the agricultural sector, the possible incentives of emissions reduction, the reduction projects in France and abroad. (A.L.B.)

  9. Measurement of ammonia emissions from temperate and sub-polar seabird colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddick, S. N.; Blackall, T. D.; Dragosits, U.; Daunt, F.; Newell, M.; Braban, C. F.; Tang, Y. S.; Schmale, J.; Hill, P. W.; Wanless, S.; Trathan, P.; Sutton, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    The chemical breakdown of marine derived reactive nitrogen transported to the land as seabird guano represents a significant source of ammonia (NH3) in areas far from other NH3 sources. Measurements made at tropical and temperate seabird colonies indicate substantial NH3 emissions, with emission rates larger than many anthropogenic point sources. However, several studies indicate that thermodynamic processes limit the amount of NH3 emitted from guano, suggesting that the percentage of guano volatilizing as NH3 may be considerably lower in colder climates. This study undertook high resolution temporal ammonia measurements in the field and coupled results with modelling to estimate NH3 emissions at a temperate puffin colony and two sub-polar penguin colonies (Signy Island, South Orkney Islands and Bird Island, South Georgia) during the breeding season. These emission rates are then compared with NH3 volatilization rates from other climates. Ammonia emissions were calculated using a Lagrangian atmospheric dispersion model, resulting in mean emissions of 5 μg m-2 s-1 at the Isle of May, 12 μg m-2 s-1 at Signy Island and 9 μg m-2 s-1 at Bird Island. The estimated percentage of total guano nitrogen volatilized was 5% on the Isle of May, 3% on Signy and 2% on Bird Island. These values are much smaller than the percentage of guano nitrogen volatilized in tropical contexts (31-65%). The study confirmed temperature, wind speed and water availability have a significant influence on the magnitude of NH3 emissions, which has implications for reactive nitrogen in both modern remote regions and pre-industrial atmospheric composition and ecosystem interactions.

  10. Experimental investigation of nitrogen based emissions from an ammonia fueled SI-engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westlye, Fredrik Ree; Ivarsson, Anders; Schramm, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    This study concerns nitrogen based emissions from a hydrogen enriched ammonia fueled SI engine. These emissions deserve special attention as their formation may differ from conventional HC combustion due to the nitrogen content in the fuel. A range of experiments are conducted with a single...... cylinder 0.612 l CFR engine with a compression ratio varying from 7 to 15 using a fuel composition of 80 vol% NH3 and 20 vol% H2. Wet exhaust samples are analysed with an FT-IR. Emission measurements reveal that nitric oxide stem from other reaction paths than the dissociation of molecular nitrogen....... This causes the NO emissions to peak around 35% rather than 10% excess air, as is typical in HC fueled SI-engines. However the magnitude of NO emissions are comparable to that of measurements conducted with gasoline due to lower flame temperatures. Nitrogen dioxide levels are higher when comparing...

  11. A process-based model for ammonia emission from urine patches, GAG (Generation of Ammonia from Grazing): description and sensitivity analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Móring, Andrea; Vieno, Massimo; M. Doherty, Ruth;

    2016-01-01

    content of the soil under a urine patch and also soil pH dynamics. The model tests suggest that ammonia volatilization from a urine patch can be affected by the possible restart of urea hydrolysis after a rain event as well as CO2 emission from the soil. The vital role of temperature in NH3 exchange...

  12. A process-based model for ammonia emission from urine patches, GAG (Generation of Ammonia from Grazing): description and sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Móring, Andrea; Vieno, Massimo; Doherty, Ruth M.; Laubach, Johannes; Taghizadeh-Toosi, Arezoo; Sutton, Mark A.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper a new process-based, weather-driven model for ammonia (NH3) emission from a urine patch has been developed and its sensitivity to various factors assessed. The GAG model (Generation of Ammonia from Grazing) is capable of simulating the TAN (total ammoniacal nitrogen) and the water content of the soil under a urine patch and also soil pH dynamics. The model tests suggest that ammonia volatilization from a urine patch can be affected by the possible restart of urea hydrolysis after a rain event as well as CO2 emission from the soil. The vital role of temperature in NH3 exchange is supported by our model results; however, the GAG model provides only a modest overall temperature dependence in total NH3 emission compared with the literature. This, according to our findings, can be explained by the higher sensitivity to temperature close to urine application than in the later stages and may depend on interactions with other nitrogen cycling processes. In addition, we found that wind speed and relative humidity are also significant influencing factors. Considering that all the input parameters can be obtained for larger scales, GAG is potentially suitable for field and regional scale application, serving as a tool for further investigation of the effects of climate change on ammonia emissions and deposition.

  13. Effect of nitrogen fertilization and residue management practices on ammonia emissions from subtropical sugarcane production

    Science.gov (United States)

    mudi, Sanku Datta; Wang, Jim J.; Dodla, Syam Kumar; Arceneaux, Allen; Viator, H. P.

    2016-08-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emission from soil is a loss of nitrogen (N) nutrient for plant production as well as an issue of air quality, due to the fact that it is an active precursor of airborne particulate matters. Ammonia also acts as a secondary source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emission when present in the soil. In this study, the impacts of different sources of N fertilizers and harvest residue management schemes on NH3 emissions from sugarcane production were evaluated based on an active chamber method. The field experiment plots consisting of two sources of N fertilizer (urea and urea ammonium nitrate (UAN)) and two common residue management practices, namely residue retained (RR) and residue burned (RB), were established on a Commerce silt loam. The NH3 volatilized following N fertilizer application was collected in an impinger containing diluted citric acid and was subsequently analyzed using ion chromatography. The NH3 loss was primarily found within 3-4 weeks after N application. Average seasonal soil NH3 flux was significantly greater in urea plots with NH3-N emission factor (EF) twice or more than in UAN plots (2.4-5.6% vs. 1.2-1.7%). The RR residue management scheme had much higher NH3 volatilization than the RB treatment regardless of N fertilizer sources, corresponding to generally higher soil moisture levels in the former. Ammonia-N emissions in N fertilizer-treated sugarcane fields increased with increasing soil water-filled pore space (WFPS) up to 45-55% observed in the field. Both N fertilizer sources and residue management approaches significantly affected NH3 emissions.

  14. A simple model for assessing ammonia emission from ammoniacal fertilisers as affected by pH and injection into soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyord, T.; Schelde, K. M.; Søgaard, H. T.; Jensen, L. S.; Sommer, S. G.

    Ammonia (NH 3) volatilisation following the application of ammoniacal fertilisers and liquid manure to agricultural land is a significant source of atmospheric NH 3, which not only poses a risk to the environment, but may also result in a loss of plant available nitrogen (N). This study examined the potential for reducing NH 3 emission through acidifying an ammoniacal solution and by injecting the solution. The combination of the two technologies was studied and a model for predicting the most optimal treatment was developed. In the laboratory, ammonium (NH 4+) hydroxide (aqueous NH 3) was dissolved in water (pH 11) and injected into a loamy sand soil. The NH 3 emission was measured with a dynamic chamber technology. Injecting the solution to 10 mm below the soil surface reduced NH 3 emission by 10% compared to surface application, and injection to 30 mm reduced emission by 20% compared to surface application. Acidifying the ammoniacal solution by adding sulphuric acid and reducing pH to 10 reduced the emission by 60% at a 10 mm injection depth and 90% at 30 mm compared with non-acidified and surface-spread ammoniacal solution. The results show that there is an important interaction of pH and injection depth and that there is a need for models predicting a combined effect. This type of model could contribute to reduce cost and energy (traction force) by providing the optimal combination of acidifying and injection depth that gives a specific reduction in NH 3 emission, which in this study was reducing pH to 10 and inject the fertiliser to 30 mm below surface. This study showed that relatively simple models can predict the NH 3 emission from injected ammoniacal fertilisers, but that there is still a need for developing algorithms that predict the effect of pH, including the pH buffering capacity of the fertiliser and the soil.

  15. Mitigation of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane emissions from manure management chains: a meta-analysis and integrated assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yong, Y.; Velthof, G.L.; Oenema, O.

    2015-01-01

    Livestock manure contributes considerably to global emissions of ammonia (NH3) and greenhouse gases (GHG), especially methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Various measures have been developed to mitigate these emissions, but most of these focus on one specific gas and/or emission source. Here, we

  16. Measurement method for urine puddle depth in dairy cow houses as input variable for ammonia emission modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, J.W.; Stigter, J.D.; Ogink, Nico; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2015-01-01

    Dairy cow houses are a major contributor to ammonia (NH3) emission in many European countries. To understand and predict NH3 emissions from cubicle dairy cow houses a mechanistic model was developed and a sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the contribution to NH3 emission of each input var

  17. Effects of Different Concentrations of Ammonia Nitrogen on N_2O Emission in the Process of Partial Nitrification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN; Lin; KONG; Qiang; ZHANG; Jian; MIAO; Ming-sheng

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to discuss the effects of different concentrations of ammonia nitrogen on N2O emission in the process of partial nitrification. [Method] By using a sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) under intermittent aeration, the influences of various concentrations of influent ammonia nitrogen on nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from partial nitrification were analyzed. [Result] When the concentration of influent ammonia nitrogen varied from 200 to 400 mg/L, the changing trends of DO and ORP value were consistent during the process of partial nitrification, and the concentration ratio of NO-2-N to NH+4-N in effluent water reached 1∶1, with lower NO-3-N level. In addition, ammonia nitrogen concentration in the influent had significant effects on N2O emission in the process of partial nitrification, that is, the higher the ammonia nitrogen concentration, the more the N2O emission. When ammonia nitrogen concentration was 400 mg/L, N2O emission was up to about 37 mg. [Conclusion] N2O emission in the process of partial nitrification might be related to the concentrations of NH+4 and NO-2.

  18. Effects of Different Concentrations of Ammonia Nitrogen on N2O Emission in the Process of Partial Nitrification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN; Lin; KONG; Qiang; ZHANG; Jian; MIAO; Ming-sheng

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to discuss the effects of different concentrations of ammonia nitrogen on N2O emission in the process of partial nitrification. [Method] By using a sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) under intermittent aeration, the influences of various concentrations of influent ammonia nitrogen on nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from partial nitrification were analyzed. [Result] When the concentration of influent ammonia nitrogen varied from 200 to 400 mg/L, the changing trends of DO and ORP value were consistent during the process of partial nitrification, and the concentration ratio of NO-2-N to NH+4-N in effluent water reached 1∶1, with lower NO-3-N level. In addition, ammonia nitrogen concentration in the influent had significant effects on N2O emission in the process of partial nitrification, that is, the higher the ammonia nitrogen concentration, the more the N2O emission. When ammonia nitrogen concentration was 400 mg/L, N2O emission was up to about 37 mg. [Conclusion] N2O emission in the process of partial nitrification might be related to the concentrations of NH+4 and NO-2.

  19. A comprehensive ammonia emission inventory with high-resolution and its evaluation in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Shuiyuan Cheng; Lang, Jianlei; Chen, Dongsheng; Zhao, Beibei; Liu, Chao; Xu, Ran; Li, Tingting

    2015-04-01

    A comprehensive ammonia (NH3) emission inventory for the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region was developed based on the updated source-specific emission factors (EFs) and the county-level activity data obtained from a full-coverage investigation launched in the BTH region for the first time. The NH3 emission inventory within 1 km × 1 km grid was generated using source-based spatial surrogates with geographical information system (GIS) technology. The total NH3 emission was 1573.7 Gg for the year 2010. The contributions from livestock, farmland, human, biomass burning, chemical industry, fuel combustion, waste disposal and on-road mobile source were approximately 56.6%, 28.6%, 7.2%, 3.4%, 1.1%, 1.3%, 1.0% and 0.8%, respectively. Among different cities, Shijiazhang, Handan, Xingtai, Tangshan and Cangzhou had higher NH3 emissions. Statistical analysis aiming at county-level emission of 180 counties in BTH indicated that the NH3 emission in most of the counties were less than 16 Gg. The maximum value of the county level emission was approximately 25.5 Gg. Higher NH3 emission was concentrated in the areas with more rural and agricultural activity. Monthly, higher NH3 emission occurred during the period from April to September, which could be attributed to the temperature and timing of planting practice. The validity of the estimated emissions were further evaluated from multiple perspectives covering (1) uncertainty analysis based on Monte Carlo simulation, (2) comparison with other studies, (3) quantitative analysis of improvement in spatial resolution of activity data, and (4) verification based on a comparison of the simulated and observed surface concentrations of ammonium. The detailed and validated ammonia emission inventory could provide valuable information for understanding air pollution formation mechanisms and help guide decision-making with respect to control strategies.

  20. ThermoEnergy Ammonia Recovery Process for Municipal and Agricultural Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex G. Fassbender

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ammonia Recovery Process (ARP is an award-winning, low-cost, environmentally responsible method of recovering nitrogen, in the form of ammonia, from various dilute waste streams and converting it into concentrated ammonium sulfate. The ThermoEnergy Biogas System utilizes the new chemisorption-based ARP to recover ammonia from anaerobically digested wastes. The process provides for optimal biogas production and significantly reduced nitrogen levels in the treated water discharge. Process flows for the ammonia recovery and ThermoEnergy biogas processes are presented and discussed. A comparison with other techniques such as biological nitrogen removal is made. The ARP technology uses reversible chemisorption and double salt crystal precipitation to recover and concentrate the ammonia. The ARP technology was successfully proven in a recent large-scale field demonstration at New York City’s Oakwood Beach Wastewater Treatment Plant, located on Staten Island. This project was a joint effort with Foster Wheeler Environmental Corporation, the Civil Engineering Research Foundation, and New York City Department of Environmental Protection. Independent validated plant data show that ARP consistently recovers up to 99.9% of the ammonia from the city’s centrate waste stream (derived from dewatering of sewage sludge, as ammonium sulfate. ARP technology can reduce the nitrogen (ammonia discharged daily into local bodies of water by municipalities, concentrated animal farming operations, and industry. Recent advances to ARP enhance its performance and economic competitiveness in comparison to stripping or ammonia destruction technologies.

  1. Development of a concept that combines the production of biogas with the elimination of ammonia in agricultural wastes; Developpement d'un concept combine de production de biogaz et d'elimination de l'ammoniac applique aux effluents agricoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruteau, H.; Membrez, Y; Dovat, J.; Tacchini, C. [Erep SA, Aclens (Switzerland); Villegas, J.; Holliger, Ch. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Laboratoire de Biotechnologie Environnementale (LBE), Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2007-09-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on the development of a concept that allows the production of biogas whilst eliminating ammonia-emissions in agricultural wastes. The authors state that the biological treatment of ammonia using classical procedures of nitrification / de-nitrification faces two major problems: cost and complexity. The results of experimental research conducted at the Environmental Biotechnology Laboratory at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne, Switzerland, on the digested effluent of an existing biogas installation are presented and discussed. The production of biogas and ammonia emissions are examined along with recent developments in this area. The installation examined is described and its characteristics are discussed. An experimental installation for the treatment of ammonia emissions is described. The results of the experiments are presented and discussed. Feasibility and costs are also examined.

  2. The FAOSTAT database of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubiello, Francesco N.; Salvatore, Mirella; Rossi, Simone; Ferrara, Alessandro; Fitton, Nuala; Smith, Pete

    2013-03-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture, including crop and livestock production, forestry and associated land use changes, are responsible for a significant fraction of anthropogenic emissions, up to 30% according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Yet while emissions from fossil fuels are updated yearly and by multiple sources—including national-level statistics from the International Energy Agency (IEA)—no comparable efforts for reporting global statistics for agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU) emissions exist: the latest complete assessment was the 2007 IPCC report, based on 2005 emission data. This gap is critical for several reasons. First, potentially large climate funding could be linked in coming decades to more precise estimates of emissions and mitigation potentials. For many developing countries, and especially the least developed ones, this requires improved assessments of AFOLU emissions. Second, growth in global emissions from fossil fuels has outpaced that from AFOLU during every decade of the period 1961-2010, so the relative contribution of the latter to total climate forcing has diminished over time, with a need for regular updates. We present results from a new GHG database developed at FAO, providing a complete and coherent time series of emission statistics over a reference period 1961-2010, at country level, based on FAOSTAT activity data and IPCC Tier 1 methodology. We discuss results at global and regional level, focusing on trends in the agriculture sector and net deforestation. Our results complement those available from the IPCC, extending trend analysis to a longer historical period and, critically, beyond 2005 to more recent years. In particular, from 2000 to 2010, we find that agricultural emissions increased by 1.1% annually, reaching 4.6 Gt CO2 yr-1 in 2010 (up to 5.4-5.8 Gt CO2 yr-1 with emissions from biomass burning and organic soils included). Over the same decade 2000-2010, the

  3. Ammonia and Methane Dairy Emission Plumes in the San Joaquin Valley of California from Individual Feedlot to Regional Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David J.; Sun, Kang; Pan, Da; Zondlo, Mark A.; Nowak, John B.; Liu, Zhen; Diskin, Glenn; Sachse, Glen; Beyersdorf, Andreas; Ferrare, Richard; Scarino, Amy J.

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural ammonia (NH3) emissions are highly uncertain, with high spatiotemporal variability and a lack of widespread in situ measurements. Regional NH3 emission estimates using mass balance or emission ratio approaches are uncertain due to variable NH3 sources and sinks as well as unknown plume correlations with other dairy source tracers. We characterize the spatial distributions of NH3 and methane (CH4) dairy plumes using in situ surface and airborne measurements in the Tulare dairy feedlot region of the San Joaquin Valley, California, during the NASA Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality 2013 field campaign. Surface NH3 and CH4 mixing ratios exhibit large variability with maxima localized downwind of individual dairy feedlots. The geometric mean NH3:CH4 enhancement ratio derived from surface measurements is 0.15 +/- 0.03 ppmv ppmv-1. Individual dairy feedlots with spatially distinct NH3 and CH4 source pathways led to statistically significant correlations between NH3 and CH4 in 68% of the 69 downwind plumes sampled. At longer sampling distances, the NH3:CH4 enhancement ratio decreases 20-30%, suggesting the potential for NH3 deposition as a loss term for plumes within a few kilometers downwind of feedlots. Aircraft boundary layer transect measurements directly above surface mobile measurements in the dairy region show comparable gradients and geometric mean enhancement ratios within measurement uncertainties, even when including NH3 partitioning to submicron particles. Individual NH3 and CH4 plumes sampled at close proximity where losses are minimal are not necessarily correlated due to lack of mixing and distinct source pathways. Our analyses have important implications for constraining NH3 sink and plume variability influences on regional NH3 emission estimates and for improving NH3 emission inventory spatial allocations.

  4. Ammonia emissions from an anaerobic digestion plant estimated using atmospheric measurements and dispersion modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Michael W; Tang, Y Sim; Dragosits, Ulrike; Flechard, Chris R; Ward, Paul; Braban, Christine F

    2016-10-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is becoming increasingly implemented within organic waste treatment operations. The storage and processing of large volumes of organic wastes through AD has been identified as a significant source of ammonia (NH3) emissions, however the totality of ammonia emissions from an AD plant have not been previously quantified. The emissions from an AD plant processing food waste were estimated through integrating ambient NH3 concentration measurements, atmospheric dispersion modelling, and comparison with published emission factors (EFs). Two dispersion models (ADMS and a backwards Lagrangian stochastic (bLS) model) were applied to calculate emission estimates. The bLS model (WindTrax) was used to back-calculate a total (top-down) emission rate for the AD plant from a point of continuous NH3 measurement downwind from the plant. The back-calculated emission rates were then input to the ADMS forward dispersion model to make predictions of air NH3 concentrations around the site, and evaluated against weekly passive sampler NH3 measurements. As an alternative approach emission rates from individual sources within the plant were initially estimated by applying literature EFs to the available site parameters concerning the chemical composition of waste materials, room air concentrations, ventilation rates, etc. The individual emission rates were input to ADMS and later tuned by fitting the simulated ambient concentrations to the observed (passive sampler) concentration field, which gave an excellent match to measurements after an iterative process. The total emission from the AD plant thus estimated by a bottom-up approach was 16.8±1.8mgs(-1), which was significantly higher than the back-calculated top-down estimate (7.4±0.78mgs(-1)). The bottom-up approach offered a more realistic treatment of the source distribution within the plant area, while the complexity of the site was not ideally suited to the bLS method, thus the bottom-up method is believed

  5. Greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions from composting of animal manure and other organic waste products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, Md Albarune

    small areas without sufficient nearby farm land for application. In addition to significant impacts on climate due to emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) and ammonia (NH3) from manure management, losses of nitrogen to the environment reduce the fertiliser value of manure and have negative effects.......4-22.5% and 0.001-0.17% of initial Tot-C, respectively, while N losses as 2O and x NH3 emissions comprised 0.05-0.10% and 0.81-26.5% of initial Tot-N, respectively. There was strong evidence that high emissions of CH4-C and N2O-N gases can occur simultaneously, even during the thermophilic phase of composting...

  6. Estimating farm-gate ammonia emissions from major animal production systems in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiling; Ma, Wenqi; Zhu, Gaodi; Roelcke, Marco

    2013-11-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emissions from livestock production in China are an important contributor to the global NH3 budget. In this study, by estimating total nitrogen (N) intake based on herd structures and excreted N, a mass balance model was used to estimate NH3 losses from animal housing and manure storage facilities of dairy cattle, beef cattle, pigs, broiler and layer productions within animal farm gate and their corresponding NH3 emission intensities on the basis of animal products, N and protein in animal products. In 2009, NH3 emissions from pigs, layers, beef and dairy cattle and broiler production systems in China were 1.23, 0.52, 0.24, 0.21 and 0.09 million tons, respectively. The NH3 emission intensities were 26.6 g NH3-N kg-1 of pork, 28.1 g NH3-N kg-1 of layer eggs, 39.4 g NH3-N kg-1 of beef meat, 6.0 g NH3-N kg-1 of dairy milk and 4.6 g NH3-N kg-1 of chicken meat, or 1260 (pigs), 1514 (layers), 1297 (beef), 1107 (dairy) and 123 g NH3-N (broilers) kg-1 N in animal products. Of the sectors of NH3 emission, manure storage facilities and farmyard manure (FYM) in animal housing were the major contributors to the total NH3 emissions except for layers; housing emissions from slurry were also major contributors for dairy and pig production.

  7. An assessment of nitrification inhibitors to reduce nitrous oxide emissions from UK agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A trial was conducted consisting of 14 experiments across sites in England of contrasting soil type and annual rainfall to assess the effectiveness of nitrification inhibitors (predominantly dicyandiamide (DCD) but limited assessment also of 3, 4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) and a commercial product containing two pyrazole derivatives) in reducing direct nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from fertilizer nitrogen (N), cattle urine and cattle slurry applications to land. Measurements were also made of the impact on ammonia (NH3) volatilization, nitrate (NO3−) leaching, crop yield and crop N offtake. DCD proved to be very effective in reducing direct N2O emissions following fertilizer and cattle urine applications, with mean reduction efficiencies of 39, 69 and 70% for ammonium nitrate, urea and cattle urine, respectively. When included with cattle slurry a mean, non-significant reduction of 56% was observed. There were no N2O emission reductions observed from the limited assessments of the other nitrification inhibitors. Generally, there were no impacts of the nitrification inhibitors on NH3 volatilization, NO3− leaching, crop yield or crop N offtake. Use of DCD could give up to 20% reduction in N2O emissions from UK agriculture, but cost-effective delivery mechanisms are required to encourage adoption by the sector. Direct N2O emissions from the studied sources were substantially lower than IPCC default values and development of UK country-specific emission factors for use in inventory compilation is warranted. (paper)

  8. Ammonia emissions from pig and cattle slurry in the field and utilization of slurry nitrogen in crop production

    OpenAIRE

    Mattila, Pasi

    2006-01-01

    Volatilization of ammonia (NH3) from animal manure is a major pathway for nitrogen (N) losses that cause eutrophication, acidification, and other environmental hazards. In this study, the effect of alternative techniques of manure treatment (aeration, separation, addition of peat) and application (broadcast spreading, band spreading, injection, incorporation by harrowing) on ammonia emissions in the field and on nitrogen uptake by ley or cereals was studied. The effect of a mixture of slurry ...

  9. Estimating pesticide emissions for LCA of agricultural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2000-01-01

    Emission data for pesticides from agricultural product systems may be based on national and international pesticide usage statistics, but these only provide information on the applied dose. When the field is considered as part of the technosphere, the emissions from the system are those quantities......, which reach the environment surrounding the field. The routes of emission may be direct through wind drift or indirect through evaporation, leaching, or surface run-off. Models are presented that will allow estimation of emission factors based on substance characteristics normally available...... for pesticide ingredients....

  10. Agriculture's role in greenhouse gas emissions and capture

    OpenAIRE

    Greenhouse Gas Working Group

    2010-01-01

    This working paper addresses changes in climate and how the rising global temperature can be partially attributed to an increasing concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere. Six percent of all US GHG emissions, including CO2, CH4, and N2O, are released from agricultural activities. This paper offers solutions to sequester carbon and reduce the amount of GHGs that are emitted by upgrading agricultural systems and switching to more sustainable practices. A full life cycle analy...

  11. Spatial and temporal dynamics of methane emissions from agricultural sources in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, P.H.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural activities contribute significantly to the global methane budget. Agricultural sources of methane are influenced by land-use change, including changes in agricultural area, livestock keeping and agricultural management practices. A spatially explicit inventory of methane emissions from

  12. Modeling of nitric oxide emissions from temperate agricultural ecosystems.

    OpenAIRE

    Rolland, Marie-Noëlle; Gabrielle, Benoît; Laville, Patricia; Serça, Dominique; Cortinovis, Jérôme; Larmanou, Eric; Lehuger, Simon; Cellier, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    48 p. Arable soils are a significant source of nitric oxide (NO), most of which is derived from nitrogen fertilizers. Precise estimates of NO emissions from these soils are thus essential to devise strategies to mitigate the impact of agriculture on tropospheric ozone regulation. This paper presents the implementation of a soil NO emissions submodel within the environmentally-orientated soil crop model, CERES-EGC. The submodel simulates the NO production via nitrification pathway, as modul...

  13. Atmospheric Ammonia Emissions and a Nitrogen Mass Balance for a Dairy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumburg, B. P.; Mount, G. H.; Filipy, J. M.; Lamb, B.; Yonge, D.; Wetherelt, S.

    2003-12-01

    Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) emissions have many impacts on the environment and human health. Environmental NH3 impacts include terrestrial and aquatic eutrophication, soil acidification, and aerosol formation. Aerosols affect global radiative transfer and have been linked to human health effects. The global emissions of NH3 are estimated to be 45 Tg N yr-1 (Dentener and Crutzen, 1994) with most of the emissions coming from domestic animals. The largest per animal emission come from dairy cows at 33 kg N animal{-1} year{-1} versus 10 kg N animal{-1} {-1} for cattle. On a global scale the emissions uncertainty is about 25%, but local emissions are highly uncertain (Bouwman et al., 1997). Local emissions determination is required for proper treatment in air pollution models. The main sources of emission from dairies are the cow stalls where urea and manure react to form NH3, the storage lagoons where NH3 is the end product of microbial degradation and the disposal of the waste. There have been numerous studies of NH3 emissions in Europe but farming practices are quite different in Europe than in the U.S.. The impact of these differences on emissions is unknown. We have been studying the NH3 emissions from the Washington State University dairy for three years to develop a detailed emission model for use in a regional air pollution model. NH3 is measured using a short-path spectroscopic absorption near 200 nm with a sensitivity of a few ppbv and a time resolution of a few seconds. The open air short-path method is advantageous because it is self calibrating and avoids inlet wall adherence which is a major problem for most NH3 measurement techniques. A SF6 tracer technique has been used to measure fluxes from the three main emission sources: the cow stalls, anaerobic lagoon and the waste application to grass fields using a sprinkler system. Estimated yearly emissions from each source will be compared to a nitrogen mass balance model for the dairy.

  14. Emissions of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane from cattle manure heaps: effect of compaction and covering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, D. R.

    The effect of compaction and covering during storage of beef cattle ( Bos taurus) farmyard manure (FYM) on ammonia (NH 3), nitrous oxide (N 2O) and methane (CH 4) emissions was determined. Gaseous emission measurements were made over three separate storage periods of between 90 and 109 days. The effect of the different storage treatments on manure chemical composition was also determined. Compaction was carried out as the manure was put into store and the compacted manures covered with plastic sheeting. Compaction and covering significantly reduced NH 3 emissions from manure by over 90% during the first summer storage period (PMethane emissions from cattle FYM were unaffected by treatment over the first storage period and were decreased by compaction in the second storage period yet was increased by compaction during the third storage period. It would appear that compacting and covering manure heaps does have the potential to reduce emissions of both NH 3 and N 2O when the manure contains relatively high ammonium-N contents. Additional benefits are that N and K are retained in the manure heap for agronomic benefit.

  15. USDA-EPA Collaborative Ammonia Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2014, a work group was formed between USDA and EPA to facilitate information exchange on ammonia emissions from agriculture, air quality impacts and emission mitigation options and to identify opportunities for collaboration. This document provides background on the work grou...

  16. Modeling ammonia emissions from dairy production systems in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jia; Li, Changsheng; Wang, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Dairy production systems are hot spots of ammonia (NH3) emission. However, there remains large uncertainty in quantifying and mitigating NH3 emissions from dairy farms due to the lack of both long-term field measurements and reliable methods for extrapolating these measurements. In this study, a process-based biogeochemical model, Manure-DNDC, was tested against measurements of NH3 fluxes from five barns and one lagoon in four dairy farms over a range of environmental conditions and management practices in the United States. Results from the validation tests indicate that the magnitudes and seasonal patterns of NH3 fluxes simulated by Manure-DNDC were in agreement with the observations across the sites. The model was then applied to assess impacts of alternative management practices on NH3 emissions at the farm scale. The alternatives included reduction of crude protein content in feed, replacement of scraping with flushing for removal of manure from barn, lagoon coverage, increase in frequency for removal of slurry from lagoon, and replacement of surface spreading with incorporation for manure land application. The simulations demonstrate that: (a) all the tested alternative management practices decreased the NH3 emissions although the efficiency of mitigation varied; (b) a change of management in an upstream facility affected the NH3 emissions from all downstream facilities; and (c) an optimized strategy by combining the alternative practices on feed, manure removal, manure storage, and land application could reduce the farm-scale NH3 emission by up to 50%. The results from this study may provide useful information for mitigating NH3 emissions from dairy production systems and emphasize the necessity of whole-farm perspectives on the assessment of potential technical options for NH3 mitigation. This study also demonstrates the potential of utilizing process-based models, such as Manure-DNDC, to quantify and mitigate NH3 emissions from dairy farms.

  17. Emissions from Open burning of Used Agricultural Pesticide Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions from simulated open burning of used agricultural pesticide containers were sampled for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAHs), and particle matter (PM10 and PM2.5). Clean high density polyethyl...

  18. Ammonia emissions from beech forest after leaf fall – measurements and modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hansen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of biochemical feed-back mechanisms in the climate system is lacking knowledge in relation to bi-directional ammonia (NH3 exchange between natural ecosystems and the atmosphere. We therefore study the atmospheric NH3 fluxes during a 25 days period during autumn 2010 (21 October–15 November for the Danish beech forest, Lille Bøgeskov, to address the hypothesis that NH3 emissions occur from deciduous forests in relation to leaf fall. This is accomplished by using observations of vegetation status, NH3 fluxes and model calculations. Vegetation status was observed using plant area index (PAI and leaf area index (LAI. NH3 fluxes were measured using the relaxed eddy accumulation (REA method. The REA based NH3 concentrations were compared to NH3 denuder measurements. Model calculations were obtained with the Danish Ammonia MOdelling System (DAMOS. 57.7% of the fluxes measured showed emission and 19.5% showed deposition. The mean NH3 flux was 0.087 ± 0.19 μg NH3-N m−2 s−1. A clear tendency of the flux going from negative (deposition to positive (emission fluxes of up to 0.96 ± 0.40 μg NH3-N m−2 s−1 throughout the measurement period was found. In the leaf fall period (23 October–8 November, an increase in the atmospheric NH3 concentrations was related to the increasing forest NH3 flux. The modelled concentration from DAMOS fits well the measured concentrations before leaf fall. During and after leaf fall, the modelled concentrations are too low. The results indicate that the missing contribution to atmospheric NH3 concentration from vegetative surfaces related to leaf fall are of a relatively large magnitude. We therefore conclude that emissions from deciduous forests are important to include in model calculations of atmospheric NH

  19. Management controls on nitrous oxide emissions from row crop agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, I.; Shcherbak, I.; Millar, N.; Robertson, G. P.

    2011-12-01

    Agriculture is a significant source of the potent greenhouse gas (GHG) nitrous oxide (N2O), accounting for ~70% of total anthropic N2O emissions in the US primarily as a result of N fertilizer application. Emissions of N2O are the largest contributor to the global warming potential of row-crop agriculture. Management, including choice of crop type and rotation strongly impacts N2O emissions, but continuous emissions data from row-crops over multiple rotations are lacking. Empirical quantification of these long-term emissions and the development of crop- and rotation-specific N2O emission factors are vital for improving estimates of agricultural GHG emissions, important for informing management practices to reduce agriculture's GHG footprint, and developing mitigation protocols for environmental markets. Over 20 years we measured soil N2O emissions and calculated crop and management specific emission factors in four continuous rotations of corn (Zea mays) - soybean (Glycine max) - wheat (Triticum aestivum) under conventional tillage (CT), zero tillage (NT), low chemical input (LI), and biologically (Org) based management. Two of these systems (LI and Org) included winter cover crops, red clover (Trifolium pratense) or ray (Secale cereale). While average soil N2O fluxes in all systems where similar (2.9±0.2 to 3.8±0.5 g N2O-N ha-1 d-1), there was a significant interaction of total emissions with crop and phase. Surprisingly, the lowest total emissions from the corn period of the rotation were from CT, and the highest from LI, with 608±4 and 983±8 g N2O-N ha-1 crop year-1, respectively. Total emissions during the wheat period of the rotation showed the opposite trend, with total emissions of 942±7 and 524±38 g N2O-N ha-1 crop year-1, for CT ant LI, respectively. Total emissions from the soybean period of the rotation were highest under NT and lowest under CT management (526±5 and 296±2 g N2O-N ha-1 crop year-1, respectively). Emission efficiency, N2O emitted

  20. Dietary crude protein and tannin impact dairy manure chemistry and ammonia emissions from incubated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J M; Aguerre, M J; Wattiaux, M A

    2011-01-01

    Excess crude protein (CP) in dairy cow diets is excreted mostly as urea nitrogen (N), which increases ammonia (NH) emissions from dairy farms and heightens human health and environmental concerns. Feeding less CP and more tannin to dairy cows may enhance feed N use and milk production, abate NH emissions, and conserve the fertilizer N value of manure. Lab-scale ventilated chambers were used to evaluate the impacts of CP and tannin feeding on slurry chemistry, NH emissions, and soil inorganic N levels after slurry application to a sandy loam soil and a silt loam soil. Slurry from lactating Holstein dairy cows (Bos taurus) fed two levels of dietary CP (low CP [LCP], 155 g kg; high CP [HCP], 168 g kg) each fed at four levels of dietary tannin extract, a mixture from red quebracho (Schinopsis lorentzii) and chestnut (Castanea sativa) trees (0 tannin [0T]; low tannin [LT], 4.5 g kg; medium tannin [MT], 9.0 g kg; and high tannin [HT], 18.0 g kg) were applied to soil-containing lab-scale chambers, and NH emissions were measured 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h after slurry application. Emissions from the HCP slurry were 1.53 to 2.57 times greater ( soils were greater ( soils than in LCP slurry-amended soils. Emissions from HT slurry were 28 to 49% lower ( soil inorganic N levels. Emissions from the sandy loam soil were 1.07 to 1.15 times greater ( soil, a result that decreased soil inorganic N in the sandy loam compared with the silt loam soil. Larger-scale and longer-term field trails are needed to ascertain the effectiveness of feeding tannin extracts to dairy cows in abating NH loss from land-applied slurry and the impact of tannin-containing slurry on soil N cycles.

  1. Emissions of ammonia and greenhouse gases during combined pre-composting and vermicomposting of duck manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinzhi; Hu, Zhengyi; Xu, Xingkai; Jiang, Xia; Zheng, Binghui; Liu, Xiaoning; Pan, Xubin; Kardol, Paul

    2014-08-01

    Combined pre-composting and vermicomposting has shown potential for reclamation of solid wastes, which is a significant source of ammonia (NH3), and greenhouse gases (GHG), including nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), and carbon dioxide (CO2). Earthworms and amendments may both affect physico-chemical characteristics that control gas-producing processes, and thus affect NH3 and GHG emissions. Here, we used two-way ANOVA to test the effects of addition of reed straw and combined addition of reed straw and zeolite on NH3 and GHG emissions during pre-composting of duck manure, either with or without a follow-up phase of vermicomposting. Results showed that cumulative N2O, CH4, and CO2 emissions during pre-composting and vermicomposting ranged from 92.8, 5.8, and 260.6 mg kg(-)(1) DM to 274.2, 30.4, and 314.0 mg kg(-1) DM, respectively. Earthworms and amendments significantly decreased N2O and CH4 emissions. Emission of CO2 was not affected by earthworms, but increased in responses to addition of reed straw. Cumulative NH3 emission ranged from 3.0 to 8.1 g kg(-1) DM, and was significantly decreased by reed straw and zeolite addition. In conclusion, combined pre-composting and vermicomposting with reed straw and zeolite addition would be strongly recommended in mitigating emissions of N2O, CH4, and NH3 from duck manure. Moreover, this method also provides nutrient-rich products that can be used as a fertilizer.

  2. Ammonia emissions from a naturally and a mechanically ventilated broiler house in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano B. Mendes

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted with the aim of monitoring NH3 emissions from a mechanically and a naturally ventilated broiler house (MVB and NVB, respectively and calculate their ammonia emission factors (fNH3. Bird stocking density was 13.5 and 11.1 birds m-2 for the MVB and NVB, respectively. The marketing age was 43 days and bedding consisted of dried coffee husks in its first time of use. Ventilation rates were calculated with the metabolic carbon dioxide mass balance method. Values of fNH3 were 0.32 ± 0.10 and 0.27 ± 0.07 g bird-1 d-1 for the MVB and NVB, respectively, and are in agreement to what was presented in other studies performed under similar conditions. The fNH3 estimated on yearly basis was 58 g bird-place-1 year-1. It was concluded that the different types of ventilation system between the studied broiler barns did not significantly affect emissions in the modeling process. The results obtained help providing reliable methodology for the determination of a solid database on NH3 emission factors for tropical conditions that can be used for future inventories, when performed in a sufficient number of barns that is representative for the Brazilian scenario.

  3. Energy-Efficiency and Air-Pollutant Emissions-Reduction Opportunities for the Ammonia Industry in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ding [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chen, Wenying [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China)

    2015-06-01

    As one of the most energy-intensive and polluting industries, ammonia production is responsible for significant carbon dioxide (CO2) and air-pollutant emissions. Although many energy-efficiency measures have been proposed by the Chinese government to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and improve air quality, lack of understanding of the cost-effectiveness of such improvements has been a barrier to implementing these measures. Assessing the costs, benefits, and cost-effectiveness of different energy-efficiency measures is essential to advancing this understanding. In this study, a bottom-up energy conservation supply curve model is developed to estimate the potential for energy savings and emissions reductions from 26 energy-efficiency measures that could be applied in China’s ammonia industry. Cost-effective implementation of these measures saves a potential 271.5 petajoules/year for fuel and 5,443 gigawatt-hours/year for electricity, equal to 14% of fuel and 14% of electricity consumed in China’s ammonia industry in 2012. These reductions could mitigate 26.7 million tonnes of CO2 emissions. This study also quantifies the co-benefits of reducing air-pollutant emissions and water use that would result from saving energy in China’s ammonia industry. This quantitative analysis advances our understanding of the cost-effectiveness of energy-efficiency measures and can be used to augment efforts to reduce energy use and environmental impacts.

  4. Emissions of ammonia and greenhouse gases during combined pre-composting and vermicomposting of duck manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jinzhi [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environment Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Hu, Zhengyi, E-mail: zhyhu@ucas.ac.cn [College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Xu, Xingkai [State Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Physics and Atmospheric Chemistry, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Jiang, Xia; Zheng, Binghui [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environment Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Liu, Xiaoning [College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Pan, Xubin [Institute of Plant Quarantine, Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine, Beijing 100029 (China); Kardol, Paul [Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, S 90183 Umeå (Sweden)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Earthworms significantly decreased emissions of N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4}, but had a marginal effect on CO{sub 2} emission. • NH{sub 3}, N{sub 2}O, and CH{sub 4} emissions were significantly reduced by reed straw and zeolite, CO{sub 2} emission was increased by reed straw. • Combined pre-composting and vermicomposting with reed straw and zeolite would be recommended for disposal of duck manure. - Abstract: Combined pre-composting and vermicomposting has shown potential for reclamation of solid wastes, which is a significant source of ammonia (NH{sub 3}), and greenhouse gases (GHG), including nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), methane (CH{sub 4}), and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Earthworms and amendments may both affect physico-chemical characteristics that control gas-producing processes, and thus affect NH{sub 3} and GHG emissions. Here, we used two-way ANOVA to test the effects of addition of reed straw and combined addition of reed straw and zeolite on NH{sub 3} and GHG emissions during pre-composting of duck manure, either with or without a follow-up phase of vermicomposting. Results showed that cumulative N{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and CO{sub 2} emissions during pre-composting and vermicomposting ranged from 92.8, 5.8, and 260.6 mg kg{sup −1} DM to 274.2, 30.4, and 314.0 mg kg{sup −1} DM, respectively. Earthworms and amendments significantly decreased N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emissions. Emission of CO{sub 2} was not affected by earthworms, but increased in responses to addition of reed straw. Cumulative NH{sub 3} emission ranged from 3.0 to 8.1 g kg{sup −1} DM, and was significantly decreased by reed straw and zeolite addition. In conclusion, combined pre-composting and vermicomposting with reed straw and zeolite addition would be strongly recommended in mitigating emissions of N{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and NH{sub 3} from duck manure. Moreover, this method also provides nutrient-rich products that can be used as a fertilizer.

  5. Emissions of ammonia and greenhouse gases during combined pre-composting and vermicomposting of duck manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Earthworms significantly decreased emissions of N2O and CH4, but had a marginal effect on CO2 emission. • NH3, N2O, and CH4 emissions were significantly reduced by reed straw and zeolite, CO2 emission was increased by reed straw. • Combined pre-composting and vermicomposting with reed straw and zeolite would be recommended for disposal of duck manure. - Abstract: Combined pre-composting and vermicomposting has shown potential for reclamation of solid wastes, which is a significant source of ammonia (NH3), and greenhouse gases (GHG), including nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), and carbon dioxide (CO2). Earthworms and amendments may both affect physico-chemical characteristics that control gas-producing processes, and thus affect NH3 and GHG emissions. Here, we used two-way ANOVA to test the effects of addition of reed straw and combined addition of reed straw and zeolite on NH3 and GHG emissions during pre-composting of duck manure, either with or without a follow-up phase of vermicomposting. Results showed that cumulative N2O, CH4, and CO2 emissions during pre-composting and vermicomposting ranged from 92.8, 5.8, and 260.6 mg kg−1 DM to 274.2, 30.4, and 314.0 mg kg−1 DM, respectively. Earthworms and amendments significantly decreased N2O and CH4 emissions. Emission of CO2 was not affected by earthworms, but increased in responses to addition of reed straw. Cumulative NH3 emission ranged from 3.0 to 8.1 g kg−1 DM, and was significantly decreased by reed straw and zeolite addition. In conclusion, combined pre-composting and vermicomposting with reed straw and zeolite addition would be strongly recommended in mitigating emissions of N2O, CH4, and NH3 from duck manure. Moreover, this method also provides nutrient-rich products that can be used as a fertilizer

  6. Applying an Inverse Model to Estimate Ammonia Emissions at Cattle Feedlots Using Three Different Observation-Based Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonkwiler, K. B.; Ham, J. M.; Nash, C.

    2014-12-01

    Accurately quantifying emissions of ammonia (NH3) from confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) is vital not only to the livestock industry, but essential to understanding nitrogen cycling along the Front Range of Colorado, USA, where intensive agriculture, urban sprawl, and pristine ecosystems (e.g., Rocky Mtn Nat'l Park) lie within 100-km of each other. Most observation-based techniques for estimating NH3 emissions can be expensive and highly technical. Many methods rely on concentration observations on location, which implicitly depends on weather conditions. A system for sampling NH3 using on-site weather data was developed to allow remote measurement of NH3 in a simple, cost-effective way. These systems use passive diffusive cartridges (Radiello, Sigma-Aldrich) that provide time-averaged concentrations representative of a typical two-week deployment. Cartridge exposure is robotically managed so they are only visible when winds are 1.4 m/s or greater from the direction of the CAFO. These concentration data can be coupled with stability parameters (measured on-site) in a simple inverse model to estimate emissions (FIDES, UMR Environnement et Grandes Cultures). Few studies have directly compared emissions estimates of NH3 using concentration data obtained from multiple measurement systems at different temporal and spatial scales. Therefore, in the summer and autumn of 2014, several conditional sampler systems were deployed at a 25,000-head cattle feedlot concomitant with an open-path infrared laser (GasFinder2, Boreal Laser Inc.) and a Cavity Ring Down Spectrometer (CRDS) (G1103, Picarro Inc.) which each measured instantaneous NH3 concentrations. This study will test the sampler technology by first comparing concentration data from the three different methods. In livestock research, it is common to estimate NH3 emissions by using such instantaneous data in a backward Lagrangian stochastic (bLs) model (WindTrax, Thunder Beach Sci.) Considering this, NH3 fluxes

  7. Estimating NH3 emissions from agricultural fertilizer application in China using the bi-directional CMAQ model coupled to an agro-ecosystem model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Fu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric ammonia (NH3 plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry. China is one of the largest NH3 emitting countries with the majority of NH3 emissions coming from the agricultural practices, such as fertilizer application and livestock. The current NH3 emission estimates in China are mainly based on pre-defined emission factors that lack the temporal or spatial details, which are needed to accurately predict NH3 emissions. In this study, we estimate, for the first time, the NH3 emission from the agricultural fertilizer application in China online using an agricultural fertilizer modeling system coupling a regional air quality model (the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality model, CMAQ and an agro-ecosystem model (the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model, EPIC, which improves the spatial and temporal resolution of NH3 emission from this sector. Cropland area data of 14 crops from 2710 counties and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS land use data are combined to determine the crop distribution. The fertilizer application rate and method for different crop are collected at provincial or agriculture-regional level. The EPIC outputs of daily fertilizer application and soil characteristics are inputed into the CMAQ model and the hourly NH3 emission are calculated online with CMAQ running. The estimated agricultural fertilizer NH3 emission in this study is about 3 Tg in 2011. The regions with the highest modeled emission rates are located in the North China Plain. Seasonally, the peak ammonia emissions occur from April to July.Compared with previous researches, this method considers more influencing factors, such as meteorological fields, soil and the fertilizer application, and provides improved NH3 emission with higher spatial and temporal resolution.

  8. [Use of open-path TDL technique and the backward Lagrangian stochastic model to monitor ammonia emission from summer maize field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Liang; Zhu, An-Ning; Zhang, Jia-Bao; Zhang, Yu-Jun; He, Ying; Wang, Li-Ming; Chen, Xiao-Min; Chen, Wen-Chao

    2012-11-01

    The backward Lagrangian stochastic dispersion model in conjunction with open-path tunable diode absorption spectroscopy was used to quantify ammonia emissions from farmland based on the high-temporal resolution data, aiming to provide innovative achievements to diagnose patterns of ammonia flux. The results indicate that the bLS dispersion technique using open-path lasers to measure atmospheric ammonia concentrations is suitable for determining ammonia emissions from farmland continuously, especially for characterizing diurnal characteristics of NH3 emissions. The ammonia emissions have a significant diurnal pattern with two emission peaks from urea applied to maize on a calcareous sandy loam fluvo-aquic soil in the North China Plain. We believe that the first peak starting at approximately 9:00 am is due to NH3 absorbed by the dew re-emission at night as the dew evaporates. The maximum of ammonia flux at 14:00 corresponds to the peak of soil temperature and solar radiation. The ammonia emission increased rapidly, but the duration of emission peaks lasted approximately 4 d. Cumulative NH3 emission was 25.3% of the applied N over the entire measurement period. The NH3 emissions measured with bLS dispersion technique and venting method had certain difference. PMID:23387189

  9. [¹³N]Ammonia positron emission tomographic/computed tomographic imaging targeting glutamine synthetase expression in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xinchong; Zhang, Xiangsong; Yi, Chang; Liu, Yubo; He, Qiao

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of glutamine synthetase (GS) in prostate cancer (PCa) and the utility of [¹³N]ammonia positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in the imaging of PCa. The uptake ratio of [¹³N]ammonia and the expression of GS in PC3 and DU145 cells was measured. Thirty-four patients with suspected PCa underwent [¹³N]ammonia PET/CT imaging, and immunohistochemistry staining of GS was performed. The uptake of [¹³N]ammonia in PC3 and DU145 cells elevated along with the decrease in glutamine in medium. The expression of GS messenger ribonucleic acid and protein also increased when glutamine was deprived. In biopsy samples, the GS expression scores were significantly higher in PCa tissue than in benign tissues (p glutamine. GS is the main reason for the uptake of [¹³N]ammonia, and [¹³N]ammonia is a useful tracer for PCa imaging.

  10. Agriculture. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study investigates the impact of agriculture on the earth's atmosphere. It describes the natural carbon cycle, the socioeconomic factors that influence it, and the climate effects. The climatic relevance of gaseous sulphur and nitrogen compounds, methane and other hydrocarbons, and ammonia emissions from biological and agricultural process is discussed. (SR)

  11. Ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions following field-application of manure: state of the art measurements in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijsmans, J.F.M.; Schils, R.L.M.

    2009-01-01

    Manure application to grassland and arable land is an important source of ammonia and nitrous oxide losses. For both gasses, national and international policies have been developed with the objective of reducing the emissions. Since the early 1990s, measurements have been carried out in The Netherla

  12. Study on the Influence of Velocity, Turbulence Intensity and Temperature on Ammonia Emission Rate in a Wind Tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Li; Nielsen, Peter V.; Zhang, Guoqiang

    2009-01-01

    Odor emissions from manure in livestock buildings are an important issue which concerns the human health and air quality as well as animals. Ammonia is one of the most important odors in pig houses. The objective of this paper is to investigate the influence of local velocity, turbulence intensit...

  13. Irrigation and lava meal use reduce ammonia emission and improve N utilization when solid cattle manure is applied to grassland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shah, G.M.; Shah, G.A.; Groot, J.C.J.; Oenema, O.; Lantinga, E.A.

    2012-01-01

    Considerable losses of nitrogen (N) may occur during and after surface-application of solid cattle manure to grassland. These losses are due mainly to the emission of ammonia (NH3) and represent a threat to the environment. Consequently, N fertilizer value of the manure is reduced. Therefore, adjust

  14. The effect of heat fluxes on ammonia emission from swine waste lagoon based on neural network analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding factors that affect ammonia emissions from swine waste lagoons or any animal waste receptacles is a necessary first step in deploying potential remediation options. In this study, we examined the various meteorological factors (i.e., air temperatures, solar radiation, and heat fluxes)...

  15. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agricultural Wetlands in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, H.; Fatah, L.; Nursyamsi, D.; Kazuyuki, I.

    2011-12-01

    At the forum G20 meeting in 2009, Indonesian President delivered Indonesia's commitment to reduce national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 26% in 2020 by unilateral action and by 41% with support of other countries. To achieve the target, Indonesian government has put forestry, agriculture (including peatlands), energy, industry and transportation as main responsible sectors. Development of crop with low GHG emissions, increasing C sequestration and the use of organic fertilizers are among the activities to be carried out in 2010-2020 period to minimize GHG emissions from agricultural sectors. Three experiments have been carried out to elucidate the reflectivity of crop selection, soil ameliorants and organic fertilizers on GHG emissions from agricultural wetlands in Borneo. Firstly, gas samples were collected in weekly basis from oil palm, paddy, and vegetables fields and analyzed for methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations by a gas chromatography. Secondly, coal fly ash, dolomite and ZnSO4 were incorporated into a pot containing peat and/or alluvial soils taken from wetlands in South Kalimantan. The air samples were taken and analyzed for CH4 by a gas chromatography. Finally, microbial consortium are isolated from soil, sediment and cow dung. The microbes were then propagated and used in a rice straw composting processes. The CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from composting vessel were measured at one, two and four weeks of composting processes. The results showed that shifting the use of peatlands for oil palm to vegetable field reduced the GHG emissions by about 74% and that to paddy field reduce the GHG emissions by about 82%. The CH4 emissions from paddy field can be further reduced by applying dolomite. However, the use of coal fly ash and ZnSO4 increased CH4 emissions from peat soil cultivated to rice. The use of microbe isolated from saline soil could reduce GHG emissions during the composting of rice straw. The social aspect of GHG reduction in

  16. Micro-simulation as a tool to assess policy concerning non-point source pollution: the case of ammonia in Dutch agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruseman, G.; Blokland, P.W.; Bouma, F.; Luesink, H.H.; Vrolijk, H.C.J.

    2008-01-01

    Non-point source pollution is notoriously difficult to asses. A relevant example is ammonia emissions in the Netherlands. Since the mid 1980s the Dutch government has sought to reduce emissions through a wide variety of measures, the effect of which in turn is monitored using modeling techniques. Th

  17. Estimation of pesticide emissions for LCA of agricultural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Birkved, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Inventory data for the use of pesticides in agricultural or forestry product systems are typically based on the applied dose and the contents of different ingredients in the commercial pesticide product. Normally in LCA, the field is considered as part of the technosphere, and then the emissions...... from the system are only those fractions of the applied dose which reach the environment surrounding the field. The routes of emission may be direct through wind drift or indirect through evaporation, leaching, or surface run-off. Based on existing tools for hazard or risk assessment of pesticides......, a model is presented developed, allowing estimation of emission factors based on characteristics of application and substance, which are normally available....

  18. Aerosol emissions from biochar-amended agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, S.; Sharratt, B. S.; Li, J. J.; Olshvevski, S.; Meng, Z.; Zhang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural production is a major contributor to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and associated global warming. In this regard, novel carbon sequestration strategies such as large-scale biochar application may provide sustainable pathways to increase the terrestrial storage of carbon in agricultural areas. Biochar has a long residence time in the soil and hence understanding the soil properties affected by biochar addition needs to be investigated to identify the tradeoffs and synergies of large-scale biochar application. Even though several studies have investigated the impacts of biochar application on a variety of soil properties, very few studies have investigated the impacts on soil erosion, in particular wind (aeolian) erosion and subsequent particulate emissions. Using a combination of wind tunnel studies and laboratory experiments, we investigated the dust emission potential of biochar-amended agricultural soils. We amended biochar (unsieved or sieved to appropriate particle size; application rates ranging from 1 - 5 % of the soil by weight) to three soil types (sand, sandy loam, and silt loam) and estimated the changes in threshold shear velocity for wind erosion and dust emission potential in comparison to control soils. Our experiments demonstrate that emissions of fine biochar particles may result from two mechanisms (a) very fine biochar particles (suspension size) that are entrained into the air stream when the wind velocity exceeds the threshold, and (b) production of fine biochar particles originating from the abrasion by quartz grains. The results indicate that biochar application significantly increased particulate emissions and more interestingly, the rate of increase was found to be higher in the intermediate range of biochar application. As fine biochar particles effectively adsorb/trap contaminants and pathogens from the soil, the preferential erosion of fine biochar particles by wind may lead to concentration of contaminants in the

  19. Fossil Fuel Combustion-Related Emissions Dominate Atmospheric Ammonia Sources during Severe Haze Episodes: Evidence from (15)N-Stable Isotope in Size-Resolved Aerosol Ammonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuepeng; Tian, Shili; Liu, Dongwei; Fang, Yunting; Zhu, Xiaying; Zhang, Qiang; Zheng, Bo; Michalski, Greg; Wang, Yuesi

    2016-08-01

    The reduction of ammonia (NH3) emissions is urgently needed due to its role in aerosol nucleation and growth causing haze formation during its conversion into ammonium (NH4(+)). However, the relative contributions of individual NH3 sources are unclear, and debate remains over whether agricultural emissions dominate atmospheric NH3 in urban areas. Based on the chemical and isotopic measurements of size-resolved aerosols in urban Beijing, China, we find that the natural abundance of (15)N (expressed using δ(15)N values) of NH4(+) in fine particles varies with the development of haze episodes, ranging from -37.1‰ to -21.7‰ during clean/dusty days (relative humidity: ∼ 40%), to -13.1‰ to +5.8‰ during hazy days (relative humidity: 70-90%). After accounting for the isotope exchange between NH3 gas and aerosol NH4(+), the δ(15)N value of the initial NH3 during hazy days is found to be -14.5‰ to -1.6‰, which indicates fossil fuel-based emissions. These emissions contribute 90% of the total NH3 during hazy days in urban Beijing. This work demonstrates the analysis of δ(15)N values of aerosol NH4(+) to be a promising new tool for partitioning atmospheric NH3 sources, providing policy makers with insights into NH3 emissions and secondary aerosols for regulation in urban environments. PMID:27359161

  20. Fossil Fuel Combustion-Related Emissions Dominate Atmospheric Ammonia Sources during Severe Haze Episodes: Evidence from (15)N-Stable Isotope in Size-Resolved Aerosol Ammonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuepeng; Tian, Shili; Liu, Dongwei; Fang, Yunting; Zhu, Xiaying; Zhang, Qiang; Zheng, Bo; Michalski, Greg; Wang, Yuesi

    2016-08-01

    The reduction of ammonia (NH3) emissions is urgently needed due to its role in aerosol nucleation and growth causing haze formation during its conversion into ammonium (NH4(+)). However, the relative contributions of individual NH3 sources are unclear, and debate remains over whether agricultural emissions dominate atmospheric NH3 in urban areas. Based on the chemical and isotopic measurements of size-resolved aerosols in urban Beijing, China, we find that the natural abundance of (15)N (expressed using δ(15)N values) of NH4(+) in fine particles varies with the development of haze episodes, ranging from -37.1‰ to -21.7‰ during clean/dusty days (relative humidity: ∼ 40%), to -13.1‰ to +5.8‰ during hazy days (relative humidity: 70-90%). After accounting for the isotope exchange between NH3 gas and aerosol NH4(+), the δ(15)N value of the initial NH3 during hazy days is found to be -14.5‰ to -1.6‰, which indicates fossil fuel-based emissions. These emissions contribute 90% of the total NH3 during hazy days in urban Beijing. This work demonstrates the analysis of δ(15)N values of aerosol NH4(+) to be a promising new tool for partitioning atmospheric NH3 sources, providing policy makers with insights into NH3 emissions and secondary aerosols for regulation in urban environments.

  1. Characterizing ammonia emissions from swine farms in eastern North Carolina: Reduction of emissions from water-holding structures at two candidate superior technologies for waste treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneja, Viney P.; Arya, S. Pal; Rumsey, Ian C.; Kim, D.-S.; Bajwa, K. S.; Williams, C. M.

    Program OPEN (Odor, Pathogens, and Emissions of Nitrogen) was an integrated study of the emissions of ammonia (NH 3), odor and odorants, and pathogens from potential environmentally superior technologies (ESTs) for swine facilities in eastern North Carolina. This paper, as part of program OPEN, focuses on quantifying emissions of NH 3 from water-holding structures at two of the best ESTs and compares them with the projected emissions from two conventional lagoon and spray technologies (LSTs). The evaluated ESTs are: (1) Super Soils at Goshen Ridge; and (2) Environmental Technologies at Red Hill. The water-holding structures for these two ESTs contained no conventional anaerobic lagoon. A dynamic flow-through chamber was used to measure NH 3 fluxes from the water-holding structures at both the ESTs and at the conventional LST farms. In order to compare the emissions from the water-holding structures at the ESTs with those from the lagoons at the conventional sites under similar conditions, a statistical-observational model for lagoon NH 3 emissions was used. A mass-balance approach was used to quantify the emissions. All emissions were normalized by nitrogen-excretion rates. The percentage reductions relative to the conventional lagoons were calculated for the two ESTs. Results showed substantial reductions in NH 3 emissions at both ESTs. Super Soils had reductions of 94.7% for the warm season and 99.0% for the cool season. Environmental Technologies had slightly larger reductions of 99.4% and 99.98% for the cool and warm season, respectively. As a result of such large reductions in ammonia emissions, both technologies meet the criteria to be classified as ESTs for ammonia emissions.

  2. An experimental investigation of exhaust emission from agricultural tractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Gholami, Hekmat Rabbani, Ali Nejat Lorestani, Payam Javadikia, Farzad Jaliliantabar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural machinery is an important source of emission of air pollutant in rural locations. Emissions of a specific tractor engine mainly depend on engine speed. Various driving methods and use of implements with different work capacities can affect the engine load. This study deals with the effects of types of tractors and operation conditions on engine emission. In this study two types of agricultural tractors (MF285 and U650 and some tillage implements such as centrifugal type spreader, boom type sprayer and rotary tiller were employed. Some of the exhausted gases from both tractors in each condition were measured such as, hydrocarbon (HC, carbon monoxide (CO, carbon dioxide (CO2, oxygen (O2 and nitrogen oxide (NO. Engine oil temperature was measured at every step for both types of tractors. Difference between steady-state condition and operation conditions was evaluated. The results showed all exhaust gases that measured and engine oil temperature at every operation conditions are higher than steady-state condition. A general conclusion of the work was that, using various implements and employing different types of tractors effect on engine emissions. The results of variance analysis showed all exhausted gases had a significant relationship with types of implements used at 1%. Also, all exhausted gases except CO had a significant relationship with types of tractors. A further conclusion was that NO emission increased as engine oil temperature increased. The final conclusion was about the difference between MF285 and U650; using U650 at operation conditions is better than MF285 in terms of pollution.

  3. Sensitivity of nitrate aerosols to ammonia emissions and to nitrate chemistry: implications for present and future nitrate optical depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Paulot

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We update and evaluate the treatment of nitrate aerosols in the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL atmospheric model (AM3. Accounting for the radiative effects of nitrate aerosols generally improves the simulated aerosol optical depth, although nitrate concentrations at the surface are biased high. This bias can be reduced by increasing the deposition of nitrate to account for the near-surface volatilization of ammonium nitrate or by neglecting the heterogeneous production of nitric acid to account for the inhibition of N2O5 reactive uptake at high nitrate concentrations. Globally, uncertainties in these processes can impact the simulated nitrate optical depth by up to 25 %, much more than the impact of uncertainties in the seasonality of ammonia emissions (6 % or in the uptake of nitric acid on dust (13 %. Our best estimate for present-day fine nitrate optical depth at 550 nm is 0.006 (0.005–0.008. We only find a modest increase of nitrate optical depth (2 (−40 % and ammonia (+38 % from 2010 to 2050. Nitrate burden is projected to increase in the tropics and in the free troposphere, but to decrease at the surface in the midlatitudes because of lower nitric acid concentrations. Our results suggest that better constraints on the heterogeneous chemistry of nitric acid on dust, on tropical ammonia emissions, and on the transport of ammonia to the free troposphere are needed to improve projections of aerosol optical depth.

  4. Positron emission tomography of hepatic first-pass metabolism of ammonia in pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, S; Munk, O L; Roelsgaard, K;

    2001-01-01

    scan data were analysed by a model of sinusoidal zonation of ammonia metabolism with periportal urea formation and perivenous formation of glutamine. The hepatic extraction fraction of (13)NH(3) was 0.73+/-0.16 (mean+/-SD, n=7 pigs). Values of clearance of ammonia to urea and to glutamine were obtained......, as were rate constants for washout of these two metabolites. Overall, the modelling showed half of the ammonia uptake to be converted to urea and half to glutamine. The washout rate constant for glutamine was about one-tenth of that for urea. We conclude that hepatic first-pass metabolism of ammonia...

  5. Semi-empirical process-based models for ammonia emissions from beef, swine, and poultry operations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuilling, Alyssa M.; Adams, Peter J.

    2015-11-01

    Farm-level ammonia emissions factors in the literature vary by an order of magnitude due to variations in manure management practices and meteorology, and it is essential to capture this variability in emission inventories used for atmospheric modeling. Loss of ammonia to the atmosphere is modeled here through a nitrogen mass balance with losses controlled by mass transfer resistance parameters, which vary with meteorological conditions and are tuned to match literature-reported emissions factors. Variations due to management practices are captured by having tuned parameters that are specific to each set of management practices. The resulting farm emissions models (FEMs) explain between 20% and 70% of the variability in published emissions factors and typically estimate emission factors within a factor of 2. The r2 values are: 0.53 for swine housing (0.67 for shallow-pit houses); 0.48 for swine storage; 0.29 for broiler chickens; 0.70 for layer chickens; and 0.21 for beef feedlots (0.36 for beef feedlots with more farm-specific input data). Mean fractional error was found to be 22-44% for beef feedlots, swine housing, and layer housing; fractional errors were greater for swine lagoons (90%) and broiler housing (69%). Unexplained variability and errors result from model limitations, measurement errors in reported emissions factors, and a lack of information about measurement conditions.

  6. Is there a Long-Term Relationship between Agricultural GHG Emissions and Productivity Growth? The Case of Italian Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Coderoni, Silvia; Esposti, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    The paper adopts a long single-country panel dataset (Italian regions) to analyse the relationship between agricultural GreenHouse Gases (GHG) emissions and agricultural productivity growth and, thus, to assess emissions sustainability. The modelling approach and the empirical specification include the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) as one of the possible outcomes. The hypothesis of emission sustainability is assessed by estimating alternative panel model specifications with conventional a...

  7. 75 FR 61626 - Hours of Service; Limited Exemption for the Distribution of Anhydrous Ammonia in Agricultural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ...: Legal Basis Section 4007(a) of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA- ] 21) (Pub. L... of the retail or wholesale distribution point (75 FR 40765). The Agency explained its rationale for... 1995, intended to address the special needs of the nation's agricultural industry and rural...

  8. New Maser Emission from Nonmetastable Ammonia in NGC 7538. II. Green Bank Telescope Observations Including Water Masers

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffman, Ian M

    2011-01-01

    We present new maser emission from ^{14}NH_3 (9,6) in NGC 7538. Our observations include the known spectral features near v_LSR = -60 km/s and -57 km/s and several more features extending to -46 km/s. In three epochs of observation spanning two months we do not detect any variability in the ammonia masers, in contrast to the >10-fold variability observed in other ^{14}NH_3 (9,6) masers in the Galaxy over comparable timescales. We also present observations of water masers in all three epochs for which emission is observed over the velocity range -105 km/s < v_LSR < -4 km/s, including the highest velocity water emission yet observed from NGC 7538. Of the remarkable number of maser species in IRS 1, H_2O and, now, ^{14}NH_3 are the only masers known to exhibit emission outside of the velocity range -62 km/s < v_LSR < -51 km/s. However, we find no significant intensity or velocity correlations between the water emission and ammonia emission. We also present a non-detection in the most sensitive search...

  9. An ecoregion-specific ammonia emissions inventory of Ontario dairy farming: Mitigation potential of diet and manure management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Lilong; Kröbel, Roland; MacDonald, Douglas; Bittman, Shabtai; Beauchemin, Karen A.; Janzen, H. Henry; McGinn, Sean M.; Vanderzaag, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    The Canadian ammonia (NH3) emissions model and a survey of dairy farm practices were used to quantify effects of management on emissions from dairy farms in Ontario Canada. Total NH3 emissions from dairy farming were 21 Gg NH3-N yr-1 for the four ecoregions of the province. Annual emission rates ranged from 12.8 (for calves in ecoregions of Manitoulin-Lake Simcoe-Frontenac) to 50 kg NH3-N animal-1 yr-1 (for lactating cows in ecoregions of St. Lawrence Lowlands) (mean of 27 kg NH3-N animal-1 yr-1). The St. Lawrence Lowlands ecoregion had the highest emission rate because more dairy manure was managed as solid manure in that ecoregion. Total dairy cattle N intake (diet-N) was 81 Gg N yr-1, 23% of which was retained in animal products (e.g., milk, meat, and fetus), 47% was returned to the land, and 30% was emitted as gas (i.e., NH3-N, N2O-N, NO-N, and N2-N) and nitrate-N leaching/runoff. Ammonia volatilization constituted the largest loss of diet-N (26%), as well as manure-N (34%). Reducing the fraction of solid manure by 50% has the potential to mitigate NH3 emissions by 18% in Ontario ecoregions.

  10. Climate protection and emission trading in the agriculture; Klimaschutz und Emissionshandel in der Landwirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luenenbuerger, Benjamin

    2013-01-15

    The percentage of the agriculture in the greenhouse-gas emissions in Germany amounts 7.1% in the year 2010. Despite its importance, climate protection instruments in the area of the German agriculture are still not developed. There are hardly special regulatory, informational or market-based instruments for the climate protection in the agriculture. The question arises whether the emission trading can be a suitable instrument for climate protection in the agriculture. Thus, the opportunities of the emission trading in the agriculture are investigated. Moreover, alternative and additional instruments of climate protection are considered with respect to the agriculture.

  11. Sensitivity of nitrate aerosols to ammonia emissions and to nitrate chemistry: implications for present and future nitrate optical depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulot, F.; Ginoux, P.; Cooke, W. F.; Donner, L. J.; Fan, S.; Lin, M.-Y.; Mao, J.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L. W.

    2016-02-01

    We update and evaluate the treatment of nitrate aerosols in the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) atmospheric model (AM3). Accounting for the radiative effects of nitrate aerosols generally improves the simulated aerosol optical depth, although nitrate concentrations at the surface are biased high. This bias can be reduced by increasing the deposition of nitrate to account for the near-surface volatilization of ammonium nitrate or by neglecting the heterogeneous production of nitric acid to account for the inhibition of N2O5 reactive uptake at high nitrate concentrations. Globally, uncertainties in these processes can impact the simulated nitrate optical depth by up to 25 %, much more than the impact of uncertainties in the seasonality of ammonia emissions (6 %) or in the uptake of nitric acid on dust (13 %). Our best estimate for fine nitrate optical depth at 550 nm in 2010 is 0.006 (0.005-0.008). In wintertime, nitrate aerosols are simulated to account for over 30 % of the aerosol optical depth over western Europe and North America. Simulated nitrate optical depth increases by less than 30 % (0.0061-0.010) in response to projected changes in anthropogenic emissions from 2010 to 2050 (e.g., -40 % for SO2 and +38 % for ammonia). This increase is primarily driven by greater concentrations of nitrate in the free troposphere, while surface nitrate concentrations decrease in the midlatitudes following lower concentrations of nitric acid. With the projected increase of ammonia emissions, we show that better constraints on the vertical distribution of ammonia (e.g., convective transport and biomass burning injection) and on the sources and sinks of nitric acid (e.g., heterogeneous reaction on dust) are needed to improve estimates of future nitrate optical depth.

  12. A process-based model for ammonia emission from urine patches, GAG (Generation of Ammonia from Grazing: description, validation and sensitivity analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Móring

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new process-based, weather-driven model for ammonia (NH3 emission from a urine patch has been developed and its sensitivity to various factors assessed. This model, the GAG model (Generation of Ammonia from Grazing was developed as a part of a suite of weather-driven NH3 exchange models, as a necessary basis for assessing the effects of climate change on NH3 related atmospheric processes. GAG is capable of simulating the TAN (Total Ammoniacal Nitrogen content, pH and the water content of the soil under a urine patch. To calculate the TAN budget, GAG takes into account urea hydrolysis as a TAN input and NH3 volatilization as a loss. In the water budget, in addition to the water content of urine, precipitation and evaporation are also considered. In the pH module we assumed that the main regulating processes are the dissociation and dissolution equilibria related to the two products of urea hydrolysis: ammonium and bicarbonate. Finally, in the NH3 exchange flux calculation we adapted a canopy compensation point model that accounts for exchange with soil pores and stomata as well as deposition to the leaf surface. We validated our model against measurements, and carried out a sensitivity analysis. The validation showed that the simulated parameters (NH3 exchange flux, soil pH, TAN budget and water budget are well captured by the model (r > 0.5 for every parameter at p 3 emission. In addition, our results suggested that more sophisticated simulation of CO2 emission in the model could potentially improve the modelling of pH. The sensitivity analysis highlighted the vital role of temperature in NH3 exchange; however, presumably due to the TAN limitation, the GAG model currently provides only a modest overall temperature dependence in total NH3 emission compared with the values in the literature. Since all the input parameters can be obtained for study at larger scales, GAG is potentially suitable for larger scale application, such as

  13. EVALUATION OF AEROSOL EMISSIONS DOWNSTREAM OF AN AMMONIA-BASED SO2 SCRUBBER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis L. Laudal

    2002-04-01

    Depending on the size and type of boiler, the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments required specific reductions in SO{sub 2} emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. To meet these requirements, SO{sub 2} reduction strategies have included installing scrubbing technology, switching to a more expensive low-sulfur coal, or purchasing SO{sub 2} allowances. It is expected that over the next 10 years there will be an increase in the price of low-sulfur coals, but that higher-sulfur coal costs will remain the same. Technologies must be strongly considered that allow the use of high-sulfur fuels while at the same time meeting current and future SO{sub 2} emission limits. One such technology is the ammonia based flue gas desulfurization (FGD) (NH{sub 3}-based FGD) system manufactured by Marsulex Environmental Technologies (MET). The MET scrubber is a patented NH{sub 3}-based FGD process that efficiently converts SO{sub 2} (>95%) into a fertilizer product, ammonium sulfate ([NH{sub 4}]{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). A point of concern for the MET technology, as well as other FGD systems, is the emission of sulfuric acid/SO{sub 3} aerosols that could result in increased opacity at the stack. This is a direct result of firing high-sulfur fuels that naturally generate more SO{sub 3} than do low-sulfur coals. SO{sub 3} is formed during the coal combustion process. SO{sub 3} is converted to gaseous H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} by homogeneous condensation, leading to a submicron acid fume that is very difficult to capture in a dry electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The condensed acid can also combine with the fly ash in the duct and scale the duct wall, potentially resulting in corrosion of both metallic and nonmetallic surfaces. Therefore, SO{sub 3} in flue gas can have a significant impact on the performance of coal-fired utility boilers, air heaters, and ESPs. In addition to corrosion problems, excess SO{sub 3} emissions can result in plume opacity problems. Thus the Energy & Environmental Research

  14. The annual ammonia budget of fertilised cut grassland – Part 1: Micrometeorological flux measurements and emissions after slurry application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Spirig

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Two commercial ammonia (NH3 analysers were customised to allow continuous measurements of vertical concentration gradients. The gradients were used to derive ammonia exchange fluxes above a managed grassland site at Oensingen (Switzerland by application of the aerodynamic gradient method. The measurements from July 2006 to October 2007 covered five complete growth-cut cycles and included six applications of liquid cattle slurry. The average accuracy of the flux measurements during unstable and near-neutral conditions was 20% and the detection limit was 10 ng NH3 m−2 s−1. Hence the flux measurements are considered sufficiently accurate for studying typical NH3 deposition rates over growing vegetation. Quantifying the overall emissions after slurry applications required the application of elaborate interpolations because of difficulties capturing the initial emissions during broadspreading of liquid manure. The emissions were also calculated with a mass balance method yielding similar fluxes. NH3 losses after slurry application expressed as percentage of emitted nitrogen versus applied total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN varied between 4 and 19%, which is roughly a factor of three lower than the values for broadspreading of liquid manure in emission inventories. The comparatively low emission factors appear to be a consequence of the low dry matter content of the applied slurry and soil properties favouring ammonium adsorption.

  15. Effects of reed straw, zeolite, and superphosphate amendments on ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from stored duck manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J Z; Hu, Z Y; Zhou, X Q; An, Z Z; Gao, J F; Liu, X N; Jiang, L L; Lu, J; Kang, X M; Li, M; Hao, Y B; Kardol, P

    2012-01-01

    Stored poultry manure can be a significant source of ammonia (NH) and greenhouse gases (GHGs), including nitrous oxide (NO), methane (CH), and carbon dioxide (CO) emissions. Amendments can be used to modify physiochemical properties of manure, thus having the potential to reduce gas emissions. Here, we lab-tested the single and combined effects of addition of reed straw, zeolite, and superphosphate on gas emissions from stored duck manure. We showed that, over a period of 46 d, cumulative NH emissions were reduced by 61 to 70% with superphosphate additions, whereas cumulative NO emissions were increased by up to 23% compared with the control treatment. Reed straw addition reduced cumulative NH, NO, and CH emissions relative to the control by 12, 27, and 47%, respectively, and zeolite addition reduced cumulative NH and NO emissions by 36 and 20%, respectively. Total GHG emissions (as CO-equivalents) were reduced by up to 27% with the additions of reed straw and/or zeolite. Our results indicate that reed straw or zeolite can be recommended as amendments to reduce GHG emissions from duck manure; however, superphosphate is more effective in reducing NH emissions. PMID:22751065

  16. Nitrous oxide emission related to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and mitigation options from N fertilization in a tropical soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Johnny R.; Cassman, Noriko A.; Kielak, Anna M.; Pijl, Agata; Carmo, Janaína B.; Lourenço, Kesia S.; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J.; Cantarella, Heitor; Kuramae, Eiko E.

    2016-07-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) from nitrogen fertilizers applied to sugarcane has high environmental impact on ethanol production. This study aimed to determine the main microbial processes responsible for the N2O emissions from soil fertilized with different N sources, to identify options to mitigate N2O emissions, and to determine the impacts of the N sources on the soil microbiome. In a field experiment, nitrogen was applied as calcium nitrate, urea, urea with dicyandiamide or 3,4 dimethylpyrazone phosphate nitrification inhibitors (NIs), and urea coated with polymer and sulfur (PSCU). Urea caused the highest N2O emissions (1.7% of N applied) and PSCU did not reduce cumulative N2O emissions compared to urea. NIs reduced N2O emissions (95%) compared to urea and had emissions comparable to those of the control (no N). Similarly, calcium nitrate resulted in very low N2O emissions. Interestingly, N2O emissions were significantly correlated only with bacterial amoA, but not with denitrification gene (nirK, nirS, nosZ) abundances, suggesting that ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, via the nitrification pathway, were the main contributors to N2O emissions. Moreover, the treatments had little effect on microbial composition or diversity. We suggest nitrate-based fertilizers or the addition of NIs in NH4+-N based fertilizers as viable options for reducing N2O emissions in tropical soils and lessening the environmental impact of biofuel produced from sugarcane.

  17. Nitrous oxide emission related to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and mitigation options from N fertilization in a tropical soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Johnny R; Cassman, Noriko A; Kielak, Anna M; Pijl, Agata; Carmo, Janaína B; Lourenço, Kesia S; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J; Cantarella, Heitor; Kuramae, Eiko E

    2016-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) from nitrogen fertilizers applied to sugarcane has high environmental impact on ethanol production. This study aimed to determine the main microbial processes responsible for the N2O emissions from soil fertilized with different N sources, to identify options to mitigate N2O emissions, and to determine the impacts of the N sources on the soil microbiome. In a field experiment, nitrogen was applied as calcium nitrate, urea, urea with dicyandiamide or 3,4 dimethylpyrazone phosphate nitrification inhibitors (NIs), and urea coated with polymer and sulfur (PSCU). Urea caused the highest N2O emissions (1.7% of N applied) and PSCU did not reduce cumulative N2O emissions compared to urea. NIs reduced N2O emissions (95%) compared to urea and had emissions comparable to those of the control (no N). Similarly, calcium nitrate resulted in very low N2O emissions. Interestingly, N2O emissions were significantly correlated only with bacterial amoA, but not with denitrification gene (nirK, nirS, nosZ) abundances, suggesting that ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, via the nitrification pathway, were the main contributors to N2O emissions. Moreover, the treatments had little effect on microbial composition or diversity. We suggest nitrate-based fertilizers or the addition of NIs in NH4(+)-N based fertilizers as viable options for reducing N2O emissions in tropical soils and lessening the environmental impact of biofuel produced from sugarcane. PMID:27460335

  18. N-13 ammonia for the noninvasive evaluation of myocardial blood flow by positron emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kinetics and characteristics of nitrogen-13 labelled ammonia as an indicator of blood flow in the myocardium were evaluated in open-chest dogs. Its utility as an imaging agent was tested in animals and man

  19. A process-based model for ammonia emission from urine patches, GAG (Generation of Ammonia from Grazing): description, validation and sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Móring, A.; Vieno, M.; Doherty, R. M.; Laubach, J.; Taghizadeh-Toosi, A.; Sutton, M. A.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper a new process-based, weather-driven model for ammonia (NH3) emission from a urine patch has been developed and its sensitivity to various factors assessed. This model, the GAG model (Generation of Ammonia from Grazing) was developed as a part of a suite of weather-driven NH3 exchange models, as a necessary basis for assessing the effects of climate change on NH3 related atmospheric processes. GAG is capable of simulating the TAN (Total Ammoniacal Nitrogen) content, pH and the water content of the soil under a urine patch. To calculate the TAN budget, GAG takes into account urea hydrolysis as a TAN input and NH3 volatilization as a loss. In the water budget, in addition to the water content of urine, precipitation and evaporation are also considered. In the pH module we assumed that the main regulating processes are the dissociation and dissolution equilibria related to the two products of urea hydrolysis: ammonium and bicarbonate. Finally, in the NH3 exchange flux calculation we adapted a canopy compensation point model that accounts for exchange with soil pores and stomata as well as deposition to the leaf surface. We validated our model against measurements, and carried out a sensitivity analysis. The validation showed that the simulated parameters (NH3 exchange flux, soil pH, TAN budget and water budget) are well captured by the model (r > 0.5 for every parameter at p CO2 emission in the model could potentially improve the modelling of pH. The sensitivity analysis highlighted the vital role of temperature in NH3 exchange; however, presumably due to the TAN limitation, the GAG model currently provides only a modest overall temperature dependence in total NH3 emission compared with the values in the literature. Since all the input parameters can be obtained for study at larger scales, GAG is potentially suitable for larger scale application, such as in regional atmospheric and ecosystem models.

  20. Managing soil organic carbon in agriculture: the net effect on greenhouse gas emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Marland, Gregg; West, Tristram O.; Schlamadinger, Bernhard; Canella, Lorenza

    2011-01-01

    A change in agricultural practice can increase carbon sequestration in agricultural soils. To know the net effect on greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere, however, we consider associated changes in CO2 emissions resulting from the consumption of fossil fuels, emissions of other greenhouse gases and effects on land productivity and crop yield. We also consider how these factors will evolve over time. A change from conventional tillage to no-till agriculture, based on data for average pra...

  1. Ammonia in the environment: From ancient times to the present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, M.A.; Erisman, J.W.; Dentener, F.; Moller, D. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Penicuik (United Kingdom). Edinburgh Research Station

    2008-12-15

    Recent research on atmospheric ammonia has made good progress in quantifying sources/sinks and environmental impacts. This paper reviews the achievements and places them in their historical context. It considers the role of ammonia in the development of agricultural science and air chemistry, showing how these arose out of foundations in 18th century chemistry and medieval alchemy, and then identifies the original environmental sources from which the ancients obtained ammonia. Ammonia is revealed as a compound of key human interest through the centuries, with a central role played by sal ammoniac in alchemy and the emergence of modern science. The review highlights how recent environmental research has emphasized volatilization sources of ammonia. Conversely, the historical records emphasize the role of high-temperature sources, including dung burning, coal burning, naturally burning coal seams and volcanoes. Present estimates of ammonia emissions from these sources are based on few measurements, which should be a future priority.

  2. The annual ammonia budget of fertilised cut grassland – Part 1: Micrometeorological flux measurements and emissions after slurry application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Spirig

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Two commercial ammonia (NH3 analysers were customised to allow continuous measurements of vertical concentration gradients. The gradients were used to derive ammonia exchange fluxes above a managed grassland site at Oensingen (Switzerland by application of the aerodynamic gradient method (AGM. The semi-continuous measurements during 1.5 years covered five complete growth-cut cycles and included six applications of liquid cattle slurry. The average accuracy of the flux measurements during conditions of well established turbulence was 20% and the detection limit 10 ng NH3 m−2 s−1, hence sufficient for studying the background exchange of NH3. Quantifying emissions after slurry applications required the application of elaborate interpolations because of difficulties capturing the initial emissions during manure spreading in some parts of the experiments. The emissions were also calculated with a mass balance method (MBM yielding similar fluxes. NH3 losses after slurry application expressed as percentage of emitted nitrogen versus applied total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN varied between 4 and 19%, which is lower than typical values for broadspreading of liquid manure. The comparatively low emission factors appear to be a consequence of the rather thin slurry applied here and soil properties favouring ammonium adsorption.

  3. Noninvasive quantification of regional blood flow in the human heart using N-13 ammonia and dynamic positron emission tomographic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of regional myocardial blood flow by conventional scintigraphic techniques is limited to the qualitative assessment of regional tracer distribution. Dynamic imaging with positron emission tomography allows the quantitative delineation of myocardial tracer kinetics and, hence, the measurement of physiologic processes such as myocardial blood flow. To test this hypothesis, positron emission tomographic imaging in combination with N-13 ammonia was performed at rest and after pharmacologically induced vasodilation in seven healthy volunteers. Myocardial and blood time-activity curves derived from regions of interest over the heart and ventricular chamber were fitted using a three compartment model for N-13 ammonia, yielding rate constants for tracer uptake and retention. Myocardial blood flow (K1) averaged 88 +/- 17 ml/min per 100 g at rest and increased to 417 +/- 112 ml/min per 100 g after dipyridamole infusion (0.56 mg/kg) and handgrip exercise. The coronary reserve averaged 4.8 +/- 1.3 and was not significantly different in the septal, anterior and lateral walls of the left ventricle. Blood flow values showed only a minor dependence on the correction for blood metabolites of N-13 ammonia. These data demonstrate that quantification of regional myocardial blood flow is feasible by dynamic positron emission tomographic imaging. The observed coronary flow reserve after dipyridamole is in close agreement with the results obtained by invasive techniques, indicating accurate flow estimates over a wide range. Thus, positron emission tomography may provide accurate and noninvasive definition of the functional significance of coronary artery disease and may allow the improved selection of patients for revascularization

  4. Emission factor of ammonia (NH3) from on-road vehicles in China: tunnel tests in urban Guangzhou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammonia (NH3) is the primary alkaline gas in the atmosphere that contributes to formation of secondary particles. Emission of NH3 from vehicles, particularly gasoline powered light duty vehicles equipped with three-way catalysts, is regarded as an important source apart from emissions from animal wastes and soils, yet measured emission factors for motor vehicles are still not available in China, where traffic-related emission has become an increasingly important source of air pollutants in urban areas. Here we present our tunnel tests for NH3 from motor vehicles under ‘real world conditions’ in an urban roadway tunnel in Guangzhou, a central city in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in south China. By attributing all NH3 emissions in the tunnel to light-duty gasoline vehicles, we obtained a fuel-based emission rate of 2.92 ± 0.18 g L−1 and a mileage-based emission factor of 229.5 ± 14.1 mg km−1. These emission factors were much higher than those measured in the United States while measured NO x emission factors (7.17 ± 0.60 g L−1 or 0.56 ± 0.05 g km−1) were contrastingly near or lower than those previously estimated by MOBILE/PART5 or COPERT IV models. Based on the NH3 emission factors from this study, on-road vehicles accounted for 8.1% of NH3 emissions in the PRD region in 2006 instead of 2.5% as estimated in a previous study using emission factors taken from the Emission Inventory Improvement Program (EIIP) in the United States. (letter)

  5. The importance of vehicle emissions as a source of atmospheric ammonia in the megacity of Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Chang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural activities are a major source contributing to NH3 emissions in Shanghai and most other regions of China; however, there is a long-standing and ongoing controversy regarding the contributions of vehicle-emitted NH3 to the urban atmosphere. From April 2014 to April 2015, we conducted measurements of a wide range of gases (including NH3 and the chemical properties of PM2.5 at hourly resolution at a Shanghai urban supersite. This large dataset shows NH3 pollution events, lasting several hours with concentrations four times the annual average of 5.3 μg m-3, caused by the burning of crop residues in spring. There are also generally higher NH3 concentrations (mean ± 1σ in summer (7.3 ± 4.9 μg m-3; n = 2181 because of intensive emissions from temperature-dependent agricultural sources. However, the NH3 concentration in summer was only an average of 2.4 μg m-3 or 41 % higher than the average NH3 concentration of other seasons. Furthermore, the NH3 concentration in winter (5.0 ± 3.7 μg m-3; n = 2113 was similar to that in spring (5.1 ± 3.8 μg m-3; n = 2204 but slightly higher, on average, than that in autumn (4.5 ± 2.3 μg m-3; n = 1949. Moreover, other meteorological parameters like planetary boundary layer height and relative humidity were not major factors affecting seasonal NH3 concentrations. These findings suggest that there may be some climate-independent NH3 sources present in the Shanghai urban area. Independent of season, the concentrations of both NH3 and CO present a marked bimodal diurnal profile, with maxima in the morning and the evening. A spatial analysis suggests that elevated concentrations of NH3 are often associated with transport from regions west-northwest and east-southeast of the city, areas with dense road systems. The spatial origin of NH3 and the diurnal concentration profile together suggest the importance of vehicle-derived NH3 associated with daily commuting in the urban environment. To further

  6. Research on Spatial-Temporal Characteristics and Driving Factor of Agricultural Carbon Emissions in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yun; ZHANG Jun-biao; HE Ya-ya

    2014-01-01

    Macroscopic grasp of agricultural carbon emissions status, spatial-temporal characteristics as well as driving factors are the basic premise in further research on China’s agricultural carbon emissions. Based on 23 kinds of major carbon emission sources including agricultural materials inputs, paddy ifeld, soil and livestock breeding, this paper ifrstly calculated agricultural carbon emissions from 1995 to 2010, as well as 31 provinces and cities in 2010 in China. We then made a decomposed analysis to the driving factors of carbon emissions with logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) model. The results show:(1) The amount of agricultural carbon emissions is 291.1691 million t in 2010. Compared with 249.5239 million t in 1995, it increased by 16.69%, in which, agricultural materials inputs, paddy ifeld, soil, enteric fermentation, and manure management accounted for 33.59, 22.03, 7.46, 17.53 and 19.39%of total agricultural carbon emissions, respectively. Although the amount exist ups and downs, it shows an overall trend of cyclical rise; (2) There is an obvious difference among regions:the amount of agricultural carbon emissions from top ten zones account for 56.68%, while 9.84%from last 10 zones. The traditional agricultural provinces, especially the major crop production areas are the main source regions. Based on the differences of carbon emission rations, 31 provinces and cities are divided into ifve types, namely agricultural materials dominant type, paddy ifeld dominant type, enteric fermentation dominant type, composite factors dominant type and balanced type. The agricultural carbon emissions intensity in west of China is the highest, followed by the central region, and the east zone is the lowest; (3) Compared with 1995, efifciency, labor and structure factors cut down carbon emissions by 65.78, 27.51 and 3.19%, respectively;while economy factor increase carbon emissions by 113.16%.

  7. Communicating the uncertainty in estimated greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Alice E; Glendining, Margaret J; Lark, R Murray; Perryman, Sarah A M; Gordon, Taylor; Whitmore, Andrew P

    2015-09-01

    In an effort to mitigate anthropogenic effects on the global climate system, industrialised countries are required to quantify and report, for various economic sectors, the annual emissions of greenhouse gases from their several sources and the absorption of the same in different sinks. These estimates are uncertain, and this uncertainty must be communicated effectively, if government bodies, research scientists or members of the public are to draw sound conclusions. Our interest is in communicating the uncertainty in estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture to those who might directly use the results from the inventory. We tested six methods of communication. These were: a verbal scale using the IPCC calibrated phrases such as 'likely' and 'very unlikely'; probabilities that emissions are within a defined range of values; confidence intervals for the expected value; histograms; box plots; and shaded arrays that depict the probability density of the uncertain quantity. In a formal trial we used these methods to communicate uncertainty about four specific inferences about greenhouse gas emissions in the UK. Sixty four individuals who use results from the greenhouse gas inventory professionally participated in the trial, and we tested how effectively the uncertainty about these inferences was communicated by means of a questionnaire. Our results showed differences in the efficacy of the methods of communication, and interactions with the nature of the target audience. We found that, although the verbal scale was thought to be a good method of communication it did not convey enough information and was open to misinterpretation. Shaded arrays were similarly criticised for being open to misinterpretation, but proved to give the best impression of uncertainty when participants were asked to interpret results from the greenhouse gas inventory. Box plots were most favoured by our participants largely because they were particularly favoured by those who worked

  8. Growth and slaughter performance, nitrogen balance and ammonia emission from slurry in pigs fed high fibre diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Matteo Crovetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to determine digestibility, nitrogen balance and ammonia emission from excreta, in the typical Italian heavy pig during the last phase of growth, when fed diets with a high fibre content. In comparison with a traditional control diet (C, two diets with 12 and 24% wheat bran (WB12 and WB24 and two other diets with 12 and 24% dried beet pulp (BP12 and BP24 were tested. Totally 76 Landrace x Large White fattening barrows, from 45 to 170 kg live weight distributed in 16 pens, were utilized in the trial. Thirty pigs were allocated to 6 metabolic cages in 5 consecutive periods in order to have 6 observations per treatment. For diets C, WB12 and WB24 daily weight gain (DWG, feed conversion ratio (FCR and slaughtering performances were also registered, on 20 pigs per dietary treatment. Growing and slaughter performances were similar for pigs fed C and WB12 diets, whilst diet WB24 determined a significant (P<0.05 decrease in performances (growth and feed conversion in the first period of fattening and a lower dressing percentage at slaughter (85.5, 84.4 and 82.5% for C, WB12 and WB24, respectively. Comparing the diets with the same level of inclusion of the fibrous feeds, WB diets had a lower OM and energy digestibility, while BP diets registered a lower protein but a higher fibre digestibility. Consistently with other experiments, BP diets determined an increase of faecal and a reduction of urinary N, as a percentage of the intake N, as well as a decrease of ammonia emission from the slurries (- 16.6 and -25.3% for BP12 and BP24, in comparison with C diet. For the WB diets the reduction of urinary N and the increase in faecal N were less marked and a reduction of ammonia emissions was not registered.

  9. A regional mass balance model based on total ammoniacal nitrogen for estimating ammonia emissions from beef cattle in Alberta Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Lilong; Kröbel, Roland; Janzen, H. Henry; Beauchemin, Karen A.; McGinn, Sean M.; Bittman, Shabtai; Atia, Atta; Edeogu, Ike; MacDonald, Douglas; Dong, Ruilan

    2014-08-01

    Animal feeding operations are primary contributors of anthropogenic ammonia (NH3) emissions in North America and Europe. Mathematical modeling of NH3 volatilization from each stage of livestock manure management allows comprehensive quantitative estimates of emission sources and nutrient losses. A regionally-specific mass balance model based on total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) content in animal manure was developed for estimating NH3 emissions from beef farming operations in western Canada. Total N excretion in urine and feces was estimated from animal diet composition, feed dry matter intake and N utilization for beef cattle categories and production stages. Mineralization of organic N, immobilization of TAN, nitrification, and denitrification of N compounds in manure, were incorporated into the model to account for quantities of TAN at each stage of manure handling. Ammonia emission factors were specified for different animal housing (feedlots, barns), grazing, manure storage (including composting and stockpiling) and land spreading (tilled and untilled land), and were modified for temperature. The model computed NH3 emissions from all beef cattle sub-classes including cows, calves, breeding bulls, steers for slaughter, and heifers for slaughter and replacement. Estimated NH3 emissions were about 1.11 × 105 Mg NH3 in Alberta in 2006, with a mean of 18.5 kg animal-1 yr-1 (15.2 kg NH3-N animal-1 yr-1) which is 23.5% of the annual N intake of beef cattle (64.7 kg animal-1 yr-1). The percentage of N intake volatilized as NH3-N was 50% for steers and heifers for slaughter, and between 11 and 14% for all other categories. Steers and heifers for slaughter were the two largest contributors (3.5 × 104 and 3.9 × 104 Mg, respectively) at 31.5 and 32.7% of total NH3 emissions because most growing animals were finished in feedlots. Animal housing and grazing contributed roughly 63% of the total NH3 emissions (feedlots, barns and pastures contributed 54.4, 0.2 and 8.1% of

  10. Acid wash scrubbing as a countermeasure for ammonia emissions from a postcombustion CO2 Capture Plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khakharia, P.M.; Huizinga, A.; Jurado Lopez, C.; Sanchez Sanchez, C.; Miguel Mercader, F. de; Vlugt, T.J.H.; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2014-01-01

    Amine-based absorption-desorption processes are considered to be the state-of-the-art technology for CO2 capture. However, the typical amines used are susceptible to oxidative and thermal degradation. Ammonia is formed as a result of oxidative solvent degradation. Because of the volatility of ammoni

  11. Decoupling of greenhouse gas emissions from global agricultural production: 1970-2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennetzen, Eskild H; Smith, Pete; Porter, John R

    2016-02-01

    Since 1970 global agricultural production has more than doubled; contributing ~1/4 of total anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) burden in 2010. Food production must increase to feed our growing demands, but to address climate change, GHG emissions must decrease. Using an identity approach, we estimate and analyse past trends in GHG emission intensities from global agricultural production and land-use change and project potential future emissions. The novel Kaya-Porter identity framework deconstructs the entity of emissions from a mix of multiple sources of GHGs into attributable elements allowing not only a combined analysis of the total level of all emissions jointly with emissions per unit area and emissions per unit product. It also allows us to examine how a change in emissions from a given source contributes to the change in total emissions over time. We show that agricultural production and GHGs have been steadily decoupled over recent decades. Emissions peaked in 1991 at ~12 Pg CO2 -eq. yr(-1) and have not exceeded this since. Since 1970 GHG emissions per unit product have declined by 39% and 44% for crop- and livestock-production, respectively. Except for the energy-use component of farming, emissions from all sources have increased less than agricultural production. Our projected business-as-usual range suggests that emissions may be further decoupled by 20-55% giving absolute agricultural emissions of 8.2-14.5 Pg CO2 -eq. yr(-1) by 2050, significantly lower than many previous estimates that do not allow for decoupling. Beyond this, several additional costcompetitive mitigation measures could reduce emissions further. However, agricultural GHG emissions can only be reduced to a certain level and a simultaneous focus on other parts of the food-system is necessary to increase food security whilst reducing emissions. The identity approach presented here could be used as a methodological framework for more holistic food systems analysis. PMID:26451699

  12. Decoupling of greenhouse gas emissions from global agricultural production: 1970-2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennetzen, Eskild H; Smith, Pete; Porter, John R

    2016-02-01

    Since 1970 global agricultural production has more than doubled; contributing ~1/4 of total anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) burden in 2010. Food production must increase to feed our growing demands, but to address climate change, GHG emissions must decrease. Using an identity approach, we estimate and analyse past trends in GHG emission intensities from global agricultural production and land-use change and project potential future emissions. The novel Kaya-Porter identity framework deconstructs the entity of emissions from a mix of multiple sources of GHGs into attributable elements allowing not only a combined analysis of the total level of all emissions jointly with emissions per unit area and emissions per unit product. It also allows us to examine how a change in emissions from a given source contributes to the change in total emissions over time. We show that agricultural production and GHGs have been steadily decoupled over recent decades. Emissions peaked in 1991 at ~12 Pg CO2 -eq. yr(-1) and have not exceeded this since. Since 1970 GHG emissions per unit product have declined by 39% and 44% for crop- and livestock-production, respectively. Except for the energy-use component of farming, emissions from all sources have increased less than agricultural production. Our projected business-as-usual range suggests that emissions may be further decoupled by 20-55% giving absolute agricultural emissions of 8.2-14.5 Pg CO2 -eq. yr(-1) by 2050, significantly lower than many previous estimates that do not allow for decoupling. Beyond this, several additional costcompetitive mitigation measures could reduce emissions further. However, agricultural GHG emissions can only be reduced to a certain level and a simultaneous focus on other parts of the food-system is necessary to increase food security whilst reducing emissions. The identity approach presented here could be used as a methodological framework for more holistic food systems analysis.

  13. Economic Potential of Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions: Comparative Role for Soil Sequestration in Agriculture and Forestry

    OpenAIRE

    McCarl, Bruce A.; U. Schneider; Murray, B.; Williams, J; Sands, R.

    2001-01-01

    The authors use the Agricultural Sector Model to analyze the economic potential of soil carbon sequestration as one of several agricultural greenhouse gas emission mitigation strategies, including afforestation. For low incentives on carbon emission savings, agricultural soil carbon sequestration is the most cost-efficient strategy. As incentive levels increase above $50 per ton of carbon equivalent, afforestation and biofuel production become the key strategies, while the role of soil carbon...

  14. Evaluation of the inverse dispersion modelling method for estimating ammonia multi-source emissions using low-cost long time averaging sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubet, Benjamin; Carozzi, Marco

    2015-04-01

    Tropospheric ammonia (NH3) is a key player in atmospheric chemistry and its deposition is a threat for the environment (ecosystem eutrophication, soil acidification and reduction in species biodiversity). Most of the NH3 global emissions derive from agriculture, mainly from livestock manure (storage and field application) but also from nitrogen-based fertilisers. Inverse dispersion modelling has been widely used to infer emission sources from a homogeneous source of known geometry. When the emission derives from different sources inside of the measured footprint, the emission should be treated as multi-source problem. This work aims at estimating whether multi-source inverse dispersion modelling can be used to infer NH3 emissions from different agronomic treatment, composed of small fields (typically squares of 25 m side) located near to each other, using low-cost NH3 measurements (diffusion samplers). To do that, a numerical experiment was designed with a combination of 3 x 3 square field sources (625 m2), and a set of sensors placed at the centre of each field at several heights as well as at 200 m away from the sources in each cardinal directions. The concentration at each sensor location was simulated with a forward Lagrangian Stochastic (WindTrax) and a Gaussian-like (FIDES) dispersion model. The concentrations were averaged over various integration times (3 hours to 28 days), to mimic the diffusion sampler behaviour with several sampling strategy. The sources were then inferred by inverse modelling using the averaged concentration and the same models in backward mode. The sources patterns were evaluated using a soil-vegetation-atmosphere model (SurfAtm-NH3) that incorporates the response of the NH3 emissions to surface temperature. A combination emission patterns (constant, linear decreasing, exponential decreasing and Gaussian type) and strengths were used to evaluate the uncertainty of the inversion method. Each numerical experiment covered a period of 28

  15. Effect of Alum Additions to Poultry Litter on In-House Ammonia and Greenhouse Gas Concentrations and Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugene, Branly; Moore, Philip A; Li, Hong; Miles, Dana; Trabue, Steven; Burns, Robert; Buser, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Alum [Al(SO4) ·14HO] addition to poultry litter has been shown to reduce ammonia (NH) concentrations in poultry houses; however, its effects on greenhouse gas (GHG; NO, CH, and CO) emissions is unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of alum additions on (i) in-house NH and GHG concentrations, (ii) NH and GHG emissions, and (iii) litter chemical properties. Two identical broiler houses located in northwest Arkansas were used for this study: one house was a control and the other was treated with alum between each flock of birds. Ventilation rates were coupled with in-house NH and GHG measurements to determine emission rates. Overall, alum additions significantly reduced the daily average in-house NH concentration by 42% (8.9 vs. 15.4 μL L), and the overall NH emission rate was reduced by 47% (7.2 vs. 13.4 kg d house). The average cumulative NH emission for the three flocks was 330 kg house flock for the alum-treated house and 617 kg house flock for the control. Concentrations and emissions of nitrous oxide (NO) and methane (CH) from the alum-treated house were not significantly different than the untreated house. However, carbon dioxide (CO) emissions were significantly higher from the untreated house than the alum-treated house. Alum also significantly increased litter N content and reduced the C/N ratio. These results indicate that the addition of alum to poultry litter is not only an effective management practice for reducing in-house NH concentrations and emissions but also significantly reduces CO emissions from poultry facilities.

  16. Process-based Modeling of Ammonia Emission from Beef Cattle Feedyards with the Integrated Farm Systems Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrip, Heidi M; Rotz, C Alan; Hafner, Sasha D; Todd, Richard W; Cole, N Andy

    2014-07-01

    Ammonia (NH) volatilization from manure in beef cattle feedyards results in loss of agronomically important nitrogen (N) and potentially leads to overfertilization and acidification of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. In addition, NH is involved in the formation of atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM), which can affect human health. Process-based models have been developed to estimate NH emissions from various livestock production systems; however, little work has been conducted to assess their accuracy for large, open-lot beef cattle feedyards. This work describes the extension of an existing process-based model, the Integrated Farm Systems Model (IFSM), to include simulation of N dynamics in this type of system. To evaluate the model, IFSM-simulated daily per capita NH emission rates were compared with emissions data collected from two commercial feedyards in the Texas High Plains from 2007 to 2009. Model predictions were in good agreement with observations and were sensitive to variations in air temperature and dietary crude protein concentration. Predicted mean daily NH emission rates for the two feedyards had 71 to 81% agreement with observations. In addition, IFSM estimates of annual feedyard emissions were within 11 to 24% of observations, whereas a constant emission factor currently in use by the USEPA underestimated feedyard emissions by as much as 79%. The results from this study indicate that IFSM can quantify average feedyard NH emissions, assist with emissions reporting, provide accurate information for legislators and policymakers, investigate methods to mitigate NH losses, and evaluate the effects of specific management practices on farm nutrient balances. PMID:25603064

  17. Mitigation of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane emissions from manure management chains: a meta-analysis and integrated assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yong; Velthof, Gerard L; Oenema, Oene

    2015-03-01

    Livestock manure contributes considerably to global emissions of ammonia (NH3 ) and greenhouse gases (GHG), especially methane (CH4 ) and nitrous oxide (N2 O). Various measures have been developed to mitigate these emissions, but most of these focus on one specific gas and/or emission source. Here, we present a meta-analysis and integrated assessment of the effects of mitigation measures on NH3 , CH4 and (direct and indirect) N2 O emissions from the whole manure management chain. We analysed the effects of mitigation technologies on NH3 , CH4 and N2 O emissions from individual sources statistically using results of 126 published studies. Whole-chain effects on NH3 and GHG emissions were assessed through scenario analysis. Significant NH3 reduction efficiencies were observed for (i) housing via lowering the dietary crude protein (CP) content (24-65%, compared to the reference situation), for (ii) external slurry storages via acidification (83%) and covers of straw (78%) or artificial films (98%), for (iii) solid manure storages via compaction and covering (61%, compared to composting), and for (iv) manure application through band spreading (55%, compared to surface application), incorporation (70%) and injection (80%). Acidification decreased CH4 emissions from stored slurry by 87%. Significant increases in N2 O emissions were found for straw-covered slurry storages (by two orders of magnitude) and manure injection (by 26-199%). These side-effects of straw covers and slurry injection on N2 O emission were relatively small when considering the total GHG emissions from the manure chain. Lowering the CP content of feed and acidifying slurry are strategies that consistently reduce NH3 and GHG emissions in the whole chain. Other strategies may reduce emissions of a specific gas or emissions source, by which there is a risk of unwanted trade-offs in the manure management chain. Proper farm-scale combinations of mitigation measures are important to minimize impacts of

  18. Yield-scaled mitigation of ammonia emission from N fertilization: the Spanish case

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz-Cobena, A.; Lassaletta, L.; Estellés, F.; Del Prado, A; Guardia, G.; Abalos, D.; Aguilera, E.; Pardo, G.; Vallejo, A.; Sutton, M. A.; Garnier, J.; Billen, G

    2014-01-01

    International audience Synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer and field application of livestock manure are the major sources of ammonia (NH3) volatilization. This N loss may decrease crop productivity and subsequent deposition promotes environmental problems associated with soil acidification and eutrophication. Mitigation measures may have associated side effects such as decreased crop productivity (e. g. if N fertilizer application is reduced), or the release of other reactive N compounds (e...

  19. Assessment of global and regional left ventricular function by electrocardiographic gated N-13 ammonia positron emission tomography in patients with coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrocardiographic gated 13N-ammonia positron emission tomography (PET) enables simultaneous assessment of myocardial blood flow and left ventricular (LV) function. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of gated 13N-ammonia PET for evaluating global and regional LV function in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) in comparison with conventional left ventriculography (LVG). Fifty-four patients with CAD underwent gated 13N-ammonia PET and LVG. The LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes (LVEDV, LVESV) and ejection fraction (LVEF) by gated 13N-ammonia PET were calculated using Cedars-Sinai automated quantitative gated single photon emission computed tomography (QGS) and compared with those obtained by LVG. The regional wall motion (RWM) was visually scored, and compared with that on LVG. There were good correlations between the 2 methods for LVEF, LVEDV and LVESV (R=0.828, R=0.821 and R=0.874 respectively). The RWM assessed by gated 13N-ammonia PET also agreed well with that by LVG (complete agreement was 70.4%, κ=0.58). Gated 13N-ammonia PET combined with QGS works reasonably well for the assessment of both global and regional LV function in CAD patients, although additional calibration may be necessary. (author)

  20. Fluctuations in ammonia oxidizing communities across agricultural soils are driven by soil structure and pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele C ePereira e Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The milieu in soil in which microorganisms dwell is never constant. Conditions such as temperature, water availability, pH and nutrients frequently change, impacting the overall functioning of the soil system. To understand the effects of such factors on soil functioning, proxies (indicators of soil function are needed that, in a sensitive manner, reveal normal amplitude of variation. Thus, the so-called normal operating range (NOR of soil can be defined. In this study we determined different components of nitrification by analyzing, in eight agricultural soils, how the community structures and sizes of ammonia oxidizing bacteria and archaea (AOB and AOA, respectively, and their activity, fluctuate over spatial and temporal scales. The results indicated that soil pH and soil type are the main factors that influence the size and structure of the AOA and AOB, as well as their function. The nitrification rates varied between 0.11 ± 0.03 µgN.h-1.gdw-1 and 1.68 ± 0.11 µgN.h-1.gdw-1, being higher in soils with higher clay content (1.09 ± 0.12 µgN.h-1.gdw-1 and lower in soils with lower clay percentages (0.27 ± 0.04 µgN.h-1.gdw-1. Nitrifying activity was driven by soil pH, mostly related to its effect on AOA but not on AOB abundance. Regarding the influence of soil parameters, clay content was the main soil factor shaping the structure of both the AOA and AOB communities. Overall, the potential nitrifying activities were higher and more variable over time in the clayey than in the sandy soils. Whereas the structure of AOB fluctuated more (62.7 ± 2.10% the structure of AOA communities showed lower amplitude of variation (53.65 ± 3.37%. Similar trends were observed for the sizes of these communities. The present work represents a first step towards defining a NOR for soil nitrification. Moreover, the clear effect of soil texture established here suggests that the NOR should be defined in a soil-type-specific manner.

  1. Manual on measurement of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrous oxide and methane are two of the gases primarily responsible for atmospheric warming, or the ''greenhouse effect''. Agricultural activities are an important source of methane and nitrous oxide emissions, but quantitation of these sources is generally lacking. This manual describes techniques to evaluate current emissions from diverse animal and crop production practices and suggests methods for decreasing these emissions. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. Emissions of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane during the management of solid manures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, J; Sommer, Sven Gjedde; Kupper, Thomas;

    2012-01-01

    significantly to global warming and N2O can also cause the breakdown of the protective ozone layer in the upper atmosphere. We established a database of emissions from solid manures. Statistical analysis provided new information, focussing on developing emission factors, emission algorithms and also new...... manures at high density also reduces air exchange which with the low temperature limits the formation and transfer of NH3 to the surface layers of the heap, reducing emissions. Most N2O emission estimates from cattle and pig manure have been between 0.001 and 0.009 of total-N. Emission of N2O from poultry...

  3. Temporal changes in abundance and composition of ammonia-oxidizing bacterial and archaeal communities in a drained peat soil in relation to N{sub 2}O emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andert, Janet [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Microbiology; Max-Planck-Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Potsdam (Germany); Wessen, Ella; Hallin, Sara [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Microbiology; Boerjesson, Gunnar [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Soil and Environment

    2011-12-15

    Boreal peat soils comprise about 3% of the terrestrial environments, and when drained, they become sources of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O). Ammonia oxidation can result in N{sub 2}O emissions, either directly or by fuelling denitrification, but we know little about the ecology of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) in peat soils. Our aim was to determine temporal alterations in abundance and composition of these communities in a drained and forested peat soil in relation to N{sub 2}O emissions and ammonia oxidation activity. Materials and methods The peat was sampled at three different depths in the upper 0.5 m over a period of 9 months covering two summer and two winter samplings. Community composition and abundance were determined by T-RFLP and quantitative real-time PCR of the bacterial and archaeal amoA genes. Potential ammonia oxidation rates were measured using the chlorate inhibition technique, and in situ N{sub 2}O emission was determined using chambers. Results and discussion The soil parameters displayed little spatial and temporal heterogeneity, which probably explained why there were no depth-related effects on the abundance, composition, or activity of the ammonia oxidizers. In contrast to most terrestrial environments, the AOB dominated numerically over the AOA. Both groups changed in community composition between sampling occasions, although the AOB showed more significant seasonal signatures than the AOA. Temporal changes in abundance were only observed for the AOB, with a decrease in numbers from May to March. Such differences were not reflected by the activity or N{sub 2}O emissions. Conclusions The high ammonium concentrations in the peat soil likely favored the AOB over the AOA, and we hypothesize that they were more active than the AOA and therefore responded to climatic and environmental changes. However, other processes rather than ammonia oxidation were likely responsible for N{sub 2}O emissions at the site.

  4. Ammonia emissions from a U.S. broiler house--comparison of concurrent measurements using three different technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Kenneth D; Gates, Richard S; Shores, Richard C; Thoma, Eben D; Harris, D Bruce

    2010-08-01

    There is a need for robust and accurate techniques for the measurement of ammonia (NH3) and other atmospheric pollutant emissions from poultry production facilities. Reasonable estimates of NH3 emission rate (ER) from poultry facilities are needed to guide discussions about the industry's impact on local and regional air quality. The design of these facilities features numerous emission points and results in emission characteristics of relatively low concentrations and exhaust flow rates that vary diurnally, seasonally, and with bird age over a considerable range. These factors combine to render conventional emissions monitoring approaches difficult to apply. Access to these facilities is also often restricted for biosecurity reasons. The three objectives of this study were (1) to compare three methods for measuring exhaust NH3 concentrations and thus ERs, (2) to compare ventilation rates using in situ measured fan characteristics versus using manufacturer sourced fan curves, and (3) to examine limitations of the alternative measurement technologies. In this study, two open-path monitoring systems operating outside of the buildings were compared with a portable monitoring system sampling upstream of a primary exhaust fan. The position of the open-path systems relative to the exhaust fans, measurement strategy adopted, and weather conditions significantly influenced the quality of data collected when compared with the internally located, portable monitoring system. Calculation of exhaust airflow from the facility had a large effect on calculated emissions and assuming that the installed fans performed as per published performance characteristics potentially overestimated emissions by 13.6-26.8%. The open-path measurement systems showed promise for being able to obtain ER measurements with minimal access to the house, although the availability of individual fan characteristics markedly improved the calculated ER accuracy. However, substantial operator skill and

  5. Ammonia and odour emissions from UK pig farms and nitrogen leaching from outdoor pig production. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, J; Broomfield, Mark; Jones, Stephanie; Donovan, Brian

    2014-02-01

    We reviewed specific literature for emissions of ammonia (NH3) and odours from all stages of pig production together with nitrogen (N) leaching from raising pigs outdoors. Emissions of NH3 decrease with decreases in the crude protein (CP) content of pig diets, at all stages of manure management. The CPs of pig diets have been greatly reduced by matching the CP content to the protein required at each stage of the animals' growth and by using synthetic essential amino acids to minimise total CP intake. The CP contents of the dietary ingredients needed to provide energy for the animals impose further limits to reductions in dietary CP. Housing systems have been designed and evaluated which offer potential for reducing NH3 emissions. However such designs may not be applicable at all stages of the pigs' development and the careful management needed to ensure their effective working may be costly and difficult to implement on commercial farms. The factors behind odour emissions are less well characterised. Reducing diet CP to 160 g CP kg(-1) has been shown to reduce odour emissions but further CP reductions may increase them. Some reductions in odour emissions from buildings can be achieved by careful management of the ventilation rate but the most effective measures to reduce emissions of NH3 and odours are to cover slurry stores and to inject slurry into soil. Changes in the feeding and management of outdoor pigs mean that N leaching losses may be up to 50% less than previously reported. No studies have been undertaken that compare the N leached from pigs raised outdoors, versus that arising from the application of pig manure from an equal number of housed pigs. As a precursor to any field study, current models could be used to provide a first estimate of any systematic differences. PMID:24211346

  6. Diurnal odor, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon dioxide emission profiles of confined swine grower/finisher rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Gang; Guo, Huiqing; Peterson, Jonathan; Predicala, Bernardo; Laguë, Claude

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain diurnal variation profiles of odor and gas (ammonia [NH3], hydrogen sulfide [H2S], carbon dioxide [CO2]) concentrations and emission rate (OGCER) from confined swine grower/ finisher rooms under three typical weather conditions (warm, mild, and cold weather) in a year. Two grower/ finisher rooms, one with a fully slatted floor and the other with partially slatted floors, were measured for 2 consecutive days under each weather condition. The results revealed that the diurnal OGCER in the room with a fully slatted floor was 9.2-39.4% higher than that with a partially slatted floor; however, no significant differences in the diurnal OGCER were found between these two rooms, except for the NH3 concentrations in August, the NH3 and H2S concentrations and emissions in October, and odor concentrations and emissions in February (p > 0.05). The OGCER variations presented different diurnal patterns as affected by time of day, season, type of floor, ventilation rate, animal growth cycles, in-house manure storage, and weather conditions. Significant diurnal fluctuations in the OGCER (except for the odor concentrations and H2S emissions) were observed in August (p dispersion modeling to decrease the great incertitude of setback determination using randomly measured data.

  7. Seasonal odor, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon dioxide concentrations and emissions from swine grower-finisher rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Gang; Guo, Huiqing; Peterson, Jonathan

    2010-04-01

    Seasonal odor and gas (ammonia [NH3], hydrogen sulfide [H2S], and carbon dioxide [CO2]) concentrations and emission rates (OGCERs) from swine facilities are vital for providing accurate source emissions and reducing the uncertainty of setback distances on the basis of emission data. In this study, a repeated measurement experimental method and a split-block statistical model were used to obtain seasonal OGCER profiles from two types of swine grower-finisher rooms in Saskatchewan, Canada, over a 12-month period. The results indicate that the OGCERs were significantly affected by the sampling month and ambient temperature (P dispersion models to reduce uncertainties in setback calculations. It was also found that the seasonal OGCERs from the rooms with fully slatted floors were 6.3-40.6% higher than those with partially slatted floors. The seasonal OGCERs (except for the NH3 concentrations in October, November, and January; the CO2 concentrations in August; and the CO2 emission rates in December) between these two rooms for each measuring month did not differ significantly (P > 0.05). The measured gas concentrations were generally below the permissible exposure limits (PELs) established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) throughout the year except for the NH3 concentrations in cold weather (December, January, and February).

  8. Analysis of carbon emission efficiency and optimization of low carbon for agricultural land intensive use%农地集约利用的碳排放效率分析与低碳优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游和远; 吴次芳

    2014-01-01

    There is a dilemma between raising the intensive use level of agricultural land and controlling carbon emissions from agricultural land use. Carbon emissions from agricultural land use can be considered as a cost, and the suitable intensive use level of agricultural land should acquire a good efficiency of carbon emissions from agricultural land use. First, an assessment model for evaluating agricultural land use intensity was established in this article, and the input-output indices of agricultural land intensive use were selected. The input-output indices of agricultural land intensive use were composed of labor input per unit of agricultural land, capital input per unit of agricultural land, technique input per unit of agricultural land, value-added of agriculture per unit of agricultural land, grain products per unit of agricultural land, income from household business per unit of agricultural land, and ammonia-nitrogen emission from agriculture per unit of agricultural land. Secondly, the intensity values of agricultural land intensive use in 31 provinces were computed. Thirdly, based on a slacks-based measure model, the input-output indices were established. The input-output indices applied in the slacks-based measure model were composed of labor input per unit of agricultural land, capital input per unit of agricultural land, technique input per unit of agricultural land, value-added of agriculture per ton of carbon emission, grain products per ton of carbon emission, income from household business per ton of carbon emission, and ammonia-nitrogen emission from agriculture per ton of carbon emission. Fourthly, this article calculated the total efficiency values, technical efficiency values, and scale efficiency values of carbon emission from agricultural land intensive use in 31 provinces and designed an input-output optimization of agricultural land intensive use. Lastly, low-carbon optimization strategies for agricultural land use in provinces whose total

  9. Search for Ammonia Radio Emission in Comet 9P/Tempel~1 after the Deep Impact Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, G. P.; Palagi, F.; Codella, C.; Poppi, S.; Crovisier, J.

    About 30 hours after the DI impact event, comet 9P/Tempel 1 has been observed with the 32 m dish of Medicina observatory (Bologna, Italy) to search for the NH_3 inversion transitions in the region around 24 GHz. The results show the presence of a line with S/N of about 6 and a FWHM equal to 1.35 km/s close to the NH_3(1,1) frequency. The cometary origin of the line seems sure, because the search for possible background sources of such a emission, performed a few days later along the same comet path, did not show any line at that frequency. Its identification is however dubious because of its too high outflow projected velocity and the too high ammonia production necessary to fit the line intensity. The frequency of the line is also close to a transition of methyl formate, a species already observed in comet Hale-Bopp and in hot cores. The outflow projected velocity would be smaller than in the case of the ammonia, but its abundance would be too high as well.

  10. Interannual variability of ammonia concentrations over the United States: sources and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiferl, Luke D.; Heald, Colette L.; Van Damme, Martin; Clarisse, Lieven; Clerbaux, Cathy; Coheur, Pierre-François; Nowak, John B.; Neuman, J. Andrew; Herndon, Scott C.; Roscioli, Joseph R.; Eilerman, Scott J.

    2016-09-01

    The variability of atmospheric ammonia (NH3), emitted largely from agricultural sources, is an important factor when considering how inorganic fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations and nitrogen cycling are changing over the United States. This study combines new observations of ammonia concentration from the surface, aboard aircraft, and retrieved by satellite to both evaluate the simulation of ammonia in a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) and identify which processes control the variability of these concentrations over a 5-year period (2008-2012). We find that the model generally underrepresents the ammonia concentration near large source regions (by 26 % at surface sites) and fails to reproduce the extent of interannual variability observed at the surface during the summer (JJA). Variability in the base simulation surface ammonia concentration is dominated by meteorology (64 %) as compared to reductions in SO2 and NOx emissions imposed by regulation (32 %) over this period. Introduction of year-to-year varying ammonia emissions based on animal population, fertilizer application, and meteorologically driven volatilization does not substantially improve the model comparison with observed ammonia concentrations, and these ammonia emissions changes have little effect on the simulated ammonia concentration variability compared to those caused by the variability of meteorology and acid-precursor emissions. There is also little effect on the PM2.5 concentration due to ammonia emissions variability in the summer when gas-phase changes are favored, but variability in wintertime emissions, as well as in early spring and late fall, will have a larger impact on PM2.5 formation. This work highlights the need for continued improvement in both satellite-based and in situ ammonia measurements to better constrain the magnitude and impacts of spatial and temporal variability in ammonia concentrations.

  11. Colorimetric polymer-metal nanocomposite sensor of ammonia for the agricultural industry of confined animal feeding operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkisov, Sergey S.; Czarick, Michael; Fairchild, Brian D.; Liang, Yi; Kukhtareva, Tatiana; Curley, Michael J.

    2014-02-01

    The proposed colorimetric sensor of ammonia for the confined animal feeding industry uses the method of optoelectronic spectroscopic measurement of the reversible change of the color of a nanocomposite reagent film in response to ammonia. The film is made of a gold nanocolloid in a polymer matrix with an ammonia-sensitive indicator dye additive. The response of the indicator dye (increase of the optical absorption between 550 and 650 nm) is enhanced by the nanoparticles (˜8 nm in size) in two ways: (a) concentration of the optical field near the nanoparticle due to the plasmon resonance and (b) catalytic acceleration of the chemical reaction of deprotonization of the indicator dye in the presence of ammonia and water vapor. This enhancement helps to miniaturize the sensing element without compromising its sensitivity of <1 parts per million (ppm) for the range 0 to 100 ppm. The sensor underwent field tests in commercial poultry farms in Georgia and Arkansas and was compared against a scientific-grade photoacoustic gas analyzer. The coefficient of correlation between the sensor and the photoacoustic data for several weeks of continuous side-by-side operation in a commercial poultry house was ˜0.9 and the linear regression slope was 1.0. The conclusions on the necessary improvements were made.

  12. Reduction of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from a SCGT/CC by Ammonia Solution Absorption – Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Lombardi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of carbon dioxide from the flue gases of a semi-closed gas turbine combined cycle (SCGT/CC by means of absorption in ammonia aqueous solutions has been studied. The absorption system has been simulated by means of Aspen PlusTM. The main variables of the removal system have been varied in order to understand their influence on system performance. With reference to the SCGT/CC case study, the removal of CO2, considering a removal efficiency of 89%, dramatically decreases the overall cycle efficiency from 53 to 41%, with the main contribution to this decrease being due to the power consumption for flue gas compression up to the absorption unit pressure. CO2 specific emissions pass from 390 to 57 kg/MWh.

  13. Effects of liquid aluminum chloride additions to poultry litter on broiler performance, ammonia emissions, soluble phosphorus, total volatile fatty acids, and nitrogen contents of litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies have shown that the use of aluminum sulfate (Al2(SO4)3.14H2O) and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) additions to animal manures are more effective than other chemicals in reducing ammonia (NH3) emissions and phosphorus (P) solubility. Although the use of alum has been intensively used in the ...

  14. Modeling the effect of heat fluxes on ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from an anaerobic swine waste treatment lagoon using artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding factors that affect ammonia and nitrous emissions from anaerobic swine waste treatment lagoons or any animal waste receptacles is a necessary first step in deploying potential remediation options. In this study, we examined the various meteorological factors (i.e., air temperatures, s...

  15. Biochar amendment and greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils

    OpenAIRE

    Case, Sean

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of biochar amendment on soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and to elucidate the mechanisms behind these effects. I investigated the suppression of soil carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in a bioenergy and arable crop soil, at a range of temperatures and with or without wetting/drying cycles. More detailed investigation on the underlying mechanisms focused on soil N2O emissions. I tested how biochar alter...

  16. The effect of agricultural trade liberalisation on land-use related greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, R.W.; Stehfest, E.; Woltjer, G.B.; Eickhout, B.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the effects of agricultural trade liberalisation and concomitant changes in agricultural areas and livestock production on greenhouse gas emissions using the coupled LEITAP–IMAGE modelling system. The results indicate that liberalisation leads to an increase in total greenhouse g

  17. The potential for land sparing to offset greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Anthony; Green, Rhys; Bateman, Ian; Broadmeadow, Mark; Bruce, Toby; Burney, Jennifer; Carey, Pete; Chadwick, David; Crane, Ellie; Field, Rob; Goulding, Keith; Griffiths, Howard; Hastings, Astley; Kasoar, Tim; Kindred, Daniel; Phalan, Ben; Pickett, John; Smith, Pete; Wall, Eileen; Zu Ermgassen, Erasmus K. H. J.; Balmford, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions from global agriculture are increasing at around 1% per annum, yet substantial cuts in emissions are needed across all sectors. The challenge of reducing agricultural emissions is particularly acute, because the reductions achievable by changing farming practices are limited and are hampered by rapidly rising food demand. Here we assess the technical mitigation potential offered by land sparing--increasing agricultural yields, reducing farmland area and actively restoring natural habitats on the land spared. Restored habitats can sequester carbon and can offset emissions from agriculture. Using the UK as an example, we estimate net emissions in 2050 under a range of future agricultural scenarios. We find that a land-sparing strategy has the technical potential to achieve significant reductions in net emissions from agriculture and land-use change. Coupling land sparing with demand-side strategies to reduce meat consumption and food waste can further increase the technical mitigation potential--however, economic and implementation considerations might limit the degree to which this technical potential could be realized in practice.

  18. Nutritional and Environmental Effects on Ammonia Emissions from Dairy Cattle Housing: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougouin, Adeline; Leytem, April; Dijkstra, Jan; Dungan, Robert S; Kebreab, Ermias

    2016-07-01

    Nitrogen excreted in dairy manure can be potentially transformed and emitted as NH, which can create livestock and human respiratory problems and be an indirect source of NO. The objectives of this study were to: (i) investigate environmental factors influencing NH emissions from dairy housing; and (ii) identify key explanatory variables in the NH emissions prediction from dairy housing using a meta-analytical approach. Data from 25 studies were used for the preliminary analysis, and data from 10 studies reporting 87 treatment means were used for the meta-analysis. Season and flooring type significantly affected NH emissions. For nutritional effect analysis, the between-study variability (heterogeneity) of mean NH emission was estimated using random-effect models and had a significant effect ( housing by developing predictive models that could determine variables with strong association with NH emissions. PMID:27380059

  19. The effect of climate and climate change on ammonia emissions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Geels, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    to a standard Danish pig stable with 1000 animals and display how emissions from this source would vary geographically throughout central and northern Europe and from year to year. In view of future climate changes, we also evaluate the potential future changes in emission by including temperature projections...... from an ensemble of climate models. The results point towards four overall issues. (1) Emissions can easily vary by 20% for different geographical locations within a country due to overall variations in climate. The largest uncertainties are seen for large countries such as the UK, Germany and France....... (2) Annual variations in overall climate can at specific locations cause uncertainties in the range of 20 %. (3) Climate change may increase emissions by 0–40% in central to northern Europe. (4) Gradients in existing emission inventories that are seen between neighbour countries (e.g. between the UK...

  20. Developing novel approaches to characterize emissions from agricultural operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large-scale animal feeding operations (AFOs) are sources of both gaseous and particulate pollutants to the atmosphere. Current efforts to characterize particulate matter (PM) emissions from AFOs do not provide information on the emission sources. Raman microscopy was employed to characterize the d...

  1. Mobile measurements of ammonia: Sources and spatial variations in the Wallis region and Zurich (Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elser, Miriam; El Haddad, Imad; Bruns, Emily; Pieber, Simone; Wolf, Robert; Krishna Kumar, Nivedita; Prévôt, André; Baltensperger, Urs

    2014-05-01

    Ammonia (NH3) has negative impacts on human health, climate, ecosystems and materials. Moreover, it is also an important precursor for the formation of secondary aerosols in the form of ammonium salts (ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate and ammonium chloride). Previous studies have shown that the vast majority of the ammonia emissions come from the agricultural sector (mostly from livestock farming and fertilizing activities). Other sources such as road transport, waste deposit, energy use and supply can also contribute to the ammonia levels in the urban areas. High concentrations of ammonia are commonly measured at the National Air Pollution Monitoring Network (NABEL) stations in Switzerland. Mobile measurements of ammonia and other pollutants (including BC, CO2, NOx and NR-PM) were conducted in the Wallis region and in Zurich in 2013 to study the spatial distribution of ammonia in Switzerland and identify its major emission sources in these regions. A new heated inlet setup was developed to improve the response time of the ammonia measurements, so that even very local sources could be identified. For both, the Wallis region and Zurich, it was observed that the background values of ammonia have a regional origin, as other pollutants affected by regional changes show similar background trends. These regional background values varied between 5 to 10 ppb during the different days of measurements. Moreover, no big differences were observed in the background values between the city center, the surrounding areas, the highway and the rural areas. The major local source of ammonia observed during these measurements was road transport, producing increases on the NH3 levels up to 4 times the background values. Based on emission factors estimated from tunnel measurements, the traffic was estimated to contribute between 20 -30% of the measured ammonia levels on a daily average in Zurich. Other sources of ammonia that can also contribute significantly to the levels of ammonia

  2. Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from swine production facilities in North America: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z; Powers, W; Murphy, J; Maghirang, R

    2014-04-01

    Literature on NH3 and H2S emissions from swine production facilities in North America was reviewed, and a meta-analysis was conducted on measured emissions data from swine houses and manure storage facilities as well as concentration data in the vicinity of swine production facilities. Results from more than 80 studies were compiled with results from the 11 swine sites in the National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS). Data across studies were analyzed statistically using the MIXED procedures of SAS. The median emission rates from swine houses across various production stages and manure handling systems were 2.78 and 0.09 kg/yr per pig for NH3 and H2S, respectively. The median emission rates from swine storage facilities were 2.08 and 0.20 kg/yr per pig for NH3 and H2S, respectively. The size of swine farm that may trigger the need to report NH3 emissions under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) is 3,410 pigs on the basis of the median NH3 emission rate (4.86 kg/yr per pig), but the threshold can be as low as 992 pigs on the basis of the 90th-percentile emission rates (16.71 kg/yr per pig). Swine hoop houses had significantly higher NH3 emission rate (14.80 kg/yr per pig) than other manure-handling systems (P pig, P = 0.03). Farrowing houses had the highest H2S emission rate (2.50 kg/yr per pig), followed by gestation houses, and finishing houses had the lowest H2S emission rate (P < 0.01). Regression models for NH3 and H2S emission rates were developed for finishing houses with deep pits, recharge pits, and lagoons. The NH3 emission rates increased with increasing air temperature, but effects of air temperature on H2S emission rates were not significant. The recharge interval of manure pits significantly affected H2S but not NH3 emission rates. The H2S emission rates were also influenced by the size of the operation. Although NH3 and H2S concentrations at the edge of swine houses or lagoons were often higher than corresponding

  3. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions of the agriculture sector in France. Collection of territorial experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having briefly indicated the different origins of direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions by the agriculture sector, presented the technical and political context, and outlined the need for new practices to struggle against climate change and to adapt to changes to come, this publication reports some experiments undertaken in different French regions: a farm network as an animation tool to support farmers, a local partnership to conciliate town and agriculture, the development of actions on energy and greenhouse gases in agriculture, the implementation of climate and agriculture plan, a network of agricultural actors for a sustainable support of change, an agriculture with and for its territory and inhabitants, a debate on agriculture and climate

  4. Changes in CO2 Emissions Induced by Agricultural Inputs in China over 1991–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuhong Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Increase in CO2 emissions induced by agricultural inputs in China since its socialist market economic reforms may hinder its sustainable economic development. More attention has been paid to changes in agricultural land use and overall land use benefit; however, relatively less attention has been paid to changes in CO2 emissions induced by agricultural inputs in China since the reforms. The carbon footprint (CF variation for total agricultural production, the effects of different inputs on the total CF, and the changes in carbon intensity of the agricultural production system were analyzed using national level agrochemical and energy inputs data for the period 1991 to 2014. The total CF had a fluctuating upward trend, which was mainly affected by increases in nitrogen fertilizer input and energy consumption. The carbon intensity in production decreased, which indicated that the agricultural output value per unit of carbon cost gradually increased according to the market demands. However, the increase in agricultural output value per unit of carbon cost cannot outweigh the potential environmental risks induced by the increase in total carbon footprint per unit area of agricultural land. The improvements promoted by the related agricultural policies in China should aim to strike a balance between agricultural economy development and low carbon intensity in area.

  5. Emissions of Ammonia, Nitrous Oxide and Methane during the Management of Solid Manures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webb, J.; Sommer, S.G.; Kupper, T.; Groenestein, K.; Hutchings, N.J.; Eurich-Menden, B.; Rodhe, L.; Misselbrook, T.H.; Amon, B.

    2012-01-01

    Organic manures arising from livestock production provide a source of plant nutrients when applied to agricultural land. However, only about 52% of the N excreted by livestock is estimated to be recycled as a plant nutrient. The ­greatest losses of N from livestock excreta and manures are as gaseous

  6. Methane emissions from agriculture, waste waters and dumping sites in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methane emissions released from agriculture, waste water processing and dumping sites are reviewed in this report, which is one of the national reports estimating the emissions of greenhouse gases. The most up to date information of emission sources are used as the basis for estimation of emissions. The information used cowers mainly the years 1987 and 1988. The methane emissions from live stock production in Finland was about 165 000 t/a in 1989, those from agriculture about 15 000 t/a, and those from dumping sites about 30 000 t/a. The methane emissions from municipal and industrial waste water processing have been estimated to be 37 000 t/a

  7. Methane emissions from digestate at an agricultural biogas plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldé, Hambaliou; VanderZaag, Andrew C; Burtt, Stephen D; Wagner-Riddle, Claudia; Crolla, Anna; Desjardins, Raymond L; MacDonald, Douglas J

    2016-09-01

    Methane (CH4) emissions were measured over two years at an earthen storage containing digestate from a mesophilic biodigester in Ontario, Canada. The digester processed dairy manure and co-substrates from the food industry, and destroyed 62% of the influent volatile solids (VS). Annual average emissions were 19gCH4m(-3)d(-1) and 0.27gCH4kg(-1)VSd(-1). About 76% of annual emissions occurred from June to October. Annual cumulative emissions from digestate corresponded to 12% of the CH4 produced within the digester. A key contributor to CH4 emissions was the sludge layer in storage, which contained as much VS as the annual discharge from the digester. These findings suggest that digestate management provides an opportunity to further enhance the benefits of biogas (i.e. reducing CH4 emissions compared to undigested liquid manure, and producing renewable energy). Potential best practices for future study include complete storage emptying, solid-liquid separation, and storage covering. PMID:27323243

  8. Methane emissions from digestate at an agricultural biogas plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldé, Hambaliou; VanderZaag, Andrew C; Burtt, Stephen D; Wagner-Riddle, Claudia; Crolla, Anna; Desjardins, Raymond L; MacDonald, Douglas J

    2016-09-01

    Methane (CH4) emissions were measured over two years at an earthen storage containing digestate from a mesophilic biodigester in Ontario, Canada. The digester processed dairy manure and co-substrates from the food industry, and destroyed 62% of the influent volatile solids (VS). Annual average emissions were 19gCH4m(-3)d(-1) and 0.27gCH4kg(-1)VSd(-1). About 76% of annual emissions occurred from June to October. Annual cumulative emissions from digestate corresponded to 12% of the CH4 produced within the digester. A key contributor to CH4 emissions was the sludge layer in storage, which contained as much VS as the annual discharge from the digester. These findings suggest that digestate management provides an opportunity to further enhance the benefits of biogas (i.e. reducing CH4 emissions compared to undigested liquid manure, and producing renewable energy). Potential best practices for future study include complete storage emptying, solid-liquid separation, and storage covering.

  9. Environmental assessment of three egg production systems--Part II. Ammonia, greenhouse gas, and particulate matter emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, T A; Zhao, Y; Li, H; Stinn, J P; Hayes, M D; Xin, H

    2015-03-01

    As an integral part of the Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES) Project, this study simultaneously monitored air emissions of 3 commercially operated egg production systems at the house level and associated manure storage over 2 single-cycle flocks (18 to 78 wk of age). The 3 housing systems were 1) a conventional cage house (CC) with a 200,000-hen capacity (6 hens in a cage at a stocking density of 516 cm2/hen), 2) an enriched colony house (EC) with a 50,000-hen capacity (60 hens per colony at a stocking density of 752 cm2/hen), and 3) an aviary house (AV) with a 50,000-hen capacity (at a stocking density of 1253 to 1257 cm2/hen). The 3 hen houses were located on the same farm and were populated with Lohmann white hens of the same age. Indoor environment and house-level gaseous (ammonia [NH3] and greenhouse gasses [GHG], including carbon dioxide [CO2], methane [CH4], and nitrous oxide [N2O]) and particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5) emissions were monitored continually. Gaseous emissions from the respective manure storage of each housing system were also monitored. Emission rates (ERs) are expressed as emission quantities per hen, per animal unit (AU, 500 kg live BW), and per kilogram of egg output. House-level NH3 ER (g/hen/d) of EC (0.054) was significantly lower than that of CC (0.082) or AV (0.112) (Phen/d) was lower for CC (68.3) than for EC and AV (74.4 and 74.0, respectively), and the CH4 ER (g/hen/d) was similar for all 3 houses (0.07 to 0.08). The house-level PM ER (mg/hen/d), essentially representing the farm-level PM ER, was significantly higher for AV (PM10 100.3 and PM2.5 8.8) than for CC (PM10 15.7 and PM2.5 0.9) or EC (PM10 15.6 and PM2.5 1.7) (Phen/d) was significantly lower for EC (0.16) than for CC (0.29) or AV (0.30) (Phen housing systems regarding air emissions and enhance the U.S. national air emissions inventory for farm animal operations. PMID:25737568

  10. Managing soil organic carbon in agriculture: the net effect on greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A change in agricultural practice can increase carbon sequestration in agricultural soils. To know the net effect on greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere, however, we consider associated changes in CO2 emissions resulting from the consumption of fossil fuels, emissions of other greenhouse gases and effects on land productivity and crop yield. We also consider how these factors will evolve over time. A change from conventional tillage to no-till agriculture, based on data for average practice in the U.S.; will result in net carbon sequestration in the soil that averages 337 kg C/ha/yr for the initial 20 yr with a decline to near zero in the following 20 yr, and continuing savings in CO2 emissions because of reduced use of fossil fuels. The long-term results, considering all factors, can generally be expected to show decreased net greenhouse gas emissions. The quantitative details, however, depend on the site-specific impact of the conversion from conventional to no-till agriculture on agricultural yield and N2O emissions from nitrogen fertilizer

  11. Mitigation strategies for methane emissions from agricultural sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duxbury, J.M. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Anthropogenic emissions of CH{sub 4} account for 70% of total global emissions of this greenhouse gas. Current anthropogenic emissions of CH{sub 4} in the US are estimated to be between 24-30 Tg CH{sub 4} or 7-9% of the global anthropogenic total. By comparison the US is responsible for 27% of anthropogenic emissions of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel use. Table 1 shows that the major anthropogenic sources of CH{sub 4} in the US are landfills (37%), domestic livestock and livestock waste (31%) and the coal mining/natural gas/petroleum industries (28%). On a global basis it is estimated that US landfills contribute 30% to the global landfill total, whereas livestock (including waste) and the coal mining/natural gas/petroleum industries each contribute about 8% to their respective global totals. The US is an insignificant contributor (< 1%) to global emissions of CH{sub 4} from rice paddies.

  12. Unusually high soil nitrogen oxide emissions influence air quality in a high-temperature agricultural region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, P. Y.; Ge, C.; Wang, J.; Eberwein, J. R.; Liang, L. L.; Allsman, L. A.; Grantz, D. A.; Jenerette, G. D.

    2015-11-01

    Fertilized soils have large potential for production of soil nitrogen oxide (NOx=NO+NO2), however these emissions are difficult to predict in high-temperature environments. Understanding these emissions may improve air quality modelling as NOx contributes to formation of tropospheric ozone (O3), a powerful air pollutant. Here we identify the environmental and management factors that regulate soil NOx emissions in a high-temperature agricultural region of California. We also investigate whether soil NOx emissions are capable of influencing regional air quality. We report some of the highest soil NOx emissions ever observed. Emissions vary nonlinearly with fertilization, temperature and soil moisture. We find that a regional air chemistry model often underestimates soil NOx emissions and NOx at the surface and in the troposphere. Adjusting the model to match NOx observations leads to elevated tropospheric O3. Our results suggest management can greatly reduce soil NOx emissions, thereby improving air quality.

  13. Unusually high soil nitrogen oxide emissions influence air quality in a high-temperature agricultural region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, P Y; Ge, C; Wang, J; Eberwein, J R; Liang, L L; Allsman, L A; Grantz, D A; Jenerette, G D

    2015-01-01

    Fertilized soils have large potential for production of soil nitrogen oxide (NOx=NO+NO2), however these emissions are difficult to predict in high-temperature environments. Understanding these emissions may improve air quality modelling as NOx contributes to formation of tropospheric ozone (O3), a powerful air pollutant. Here we identify the environmental and management factors that regulate soil NOx emissions in a high-temperature agricultural region of California. We also investigate whether soil NOx emissions are capable of influencing regional air quality. We report some of the highest soil NOx emissions ever observed. Emissions vary nonlinearly with fertilization, temperature and soil moisture. We find that a regional air chemistry model often underestimates soil NOx emissions and NOx at the surface and in the troposphere. Adjusting the model to match NOx observations leads to elevated tropospheric O3. Our results suggest management can greatly reduce soil NOx emissions, thereby improving air quality.

  14. Effects of acidifying pig diets on emissions of ammonia, methane and sulfur from slurry during storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard;

    2014-01-01

    that methanogenic potential, rather than inhibitory effects of the chemical environment, caused the delay. In conclusion, NH3 emissions from slurry could be reduced by addition of BA to pig diets, or by controlling the dietary electrolyte balance, but there was no additive effect of combining the two strategies...

  15. Ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from a modern U.S. swine breeding-gestation-farrowing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinn, John P.; Xin, Hongwei; Shepherd, Timothy A.; Li, Hong; Burns, Robert T.

    2014-12-01

    Aerial emissions from livestock production continue to be an area of attention and concern for both the potential health and environmental impacts. However, information of gaseous, especially greenhouse gas (GHG), emissions for swine breeding/gestation and farrowing production systems is limited. The purpose of this study was to quantify ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4) concentrations and emissions from a modern breeding-gestation-farrowing system located in central Iowa, USA. A 4300-sow farm was selected for the extensive field monitoring which employed a Mobile Air Emission Monitoring Unit equipped with state-of-the-art gas analyzers and a data acquisition system. The monitored portion of the farm facility consisted of a deep-pit breeding/early gestation (B/EG) barn (1800 head), a deep-pit late gestation (LG) barn (1800 head), and two shallow-pit (pull-plug) farrowing rooms (40 head per room). A dynamic flux chamber was used to monitor gaseous emissions from the external manure storage for the farrowing rooms. Data were collected for 29 consecutive months (January 2011 through June 2013). Daily indoor NH3, CO2, N2O, and CH4 concentrations (ppm, mean ± SD) were 12.0 (±7.6), 1594 (±797), 0.31 (±0.11), and 28.5 (±9.8), respectively, in the breeding/gestation barns; and 9.7 (±4.1), 1536 (±701), 0.30 (±0.10), and 78.3 (±37), respectively, in the farrowing rooms. Daily emissions per animal unit (AU, 500 kg live weight) were 35.1 g NH3, 7.46 kg CO2, 0.17 g N2O, and 263.4 g CH4 for sows in the B/EG barn; and 28.2 g NH3, 6.50 kg CO2, 0.12 g N2O, and 201.3 g CH4 for sows in the LG barn. The average daily emissions per AU (sow and piglets) of the farrowing rooms during the lactation period (birth to weaning) were: 59.7 g NH3, 16.4 kg CO2, 0.73 g N2O, and 107 g CH4. For the monitored period, the external manure storage had the following average daily emission per m2 surface area: 1.26 g NH3, 137 g CO2, and 94.8 g CH4, which

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions from alternative futures of deforestation and agricultural management in the southern Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galford, Gillian L; Melillo, Jerry M; Kicklighter, David W; Cronin, Timothy W; Cerri, Carlos E P; Mustard, John F; Cerri, Carlos C

    2010-11-16

    The Brazilian Amazon is one of the most rapidly developing agricultural areas in the world and represents a potentially large future source of greenhouse gases from land clearing and subsequent agricultural management. In an integrated approach, we estimate the greenhouse gas dynamics of natural ecosystems and agricultural ecosystems after clearing in the context of a future climate. We examine scenarios of deforestation and postclearing land use to estimate the future (2006-2050) impacts on carbon dioxide (CO(2)), methane (CH(4)), and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions from the agricultural frontier state of Mato Grosso, using a process-based biogeochemistry model, the Terrestrial Ecosystems Model (TEM). We estimate a net emission of greenhouse gases from Mato Grosso, ranging from 2.8 to 15.9 Pg CO(2)-equivalents (CO(2)-e) from 2006 to 2050. Deforestation is the largest source of greenhouse gas emissions over this period, but land uses following clearing account for a substantial portion (24-49%) of the net greenhouse gas budget. Due to land-cover and land-use change, there is a small foregone carbon sequestration of 0.2-0.4 Pg CO(2)-e by natural forests and cerrado between 2006 and 2050. Both deforestation and future land-use management play important roles in the net greenhouse gas emissions of this frontier, suggesting that both should be considered in emissions policies. We find that avoided deforestation remains the best strategy for minimizing future greenhouse gas emissions from Mato Grosso.

  17. Canadian economic and emissions model for agriculture : report 2 : preliminary results of selected scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulshreshtha, S.N. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada) Dept. of Agricultural Economics; Boehm, M. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Centre for Studies in Agriculture, Law and Environment; Bonneau, M. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Regina, SK (Canada); Giraldez, J.C. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1999-04-01

    A modelling study was conducted in which greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from major crops and livestock enterprises were estimated in a gas by gas basis. The Canadian Economic and Emissions Model for Agriculture (CEEMA) was specifically developed for this purpose. The model was calibrated for the base year 1990 and was used to estimate emission levels for the year 2010. Carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide are the three atmospheric gases that are generally recognized as the major GHGs. Several agricultural activities, such as use of fuel for running machinery and the use of fertilizer can generate these gases. Other practices can actually reduce GHG emissions (for example, increasing the amount of organic matter stored in the soil). According to the model, it was determined that during the period 1990 to 2010, anthropogenic emissions from agriculture will decrease from 61.4 Mt per year to 57.5 Mt per year. Seven strategies were tested to assess the effectiveness of mitigative measures and production paths. This report is the second in a series of three technical reports which will describe the integrated agro-ecological economic modelling system that can be used to assess the economic and the GHG emission impacts of agricultural policies at regional and national levels. 34 refs., 15 tabs., 9 figs., 3 appendices.

  18. Potential application of Alcaligenes faecalis strain No. 4 in mitigating ammonia emissions from dairy wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neerackal, George M; Ndegwa, Pius M; Joo, Hung-Soo; Wang, Xiang; Frear, Craig S; Harrison, Joseph H; Beutel, Marc W

    2016-04-01

    This research examined the potential mitigation of NH3 emissions from dairy manure via an enhanced aerobic bio-treatment with bacterium Alcaligenes faecalis strain No. 4. The studies were conducted in aerated batch reactors using air and pure oxygen. Aeration with air and oxygen removed approximately 40% and 100% total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN), respectively. Intermittent oxygenation (every 2 or 4 h) reduced oxygen consumption by 95%, while attaining nearly identical TAN removal to continuous aeration. The results revealed that adequate oxygen supply and supplementing dairy wastewater with carbon are essential for this bioprocess. Based on the nitrogen mass balance, only 4% of TAN was released as NH3 gas, while the majority was retained in either the microbial biomass (58%) or converted to nitrogen gas (36%). The mass balance results reveal high potential for environmentally friendly bio-treatment of dairy wastewater using A. faecalis strain No. 4 with respect to NH3 emissions. PMID:26845217

  19. Monitoring of greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural and forest soils

    OpenAIRE

    Ferre',

    2009-01-01

    Global climate change is becoming a central issue in contemporary science as well as politics. There is a long-lasting debate about the cause of the climate change: anthropogenic activity versus the natural cycle. However, a scientific consensus is coming a conclusion that the contemporary climate change is mainly caused by anthropogenic emissions of the greenhouse gases (GHG), including carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4). The main objective of the thesis is the ...

  20. Developments in greenhouse gas emissions and net energy use in Danish agriculture - how to achieve substantial CO(2) reductions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgaard, T; Olesen, J E; Petersen, S O; Petersen, B M; Jørgensen, U; Kristensen, T; Hutchings, N J; Gyldenkærne, S; Hermansen, J E

    2011-11-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture are a significant contributor to total Danish emissions. Consequently, much effort is currently given to the exploration of potential strategies to reduce agricultural emissions. This paper presents results from a study estimating agricultural GHG emissions in the form of methane, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide (including carbon sources and sinks, and the impact of energy consumption/bioenergy production) from Danish agriculture in the years 1990-2010. An analysis of possible measures to reduce the GHG emissions indicated that a 50-70% reduction of agricultural emissions by 2050 relative to 1990 is achievable, including mitigation measures in relation to the handling of manure and fertilisers, optimization of animal feeding, cropping practices, and land use changes with more organic farming, afforestation and energy crops. In addition, the bioenergy production may be increased significantly without reducing the food production, whereby Danish agriculture could achieve a positive energy balance.

  1. Preliminary study of ammonia emissions from naturally ventilated fattening pig houses in the south-east China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, K.; Ye, Z.; Li, H. [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou City (China). School of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on an experimental simulation in which ammonia emissions from naturally ventilated pig houses were monitored and the ventilation airflow rate was estimated. Two identical pig houses and the same number of pigs were used in the study. Natural ventilation was used in the experimental pig house while the reference pig house had mechanical ventilation. Both houses had the same air temperature and relative humidity. The ventilation airflow rate of the experimental pig house was estimated by calculating the ventilation airflow rate in the reference pig house. The ventilation airflow rate of the experimental pig house was also estimated based on heat pressure theory. The room air temperature and relative humidity were found to be related to inlet air temperature and relative humidity for both ventilation systems. After 19 days, the average air temperature in the room with mechanical ventilation was about 4.1 degrees C higher than inlet air temperature, but the relative humidity was lower by 7.1 per cent. In the room with natural ventilation, the average air temperature after 19 days was about 3.9 degrees C higher than inlet air temperature, but the relative humidity was lower by 4.3 per cent.

  2. Reducing emissions from agriculture to meet the 2°C target

    OpenAIRE

    Wollenberg, E.; M. Richards; Smith, P.; Havlik, P.; Obersteiner, M.; Tubiello, F.N.; M. Herold; Gerber, P; Carter, S.; Reisinger, A.; van Vuuren, D.; Dickie, A; Neufeldt, H.; Sander, B.O.; Wassmann, R.

    2016-01-01

    More than 100 countries pledged to reduce agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (Richards et al., 2015a) in the 2015 Paris Agreement of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Yet technical information about how much mitigation is needed in the sector versus how much is feasible remains poor. We identify a preliminary global target for reducing emissions from agriculture of ~1 GtCO2e/yr by 2030 to limit warming in 2100 to 2°C above pre-industrial levels. Yet plausible...

  3. Greenhouse gas emissions from Swiss agriculture since 1990: implications for environmental policies to mitigate global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leifeld, Jens [AGROSCOPE, Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture, Air Pollution/Climate Group, Reckenholzstrasse 191, 8046 Zurich (Switzerland)]. E-mail: jens.leifeld@fal.admin.ch; Fuhrer, Juerg [AGROSCOPE, Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture, Air Pollution/Climate Group, Reckenholzstrasse 191, 8046 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2005-08-01

    Agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions contribute significantly to global warming, and environmental protection strategies have thus to integrate emission reduction measures from this source. In Switzerland, legislation together with monetary incentives has forced primarily integrated, and to a lesser extend organic farming, both covering nowadays more than 95% of the agriculturally useful area. Though reducing greenhouse gas emissions was not a primary intention of this reorganisation, the measures were successful in reducing the overall emissions of nitrous oxide and methane by 10% relative to 1990. A reduction of the animal herd, namely of dairy cattle, non-dairy cattle and swine, and decreasing inputs of mineral N are the main contributors to the achieved emission reduction. Crop productivity was not negatively affected and milk productivity even increased, referring to the ecological potential of agricultural reorganisation that has been tapped. Total meat production declined proportional to the animal herd. Stabilised animal numbers and fertiliser use during the last 4 years refer to an exhaustion of future reduction potentials without further legislative action because this stabilisation is most likely due to the adaptation to the production guidelines. A comparison of emission trends and carbon sequestration potentials in the broader context of the EU15 reveals that nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and methane (CH{sub 4}) have been reduced more efficiently most probably due to the measures taken, but that sequestration potentials are smaller than in the EU15 mainly because of differences in the agricultural structure. The change from an intensified towards a more environmental sound integrated production has a significant reduction potential, but in any case, agriculture will remain a net GHG source in spite of emission mitigation and carbon sequestration.

  4. Protocol voor meting van ammoniakemissie uit huisvestingssystemen in de veehouderij 2010 = Measurement protocol for ammonia emission from housing systems in livestock production 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Ogink, N.W.M.; Mosquera Losada, J.; Hol, J.M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Dit rapport beschrijft een nieuw uitgewerkt meetprotocol voor ammoniakemissies uit huisvestingssystemen in de veehouderij. De belangrijkste wijziging ten opzichte van eerdere benaderingen betreft de voorwaarde op meerdere bedrijfslocaties te meten. Het protocol wordt toegelicht voor meerdere diercategorieën.A new measurement protocol for the determination of ammonia emissions of animal housing systems is elaborated. The main deviation from previous approaches is the requirement of multi-farms...

  5. A quality enhancement green strategy for broiler meat by application of turmeric (Curcuma longa powder as litter amendment to affect microbes, ammonia emission, pH and moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.G.S.C. Katukurunda

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In multi-cultural Sri Lankan conditions, poultry meat is paramount importance in ensuring food security and improving nutrition. Issues as contact dermatitis and ammonia emission in broiler industry which caused by diminished litter parameters cause reduction of meat quality, profits and environmental conditions. Therefore use of Turmeric (Curcuma longa (TM powder as an antiseptic litter amendment at several application levels to enhance litter parameters with microbial demolition was attempted. Three months old broiler litter (2 kg sample was taken and initial pH and moisture was determined. Turmeric was used to mix at levels of 0%, 1%, 3%, 5% and 8% (w/w. After mixing, 150 g of mixed litter was placed in container for each level of the 4 replicates, incubated for 5h and analyzed for Total Plate Count (TPC, Yeast and Mold Count (YMC, total Nematode Count (NC, ammonia emission, pH and moisture. Significant reduction (p <0.05 of total bacteria was seen (20%, 46%, 95% and 96% when 1%, 3%, 5% and 8% applications of TM. The YMC reduction was also significant (p <0.05 (34%, 41%, 55% and 65%. Total nematode reduction (p <0.05 was 22%, 45%, 62.5% and 70%. A significant (p <0.05 pH reduction with increment of TM also seen (0.1, 2, 3 and 3%. Moisture (% was increased (p <0.05 (6, 0.78, 19 and 1%. Ammonia emission was significantly decreased (p <0.05 by increased TM (64, 68, 73 and 84% against control. It was concluded that the bacterial, fungal, nematode counts, pH and Ammonia emission of broiler litter can be significantly reduced with the application of 8% (w/w of turmeric powder.

  6. Reliable low-cost devices for monitoring ammonia concentrations and emissions in naturally ventilated dairy barns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Ndegwa, Pius M; Joo, HungSoo; Neerackal, George M; Harrison, Joseph H; Stöckle, Claudio O; Liu, Heping

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated the use of two relatively cost-effective devices for determining NH3 concentrations in naturally ventilated (NV) dairy barns including an Ogawa passive sampler (Ogawa) and a passive flux sampler (PFS). These samplers were deployed adjacent to sampling ports of a photoacoustic infrared multigas spectroscope (INNOVA), in a NV dairy barn. A 3-day deployment period was deemed suitable for both passive samplers. The correlations between concentrations determined with the passive samplers and the INNOVA were statistically significant (r = 0.93 for Ogawa and 0.88 for PFS). Compared with reference measurements, Ogawa overestimated NH3 concentrations in the barn by ∼ 14%, while PFS underestimated NH3 concentrations by ∼ 41%. Barn NH3 emission factors per animal unit (20.6-21.2 g d(-1) AU(-1)) based on the two passive samplers, after calibration, were similar to those obtained with the reference method and were within the range of values reported in literature.

  7. The economics of soil C sequestration and agricultural emissions abatement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, P.; Paustian, K.; Smith, P.; Moran, D.

    2015-04-01

    Carbon is a critical component of soil vitality and is crucial to our ability to produce food. Carbon sequestered in soils also provides a further regulating ecosystem service, valued as the avoided damage from global climate change. We consider the demand and supply attributes that underpin and constrain the emergence of a market value for this vital global ecosystem service: markets being what economists regard as the most efficient institutions for allocating scarce resources to the supply and consumption of valuable goods. This paper considers how a potentially large global supply of soil carbon sequestration is reduced by economic and behavioural constraints that impinge on the emergence of markets, and alternative public policies that can efficiently transact demand for the service from private and public sector agents. In essence, this is a case of significant market failure. In the design of alternative policy options, we consider whether soil carbon mitigation is actually cost-effective relative to other measures in agriculture and elsewhere in the economy, and the nature of behavioural incentives that hinder policy options. We suggest that reducing the cost and uncertainties of mitigation through soil-based measures is crucial for improving uptake. Monitoring and auditing processes will also be required to eventually facilitate wide-scale adoption of these measures.

  8. Ammonia volatilization from crop residues and frozen green manure crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruijter, F. J.; Huijsmans, J. F. M.; Rutgers, B.

    2010-09-01

    Agricultural systems can lose substantial amounts of nitrogen (N). To protect the environment, the European Union (EU) has adopted several directives that set goals to limit N losses. National Emission Ceilings (NEC) are prescribed in the NEC directive for nitrogen oxides and ammonia. Crop residues may contribute to ammonia volatilization, but sufficient information on their contribution to the national ammonia volatilization is lacking. Experiments were carried out with the aim to assess the ammonia volatilization of crop residues left on the soil surface or incorporated into the soil under the conditions met in practice in the Netherlands during late autumn and winter. Ammonia emission from residues of broccoli, leek, sugar beet, cut grass, fodder radish (fresh and frozen) and yellow mustard (frozen) was studied during two winter seasons using volatilization chambers. Residues were either placed on top of soil or mixed with soil. Mixing residues with soil gave insignificant ammonia volatilization, whereas volatilization was 5-16 percent of the N content of residues when placed on top of soil. Ammonia volatilization started after at least 4 days. Total ammonia volatilization was related to C/N-ratio and N concentration of the plant material. After 37 days, cumulative ammonia volatilization was negligible from plant material with N concentration below 2 percent, and was 10 percent of the N content of plant material with 4 percent N. These observations can be explained by decomposition of plant material by micro-organisms. After an initial built up of the microbial population, NH 4+ that is not needed for their own growth is released and can easily emit as NH 3 at the soil surface. The results of the experiments were used to estimate the contribution of crop residues to ammonia volatilization in the Netherlands. Crop residues of arable crops and residues of pasture topping may contribute more than 3 million kg NH 3-N to the national ammonia volatilization of the

  9. Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: food and agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Sharon; Dangour, Alan D; Garnett, Tara; Lock, Karen; Chalabi, Zaid; Roberts, Ian; Butler, Ainslie; Butler, Colin D; Waage, Jeff; McMichael, Anthony J; Haines, Andy

    2009-12-12

    Agricultural food production and agriculturally-related change in land use substantially contribute to greenhouse-gas emissions worldwide. Four-fifths of agricultural emissions arise from the livestock sector. Although livestock products are a source of some essential nutrients, they provide large amounts of saturated fat, which is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We considered potential strategies for the agricultural sector to meet the target recommended by the UK Committee on Climate Change to reduce UK emissions from the concentrations recorded in 1990 by 80% by 2050, which would require a 50% reduction by 2030. With use of the UK as a case study, we identified that a combination of agricultural technological improvements and a 30% reduction in livestock production would be needed to meet this target; in the absence of good emissions data from Brazil, we assumed for illustrative purposes that the required reductions would be the same for our second case study in São Paulo city. We then used these data to model the potential benefits of reduced consumption of livestock products on the burden of ischaemic heart disease: disease burden would decrease by about 15% in the UK (equivalent to 2850 disability-adjusted life-years [DALYs] per million population in 1 year) and 16% in São Paulo city (equivalent to 2180 DALYs per million population in 1 year). Although likely to yield benefits to health, such a strategy will probably encounter cultural, political, and commercial resistance, and face technical challenges. Coordinated intersectoral action is needed across agricultural, nutritional, public health, and climate change communities worldwide to provide affordable, healthy, low-emission diets for all societies.

  10. Regional myocardial perfusion assessed by N-13 labeled ammonia and positron emission computerized axial tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usefulness of 13NH3 as an indicator of regional myocardial perfusion suitable for positron emission computerized axial tomography (PCT) has been suggested. However, the relationship between myocardial blood flow and uptake of 13NH3 has not been examined quantitatively. It was therefore the purpose of the current investigation to quantitate the relationship of myocardial 13NH3 tissue concentration to myocardial blood flow and to examine its suitability for PCT imaging. Twelve open chest dogs were studied. In 8 of the dogs 25 imaging procedures with 13NH3 and PCT were performed. In the remaining four dogs the relationship between flow and myocardial 13NH3 tissue concentration was assessed by in vitro techniques. The PCT technique provided high quality cross-sectional images of the distribution of 13NH3 in left ventricular myocardium. No significant redistribution of 13NH3 in myocardium occurred with time. Alterations in regional myocardial blood flow resulted in changes of the regional distribution of 13NH3 that were readily appreciated on the PCT images

  11. Soil-atmosphere exchange of ammonia in a non-fertilized grassland: measured emission potentials and inferred fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentworth, G. R.; Murphy, J. G.; Gregoire, P. K.; Cheyne, C. A. L.; Tevlin, A. G.; Hems, R.

    2014-10-01

    A 50-day field study was carried out in a semi-natural, non-fertilized grassland in south-western Ontario, Canada during the late summer and early autumn of 2012. The purpose was to explore surface-atmosphere exchange processes of ammonia (NH3) with a focus on bi-directional fluxes between the soil and atmosphere. Measurements of soil pH and ammonium concentration ([NH4+]) yielded the first direct quantification of soil emission potential (Γsoil = [NH4+]/[H+]) for this land type, with values ranging from 35 to 1850 (an average of 290). The soil compensation point, the atmospheric NH3 mixing ratio below which net emission from the soil will occur, exhibited both a seasonal trend and diurnal trend. Higher daytime and August compensation points were attributed to higher soil temperature. Soil-atmosphere fluxes were estimated using NH3 measurements from the Ambient Ion Monitor Ion Chromatograph (AIM-IC) and a simple resistance model. Vegetative effects were ignored due to the short canopy height and significant Γsoil. Inferred fluxes were, on average, 2.6 ± 4.5 ng m-2 s-1 in August (i.e. net emission) and -5.8 ± 3.0 ng m-2 s-1 in September (i.e. net deposition). These results are in good agreement with the only other bi-directional exchange study in a semi-natural, non-fertilized grassland. A Lagrangian dispersion model (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory - HYSPLIT) was used to calculate air parcel back-trajectories throughout the campaign and revealed that NH3 mixing ratios had no directional bias throughout the campaign, unlike the other atmospheric constituents measured. This implies that soil-atmosphere exchange over a non-fertilized grassland can significantly moderate near-surface NH3 concentrations. In addition, we provide indirect evidence that dew and fog evaporation can cause a morning increase of [NH3]g. Implications of our findings on current NH3 bi-directional exchange modelling efforts are also discussed.

  12. Soil-atmosphere exchange of ammonia in a non-fertilized grassland: measured emission potentials and inferred fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Wentworth

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A 50 day field study was carried out in a semi-natural, non-fertilized grassland in south-western Ontario, Canada during the late summer and early autumn of 2012. The purpose was to explore surface–atmosphere exchange processes of ammonia (NH3 with a focus on bi-directional fluxes between the soil and atmosphere. Measurements of soil pH and ammonium concentration ([NH4+] yielded the first direct quantification of soil emission potential (Γsoil=[NH4+]/[H+] for this land type, with values ranging from 35 to 1850 (an average of 290. The soil compensation point, the atmospheric NH3 mixing ratio below which net emission from the soil will occur, exhibited both a seasonal trend and diurnal trend. Higher daytime and August compensation points were attributed to higher soil temperature. Soil-atmosphere fluxes were estimated using NH3 measurements from the Ambient Ion Monitor Ion Chromatograph (AIM-IC and a~simple resistance model. Vegetative effects were neglected due to the short canopy height and significant Γsoil. Inferred fluxes were, on average, 2.6 ± 4.5 ng m−2 s−1 in August (i.e. net emission and −5.8 ± 3.0 ng m−2 s−1 in September (i.e. net deposition. These results are in good agreement with the only other bi-directional exchange study in a semi-natural, non-fertilized grassland. A Lagrangian dispersion model (HYSPLIT was used to calculate air parcel back trajectories throughout the campaign and revealed that NH3 mixing ratios had no directional bias throughout the campaign, unlike the other atmospheric constituents measured. This implies that soil-atmosphere exchange over a non-fertilized grassland can significantly moderate near-surface NH3 concentrations. In addition, we provide indirect evidence that dew and fog evaporation can cause a morning increase of [NH3(g]. Implications of our findings on current NH3 bi-directional exchange modelling efforts are also discussed.

  13. Spatial-Temporal Characteristics and LMDI-Based Impact Factor Decomposition of Agricultural Carbon Emissions in Hotan Prefecture, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanhe Xiong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas emissions from the agricultural ecosystem account for 7%–20% of the world’s total greenhouse gas emissions, while approximately 17% of China’s carbon emissions are from agriculture. In this study, based on the scientific calculation system of carbon emissions in agriculture, we calculated the carbon emissions of agriculture in the Hotan prefecture between 1999 and 2013 and analyzed their spatial-temporal characteristics; next, we used the LMDI model to study the driving factors of agricultural carbon emissions. The results demonstrated the following: (1 in time series, the agricultural carbon emissions showed three stages of change, i.e., “decline, continued to rise and decline”, during the period of 1999 to 2013 in the Hotan prefecture; (2 In space, the carbon emissions from agricultural land use, paddy fields, enteric fermentation, and manure management were different due to the different sizes of cities and counties. The intensity of agricultural carbon emissions was varied and high, but the agricultural production structure, agricultural carbon emissions structure and other aspects had a high degree of consistency and homogeneity in the cities and counties of the Hotan prefecture; (3 Regarding the driving mechanism, the labor factor, agricultural labor productivity, and planting-animal husbandry carbon intensity are the main factors that increase agricultural carbon emissions in the Hotan prefecture. Compared with 1999, three major factors cumulatively achieved a 199.68% carbon emission increment from 2000 to 2013, of which the labor factor cumulatively increased by 120.04%, the agricultural labor productivity factor cumulatively increased by 54.94% and the planting-animal husbandry carbon intensity factor cumulatively increased by 24.70%. The agricultural production structure factor largely inhibited agricultural carbon emissions of the Hotan prefecture, which cut 99.74% of the carbon emissions from 2000 to 2013

  14. Ammonia in the environment: From ancient times to the present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent research on atmospheric ammonia has made good progress in quantifying sources/sinks and environmental impacts. This paper reviews the achievements and places them in their historical context. It considers the role of ammonia in the development of agricultural science and air chemistry, showing how these arose out of foundations in 18th century chemistry and medieval alchemy, and then identifies the original environmental sources from which the ancients obtained ammonia. Ammonia is revealed as a compound of key human interest through the centuries, with a central role played by sal ammoniac in alchemy and the emergence of modern science. The review highlights how recent environmental research has emphasized volatilization sources of ammonia. Conversely, the historical records emphasize the role of high-temperature sources, including dung burning, coal burning, naturally burning coal seams and volcanoes. Present estimates of ammonia emissions from these sources are based on few measurements, which should be a future priority. - Past ammonia applications reveal new emphases in biospheric transformations

  15. OPEN BURNING OF AGRICULTURAL BIOMASS: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF PARTICLE-PHASE EMISSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This effort presents the physical and chemical characterization of PM2.5 emissions from simulated agricultural fires of surface residuals of two major grain crops, rice (Oryza sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L). The O2 levels and CO/CO

  16. A study on subarcsecond scales of the ammonia and continuum emission toward the G16.59-0.05 high-mass star-forming region

    CERN Document Server

    Moscadelli, L; Sánchez-Monge, Á; Goddi, C; Furuya, R S; Sanna, A; Pestalozzi, M

    2013-01-01

    We wish to investigate the structure, velocity field, and stellar content of the G16.59-0.05 high-mass star-forming region, where previous studies have established the presence of two almost perpendicular (NE-SW and SE-NW), massive outflows, and a rotating disk traced by methanol maser emission. We performed Very Large Array observations of the radio continuum and ammonia line emission, complemented by COMICS/Subaru and Hi-GAL/Herschel images in the mid- and far-infrared (IR). Our centimeter continuum maps reveal a collimated radio jet that is oriented E-W and centered on the methanol maser disk, placed at the SE border of a compact molecular core. The spectral index of the jet is negative, indicating non-thermal emission over most of the jet, except the peak close to the maser disk, where thermal free-free emission is observed. We find that the ammonia emission presents a bipolar structure consistent (on a smaller scale) in direction and velocity with that of the NE-SW bipolar outflow detected in previous CO...

  17. Nitrous oxide emissions from European agriculture – an analysis of variability and drivers of emissions from field experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Rees

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous oxide emissions from a network of agricultural experiments in Europe were used to explore the relative importance of site and management controls of emissions. At each site, a selection of management interventions were compared within replicated experimental designs in plot-based experiments. Arable experiments were conducted at Beano in Italy, El Encin in Spain, Foulum in Denmark, Logården in Sweden, Maulde in Belgium, Paulinenaue in Germany, and Tulloch in the UK. Grassland experiments were conducted at Crichton, Nafferton and Peaknaze in the UK, Gödöllö in Hungary, Rzecin in Poland, Zarnekow in Germany and Theix in France. Nitrous oxide emissions were measured at each site over a period of at least two years using static chambers. Emissions varied widely between sites and as a result of manipulation treatments. Average site emissions (throughout the study period varied between 0.04 and 21.21 kg N2O-N ha−1 yr−1, with the largest fluxes and variability associated with the grassland sites. Total nitrogen addition was found to be the single most important determinant of emissions, accounting for 15% of the variance (using linear regression in the data from the arable sites (p 2O emissions within sites that occurred as a result of manipulation treatments was greater than that resulting from site-to-site and year-to-year variation, highlighting the importance of management interventions in contributing to greenhouse gas mitigation.

  18. Programs and measures to reduce GHG emissions in agriculture and waste treatment in Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mareckova, K.; Bratislava, S.; Kucirek, S.

    1996-12-31

    Slovakia is a UN FCCC Annex I country and is obliged to limit its anthropogenic GHG emissions in the year 2000 to 1990 level. The key greenhouse gas in Slovakia is CO{sub 2} resulting mainly from fuel combustion processes. However the share of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O is approximately 20% of the total emissions on GWP basis. These gases are occurring mainly in non-energy sectors. The construction of the non-CO{sub 2} emission scenarios to reduce GHG and the uncertainty in N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emission estimation are discussed focusing on agriculture and waste treatment. The presentation will also include information on emission trends of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O since 1988. There are already implemented measures reducing GHG emissions in Slovakia, however, not motivated by global warming. A short view of implemented measures with an assessment of their benefit concerning non-CO{sub 2} GHG emissions reduction and some proposed mitigation options for agriculture and waste treatment are shown. Expected difficulties connected with preparing scenarios and with implementation of reducing measures are discussed.

  19. Patterns and controls of nitrous oxide emissions from waters draining a subtropical agricultural valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, John; Matson, Pamela

    2003-09-01

    Although nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from agricultural runoff is thought to constitute a globally important source of this greenhouse gas, N2O flux from polluted aquatic systems is poorly understood and scarcely reported, especially in low-latitude (0°-30°) regions where rapid agricultural intensification is occurring. We measured N2O emissions, dissolved N2O concentrations, and factors likely to control rates of N2O production in drainage canals receiving agricultural and mixed agricultural/urban inputs from the intensively farmed Yaqui Valley of Sonora, Mexico. Average per-area N2O flux in both purely agricultural and mixed urban/agricultural drainage systems (16.5 ng N2O-N cm-2 hr-1) was high compared to other fresh water fluxes, and extreme values ranged up to 244.6 ng N2O-N cm-2 hr-1. These extremely high N2O fluxes occurred during green algae blooms, when organic carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen concentrations were high, and only in canals receiving pig-farm and urban inputs, suggesting an important link between land-use and N2O emissions. N2O concentrations and fluxes correlated significantly with water column concentrations of nitrate, particulate organic carbon and nitrogen, ammonium, and chlorophyll a, and a multiple linear regression model including ammonium, dissolved organic carbon, and particulate organic carbon was the best predictor of [N2O] (r2 = 52%). Despite high per-area N2O fluxes, our estimate of regional N2O emission from surface drainage (20,869 kg N2O-N yr-1; 0.046% of N-fertilizer inputs) was low compared to values predicted by algorithms used in global budgets.

  20. Quantitation of the regional blood flow in the interventricular septum using positron emission tomography and nitrogen-13 ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hove, Jens D. [The Department of Cardiology, The Heart Center, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Cardiovascular PET Research Unit, Section 9201, Medical Department B, The Heart Center, Rigshospitalet, Juliane Mariesvej 24, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Gambhir, Sanjiv S. [Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States); Kofoed, Klaus F.; Freiberg, Jacob; Kelbaek, Henning [The Department of Cardiology, The Heart Center, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of spillover of activity from the right ventricle (RV) on quantitation of the regional myocardial blood flow in the septum. Thirty-one healthy volunteers, 31 patients with ischemic heart disease, 7 patients with severe congestive heart failure, and 6 heart transplant patients underwent positron emission tomography (PET) with nitrogen-13 ammonia. Quantitation of the regional myocardial blood flow in the septum was performed using both a conventional two-compartment model and a previously validated two-compartment model taking RV spillover into account. Unaccounted RV spillover resulted in significant underestimation of the regional myocardial blood flow in the septum. The amount of underestimation was primarily dependent on the magnitude of spillover and the dispersion between the right and the left ventricular input functions. In healthy volunteers, the flow error was small but significant: on average 6% (range 5%-29%, P<0.00001), compared with 27% (range 0%-88%, P<0.002) in the group of patients with severe congestive heart failure, who had the most considerable amount of RV spillover. In the group of patients with ischemic heart disease and the group of heart transplant patients the flow errors were 10% (range 0%-55%, P<0.00001) and 6% (range 1%-19%, P<0.01), respectively. It is concluded that flow quantitation in the septum is significantly affected by RV spillover, resulting in a considerable underestimation of the septal blood flow unless correction is performed. (orig.)

  1. The importance of climate change and nitrogen use efficiency for future nitrous oxide emissions from agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, David R.; Zhang, Xin; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Malyshev, Sergey; Shevliakova, Elena

    2016-09-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important greenhouse gas and ozone depleting substance. Previous projections of agricultural N2O (the dominant anthropogenic source) show emissions changing in tandem, or at a faster rate than changes in nitrogen (N) consumption. However, recent studies suggest that the carbon dioxide (CO2) fertilization effect may increase plant N uptake, which could decrease soil N losses and dampen increases in N2O. To evaluate this hypothesis at a global scale, we use a process-based land model with a coupled carbon-nitrogen cycle to examine how changes in climatic factors, land-use, and N application rates could affect agricultural N2O emissions by 2050. Assuming little improvement in N use efficiency (NUE), the model projects a 24%–31% increase in global agricultural N2O emissions by 2040–2050 depending on the climate scenario—a relatively moderate increase compared to the projected increases in N inputs (42%–44%) and previously published emissions projections (38%–75%). This occurs largely because the CO2 fertilization effect enhances plant N uptake in several regions, which subsequently dampens N2O emissions. And yet, improvements in NUE could still deliver important environmental benefits by 2050: equivalent to 10 Pg CO2 equivalent and 0.6 Tg ozone depletion potential.

  2. Agricultural productivity and greenhouse gas emissions: trade-offs or synergies between mitigation and food security?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this letter, we investigate the effects of crop yield and livestock feed efficiency scenarios on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture and land use change in developing countries. We analyze mitigation associated with different productivity pathways using the global partial equilibrium model GLOBIOM. Our results confirm that yield increase could mitigate some agriculture-related emissions growth over the next decades. Closing yield gaps by 50% for crops and 25% for livestock by 2050 would decrease agriculture and land use change emissions by 8% overall, and by 12% per calorie produced. However, the outcome is sensitive to the technological path and which factor benefits from productivity gains: sustainable land intensification would increase GHG savings by one-third when compared with a fertilizer intensive pathway. Reaching higher yield through total factor productivity gains would be more efficient on the food supply side but halve emissions savings due to a strong rebound effect on the demand side. Improvement in the crop or livestock sector would have different implications: crop yield increase would bring the largest food provision benefits, whereas livestock productivity gains would allow the greatest reductions in GHG emission. Combining productivity increases in the two sectors appears to be the most efficient way to exploit mitigation and food security co-benefits. (letter)

  3. Can non-point phosphorus emissions from agriculture be regulated efficiently using input-output taxes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line Bloch; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    In many parts of Europe and North America, phosphorus loss from cultivated fields is threatening natural ecosystems. Though there are similarities to other non-point agricultural emissions like nitrogen that have been studied extensively, phosphorus is often characterised by the presence of large...... stocking capacities for phosphorus in farm soils and long time-lags between applications and emission. This makes it important to understand the dynamics of the phosphorus emission problem when designing regulatory systems. Using a model that reflects these dynamics, we evaluate alternative regulatory...... systems. Depending on the proportions of different types of farms in the agricultural sector, we find that an input-output tax system may be close to efficient, or in other cases must be supplemented with subsidy and manure reallocation schemes....

  4. Can non-point Phosphorus emissions from agriculture be regulated efficiently using input-output taxes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line Block; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    2014-01-01

    In many parts of Europe and North America, phosphorus loss from cultivated fields is threatening natural ecosystems. Though there are similarities to other non-point agricultural emissions like nitrogen that have been studied extensively, phosphorus is often characterized by the presence of large...... stocking capacities for phosphorus in farm soils and long time-lags between applications and emission. This makes it important to understand the dynamics of the phosphorus emission problem when designing regulatory systems. Using a model that reflects these dynamics, we evaluate alternative regulatory...... systems. Depending on the proportions of different types of farms in the agricultural sector, we find that an input-output tax system can be the core element of a close to efficient regulatory policy....

  5. Secondary aerosol production from agricultural gas precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies of air quality indicate that agricultural emissions may impact particulate mass concentrations through both primary and secondary processes. Increasing evidence from both laboratory and field work suggests that not only does ammonia produce secondary particulate matter, but some volatile org...

  6. Advances in understanding, models and parameterisations of biosphere-atmosphere ammonia exchange

    OpenAIRE

    C. R. Flechard; Massad, R.-S.; Loubet, B.; Personne, E.; Simpson, D.; Bash, J.O.; E. J. Cooter; Nemitz, E.; Sutton, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) dominates global emissions of total reactive nitrogen (Nr), while emissions from agricultural production systems contribute about two-thirds of global NH3 emissions; the remaining third emanates from oceans, natural vegetation, humans, wild animals and biomass burning. On land, NH3 emitted from the various sources eventually returns to the biosphere by dry deposition to sink areas, predominantly semi-natural vegetation, and by wet and dry deposition...

  7. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in China's agriculture: from farm production to food consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Qian; Cheng, Kun; Pan, Genxing

    2016-04-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture could be mitigated from both supple side and demand side. Assessing carbon footprint (CF) of agricultural production and food consumption could provide insights into the contribution of agriculture to climate change and help to identify possible GHG mitigation options. In the present study, CF of China's agricultural production was firstly assessed from site scale to national scale, and from crop production to livestock production. Data for the crop and livestock production were collected from field survey and national statistical archive, and both life cycle assessment and input-output method were employed in the estimations. In general, CF of crop production was lower than that of livestock production on average. Rice production ranked the highest CF in crop production, and the highest CFs of livestock production were observed in mutton and beef production. Methane emissions from rice paddy, emissions from fertilizer application and water irrigation exerted the largest contribution of more than 50% for CF of crop production; however, emissions from forage feeding, enteric fermentation and manure treatment made the most proportion of more than 90 % for CF of livestock production. In China, carbon efficiency was shown in a decreasing trend in recent years. According to the present study, overuse of nitrogen fertilizer caused no yield effect but significant emissions in some sites and regions of China, and aggregated farms lowered the CFs of crop production and livestock production by 3% to 25% and 6% to 60% respectively compared to household farms. Given these, improving farming management efficiency and farm intensive development is the key strategy to mitigate climate change from supply side. However, changes in food consumption may reduce GHG emissions in the production chain through a switch to the consumption of food with higher GHG emissions in the production process to food with lower GHG emissions. Thus, CFs

  8. N2O Emissions in Southeastern Amazonia: The Effect of Agricultural Intensification

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, C.; Brando, P. M.; Cerri, C. E.; Coe, M. T.; Davidson, E. A.; Galford, G. L.; Macedo, M.; Neill, C.; Venterea, R. T.

    2014-12-01

    The Amazon is not only an exceptionally biodiverse and carbon-rich tract of tropical forest, it is also a case study in land use change. Over the last 30 years, Amazonia has been home to extraordinary growth in agricultural production, in part from agricultural expansion, but also due to more intense management on Amazonia's existing croplands. We use a year-long campaign and approximately 500 field chamber measurements to estimate how cropland intensification in Mato Grosso, Brazil affects the emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) and soil N dynamics. In this system, soybean cropland intensification occurs when double cropping is introduced, in which maize is planted directly after soybean harvest and fertilized twice with inorganic N. We find that dry season N2O emissions in single-cropped (soybean only) fields, double-cropped (soybean/maize) fields and reference tropical forest are uniformly near zero, or ~0-0.5 ngN/cm^2/hr. Surprisingly, wet season emissions rates remain low as well, between 1-4 ngN/cm^2/hr, for both cropland types and reference forest. By contrast, isolated post-fertilization spikes in N2O emissions are large, with a maximum increase of ~800% and a mean increase of ~400%, though these flux increases resolve rapidly and rates return to their low baseline within days. Finally, we explore the role that soil moisture, soil N availability, and soil C availability play in regulating N2O fluxes in reference forest, soybean fields and intensified soybean-maize fields. Open questions surround how the Amazon's land resources can be leveraged to increase agricultural production at the least harm to the environment. Here, we quantify the consequences of land use change on N2O, a powerful greenhouse gas, in a critical ecosystem undergoing novel agricultural intensification. These results may inform both greenhouse gas accounting and our understanding of the effects of Amazonia's changing agricultural landscape on the nitrogen cycle.

  9. Liquid and atmospheric ammonia concentrations from a dairy lagoon during an aeration experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumburg, Brian; Neger, Manjit; Mount, George H.; Yonge, David; Filipy, Jenny; Swain, John; Kincaid, Ron; Johnson, Kristen

    Ammonia emissions from agriculture are an environmental and human health concern, and there is increasing pressure to reduce emissions. Animal agriculture is the largest global source of ammonia emissions and on a per cow basis dairy operations are the largest emitters. The storage and disposal of the dairy waste is one area where emissions can be reduced, aerobic biological treatment of wastewater being a common and effective way of reducing ammonia emissions. An aeration experiment in a dairy lagoon with two commercial aerators was performed for 1 month. Liquid concentrations of ammonia, total nitrogen, nitrite and nitrate were monitored before, during and after the experiment and atmospheric ammonia was measured downwind of the lagoon using a short-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) instrument with 1 ppbv sensitivity. No changes in either liquid or atmospheric ammonia concentrations were detected throughout the experiment, and neither dissolved oxygen, nitrite nor nitrate could be detected in the lagoon at any time. The average ammonia concentration at 10 sampling sites in the lagoon at a depth of 0.15 m was 650 mg l -1 and at 0.90 m it was 700 mg l -1 NH 3-N. The average atmospheric ammonia concentration 50 m downwind was about 300 ppbv. The 0.90 m depth total nitrogen concentrations and total and volatile solids concentrations decreased during the experiment due to some mixing of the lagoon but the 0.15 m depth concentrations did not decrease indicating that the aerators were not strong enough to mix the sludge off the bottom into the whole water column.

  10. Emission Scenarios for Methane and Nitrous Oxides from the Agricultural Sector in the EU-25

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeglund-Isaksson, L.; W. Winiwarter; Z. Klimont; I. Bertok

    2006-01-01

    This report presents three emission scenarios of non-CO2 greenhouse gases from the agricultural sector of the EU-25 until 2020. These scenarios explore the likely implications of changes in agricultural production due to the - implementations of the EU Agenda 2000 CAP Reform of 1999 and the EU Nitrates Directive of 1991 (as used for the analyses of the EU Clean Air for Europe (CAFE) programme), - the implementation of the 2003 Mid-term review of the CAP reform and from anticipated i...

  11. Nitrous oxide emissions from European agriculture; an analysis of variability and drivers of emissions from field experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Rees

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous oxide emissions from a network of agricultural experiments in Europe and Zimbabwe were used to explore the relative importance of site and management controls of emissions. At each site, a selection of management interventions were compared within replicated experimental designs in plot based experiments. Arable experiments were conducted at Beano in Italy, El Encin in Spain, Foulum in Denmark, Logården in Sweden, Maulde in Belgium, Paulinenaue in Germany, Harare in Zimbabwe and Tulloch in the UK. Grassland experiments were conducted at Crichton, Nafferton and Peaknaze in the UK, Gödöllö in Hungary, Rzecin in Poland, Zarnekow in Germany and Theix in France. Nitrous oxide emissions were measured at each site over a period of at least two years using static chambers. Emissions varied widely between sites and as a result of manipulation treatments. Average site emissions (throughout the study period varied between 0.04 and 21.21 kg N2O-N ha−1 yr−1, with the largest fluxes and variability associated with the grassland sites. Total nitrogen addition was found to be the single most important determinant of emissions, accounting for 15% of the variance (using linear regression in the data from the arable sites (p < 0.0001, and 77% in the grassland sites. The annual emissions from arable sites were significantly greater than those that would be predicted by IPCC default emission factors. Variability in N2O within sites that occurred as a result of manipulation treatments was greater than that resulting from site to site and year to year variation, highlighting the importance of management interventions in contributing to greenhouse gas mitigation.

  12. Mitigation of agriculture emissions in the tropics: comparing forest land-sparing options at the national level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Carter

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Emissions from agriculture-driven deforestation are of global concern, but forest land-sparing interventions such as agricultural intensification and utilization of available land offer opportunities for mitigation. In many tropical countries, where agriculture is the major driver of deforestation, interventions in the agriculture sector can reduce deforestation emissions as well as reducing emissions in the agriculture sector. Our study uses a novel approach to quantify agriculture-driven deforestation and associated emissions in the tropics. Emissions from agriculture-driven deforestation in the tropics between 2000 and 2010 are 4.3 Gt CO2 eq yr−1 (97 countries. We investigate the national potential to mitigate these emissions through forest land-sparing interventions, which can potentially be implemented under REDD+. We consider intensification, and utilization of available non-forested land as forest land-sparing opportunities since they avoid the expansion of agriculture into forested land. In addition, we assess the potential to reduce agriculture emissions on existing agriculture land, interventions that fall under climate-smart agriculture (CSA. The use of a systematic framework demonstrates the selection of mitigation interventions by considering sequentially the level of emissions, mitigation potential of various interventions, enabling environment and associated risks to livelihoods at the national level. Our results show that considering only countries with high emissions from agriculture-driven deforestation, where there is a potential for forest-sparing interventions, and where there is a good enabling environment (e.g. effective governance or engagement in REDD+, the potential to mitigate is 1.3 Gt CO2 eq yr−1 (20 countries of 78 with sufficient data. For countries where we identify agriculture emissions as priority for mitigation, up to 1 Gt CO2 eq yr−1 could be reduced from the agriculture sector including livestock. Risks

  13. Climate change impacts on agriculture in 2050 under a range of plausible socioeconomic and emissions scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies have combined climate, crop and economic models to examine the impact of climate change on agricultural production and food security, but results have varied widely due to differences in models, scenarios and input data. Recent work has examined (and narrowed) these differences through systematic model intercomparison using a high-emissions pathway to highlight the differences. This paper extends that analysis to explore a range of plausible socioeconomic scenarios and emission pathways. Results from multiple climate and economic models are combined to examine the global and regional impacts of climate change on agricultural yields, area, production, consumption, prices and trade for coarse grains, rice, wheat, oilseeds and sugar crops to 2050. We find that climate impacts on global average yields, area, production and consumption are similar across shared socioeconomic pathways (SSP 1, 2 and 3, as we implement them based on population, income and productivity drivers), except when changes in trade policies are included. Impacts on trade and prices are higher for SSP 3 than SSP 2, and higher for SSP 2 than for SSP 1. Climate impacts for all variables are similar across low to moderate emissions pathways (RCP 4.5 and RCP 6.0), but increase for a higher emissions pathway (RCP 8.5). It is important to note that these global averages may hide regional variations. Projected reductions in agricultural yields due to climate change by 2050 are larger for some crops than those estimated for the past half century, but smaller than projected increases to 2050 due to rising demand and intrinsic productivity growth. Results illustrate the sensitivity of climate change impacts to differences in socioeconomic and emissions pathways. Yield impacts increase at high emissions levels and vary with changes in population, income and technology, but are reduced in all cases by endogenous changes in prices and other variables. (paper)

  14. Spatial Variability in Nitrification Rates and Ammonia-Oxidizing Microbial Communities in the Agriculturally Impacted Elkhorn Slough Estuary, California ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Scott D Wankel; Mosier, Annika C.; Hansel, Colleen M.; Paytan, Adina; Francis, Christopher A.

    2010-01-01

    Ammonia oxidation—the microbial oxidation of ammonia to nitrite and the first step in nitrification—plays a central role in nitrogen cycling in coastal and estuarine systems. Nevertheless, questions remain regarding the connection between this biogeochemical process and the diversity and abundance of the mediating microbial community. In this study, we measured nutrient fluxes and rates of sediment nitrification in conjunction with the diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA...

  15. Tendency in the Greenhouse Gas (GHG emissions attributable to the Agriculture subsector in Togo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokou SABI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse effect, which contributes to the climate warning, is a mechanism that occurs in the lower atmosphere because of the presence of Greenhouse Gas (GHGs. Its reinforcement by the emissions of anthropogenic greenhouse gases has harmful consequences on the climate. Togo, a developing country, contributes more to this reinforcement by the emissions related the socio-economic activities due to the Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU area. We carried out these inventories of Greenhouse Gas in accordance with the IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, version 2006, using CCNUCC software for the national inventories of GHGs. In 2004, basic year selected, based on the quality of the data, the Agriculture subsector emitted 2407.88 Gg CO2-e of direct GHGs (CH4, N2O and 252,72 Gg of GHGs precursors (NOx, CO. In Togo, these emissions have a tendency to increase passing the aggregated emissions from 2085.89 Gg CO2-e in 1990 to 2526.22 Gg CO2-e in 2008. The assessment of key categories of national emissions gave the priority to the biomass of cropland remaining cropland followed by biomass of forest land converted to cropland. These estimations will enable policy makers to take right decisions in matters of mitigation and adaptation and use them as baselines for calculations of carbon credits.

  16. Parameterisation of LCI/LCIA models of agricultural systems emissions under future pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cosme, Nuno Miguel Dias; Dijkman, Teunis Johannes; Birkved, Morten

    , the greater the emissions and hence the impacts will be. This consequence will be illustrated by case studies describing how the impacts from fertilizer and pesticide use increase for such agricultural intensification and under future climatic circumstances. Models’ sensitivity to the varying parameterisation......Agricultural production currently faces two important challenges that need to be overcome in the next decades. Firstly, the expected increase of the global human population will put more pressure on productive ecosystems to accommodate the growing need for food. Secondly, climate change...... and environmental pressures have in common is the urge to enhance agricultural/food production efficiency, i.e. to produce more (while maintaining an acceptable quality) despite the difficulties raised by climate-driven pressures. Land-based food production is expected to compete with feed/non-food crops, forestry...

  17. Influence of different fibre sources in diets for growing pigs on chemical composition of faeces and slurry and ammonia emission from slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Jørgen; Chwalibog, André; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2007-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate how three different fibre sources, sugar beet pulp, soya bean hulls and pectin residue, in diets for growing pigs influenced the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in faeces, pH-value in faeces and slurry, excretion of nitrogen in urine...... pulp, soya bean hulls and pectin residue in diets for growing pigs may alter the chemical composition of faeces and slurry, whereas, the effect on ammonia emission under dynamic conditions requires further investigations....

  18. Application effects of coated urea and urease and nitrification inhibitors on ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from a subtropical cotton field of the Mississippi delta region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization affects both ammonia (NH3) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that have implications in air quality and global warming potential. Different cropping systems practice varying N fertilizations. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of applications of polymer-coated urea and urea treated with N process inhibitors: NBPT [N-(n-butyl)thiophosphoric triamide], urease inhibitor, and DCD [Dicyandiamide], nitrification inhibitor, on NH3 and GHG emissions from a cotton production system in the Mississippi delta region. A two-year field experiment consisting of five treatments including the Check (unfertilized), urea, polymer-coated urea (ESN), urea + NBPT, and urea + DCD was conducted over 2013 and 2014 in a Cancienne loam (Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, nonacid, hyperthermic Fluvaquentic Epiaquepts). Ammonia and GHG samples were collected using active and passive chamber methods, respectively, and characterized. The results showed that the N loss to the atmosphere following urea-N application was dominated by a significantly higher emission of N2O-N than NH3-N and the most N2O-N and NH3-N emissions were during the first 30–50 days. Among different N treatments compared to regular urea, NBPT was the most effective in reducing NH3-N volatilization (by 58–63%), whereas DCD the most significant in mitigating N2O-N emissions (by 75%). Polymer-coated urea (ESN) and NBPT also significantly reduced N2O-N losses (both by 52%) over urea. The emission factors (EFs) for urea, ESN, urea-NBPT, urea + DCD were 1.9%, 1.0%, 0.2%, 0.8% for NH3-N, and 8.3%, 3.4%, 3.9%, 1.0% for N2O-N, respectively. There were no significant effects of different N treatments on CO2-C and CH4-C fluxes. Overall both of these N stabilizers and polymer-coated urea could be used as a mitigation strategy for reducing N2O emission while urease inhibitor NBPT for reducing NH3 emission in the subtropical cotton production system of the Mississippi delta region. - Highlights

  19. Combustible renewables and waste consumption, agriculture, CO2 emissions and economic growth in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Jebli, Mehdi; Ben Youssef, Slim

    2016-01-01

    This paper employs the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach and Granger causality tests to examine the dynamic causal links between per capita combustible renewables and waste (CRW) consumption, agricultural value added (AVA), carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and real gross domestic product (GDP) for the case of Brazil, spanning the period 1980-2011. The Fisher statistic of the Wald test confirms the existence of long-run cointegration between the considered variables. Short-run emp...

  20. CO2 Emissions from Central Canadian Agriculture: Meeting Kyoto Targets and Its Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Manaloor, Varghese

    2006-01-01

    Agriculture sectors dependence on fossil fuel use (both direct and indirect) has increased dramatically over the past decades. Productivity increases have been achieved using technological improvements which use considerable amounts of energy inputs. Concerns about global environmental quality resulted in several countries signing the Kyoto protocol, which came into effect internationally, on February 16, 2005. Canada has made a commitment to the international community to stabilize CO2 emiss...

  1. Agricultural PM 10 emissions from cotton field disking in Las Cruces, NM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasumba, John; Holmén, Britt A.; Hiscox, April; Wang, Junming; Miller, David

    2011-03-01

    Various studies have shown a relationship between elevated levels of inhalable particulate matter (PM) and agricultural practices, especially in the vicinity of agricultural fields. Airborne particle concentrations and meteorological variables were measured during nine agricultural field events on a cotton field in Las Cruces, NM in March 2008. A variety of real-time and integrated PM 10 and total suspended particles (TSP) samplers were used during sampling. The field events were designed to measure particle concentrations at different heights, near (4 m) and far (20-100 m) from a disking tractor. Particle concentrations decreased with increasing distance from the ground for near-source disking events, whereas particle concentrations were almost independent of height for background events. Near-source disking event particle concentrations were 4-7 times higher than those for far-source disking and background events. Near-source disking events had PM 10 emission factors ranging from 78 to 239 mg m -2, while those for far-source disking events ranged from 8 to 89 mg m -2. PM 10 plume heights for near-source disking events were between 4 and 5.7 m, whereas those for far-source disking events were between 12 and 15 m. Meteorological variables were found to influence emission factors, with wind speed showing a nonlinear relationship with emission factors. No clear relationship was found between soil moisture content and emission factors probably because the range of soil moisture was small. Impactor data indicated 10-40% of the total mass of agricultural PM collected was less than 1 μm in diameter for the clay loam soil type. Vertical PM 10 concentration profiles showed maxima at sampling heights between 1 and 2 m above the ground.

  2. Performance and Emissions of Sunflower, Rapeseed, and Cottonseed Oils as Fuels in an Agricultural Tractor Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Athanasios Balafoutis; Spyros Fountas; Athanasios Natsis; George Papadakis

    2011-01-01

    A comparative experimental investigation was conducted to evaluate the performance and exhaust emissions of an agricultural tractor engine when fueled with sunflower oil, rapeseed oil, and cottonseed oil and their blends with diesel fuel (20/80, 40/60 and 70/30 volumetrically). Tests were also carried out with diesel fuel to be used as a reference point. Engine power, torque, BSFC, thermal efficiency, NOx and CO2 were recorded for each tested fuel. All vegetable oils resulted in normal operat...

  3. The contribution of Slovenian biogas plants to the reduction of agricultural sector green house emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana MARINŠEK LOGAR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is a source of emissions of the greenhouse gas methane into the environment. These emissions can be reduced by appropriate storage of animal slurry and manure, with proper fertilization and processing of organic agricultural waste into biogas, where methane is captured and used as an energy source. Biogas is a renewable source of energy that is produced by microbial anaerobic digestion in biogas plants. As a substrate in biogas plants using different types of organic biomass such as animal manure and slurry, crop residues, spoilt silage, waste from food processing industry and biodegradable industrial and municipal waste. Biogas can be used to produce heat and electricity or purified to biomethane as a fuel for vehicles. Digestate can be used as a high-quality fertilizer. Biogas as a renewable energy source represents a replacement for fossil fuels, thus reducing greenhouse gas emissions from fossil sources. The system of financial supports for electricity produced from biogas is applied in Slovenia. There were 24 operating biogas plants in Slovenia in year 2014. Slovenian biogas plants currently produce the majority of biogas from energy crops. As only the minority of biogas is produced from animal excrements we will primarily support the development of agricultural microbiogas plants that will use animal excrements and organic waste biomass from agri-food sector as substrates.

  4. Forest and grassland cover types reduce net greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baah-Acheamfour, Mark; Carlyle, Cameron N; Lim, Sang-Sun; Bork, Edward W; Chang, Scott X

    2016-11-15

    Western Canada's prairie region is extensively cultivated for agricultural production, which is a large source of greenhouse gas emissions. Agroforestry systems are common land uses across Canada, which integrate trees into the agricultural landscape and could play a substantial role in sequestering carbon and mitigating increases in atmospheric GHG concentrations. We measured soil CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes and the global warming potential of microbe-mediated net greenhouse gas emissions (GWPm) in forest and herbland (areas without trees) soils of three agroforestry systems (hedgerow, shelterbelt and silvopasture) over two growing seasons (May through September in 2013 and 2014). We measured greenhouse gas fluxes and environmental conditions at 36 agroforestry sites (12 sites for each system) located along a south-north oriented soil/climate gradient of increasing moisture availability in central Alberta, Canada. The temperature sensitivity of soil CO2 emissions was greater in herbland (4.4) than in forest (3.1), but was not different among agroforestry systems. Over the two seasons, forest soils had 3.4% greater CO2 emission, 36% higher CH4 uptake, and 66% lower N2O emission than adjacent herbland soils. Combining the CO2 equivalents of soil CH4 and N2O fluxes with the CO2 emitted via heterotrophic (microbial) respiration, forest soils had a smaller GWPm than herbland soils (68 and 89kgCO2ha(-1), respectively). While emissions of total CO2 were silvopasture>hedgerow>shelterbelt, soils under silvopasture had 5% lower heterotrophic respiration, 15% greater CH4 uptake, and 44% lower N2O emission as compared with the other two agroforestry systems. Overall, the GWPm of greenhouse gas emissions was greater in hedgerow (88) and shelterbelt (85) than in the silvopasture system (76kgCO2ha(-1)). High GWPm in the hedgerow and shelterbelt systems reflects the greater contribution from the monoculture annual crops within these systems. Opportunities exist for reducing soil

  5. Forest and grassland cover types reduce net greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baah-Acheamfour, Mark; Carlyle, Cameron N; Lim, Sang-Sun; Bork, Edward W; Chang, Scott X

    2016-11-15

    Western Canada's prairie region is extensively cultivated for agricultural production, which is a large source of greenhouse gas emissions. Agroforestry systems are common land uses across Canada, which integrate trees into the agricultural landscape and could play a substantial role in sequestering carbon and mitigating increases in atmospheric GHG concentrations. We measured soil CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes and the global warming potential of microbe-mediated net greenhouse gas emissions (GWPm) in forest and herbland (areas without trees) soils of three agroforestry systems (hedgerow, shelterbelt and silvopasture) over two growing seasons (May through September in 2013 and 2014). We measured greenhouse gas fluxes and environmental conditions at 36 agroforestry sites (12 sites for each system) located along a south-north oriented soil/climate gradient of increasing moisture availability in central Alberta, Canada. The temperature sensitivity of soil CO2 emissions was greater in herbland (4.4) than in forest (3.1), but was not different among agroforestry systems. Over the two seasons, forest soils had 3.4% greater CO2 emission, 36% higher CH4 uptake, and 66% lower N2O emission than adjacent herbland soils. Combining the CO2 equivalents of soil CH4 and N2O fluxes with the CO2 emitted via heterotrophic (microbial) respiration, forest soils had a smaller GWPm than herbland soils (68 and 89kgCO2ha(-1), respectively). While emissions of total CO2 were silvopasture>hedgerow>shelterbelt, soils under silvopasture had 5% lower heterotrophic respiration, 15% greater CH4 uptake, and 44% lower N2O emission as compared with the other two agroforestry systems. Overall, the GWPm of greenhouse gas emissions was greater in hedgerow (88) and shelterbelt (85) than in the silvopasture system (76kgCO2ha(-1)). High GWPm in the hedgerow and shelterbelt systems reflects the greater contribution from the monoculture annual crops within these systems. Opportunities exist for reducing soil

  6. [Emission inventory of greenhouse gases from agricultural residues combustion: a case study of Jiangsu Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-hua; Jiang, Jing-yan; Zong, Liang-gang

    2011-05-01

    Burning of agricultural crop residues was a major source greenhouse gases. In this study, the proportion of crop straws (rice, wheat, maize, oil rape, cotton and soja) in Jiangsu used as household fuel and direct open burning in different periods (1990-1995, 1996-2000, 2001-2005 and 2006-2008) was estimated through questionnaire. The emission factors of CO2, CO, CH4 and NO20 from the above six types of crop straws were calculated by the simulated burning experiment. Thus the emission inventory of greenhouse gases from crop straws burning was established according to above the burning percentages and emission factors, ratios of dry residues to production and crop productions of different periods in Jiangsu province. Results indicated that emission factors of CO2, CO, CH4 and N2O depended on crop straw type. The emission factors of CO2 and CH4 were higher for oil rape straw than the other straws, while the maize and the rice straw had the higher N2O and CO emission factor. Emission inventory of greenhouse gases from agricultural residues burning in Jiangsu province showed, the annual average global warming potential (GWP) of six tested crop straws were estimated to be 9.18 (rice straw), 4.35 (wheat straw), 2.55 (maize straw), 1.63 (oil rape straw), 0.55 (cotton straw) and 0. 39 (soja straw) Tg CO2 equivalent, respectively. Among the four study periods, the annual average GWP had no obvious difference between the 1990-1995 and 2006-2008 periods, while the maximal annual average GWP (23.83 Tg CO2 equivalent) happened in the 1996-2000 period, and the minimum (20.30 Tg CO2 equivalent) in 1996-2000 period.

  7. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions with agricultural land management changes: What practices hold the best potential?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, A. J.; Olander, L.; Rice, C. W.; Haugen-Kozyra, K.; Henry, L. R.; Baker, J. S.; Jackson, R. B.

    2010-12-01

    Agricultural land management practices within the United States have significant potential to mitigate greenhouse gases (GHGs) in voluntary market or regulatory contexts - by sequestering soil carbon or reducing N2O or CH4 emissions. Before these practices can be utilized in active protocols or within a regulatory or farm bill framework, we need confidence in our ability to determine their impact on GHG emissions. We develop a side-by-side comparison of mitigation potential and implementation readiness for agricultural GHG mitigation practices, with an extensive literature review. We also consider scientific certainty, environmental and social co-effects, economic factors, regional specificity, and possible implementation barriers. Biophysical GHG mitigation potential from agricultural land management activities could reach more than 500 Mt CO2e/yr in the U.S. (7.1% of annual emissions). Up to 75% of the total potential comes from soil C sequestration. Economic potential is lower, given necessary resources to incentivize on-farm adaptations, but lower cost activities such as no-till, fertilizer N management, and cover crops show promise for near-term implementation in certain regions. Scientific uncertainty or the need for more research limit no-till and rice water management in some areas; and technical or other barriers need to be addressed before biochar, advanced crop breeding, and agroforestry can be widely embraced for GHG mitigation. Significant gaps in the current research and knowledge base exist with respect to interactions between tillage and N2O emissions, and with fertilizer application timing impacts on N2O emissions.

  8. Evaluating Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting Systems for Agricultural Waste Burning Using MODIS Active Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, H.; Jin, Y.; Giglio, L.; Foley, J. A.; Randerson, J. T.

    2010-12-01

    Fires in agricultural ecosystems emit greenhouse gases and aerosols that influence climate on multiple spatial and temporal scales. Annex 1 countries of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), many of which ratified the Kyoto Protocol, are required to report emissions of CO2, CH4 and N2O from these fires annually. We evaluated several aspects of this reporting system, including the optimality of the crops targeted by the UNFCCC globally and within Annex 1 countries and the consistency of emissions reporting among countries. We also evaluated the success of the individual countries in capturing interannual variability and long-term trends in agricultural fire activity. We combined global crop maps with Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) active fire detections. At a global scale, we recommend adding ground nuts, cocoa, cotton and oil palm, and removing potato, oats, pulse other and rye from the UNFCCC list of 14 crops. This leads to an overall increase of 6% of the active fires covered by the reporting system. Optimization led to a different recommended list for Annex 1 countries. Extending emissions reporting to all Annex 1 countries (from the current set of 19 countries) would increase the efficacy of the reporting system from 10% to 20%, and further including several non-Annex 1 countries (Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Thailand, Kazakhstan, Mexico and Nigeria) would capture over 58% of active fires in croplands worldwide. Analyses of interannual trends from the U.S. and Australia showed the importance of both intensity of fire use and crop production in controlling year-to-year variations in agricultural fire emissions. Remote sensing provides an efficient tool for an independent assessment of current UNFCCC emissions reporting system; and, if combined with census data, field experiments and expert opinion, has the potential for improving the robustness of the next generation inventory

  9. Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on agriculture describes how climate change will affect primary agriculture production in Canada with particular focus on potential adaptation options, and vulnerability of agriculture at the farm level. Agriculture is a vital part of the Canadian economy, although only 7 per cent of Canada's land mass is used for agricultural purposes due to the limitations of climate and soils. Most parts of Canada are expected to experience warmer conditions, longer frost-free seasons and increased evapotranspiration. The impacts of these changes on agriculture will vary depending on precipitation changes, soil conditions, and land use. Northern regions may benefit from longer farming seasons, but poor soil conditions will limit the northward expansion of agricultural crops. Some of the negative impacts associated with climate change on agriculture include increased droughts, changes in pest and pathogen outbreaks, and moisture stress. In general, it is expected that the positive and negative impacts of climate change would offset each other. 74 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  10. Significance of agricultural row structure on the microwave emissivity of soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promes, P. M.; Jackson, T. J.; O'Neill, P. E.

    1987-01-01

    A series of field experiments was carried out to extend the data base available for verifying agricultural row effect models of emissivity. The row effects model was used to simulate a data base from which an algorithm could be developed to account for row effects when the scene dielectric constant and small-scale roughness are unknown. One objective of the study was to quantify the significance of row structure and to develop a practical procedure for removing the effects of periodic row structure on the microwave emissivity of a soil in order to use the emissivity values to estimate the soil moisture. A second objective was to expand the data set available for model verification through field observations using a truck-mounted 1.4-GHz microwave radiometer.

  11. No tillage and liming reduce greenhouse gas emissions from poorly drained agricultural soils in Mediterranean regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Marco, Sonia; Abalos, Diego; Espejo, Rafael; Vallejo, Antonio; Mariscal-Sancho, Ignacio

    2016-10-01

    No tillage (NT) has been associated to increased N2O emission from poorly drained agricultural soils. This is the case for soils with a low permeable Bt horizon, which generates a perched water layer after water addition (via rainfall or irrigation) over a long period of time. Moreover, these soils often have problems of acidity and require liming application to sustain crop productivity; changes in soil pH have large implications for the production and consumption of soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Here, we assessed in a split-plot design the individual and interactive effects of tillage practices (conventional tillage (CT) vs. NT) and liming (Ca-amendment vs. not-amendment) on N2O and CH4 emissions from poorly drained acidic soils, over a field experiment with a rainfed triticale crop. Soil mineral N concentrations, pH, temperature, moisture, water soluble organic carbon, GHG fluxes and denitrification capacity were measured during the experiment. Tillage increased N2O emissions by 68% compared to NT and generally led to higher CH4 emissions; both effects were due to the higher soil moisture content under CT plots. Under CT, liming reduced N2O emissions by 61% whereas no effect was observed under NT. Under both CT and NT, CH4 oxidation was enhanced after liming application due to decreased Al(3+) toxicity. Based on our results, NT should be promoted as a means to improve soil physical properties and concurrently reduce N2O and CH4 emissions. Raising the soil pH via liming has positive effects on crop yield; here we show that it may also serve to mitigate CH4 emissions and, under CT, abate N2O emissions. PMID:27235901

  12. No tillage and liming reduce greenhouse gas emissions from poorly drained agricultural soils in Mediterranean regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Marco, Sonia; Abalos, Diego; Espejo, Rafael; Vallejo, Antonio; Mariscal-Sancho, Ignacio

    2016-10-01

    No tillage (NT) has been associated to increased N2O emission from poorly drained agricultural soils. This is the case for soils with a low permeable Bt horizon, which generates a perched water layer after water addition (via rainfall or irrigation) over a long period of time. Moreover, these soils often have problems of acidity and require liming application to sustain crop productivity; changes in soil pH have large implications for the production and consumption of soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Here, we assessed in a split-plot design the individual and interactive effects of tillage practices (conventional tillage (CT) vs. NT) and liming (Ca-amendment vs. not-amendment) on N2O and CH4 emissions from poorly drained acidic soils, over a field experiment with a rainfed triticale crop. Soil mineral N concentrations, pH, temperature, moisture, water soluble organic carbon, GHG fluxes and denitrification capacity were measured during the experiment. Tillage increased N2O emissions by 68% compared to NT and generally led to higher CH4 emissions; both effects were due to the higher soil moisture content under CT plots. Under CT, liming reduced N2O emissions by 61% whereas no effect was observed under NT. Under both CT and NT, CH4 oxidation was enhanced after liming application due to decreased Al(3+) toxicity. Based on our results, NT should be promoted as a means to improve soil physical properties and concurrently reduce N2O and CH4 emissions. Raising the soil pH via liming has positive effects on crop yield; here we show that it may also serve to mitigate CH4 emissions and, under CT, abate N2O emissions.

  13. The role of renewable energy and agriculture in reducing CO2 emissions: evidence for North Africa countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Jebli, Mehdi; Ben Youssef, Slim

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses panel cointegration techniques and Granger causality tests to investigate the dynamic causal links between per capita renewable energy consumption, agricultural value added (AVA), carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and real gross domestic product (GDP) for a panel of five North Africa countries spanning the period 1980-2011. In the short-run, the Granger causality tests show the existence of a bidirectional causality between CO2 emissions and agriculture, a unidirectional causali...

  14. Options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions during wastewater treatment for agricultural use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    might be exploited in the construction of new wastewater treatment facilities, especially in developing countries. - Highlights: ► Sewage treatment causes GHGs emissions from energy inputs, organic matter degradation and biological nutrient removal. ► Changes of treatment methods and extent can reduce direct on-site GHG emissions by up to 55%. ► Wastewater treatment and products' fertilizer value should accommodate intended agricultural reuse. ► Exploiting the wastewater derived GHG abatement potential would reduce the State of Israel overall GHG emissions by ≈1%.

  15. Managing agricultural emissions to the atmosphere: State of the science, fate and mitigation, and identifying research gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of agriculture on regional air quality creates significant challenges to sustainability of food supplies and to the quality of national resources. Agricultural emissions to the atmosphere can lead to many nuisances, such as smog, haze, or offensive odors. They can also create more seriou...

  16. Effects of fossil diesel and biodiesel blends on the performances and emissions of agricultural tractor engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić Milan D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid growth in the energy consumption has conditioned the need for discovering the alternative energy resources which would be adapted to the existing engine constructions and which would satisfy the additional criteria related to the renewability, ecology and reliability of use. Introduction of biodiesel has been the focus of attention over the last ten years. The aim of this research is to investigate the influence of biodiesel on the performances and exhaust gas emissions of medium power agricultural tractor engines (37-66 kW. The reason for the selection of this category is that those types of tractors are most frequently used in agriculture. In this research biodiesel produced from sunflower oil was blended with fossil diesel. Biodiesel, fossil diesel and fossil diesel blends with 15, 25, 50 and 75%v/v biodiesel were tested for their influence on the engine performances and emissions. The testing was performed on a four-cylinder diesel engine with 48 kW rated power. The experimental research on the engine performances was conducted in compliance with OECD test CODE 2, and the exhaust gas emissions were tested according to the ISO 8178-4, C1. The use of biodiesel and fossil diesel blends reduced the engine power with the increase of biodiesel share in the blend. However, the exception was the blend with 15%v/v biodiesel which induced a slight increase in the engine power. Depending on the share of biodiesel in the blend all blends fuels showed increased specific fuel consumption compared to the fossil diesel. Thermal efficiency increased as a result of more complete combustion of biodiesel and fossil diesel blends. The exhaust gas emissions implied that the addition of biodiesel reduced the content of CO2 and CO, as well as the temperature of exhaust gases, but it increased the emission of NOx.

  17. Simulated carbon emissions from land-use change are substantially enhanced by accounting for agricultural management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, T. A. M.; Arneth, A.; Olin, S.; Ahlström, A.; Bayer, A. D.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Lindeskog, M.; Schurgers, G.

    2015-12-01

    It is over three decades since a large terrestrial carbon sink (S T) was first reported. The magnitude of the net sink is now relatively well known, and its importance for dampening atmospheric CO2 accumulation, and hence climate change, widely recognised. But the contributions of underlying processes are not well defined, particularly the role of emissions from land-use change (E LUC) versus the biospheric carbon uptake (S L; S T = S L - E LUC). One key aspect of the interplay of E LUC and S L is the role of agricultural processes in land-use change emissions, which has not yet been clearly quantified at the global scale. Here we assess the effect of representing agricultural land management in a dynamic global vegetation model. Accounting for harvest, grazing and tillage resulted in cumulative E LUC since 1850 ca. 70% larger than in simulations ignoring these processes, but also changed the timescale over which these emissions occurred and led to underestimations of the carbon sequestered by possible future reforestation actions. The vast majority of Earth system models in the recent IPCC Fifth Assessment Report omit these processes, suggesting either an overestimation in their present-day S T, or an underestimation of S L, of up to 1.0 Pg C a-1. Management processes influencing crop productivity per se are important for food supply, but were found to have little influence on E LUC.

  18. Simulated carbon emissions from land-use change are substantially enhanced by accounting for agricultural management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is over three decades since a large terrestrial carbon sink (ST) was first reported. The magnitude of the net sink is now relatively well known, and its importance for dampening atmospheric CO2 accumulation, and hence climate change, widely recognised. But the contributions of underlying processes are not well defined, particularly the role of emissions from land-use change (ELUC) versus the biospheric carbon uptake (SL; ST = SL − ELUC). One key aspect of the interplay of ELUC and SL is the role of agricultural processes in land-use change emissions, which has not yet been clearly quantified at the global scale. Here we assess the effect of representing agricultural land management in a dynamic global vegetation model. Accounting for harvest, grazing and tillage resulted in cumulative ELUC since 1850 ca. 70% larger than in simulations ignoring these processes, but also changed the timescale over which these emissions occurred and led to underestimations of the carbon sequestered by possible future reforestation actions. The vast majority of Earth system models in the recent IPCC Fifth Assessment Report omit these processes, suggesting either an overestimation in their present-day ST, or an underestimation of SL, of up to 1.0 Pg C a−1. Management processes influencing crop productivity per se are important for food supply, but were found to have little influence on ELUC. (letter)

  19. Green house gas emissions from open field burning of agricultural residues in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, S; Shrivastava, Rajnish; Saxena, Mohini

    2010-10-01

    In India, about 435.98 MMT of agro-residues are produced every year, out of which 313.62 MMT are surplus. These residues are either partially utilized or un-utilised due to various constraints. To pave the way for subsequent season for agriculture activity, the excess crop residues are burnt openly in the fields, unmindful of their ill effects on the environment. The present study has been undertaken to evaluate the severity of air pollution through emission of green house gases (GHGs) due to open field burning of agro-residues in India. Open field burning of surplus agro-residues in India results in the emission of GHG. Emissions of CH4 and N2O in 1997-98 and 2006-07 have been 3.73 and 4.06 MMT CO2 equivalent, which is an increase of 8.88% over a decade. About three-fourths of GHG emissions from agro-residues burning were CH4 and the remaining one-fourth were N2O. Burning of wheat and paddy straws alone contributes to about 42% of GHGs. These GHG emissions can be avoided once the agro-residues are employed for sustainable, cost-effective and environment- friendly options like power generation.

  20. Green house gas emissions from open field burning of agricultural residues in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, S; Shrivastava, Rajnish; Saxena, Mohini

    2010-10-01

    In India, about 435.98 MMT of agro-residues are produced every year, out of which 313.62 MMT are surplus. These residues are either partially utilized or un-utilised due to various constraints. To pave the way for subsequent season for agriculture activity, the excess crop residues are burnt openly in the fields, unmindful of their ill effects on the environment. The present study has been undertaken to evaluate the severity of air pollution through emission of green house gases (GHGs) due to open field burning of agro-residues in India. Open field burning of surplus agro-residues in India results in the emission of GHG. Emissions of CH4 and N2O in 1997-98 and 2006-07 have been 3.73 and 4.06 MMT CO2 equivalent, which is an increase of 8.88% over a decade. About three-fourths of GHG emissions from agro-residues burning were CH4 and the remaining one-fourth were N2O. Burning of wheat and paddy straws alone contributes to about 42% of GHGs. These GHG emissions can be avoided once the agro-residues are employed for sustainable, cost-effective and environment- friendly options like power generation. PMID:22312795

  1. Biogas in organic agriculture-effects on productivity, energy self-sufficiency and greenhouse gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pugesgaard, Siri; Olesen, Jørgen E; Jørgensen, Uffe;

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of manure and crops provides the possibility of a combined production of renewable energy and organic fertilizer on organic farms and has been suggested as an option to improve sustainability of organic agriculture. In the present study, the consequences of implementation...... of anaerobic digestion and biogas production were analyzed on a 1000 ha model farm with combined dairy and cash crop production, representing organic agriculture in Denmark. The effects on crop rotation, nitrogen flows and losses, yield, energy balance and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were evaluated for four...... scenarios of biogas production on the farm. Animal manure was digested for biogas production in all scenarios and was supplemented with: (1) 100 ha grass–clover for biogas, (2) 100 ha maize for biogas, (3) 200 ha grass–clover for biogas and reduced number of livestock, and (4) 200 ha grass–clover for biogas...

  2. Elemental analysis of agricultural soil samples by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruvinel, Paulo E.; Flocchini, Robert G.; Artaxo, Paulo; Crestana, Silvio; Herrmann, Paulo S. P., Jr.

    1999-04-01

    In agriculture, elements essential to vital processes are also called nutrients. A suitable and reliable particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) methodology for content determination of essential nutrients in soil samples was developed and its effectiveness proved. The PIXE method is applied to intermediate thickness samples, whose mass per area unit are smaller than 1 μg/cm 2. Precision and accuracy of the method was estimated after repeated measurements of a single reference material: CRM PACS-2 (estuarine sediment) with a matrix quite similar to the soil samples measured. This paper reports the results of elemental measurements in soil samples. A discussion of agricultural soil sample preparation for PIXE analysis is also presented.

  3. Elemental analysis of agricultural soil samples by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruvinel, Paulo E. E-mail: cruvinel@cnpdia.embrapa.br; Flocchini, Robert G.; Artaxo, Paulo; Crestana, Silvio; Herrmann, Paulo S.P. Jr

    1999-04-02

    In agriculture, elements essential to vital processes are also called nutrients. A suitable and reliable particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) methodology for content determination of essential nutrients in soil samples was developed and its effectiveness proved. The PIXE method is applied to intermediate thickness samples, whose mass per area unit are smaller than 1 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}. Precision and accuracy of the method was estimated after repeated measurements of a single reference material: CRM PACS-2 (estuarine sediment) with a matrix quite similar to the soil samples measured. This paper reports the results of elemental measurements in soil samples. A discussion of agricultural soil sample preparation for PIXE analysis is also presented.

  4. Designing bioenergy crop buffers to mitigate nitrous oxide emissions and water quality impacts from agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, G.; Negri, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    There is a strong societal need to evaluate and understand the environmental aspects of bioenergy production, especially due to the significant increases in production mandated by many countries, including the United States. Bioenergy is a land-based renewable resource and increases in production are likely to result in large-scale conversion of land from current uses to bioenergy crop production; potentially causing increases in the prices of food, land and agricultural commodities as well as disruption of ecosystems. Current research on the environmental sustainability of bioenergy has largely focused on the potential of bioenergy crops to sequester carbon and mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and possible impacts on water quality and quantity. A key assumption in these studies is that bioenergy crops will be grown in a manner similar to current agricultural crops such as corn and hence would affect the environment similarly. This study presents a systems approach where the agricultural, energy and environmental sectors are considered as components of a single system, and bioenergy crops are used to design multi-functional agricultural landscapes that meet society’s requirements for food, energy and environmental protection. We evaluate the production of bioenergy crop buffers on marginal land and using degraded water and discuss the potential for growing cellulosic bioenergy crops such as miscanthus and switchgrass in optimized systems such that (1) marginal land is brought into productive use; (2) impaired water is used to boost yields (3); clean freshwater is left for other uses that require higher water quality; and (4) feedstock diversification is achieved that helps ecological sustainability, biodiversity, and economic opportunities for farmers. The process-based biogeochemical model DNDC was used to simulate crop yield, nitrous oxide production and nitrate concentrations in groundwater when bioenergy crops were grown in buffer strips adjacent to

  5. Mitigating Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Agricultural Landscape: The Role of Isotopic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Mohammad; Nguyen, Minh Long

    2014-05-01

    A review of studies from agricultural landscapes indicate that intensification of agricultural activities, inefficient use of reactive nitrogen (N) fertilizers and irrigation water, increasing human population and changes in their diet (more protein demand), high stocking rate (number of grazing livestock per hectare) and intensive cultivation are the major influencing factors for nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions into the atmosphere. Nitrification (both autotrophic and heterotrophic), denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) are the three major microbial processes that produce greenhouse N2O and non-greenhouse gas (N2) and can sometimes occur concurrently in a given soil system. The contribution of N2O production from each of these microbial processes is inconclusive because of the complex interactions between various microbial processes and the physical and chemical conditions in soil microsite (s). Nitrous oxide emissions across an agricultural landscape from different N inputs (chemical fertilizers and animal manure) and soil types are also extremely variable both temporally and spatially and range from 1-20% of the applied N and could therefore represent agronomic loss. The available conventional methods such as acetylene (C2H2) inhibition and helium (He) cannot accurately measure both N2O and N2 and their ratio in a given soil. The use of 15N stable isotopic technique offers the best option to measure both N2O and N2 and to identify their source (nitrification and denitrification) with a greater accuracy. Manipulating soil and fertilizer management practices can minimise these gaseous N losses. For example the combined use of urease inhibitor like (N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (nBTPT) (trade name Agrotain®) and nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) with urea (100 kg N ha-1) or animal urine (600 kg N ha-1) was shown to reduce N losses by 39-53 % via denitrification-nitrification-DNRA processes. Other farm management

  6. Simulated carbon emissions from land-use change are substantially enhanced by accounting for agricultural management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pugh, T. A. M.; Arneth, A.; Olin, S.;

    2015-01-01

    quantified at the global scale. Here we assess the effect of representing agricultural land management in a dynamic global vegetation model. Accounting for harvest, grazing and tillage resulted in cumulative E LUC since 1850 ca. 70% larger than in simulations ignoring these processes, but also changed...... the timescale over which these emissions occurred and led to underestimations of the carbon sequestered by possible future reforestation actions. The vast majority of Earth system models in the recent IPCC Fifth Assessment Report omit these processes, suggesting either an overestimation in their present...

  7. First detection of ammonia (NH3) in the upper troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höpfner, Michael; Volkamer, Rainer; Grabowski, Udo; Grutter de la Mora, Michel; Orphal, Johannes; Stiller, Gabriele; von Clarmann, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Ammonia (NH3) is the major alkaline trace gas in the troposphere. Neutralization of atmospheric acids, like HNO3 and H2SO4, leads to formation of ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate aerosols. Further, there are indications that NH3 may enhance nucleation of sulfuric acid aerosols by stabilization of sulfuric acid clusters. By far the largest source of ammonia is agricultural food production. Major global emissions are located in S-E Asia as e.g. shown by satellite nadir observations. Besides its importance with respect to air quality issues, an increase of ammonia emissions in the 21st century might lead to a significant climate radiative impact through aerosol formation. In spite of its significance, there is a lack of observational information on the global distribution of NH3 in the mid- and upper troposphere. Observational evidence, however, would be important for testing e.g. model results on the fate of ammonia from its source regions on ground to altitudes up to the tropopause. In this contribution we will show, to our knowledge, the first unequivocal detection of ammonia in the upper troposphere. This result has been achieved through analysis of infrared limb-emission observations performed with the MIPAS (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding) instrument on board the Envisat satellite from 2002-2012. On a global scale, enhanced values of ammonia have been measured in the upper tropospheric region influenced by the Asian monsoon. We will present a quantitative analysis of the retrieved concentrations of NH3 including an error assessment and further retrieval diagnostics. The results will be discussed with respect to the variability of NH3 locally within the Asian monsoon region's upper troposphere and at different years. Further, we will show comparisons between global distributions of NH3 from published model simulations and our observational dataset from MIPAS.

  8. Overcoming the risk of inaction from emissions uncertainty in smallholder agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, N. J.; Ryan, C. M.

    2013-03-01

    The potential for improving productivity and increasing the resilience of smallholder agriculture, while also contributing to climate change mitigation, has recently received considerable political attention (Beddington et al 2012). Financial support for improving smallholder agriculture could come from performance-based funding including sale of carbon credits or certified commodities, payments for ecosystem services, and nationally appropriate mitigation action (NAMA) budgets, as well as more traditional sources of development and environment finance. Monitoring the greenhouse gas fluxes associated with changes to agricultural practice is needed for performance-based mitigation funding, and efforts are underway to develop tools to quantify mitigation achieved and assess trade-offs and synergies between mitigation and other livelihood and environmental priorities (Olander 2012). High levels of small scale variability in carbon stocks and emissions in smallholder agricultural systems (Ziegler et al 2012) mean that data intensive approaches are needed for precise and unbiased mitigation monitoring. The cost of implementing such monitoring programmes is likely to be high, and this introduces the risk that projects will not be developed in areas where there is the greatest need for agricultural improvements, which are likely to correspond with areas where existing data or research infrastructure are lacking. When improvements to livelihoods and food security are expected as co-benefits of performance-based mitigation finance, the risk of inaction is borne by the rural poor as well as the global climate. In situ measurement of carbon accumulation in smallholders' soils are not usually feasible because of the costs associated with sampling in a heterogeneous landscape, although technological advances could improve the situation (Milori et al 2012). Alternatives to in situ measurement are to estimate greenhouse gas fluxes by extrapolating information from existing

  9. Assessment of the impact of various mitigation options on nitrous oxide emissions caused by the agricultural sector in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kros, J.; Vries, de W.; Reinds, G.J.; Lesschen, J.P.; Velthof, G.L.

    2010-01-01

    A European Union (EU-27) wide N2O emission estimate for the agricultural sector is presented, using the INTEGRATOR model, combined with detailed GIS-based environmental data and farming data. INTEGRATOR links various modules, calculating NH3, NOx, N2O, CO2, and CH4 emissions from housing and manure

  10. Emissions of ammonia, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide from swine wastewater during and after acidification treatment: effect of pH, mixing and aeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Xiao-Rong; Blanes-Vidal, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the effect of swine slurry acidification and acidification-aeration treatments on ammonia (NH(3)), carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) emissions during slurry treatment and subsequent undisturbed storage. The study was conducted in an experimental...... setup consisting of nine dynamic flux chambers. Three pH levels (pH = 6.0, pH = 5.8 and pH = 5.5), combined with short-term aeration and venting (with an inert gas) treatments were studied. Acidification reduced average NH(3) emissions from swine slurry stored after acidification treatment compared...... to emissions during storage of non-acidified slurry. The reduction were 50%, 62% and 77% when pH was reduce to 6.0, 5.8 and 5.5, respectively. However, it had no significant effect on average CO(2) and H(2)S emissions during storage of slurry after acidification. Aeration of the slurry for 30 min had no effect...

  11. Emissions of greenhouse gases, ammonia, and hydrogen sulfide from pigs fed standard diets and diets supplemented with dried distillers grains with solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabue, Steven; Kerr, Brian

    2014-07-01

    Swine producers are supplementing animal diets with increased levels of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) to offset the cost of a standard corn-soybean meal (CSBM) diet. However, the environmental impact of these diets on emissions of greenhouse gases, ammonia (NH), and hydrogen sulfide (HS) is largely unknown. Twenty-four pigs (103.6 kg initial body weight) were fed a standard CSBM diet or a CSBM diet containing 35% DDGS for 42 d. Pigs were fed and their manure was collected twice daily over the 42-d trial. Pigs fed diets containing DDGS had reduced manure pH ( < 0.01), increased surface crust coverage ( < 0.01), increased manure dry matter content ( < 0.01), and increased manure C ( < 0.01), N ( < 0.01), and S ( < 0.01) contents. Animals fed DDGS diets also had significantly higher concentrations of total ammoniacal nitrogen ( < 0.01) and sulfide ( < 0.01) in their manure compared with animals fed CSBM diets. Manure emissions of NH ( < 0.01) and HS ( < 0.05) were significantly higher in animals fed the CSBM diet. There was no dietary treatment effect for methane or nitrous oxide emissions from manure. This study demonstrates that diets containing DDGS can significantly affect manure composition and potentially lower emissions of NH and HS.

  12. Evaluating greenhouse gas emissions inventories for agricultural burning using satellite observations of active fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsiao-Wen; Jin, Yufang; Giglio, Louis; Foley, Jonathan A; Randerson, James T

    2012-06-01

    Fires in agricultural ecosystems emit greenhouse gases and aerosols that influence climate on multiple spatial and temporal scales. Annex 1 countries of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), many of which ratified the Kyoto Protocol, are required to report emissions of CH4 and N2O from these fires annually. In this study, we evaluated several aspects of this reporting system, including the optimality of the crops targeted by the UNFCCC globally and within Annex 1 countries, and the consistency of emissions inventories among different countries. We also evaluated the success of individual countries in capturing interannual variability and long-term trends in agricultural fire activity. In our approach, we combined global high-resolution maps of crop harvest area and production, derived from satellite maps and ground-based census data, with Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements of active fires. At a global scale, we found that adding ground nuts (e.g., peanuts), cocoa, cotton and oil palm, and removing potato, oats, rye, and pulse other from the list of 14 crops targeted by the UNFCCC increased the percentage of active fires covered by the reporting system by 9%. Optimization led to a different recommended list for Annex 1 countries, requiring the addition of sunflower, cotton, rapeseed, and alfalfa and the removal of beans, sugarcane, pulse others, and tuber-root others. Extending emissions reporting to all Annex 1 countries (from the current set of 19 countries) would increase the efficacy of the reporting system from 6% to 15%, and further including several non-Annex 1 countries (Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Thailand, Kazakhstan, Mexico, and Nigeria) would capture over 55% of active fires in croplands worldwide. Analyses of interannual trends from the United States and Australia showed the importance of both intensity of fire use and crop production in controlling year

  13. N2O emissions from regional agricultural lands--A case study of Guizhou Province,southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To preliminarily study N2O emissions and the importance of environmental parameters on N2O flux from subtropical agroecosystem in China,N2O flux measurements were made at three cultivated agricultural lands in Guizhou Province,southwestern China.Based on the test and validation of daily N2O flux and its several associated variables between DNDC model and field measurements,DNDC model has been employed to estimate total N2O emissions from entire agricultural lands and its spatial distribution at county scale in Guizhou in 1995,and to assess the contributions of cropping practices on N2O emissions.

  14. N2O emissions from regional agricultural lands——A case study of Guizhou Province, southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文彬; 洪业汤; 陈旭晖; C.S.Li

    2000-01-01

    To preliminarily study N2O emissions and the importance of environmental parameters on N2O flux from subtropical agroecosystem in China, N2O flux measurements were made at three cultivated agricultural lands in Guizhou Province, southwestern China. Based on the test and validation of daily N2O flux and its several associated variables between DNDC model and field measurements, DNDC model has been employed to estimate total N2O emissions from entire agricultural lands and its spatial distribution at county scale in Guizhou in 1995, and to assess the contributions of cropping practices on N2O emissions.

  15. Developments in greenhouse gas emissions and net energy use in Danish agriculture - How to achieve substantial CO2 reduction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Tommy; Olesen, Jørgen E; Petersen, Søren O;

    2011-01-01

    emissions in the form of methane, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide (including carbon sources and sinks, and the impact of energy consumption/bioenergy production) from Danish agriculture in the years 1990–2010. An analysis of possible measures to reduce the GHG emissions indicated that a 50–70% reduction...... of agricultural emissions by 2050 relative to 1990 is achievable, including mitigation measures in relation to the handling of manure and fertilisers, optimization of animal feeding, cropping practices, and land use changes with more organic farming, afforestation and energy crops. In addition, the bioenergy...

  16. Producer and consumer responsibility for greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural production—a perspective from the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaks, D. P. M.; Barford, C. C.; Ramankutty, N.; Foley, J. A.

    2009-10-01

    Greenhouse gases from the combination of land use change and agriculture are responsible for the largest share of global emissions, but are inadequately considered in the current set of international climate policies. Under the Kyoto protocol, emissions generated in the production of agricultural commodities are the responsibility of the producing country, introducing potential inequities if agricultural products are exported. This study quantifies the greenhouse gas emissions from the production of soybeans and beef in the Amazon basin of Brazil, a region where rates of both deforestation and agricultural exports are high. Integrating methods from land use science and life-cycle analysis, and accounting for producer-consumer responsibility, we allocate emissions between Brazil and importing countries with an emphasis on ultimately reducing the greenhouse gas impact of food production. The mechanisms used to distribute the carbon emissions over time allocate the bulk of emissions to the years directly after the land use change occurred, and gradually decrease the carbon allocation to the agricultural products. The carbon liability embodied in soybeans exported from the Amazon between 1990 and 2006 was 128 TgCO2e, while 120 TgCO2e were embodied in exported beef. An equivalent carbon liability was assigned to Brazil for that time period.

  17. Producer and consumer responsibility for greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural production-a perspective from the Brazilian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaks, D P M; Barford, C C [Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment (SAGE), Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Wisconsin, 1710 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53726 (United States); Ramankutty, N [Department of Geography, McGill University, 805 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, QC, H3A 2K6 (Canada); Foley, J A, E-mail: zaks@wisc.ed [Institute on the Environment (IonE), University of Minnesota, 1954 Buford Avenue, St Paul, MN 55108 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Greenhouse gases from the combination of land use change and agriculture are responsible for the largest share of global emissions, but are inadequately considered in the current set of international climate policies. Under the Kyoto protocol, emissions generated in the production of agricultural commodities are the responsibility of the producing country, introducing potential inequities if agricultural products are exported. This study quantifies the greenhouse gas emissions from the production of soybeans and beef in the Amazon basin of Brazil, a region where rates of both deforestation and agricultural exports are high. Integrating methods from land use science and life-cycle analysis, and accounting for producer-consumer responsibility, we allocate emissions between Brazil and importing countries with an emphasis on ultimately reducing the greenhouse gas impact of food production. The mechanisms used to distribute the carbon emissions over time allocate the bulk of emissions to the years directly after the land use change occurred, and gradually decrease the carbon allocation to the agricultural products. The carbon liability embodied in soybeans exported from the Amazon between 1990 and 2006 was 128 TgCO{sub 2}e, while 120 TgCO{sub 2}e were embodied in exported beef. An equivalent carbon liability was assigned to Brazil for that time period.

  18. Producer and consumer responsibility for greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural production-a perspective from the Brazilian Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse gases from the combination of land use change and agriculture are responsible for the largest share of global emissions, but are inadequately considered in the current set of international climate policies. Under the Kyoto protocol, emissions generated in the production of agricultural commodities are the responsibility of the producing country, introducing potential inequities if agricultural products are exported. This study quantifies the greenhouse gas emissions from the production of soybeans and beef in the Amazon basin of Brazil, a region where rates of both deforestation and agricultural exports are high. Integrating methods from land use science and life-cycle analysis, and accounting for producer-consumer responsibility, we allocate emissions between Brazil and importing countries with an emphasis on ultimately reducing the greenhouse gas impact of food production. The mechanisms used to distribute the carbon emissions over time allocate the bulk of emissions to the years directly after the land use change occurred, and gradually decrease the carbon allocation to the agricultural products. The carbon liability embodied in soybeans exported from the Amazon between 1990 and 2006 was 128 TgCO2e, while 120 TgCO2e were embodied in exported beef. An equivalent carbon liability was assigned to Brazil for that time period.

  19. Carbon dioxide emissions from agricultural soils amended with livestock-derived organic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzolla, D.; Said-Pullicino, D.; Gigliotti, G.

    2009-04-01

    Carbon dioxide gas xchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, as well as the carbon sink strength of various arable land ecosystems, is of primary interest for global change research. Measures for increasing soil C inputs include the preferential use of livestock-derived organic materials (e.g. animal manure and slurries, digestate from biogas production plants and compost). The application of such materials to agricultural soils returns essential nutrients for plant growth and organic matter to maintain long-term fertility. Whether or not such practices ultimately result in sustained C sequestration at the ecosystem level will depend on their mineralization rates. This work presents preliminary results from a laboratory incubation trial to evaluate carbon dioxide fluxes from two agricultural soils (a calcareous silt loam and a silty clay loam) amended with agricultural doses of (i) pig slurry (PSL), (ii) the digestate from the anaerobic fermentation of pig slurries (AAS) and (ii) a compost from the aerobic stabilisation of the digestate (LDC). These subsequent steps of slurry stabilisation resulted in a decrease in the content of labile organic matter which was reflected in a reduction in maximum carbon dioxide emission rates from amended soils. Measurements have shown that peak emissions from soils occur immediately after application of these organic materials (within 5 days) and decrease in the order PSL > AAS > LDC. Moreover, mean cumulative emissions over the first 40 days showed that a higher percentage (about 44%) of the C added with PSL was mineralised respect to C added with AAS (39%) and LDC (25%). Although it was hypothesised that apart from the quantity and stability of the added organic materials, even soil characteristics could influence C mineralisation rates, no significant differences were observed between emission fluxes for similarly treated soils. Mean cumulative emission fluxes after 40 days from treatment were of 114, 103 and

  20. Spatial and Temporal Responses to an Emissions Trading Scheme Covering Agriculture and Forestry: Simulation Results from New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Suzi; Anastasiadis, Simon; Olssen, Alex; Power, William; Timar, Levente; Zhang, Wei

    2012-01-01

    We perform simulations using the integrated Land Use in Rural New Zealand (LURNZ) model to analyze the effect of various New Zealand emissions trading scheme (ETS) scenarios on land use, emissions and output in a temporally and spatially explicit manner. We compare the impact of afforestation to the impact of other land-use change on net greenhouse gas emissions and evaluate the importance of the forestry component of the ETS relative to the agricultural component. We find that the effect of ...

  1. Spatial and Temporal Responses to an Emissions Trading Scheme Covering Agriculture and Forestry: Simulation Results from New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We perform simulations using the integrated Land Use in Rural New Zealand (LURNZ model to analyze the effect of various New Zealand emissions trading scheme (ETS scenarios on land use, emissions and output in a temporally and spatially explicit manner. We compare the impact of afforestation to the impact of other land-use change on net greenhouse gas emissions and evaluate the importance of the forestry component of the ETS relative to the agricultural component. We find that the effect of including agriculture in the ETS is small relative to the effect of including forestry. We also examine the effect of land-use change on the time profile of net emissions from the forestry sector. Finally, we present projections of future agricultural output under various policy scenarios.

  2. Field Studies Show That In Situ Greenhouse Gas Emission Factors for East African Agriculture Are Less Than IPCC Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelster, D.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Rufino, M.; Rosenstock, T. S.; Wanyama, G.

    2015-12-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from African agricultural systems are thought to comprise a large portion of total emissions from the continent, however these estimates have been calculated using emission factors (EF) from other regions due to the lack of field studies in Africa, which results in large uncertainties for these estimates. Field measurements from western Kenya calculating emissions over a year in 59 different sites found that GHG emissions from typical smallholder farms ranged from 2.8 to 15.0 Mg CO2-C ha-1, -6.0 to 2.4 kg CH4-C ha-1 and -0.1 to 1.8 kg N2O-N ha-1, and were not affected by management intensity. The lack of a response in N2O emissions to N fertilization suggests that the EF currently used in national inventories overestimates N2O emissions from typical smallholder agriculture. Another study measuring N2O and CH4 emissions from manure deposited by grazing cattle found that the N2O EF ranged from 0.1 to 0.2%, while the CH4 EF ranged from 0.04 to 0.14 Kg CH4-C per 173 kg animal. These suggest that the current IPCC EF overestimate agricultural soil and manure GHG emissions for Kenya, and likely for much of East Africa.

  3. Application effects of coated urea and urease and nitrification inhibitors on ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from a subtropical cotton field of the Mississippi delta region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Zhou [College of Resources and Environment, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi (China); School of Plant, Environment & Soil Sciences, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Wang, Jim J., E-mail: jjwang@agcenter.lsu.edu [School of Plant, Environment & Soil Sciences, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Liu, Shuai [College of Resources and Environment, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi (China); School of Plant, Environment & Soil Sciences, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Zhang, Zengqiang, E-mail: zqzhang@nwsuaf.edu.cn [College of Resources and Environment, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi (China); Dodla, Syam K.; Myers, Gerald [School of Plant, Environment & Soil Sciences, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization affects both ammonia (NH{sub 3}) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that have implications in air quality and global warming potential. Different cropping systems practice varying N fertilizations. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of applications of polymer-coated urea and urea treated with N process inhibitors: NBPT [N-(n-butyl)thiophosphoric triamide], urease inhibitor, and DCD [Dicyandiamide], nitrification inhibitor, on NH{sub 3} and GHG emissions from a cotton production system in the Mississippi delta region. A two-year field experiment consisting of five treatments including the Check (unfertilized), urea, polymer-coated urea (ESN), urea + NBPT, and urea + DCD was conducted over 2013 and 2014 in a Cancienne loam (Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, nonacid, hyperthermic Fluvaquentic Epiaquepts). Ammonia and GHG samples were collected using active and passive chamber methods, respectively, and characterized. The results showed that the N loss to the atmosphere following urea-N application was dominated by a significantly higher emission of N{sub 2}O-N than NH{sub 3}-N and the most N{sub 2}O-N and NH{sub 3}-N emissions were during the first 30–50 days. Among different N treatments compared to regular urea, NBPT was the most effective in reducing NH{sub 3}-N volatilization (by 58–63%), whereas DCD the most significant in mitigating N{sub 2}O-N emissions (by 75%). Polymer-coated urea (ESN) and NBPT also significantly reduced N{sub 2}O-N losses (both by 52%) over urea. The emission factors (EFs) for urea, ESN, urea-NBPT, urea + DCD were 1.9%, 1.0%, 0.2%, 0.8% for NH{sub 3}-N, and 8.3%, 3.4%, 3.9%, 1.0% for N{sub 2}O-N, respectively. There were no significant effects of different N treatments on CO{sub 2}-C and CH{sub 4}-C fluxes. Overall both of these N stabilizers and polymer-coated urea could be used as a mitigation strategy for reducing N{sub 2}O emission while urease inhibitor NBPT for reducing NH{sub 3} emission

  4. Developments in greenhouse gas emissions and net energy use in Danish agriculture - How to achieve substantial CO{sub 2} reductions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalgaard, T., E-mail: tommy.dalgaard@agrsci.dk [Aarhus University, Department of Agroecology, Blichers Alle 20, P.O. Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele (Denmark); Olesen, J.E.; Petersen, S.O.; Petersen, B.M.; Jorgensen, U.; Kristensen, T.; Hutchings, N.J. [Aarhus University, Department of Agroecology, Blichers Alle 20, P.O. Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele (Denmark); Gyldenkaerne, S. [Aarhus University, National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Hermansen, J.E. [Aarhus University, Department of Agroecology, Blichers Alle 20, P.O. Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele (Denmark)

    2011-11-15

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture are a significant contributor to total Danish emissions. Consequently, much effort is currently given to the exploration of potential strategies to reduce agricultural emissions. This paper presents results from a study estimating agricultural GHG emissions in the form of methane, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide (including carbon sources and sinks, and the impact of energy consumption/bioenergy production) from Danish agriculture in the years 1990-2010. An analysis of possible measures to reduce the GHG emissions indicated that a 50-70% reduction of agricultural emissions by 2050 relative to 1990 is achievable, including mitigation measures in relation to the handling of manure and fertilisers, optimization of animal feeding, cropping practices, and land use changes with more organic farming, afforestation and energy crops. In addition, the bioenergy production may be increased significantly without reducing the food production, whereby Danish agriculture could achieve a positive energy balance. - Highlights: > GHG emissions from Danish agriculture 1990-2010 are calculated, including carbon sequestration. > Effects of measures to further reduce GHG emissions are listed. > Land use scenarios for a substantially reduced GHG emission by 2050 are presented. > A 50-70% reduction of agricultural emissions by 2050 relative to 1990 is achievable. > Via bioenergy production Danish agriculture could achieve a positive energy balance. - Scenario studies of greenhouse gas mitigation measures illustrate the possible realization of CO{sub 2} reductions for Danish agriculture by 2050, sustaining current food production.

  5. Influence of Biopolym Granulat effects on reductionof ammonia concentration in stables of intensive farm animals breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohuslav Čermák

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The living environment distress is connected currently not only with industrial production but also agriculture is biggest producer of toxic gas – ammonia (NH3 .Emissions of that gas originate mainly in the farm animals breeding and generate within storage and handling with farmyard manure, slurry, poultry excrements and litter. Agriculture influences considerably landscape. has impact on basic effect on soil, water and air. In assessing experiment the preparation Biopolym Granulat rumen metabolism and N-balance was found positive effects in terms of increased ammonia nitrogen, the number of ciliates and the reduction of N-compounds in feces. Confirmed the impact on the ammonia content in well-ventilated dairy stable. The economic evaluation depends on the exercise price of milk.

  6. Climate, Health, Agricultural and Economic Impacts of Tighter Vehicle-Emission Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindell, Drew; Faluvegi, Greg; Walsh, Michael; Anenberg, Susan C.; VanDingen, Rita; Muller, Nicholas Z.; Austin, Jeff; Koch, Dorothy; Milly, George

    2011-01-01

    Non-CO2 air pollutants from motor vehicles have traditionally been controlled to protect air quality and health, but also affect climate. We use global composition climate modelling to examine the integrated impacts of adopting stringent European on-road vehicle-emission standards for these pollutants in 2015 in many developing countries. Relative to no extra controls, the tight standards lead to annual benefits in 2030 and beyond of 120,000-280,000 avoided premature air pollution-related deaths, 6.1-19.7 million metric tons of avoided ozone-related yield losses of major food crops, $US0.6-2.4 trillion avoided health damage and $US1.1-4.3 billion avoided agricultural damage, and mitigation of 0.20 (+0.14/-0.17) C of Northern Hemisphere extratropical warming during 2040-2070. Tighter vehicle-emission standards are thus extremely likely to mitigate short-term climate change in most cases, in addition to providing large improvements in human health and food security. These standards will not reduce CO2 emissions, however, which is required to mitigate long-term climate change.

  7. Climate Change and Agriculture: Can market governance mechanisms reduce emissions from the food system fairly and effectively?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnett, Tara

    2012-05-15

    Climate and agriculture are inextricably linked: the climate affects agricultural production and is itself affected by agricultural emissions. Agriculture is responsible for 30 per cent of global greenhouse gas emissions. How agriculture is practised therefore has significant potential for mitigating climate change, for providing food security and for improving the livelihoods of millions of food producers worldwide. There is growing interest in the use of market governance mechanisms for tackling climate change by giving the financial incentives to make the kinds of changes that are required. But how widely are these mechanisms being used in agriculture, and are they effective in reducing emissions? What impact do they have on adaptation and other aspects of sustainable development? Are they able to balance the competing demands of producers and consumers, the environment and food security? The key messages emerging from this study are that economic measures have a vital part to play within this regulatory context, but they need to be designed with care. To be effective, emissions from food production and consumption must be addressed together. If not, emissions reduced in one region will simply be displaced elsewhere. A balance needs to be struck by applying a mix of approaches – regulatory, economic, voluntary, and information: no single measure will be effective in achieving emissions reductions on its own. 'Soft' measures, such as voluntary agreements and information have a part to play in providing an enabling context for action, but they must be backed up by 'harder' regulatory or economic measures. Regulation, in the form of a cap on emissions, is a prerequisite for other market governance measures to function well. To be effective, MGMs need to consider the social, cultural and economic context within which they operate.

  8. Options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions during wastewater treatment for agricultural use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fine, Pinchas, E-mail: finep@volcani.agri.gov.il [Ministry of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Organization, Volcani Center, Institute of Soil, Water and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 6, Bet-Dagan 50250 (Israel); Hadas, Efrat, E-mail: efrath@moag.gov.il [Ministry of Agriculture, Investment and Financing Authority, P.O. Box 30, Bet Dagan, 50250 (Israel)

    2012-02-01

    overall GHG emissions by almost 1%. This demonstrates the possibility of optional carbon credits which might be exploited in the construction of new wastewater treatment facilities, especially in developing countries. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sewage treatment causes GHGs emissions from energy inputs, organic matter degradation and biological nutrient removal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Changes of treatment methods and extent can reduce direct on-site GHG emissions by up to 55%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wastewater treatment and products' fertilizer value should accommodate intended agricultural reuse. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exploiting the wastewater derived GHG abatement potential would reduce the State of Israel overall GHG emissions by Almost-Equal-To 1%.

  9. Emission computed tomography of /sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglucose and /sup 13/N-ammonia in stroke and epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, D.E.; Phelps, M.E.; Engel, J. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The ECAT Positron Tomograph was used to scan normal control subjects, stroke patients at various times during recovery, and patients with partial epilepsy during EEG monitoring. /sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglucose (/sup 18/FDG) and /sup 13/N-Ammonia (/sup 13/NH/sub 3/) were used as indicators of abnormalities in local cerebral glucose utilization (LCMR/sub glc/) and relative perfusion, respectively. Hypometabolism, due to deactivation or minimal damage, was demonstrated with the /sup 18/FDG scan in deep structures and broad zones of cerebral cortex which appeared normal on x-ray CT (XCT) and /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate scans. In patients with partial epilepsy, who had unilateral or focal electrical abnormalities, interictal /sup 18/FDG scan patterns clearly showed localized regions of decreased (20 to 50%) LCMR/sub glc/, which correlated anatomically with the eventual EEG localization.

  10. Flooding-induced N2O emission bursts controlled by pH and nitrate in agricultural soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Clough, Tim J.; Elberling, Bo

    2014-01-01

    emissions is poorly studied for agricultural systems. The overall N2O dynamics during flooding of an agricultural soil and the effect of pH and NO3− concentration has been investigated based on a combination of the use of microsensors, stable isotope techniques, KCl extractions and modelling. This study...... within the soil. The magnitude of the emissions are, not surprisingly, positively correlated with the soil NO3− concentration but also negatively correlated with liming (neutral pH). The redox potential of the soil is found to influence N2O accumulation as the production and consumption of N2O occurs...... in narrow redox windows where the redox range levels are negatively correlated with the pH. This study highlights the potential importance of N2O bursts associated with flooding and infers that annual N2O emission estimates for tilled agricultural soils that are temporarily flooded will be underestimated...

  11. Pollutant swapping: greenhouse gas emissions from wetland systems constructed to mitigate agricultural pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer, Adam; Quinton, John; Surridge, Ben; McNamara, Niall

    2014-05-01

    Diffuse (non-point) water pollution from agricultural land continues to challenge water quality management, requiring the adoption of new land management practices. The use of constructed agricultural wetlands is one such practice, designed to trap multiple pollutants mobilised by rainfall prior to them reaching receiving water. Through capturing and storing pollutants in bottom sediments, it could be hypothesised that the abundance of nutrients stored in the anoxic conditions commonly found in these zones may lead to pollutant swapping. Under these circumstances, trapped material may undergo biogeochemical cycling to change chemical or physical form and thereby become more problematic or mobile within the environment. Thus, constructed agricultural wetlands designed to mitigate against one form of pollution may in fact offset the created benefits by 'swapping' this pollution into other forms and pathways, such as through release to the atmosphere. Pollutant swapping to the atmosphere has been noted in analogous wetland systems designed to treat municipal and industrial wastewaters, with significant fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O being recorded in some cases. However the small size, low level of engineering and variable nutrient/sediment inputs which are features of constructed agricultural wetlands, means that this knowledge is not directly transferable. Therefore, more information is required when assessing whether a wetland's potential to act as hotspot for pollution swapping outweighs its potential to act as a mitigation tool for surface water pollution. Here we present results from an on-going monitoring study at a trial agricultural wetland located in small a mixed-use catchment in Cumbria, UK. Estimates were made of CH4, CO2 and N2O flux from the wetland surface using adapted floating static chambers, which were then directly compared with fluxes from an undisturbed riparian zone. Results indicate that while greenhouse gas flux from the wetland may be

  12. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) Satellite Validations of Ammonia, Methanol, Formic Acid, and Carbon Monoxide over the Canadian Oil Sands

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The URLs link to the data archive of the Troposphere Emission Spectrometer (TES) retrievals. These include the transects included in the Canadian Tar Sands study. A...

  13. Mycotoxins in the environment: I. Production and emission from an agricultural test field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenzel, Judith; Forrer, Hans-Rudolf; Vogelgsang, Susanne; Hungerbühler, Konrad; Bucheli, Thomas D

    2012-12-18

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites that are naturally produced by fungi which infest and contaminate agricultural crops and commodities (e.g., small grain cereals, fruits, vegetables, and organic soil material). Although these compounds have extensively been studied in food and feed, only little is known about their environmental fate. Therefore, we investigated over nearly two years the occurrence of various mycotoxins in a field cropped with winter wheat of the variety Levis, which was artificially inoculated with Fusarium spp., as well as their emission via drainage water. Mycotoxins were regularly quantified in whole wheat plants (0.1-133 mg/kg(dry weight), for deoxynivalenol), and drainage water samples (0.8 ng/L to 1.14 μg/L, for deoxynivalenol). From the mycotoxins quantified in wheat (3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, deoxynivalenol, fusarenone-X, nivalenol, HT-2 toxin, T-2 toxin, beauvericin, and zearalenone), only the more hydrophilic ones or those prevailing at high concentrations were detected in drainage water. Of the total amounts produced in wheat plants (min: 2.3; max: 292 g/ha/y), 0.5-354 mg/ha/y, i.e. 0.002-0.12%, were emitted via drainage water. Hence, these compounds add to the complex mixture of natural and anthropogenic micropollutants particularly in small rural water bodies, receiving mainly runoff from agricultural areas. PMID:23145781

  14. Effects of covering materials and sawdust covering depths on ammonia and greenhouse gase emissions from cattle manure during storage%覆盖材料和厚度对堆存牛粪氨气和温室气体排放的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海生; 左福元; 董红敏; 栾冬梅

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production is the important source of gaseous emissions (NH3 and greenhouse gases) from agriculture. Storage of animal manure is reported to be an important agricultural source of the environmentally harmful gases. Generally, ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from stored animal manure can be affected by environmental factors (temperature and wind speed) and storage stacking configuration. Most studies have focused on the emission of ammonia and greenhouse gases from slurry during storage. However, information of gaseous emissions from solid manure stored is limited. Material covering is expected to be an effective method to reduce gaseous emissions from the stored manure. Thus, two experiments were set up to study gaseous emissions during storage of the solid cattle manure, and the effect of covering depth (1, 3 and 5 cm) and two different covering materials (sawdust and straw) on emissions of ammonia and greenhouse gases. Polyvinylchloride cylindrical (30 cm in diameter and 90 cm in height) static vessels were designed and built to measure ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions in the laboratory experiment. Fresh cattle manure was collected from practicing farm of Rongchang Campus of Southwest University in Chongqing. After fully mixed, manure was filled into 12 barrels (24.2 cm in diameter and 15 cm in height). Barrels were enveloped by static vessels while measuring gaseous emissions. The stacking process commenced on May 29, 2014, and was measured for 49 days. In Experiment 1, the emissions of NH3, CH4, N2O and CO2 from an uncovered and three sawdust-covering heaps of solid cattle manure were compared. Considering that the stacking of solid manure was only 10 cm height (about 4 kg), sawdust covering depths of 1, 3 and 5 cm were selected. In Experiment 2, the emissions of NH3, CH4, N2O and CO2 were quantified using solid cattle manure (about 10 kg, 25cm stacking height) covered with sawdust (2 cm depth, 250 g) and straw (6 cm depth, 250 g) by using

  15. Effect of C/N ratio, aeration rate and moisture content on ammonia and greenhouse gas emission during the composting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Jiang; Frank Schuchardt; Guoxue Li; Rui Guo; Yuanqiu Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Gaseous emission (N2O,CH4 and NH3) from composting can be an important source of anthropogenic greenhouse gas and air pollution.A laboratory scale orthogonal experiment was conducted to estimate the effects of C/N ratio,aeration rate and initial moisture content on gaseous emission during the composting of pig faeces from Chinese Ganqinfen system.The resnits showed that about 23.9%to 45.6% of total organic carbon (TOC) was lost in the form of CO2 and 0.8% to 7.5% of TOC emitted as CH4.Most of the nitrogen was lost in the form of NH3,which account for 9.6% to 32.4% of initial nitrogen.N2O was also an important way of nitrogen losses and 1.5% to 7.3% of initial total nitrogen was lost as it.Statistic analysis showed that the aeration rate is the most important factor which could affect the NH3 (p =0.0189),CH4 (p =0.0113) and N2O (p =0.0493) emissions significantly.Higher aeration rates reduce the CH4 emission but increase the NH3 and N2O losses.C/N ratio could affect the NH3 (p =0.0442) and CH4 (p =0.0246) emissions significantly,but not the N2O.Lower C/N ratio caused higher NH3 and CH4 emissions.The initial moisture content can not influence the gaseous emission significantly.Most treatments were matured after 37 days,except a trial with high moisture content and a low C/N ratio.

  16. Potential of aeration flow rate and bio-char addition to reduce greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions during manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Md Albarune; de Neergaard, Andreas; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2014-02-01

    Aeration is an important factor influencing CO2, CH4, N2O and NH3 emissions from the composting process. Both CH4 and N2O are potent greenhouse gases (GHG) of high importance. Here, we examined the effects of high and low aeration rates together with addition of barley straw with and without bio-char on GHG and NH3 emissions from composting cattle slurry and hen manure in small-scale laboratory composters. Depending on treatment, cumulative C losses via CO2 and CH4 emissions accounted for 11.4-22.5% and 0.004-0.2% of initial total carbon, while N losses as N2O and NH3 emissions comprised 0.05-0.1% and 0.8-26.5% of initial total nitrogen, respectively. Decreasing the flow rate reduced cumulative NH3 losses non-significantly (by 88%) but significantly increased CH4 losses (by 51%) from composting of cattle slurry with barley straw. Among the hen manure treatments evaluated, bio-char addition to composting hen manure and barley straw at low flow rates proved most effective in reducing cumulative NH3 and CH4 losses. Addition of bio-char in combination with barley straw to hen manure at both high and low flow rates reduced total GHG emissions (as CO2-equivalents) by 27-32% compared with barley straw addition alone. Comparisons of flow rates showed that low flow could be an alternative strategy for reducing NH3 losses without any significant change in N2O emissions, pointing to the need for well-controlled composting conditions if gaseous emissions are to be minimised.

  17. Process model for ammonia volatilization from anaerobic swine lagoons incorporating varying wind speeds and biogas bubbling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia volatilization from treatment lagoons varies widely with the total ammonia concentration, pH, temperature, suspended solids, atmospheric ammonia concentration above the water surface, and wind speed. Ammonia emissions were estimated with a process-based mechanistic model integrating ammonia ...

  18. Impact of Urban, Agricultural and Industrial Emissions on the Atmospheric Reactive Nitrogen in the Columbia River Gorge Scenic Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainord, J.; George, L. A.; Orlando, P.

    2015-12-01

    Secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) formation is not fully characterized due to inadequate knowledge of pre-cursor emissions (ammonia, NH3, and nitrogen oxides, NOx) and from incomplete understanding of reactions in model predictions involving the precursors and the chemical products such as nitric acid (HNO3). The Columbia River Gorge (CRG), located between Oregon and Washington states, has unique sources of reactive nitrogen located at both ends and experiences bimodal winds: winter easterlies and summer westerlies. Because of the unique winds, this project will utilize the CRG as an environmental flow tube as we monitor for atmospheric reactive nitrogen species at two locations within the CRG: one located on the western side and one on the east. Measurements will include total oxidized nitrogen, NOx, NH3 and HNO3 using annular denuders, and a novel method using ion exchange resins for particulate ammonium, nitrate, and sulfates. In addition, an ozone gas analyzer and meteorological conditions of temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction will be measured. Our December 2012- June 2014 NOx measurements located near the eastern end of the CRG show significantly different (pwind conditions. This suggests an eastern NOx source - potentially the 550 megawatt Boardman Coal Power Plant 100 km to the east. These measurements in the near-source environment will provide insight into uncertainties in HNO3 formation, regional ammonia levels, and the best strategy for managers to reduce NOx or NH3 emissions to minimize SIA formation.

  19. Influence of agricultural management on nitrous oxide emissions: comparison of different modelling approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klier, C.; Gayler, S.; Haberbosch, C.; Ruser, R.; Stenger, R.; Flessa, H.; Priessack, E.

    2010-05-01

    Intensive agricultural land use is considered to be the major source of the anthropogenic contribution to the increase in atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) concentration during the last decades. Mathematical models help to understand interacting processes in the nitrogen cycle and state variables affecting N2O emissions. Most of the simulation models which have been used to estimate N2O emissions from soils under field conditions represent the underlying processes of denitrification or nitrification by first order rates without modelling the gaseous N2O transport process. In the first part of the study we compare two modelling approaches of the modular nitrogen modelling system Expert-N for their ability to describe and quantify the seasonal variations of N2O fluxes in a potato-cropped soil. Model 1 assumes a fixed N2O:N2 ratio for N2O production and neglects the transport of N2O in the soil profile, Model 2 explicitly considers a N2O transport and assumes a dynamic reduction of N2O to N2. Data for model evaluation arise from an experiment, where N2O fluxes were monitored over the vegetation period, using a closed chamber technique. Experimental results showed a variation of N and O2 supplies between the ridge soil and inter-row soil of the potato plantation and a corresponding impact on N2O release to atmosphere. Thus, in the second part of the study we applied a multiregion modelling approach to get a spatially explicit modelling tool. In the multiregion approach a heterogeneous soil hydraulic regime is subdivided into finite, multiple, hydraulically interacting regions in the form of soil columns. Modelling results showed for the first part of the study that both modelling approaches were able to describe the observed seasonal dynamics of N2O emissions and events of high N2O emissions due to increased denitrification activity after heavy precipitation and fertiliser application. Extremely high emission rates from the inter-row soil of the potato plantation were

  20. Multivariate regulation of soil CO2 and N2 O pulse emissions from agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Liyin L; Grantz, David A; Jenerette, G Darrel

    2016-03-01

    Climate and land-use models project increasing occurrence of high temperature and water deficit in both agricultural production systems and terrestrial ecosystems. Episodic soil wetting and subsequent drying may increase the occurrence and magnitude of pulsed biogeochemical activity, affecting carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles and influencing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In this study, we provide the first data to explore the responses of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and nitrous oxide (N2 O) fluxes to (i) temperature, (ii) soil water content as percent water holding capacity (%WHC), (iii) substrate availability throughout, and (iv) multiple soil drying and rewetting (DW) events. Each of these factors and their interactions exerted effects on GHG emissions over a range of four (CO2 ) and six (N2 O) orders of magnitude. Maximal CO2 and N2 O fluxes were observed in environments combining intermediate %WHC, elevated temperature, and sufficient substrate availability. Amendments of C and N and their interactions significantly affected CO2 and N2 O fluxes and altered their temperature sensitivities (Q10 ) over successive DW cycles. C amendments significantly enhanced CO2 flux, reduced N2 O flux, and decreased the Q10 of both. N amendments had no effect on CO2 flux and increased N2 O flux, while significantly depressing the Q10 for CO2 , and having no effect on the Q10 for N2 O. The dynamics across DW cycles could be attributed to changes in soil microbial communities as the different responses to wetting events in specific group of microorganisms, to the altered substrate availabilities, or to both. The complex interactions among parameters influencing trace gas fluxes should be incorporated into next generation earth system models to improve estimation of GHG emissions. PMID:26470015

  1. Natural variability versus human impact: Hydroclimate variability and the role of agriculture in changing dust emissions from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Samuel; Kamber, Balz; McGowan, Hamish; Hooper, James; Zawadzki, Atun

    2016-04-01

    Broad-scale dust emissions play an important role in Earth systems, for example influencing oceanic productivity via phytoplankton fertilisation. Existing palaeo dust records show that dust emissions vary significantly in time, implying its impact is similarly variable. There remains, however, a paucity of records which quantify variability in dust emissions. This study presents continuous, Holocene-aged, records of dust emissions from Australia, an important global dust source. Records demonstrate that rates of dust export have varied by 8-30 times over the mid to late Holocene. This variability is largely attributed to hydroclimate variability and its associated feedbacks within dust source areas. Significantly, however, a major disruption of dust emission rates is recorded in the past 200 years when dust emissions increased by between 2-10 times rates of natural variability in dust export. This change is concomitant with the arrival of Europeans in Australia and is primarily attributed to the development of agriculture which resulted in unprecedented environmental change in Australia's arid interior. This result broadly accords with the few other existing empirical dust records which both pre-date and post-date the onset of agriculture in various arid and semi-arid regions. Collectively, these records imply the impact of dust in Earth systems has changed as a result of agricultural development.

  2. Soil Incubation Study to Assess the Impacts of Manure Application and Climate Change on Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agricultural Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavone, K.; Barbieri, L.; Adair, C.

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural fields in Vermont's Lake Champlain Basin have problems with the loss of nutrients due to runoff which creates eutrophic conditions in the lakes, ponds and rivers. In efforts to retain nitrogen and other nutrients in the soil farmers have started to inject manure rather than spraying it. Our understanding of the effects this might have on the volatilization of nitrogen into nitrous oxide is limited. Already, agriculture produces 69% of the total nitrous oxide emissions in the US. Understanding that climate change will affect the future of agriculture in Vermont, we set up a soil core incubation test to monitor the emissions of CO₂ and N₂O using a Photoacoustic Gas Sensor (PAS). Four 10 cm soil cores were taken from nine different fertilizer management plots in a No Till corn field; Three Injected plots, three Broadcast plots, and three Plow plots. Frozen soil cores were extracted in early April, and remained frozen before beginning the incubation experiment to most closely emulate three potential spring environmental conditions. The headspace was monitored over one week to get emission rates. This study shows that environmental and fertilizer treatments together do not have a direct correlation to the amount of CO₂ and N₂O emissions from agricultural soil. However, production of CO₂ was 26% more in warmer environmental conditions than in variable(freeze/thaw) environmental conditions. The injected fertilizer produced the most emissions, both CO₂ and N₂O. The total N₂O emissions from Injected soil cores were 2.2x more than from traditional broadcast manure cores. We believe this is likely due to the addition of rich organic matter under anaerobic soil conditions. Although, injected fertilizer is a better application method for reducing nutrient runoff, the global warming potential of N₂O is 298 times that of CO₂. With climate change imminent, assessing the harmful effects and benefits of injected fertilizer is a crucial next step in

  3. Effects of a high-fibre diet on ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from gestating sows and fattening pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, François-Xavier; Laitat, Martine; Wavreille, José; Nicks, Baudouin; Cabaraux, Jean-François

    2015-05-01

    This study aims to measure under barn conditions the emissions of NH3, N2O, CH4 and CO2 associated with gestating sows (trial 1) and fattening pigs (trial 2) fed either a control diet (CTD) based on cereals or a high-fibre diet (HFD) based on sugar beet pulp (SBP). Three successive batches of 10 Belgian Landrace gestating sows were used for trial 1. Two successive batches of 24 Piétrain × Belgian Landrace fattening pigs were used for trial 2. Animals were kept on slatted floor. The gas emissions were measured by infrared photoacoustic detection and expressed per day and per livestock unit, equals to 500 kg body weight. Similar trends were observed for both animal types. With HFD, the NH3 emissions were reduced (27.2 vs. 36.5 g for the gestating sows, P 0.05), and on CO2 emissions (around 6.0 kg for gestating sows and 9.1 kg for fattening pigs, P > 0.05). Most of manure parameters did not statistically differ regarding the treatment. Reproductive performance and body condition of the sows were not affected by the diet. However, growth performance and carcass traits of the HFD-fed fattening pigs were deteriorated compared to CTD.

  4. Potential of aeration flow rate and bio-char addition to reduce greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions during manure composting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, Md Albarune; de Neergaard, Andreas; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2014-01-01

    Aeration is an important factor influencing CO2, CH4, N2O and NH3 emissions from the composting process. Both CH4 and N2O are potent greenhouse gases (GHG) of high importance. Here, we examined the effects of high and low aeration rates together with addition of barley straw with and without bio...

  5. Ammonia for hydrogen storage: challenges and opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klerke, Asbjørn; Christensen, Claus H.; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet;

    2008-01-01

    The possibility of using ammonia as a hydrogen carrier is discussed. Compared to other hydrogen storage materials, ammonia has the advantages of a high hydrogen density, a well-developed technology for synthesis and distribution, and easy catalytic decomposition. Compared to hydrocarbons...... and alcohols, it has the advantage that there is no CO2 emission at the end user. The drawbacks are mainly the toxicity of liquid ammonia and the problems related to trace amounts of ammonia in the hydrogen after decomposition. Storage of ammonia in metal ammine salts is discussed, and it is shown...... that this maintains the high volumetric hydrogen density while alleviating the problems of handling the ammonia. Some of the remaining challenges for research in ammonia as a hydrogen carrier are outlined....

  6. Modeling the distribution of ammonia across Europe including bi-directional surface-atmosphere exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Wichink Kruit

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A large shortcoming of current chemistry transport models for simulating the fate of ammonia in the atmosphere is the lack of a description of the bi-directional surface-atmosphere exchange. In this paper, results of an update of the dry deposition module DEPAC in the LOTOS-EUROS model are discussed. It is shown that with the new description, which includes bi-directional surface-atmosphere exchange, the modeled ammonia concentrations increase almost everywhere, in particular in agricultural source areas. The reason is that by using a compensation point the ammonia life time and transport distance is increased. As a consequence, deposition of ammonia and ammonium decreases in agricultural source areas, while it increases in large nature areas and remote regions especially in Southern Scandinavia. The inclusion of a compensation point for water reduces the dry deposition over sea and allows reproducing the observed marine background concentrations at coastal locations to a better extend. A comparison with measurements shows that the model results better represent the measured ammonia concentrations. The concentrations in nature areas are slightly overestimated, while the concentrations in agricultural source areas are still underestimated. Although the introduction of the compensation point improves the model performance, the modeling of ammonia remains challenging. Important aspects are emission patterns in space and time as well as a proper approach to deal with the high concentration gradients in relation to model resolution. In short, the inclusion of a bi-directional surface atmosphere exchange is a significant step forward for modeling ammonia.

  7. Soil CO2 emissions in terms of irrigation management in an agricultural soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zornoza, Raúl; Acosta, José A.; María de la Rosa, José; Faz, Ángel; Domingo, Rafael; Pérez-Pastor, Alejandro; Ángeles Muñoz, María

    2014-05-01

    Irrigation water restrictions in the Mediterranean area are reaching worrying proportions and represent a serious threat to traditional crops and encourage the movement of people who choose to work in other activities. This situation has created a growing interest in water conservation, particularly among practitioners of irrigated agriculture, the main recipient of water resources (>80%). For these and other reasons, the scientific and technical irrigation scheduling of water use to maintain and even improve harvest yield and quality has been and will remain a major challenge for irrigated agriculture. Apart from environmental and economic benefits by water savings, deficit irrigation may contribute to reduce soil CO2 emissions and enhance C sequestration in soils. The reduction of soil moisture levels decreases microbial activity, with the resulting slowing down of organic matter mineralization. Besides, the application of water by irrigation may increment the precipitation rate of carbonates, favoring the storage of C, but depending on the source of calcium or bicarbonate, the net reaction can be either storage or release of C. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess if deficit irrigation, besides contributing to water savings, can reduce soil CO2 emissions and favor the accumulation of C in soils in stable forms. The experiment was carried out along 2012 in a commercial orchard from southeast Spain cultivated with nectarine trees (Prunus persica cv. 'Viowhite'). The irrigation system was drip localized. Three irrigation treatments were assayed: a control (CT), irrigated to satisfy the total hydric needs of the crop; a first deficit irrigation (DI1), irrigated as CT except for postharvest period (16 June - 28 October) were 50% of CT was applied; and a second deficit irrigation (DI2), irrigated as DI1, except for two periods in which irrigation was suppressed (16 June-6 July and 21 July-17 August). Each treatment was setup in triplicate, randomly

  8. Searching for solutions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by agricultural policy decisions--Application of system dynamics modeling for the case of Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dace, Elina; Muizniece, Indra; Blumberga, Andra; Kaczala, Fabio

    2015-09-15

    European Union (EU) Member States have agreed to limit their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from sectors not covered by the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (non-ETS). That includes also emissions from agricultural sector. Although the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has established a methodology for assessment of GHG emissions from agriculture, the forecasting options are limited, especially when policies and their interaction with the agricultural system are tested. Therefore, an advanced tool, a system dynamics model, was developed that enables assessment of effects various decisions and measures have on agricultural GHG emissions. The model is based on the IPCC guidelines and includes the main elements of an agricultural system, i.e. land management, livestock farming, soil fertilization and crop production, as well as feedback mechanisms between the elements. The case of Latvia is selected for simulations, as agriculture generates 22% of the total anthropogenic GHG emissions in the country. The results demonstrate that there are very limited options for GHG mitigation in the agricultural sector. Thereby, reaching the non-ETS GHG emission targets will be very challenging for Latvia, as the level of agricultural GHG emissions will be exceeded considerably above the target levels. Thus, other non-ETS sectors will have to reduce their emissions drastically to "neutralize" the agricultural sector's emissions for reaching the EU's common ambition to move towards low-carbon economy. The developed model may serve as a decision support tool for impact assessment of various measures and decisions on the agricultural system's GHG emissions. Although the model is applied to the case of Latvia, the elements and structure of the model developed are similar to agricultural systems in many countries. By changing numeric values of certain parameters, the model can be applied to analyze decisions and measures in other countries. PMID:25958357

  9. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) satellite observations of ammonia, methanol, formic acid, and carbon monoxide over the Canadian oil sands: validation and model evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, M. W.; McLinden, C. A.; Cady-Pereira, K. E.; Luo, M.; Moussa, S. G.; Leithead, A.; Liggio, J.; Staebler, R. M.; Akingunola, A.; Makar, P.; Lehr, P.; Zhang, J.; Henze, D. K.; Millet, D. B.; Bash, J. O.; Zhu, L.; Wells, K. C.; Capps, S. L.; Chaliyakunnel, S.; Gordon, M.; Hayden, K.; Brook, J. R.; Wolde, M.; Li, S.-M.

    2015-12-01

    The wealth of air quality information provided by satellite infrared observations of ammonia (NH3), carbon monoxide (CO), formic acid (HCOOH), and methanol (CH3OH) is currently being explored and used for a number of applications, especially at regional or global scales. These applications include air quality monitoring, trend analysis, emissions, and model evaluation. This study provides one of the first direct validations of Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) satellite-retrieved profiles of NH3, CH3OH, and HCOOH through comparisons with coincident aircraft profiles. The comparisons are performed over the Canadian oil sands region during the intensive field campaign (August-September, 2013) in support of the Joint Canada-Alberta Implementation Plan for Oil Sands Monitoring (JOSM). The satellite/aircraft comparisons over this region during this period produced errors of (i) +0.08 ± 0.25 ppbv for NH3, (ii) +7.5 ± 23 ppbv for CO, (iii) +0.19 ± 0.46 ppbv for HCOOH, and (iv) -1.1 ± 0.39 ppbv for CH3OH. These values mostly agree with previously estimated retrieval errors; however, the relatively large negative bias in CH3OH and the significantly greater positive bias for larger HCOOH and CO values observed during this study warrant further investigation. Satellite and aircraft ammonia observations during the field campaign are also used in an initial effort to perform preliminary evaluations of Environment Canada's Global Environmental Multi-scale - Modelling Air quality and CHemistry (GEM-MACH) air quality modelling system at high resolution (2.5 × 2.5 km2). These initial results indicate a model underprediction of ~ 0.6 ppbv (~ 60 %) for NH3, during the field campaign period. The TES/model CO comparison differences are ~ +20 ppbv (~ +20 %), but given that under these conditions the TES/aircraft comparisons also show a small positive TES CO bias indicates that the overall model underprediction of CO is closer to ~ 10 % at 681 hPa (~ 3 km) during this period.

  10. Agricultural trade liberalisation and greenhouse gas emissions : a simulation study using the GTAP-IMAGE modelling framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, R.W.; Woltjer, G.B.; Tabeau, A.A.; Eickhout, B.; Stehfest, E.

    2008-01-01

    This report explores the effects of agricultural trade liberalisation on greenhouse gas emissions and on changing commodity production areas by coupling of the modeling tools GTAP and IMAGE. Four scenarios are explored with developments up tot 2050. The scenarios include a baseline, full liberalisat

  11. Nitrous oxide emissions and denitrification rates: A blueprint for smart management and remediation of agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasek, A.; Hondzo, M.; Kozarek, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    resulting in the release of nitrous oxide, a greenhouse gas with 300 times the warming potential of carbon dioxide. The investigation of nitrous oxide emissions and correlation to denitrification rates will facilitate smart management and remediation efforts of agricultural landscapes.

  12. Searching for solutions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by agricultural policy decisions — Application of system dynamics modeling for the case of Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    European Union (EU) Member States have agreed to limit their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from sectors not covered by the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (non-ETS). That includes also emissions from agricultural sector. Although the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has established a methodology for assessment of GHG emissions from agriculture, the forecasting options are limited, especially when policies and their interaction with the agricultural system are tested. Therefore, an advanced tool, a system dynamics model, was developed that enables assessment of effects various decisions and measures have on agricultural GHG emissions. The model is based on the IPCC guidelines and includes the main elements of an agricultural system, i.e. land management, livestock farming, soil fertilization and crop production, as well as feedback mechanisms between the elements. The case of Latvia is selected for simulations, as agriculture generates 22% of the total anthropogenic GHG emissions in the country. The results demonstrate that there are very limited options for GHG mitigation in the agricultural sector. Thereby, reaching the non-ETS GHG emission targets will be very challenging for Latvia, as the level of agricultural GHG emissions will be exceeded considerably above the target levels. Thus, other non-ETS sectors will have to reduce their emissions drastically to “neutralize” the agricultural sector's emissions for reaching the EU's common ambition to move towards low-carbon economy. The developed model may serve as a decision support tool for impact assessment of various measures and decisions on the agricultural system's GHG emissions. Although the model is applied to the case of Latvia, the elements and structure of the model developed are similar to agricultural systems in many countries. By changing numeric values of certain parameters, the model can be applied to analyze decisions and measures in other countries. - Highlights:

  13. Searching for solutions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by agricultural policy decisions — Application of system dynamics modeling for the case of Latvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dace, Elina, E-mail: elina.dace@rtu.lv [Institute of Energy Systems and Environment, Riga Technical University, Azenes 12/1, Riga LV1048 (Latvia); Muizniece, Indra; Blumberga, Andra [Institute of Energy Systems and Environment, Riga Technical University, Azenes 12/1, Riga LV1048 (Latvia); Kaczala, Fabio [Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Faculty of Health & Life Sciences, Linnaeus University, SE-39182 Kalmar (Sweden)

    2015-09-15

    European Union (EU) Member States have agreed to limit their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from sectors not covered by the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (non-ETS). That includes also emissions from agricultural sector. Although the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has established a methodology for assessment of GHG emissions from agriculture, the forecasting options are limited, especially when policies and their interaction with the agricultural system are tested. Therefore, an advanced tool, a system dynamics model, was developed that enables assessment of effects various decisions and measures have on agricultural GHG emissions. The model is based on the IPCC guidelines and includes the main elements of an agricultural system, i.e. land management, livestock farming, soil fertilization and crop production, as well as feedback mechanisms between the elements. The case of Latvia is selected for simulations, as agriculture generates 22% of the total anthropogenic GHG emissions in the country. The results demonstrate that there are very limited options for GHG mitigation in the agricultural sector. Thereby, reaching the non-ETS GHG emission targets will be very challenging for Latvia, as the level of agricultural GHG emissions will be exceeded considerably above the target levels. Thus, other non-ETS sectors will have to reduce their emissions drastically to “neutralize” the agricultural sector's emissions for reaching the EU's common ambition to move towards low-carbon economy. The developed model may serve as a decision support tool for impact assessment of various measures and decisions on the agricultural system's GHG emissions. Although the model is applied to the case of Latvia, the elements and structure of the model developed are similar to agricultural systems in many countries. By changing numeric values of certain parameters, the model can be applied to analyze decisions and measures in other countries. - Highlights:

  14. CO2 sequestration. World CO2 emission reduction by forest plantations on agricultural land up to 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this study was to determine the possible contribution on CO2 emission reductions of new forest plantations on agricultural land which may become available in the world from now to 2050. Emission reductions have been calculated by taking into account potential changes in carbon stocks on afforested land (in biomass and soil) and replacement with biomass of fossil fuel and material such as steel, aluminium or concrete. Increase of carbon stocks in wood as building material and final conversion of wood recycled from buildings into energy to replace fossil fuel have also been taken into account. CO2 emission reductions (or carbon benefits) from afforested agricultural land become significant only after 2030 or 2050, and even at a later stage with long rotations. In the case of the latter, about 100 years are needed to get the full benefits. Forest plantations can therefore only be considered as long term options

  15. Modelling site-specific N2O emission factors from Austrian agricultural soils for targeted mitigation measures (NitroAustria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Barbara; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Kasper, Martina; Foldal, Cecilie; Schiefer, Jasmin; Kitzler, Barbara; Schwarzl, Bettina; Zethner, Gerhard; Anderl, Michael; Sedy, Katrin; Gaugitsch, Helmut; Dersch, Georg; Baumgarten, Andreas; Haas, Edwin; Kiese, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    Results from a previous project "FarmClim" highlight that the IPCC default emission factor is not able to reflect region specific N2O emissions from Austrian arable soils. The methodology is limited in identifying hot spots and hot moments of N2O emissions. When estimations are based on default emission factors no recommendations can be given on optimisation measures that would lead to a reduction of soil N2O emissions. The better the knowledge is about Nitrogen and Carbon budgets in Austrian agricultural managed soils the better the situation can be reflected in the Austrian GHG emission inventory calculations. Therefore national and regionally modelled emission factors should improve the evidence for national deviation from the IPCC default emission factors and reduce the uncertainties. The overall aim of NitroAustria is to identify the drivers for N2O emissions on a regional basis taking different soil types, climate, and agricultural management into account. We use the LandscapeDNDC model to update the N2O emission factors for N fertilizer and animal manure applied to soils. Key regions in Austria were selected and region specific N2O emissions calculated. The model runs at sub-daily time steps and uses data such as maximum and minimum air temperature, precipitation, radiation, and wind speed as meteorological drivers. Further input data are used to reflect agricultural management practices, e.g., planting/harvesting, tillage, fertilizer application, irrigation and information on soil and vegetation properties for site characterization and model initialization. While at site scale, arable management data (crop cultivation, rotations, timings etc.) is obtained by experimental data from field trials or observations, at regional scale such data need to be generated using region specific proxy data such as land use and management statistics, crop cultivations and yields, crop rotations, fertilizer sales, manure resulting from livestock units etc. The farming

  16. The impact of slurry application technique on nitrous oxide emission from agricultural soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthof, G.L.; Mosquera, J.

    2011-01-01

    Direct nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from fertilized soils are generally estimated using emission factors. However, the emission factors for N2O emission of applied slurry are not well quantified. The effect of slurry application technique on N2O emission was quantified in field experiments in the N

  17. Use of Open-Path TDL Technique and the Backward Lagrangian Stochastic Model to Monitor Ammonia Emission from Summer Maize Field%基于TDLAS-bLS方法的夏玉米农田氨挥发研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文亮; 朱安宁; 张佳宝; 张玉钧; 何莹; 王立明; 陈效民; 陈文超

    2012-01-01

    采用开放光程可调谐二极管激光吸收光谱技术和反向拉格朗日随机扩散模型,通过田间试验,开展基于高时间分辨率数据的农田氨挥发研究,旨在为揭示农田氨挥发的动态变化规律提供新技术新方法.结果表明,TDLAS-bLS法能有效监测农田氨挥发动态,尤其是日内变化规律.豫北平原潮土农田夏玉米追肥后日内氨挥发有两个挥发峰值,分别在9:00和14:00左右,第一个高峰是由于夜晚溶解在露水中的氨气随露水蒸发而再次挥发,第二个高峰受地温和光照影响所致.追肥后氨挥发速率迅速升高,但挥发高峰期持续时间较短,集中于前四天,整个监测期内氨挥发损失约25.3%.TDLAS-bLS法与通气法相比,测定结果有一定差异.%The backward Lagrangian stochastic dispersion model in conjunction with open-path tunable diode absorption spectros-copy was used to quantify ammonia emissions from farmland based on the high-temporal resolution data, aiming to provide innovative achievements to diagnose patterns of ammonia flux. The results indicate that the bLS dispersion technique using open-path lasers to measure atmospheric ammonia concentrations is suitable for determining ammonia emissions from farmland continuously, especially for characterizing diurnal characteristics of NH3 emissions. The ammonia emissions have a significant diurnal pattern with two emission peaks from urea applied to maize on a calcareous sandy loam fluvcraquic soil in the North China Plain. We believe that the first peak starting at approximately 9:00 am is due to NH3 absorbed by the dew re-emission at night as the dew evaporates. The maximum of ammonia flux at 14:00 corresponds to the peak of soil temperature and solar radiation. The ammo-nia emission increased rapidly, but the duration of emission peaks lasted approximately 4 d. Cumulative NH3 emission was 25. 3% of the applied N over the entire measurement period. The NH3 emissions measured with b

  18. Application of food industry waste to agricultural soils mitigates green house gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, M T; Voroney, R P; Khalid, M

    2010-01-01

    Application of organic waste materials such as food processing and serving industry cooking oil waste (OFW) can recycle soil nitrate nitrogen (NO(3)-N), which is otherwise prone to leaching after the harvest of crop. Nitrogen (N) recycling will not only reduce the amount of N fertilizer application for corn crop production but is also expected to mitigate green house gas (GHG) emissions by saving energy to be used for the production of the same amount of industrial fertilizer N required for the growth of corn crop. Application of OFW at 10Mg solid ha(-1)y(-1) conserved 68 kg N ha(-1)y(-1) which ultimately saved 134 L diesel ha(-1)y(-1), which would otherwise be used for the production of fertilizer N as urea. Average fossil energy substitution value (FESV) of N conserved/recycled was calculated to be 93 US$ ha(-1)y(-1), which is about 13 million US$y(-1). Potential amount of GHG mitigation through the application of OFW to agricultural soils in Canada is estimated to be 57 Gg CO(2)Eq y(-1).

  19. N2O emissions from the global agricultural nitrogen cycle – current state and future scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lotze-Campen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Reactive nitrogen (Nr is not only an important nutrient for plant growth, thereby safeguarding human alimentation, but it also heavily disturbs natural systems. To mitigate air, land, aquatic, and atmospheric pollution caused by the excessive availability of Nr, it is crucial to understand the long-term development of the global agricultural Nr cycle. For our analysis, we combine a material flow model with a land-use optimization model. In a first step we estimate the state of the Nr cycle in 1995. In a second step we create four scenarios for the 21st century in line with the SRES storylines. Our results indicate that in 1995 only half of the Nr applied to croplands was incorporated into plant biomass. Moreover, less than 10 per cent of all Nr in cropland plant biomass and grazed pasture was consumed by humans. In our scenarios a strong surge of the Nr cycle occurs in the first half of the 21st century, even in the environmentally oriented scenarios. Nitrous oxide (N2O emissions rise from 3 Tg N2O-N in 1995 to 7–9 in 2045 and 5–12 Tg in 2095. Reinforced Nr pollution mitigation efforts are therefore required.

  20. The effect of urease and nitrification inhibitors on ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from simulated urine patches in pastoral system: a two-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, M; Zaman, S; Nguyen, M L; Smith, T J; Nawaz, S

    2013-11-01

    This field study evaluated the effects of applying a combination of urease (UI) and nitrification inhibitors (NI) on ammonia (NH3) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from urine patches, using zeolite, single superphosphate (SSP) and urea fertilizer as a carrier. The trial was conducted on a Typic Haplustepts silt loam soil, near Lincoln, Canterbury, New Zealand during 2009-11. The treatments in 2009 included: a control (no urine or inhibitor), urine alone at 600 kg N ha(-1), and urine with either double inhibitor (DI) a mixture (1:7 ratio w/w) of UI (N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (nBTPT - trade name Agrotain®) and NI, dicyandiamide (DCD) or DCD alone at 10 kg ha(-1) using zeolite and SSP as carriers. In 2010 trials, both zeolite and urea were used as carriers for DI and DCD. DI-zeolite and DI-urea were equally effective and reduced the average NH3 losses from applied urine over two years by 34.6% in autumn and 40% in spring respectively. The nBTPT in DI-SSP was decomposed by the free acid produced during its dissolution and therefore increased NH3 emission as does DCD alone. DCD consistently increased NH3 emissions by 39% and 15.6% in autumn and spring respectively. Spring application resulted in NH3-N losses of 16.9% as a percentage of the total N applied compared to 8.4% in autumn. Over the two years, the DI reduced N2O emissions by 53% in autumn and 46% in spring over urine alone treatment; the equivalent reductions for DCD were 42% and 39% for autumn and spring, respectively. These results suggest that applying DI in autumn and spring using zeolite or urea carrier five days prior to grazing has the most potential to reduce NH3 and N2O losses from specific urination event than using DCD alone; and therefore warrants further research to improve its longevity. PMID:23375867

  1. Clinical evaluation of iterative reconstruction (ordered-subset expectation maximization) in dynamic positron emission tomography: quantitative effects on kinetic modeling with N-13 ammonia in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, Jens D; Rasmussen, Rune; Freiberg, Jacob;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate the quantitative properties of ordered-subset expectation maximization (OSEM) on kinetic modeling with nitrogen 13 ammonia compared with filtered backprojection (FBP) in healthy subjects. METHODS AND RESULTS: Cardiac N-13 ammonia positron e...

  2. Lidar Based Emissions Measurement at the Whole Facility Scale: Method and Error Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate emissions from agricultural sources vary from dust created by operations and animal movement to the fine secondary particulates generated from ammonia and other emitted gases. The development of reliable facility emission data using point sampling methods designed to characterize regiona...

  3. Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide removal using biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reducing ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from livestock facilities is an important issue for many communities and livestock producers. Ammonia has been regarded as odorous, precursor for particulate matter (PM), and contributed to livestock mortality. Hydrogen sulfide is highly toxic at elev...

  4. Reducing agricultural greenhouse gas emissions: role of biotechnology, organic systems, and consumer behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    All agricultural systems have environmental and societal costs and benefits that should be objectively quantified before recommending specific management practices. Agricultural biotechnology, which takes advantage of genetically engineered organisms (GEOs), along with organic cropping systems, econ...

  5. Impact of changes in diet on the availability of land, energy demand, and greenhouse gas emissions of agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazeni, Karin; Steinmueller, Horst [Johannes Kepler Univ. (JKU Linz), Linz (Austria). Energy Inst.

    2011-12-15

    Recent scientific investigations have revealed a correlation between nutrition habits and the environmental impacts of agriculture. So, it is obviously worthwhile to study what effects a change in diet has on land use patterns, energy demand, and greenhouse gas emissions of agricultural production. This study calculates the amount of energy and emission savings as well as changes in land use that would result from different scenarios underlying a change in diet. Based on the healthy eating recommendations of the German Nutrition Society, meat consumption in Austria should decrease by about 60%, and consumption of fruits and vegetables has to increase strongly. This investigation showed that compliance with healthy eating guidelines leads to lower energy demand and a decrease in greenhouse gas emissions, largely due to a decrease in livestock numbers. Furthermore, arable land and grassland no longer needed for animal feed production becomes redundant and can possibly be used for the production of raw materials for renewable energy. The scenario examination shows that in the self-sufficiency scenario and in the import/export scenario, up to 443,100 ha and about 208,800 ha, respectively, of arable land and grassland are released for non-food uses. The cumulative energy demand of agriculture is lower by up to 38%, and the greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture decrease by up to 37% in these scenarios as against the reference situation. The land use patterns for the scenario demonstrate that animal feed production still takes up the largest share of agricultural land even though the extent of animal husbandry decreased considerably in the scenarios. (orig.)

  6. Nitrous oxide and methane emission in an artificial wetland treating polluted runoff from an agricultural catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Ülo; Tournebize, Julien; Soosaar, Kaido; Chaumont, Cedric; Hansen, Raili; Muhel, Mart; Teemusk, Alar; Vincent, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    An artificial wetland built in 2010 to reduce water pollution in a drained agricultural watershed showed real potential for pesticide and nitrate removal. The 1.2 ha off-shore wetland with a depth of from 0.1 to 1 m intercepts drainage water from a 450 ha watershed located near the village of Rampillon (03°03'37.3'' E, 48°32'16.7'' N, 70 km south-east of Paris, France). A sluice gate installed at the inlet makes it possible to close the wetland during the winter months (December - March), when no pesticides are applied and rainfall events are more frequent. The flow entering the wetland fluctuates from 0 to 120 L/s. The wetland is partially covered by Carex spp., Phragmites australis, Juncus conglomeratus, Typha latifolia and philamentous algae. Since 2011, an automatic water quality monitoring system measures water discharge, temperature, dissolved O2, conductivity pH, NO3- and DOC in both inlet and outlet. In May 2014, an automatic weather station and Campbell Irgason system for the measurement of CO2 and H2O fluxes were installed in the middle of the wetland. In May and November 2014 one-week high frequency measurement campaigns were conducted to study N2O and CH4 fluxes using 6 manually operated opaque floating static chambers and 12 floating automatic dynamic chambers. The latter were operated via multiplexer and had an incubation time of 5 minutes, whereas the gas flow was continuously measured using the Aerodyne TILDAS quantum cascade laser system. During the campaign, the reduction of NO3- concentration was measured in nine reactor pipes. Also, water samples were collected for N2O and N2 isotope analysis, and sediments were collected for potential N2 emission measurements. In May, the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 30 days, and the average NO3- concentration decreased from 24 in the inflow to 0 mg/L in the outflow. Methane flux was relatively high (average 1446, variation 0.2-113990 μg CH4-C m-2 h-1), while about 2/3 was emitted via ebullition

  7. Effect of manure application technique on nitrous oxide emission from agricultural soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthof, G.L.; Mosquera, J.; Huis in 't Veld, J.W.H.; Hummelink, E.W.J.

    2010-01-01

    Effect van de uitstoot van kunstmeststoffen.The emission factors for nitrous oxide (N2O) emission of applied manure are not well quantified. The effect of manure application technique on N2O emission was quantified in field and laboratory experiments in order to derive N2O emission factors for (shal

  8. Environmental variables controlling nitric oxide :emissions from agricultural soils in the southeast united states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Lee J.; Moore, Thomas C.; Aneja, Viney P.; Robarge, Wayne P.; Pierce, Thomas E.; Geron, Chris; Gay, Bruce

    Fluxes of nitric oxide (NO) were measured during the summer of 1994 (12 July to 11 August) in the Upper Coastal Plain of North Carolina in a continuing effort to characterize NO emissions from intensively managed agricultural soils in the southeastern United States. Previous work during a similar time of year on the same soil type was characterized by severe moisture stress conditions. The summer of 1994 provided a more diverse weather pattern and as a result represented a set of measurements more typical of soil temperature and soil moisture relationships for the southeastern United States. In order to ascertain NO flux response to fertilization and crop type, measurements were made on fields with three distinct fertilizer practices and crop types, namely corn, cotton, and soybean. Average NO fluxes were 21.9 ± 18.6, 4.3 ± 3.7, and 2.1 ± 0.9 ng N m -2 s -1, respectively, for corn, cotton, and soybean. NO flux increased exponentially with soil temperature when soil water content was not limiting [> 30% Water Filled Pore Space (%WFPS)]. During conditions when soil water content was limiting, NO flux was inhibited and had no relationship with soil temperature. Above a value of 30% WFPS, increasing soil water content had no effect on NO emissions (the upper limit of %WFPS could not be estimated due to a lack of data in this regime). Below 30% WFPS, increasing soil moisture increased NO production and lower soil moistures led to decreased NO flux. Increased nitrogen fertilization rates led to higher NO fluxes. However, differences in physiological growth stages between crops confound extractable nitrogen values as decomposing root biomass in the mature corn crop added an undetermined amount of available nitrogen to the soil. Interactions between soil water content, fertilizer application, and soil temperature make it very difficult to predict day-to-day variations of NO flux from our data. There appears to be no simple relation between NO flux and the environmental

  9. High-Resolution Upscaling of Closed Chamber Fluxes for N2o Emissions from China's Agricultural Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, F.; Shang, Z.; Ciais, P.; Piao, S.; Raymond, P. A.; Tao, S.; Zeng, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Moving from local toward global N2O emissions brings up numerous issues related to data processing, aggregation, tradeoffs between model quality and data quality, and prioritization of data collection and/or compilation efforts. We studied these issues in the context of modelling China's N2O emissions from agricultural soils. We developed a spatially-explicit model (PKU-N2O-Agr model) for high-resolution mapping of N2O emissions based on the idea of Hole-in-the-Pipe Model. We collected 709 site-year records (504 for upland and 205 for paddy) at 106 experimental sites across China from 1994 to 2013 and calibrated the observed N2O flux by using the Bayesian Recursive Regression Tree algorithm. The calibrated PKU-N2O-Agr model is applied to simulate China's N2O emissions from upland and paddy cropland at 1-km spatial resolution and to examine the variable importance and sensitivity for N2O emissions as well as scaling dependence of the effect-response relationships. The N2O emissions in 2008 are 615 GgN2O/yr and ~25% lower than PKU-N2O and EDGAR v4.2 global product sampled over China. The average coefficients of determination between observed and simulated results were 0.91 for upland and 0.92 for paddy cropland, which indicate the using a simplified data-driven approach with data of high resolution could produce accurate and reliable results. Emission factors (considering background emissions) for paddy and upland soils are 0.6% and 0.8% of N inputs, which are 2 times of IPCC default but half of the mean of observations, respectively. SOC is the most important for capturing the variability of N2O emissions from upland, whereas N inflow is the critical factor for paddy cropland. Different with previous works, the marginal sensitivities of environmental factors on agricultural N2O emissions are calculated, which is of great use for verifying process-based simulation model when being applied in China (e.g., DNDC). Both critical factors and the effect

  10. Agricultural trade liberalisation and greenhouse gas emissions : a simulation study using the GTAP-IMAGE modelling framework

    OpenAIRE

    Verburg, R.W.; Woltjer, G.B.; Tabeau, A.A.; Eickhout, B.; Stehfest, E.

    2008-01-01

    This report explores the effects of agricultural trade liberalisation on greenhouse gas emissions and on changing commodity production areas by coupling of the modeling tools GTAP and IMAGE. Four scenarios are explored with developments up tot 2050. The scenarios include a baseline, full liberalisation and two partial liberalisation scenarios for which the latter scenarios include removal of trade barriers or removal of milk quota by 2015 only. The results indicate that liberalisation leads t...

  11. Managing agricultural emissions to the atmosphere: state of the science, fate and mitigation, and identifying research gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, S R; McConnell, L L; Hapeman, C J; Papiernik, S K; Gao, S; Trabue, S L

    2011-01-01

    The impact of agriculture on regional air quality creates significant challenges to sustainability of food supplies and to the quality of national resources. Agricultural emissions to the atmosphere can lead to many nuisances, such as smog, haze, or offensive odors. They can also create more serious effects on human or environmental health, such as those posed by pesticides and other toxic industrial pollutants. It is recognized that deterioration of the atmosphere is undesirable, but the short- and long-term impacts of specific agricultural activities on air quality are not well known or understood. These concerns led to the organization of the 2009 American Chemical Society Symposium titled . An outcome of this symposium is this special collection of 14 research papers focusing on various issues associated with production agriculture and its effect on air quality. Topics included emissions from animal feeding operations, odors, volatile organic compounds, pesticides, mitigation, modeling, and risk assessment. These papers provide new research insights, identify gaps in current knowledge, and recommend important future research directions. As the scientific community gains a better understanding of the relationships between anthropogenic activities and their effects on environmental systems, technological advances should enable a reduction in adverse consequences on the environment. PMID:21869496

  12. Regulations Concerning Agriculture and Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Bertora

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The main issues related to the atmospheric pollution are the stratospheric ozone depletion, the transboundary air pollution, the troposphere air quality and the climate change. The three last decades have seen the birth of several measures for the atmosphere safeguard. Agricultural activities play a key role in determining, preventing and mitigating atmospheric pollution. The emission to atmosphere of different ozone-depleting substances is regulated by the Montreal Protocol. The role of agriculture activity in ozone depletion is linked to the utilization of methyl bromide as soil sterilant and to the emission of nitrogen oxides and nitrous oxide, from agricultural soils. The Convention on long-range transboundary air pollution regulates the emission of several pollutants, i.e. sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ammonia, non methane volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants, and tropospheric ozone. The agriculture sector is responsible for a large part of the emissions of ammonia and nitrogen oxides, mainly through manure management and nitrogen fertilization, and of most persistent organic pollutants, largely used in the past as insecticides and fungicides. The increase of the greenhouse gases (GHGs concentration in the atmosphere is under the control of the Kyoto Protocol. Agriculture accounts for 59-63% of global non-CO2 GHGs emissions but at the same time it contributes to the atmospheric CO2 concentration stabilisation through the substitution of fossil fuels by biofuels and the sequestration of C in soil and vegetal biomass. In this paper we provide an outline of the numerous scientific and legislative initiatives aimed at protecting the atmosphere, and we analyse in detail the agriculture sector in order to highlight both its contribution to atmospheric pollution and the actions aimed at preventing and mitigating it.

  13. Ammonia abatement by slurry acidification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O.; Hutchings, Nicholas John; Hafner, Sasha;

    2016-01-01

    Livestock production systems can be major sources of trace gases including ammonia (NH3), the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), and odorous compounds such as hydrogen sulphide (H2S). Short-term campaigns have indicated that acidification of livestock slurry during in...... generally high. It was concluded that the contribution from floors to NH3 emissions was effect on N2O emissions was observed. The effect...

  14. Experimental analysis of CO2 emissions from agricultural soils subjected to five different tillage systems in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intensive agricultural production strongly influences the global processes that determine climate change. Thus, tillage can play a very important role in climate change. The intensity of soil carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, which contribute to the greenhouse effect, can vary depending on the following factors: the tillage system used, meteorological conditions (which vary in different regions of the world), soil properties, plant residue characteristics and other factors. The main purpose of this research was to analyse and assess the effects of autumn tillage systems with different intensities on CO2 emissions from soils during different seasons and under the climatic conditions of Central Lithuania. The research was conducted at the Experimental Station of Aleksandras Stulginskis University from 2009 to2012; and in 2014. The soils at the experimental site were classified as Eutric Endogleyic Planosol (Drainic). The investigations were conducted using five tillage systems with different intensities, typical of the Baltic Region. Deep conventional ploughing was performed at a depth of 230–250 mm, shallow ploughing was conducted at a depth of 120–150 mm, deep loosening was conducted at depths of 250–270 mm, and shallow loosening was conducted at depths of 120–150 mm. The fifth system was a no-tillage system. Overall, autumn tillage resulted in greater CO2 emissions from the soil over both short- and long-term periods under the climatic conditions of Central Lithuania, regardless of the tillage system applied. The highest soil CO2 emissions were observed for the conventional deep ploughing tillage system, and the lowest emissions were observed for the no-tillage system. The meteorological conditions greatly influenced the CO2 emissions from the soil during the spring. Soil CO2 emissions were enhanced as precipitation and the air and soil temperatures increased. Long-term investigations regarding the dynamics of CO2 emissions from soils during the maize

  15. A new slurry pH model accounting for effects of ammonia and carbon dioxide volatilization on solution speciation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, V; Markfoged, Rikke; Hafner, Sasha;

    2014-01-01

    appropriate mitigation actions to be identified and quantified. Although the importance of manure pH on ammonia emission has been recognized for decades, the physical and chemical interactions that control pH are not fully understood. Here we present a novel mathematical model that includes the dynamic...... of a large pH gradient (>1 pH unit in pH gradients over time, suggesting that our understanding of the factors controlling pH is correct......Ammonia (NH3) emissions from manure constitute a significant loss of fixed nitrogen (N) from agricultural systems and contribute to air pollution and ecosystem degradation. Accurate models of such NH3 emissions will improve our understanding of the factors that control the emissions and allow...

  16. Evaluation of methods for quantifying agricultural emissions of air, water and soil pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havlikova, M.; Kroeze, C.

    2006-01-01

    Integrated assessments that analyze global warming, acidification, eutrophication and ozone related problems simultaneously, need complete, detailed and consistent emission estimates that consider possible interrelations between different pollutants. We discuss three types of emission estimation met

  17. Trends in multi-pollutant emissions from a technology-linked inventory for India: II. Residential, agricultural and informal industry sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Apoorva; Sadavarte, Pankaj; Rao, Anand B.; Venkataraman, Chandra

    2014-12-01

    Dispersed traditional combustion technologies, characterized by inefficient combustion and significant emissions, are widely used in residential cooking and "informal industries" including brick production, food and agricultural product processing operations like drying and cooking operations related to sugarcane juice, milk, food-grain, jute, silk, tea and coffee. In addition, seasonal agricultural residue burning in field is a discontinuous source of significant emissions. Here we estimate fuel consumption in these sectors and agricultural residue burned using detailed technology divisions and survey-based primary data for 2010 and projected between 1996 and 2015. In the residential sector, a decline in the fraction of solid biomass users for cooking from 79% in 1996 to 65% in 2010 was offset by a growing population, leading to a nearly constant population of solid biomass users, with a corresponding increase in the population of LPG users. Emissions from agriculture followed the growth in agricultural production and diesel use by tractors and pumps. Trends in emissions from the informal industries sector followed those in coal combustion in brick kilns. Residential biomass cooking stoves were the largest contributors to emissions of PM2.5, OC, CO, NMVOC and CH4. Highest emitting technologies of BC were residential kerosene wick lamps. Emissions of SO2 were largely from coal combustion in Bull's trench kilns and other brick manufacturing technologies. Diesel use in tractors was the major source of NOx emissions. Uncertainties in emission estimates were principally from highly uncertain emission factors, particularly for technologies in the informal industries.

  18. Ammonia measurement with a pH electrode in the ammonia/urea-SCR process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröcher, Oliver; Elsener, Martin

    2007-03-01

    The selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides with ammonia (ammonia SCR) and urea (urea SCR), respectively, is a widespread process to clean flue and diesel exhaust gases due to its simplicity and efficiency. The main challenge of the process is to minimize the ammonia emissions downstream of the SCR catalyst. We found that ammonia emissions of >10 ppm can reliably be detected with a simple pH electrode in the presence of CO2, SOx, NOx, and moderately weak organic acids. 10-20 ppm of ammonia in the exhaust gas are sufficient to neutralize the acids and to increase the pH value from 3 to 6. On this basis a continuous measuring method for ammonia was developed, which was used to control the dosage of urea in the SCR process. While keeping the ammonia emissions after the SCR catalyst at 5-30 ppm an average NOx removal efficiency (DeNOx) of >95% were achieved at a diesel test rig. The method can also be applied for exhaust gases with higher acid contents, if a basic pre-filter is added adsorbing the acidic exhaust components. Compared to water as absorption solution, more precise ammonia measurements are possible, if a 0.1 M NH4Cl absorption solution is applied, whose pH value is changing as a Nernst function of the ammonia concentration.

  19. The Effect of Organic and Conventional Cropping Systems on CO2 Emission from Agricultural Soils: Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Grego

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different agricultural systems on soil organic carbon content and CO2 emission are investigated in this work. In a long-term experiment a conventional system, characterized by traditional agricultural practices (as deep tillage and chemical inputs was compared with an organic one, including green manure and organic fertilizers. Both systems have a three-year crop rotation including pea – durum wheat – tomato; the organic system is implemented with the introduction of common vetch (Vicia sativa L. and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare bicolor as cover crops. In the year 2006 (5 years after the experimentation beginning was determined the soil C content and was measured the CO2 emissions from soil. The first results showed a trend of CO2 production higher in organic soils in comparison with conventional one. Among the two compared cropping systems the higher differences of CO2 emission were observed in tomato soil respect to the durum wheat and pea soils, probably due to the vetch green manuring before the tomato transplanting. These results are in agreement with the total organic carbon content and water soluble carbon (WSC, which showed the highest values in organic soil. The first observations suggest a higher biological activity and CO2 emission in organic soil than conventional one, likely due to a higher total carbon soil content.

  20. Carbon emission and sequestration by agricultural land use : a model study for Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleeshouwers, L.M.; Verhagen, A.

    2002-01-01

    A model was developed to calculate carbon fluxes from agricultural soils. The model includes the effects of crop (species, yield and rotation), climate (temperature, rainfall and evapotranspiration) and soil (carbon content and water retention capacity) on the carbon budget of agricultural land. The

  1. Effect of crop residue incorporation on soil organic carbon (SOC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in European agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Taru; Schlatter, Norman; Baumgarten, Andreas; Bechini, Luca; Krüger, Janine; Grignani, Carlo; Zavattaro, Laura; Costamagna, Chiara; Spiegel, Heide

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) improves soil physical (e.g. increased aggregate stability), chemical (e.g. cation exchange capacity) and biological (e.g. biodiversity, earthworms) properties. The sequestration of soil organic carbon (SOC) may mitigate climate change. However, as much as 25-75% of the initial SOC in world agricultural soils may have been lost due to intensive agriculture (Lal, 2013). The European Commission has described the decline of organic matter (OM) as one of the major threats to soils (COM(2006) 231). Incorporation of crop residues may be a sustainable and cost-efficient management practice to maintain the SOC levels and to increase soil fertility in European agricultural soils. Especially Mediterranean soils that have low initial SOC concentrations, and areas where stockless croplands predominate may be suitable for crop residue incorporation. In this study, we aim to quantify the effects of crop residue incorporation on SOC and GHG emissions (CO2 and N2O) in different environmental zones (ENZs, Metzger et al., 2005) in Europe. Response ratios for SOC and GHG emissions were calculated from pairwise comparisons between crop residue incorporation and removal. Specifically, we investigated whether ENZs, clay content and experiment duration influence the response ratios. In addition, we studied how response ratios of SOM and crop yields were correlated. A total of 718 response ratios (RR) were derived from a total of 39 publications, representing 50 experiments (46 field and 4 laboratory) and 15 countries. The SOC concentrations and stocks increased by approximately 10% following crop residue incorporation. In contrast, CO2 emissions were approximately six times and N2O emissions 12 times higher following crop residue incorporation. The effect of ENZ on the response ratios was not significant. For SOC concentration, the >35% clay content had significantly approximately 8% higher response ratios compared to 18-35% clay content. As the duration of the

  2. Climate Change Impacts on Agriculture and Food Security in 2050 under a Range of Plausible Socioeconomic and Emissions Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, K.; Lotze-Campen, H.; Bodirsky, B.; Kavallari, A.; Mason-d'Croz, D.; van der Mensbrugghe, D.; Robinson, S.; Sands, R.; Tabeau, A.; Willenbockel, D.; Islam, S.; van Meijl, H.; Mueller, C.; Robertson, R.

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have combined climate, crop and economic models to examine the impact of climate change on agricultural production and food security, but results have varied widely due to differences in models, scenarios and data. Recent work has examined (and narrowed) these differences through systematic model intercomparison using a high-emissions pathway to highlight the differences. New work extends that analysis to cover a range of plausible socioeconomic scenarios and emission pathways. Results from three general circulation models are combined with one crop model and five global economic models to examine the global and regional impacts of climate change on yields, area, production, prices and trade for coarse grains, rice, wheat, oilseeds and sugar to 2050. Results show that yield impacts vary with changes in population, income and technology as well as emissions, but are reduced in all cases by endogenous changes in prices and other variables.

  3. Impact of Urban, Agricultural and Industrial Emissions on the Atmospheric Reactive Nitrogen in the Columbia River Gorge Scenic Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainord, J.; George, L. A.; Orlando, P.

    2015-12-01

    Secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) formation is not fully characterized due to inadequate knowledge of pre-cursor emissions (ammonia, NH3, and nitrogen oxides, NOx) and from incomplete understanding of reactions in model predictions involving the precursors and the chemical products such as nitric acid (HNO3). The Columbia River Gorge (CRG), located between Oregon and Washington states, has unique sources of reactive nitrogen located at both ends and experiences bimodal winds: winter easterlies and summer westerlies. Because of the unique winds, this project will utilize the CRG as an environmental flow tube as we monitor for atmospheric reactive nitrogen species at two locations within the CRG: one located on the western side and one on the east. Measurements will include total oxidized nitrogen, NOx, NH3 and HNO3 using annular denuders, and a novel method using ion exchange resins for particulate ammonium, nitrate, and sulfates. In addition, an ozone gas analyzer and meteorological conditions of temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction will be measured. Our December 2012- June 2014 NOx measurements located near the eastern end of the CRG show significantly different (pmanagers to reduce NOx or NH3 emissions to minimize SIA formation.

  4. Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC) emissions from agricultural crop species: is guttation a possible source for methanol emissions following light/dark transition ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffar, Ahsan; Amelynck, Crist; Bachy, Aurélie; Digrado, Anthony; Delaplace, Pierre; du Jardin, Patrick; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Schoon, Niels; Aubinet, Marc; Heinesch, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of the CROSTVOC (CROp STress VOC) project, the exchange of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) between two important agricultural crop species, maize and winter wheat, and the atmosphere has recently been measured during an entire growing season by using the eddy covariance technique. Because of the co-variation of BVOC emission drivers in field conditions, laboratory studies were initiated in an environmental chamber in order to disentangle the responses of the emissions to variations of the individual environmental parameters (such as PPFD and temperature) and to diverse abiotic stress factors. Young plants were enclosed in transparent all-Teflon dynamic enclosures (cuvettes) through which BVOC-free and RH-controlled air was sent. BVOC enriched air was subsequently sampled from the plant cuvettes and an empty cuvette (background) and analyzed for BVOCs in a high sensitivity Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (hs-PTR-MS) and for CO2 in a LI-7000 non-dispersive IR gas analyzer. Emissions were monitored at constant temperature (25 °C) and at a stepwise varying PPFD pattern (0-650 µmol m-2 s-1). For maize plants, sudden light/dark transitions at the end of the photoperiod were accompanied by prompt and considerable increases in methanol (m/z 33) and water vapor (m/z 39) emissions. Moreover, guttation droplets appeared on the sides and the tips of the leaves within a few minutes after light/dark transition. Therefore the assumption has been raised that methanol is also coming out with guttation fluid from the leaves. Consequently, guttation fluid was collected from young maize and wheat plants, injected in an empty enclosure and sampled by PTR-MS. Methanol and a large number of other compounds were observed from guttation fluid. Recent studies have shown that guttation from agricultural crops frequently occurs in field conditions. Further research is required to find out the source strength of methanol emissions by this guttation

  5. Global fire emissions and the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural, and peat fires (1997–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. van der Werf

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available New burned area datasets and top-down constraints from atmospheric concentration measurements of pyrogenic gases have decreased the large uncertainty in fire emissions estimates. However, significant gaps remain in our understanding of the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural waste, and peat fires to total global fire emissions. Here we used a revised version of the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford-Approach (CASA biogeochemical model and improved satellite-derived estimates of area burned, fire activity, and plant productivity to calculate fire emissions for the 1997–2009 period on a 0.5° spatial resolution with a monthly time step. For November 2000 onwards, estimates were based on burned area, active fire detections, and plant productivity from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS sensor. For the partitioning we focused on the MODIS era. We used burned area estimates based on Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS and Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR active fire data prior to MODIS (1997–2000 and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR derived estimates of plant productivity during the same period. Average global fire carbon emissions were 2.0 Pg yr−1 with significant interannual variability during 1997–2001 (2.8 Pg yr−1 in 1998 and 1.6 Pg yr−1 in 2001. Emissions during 2002–2007 were relatively constant (around 2.1 Pg yr−1 before declining in 2008 (1.7 Pg yr−1 and 2009 (1.5 Pg yr−1 partly due to lower deforestation fire emissions in South America and tropical Asia. During 2002–2007, emissions were highly variable from year-to-year in many regions, including in boreal Asia, South America, and Indonesia, but these regional differences cancelled out at a global level. During the MODIS era (2001–2009, most fire carbon emissions were from fires in grasslands and savannas (44

  6. Sanitisation of faecal sludge by ammonia

    OpenAIRE

    Fidjeland, Jörgen

    2015-01-01

    Faecal sludge contains valuable plant nutrients and can be used as a fertiliser in agriculture, instead of being emitted as a pollutant. As this involves a risk of pathogen transmission, it is crucial to inactivate the pathogens in faecal sludge. One treatment alternative is ammonia sanitisation, as uncharged ammonia (NH₃) inactivates pathogens. The aim of this thesis was to study how the pathogen inactivation depends on treatment factors, mainly NH₃ concentration, temperature and storage tim...

  7. Pollutant swapping: greenhouse gas emissions from wetland systems constructed to mitigate agricultural pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Freer, Adam; Quinton, John; Surridge, Ben; McNamara, Niall P.

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse (non-point) water pollution from agricultural land continues to challenge water quality management, requiring the adoption of new land management practices. The use of constructed agricultural wetlands is one such practice, designed to trap multiple pollutants mobilised by rainfall prior to them reaching receiving water. Through capturing and storing pollutants in bottom sediments, it could be hypothesised that the abundance of nutrients stored in the anoxic conditions commonly found ...

  8. Energy and greenhouse-gas emissions in irrigated agriculture of SE (southeast) Spain. Effects of alternative water supply scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global warming is leading to a water resources decrease in the Mediterranean basin, where future farming resilience depends on incorporating alternative water sources and improving water-energy use efficiency. This paper assesses water and energy consumption when natural water sources are partially replaced by desalinated sea water. Initially, energy consumption, water supply and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions were recorded for the current farming practices in SE (southeast) Spain. The results of our study indicate that citrus orchards have the lowest energy consumption and GHG emissions. Annual vegetables were the least energy efficient crops. Subsequently, two alternative water supply scenarios were analysed, in which the reduction of natural water resources associated to climate change was compensated with desalinated sea water. The use of 16.8% of desalinated seawater would increase energy consumption by 32.4% and GHG emissions by 19.6%, whereas for the use of 26.5% of desalinated seawater such increases would amount to 50.0% and 30.3%, respectively. Therefore maintaining irrigated agriculture in water-stressed regions by incorporating high energy demanding non-traditional water sources could negatively contribute to combat global warming. - Highlights: • Water supply, energy consumption and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions in irrigated agriculture are very connected. • The use of desalinated sea water will increase the energy consumption, and GHG emissions will rise. • The use of non-traditional water resources enhances global warming processes. • Citrus orchards are the less sensitive crop to alternative water supplied scenarios. • Artichoke is the most sensitive crop to alternative water supplied scenarios

  9. A review of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea in Chinese soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Zheng eHe

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia (NH3 oxidation, the first and rate-limiting step of nitrification, is a key step in the global Nitrogen (N cycle. Major advances have been made in recent years in our knowledge and understanding of the microbial communities involved ammonia oxidation in a wide range of habitats, including Chinese agricultural soils. In this mini-review, we focus our attention on the distribution and community diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB and ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA in Chinese soils with variable soil properties and soil management practices. The niche differentiation of AOB and AOA in contrasting soils have been functionally demonstrated using DNA-SIP (stable isotope probing methods, which have shown that AOA dominate nitrification processes in acidic soils, while AOB dominated in neutral, alkaline and N-rich soils. Finally, we discuss the composition and activity of ammonia oxidizer in paddy soils, as well as the mitigation of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O emissions and nitrate leaching via inhibition of nitrification by both AOB and AOA.

  10. Nördlinger Ries campaign on Soil Emissions (NORISE) - DOAS measurements of NO2 and HCHO in an agricultural region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zörner, Jan; Remmers, Julia; Dörner, Steffen; Wang, Yang; Eger, Philipp; Pöhler, Dennis; Behrendt, Thomas; Meixner, Franz; Penning de Vries, Marloes; Wagner, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Soil is a major source of total nitrogen oxide (NOx = NO + NO2) emissions with a fraction of about 15% on a global basis. Soil emissions, stemming from bacterial emissions of NO, are controlled by abiotic and microbiological processes which themselves depend on ambient environmental conditions like soil type, moisture content, temperature as well as agricultural management practices such as fertilization. In recent laboratory experiments it was found that dry soils also exhibit enhanced emissions of several volatile organic compounds (VOC) including HCHO when first wetted. At present, studies on soil emissions in humid climates are limited to point samples and laboratory measurements. Thus, a campaign was organized that is dedicated to the analysis of trace gases which are potentially emitted from soils over an entire area using ground based mini-MAX-DOAS measurements. Since soil emissions are assumed to be highest from lands predominantly used for agriculture, the Nördlinger Ries in Bavaria, Germany, a 25 km wide circular plain formed by a meteor impact about 14.5 million years ago, was chosen which nowadays is dominated by arable land. The main objective of the NORISE campaign was to characterize trace gas levels in a highly agricultural environment. The time frame, consequently, covered a whole growing season from April 2014 to January 2015. The focus was on trace gases which can be measured using the DOAS approach in the UV/VIS spectral range, i.e. NO2 and HCHO, using two mini-MAX-DOAS instruments and one long-path DOAS instrument. The retrieved NO2 and HCHO column densities were examined for long-term variations over the entire growing season and short-term events which are both linked to environmental conditions like precipitation patterns and temperature changes. In addition, the analysis of soil samples taken from fields, distinguished between organic and conventional cultivation, gives further insights into soil activities. In this work, we present

  11. Particle Reduction Strategies - PAREST. Agricultural emissions. Sub-report; Strategien zur Verminderung der Feinstaubbelastung - PAREST. Landwirtschaftliche Emissionen. Teilbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daemmgen, Ulrich; Haenel, Hans-Dieter; Roesemann, Claus; Hahne, Jochen [Johann Heinrich von Thuenen-Institut (vTI), Braunschweig (Germany); Eurich-Menden, Brigitte; Grimm, Ewald; Doehler, Helmut [Kuratorium fuer Technik und Bauwesen in der Landwirtschaft e.V. (KTBL), Darmstadt (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    The German agricultural emission inventory is designed as an instrument of policy advice. The essential aim is to describe the emitting processes so that options for reducing emissions can be quantified. The German agricultural emission model GAS-EM uses in the field of NH{sub 3} emissions from soils and plants in the EMEP / CORINAIR Guidebook (EMEP / CORINAIR, 2002) proposed methods. These differ in emission factors between several types of fertilizers and their application to acre or grassland in function of the average spring temperature. In the field of emissions from animal husbandry GAS-EM follows a material flow approach, where initially the energy and nutrient requirements for a given power (here are weight, weight gain, milk yield, number of piglets, etc. involved) the excretion of metabolizable carbon compounds and the N excretion can be calculated with feces and urine. Subsequently, for all animal species emissions of nitrogen species NH{sub 3}, NO, N{sub 2}O and N{sub 2} from the grazing, indoor housing, storage and distribution of farm fertilizers calculated. [German] Das deutsche landwirtschaftliche Emissionsinventar ist als Instrument der Politikberatung konzipiert. Wesentliches Ziel ist es, die emittierenden Prozesse so zu beschreiben, dass Minderungsmoeglichkeiten quantifiziert werden koennen. Das deutsche landwirtschaftliche Emissions-Modell GAS-EM bedient sich im Bereich der NH{sub 3}-Emissionen aus Boeden und Pflanzen der im EMEP/CORINAIR-Guidebook (EMEP/CORINAIR, 2002) vorgeschlagenen Methoden. Diese unterscheiden bei den Emissionsfaktoren zwischen mehreren Duengersorten und deren Anwendung auf Acker oder Gruenland in Abhaengigkeit von der mittleren Fruehjahrstemperatur. Im Bereich der Emissionen aus der Tierhaltung verfolgt GAS-EM einen Stofffluss-Ansatz, bei dem zunaechst ueber den Energie- und Naehrstoffbedarf bei gegebener Leistung (hier werden Gewicht, Gewichtszuwachs, Milchleistung, Zahl der Ferkel u. ae. hinzugezogen) die Ausscheidungen

  12. Can non-point pollutions emissions from agriculture be regulated efficiently using input-output taxes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line Block; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    2012-01-01

    stocking capacities for phosphorus in farm soils and long time-lags between applications and emission. This makes it important to understand the dynamics of the phosphorus emission problem when designing regulatory systems. Using a model that reflects these dynamics, we evaluate alternative regulatory...

  13. Aircraft-based CH4 flux estimates for validation of emissions from an agriculturally dominated area in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Rebecca V.; Neininger, Bruno; Brunner, Dominik; Gerbig, Christoph; Bretscher, Daniel; Künzle, Thomas; Buchmann, Nina; Eugster, Werner

    2014-04-01

    For regional-scale investigations of greenhouse gas budgets the spatially explicit information from local emission sources is needed, which then can be compared with flux measurements. Here we present the first validation of a section of a spatially explicit CH4 emission inventory of Switzerland. The validation was done for the agriculturally dominated Reuss Valley using measurements from a low-flying aircraft (50-500 m above ground level). We distributed national emission estimates to a grid with 500 m cell size using available geostatistical data. Validation flux measurements were obtained using the eddy covariance (EC) technique and the boundary layer budgeting (BLB) approach that only uses the mean concentrations of the same aircraft transects. Inventory estimates for the flux footprint of the aircraft measurements were lowest (median 0.40 μg CH4m-2s-1), and BLB fluxes were highest (1.02 μg CH4m-2s-1) for the Reuss Valley, with EC fluxes in between (0.62 μg CH4m-2s-1). Flux estimates from measurements and inventory are within the same order of magnitude, but measured fluxes were significantly larger than the inventory emission estimates. The differences are larger than the uncertainties associated with storage of manure, temperature dependence of emissions, diurnal cycle of enteric fermentation by cattle, and the limitations of the inventory that only covers ≥90% of all expected methane emissions. From this we deduce that it is not unlikely that the Swiss CH4 emission inventory estimates are too low.

  14. Greenhouse gas emissions under conservation agriculture compared to traditional cultivation of maize in the central highlands of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1991, the ‘International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center’ (CIMMYT) started a field experiment in the rain fed Mexican highlands to investigate conservation agriculture (CA) as a sustainable alternative for conventional maize production practices (CT). CT techniques, characterized by deep tillage, monoculture and crop residue removal, have deteriorated soil fertility and reduced yields. CA, which combines minimum tillage, crop rotations and residue retention, restores soil fertility and increases yields. Soil organic matter increases in CA compared to CT, but increases in greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) in CA might offset the gains obtained to mitigate global warming. Therefore, CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions, soil temperature, C and water content were monitored in CA and CT treatments in 2010–2011. The cumulative GHG emitted were similar for CA and CT in both years, but the C content in the 0–60 cm layer was higher in CA (117.7 Mg C ha−1) than in CT (69.7 Mg C ha−1). The net global warming potential (GWP) of CA (considering soil C sequestration, GHG emissions, fuel use, and fertilizer and seeds production) was − 7729 kg CO2 ha−1 y−1 in 2008–2009 and − 7892 kg CO2 ha−1 y−1 in 2010–2011, whereas that of CT was 1327 and 1156 kg CO2 ha−1 y−1. It was found that the contribution of CA to GWP was small compared to that of CT. - Highlights: ► Conservation agriculture (CA) and conventional agriculture (CT) systems ► Greenhouse gasses emitted were similar from CA and CT. ► C content in the 0–60 cm layer was much higher in CA than in CT. ► The net global warming potential of CA was negative, but positive in CT. ► C sequestered in soil is far more important than GHG emitted.

  15. Role of microbial diversity in mitigating the emissions of the greenhouse gas n2o in relation to agricultural practices

    OpenAIRE

    Domeignoz Horta, Luiz; Spor, Aymé; Bru, David; Breuil, Marie-Christine; Bizouard, Florian; Philippot, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture is the main source of terrestrial N2O emissions. This gas is the main depleting substance of the ozone layer and contributes to about 6% of total global warming. The unique known biological process able to convert N2O is its reduction to N2 by organisms possessing the nosZ gene, which encodes the nitrous oxide reductase. A recent publication (Jones et al., Nature Climate Change, in press) showed that the abundance and the diversity of a recently discovered clade of nosZ_carrying m...

  16. Dynamics of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Riparian Buffer Zones and Wetlands as Hot Spots in Agricultural Landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study considers various aspects of riparian buffer zones and wetlands for greenhouse gas emissions in agricultural landscapes of northern and north-eastern Europe. In particular, the impact of pulsing water regime, continuous loading and several alterations of environmental conditions on greenhouse gas emissions are taken into the consideration. In two case studies the isotopologue technique was used to distinguish between N2O sources in both riparian zones and constructed wetlands. Nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitrogen (N2) emissions, isotopic signatures of N2O and nitrate (NO3-) in groundwater of two differently loaded riparian grey alder stands in southern Estonia were investigated over a period of nine months. One area was a 38-year-old stand in Porijõgi (PJ), where uphill agricultural activities had been abandoned since the middle of 1990s, and the second area was a 55-year-old alder stand in Viiratsi (Vi), which still receives polluted lateral flow from uphill fields applied with pig slurry. Gas fluxes were measured in six sampling sessions, and water samples were analysed for NO3-, N2, N2O, and isotopic signatures of oxygen-18 (delta 18O, δ18O) and nitrogen-15 (delta 15N, δ15N) in N2O and NO3- in four of the six sessions. The N2O and N2 fluxes from both riparian zones did not differ significantly, being 9.6 ± 4.7 and 14.5 ± 3.9 μg N2O–N m−2 h−1, and 2 466 ± 275 and 3 083 ± 371 μg N2–N m−2 h−1 in PJ and Vi sites respectively, suggesting that gaseous N2 is the dominant gas emission from these alder stands. The isotopic signatures of N2O and NO3- were not significantly different between PJ and Vi study sites suggesting possible conversion of NO3- to N2O in both areas. The greater prevalence of N2 emissions over N2O in both areas, and the strong relationship between NO3- and N2O concentrations (r2 = 0.846, with p < 0.01) further suggested that denitrification is the main source of N2O and N2 fluxes in these grey alder stands. The dominant

  17. Computed tomography calcium score scan for attenuation correction of N-13 ammonia cardiac positron emission tomography : effect of respiratory phase and registration method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaidi, Habib; Nkoulou, Rene; Bond, Sarah; Baskin, Aylin; Schindler, Thomas; Ratib, Osman; Declerck, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    The use of coronary calcium scoring (CaScCT) for attenuation correction (AC) of N-13-ammonia PET/CT studies (NH3) is still being debated. We compare standard ACCT to CaScCT using various respiratory phases and co-registration methods for AC. Forty-one patients underwent a stress/rest NH3. Standard A

  18. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) satellite observations of ammonia, methanol, formic acid, and carbon monoxide over the Canadian oil sands: validation and model evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wealth of air quality information provided by satellite infrared observations of ammonia (NH3), carbon monoxide (CO), formic acid (HCOOH), and methanol (CH3OH) is currently being explored and used for a number of applications, especially at regional or global scales. These ap...

  19. Feeding the world's increasing population while limiting climate change impacts: linking N2O and CH4 emissions from agriculture to population growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global demand for agricultural products, including food, is rapidly increasing due to population growth and shifts in consumption patterns. The required increase in agricultural production is predominantly to be achieved in countries with relatively low agricultural production levels at present. These are mainly developing countries and countries in transition, the so-called non-Annex I countries of the UNFCCC. However, intensification of agricultural production systems is currently closely linked to high emissions of greenhouse gases notably nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4). In this paper the relations between population growth, agricultural development and emissions of N2O and CH4 were assessed for 10 non-Annex I countries, viz. China, India, Vietnam, Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, Mongolia, Nigeria, Tanzania and South Africa. We combined FAO data on agricultural production levels, CENSUS data on population statistics and EDGAR data on N2O and CH4 emissions. The projected trends in agricultural production indicate that emissions of N2O and CH4 are expected to increase rapidly in the coming years and will level off from 2040 onwards. The results confirm the positive relation between population increase and increased emissions from agricultural activities for most countries. However, for some countries (South Africa, China and Mexico) this relation was weak or absent. Although numerous factors (e.g. changes in international trade) may have scattered the relation and we were unable to explain this decoupling, it suggests that population growth can be possible without additional emissions. The variation between the different countries and farming systems is however large and mitigation measures at farm-level should be tailored to the wide diversity in environmental conditions, regional customs and farming systems.

  20. Experimental analysis of CO{sub 2} emissions from agricultural soils subjected to five different tillage systems in Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buragienė, Sidona [Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Safety, Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Studentu str. 15A, LT-53361 Akademija, Kaunas distr. (Lithuania); Šarauskis, Egidijus, E-mail: egidijus.sarauskis@asu.lt [Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Safety, Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Studentu str. 15A, LT-53361 Akademija, Kaunas distr. (Lithuania); Romaneckas, Kęstutis, E-mail: kestas.romaneckas@asu.lt [Institute of Agroecosystems and Soil Science, Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Studentu str. 11, Akademija LT-53361, Kaunas dist. (Lithuania); Sasnauskienė, Jurgita, E-mail: jurgita.sasnauskiene@asu.lt [Institute of Environment and Ecology, Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Studentu str. 11, Akademija LT-53361, Kaunas dist. (Lithuania); Masilionytė, Laura, E-mail: laura.masilionyte@gmail.com [Joniskelis Experimental Station, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, Joniskelis, LT-39301 Pasvalys distr. (Lithuania); Kriaučiūnienė, Zita, E-mail: zita.kriauciuniene@asu.lt [Experimental Station, Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Rapsu str. 7, LT-53363 Noreikiskes, Kaunas distr. (Lithuania)

    2015-05-01

    Intensive agricultural production strongly influences the global processes that determine climate change. Thus, tillage can play a very important role in climate change. The intensity of soil carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions, which contribute to the greenhouse effect, can vary depending on the following factors: the tillage system used, meteorological conditions (which vary in different regions of the world), soil properties, plant residue characteristics and other factors. The main purpose of this research was to analyse and assess the effects of autumn tillage systems with different intensities on CO{sub 2} emissions from soils during different seasons and under the climatic conditions of Central Lithuania. The research was conducted at the Experimental Station of Aleksandras Stulginskis University from 2009 to2012; and in 2014. The soils at the experimental site were classified as Eutric Endogleyic Planosol (Drainic). The investigations were conducted using five tillage systems with different intensities, typical of the Baltic Region. Deep conventional ploughing was performed at a depth of 230–250 mm, shallow ploughing was conducted at a depth of 120–150 mm, deep loosening was conducted at depths of 250–270 mm, and shallow loosening was conducted at depths of 120–150 mm. The fifth system was a no-tillage system. Overall, autumn tillage resulted in greater CO{sub 2} emissions from the soil over both short- and long-term periods under the climatic conditions of Central Lithuania, regardless of the tillage system applied. The highest soil CO{sub 2} emissions were observed for the conventional deep ploughing tillage system, and the lowest emissions were observed for the no-tillage system. The meteorological conditions greatly influenced the CO{sub 2} emissions from the soil during the spring. Soil CO{sub 2} emissions were enhanced as precipitation and the air and soil temperatures increased. Long-term investigations regarding the dynamics of CO{sub 2

  1. The effect of aggregates on N2O emission from denitrification in an agricultural peat soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kabat

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous oxide (N2O emissions are highly variable in time, with high peak emissions lasting as couple of days to weeks and low background emissions. This temporal variability is poorly understood which hampers the simulation of daily N2O emissions. In structured soils, like clay and peat, aggregates hamper the diffusion of oxygen, which leads to anaerobic microsites in the soil, favourable for denitrification. In this paper we studied the effect of aggregates in soils on the N2O emissions from denitrification. We presented a parameterization to simulate the effects of aggregates on N2O, following the mobile-immobile model concept. This parameterization was implemented in a field-scale hydrological-biogeochemical model combination. We compared the simulated fluxes with observed fluxes from a fertilized and drained peat soil with grass. The results of this study showed that aggregates strongly affect N2O emissions: peak emissions are lower, whereas the background emissions are slightly higher. Implementation of the effect of aggregates caused a decrease in the simulated annual emissions of more than 40%. The new parameterization also significantly improved the model performance to simulate observed N2O fluxes. Aggregates have more impact on the reduction of N2O than on the production of N2O. Reduction of N2O is more sensitive to changes in the drivers than production of N2O and is in that sense the key process to understand N2O emissions from denitrification. The effects of changing conditions on reduction of N2O relative to N2O production is dependent on the NO3 content of the soil. It is expected that in soils with a low NO3 content the influence of aggregates on the NO3 concentration is not negligible. This study showed that the current knowledge of the hydrological, biogeochemical and physical processes is sufficient to understand the observed N2O fluxes from a fertilized peatland. Further research is needed to test how aggregates affect the N2

  2. Pretreatment of Biomass by Aqueous Ammonia for Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Gupta, Rajesh; Lee, Y. Y.

    The methods of pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass using aqueous ammonia are described. The main effect of ammonia treatment of biomass is delignification without significantly affecting the carbohydrate contents. It is a very effective pretreatment method especially for substrates that have low lignin contents such as agricultural residues and herbaceous feedstock. The ammonia-based pretreatment is well suited for simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) because the treated biomass retains cellulose as well as hemicellulose. It has been demonstrated that overall ethanol yield above 75% of the theoretical maximum on the basis of total carbohydrate is achievable from corn stover pretreated with aqueous ammonia by way of SSCF. There are two different types of pretreatment methods based on aqueous ammonia: (1) high severity, low contact time process (ammonia recycle percolation; ARP), (2) low severity, high treatment time process (soaking in aqueous ammonia; SAA). Both of these methods are described and discussed for their features and effectiveness.

  3. Options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions during wastewater treatment for agricultural use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Pinchas; Hadas, Efrat

    2012-02-01

    Treatment of primarily-domestic sewage wastewater involves on-site greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions due to energy inputs, organic matter degradation and biological nutrient removal (BNR). BNR causes both direct emissions and loss of fertilizer value, thus eliminating possible reduction of emissions caused by fertilizer manufacture. In this study, we estimated on-site GHG emissions under different treatment scenarios, and present options for emission reduction by changing treatment methods, avoiding BNR and by recovering energy from biogas. Given a typical Israeli wastewater strength (1050mg CODl(-1)), the direct on-site GHG emissions due to energy use were estimated at 1618 and 2102g CO(2)-eq m(-3), respectively, at intermediate and tertiary treatment levels. A potential reduction of approximately 23-55% in GHG emissions could be achieved by fertilizer preservation and VS conversion to biogas. Wastewater fertilizers constituted a GHG abatement potential of 342g CO(2)-eq m(-3). The residual component that remained in the wastewater effluent following intermediate (oxidation ponds) and enhanced (mechanical-biological) treatments was 304-254g CO(2)-eq m(-3) and 65-34g CO(2)-eq m(-3), respectively. Raw sludge constituted approximately 47% of the overall wastewater fertilizers load with an abatement potential of 150g CO(2)-eq m(-3) (385kg CO(2)-eq dry tonne(-1)). Inasmuch as anaerobic digestion reduced it to 63g CO(2)-eq m(-3) (261kg CO(2)-eq dry tonne(-1)), the GHG abatement gained through renewable biogas energy (approx. 428g CO(2)-eq m(-3)) favored digestion. However, sludge composting reduced the fertilizer value to 17g CO(2)-eq m(-3) (121kg CO(2)-eq dry tonne(-1)) or less (if emissions, off-site inputs and actual phytoavailability were considered). Taking Israel as an example, fully exploiting the wastewater derived GHG abatement potential could reduce the State overall GHG emissions by almost 1%. This demonstrates the possibility of optional carbon credits which

  4. Application of the DNDC model to predict emissions of N2O from Irish agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdalla, M.; Wattenbach, M.; Smith, P.;

    2009-01-01

    Models are increasingly used to examine the potential impacts of management and climate change in agriculture. Our aim in this paper was to assess the applicability of the field-DeNitrification DeComposition (DNDC) model in Irish agriculture. This study provides the results of that evaluation......, which is a prerequisite for using the model for assessing management impacts in the future. The DNDC model was tested against seasonal and annual data sets of nitrous oxide flux from a spring barley field and a cut and grazed pasture at the Teagasc Oak Park Research Centre, Co. Carlow, Ireland...... temperature as the main determinant of N2O flux, an increase in mean daily air temperature of 1.5 °C resulting in almost a 65% increase in the annual cumulative flux. This is interesting as with future global warming, N2O flux from the soil will have a strong positive feedback. It can be concluded that DNDC...

  5. Measurement of greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural sites using open-path optical remote sensing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improved characterization of distributed emission sources of greenhouse gases such as methane from concentrated animal feeding operations require more accurate methods. One promising method is recently used by the USEPA. It employs a vertical radial plume mapping (VRPM) algorithm using optical remot...

  6. A metamodeling approach to estimate N2O emissions from agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, J.; Hijmans, R. J.; Horwath, W. R.

    2012-12-01

    Because of the complexity of process-based ecological models such as the "DeNitrification DeComposition" (DNDC) model, predictions made with such models can be difficult to explain, and it can take a very long time to run them. We developed metamodels of N2O emissions from maize and wheat by running DNDC for a diverse sample of global climate and soil types, and then fitting the model output as a function of model input using the Random Forest machine learning algorithm. Correlation coefficients between holdout data (DNDC output not used for the metamodel) and metamodel predictions were 0.97 and 0.95 for maize and wheat respectively. Making predictions with the metamodels is on the order of 4.5*10^4 times faster than running DNDC. For both maize and wheat, the metamodels show that DNDC predicts that N2O emissions are highly sensitive to soil organic carbon (SOC ), somewhat sensitive to N-input, pH, clay fraction and temperature, and insensitive to bulk density, precipitation and irrigation. Wheat showed somewhat higher sensitivity than maize to most of the variables. We used the metamodels to estimate N2O emissions from maize and wheat crops at very high resolution and also present new global N2O emission estimates for these crops.

  7. Green House Gas Control and Agricultural Biomass for Sustainable Animal Agriculture in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Takahashi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Important green house gases (GHG attributed to animal agriculture are methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O, though carbon dioxide (CO2 contributes almost half of total greenhouse effect. Rumen CH4 production in an enteric fermentation can be accounted as the biggest anthropogenic source. Some of prebiotics and probiotics have been innovated to mitigate rumen CH4 emission. The possible use of agricultural biomass consisted of non-edible parts of crop plants such as cellulose and hemi cellulose and animal wastes was proposed as a renewable energy and nitrogen sources. The ammonia stripping from digested slurry of animal manure in biogas plant applied three options of nitrogen recycling to mitigate nitrous oxide emission. In the first option of the ammonia stripping, the effect of ammonolysis on feed value of cellulose biomass was evaluated on digestibility, energy metabolism and protein utilization. Saccharification of the NH3 treated cellulose biomass was confirmed in strictly anaerobic incubation with rumen cellulolytic bacteria, Ruminoccous flavefaciens, to produce bio-ethanol as the second option of ammonia stripping. In an attempt of NH3 fuel cell, the reformed hydrogen from the NH3 stripped from 20 liter of digested slurry in thermophilic biogas plant could generate 0.12 W electricity with proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEM as the third option.

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions under conservation agriculture compared to traditional cultivation of maize in the central highlands of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dendooven, Luc, E-mail: dendooven@me.com [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, ABACUS, Cinvestav, Avenida Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, C.P. 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Gutierrez-Oliva, Vicente F. [Laboratory of Plant Biotechnology, Instituto Tecnologico de Tuxtla-Gutierrez, Tuxtla-Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico); Patino-Zuniga, Leonardo [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, ABACUS, Cinvestav, Avenida Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, C.P. 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Ramirez-Villanueva, Daniel A. [Departamento de Microbiologia, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas-IPN, Av. Prolongacion de Carpio y Plan de Ayala, C.P. 11340 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Verhulst, Nele [International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT), Apdo. Postal 6-641, 06600, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Luna-Guido, Marco; Marsch, Rodolfo [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, ABACUS, Cinvestav, Avenida Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, C.P. 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Montes-Molina, Joaquin; Gutierrez-Miceli, Federico A. [Laboratory of Plant Biotechnology, Instituto Tecnologico de Tuxtla-Gutierrez, Tuxtla-Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico); Vasquez-Murrieta, Soledad [Departamento de Microbiologia, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas-IPN, Av. Prolongacion de Carpio y Plan de Ayala, C.P. 11340 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Govaerts, Bram [International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT), Apdo. Postal 6-641, 06600, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2012-08-01

    In 1991, the 'International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center' (CIMMYT) started a field experiment in the rain fed Mexican highlands to investigate conservation agriculture (CA) as a sustainable alternative for conventional maize production practices (CT). CT techniques, characterized by deep tillage, monoculture and crop residue removal, have deteriorated soil fertility and reduced yields. CA, which combines minimum tillage, crop rotations and residue retention, restores soil fertility and increases yields. Soil organic matter increases in CA compared to CT, but increases in greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) in CA might offset the gains obtained to mitigate global warming. Therefore, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions, soil temperature, C and water content were monitored in CA and CT treatments in 2010-2011. The cumulative GHG emitted were similar for CA and CT in both years, but the C content in the 0-60 cm layer was higher in CA (117.7 Mg C ha{sup -1}) than in CT (69.7 Mg C ha{sup -1}). The net global warming potential (GWP) of CA (considering soil C sequestration, GHG emissions, fuel use, and fertilizer and seeds production) was - 7729 kg CO{sub 2} ha{sup -1} y{sup -1} in 2008-2009 and - 7892 kg CO{sub 2} ha{sup -1} y{sup -1} in 2010-2011, whereas that of CT was 1327 and 1156 kg CO{sub 2} ha{sup -1} y{sup -1}. It was found that the contribution of CA to GWP was small compared to that of CT. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conservation agriculture (CA) and conventional agriculture (CT) systems Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Greenhouse gasses emitted were similar from CA and CT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C content in the 0-60 cm layer was much higher in CA than in CT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The net global warming potential of CA was negative, but positive in CT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C sequestered in soil is far more important than GHG emitted.

  9. A wind-tunnel study on saltation and PM10 emission from agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avecilla, Fernando; Panebianco, Juan E.; Buschiazzo, Daniel E.

    2016-09-01

    PM10 emission depends on the texture and the aggregation state of a soil. A decisive but less studied factor is the saltation fraction of the soil (fraction between 100 and 500 μm). Six soils of contrasting textures were selected, and a wind tunnel study was carried out under three different saltation conditions: increased saltation, in which a sample of the saltation fraction was added to the air stream prior to the soil bed; no saltation added, in which the soil bed eroded without the addition of extra saltation fraction; and only saltation, in which the saltation fraction was injected into the air stream in the absence of the soil bed. Results indicated that the saltation efficiency for PM10 emission increased with the fine fraction content of the soil and decreased with the sand content, but this process showed a complex behavior depending on the cohesion and stability of the aggregates. An index for describing the saltation efficiency of the studied soils was proposed based on the combination of three parameters: the PM10 content, the amount of saltation fraction available in the soil surface, and an aggregation parameter (clay × organic matter content). Increasing the saltation rate increased the PM10 emission from the eroding soil bed, except for the sandy soil. Results suggest that the main mechanisms of PM10 emission under saltation conditions differ according to the soil texture: detachment of the PM10 adhered to the grains of sand predominates on sandy soils and fragmentation on finer soils, but both processes occur together on high-emitting soils of intermediate textures.

  10. Effects of fossil diesel and biodiesel blends on the performances and emissions of agricultural tractor engines

    OpenAIRE

    Tomić Milan D.; Savin Lazar Đ.; Mićić Radoslav D.; Simikić Mirko Đ.; Furman Timofej F.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid growth in the energy consumption has conditioned the need for discovering the alternative energy resources which would be adapted to the existing engine constructions and which would satisfy the additional criteria related to the renewability, ecology and reliability of use. Introduction of biodiesel has been the focus of attention over the last ten years. The aim of this research is to investigate the influence of biodiesel on the performances and exhaust gas emissions of medium ...

  11. Effect of beta-glucans contained in barley- and oat-based diets and exogenous enzyme supplementation on gastrointestinal fermentation of finisher pigs and subsequent manure odor and ammonia emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, C J; Sweeney, T; Lynch, M B; Gahan, D A; Callan, J J; O'Doherty, J V

    2010-04-01

    The objective of the current experiment was to evaluate the influence of dietary cereal sources of beta(1,3)(1,4)-d-glucan (beta-glucan) and enzyme supplementation on indices of environmental pollution from finisher pigs. An experiment with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was initiated to investigate the effect of dietary source of beta-glucan (barley vs. oats) and enzyme supplementation (no vs. yes) on nutrient digestibility, N utilization, intestinal fermentation, and manure odor and ammonia emissions from finisher boars (n = 4; BW = 73.9 kg; SD = 4.7). Sixteen boars were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments (n = 4/treatment): 1) barley-based diet, 2) barley-based diet + exogenous enzyme, 3) oat-based diet, and 4) oat-based diet + enzyme. The enzyme supplement used contained endo-1,3(4)-beta-glucanase and endo-1,4-beta-xylanase. Experimental diets were formulated to contain similar concentrations of DE (13.5 MJ/kg) and digestible lysine (8.8 g/kg). Pigs offered oat-based diets had reduced digestibility of DM (0.795 vs. 0.849; SEM 0.007; P = 0.001), OM (0.808 vs. 0.865; SEM 0.007; P = 0.001), GE (0.806 vs. 0.845; SEM 0.006; P = 0.002), and NDF (0.233 vs. 0.423; SEM 0.033; P effect of enzyme inclusion on oat-based diets. In conclusion, pigs offered oat-based diets harbored increased Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. populations in the proximal colon and had decreased manure odor emissions compared with those offered barley-based diets. Enzyme inclusion had no effect on manure ammonia emissions from pigs offered oat-based diets. PMID:20023128

  12. Brazilian greenhouse gas emissions: the importance of agriculture and livestock Emissões de gases do efeito estufa do Brasil: importância da agricultura e pastagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Clemente Cerri

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Data from the 1990-1994 period presented in the "Brazil's Initial National Communication" document indicated that the country is one of the top world greenhouse gas (GHG emitters. A large majority of Brazil's GHG emissions come from deforestation mainly of the Amazon biome for agriculture and livestock land uses. This unique inventory is now out of date. Thus, the aims of this review were (i to update estimates of the GHG emissions for the Brazilian territory, (ii to estimate the sinks to provide calculations of the GHG net emissions for the 1990-2005 period, (iii to calculate the actual and estimate shares of agricultural and livestock activities, and (iv to discuss in light of the new figures and patterns the best mitigation options for Brazil. Total emissions in CO2-eq increased by 17% during the 1994-2005 period. CO2 represented 72.3% of the total, i.e. a small decrease, in favour of non-CO2 GHG, in relation to 1994 when its share was 74.1%. The increase of all GHG excluding Land Use Change and Forestry (LUCF was 41.3% over the period 1994-2005. Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT - World Resources Institute (WRI estimated a higher increase (48.9% that classified Brazil at the 69th position. Using our estimates Brazil will fall to the 78th position. But in both cases Brazil increased in clearly lower values than the tendency calculated for China and India, two major emitters, with increases of 88.8% and 62.1%, respectively. Brazil's increase is less than those presented for some countries in Annex 1 that are submitted to a quota of reduction, e.g. Spain with 55.6% of increase and New Zealand with 45.8%. Brazil also is below the average increase shown by non-Annex I countries, estimated to be 61.3%, but above the world average (28.1%. Besides the effort to curb emissions from the energy and deforestation sectors, it is now a top priority to implement a national program to promote mitigation efforts concerning the agricultural and livestock

  13. Mitigating GHG emissions from agriculture under climate change constrains - a case study for the State of Saxony, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, E.; Kiese, R.; Klatt, S.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2012-12-01

    Mitigating greenhouse gas (N2O, CO2, CH4) emissions from agricultural soils under conditions of projected climate change (IPCC SRES scenarios) is a prerequisite to limit global warming. In this study we used the recently developed regional biogeochemical ecosystem model LandscapeDNDC (Haas et al., 2012, Landscape Ecology) and two time slices for present day (1998 - 2018) and future climate (2078-2098) (regional downscale of IPCC SRES A1B climate simulation) and compared a business as usual agricultural management scenario (winter rape seed - winter barley - winter wheat rotation; fertilization: 170 / 150 / 110 kg-N mineral fertilizer; straw harvest barley/wheat: 90 %) with scenarios where either one or all of the following options were realized: no-till, residue return to fields equal 100%, reduction of fertilization rate s were left on the field or reduction of N fertilization by 10%. The spatial domain is the State of Saxony (1 073 523 hectares of arable land), a typical region for agricultural production in Central Europe. The simulations are based on a high resolution polygonal datasets (5 517 agricultural grid cells) for which relevant information on soil properties is available. The regionalization of the N2O emissions was validated against the IPCC Tier I methodology resulting in N2O emissions of 1 824 / 1 610 / 1 180 [t N2O-N yr-1] for of the baseline years whereas the simulations results in 6 955 / 6 039 / 2 207 [t N2O-N yr-1] for the first three years of the baseline scenarios and ranging between 621 and 6 955 [t N2O-N yr-1] within the following years (mean of 2 923). The influence of climate change (elevated mean temperature of approx. 2°C and minor changes in precipitation) results in an increase of 259 [t N2O-N yr-1] (mean 3 182) or approx. 9 percent on average (with a minimum of 618 and a maximum of 6 553 [t N2O-N yr-1]). Focusing on the mitigation , the recarbonization did result in an increase of soil carbon stocks of 2 585 [kg C/ha] within the

  14. Impact of greenhouse gas metrics on the quantification of agricultural emissions and farm-scale mitigation strategies: a New Zealand case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agriculture emits a range of greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gas metrics allow emissions of different gases to be reported in a common unit called CO2-equivalent. This enables comparisons of the efficiency of different farms and production systems and of alternative mitigation strategies across all gases. The standard metric is the 100 year global warming potential (GWP), but alternative metrics have been proposed and could result in very different CO2-equivalent emissions, particularly for CH4. While significant effort has been made to reduce uncertainties in emissions estimates of individual gases, little effort has been spent on evaluating the implications of alternative metrics on overall agricultural emissions profiles and mitigation strategies. Here we assess, for a selection of New Zealand dairy farms, the effect of two alternative metrics (100 yr GWP and global temperature change potentials, GTP) on farm-scale emissions and apparent efficiency and cost effectiveness of alternative mitigation strategies. We find that alternative metrics significantly change the balance between CH4 and N2O; in some cases, alternative metrics even determine whether a specific management option would reduce or increase net farm-level emissions or emissions intensity. However, the relative ranking of different farms by profitability or emissions intensity, and the ranking of the most cost-effective mitigation options for each farm, are relatively unaffected by the metric. We conclude that alternative metrics would change the perceived significance of individual gases from agriculture and the overall cost to farmers if a price were applied to agricultural emissions, but the economically most effective response strategies are unaffected by the choice of metric. (letter)

  15. Low-cost anodes for ammonia electrooxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selverston, Steven M.

    This research focused on the development of low-cost electrodes for the electrochemical oxidation of ammonia to nitrogen, a reaction that has possible applications in hydrogen generation, direct ammonia fuel cells, water treatment, and sensors. Statistical design of experiments was used to help develop an efficient and scalable process for electrodeposition of platinum with a specific electrochemical surface area of over 25 m2 /g. Catalyst surface area and activity were evaluated using cyclic voltammetry, and the material microstructure and morphology were investigated using x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The synthesized electrodes were found to be active toward the ammonia electrooxidation reaction, particularly when supporting electrolyte was added. However, supporting electrolyte was not required in order to oxidize the ammonia. As proof of concept, a homemade direct ammonia fuel cell employing a commercial anion exchange membrane was tested at room temperature with gravity-fed fuel and without supporting electrolyte. At room temperature, with passive reactant supply and using dissolved oxygen at the cathode, the cell produced about one quarter the power of a direct methanol fuel cell that used active transport of humidified oxygen and preheated (50 °C) methanol. With continued development of the membrane, cathode and membrane electrode assembly, the passive direct ammonia fuel cell using anion exchange membrane could have performance similar to the equivalent direct methanol fuel cell, and it could benefit from many advantages of ammonia over methanol such as lower cost, higher energy density, and reduced greenhouse gas emissions.

  16. Utilizing In-Situ Static Chamber Measurements and UAV Imagery for Integrated Greenhouse Gas Emissions Estimations: Assessing Environmental and Management Impacts on Agricultural Emissions for Two Paired-Watershed Sites in Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, L.; Peterson, F. S.; Wyngaard, J.

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions contribute to ~10-12% of global anthropogenic emissions. While agriculture is a major source of GHG emissions, there is also great potential for mitigation, as emissions can be reduced by utilizing specific field management and fertilization strategies. This study closely monitors hay and corn fields in Vermont in two paired-watershed sites. Carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane emissions were measured weekly using static chambers and a Photoacoustic Gas Sensor (PAS) across both field management treatments: conventional and mitigation. Accurately quantifying emissions from agricultural landscapes is crucial to develop and implement optimal mitigation strategies, but quantifying landscape-wide emissions is challenging. In this study, we show that both field management treatments and environmental conditions (such as field flooding from rain events) significantly affect GHG emissions, and both can be highly spatially variable even on the field-scale. Monitoring this kind of complexity across a watershed is difficult, as most current emissions quantification techniques, such as static chambers, are localized, point specific and costly. Remote sensing provides an opportunity to monitor landscapes more efficiently and cost effectively. High resolution imagery from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) can also provide opportunities for more accurate watershed-wide estimates of GHG emission rates based on observable agricultural field conditions and management signals, such as field flooding, fertilizer application method, and cover cropping. Satellite imagery, and even the higher resolution aerial imagery used for agricultural monitoring, do not provide the spatial or temporal resolution needed to monitor the on-field complexities that affect GHG emissions. This study combines and compares environmental and management observations from UAV imagery and in-situ field GHG emissions measurements to determine the effectiveness of

  17. Estimating agricultural N2O emissions in France: comparison of a spatialized agro-ecosytem model (CERES-EGC) and a terrestrial biosphere model (O-CN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massad, R. S.; Prieur, V.; Boukari, E.; Lehuger, S.; Chaumartin, F.; Schultz, M.; Gabrielle, B.

    2012-04-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a major greenhouse gas and air pollutant. Considered over a 100 year period, it has 298 times more impact 'per unit weight' (Global warming potential) than carbon dioxide. The parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), including France, are committed to estimate their national nitrous oxide (N2O) budgets and to establish regional programmes of N2O emissions reductions. Agricultural activities are gradually coming into focus as a major GHG emission sector; precise regional estimates of current N2O emissions from arable land are being needed, along with possible means for mitigating emissions. The use of biogeochemical simulation models to estimate N2O fluxes from agricultural soils has obvious benefits. These models provide a unique potential to mechanistically predict N2O emissions from arable soils on both the plot-scale and the regional/national scale on daily time resolutions. In this study we apply two biogeochemical simulation models: CERES-EGC and O-CN all over France for the year 2007 in the perspective of producing an inventory of N2O emissions from croplands. Simulated total N2O emissions from agricultural soils sum up to 20.4 Gg N-N2O/yr with the CERES-EGC model and to 95.1 Gg N-N2O/yr with the O-CN model. Even though the total emissions are largely different between the two models, the temporal and spatial distributions are comparable. When compared to the EDGAR 4.2 emission database we note that O-CN overestimates the annual emissions by approximately a factor of two, whereas CERES-EGC underestimates those emissions. These differences can be explained to a certain extent by the difference in land-use types considered in each of the models and the inventories.

  18. Surface/atmosphere exchange of ammonia over grazed pasture.

    OpenAIRE

    Plantaz, M.A.H.G.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis deals with the exchange of ammonia between the atmosphere and grazed pasture in an area of intensive livestock breeding. The term exchange is used because gaseous ammonia can be taken up (dry deposition) as well as released (emission) by this type of surface.Ammonia exchange fluxes over the grass pasture of a research farm for dairy cattle breeding at Zegveld (the Netherlands) were measured continuously from July 1992 until July 1994. The main objective was to investigate the long...

  19. Modelling pesticide emission patterns in agricultural life cycle inventories using a modular approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mila i Canals, Llorenc; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Domenech, Xavier

    In the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of field crops, the system description and inventory analysis provides information about the identities and quantities of pesticide applied, the form and the pattern of application. The field itself is seen as part of the technosphere, the ecosphere beginning...... pesticide fractions reaching the different environment compartments is used for the application of LCA to apple production in New Zealand. The approach has been developed to be used in the life cycle inventory (LCI) of agricultural systems. This framework allows the consideration of site...... modularity allows to include more sophistication in the different modules as required. For instance, in New Zealand a complex mechanistic model exists for the prediction of pesticide leaching, as well as field data on farmers' habits' effect on pesticide drift, so this was included in the calculations...

  20. Regulation og non-point phosphorus emissions from the agricultural sector by use of economic incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line Block

    of economic incentives applied in the agricultural sector on 1) P-surplus application rates at the field level; 2) the accumulation of P in the soil; 3) the level of risk of P losses to the aquatic ecosystem; and 4) farm economics when analysed using a profit maximization approach. The thesis consists of four...... and identifies the most important parameters to include in a dynamic model where farm profit is maximized over time whilst taking soil-P dynamics into account. The paper focuses on heterogeneity of farm type and how these farmers utilize the soil-P stock and apply P fertilizers. The second paper completes...... profit maximization model is developed for an area in the catchment area of Odense Fjord, Denmark. The area covers 3,993 hectares and is cultivated by 258 arable, cattle and pig farmers. The paper investigates two different general incentives for reducing soil P losses: a tax on mineral-fertilizer P...

  1. Statistical analysis of nitrous oxide emission factors from pastoral agriculture field trials conducted in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between 11 May 2000 and 31 January 2013, 185 field trials were conducted across New Zealand to measure the direct nitrous oxide (N2O) emission factors (EF) from nitrogen (N) sources applied to pastoral soils. The log(EF) data were analysed statistically using a restricted maximum likelihood (REML) method. To estimate mean EF values for each N source, best linear unbiased predictors (BLUPs) were calculated. For lowland soils, mean EFs for dairy cattle urine and dung, sheep urine and dung and urea fertiliser were 1.16 ± 0.19% and 0.23 ± 0.05%, 0.55 ± 0.19% and 0.08 ± 0.02% and 0.48 ± 0.13%, respectively, each significantly different from one another (p 12°, mean EFs were significantly lower. Thus, urine and dung EFs should be disaggregated for sheep and cattle as well as accounting for terrain. -- Highlights: • Nitrous oxide emission factors (EFs) for pastoral soils measured in 185 field trials. • For lowland, the mean (±standard error) urea nitrogen fertiliser EF was 0.5 ± 0.1%. • For lowland, mean dairy cattle urine and dung EFs were 1.2 and 0.2%, respectively. • For lowland, mean sheep urine and dung EFs were 0.6 and 0.1%, respectively. • For pastoral soils in terrain with slopes >12°, mean EFs were significantly lower. -- From 185 field trials, mean nitrous oxide emission factors for pastoral soils were 0.1% for sheep dung up to 1.2% for dairy cattle urine, while that for urea fertiliser was 0.5%

  2. Fugitive methane emissions from natural, urban, agricultural, and energy-production landscapes of eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bryce F. J.; Iverach, Charlotte P.; Lowry, Dave; Fisher, Rebecca E.; France, James L.; Nisbet, Euan G.

    2015-04-01

    Modern cavity ringdown spectroscopy systems (CRDS) enable the continuous measurement of methane concentration. This allows for improved quantification of greenhouse gas emissions associated with various natural and human landscapes. We present a subset of over 4000 km of continuous methane surveying along the east coast of Australia, made using a Picarro G2301 CRDS, deployed in a utility vehicle with an air inlet above the roof at 2.2 mAGL. Measurements were made every 5 seconds to a precision of life-cycle of energy resources to be considered.

  3. Continuous measurements of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane from air scrubbers at pig housing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Heyden, C; Brusselman, E; Volcke, E I P; Demeyer, P

    2016-10-01

    Ammonia, largely emitted by agriculture, involves a great risk for eutrophication and acidification leading to biodiversity loss. Air scrubbers are widely applied to reduce ammonia emission from pig and poultry housing facilities, but it is not always clear whether their performance meets the requirements. Besides, there is a growing international concern for the livestock related greenhouse gases methane and nitrous oxide but hardly any data concerning their fate in air scrubbers are available. This contribution presents the results from measurement campaigns conducted at a chemical, a biological and a two-stage biological air scrubber installed at pig housing facilities in Flanders. Ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane at the inlet and outlet of the air scrubbers were monitored on-line during one week using a photoacoustic gas monitor, which allowed to investigate diurnal fluctuations in the removal performance of air scrubbers. Additionally, the homogeneity of the air scrubbers, normally checked by gas detection tubes, was investigated in more detail using the continuous data. The biological air scrubber with extra nitrification tank performed well in terms of ammonia removal (86 ± 6%), while the two-stage air scrubber suffered from nitrifying bacteria inhibition. In the chemical air scrubber the pH was not kept constant, lowering the ammonia removal efficiency. A lower ammonia removal efficiency was found during the day, when the ventilation rate was the highest. Nitrous oxide was produced inside the biological and two-stage scrubber, resulting in an increased outlet concentration of more than 200%. Methane could not be removed in the different air scrubbers because of its low water solubility.

  4. Continuous measurements of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane from air scrubbers at pig housing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Heyden, C; Brusselman, E; Volcke, E I P; Demeyer, P

    2016-10-01

    Ammonia, largely emitted by agriculture, involves a great risk for eutrophication and acidification leading to biodiversity loss. Air scrubbers are widely applied to reduce ammonia emission from pig and poultry housing facilities, but it is not always clear whether their performance meets the requirements. Besides, there is a growing international concern for the livestock related greenhouse gases methane and nitrous oxide but hardly any data concerning their fate in air scrubbers are available. This contribution presents the results from measurement campaigns conducted at a chemical, a biological and a two-stage biological air scrubber installed at pig housing facilities in Flanders. Ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane at the inlet and outlet of the air scrubbers were monitored on-line during one week using a photoacoustic gas monitor, which allowed to investigate diurnal fluctuations in the removal performance of air scrubbers. Additionally, the homogeneity of the air scrubbers, normally checked by gas detection tubes, was investigated in more detail using the continuous data. The biological air scrubber with extra nitrification tank performed well in terms of ammonia removal (86 ± 6%), while the two-stage air scrubber suffered from nitrifying bacteria inhibition. In the chemical air scrubber the pH was not kept constant, lowering the ammonia removal efficiency. A lower ammonia removal efficiency was found during the day, when the ventilation rate was the highest. Nitrous oxide was produced inside the biological and two-stage scrubber, resulting in an increased outlet concentration of more than 200%. Methane could not be removed in the different air scrubbers because of its low water solubility. PMID:27341376

  5. Flooding-induced N2O emission bursts controlled by pH and nitrate in agricultural soils

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Mette; Clough, Tim J.; Elberling, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural soils are a major source of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere. Increasing frequency and severity of flooding as predicted for large intensively cropped areas may promote temporary denitrification and N2O production but the effect of flooding events on N2O emissions is poorly studied for agricultural systems. The overall N2O dynamics during flooding of an agricultural soil and the effect of pH and NO3− concentration has been investigated based on a combinati...

  6. Heterogeneity of atmospheric ammonia at the landscape scale and consequences for environmental impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Esther; Dragosits, Ulrike; Braban, Christine F; Theobald, Mark R; Dore, Anthony J; van Dijk, Netty; Tang, Y Sim; McDonald, Chris; Murray, Scott; Rees, Robert M; Sutton, Mark A

    2013-08-01

    We examined the consequences of the spatial heterogeneity of atmospheric ammonia (NH₃) by measuring and modelling NH₃ concentrations and deposition at 25 m grid resolution for a rural landscape containing intensive poultry farming, agricultural grassland, woodland and moorland. The emission pattern gave rise to a high spatial variability of modelled mean annual NH₃ concentrations and dry deposition. Largest impacts were predicted for woodland patches located within the agricultural area, while larger moorland areas were at low risk, due to atmospheric dispersion, prevailing wind direction and low NH3 background. These high resolution spatial details are lost in national scale estimates at 1 km resolution due to less detailed emission input maps. The results demonstrate how the spatial arrangement of sources and sinks is critical to defining the NH₃ risk to semi-natural ecosystems. These spatial relationships provide the foundation for local spatial planning approaches to reduce environmental impacts of atmospheric NH₃.

  7. 覆盖材料和厚度对堆存牛粪氨气和温室气体排放的影响%Effects of covering materials and sawdust covering depths on ammonia and greenhouse gase emissions from cattle manure during storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海生; 左福元; 董红敏; 栾冬梅

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production is the important source of gaseous emissions (NH3 and greenhouse gases) from agriculture. Storage of animal manure is reported to be an important agricultural source of the environmentally harmful gases. Generally, ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from stored animal manure can be affected by environmental factors (temperature and wind speed) and storage stacking configuration. Most studies have focused on the emission of ammonia and greenhouse gases from slurry during storage. However, information of gaseous emissions from solid manure stored is limited. Material covering is expected to be an effective method to reduce gaseous emissions from the stored manure. Thus, two experiments were set up to study gaseous emissions during storage of the solid cattle manure, and the effect of covering depth (1, 3 and 5 cm) and two different covering materials (sawdust and straw) on emissions of ammonia and greenhouse gases. Polyvinylchloride cylindrical (30 cm in diameter and 90 cm in height) static vessels were designed and built to measure ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions in the laboratory experiment. Fresh cattle manure was collected from practicing farm of Rongchang Campus of Southwest University in Chongqing. After fully mixed, manure was filled into 12 barrels (24.2 cm in diameter and 15 cm in height). Barrels were enveloped by static vessels while measuring gaseous emissions. The stacking process commenced on May 29, 2014, and was measured for 49 days. In Experiment 1, the emissions of NH3, CH4, N2O and CO2 from an uncovered and three sawdust-covering heaps of solid cattle manure were compared. Considering that the stacking of solid manure was only 10 cm height (about 4 kg), sawdust covering depths of 1, 3 and 5 cm were selected. In Experiment 2, the emissions of NH3, CH4, N2O and CO2 were quantified using solid cattle manure (about 10 kg, 25cm stacking height) covered with sawdust (2 cm depth, 250 g) and straw (6 cm depth, 250 g) by using

  8. An evaluation of the effect of greenhouse gas accounting methods on a marginal abatement cost curve for Irish agricultural greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Improving productivity was the most effective strategy to reduce emissions and costs. • The accounting methods disagreed on the total abatement potential of mitigation measures. • Thus, it may be difficult to convince farmers to adopt certain abatement measures. • Domestic offsetting and consumption based accounting are options to overcome current methodological issues. - Abstract: Marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) analysis allows the evaluation of strategies to reduce agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to some reference scenario and encompasses their costs or benefits. A popular approach to quantify the potential to abate national agricultural emissions is the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change guidelines for national GHG inventories (IPCC-NI method). This methodology is the standard for assessing compliance with binding national GHG reduction targets and uses a sector based framework to attribute emissions. There is however an alternative to the IPCC-NI method, known as life cycle assessment (LCA), which is the preferred method to assess the GHG intensity of food production (kg of GHG/unit of food). The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of using the IPCC-NI and LCA methodologies when completing a MACC analysis of national agricultural GHG emissions. The MACC was applied to the Irish agricultural sector and mitigation measures were only constrained by the biophysical environment. The reference scenario chosen assumed that the 2020 growth targets set by the Irish agricultural industry would be achieved. The comparison of methodologies showed that only 1.1 Mt of the annual GHG abatement potential that can be achieved at zero or negative cost could be attributed to agricultural sector using the IPCC-NI method, which was only 44% of the zero or negative cost abatement potential attributed to the sector using the LCA method. The difference between methodologies was because the IPCC-NI method attributes the

  9. Statistical analysis of nitrous oxide emission factors from pastoral agriculture field trials conducted in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelliher, F M; Cox, N; van der Weerden, T J; de Klein, C A M; Luo, J; Cameron, K C; Di, H J; Giltrap, D; Rys, G

    2014-03-01

    Between 11 May 2000 and 31 January 2013, 185 field trials were conducted across New Zealand to measure the direct nitrous oxide (N2O) emission factors (EF) from nitrogen (N) sources applied to pastoral soils. The log(EF) data were analysed statistically using a restricted maximum likelihood (REML) method. To estimate mean EF values for each N source, best linear unbiased predictors (BLUPs) were calculated. For lowland soils, mean EFs for dairy cattle urine and dung, sheep urine and dung and urea fertiliser were 1.16 ± 0.19% and 0.23 ± 0.05%, 0.55 ± 0.19% and 0.08 ± 0.02% and 0.48 ± 0.13%, respectively, each significantly different from one another (p 12°, mean EFs were significantly lower. Thus, urine and dung EFs should be disaggregated for sheep and cattle as well as accounting for terrain. PMID:24361566

  10. Strategies for implementing Climate Smart Agriculture and creating marketable Greenhouse emission reduction credits, for small scale rice farmers in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, R.; Kritee, K.; Rudek, J.; Van Sanh, N.; Thu Ha, T.

    2014-12-01

    Industrial agriculture systems, mostly in developed and some emerging economies, are far different from the small holder farms that dot the landscapes in Asia and Africa. At Environmental Defense Fund, along with our partners from non-governmental, corporate, academic and government sectors and farmers, we have worked actively in India and Vietnam for the last four years to better understand how small scale farmers working on rice paddy (and other upland crops) cultivation can best deal with climate change. Some of the questions we have tried to answer are: What types of implementable best practices, both old and new, on small farm systems lend themselves to improved yields, farm incomes, climate resilience and mitigation? Can these practices be replicated everywhere or is the change more landscape and people driven? What are the institutional, cultural, financial and risk-perception related barriers that prevent scaling up of these practices? How do we innovate and overcome these barriers? The research community needs to work more closely together and leverage multiple scientific, economic and policy disciplines to fully answer these questions. In the case of small farm systems, we find that it helps to follow certain steps if the climate-smart (or low carbon) farming programs are to succeed and the greenhouse credits generated are to be marketed: Demographic data collection and plot demarcation Farmer networks and diaries Rigorous baseline determination via surveys Alternative practice determination via consultation with local universities/experts Measurements on representative plots for 3-4 years (including GHG emissions, yields, inputs, economic and environmental savings) to help calibrate biogeochemical models and/or calculate regional emission factors. Propagation of alternative practices across the landscape via local NGOs/governments Recording of parameters necessary to extrapolate representative plot GHG emission reductions to all farmers in a given

  11. Dissociation and Mass Transfer Coefficients for Ammonia Volatilization Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Process-based models are being used to predict ammonia emissions from manure sources, but their accuracy has not been fully evaluated for cattle manure. Laboratory trials were conducted to measure the dissociation and mass transfer coefficients for ammonia volatilization from media of buffered ammon...

  12. New technology for ammonia recovery from poultry litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abatement of gaseous ammonia in poultry houses is beneficial to both improve health/productivity of the birds and to reduce emissions into the environment surrounding the production facility. Current ammonia abatement technologies from poultry houses can be classified into four broad categories: 1) ...

  13. Sulfate-nitrate-ammonium aerosols over China: response to 2000–2015 emission changes of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and ammonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We use a chemical transport model to examine the change of sulfate-nitrate-ammonium (SNA aerosols over China due to anthropogenic emission changes of their precursors (SO2, NOx and NH3 from 2000 to 2015. From 2000 to 2006, annual mean SNA concentrations increased by about 60% over China as a result of the 60% and 80% increases in SO2 and NOx emissions. During this period, sulfate is the dominant component of SNA over South China (SC and Sichuan Basin (SCB, while nitrate and sulfate contribute equally over North China (NC. Based on emission reduction targets in the 12th (2011–2015 Five-Year Plan (FYP, China's total SO2 and NOx emissions are projected to change by −16% and +16% from 2006 to 2015, respectively. The amount of NH3 emissions in 2015 is uncertain, given the lack of sufficient information on the past and present levels of NH3 emissions in China. With no change in NH3 emissions, SNA mass concentrations in 2015 will decrease over SCB and SC compared to their 2006 levels, but increase over NC where the magnitude of nitrate increase exceeds that of sulfate reduction. This suggests that the SO2 emission reduction target set by the 12th FYP, although effective in reducing SNA over SC and SCB, will not be successful over NC, for which NOx emission control needs to be strengthened. If NH3 emissions are allowed to keep their recent growth rate and increase by +16% from 2006 to 2015, the benefit of SO2 reduction will be completely offset over all of China due to the significant increase of nitrate, demonstrating the critical role of NH3 in regulating nitrate. The effective strategy to control SNA and hence PM2.5 pollution over China should thus be based on improving understanding of current NH3 emissions and putting more emphasis on controlling NH3 emissions in the future.

  14. Ammonia losses and nitrogen partitioning at a southern High Plains open lot dairy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Richard W.; Cole, N. Andy; Hagevoort, G. Robert; Casey, Kenneth D.; Auvermann, Brent W.

    2015-06-01

    Animal agriculture is a significant source of ammonia (NH3). Cattle excrete most ingested nitrogen (N); most urinary N is converted to NH3, volatilized and lost to the atmosphere. Open lot dairies on the southern High Plains are a growing industry and face environmental challenges as well as reporting requirements for NH3 emissions. We quantified NH3 emissions from the open lot and wastewater lagoons of a commercial New Mexico dairy during a nine-day summer campaign. The 3500-cow dairy consisted of open lot, manure-surfaced corrals (22.5 ha area). Lactating cows comprised 80% of the herd. A flush system using recycled wastewater intermittently removed manure from feeding alleys to three lagoons (1.8 ha area). Open path lasers measured atmospheric NH3 concentration, sonic anemometers characterized turbulence, and inverse dispersion analysis was used to quantify emissions. Ammonia fluxes (15-min) averaged 56 and 37 μg m-2 s-1 at the open lot and lagoons, respectively. Ammonia emission rate averaged 1061 kg d-1 at the open lot and 59 kg d-1 at the lagoons; 95% of NH3 was emitted from the open lot. The per capita emission rate of NH3 was 304 g cow-1 d-1 from the open lot (41% of N intake) and 17 g cow-1 d-1 from lagoons (2% of N intake). Daily N input at the dairy was 2139 kg d-1, with 43, 36, 19 and 2% of the N partitioned to NH3 emission, manure/lagoons, milk, and cows, respectively.

  15. Effect of Agricultural Feedstock to Energy Conversion Rate on Bioenergy and GHG Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chun Kung

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan is eager to develop renewable energy because it is vulnerable to energy price distortion and ocean level rise. Previous studies show bioenergy technologies can be applied mutually, but pay little attention on feedstocks to energy conversion rate, which has potential influences on policy making in renewable energy and environment. This study employs a price endogenous mathematical programming model to simultaneously simulate the market operations under various feedstocks to energy