WorldWideScience

Sample records for agreement investment scale

  1. China-ASEAN investment agreement negotiations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Huiping

    2006-01-01

    China and the ASEAN are negotiating to establish a free trade area and an investment agreement is an integral part of it.The ongoing investment agreement negotiations have achieved some basic consensus as to specific contents of the agreement.However,due to the procedural obstacles and substantive controversies,the negotiations have become stagnant.In order to reach a final and successful conclusion of the investment agreement,the procedural obstacles should be' overcome and the substantive controversies be settled since the agreement has economic and political implications for both China and the ASEAN.

  2. The EU Approach to International Investment Agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Shehi, Olsi

    2015-01-01

    The study includes an overview of the development of EU foreign investment law before the Lisbon Treaty came to force as well as the consequences after the moment when it became a binding legal document. The main research question of this study is in what way the EU has replaced its Member States in the field of foreign investment. Moreover, this thesis studies the EU foreign investment policy, its regulation in accordance with the Lisbon Treaty as well as analyzes the most important EU draft...

  3. Compensation for Indirect Expropriation in International Investment Agreements: Implications of National Treatment and Rights to Invest

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    International investment agreements in bilateral treaties or free trade agreements allow investors to bring compensation claims when their investments are hurt by new regulations addressing environmental or other social concerns. Compensation rules such as expropriation clauses in international treaties help solve post-investment moral hazard problems such as hold-ups, thereby helping to prevent inefficient over-regulation and encouraging foreign investment. However, when social or environmen...

  4. 78 FR 19566 - Request for Comments Concerning Proposed Transatlantic Trade and Investment Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... and Investment Partnership (TTIP) agreement with the European Union (EU) aimed at achieving a... agreement. Accordingly, USTR is seeking public comments on the proposed TTIP, including regarding U.S... contact Yvonne Jamison at the above number. All other questions regarding the TTIP agreement should...

  5. Breach of Contracts in Investor-State Arbitration Based on International Investment Agreements (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    HAMAMOTO Shotaro

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the question whether and in which cases it is possible to settle disputes arising from investment contracts concluded between a foreign investor and a recipient State through the dispute settlement procedure (typically, arbitration) provided in international investment agreements (IIAs) concluded between the investor's State of nationality and the recipient State. The issue of whether the arbitration based on IIAs can deal with disputes over investment contracts arises in ...

  6. International Standards: Past Free Trade Agreements and the Prospects in the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership

    OpenAIRE

    Eliasson Leif Johan

    2015-01-01

    The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership represents a strategic vision of transatlantic relations, including job creation, global leadership, and establishing high international standards. This paper discusses how three recent bi-lateral and regional agreements, along with positions adopted in transatlantic negotiations, convey respective side's acceptable parameters, and how international standards are emerging from and disseminated through agreements involving the European Union a...

  7. International investment agreements and public health: neutralizing a threat through treaty drafting

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The high profile investment claims filed by Philip Morris challenging Uruguayan and Australian measures that restrict advertising and logos on tobacco packaging awakened the public health community to the existence and potential detrimental impact of international investment agreements (IIAs). More recently, Eli Lilly challenged Canada’s invalidation of a pharmaceutical patent under an IIA. All of the cases claim that the intellectual property rights of the investor were infringed. As a resul...

  8. A new institutional approach to Japanese firms' foreign direct investment under free trade agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Ishido, Hikari; 石戸, 光

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants of foreign direct investment (FDI) under free trade agreements (FTAs) from a new institutional perspective. First, the determinants of FDI are theoretically discussed from a new institutional perspective. Then, FDI is statistically analyzed at the aggregate level. Kernel density estimation of firm-size reveals some evidence of "structural changes" after FTAs, as characterized by the investing firms' paid-up capital stock. Statistical tests of the average a...

  9. 25 CFR 1000.398 - May a Tribe/Consortium invest funds received under a self-governance agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May a Tribe/Consortium invest funds received under a self-governance agreement? 1000.398 Section 1000.398 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... invest funds received under a self-governance agreement? Yes, self-governance funds may be invested...

  10. Protecting policy space for public health nutrition in an era of international investment agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Thow

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Philip Morris has recently brought claims against Australia (2011 and Uruguay (2010 under international investment agreements (IIAs. The claims allege that Philip Morris is entitled to compensation following the introduction of innovative tobacco packaging regulations to reduce smoking and prevent noncommunicable diseases (NCDs. Since tobacco control measures are often viewed as a model for public health nutrition measures, the claims raise the question of how investment law governs the latter. This paper begins to answer this question and to explain how governments can proactively protect policy space for public health nutrition in an era of expanding IIAs. The authors first consider the main interventions proposed to reduce diet-related NCDs and their intersection with investment in the food supply chain. They then review the nature of investment regimes and relevant case law and examine ways to maximize policy space for public health nutrition intervention within this legal context. As foreign investment increases across the food-chain and more global recommendations discouraging the consumption of unhealthful products are issued, investment law will increase in importance as part of the legal architecture governing the food supply. The implications of investment law for public health nutrition measures depend on various factors: the measures themselves, the terms of the applicable agreements, the conditions surrounding the foreign investment and the policies governing agricultural support. This analysis suggests that governments should adopt proactive measures – e.g. the clarification of terms and reliance on exceptions – to manage investment and protect their regulatory autonomy with respect to public health nutrition.

  11. Chinalco Signed Agreement with Guangxi Autonomous Region to Drive Forward Cooperation in Investment Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>Recently,the Aluminum Corporation of China Limited and the People’s Government of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region held signing ceremony for investment cooperation agreement in Nanning City.Luo Jianchuan,member of the CPC Party Leadership Group of Chinalco and President of Chinalco,and Chen Gang,Vice Chairman of the People’s Government of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous

  12. Protecting the autonomy of states to enact tobacco control measures under trade and investment agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Andrew; Sheargold, Elizabeth

    2015-06-01

    Since the adoption of the WHO's WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, governments have been pursuing progressively stronger and more wide-reaching tobacco control measures. In response, tobacco companies are frequently using international trade and investment agreements as tools to challenge domestic tobacco control measures. Several significant new trade and investment agreements that some fear may provide new legal avenues to the tobacco industry to challenge health measures are currently under negotiation, including the Trans-Pacific Partnership (a 12 party agreement of Asia-Pacific regional countries) and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (an agreement between the USA and the European Union). This commentary examines different options for treaty provisions that the parties could employ in these agreements to minimise legal risks relating to tobacco control measures. It recommends that parties take a comprehensive approach, combining provisions that minimise the potential costs of litigation with provisions that increase the likelihood of a state successfully defending tobacco control measures in such litigation. PMID:25361743

  13. Relationships between Investor-State Arbitration and Local Remedy Procedures in Bilateral Investment Treaties/Economic Partnership Agreements (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Abe, Yoshinori

    2007-01-01

    In this paper I closely scrutinize the legal relationships between investment arbitration and local remedy procedures in the global "network" of bilateral investment treaties (BITs) and free trade agreements (FTAs)/economic partnership agreements (EPAs), examining the desirable ways in which the two relationships should be regulated. When investors refer disputes to investment arbitration (procedures for international arbitration between investors and states) they are not required to exhaust ...

  14. Scales of degree of facial paralysis: analysis of agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kércia Melo de Oliveira Fonseca

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: It has become common to use scales to measure the degree of involvement of facial paralysis in phonoaudiological clinics. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the inter- and intra-rater agreement of the scales of degree of facial paralysis and to elicit point of view of the appraisers regarding their use. METHODS: Cross-sectional observational clinical study of the Chevalier and House & Brackmann scales performed by five speech therapists with clinical experience, who analyzed the facial expression of 30 adult subjects with impaired facial movements two times, with a one week interval between evaluations. The kappa analysis was employed. RESULTS: There was excellent inter-rater agreement for both scales (kappa > 0.80, and on the Chevalier scale a substantial intra-rater agreement in the first assessment (kappa = 0.792 and an excellent agreement in the second assessment (kappa = 0.928. The House & Brackmann scale showed excellent agreement at both assessments (kappa = 0.850 and 0.857. As for the appraisers' point of view, one appraiser thought prior training is necessary for the Chevalier scale and, four appraisers felt that training is important for the House & Brackmann scale. CONCLUSION: Both scales have good inter- and intra-rater agreement and most of the appraisers agree on the ease and relevance of the application of these scales.

  15. Inter-rater Agreement for the Clinical Dysphagia Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Chun, Se Woong; Lee, Seung Ah; Jung, Il-Young; Beom, Jaewon; Han, Tai Ryoon; Oh, Byung-Mo

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the inter-rater agreement for the clinical dysphagia scale (CDS). Method Sixty-seven subjects scheduled to participate in a video-fluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) were pre-examined by two raters independently within a 24-hour interval. Each item and the total score were compared between the raters. In addition, we investigated whether subtraction of items showing low agreement or modification of rating methods could enhance inter-rater agreement without significan...

  16. Services and investment in the EU-South Korea free-trade area: implications of a new approach for GATS V agreements and for bilateral investment treaties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Mathis; E. Laurenza

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the services and investment features of the recently concluded free trade agreement between the European Union and its Member States, of the one part, and the Republic of Korea, of the other part. This agreement is an early example of a new scheduling approach adopted by the Eu

  17. Agreements of state-entity and state liability in international investment arbitration

    OpenAIRE

    Assaduzzaman, Assad Khan

    2013-01-01

    Most often in an investment agreement between a State entity and a foreign investor the arbitral tribunal is faced with the question of the liability of the State for the conduct of its entities. To make it precise the crucial findings of this research is whether or to what extend the States hall be liable for the commercial conduct of its entities? State affiliates in general includes, ‘state organ, ‘state agency’, ‘instrumentality’, ‘state-owned entity’, ‘state-owned company’, ‘publicly own...

  18. Including investment risk in large-scale power market models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Jørgen Kjærgaard; Meibom, P.

    2003-01-01

    Long-term energy market models can be used to examine investments in production technologies, however, with market liberalisation it is crucial that such models include investment risks and investor behaviour. This paper analyses how the effect of investment risk on production technology selection...... can be included in large-scale partial equilibrium models of the power market. The analyses are divided into a part about risk measures appropriate for power market investors and a more technical part about the combination of a risk-adjustment model and a partial-equilibrium model. To illustrate the...... analyses quantitatively, a framework based on an iterative interaction between the equilibrium model and a separate risk-adjustment module was constructed. To illustrate the features of the proposed modelling approach we examined how uncertainty in demand and variable costs affects the optimal choice of...

  19. An SIA analysis of the Investment Chapter in the EU-Canada Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA)

    OpenAIRE

    Prud'homme, Dan

    2011-01-01

    This study is a section from the Sustainability Impact Assessment (SIA), commissioned by the European Commission, on the impacts of the Investment Chapter in the EU-Canada Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA). The Investment Chapter in CETA could encourage economic benefits including trade-stimulating effects and fostering intangible business linkages in Canada, although the significance of these will likely be minor to notable at most; impacts in the EU will likely follow these ...

  20. The scale-free topology of market investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlaschelli, Diego; Battiston, Stefano; Castri, Maurizio; Servedio, Vito D. P.; Caldarelli, Guido

    2005-05-01

    We propose a network description of large market investments, where both stocks and shareholders are represented as vertices connected by weighted links corresponding to shareholdings. In this framework, the in-degree ( kin) and the sum of incoming link weights ( v) of an investor correspond to the number of assets held ( portfolio diversification) and to the invested wealth ( portfolio volume), respectively. An empirical analysis of three different real markets reveals that the distributions of both kin and v display power-law tails with exponents γ and α. Moreover, we find that kin scales as a power-law function of v with an exponent β. Remarkably, despite the values of α, β and γ differ across the three markets, they are always governed by the scaling relation β=(1-α)/(1-γ). We show that these empirical findings can be reproduced by a recent model relating the emergence of scale-free networks to an underlying Paretian distribution of ‘hidden’ vertex properties.

  1. "Trade creep" and implications of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership Agreement for the United Kingdom National Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivusalo, Meri; Tritter, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    The ambitious and comprehensive Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership Agreement (TTIP/TAFTA) agreement between the European Union and United States is now being negotiated and may have far-reaching consequences for health services. The agreement extends to government procurement, investment, and further regulatory cooperation. In this article, we focus on the United Kingdom National Health Service and how these negotiations can limit policy space to change policies and to regulate in relation to health services, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, and health industries. The negotiation of TTIP/TAFTA has the potential to "harmonize" more corporate-friendly regulation, resulting in higher costs and loss of policy space, an example of "trade creep" that potentially compromises health equity, public health, and safety concerns across the Atlantic. PMID:24684086

  2. Part I: Study on investment protection agreements as instruments of international economic law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. Kuijper

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to set out briefly the historical background and the development of present-day Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs) that have grown in sophistication and in number since the first one of this type of treaties was concluded between the Federal Republic of Germany and Pakistan in 195

  3. Scale economies in pension fund investments: A dissection of investment costs across asset classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeders, D.; van Oord, A.; Rijsbergen, D.

    2015-01-01

    Using a unique dataset of 225 Dutch occupational pension funds with a total of 928 billion euro of assets under management, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the relation between investment costs and pension fund size. Our dataset is free from self-reporting biases and decomposes investment cos

  4. Food security through large scale investments in agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulli, M.; D'Odorico, P.

    2013-12-01

    Most of the human appropriation of freshwater resources is for food production. There is some concern that in the near future the finite freshwater resources available on Earth might not be sufficient to meet the increasing human demand for agricultural products. In the late 1700s Malthus argued that in the long run the humanity would not have enough resources to feed itself. Malthus' analysis, however, did not account for the emergence of technological innovations that could increase the rate of food production. The modern and contemporary history has seen at least three major technological advances that have increased humans' access to food, namely, the industrial revolution, the green revolution, and the intensification of global trade. Here we argue that a fourth revolution has just started to happen. It involves foreign direct investments in agriculture, which intensify the crop yields of potentially highly productive agricultural lands by introducing the use of more modern technologies. The increasing demand for agricultural products and the uncertainty of international food markets has recently drawn the attention of governments and agribusiness firms toward investments in productive agricultural land, mostly in the developing world. The targeted countries are typically located in regions that have remained only marginally utilized because of lack of modern technology. It is expected that in the long run large scale land acquisitions for commercial farming will bring the technology required to close the existing yield gaps. While the extent of the acquired land and the associated appropriation of freshwater resources have been investigated in detail, the amount of food this land can produce and the number of people it could feed still need to be quantified. Here we use a unique dataset of verified land deals to provide a global quantitative assessment of the rates of crop and food appropriation potentially associated with large scale land acquisitions. We

  5. Investments

    CERN Document Server

    Bodie, Zvi

    2013-01-01

    The integrated solutions for Bodie, Kane, and Marcus' Investments set the standard for graduate/MBA investments textbooks. The unifying theme is that security markets are nearly efficient, meaning that most securities are priced appropriately given their risk and return attributes. The content places greater emphasis on asset allocation and offers a much broader and deeper treatment of futures, options, and other derivative security markets than most investment texts. McGraw-Hill's adaptive learning component, LearnSmart, provides assignable modules that help students master chapter core concepts and come to class more prepared. Bodie Investments' blend of practical and theoretical coverage combines with a complete digital solution to help your students achieve higher outcomes in the course

  6. Scale determinants of fiscal investment in geological exploration: evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Linna; Lei, Yalin

    2013-01-01

    With the continued growth in demand for mineral resources and China's efforts in increasing investment in geological prospecting, fiscal investment in geological exploration becomes a research hotspot. This paper examines the yearly relationship among fiscal investment in geological exploration of the current term, that of the last term and prices of mining rights over the period 1999-2009. Hines and Catephores' investment acceleration model is applied to describe the scale determinants of fiscal investment in geological exploration which are value-added of mining rights, value of mining rights and fiscal investment in the last term. The results indicate that when value-added of mining rights, value of mining rights or fiscal investment in the last term moves at 1 unit, fiscal investment in the current term will move 0.381, 1.094 or 0.907 units respectively. In order to determine the scale of fiscal investment in geological exploration for the current year, the Chinese government should take fiscal investment in geological exploration for the last year and the capital stock of the previous investments into account. In practice, combination of government fiscal investment in geological exploration with its performance evaluation can create a virtuous circle of capital management mechanism. PMID:24204652

  7. Scale determinants of fiscal investment in geological exploration: evidence from China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linna Lu

    Full Text Available With the continued growth in demand for mineral resources and China's efforts in increasing investment in geological prospecting, fiscal investment in geological exploration becomes a research hotspot. This paper examines the yearly relationship among fiscal investment in geological exploration of the current term, that of the last term and prices of mining rights over the period 1999-2009. Hines and Catephores' investment acceleration model is applied to describe the scale determinants of fiscal investment in geological exploration which are value-added of mining rights, value of mining rights and fiscal investment in the last term. The results indicate that when value-added of mining rights, value of mining rights or fiscal investment in the last term moves at 1 unit, fiscal investment in the current term will move 0.381, 1.094 or 0.907 units respectively. In order to determine the scale of fiscal investment in geological exploration for the current year, the Chinese government should take fiscal investment in geological exploration for the last year and the capital stock of the previous investments into account. In practice, combination of government fiscal investment in geological exploration with its performance evaluation can create a virtuous circle of capital management mechanism.

  8. Large Scale Investments in Infrastructure : Competing Policy regimes to Control Connections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otsuki, K.; Read, M.L.; Zoomers, E.B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes to analyse implications of large-scale investments in physical infrastructure for social and environmental justice. While case studies on the global land rush and climate change have advanced our understanding of how large-scale investments in land, forests and water affect natur

  9. Fostering sustainable small-scale investments: lessons from experience and ideas for intervention and innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents lessons from experience pertinent to implementing small-scale natural resource and related investment projects in developing countries. It outlines ideas for intervention and innovation to foster such investments. Particular emphasis is placed on private-sector participation in these investments. Following a brief presentation of the economic development and other arguments that support intervention and innovation in support of such small-scale natural resource investments, the article discusses many of the lessons learned from experience. These lessons reinforce those touched upon in the investment-specific discussions in the previous articles. The experience and associated lessons that are examined include experiences in both developing and developed countries and encompass nor just lessons from natural resource investments, but also small-scale investments in other sectors. Financing and other innovations which facilitate meeting the challenges are drawn from relevant experience where barriers to investment have been surmounted. Options for programme and project interventions to increase market penetration of small-scale investments and achieve the associated development linkages and synergies are suggested. These suggestions are aimed especially at governments and bilateral and multilateral development finance and development assistance entities. It is those players who might support such interventions in collaboration with local financial institutions and other market players. (author)

  10. Efficient capacity investment and joint production agreements in an oligopolistic electricity market: The HidroAysen joint venture project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We develop a model for a power market with the characteristics of the Chilean power supply industry, which is an integrated system with a system operator (SO) with a vast authority to define the dispatch of the system. We evaluate whether a large joint power generator project made up by the two largest power generators is an anti-competitive project. Considering four investment technologies for power generation, namely, hydro, coal, diesel, and an advantageous hydro technology which can only be built in a large scale (HidroAysen) for the joint venture case, we use an oligopolistic Cournot model and a Benevolent Social Planner, both calibrated to the Chilean power industry, in order to assess the efficiency of alternative investment strategies and conditions whether the HidroAysen joint venture project can be barred to be judged as anti-competitive. Results suggest that the joint venture is an efficient investment and there is a pro-competitive behaviour on the part of the two power generators, and that there are benefit to consumers, who should expect non-increasing energy prices as a result of the advantageous hydrotechnology. (author)

  11. Efficient capacity investment and joint production agreements in an oligopolistic electricity market: The HidroAysen joint venture project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We develop a model for a power market with the characteristics of the Chilean power supply industry, which is an integrated system with a system operator (SO) with a vast authority to define the dispatch of the system. We evaluate whether a large joint power generator project made up by the two largest power generators is an anti-competitive project. Considering four investment technologies for power generation, namely, hydro, coal, diesel, and an advantageous hydro technology which can only be built in a large scale (HidroAysen) for the joint venture case, we use an oligopolistic Cournot model and a Benevolent Social Planner, both calibrated to the Chilean power industry, in order to assess the efficiency of alternative investment strategies and conditions whether the HidroAysen joint venture project can be barred to be judged as anti-competitive. Results suggest that the joint venture is an efficient investment and there is a pro-competitive behaviour on the part of the two power generators, and that there are benefit to consumers, who should expect non-increasing energy prices as a result of the advantageous hydrotechnology.

  12. Investment Timing and Capacity Choice for Small-Scale Wind PowerUnder Uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleten, Stein-Erik; Maribu, Karl Magnus

    2004-11-28

    This paper presents a method for evaluation of investments in small-scale wind power under uncertainty. It is assumed that the price of electricity is uncertain and that an owner of a property with wind resources has a deferrable opportunity to invest in one wind power turbine within a capacity range. The model evaluates investment in a set of projects with different capacity. It is assumed that the owner substitutes own electricity load with electricity from the wind mill and sells excess electricity back to the grid on an hourly basis. The problem for the owner is to find the price levels at which it is optimal to invest, and in which capacity to invest. The results suggests it is optimal to wait for significantly higher prices than the net present value break-even. Optimal scale and timing depend on the expected price growth rate and the uncertainty in the future prices.

  13. Assessing the relevance of multilateral trade law to sovereign investments: Sovereign Wealth Funds as “investors” under the General Agreement on Trade in Services

    OpenAIRE

    Chaisse, Julien

    2015-01-01

    The variety of investments made by powerful Sovereign Wealth Funds (SWFs) is often directed to the globally booming service sector which is regulated by the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). This paper analyses the scope, substance and procedural rights which may benefit SWFs. The basic principles of World Trade Organization (WTO) law provide a legal framework for regulating SWF investment while the members’ specific commitments may provide significant liberalizati...

  14. Discrete capacity choice problems in repeated and scaled investment

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Most previous studies on real options are confined to the realm of continuous modelling while more practical discrete models are restricted by the methodology of solutions. This thesis applies the discount factor methodology to solve two scaling capacity choice problems: one is the scaling capacity expansions without switching options raised from Dxit and Pindyck (1994) and the other one is the case adding switching opportunities raised from Pindyck (1988). We respectively establish two discr...

  15. The Practice of Responsible Investment Principles in Larger-Scale Agricultural Investments : Implications for Corporate Performance and Impact on Local Communities

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    This report presents findings from a field-based survey on the conduct of agricultural operations at 39 large-scale, mature agribusiness investments in sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia. The objective of the report is to provide first-hand, practical knowledge of the approach, behavior, and experience of these investments, their relationships with surrounding communities and the conseq...

  16. Prospects for investment in large-scale, grid-connected solar power in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Nygaard, Ivan; Pedersen, Mathilde Brix

    Solar power in Africa is on its way to becoming a market-based commodity, thus escaping the niche for individual electricity supply that is mainly supported by international donor organisations. Significant reductions in the cost of photovoltaic (PV) panels and a 400 percent increase in oil prices...... since the 1990s have changed the competiveness of solar PV in all markets, ranging from individual households via institutions to mini-grids and grid-connected installations. In volume and investment, the market for large-scale grid-connected solar power plants is by far the most important......-scale investments in grid-connected solar power plants and local assembly facilities for PV panels, have exceeded even optimistic scenarios. Finally, therefore, there seem to be bright prospects for investment in large-scale grid-connected solar power in Africa....

  17. Fractal Markets Hypothesis and the Global Financial Crisis: Scaling, Investment Horizons and Liquidity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krištoufek, Ladislav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 6 (2012), 1250065-1-1250065-13. ISSN 0219-5259 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/0965 Grant ostatní: GA UK(CZ) 118310; SVV(CZ) 265 504 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : fractal markets hypothesis * scaling * fractality * investment horizons * efficient markets hypothesis Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.647, year: 2012 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/E/kristoufek-fractal markets hypothesis and the global financial crisis scaling investment horizons and liquidity.pdf

  18. Basin Scale Water Infrastructure Investment Evaluation Considering Climate Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaheil, Y. H.; Lall, U.

    2009-12-01

    Water storage infrastructure has historically been a primary means of addressing vulnerability to climate risk. Rainfall, and streamflow fluctuate at many time scales, rendering supply unreliable unless a mechanism for surface or subsurface storage is provided. Irrigated agriculture typically provides dramatically higher yields relative to rain fed agriculture, by ensuring a regular, when needed water supply. Irrigation is also typically the dominant water user in most parts of the world. Addressing storage-irrigation infrastructure needs is thus a critical piece in developing a strategy for regional water and food security in the face of a changing climate. In the 20th century, large reservoir and canal system projects were funded and developed in many regions. It is argued that these played a significant role in facilitating the Green Revolution in India, Pakistan and elsewhere. However, this notion has been challenged, and many negative environmental and socio-economic impacts of such projects have been highlighted. Governance and maintenance of such hydraulic infrastructure has also been a challenge, and a paradigm of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and participatory processes has been argued for. In the last decade or so, considerable interest has been directed towards local or on-farm decentralized storage development, i.e., towards small scale reservoir and use systems where governance may be less of an issue. There has been government support of such activities in countries such as India, leading to a rapid proliferation of such systems in some areas. Questions about the effect of such development on the regional hydrologic balance and as to their resilience in a changing climate arise. Further, in the spirit of IWRM, one needs to consider the potential use of water as well as the development and management of supply. In the current context, a central question that can be posed is the identification of the best mix of centralized and

  19. The Geographic and Sectoral Patterns of Large-scale Farmland Investments in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoneveld, G.C.

    2014-01-01

    Following the food and energy price crises of the mid 2000s, sub-Saharan Africa has become one of the largest recipients for large-scale farmland investments. While much has been written on the phenomenon, scant reliable empirical evidence is available as to the precise geographic and sectoral patte

  20. Impacts of the Teach For America Investing in Innovation Scale-Up

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Melissa A.; Eric Isenberg; Albert Y. Liu; Libby Makowsky; Marykate Zukiewicz

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, Teach For America (TFA) launched a major expansion effort, funded in part by a five-year Investing in Innovation (i3) scale-up grant of $50 million from the U.S. Department of Education. This study examines the effectiveness of TFA elementary school teachers in the second year of the scale-up, relative to other teachers in the same grades and schools.

  1. Assessing the Effectiveness of Teach For America's Investing in Innovation Scale-Up

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Melissa A.; Eric Isenberg; Albert Y. Liu; Libby Makowsky; Marykate Zukiewicz

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, Teach For America (TFA) launched a major expansion effort, funded in part by a five-year Investing in Innovation (i3) scale-up grant of $50 million from the U.S. Department of Education. This study examines the effectiveness of TFA elementary school teachers in the second year of the scale-up, relative to other teachers in the same grades and schools.

  2. The Role of National Development Banks in Intermediating International Climate Finance to Scale Up Private Sector Investments

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Smallridge; Barbara Buchner; Chiara Trabacchi; Maria Netto; José Juan Gomes Lorenzo; Lucila Serra

    2012-01-01

    Significant investments are needed to support the global transition to a low-carbon, climate resilient future. Current finance flows fall short of global financing needs, and massive scaling up is needed to unlock additional financial resources and foster a sustainable investment pathway. Overcoming barriers to private sector investments is critical, and international climate finance can play a catalytic role in this regard. National development banks (NDBs) have a unique role in this context...

  3. Implementation of the Teach For America Investing in Innovation Scale-Up

    OpenAIRE

    Marykate Zukiewicz; Clark, Melissa A.; Libby Makowsky

    2015-01-01

    Teach For America (TFA) is a nonprofit organization that seeks to improve educational opportunities for disadvantaged students by recruiting and training teachers to work in low-income schools. In 2010, TFA launched a major expansion effort, funded in part by a five-year Investing in Innovation (i3) Scale-Up grant of $50 million from the U.S. Department of Education’s Office of Innovation and Improvement. This report examines TFA’s implementation of the i3 scale-up in the first and second...

  4. Evaluation on Optimal Scale of Rural Fixed-asset Investment-Based on Microcosmic Perspective of Farmers’ Income Increase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinqian; DENG; Kangkang; SHAN; Yan; ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    The rural fundamental and productive fixed-asset investment not only makes active influence on the changes of farmers’ operational,wages and property income,but it also has an optimal scale range for farmers’ income increase. From the perspective of farmers’ income increase,this article evaluates the optimal scale of rural fixed-asset investment by setting up model with statistic data,and the results show that the optimal scale of per capita rural fixed-asset investment is 76. 35% of per capita net income of rural residents,which has been reached in China in 2009. Therefore,compared with the adding of rural fixed-asset investment,a better income increase effect can be achieved through the adjustment of rural fixed-asset investment structure.

  5. Disagreements in meta-analyses using outcomes measured on continuous or rating scales: observer agreement study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tendal, Britta; Higgins, Julian P T; Jüni, Peter; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn; Trelle, Sven; Nüesch, Eveline; Wandel, Simon; Jørgensen, Anders W; Gesser, Katarina Margareta; Ilsøe-Kristensen, Søren; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2009-01-01

    differed less than 0.1 in their point estimates or confidence intervals. RESULTS: The agreement was 53% at trial level and 31% at meta-analysis level. Including all pairs, the median disagreement was SMD=0.22 (interquartile range 0.07-0.61). The experts agreed somewhat more than the PhD students at trial...... the reviews but to the protocols, where the relevant outcome was highlighted. The agreement was analysed at both trial and meta-analysis level, pairing the observers in all possible ways (45 pairs, yielding 2025 pairs of trials and 450 pairs of meta-analyses). Agreement was defined as SMDs that...... level (61% v 46%), but not at meta-analysis level. Important reasons for disagreement were differences in selection of time points, scales, control groups, and type of calculations; whether to include a trial in the meta-analysis; and data extraction errors made by the observers. In 14 out of the 100...

  6. Common–interest community agreements on private lands provide opportunity and scale for wildlife management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Powell, L. A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Private lands are critical to conservation planning for wildlife, worldwide. Agriculture subsidies, tax incentives, and conservation easements have been successfully used as tools to convert cropland to native vegetation. However, uncertain economies threaten the sustainability of these incentives. The wildlife management profession is in need of innovative models that support effective management of populations. I argue that biologists should consider the option of facilitating the development of private reserves to reduce the dependence of conservation on public investment. Private reserves can be enhanced by creating common–interest communities, which reduce the problem posed by limited size of individual properties. Cross–property agreements between landowners can provide economic incentives through forms of ecotourism, energy production, and/or enhanced agricultural production. I share two case studies that demonstrate how cross–property agreements may be beneficial to landowner’s finances and conservation of diverse wildlife communities, as well as providing an efficient structure for NGOs and management agencies to engage and support landowners.

  7. Trade agreements with side-effects? : European Union and United States to negotiate Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership

    OpenAIRE

    Mildner, Stormy-Annika; Schmucker, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    "At the G8 summit in Northern Ireland on June 17, the European Union and the United States kicked off the negotiations for a comprehensive Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) to reduce tariffs and non-tariff trade barriers. While the expected economic benefits for both sides would be more than welcome in an era of gloomy growth forecasts, a TTIP is not entirely without risks for global trade and the multilateral trading system. The talks could tie up a considerable portion o...

  8. Capital investment requirements for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation in power generation on near term to century time scales and global to regional spatial scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our paper explores the implication of climate mitigation policy and electricity generation technology performance for capital investment demands by the electric power sector on near term to century time scales. We find that stabilizing GHG emissions will require additional investment in the electricity generation sector over and above investments that would be needed in the absence of climate policy, in the range of 15 to 29 trillion US$ (48–94%) depending on the stringency of climate policy during the period 2015 to 2095 under default technology assumptions. This increase reflects the higher capital intensity of power systems that control emissions as well as increased electrification of the global economy. Limits on the penetration of nuclear and carbon capture and storage technology could increase costs substantially. Energy efficiency improvements can reduce the investment requirement by 18 to 24 trillion US$ (compared to default technology climate policy assumptions), depending on climate policy scenario. We also highlight the implications of different technology evolution scenarios for different regions. Under default technology set, the heaviest investments across scenarios in power generation were observed in China, India, SE Asia and Africa regions with the latter three regions dominating in the second half of the 21st century. - Highlights: • We present electricity generation investment requirement under different scenarios. • A climate policy will lead to substantial increase in investment requirement. • Stringency of climate policy has significant implications for investments. • Technology evolution and performance alter investment requirements significantly. • China, India, Southeast Asia and Africa dominate as investment destinations

  9. Commercial risks and benefits of investments in food irradiation on an industrial scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economic aspects and prerequisites of importance for the commercialization of the radiation processing of food products are discussed. Various factors imply that the capital requirements for a complete commercial food irradiation plant and the selling price of the radiation treatment have to be considerably higher than is suggested in many publications. This holds especially for food irradiation facilities conceived for only one type of food, as it will generally not be possible to make use of the economy of scale in such cases. Investment in such dedicated irradiation facilities has to be classified as a high risk venture for various reasons which are described in some detail. The most important risk factor for investments in food irradiation facilities is large changes in demand for irradiation capacity within rather short periods which are completely unpredictable because they are caused by natural phenomena such as weather. As the rational investor looks for a high potential return from high risk ventures to offset the potential loss, the selling price for the radiation processing of food products is further increased. To overcome this drawback the establishment of irradiation centres for a large number of foods and possibly other products is recommended. Such a strategy, for which the BGS centre is cited as an example, reduces at the same time the risk for the rational investor as well as the selling price. Finally, the role of the Joint Division of FAO and IAEA in implementing such a strategy especially in developing countries is stressed. (author)

  10. The evolutionary public goods game on scale-free networks with heterogeneous investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xian-Bin; Du, Wen-Bo; Rong, Zhi-Hai

    2010-03-01

    The public goods game (PGG) is generally considered as a suitable paradigm to explain ubiquitous cooperative behavior. In this study, we investigated the evolutionary PGG on scale-free networks and studied the effect of individual heterogeneity by setting the cooperator x an investment value correlated to its degree as Ix=Nṡ/∑j, where kx is the degree of x, j runs over all players and β is a tunable parameter. It is shown that the cooperation level is remarkably promoted by negative values of β whereas it is highly depressed by positive values of β. Moreover, the effect of environmental noise has also been investigated. Our result may sharpen the understanding of cooperation induced by the individual diversity.

  11. Impact of speculator's expectations of returns and time scales of investment on crude oil price behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on time series of crude oil prices (daily spot), this paper analyses price fluctuation with two significant parameters τ (speculators' time scales of investment) and ε (speculators' expectations of return) by using Zipf analysis technique, specifically, by mapping τ-returns of prices into 3-alphabeted sequences (absolute frequencies) and 2-alphabeted sequences (relative frequencies), containing the fundamental information of price fluctuations. This paper empirically explores parameters and identifies various types of speculators' cognition patterns of price behavior. In order to quantify the degree of distortion, a feasible reference is proposed: an ideal speculator. Finally, this paper discusses the similarities and differences between those cognition patterns of speculators' and those of an ideal speculator. The resultant analyses identify the possible distortion of price behaviors by their patterns. (author)

  12. Assessing the Scale and Potential of Chinese Investment Overseas: An Econometric Approach%Assessing the Scale and Potential of Chinese Investment Overseas: An Econometric Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiro Armstrong

    2011-01-01

    The recent rise in Chinese outward direct investment (ODI) has significant global implicatzons and impacts on host country policy. The present paper attempts to provide a theoretical basis and to define a robust econometric approach to assess the performa

  13. Comparison of large scale solar PV (photovoltaic) and nuclear power plant investments in an emerging market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine and compare economic feasibilities and environmental effects of two energy investments options in Turkey: a NE-PP (nuclear power plant) in Mersin province on the Mediterranean coast and a large scale photovoltaic solar energy power plant (PV-PP) to be built in a governmentally reserved land area in mid-south Anatolia, namely Karapinar Energy Specialized Industrial Zone (Karapinar-ESIZ). Total installed power of both plants is taken to be 4800 MW, which is the contracted value for the four units of NE-PP. In terms of investments and energy outputs, both options have their respective advantages and disadvantages over the other. While PV-PP is cheaper without land cost, NE-PP produces quite more electricity throughout its lifetime. Applying a tool to calculate the emission factor for an electricity system (taken from UNFCCC), although NE-PP has more cumulative CO2 emission reduction potential than PV-PP, PV-PP seems slightly more advantageous in terms of CO2 reduction per unit of produced electricity. PV-PP needs more land area than NE-PP; however, it requires considerably less time for commissioning and decommissioning. The outcomes of the study notably reveal that the NE-PP has a payback only if inflation rate is taken into consideration in the unit electricity price, while PV-PP pays back with and without inflation rate. - Highlights: • Comparison of PV and Nuclear energy power plants for Turkey. • Comparison is carried out using installed powers. • PV power plant has less LOCE value if the land cost is excluded. • Nuclear energy has 8-fold more electricity production than PV power plant

  14. Measuring Social Capital Investment: Scale Development and Examination of Links to Social Capital and Perceived Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xinguang; Wang, Peigang; Wegner, Rhiana; Gong, Jie; FANG, XIAOYI; Kaljee, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with greater social capital have better health outcomes. Investment in social capital likely increases one’s own social capital, bearing great implications for disease prevention and health promotion. In this study, the authors developed and validated the Social Capital Investment Inventory (SCII). Direct effects of social capital investment on perceived stress, and indirect effects through social capital were examined. 397 Participants from Beijing and Wuhan, China completed surv...

  15. FACTORS INFLUENCING DECISIONS FOR USING OUTSIDE FUNDS FOR FARM INVESTMENTS AND PROPRIETOR WITHDRAWALS BY SMALL-SCALE FARMERS IN ABIA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chriso O. EMEROLE

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study on factors influencing decisions for using outside funds for Farm investments and for proprietor withdrawals was carried out among rural small-scale farm households in Abia state, Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey of ninety (90 rural farm households of multi-type (varied enterprises was carried out using cluster random sampling technique in three communities, each chosen from one of the three agricultural zones of the state. Results indicated rural household level variables that positively influenced decisions to source farm investment fund to include level of education, gender, membership of cooperative society, interest charge, land acquisition method, and ease of getting loan. Other factors that negatively influenced decisions include farming as major occupation, household savings, household size, and distance of farmers’ home to source of credit. Proprietor withdrawal decisions were positively influenced by household level variables like taking farming as major occupation, payment of school fees for children of farmers, and amount of credit so far repaid by a farm household. Other factors namely household size, being member of cooperative society or savings group, interest charges on loan, off-farm income, and household savings had negative influences on proprietor withdrawal decisions. We recommended that small-scale farmers should not borrow their start-up capital from outside their households but as their farm businesses stabilize, they could decide to take loans from outside to cover their working capital and/or expand their farms and be prepared to repay such loans according to contractual agreements.

  16. Assessing agreement between measurements recorded on a ratio scale in sports medicine and sports science.

    OpenAIRE

    Nevill, A M; Atkinson, G.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The consensus of opinion suggests that when assessing measurement agreement, the most appropriate statistic to report is the "95% limits of agreement". The precise form that this interval takes depends on whether a positive relation exists between the differences in measurement methods (errors) and the size of the measurements--that is, heteroscedastic errors. If a positive and significant relation exists, the recommended procedure is to report "the ratio limits of agreement" using...

  17. Optimal investment timing and investment scale decision making under uncertainty%不确定条件下最优投资时机和最优投资规模决策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳军; 孟卫东; 熊维勤

    2012-01-01

    运用实物期权理论,通过求解不变产出和可变产出条件下企业最优投资时机和最优投资规模的解析表达式,比较研究了两种不同条件下同时选择最优投资时机和最优投资规模的决策问题.研究表明,不确定性增大了企业的等待价值,企业将推迟投资,增大投资规模;最优投资规模仅与预期市场需求的不确定性相关,与反映市场需求的某一个实现值的大小无关;可变产出条件下,企业具有更大的投资临界值和更大的投资规模.不确定性降低了企业产能利用率,导致了过度投资的存在;同时,在可变产出条件下企业的产能利用率更低.%In the investment decision making, the enterprise focuses not only on investment timing choice, but on investment scale choice as well. Based on real options theory, by solving the analytical expression of optimal investment timing and optimal scale under the condition of fixed output and variable output, the paper studies comparatively the decision making in simultaneously selecting the optimal investment timing and optimal investment scale. The study shows that the uncertainty increases the expectation waiting value, thus the enterprise will postpone the investment and increase the investment scale. The paper also illustrates that the investment scale is associated with the uncertainty of expected market demand but not associated with a certain size of earned value, which reflects the market demand. Under the condition of variable output, the enterprise has greater investment critical value and larger investment scale. The uncertainty decreases the enterprise's capacity utilization, resulting in the existence of over-investment. Meanwhile the enterprise's capacity utilization is lower under the condition of variable output.

  18. Agreement between the SCORE and D’Agostino Scales for the Classification of High Cardiovascular Risk in Sedentary Spanish Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis García-Ortiz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate agreement between cardiovascular risk in sedentary patients as estimated by the new Framingham-D’Agostino scale and by the SCORE chart, and to describe the patient characteristics associated with the observed disagreement between the scales. Design: A cross-sectional study was undertaken involving a systematic sample of 2,295 sedentary individuals between 40–65 years of age seen for any reason in 56 primary care offices. An estimation was made of the Pearson correlation coefficient and kappa statistic for the classification of high risk subjects (≥20% according to the Framingham-D’Agostino scale, and ≥5% according to SCORE. Polytomous logistic regression models were fitted to identify the variables associated with the discordance between the two scales. Results: The mean risk in males (35% was 19.5% ± 13% with D’Agostino scale, and 3.2% ± 3.3% with SCORE. Among females, they were 8.1% ± 6.8% and 1.2% ± 2.2%, respectively. The correlation between the two scales was 0.874 in males (95% CI: 0.857–0.889 and 0.818 in females (95% CI: 0.800–0.834, while the kappa index was 0.50 in males (95% CI: 0.44%–0.56% and 0.61 in females (95% CI: 0.52%–0.71%. The most frequent disagreement, characterized by high risk according to D’Agostino scale but not according to SCORE, was much more prevalent among males and proved more probable with increasing age and increased LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride and systolic blood pressure values, as well as among those who used antihypertensive drugs and smokers. Conclusions: The quantitative correlation between the two scales is very high. Patient categorization as corresponding to high risk generates disagreements, mainly among males, where agreement between the two classifications is only moderate.

  19. Cross-rater agreement on common and specific variance of personality scales and items

    OpenAIRE

    Mõttus, René; McCrae, Robert R.; Allik, Jüri; Realo, Anu

    2014-01-01

    Using the NEO Personality Inventory-3, we analyzed self/informant agreement on personality traits at three levels that were made statistically independent from each other: domains, facets, and individual items. Cross-rater correlations for the common variance in the five domains ranged from 0.36 to 0.65 (M = 0.49), whereas estimates for the specific variance of the 30 facets ranged from 0.40 to 0.73 (M = 0.56). Cross-rater correlations of residual variance of individual items ranged from -0.1...

  20. Do property rights and contract farming matter for rural development? Evidence from a large-scale investment in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Väth, Susanne; Kirk, Michael

    2014-01-01

    With the rising demand for agricultural land, land deals must be designed to benefit not only the investors but also the local population. This paper looks at two ways this might be done for farmers in the vicinity of a large-scale oil palm investment in Ghana: contract farming and secure property rights to land. We compare farmers to whom outgrower contracts were allocated, in a quasi-natural experiment, with independent oil palm growers. We find that property rights have a significantly pos...

  1. DSS Investment Options with Damage Cost Valuation of Water Pollution at a River Basin Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fadel, M.; Maroun, R.; Abou Najm, M. R.; Bou Fakhr Aldeen, R.; Lichaa El-Khoury, D.

    2008-12-01

    Poor water quality coupled with inadequate water sanitation services and hygiene practices has long been associated with higher water-borne diseases resulting in a serious cost to society in the form of cost of illness and forgone earnings directly related to increased morbidity and premature mortality, as well as cost of protective measures. This paper presents a socio-economic assessment of water quality in the Upper Litani river basin, Lebanon. For this purpose, field surveys were first conducted followed by the application of 1) the human capital and the willingness to pay approaches for mortality valuation, 2) the cost of illness, pain and suffering approach for morbidity valuation, and 3) the market price approach for the valuation of agricultural impacts. Economic benefits of improving water quality and sanitation were examined in the context of a cost- benefit analysis using a Decision Support System to evaluate various investment options in the construction and operation of wastewater treatment plants. The estimated damage costs ranged between 0.22-3.26 percent of the GDP in the study area with an expected return on investment in treatment facilities within 10 to 25 years depending on economic parameters used.

  2. Students' Futures as Investments: The Promise and Challenges of Income-Share Agreements. AEI Series on Private Financing in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Income-share agreements (ISAs) are an emerging idea for helping students pay for college. Under an ISA, investors provide upfront sums of money toward students' college tuition and other associated costs in exchange for a fixed percentage of the recipients' earnings after graduation. This paper--the first in a series examining private financing in…

  3. Validating the Executive Personal Finance Scale with Financial Investments and Expectations in University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bijou; Lester, David

    2016-06-01

    The validity of the Executive Personal Finance Scale (EPFS) was tested in a sample of 93 undergraduate students (31 men, 62 women; M age = 20.5 years, SD = 1.3, range = 18-24). Scores on the Motivation drive, Organization, and Planning subscales of this scale were associated with having a savings account, owning bank CDs, and self-estimated knowledge about financial matters, while scores on the Impulse control and Motivational drive subscales were associated with expectations for a satisfactory retirement income. The results provide support for the validity of the EPFS. PMID:27273558

  4. 77 FR 18216 - Applications for New Awards; Investing in Innovation Fund, Scale-Up Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... assessments that measure students' progress toward college- and career-readiness, including curricular and... FR 11087) and is available at http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-02-24/pdf/2012-4357.pdf . Scale-up... limited funding to increase the likelihood that the work of successful projects endures and expands...

  5. Cadastral Surveys, Landscape agreements for Cecil County, Published in 2011, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Cecil County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cadastral Surveys dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale as of 2011. It is described as 'Landscape agreements for Cecil County'. The extent of these...

  6. Investments in random environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Barrientos, Jesús Emeterio; Cantero-Álvarez, Rubén; Matias Rodrigues, João F.; Schweitzer, Frank

    2008-03-01

    We present analytical investigations of a multiplicative stochastic process that models a simple investor dynamics in a random environment. The dynamics of the investor's budget, x(t) , depends on the stochasticity of the return on investment, r(t) , for which different model assumptions are discussed. The fat-tail distribution of the budget is investigated and compared with theoretical predictions. We are mainly interested in the most probable value xmp of the budget that reaches a constant value over time. Based on an analytical investigation of the dynamics, we are able to predict xmpstat . We find a scaling law that relates the most probable value to the characteristic parameters describing the stochastic process. Our analytical results are confirmed by stochastic computer simulations that show a very good agreement with the predictions.

  7. Multiple nuclear power plants investment scenarios: Economy of multiples and Economy of Scale impact on different plant sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deliberately small nuclear reactors are making their way on the market. They are proposed by manufacturers worldwide (SMART, 4S, SSTAR, mPower, Nuscale, etc...). The idea of an economic attractiveness of Small and Medium sized Reactors (SMR) is counterintuitive, due to the loss of Economy of Scale on a capital intensive investment. Nevertheless a broader understanding of capital costs drivers has shaped a new concept of Economy of Multiples, that applies on multiple NPP deployment. It relies on learning accumulation to mitigate construction costs of later NPP units; design modularization to exploit the benefits of serial production; co-siting economies to decrease the incidence of fixed and site-related costs. We assume that smaller NPP size fosters design modularization and simplifications, with related cost savings. While the effect of modularization on construction costs has been modeled, the estimation of design-based savings may be the upmost arbitrary and controversial, but the underlying assumption is that the lower the plant size, the higher may be the Design cost-saving factor. This work aims to analyze at what extent and conditions the Economy of Multiples holds against the Economy of Scale, when NPP of different sizes are deployed in multiple units, considering that the Economy of Multiples smoothes its benefits with the increase in number of units installed and that the maximum size of the sites is a limit to its application on large reactors (LR). The limit case-study of Very Small Reactors (VSR) is investigated, representing a massive NPP deployment and a huge loss of Economy of Scale. Our analysis is performed by mean of INCAS (Integrated model for the Competitiveness Analysis of Small-medium modular reactors) Polimi's proprietary simulation code. Our results show that the Economy of Multiples holds as a competitive edge for Medium and Small Reactors even when nuclear site may host multiple LR: 8-9% design cost saving is able to grant the same

  8. FACTORS INFLUENCING DECISIONS FOR USING OUTSIDE FUNDS FOR FARM INVESTMENTS AND PROPRIETOR WITHDRAWALS BY SMALL-SCALE FARMERS IN ABIA STATE, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Chriso O. EMEROLE; Chidozie O. ANYIRO; K.C. OSONDU; A.N NWACHUKWU; K.K. MBUBAEGBU; G.M.C IBEZIM

    2013-01-01

    This study on factors influencing decisions for using outside funds for Farm investments and for proprietor withdrawals was carried out among rural small-scale farm households in Abia state, Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey of ninety (90) rural farm households of multi-type (varied) enterprises was carried out using cluster random sampling technique in three communities, each chosen from one of the three agricultural zones of the state. Results indicated rural household level variables that ...

  9. Brief Report: Excellent Agreement between Two Brief Autism Scales (Checklist for Autism Spectrum Disorder and Social Responsiveness Scale) Completed Independently by Parents and the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Michael J.; Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Smith, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    Agreement between the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and two brief scales completed by parents was 93.1% for the Checklist for Autism Spectrum Disorder (CASD) and 89.7% for the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) in a sample of adolescents with suspected autism spectrum disorders. Our study is consistent with others showing that brief…

  10. A three pronged approach to community scale renewable energy: Education, incremental capital investment and smart grid technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeo, Anna E.

    ; first hand exposure to technology, providing a sense of independence that strengthens communities, and developing a direct link between the energy people use and how that energy is created. Ultimately community scale renewable energy projects help bolster support for large-scale projects that are imperative to making real and lasting progress towards reducing emissions. Finally, technological advancements in renewable energy generation, energy storage and distribution systems, are imperative to replacing fossil fuels. The shift towards a higher penetration of renewable energy into the electric grid can be realized with the implementation of a more sophisticated smart grid, which uses dynamic demand response to alter demand to follow generation. Introduction of tidal power can serve to further stabilize the grid and reduce the amount of storage required. This work describes an interdisciplinary approach to addressing issues of energy, and thereby climate, through substantive efforts in three concentrations; energy literacy education, community driven renewable energy projects based on incremental capital investment and a smart, micro grid encompassing tidal power and other renewable energy source.

  11. Relationship Power, Sociodemographics, and Their Relative Influence on Sexual Agreements Among Gay Male Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Nicholas S; Huebner, David M; Baucom, Brian R; Hoff, Colleen C

    2016-06-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) in primary relationships engage in condomless sex both within and outside their relationships and a majority of HIV transmission risk may actually occur within primary relationships. Sexual agreements regarding non-monogamy are a critical component to understanding HIV prevention in male couples. Relationship factors have been associated with how sexual agreements function and power is one dyadic construct likely to affect couple's maintenance of non-monogamy agreements. Multilevel modeling was used in a cross-sectional study of gay male couples (N = 566 couples) to examine associations between partners' demographic characteristics traditionally used to define relationship power, a scale of decision-making power, and outcomes related to sexual agreements, including investment, agreement breaks, and break disclosure. Results indicated that decision-making power relative to one's partner was not associated with any agreement outcome, contrary to hypotheses. However, controlling for decision-making power, demographic bases of power were variably associated with sexual agreements' functioning. Younger partners were less invested in and more frequently broke their agreements. Lower-earning partners broke their agreements more frequently, but also disclosed breaks more often. White men in white-minority relationships broke their agreement more often than their partners. Concordant HIV-positive couples were less invested in their agreements and HIV-positive men disclosed breaks more frequently. HIV prevention efforts for same-sex couples must attend to the social, developmental, and cultural influences that affect their agreements around non-monogamy. PMID:26391687

  12. Modelling Negative Binomial as a substitute model to Poisson for raters agreement on ordinal scales with sparse data

    OpenAIRE

    Adejumo, A. O.; Heumann, Christian; Toutenburg, Helge

    2004-01-01

    The Poisson distribution has been widely used for modelling rater agreement using loglinear models. Mostly in all life or social science researches, subjects are being classified into categories by rater, interviewers or observers and most of these tables indicate that the cell counts are mixtures of either too big values and two small values or zeroes which are sparse data. We refer to sparse as a situation when a large number of cell frequencies are very small. For these kinds of tables, th...

  13. Trade Agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Kowalczyk, Carsten; Riezman, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the most significant recent developments in the theory of trade agreements. The paper offers an integrated approach to evaluating trade agreements, and uses the approach to present results on preferential and multilateral trade agreements. The paper identifies also several questions for further research.

  14. Analisis Hukum Kedudukan Joint Venture Agreement Dalam Perusahaan Penanaman Modal

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Karina Utari

    2012-01-01

    Capital investment in the era of globalization is inseparable from the series of international agreements in which Indonesia is involved. Joint venture agreement in the framework of foreign investment in Indonesia is the first step to establish a joint venture company which is a must for foreign investors planning to invest their capital in Indonesia. A foreign investment company is not only subject to Law No.25/2007 on Capital Investment but also to law No.40/2007 on Limited L...

  15. Investment Avenues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Priyanka

    2012-11-01

    Investors are a heterogeneous group, they may be large or small, rich or poor, expert or lay man and not all investors need equal degree of protection (Mayya, 1996). An investor has three objectives while investing his money, namely safety of invested money, liquidity position of invested money and return on investment. The return on investment may further be divided into capital gain and the rate of return on investment as interest or dividend. Among all investment options available, securities are considered the most challenging as well as rewarding. Securities include shares, debentures, derivatives, units of mutual funds, Government securities etc. An investor may be an individual or corporate legal entity investing funds with a view to derive maximum economic advantage from investment such as rate of return, capital appreciation, marketability, tax advantage and convenience of investment.The Capital market facilitates mobilization of savings of individuals and pools them into reservoir of capital which can be used for the economic development of a country. An efficient capital market is essential for raising capital by the corporate sector of the economy and for the protection of the interest of investors in corporate securities. There arises a need to strike a balance between raising of capital for economic development on one side and protection of investors on the other. Unless the interests of investors are protected, raising of capital, by corporates is not possible. Like, the primary objective of a senior citizenís asset allocation is the generation of regular income.

  16. Late Stage HIV/AIDS Patients’ and Their Familial Caregivers’ Agreement on the Palliative Care Outcome Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Krug, Rachel; Karus, Daniel; Selwyn, Peter A.; Raveis, Victoria H.

    2009-01-01

    This study compares the self-assessments of 67 late stage HIV/AIDS patients regarding their symptomatology, sense of self-worth and several other aspects of their health care situation, to assessments of that situation provided by their informal caregivers. As part of a dyadic study of care preferences, patients and caregivers independently completed nearly identical versions of the Palliative Care Outcome Scale (POS), a short ten-item measure of the patient’s current health, social, and psyc...

  17. Bilateral agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten bilateral agreements are presented. These are: 1) Co-operation agreement relating to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy between Argentina and EURATOM (1996); 2) Agreement on co-operation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy between Argentina and Greece (1997); 3) Implementing arrangement for technical exchange and co-operation in the area of peaceful uses of nuclear energy between Argentina and the United States (1997); 4) Agreement concerning co-operation in nuclear science and technology between Australia and Indonesia (1997); 5) Implementation of the 1985 Agreement for co-operation concerning the peaceful uses of nuclear energy between the People's Republic of China and the United States (1998); 6) Protocol of co-operation between France and Lithuania (1997); 7) Agreement on co-operation in energy research, science and technology, and development between Germany and the United States (1998); 8) Agreement on early notification of a nuclear accident and exchange of information on nuclear facilities between Greece and Romania (1997); 9) Agreement on early notification of nuclear accidents and co-operation in the field of nuclear safety between Hungary and the Ukraine (1997); 10) Agreement in the field of radioactive waste management between Switzerland and the United States (1997). (K.A.)

  18. Analysis of agreement between Visual Analogue Scales (VAS and numerical questions to assess perception of teratogenic risks in treatment with drugs and radiotherapy in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia da Silva Pons

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to evaluate the agreement between Visual Analogue Scales (VAS and numerical questions as a way of assessing the perception of teratogenic risk of treatment with drugs and radiotherapy. Methods: the sample comprised 144 pregnant and 143 non-pregnant women consecutively recruited at public health centers in Porto Alegre, in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, from February to August 2011. The perception of risk for congenital malformations in the general population and the perceptions of teratogenic risk for exposure to acetaminophen, meto-clopramide, misoprostol and radiotherapy were measured using VAS and numerical questions. The agreement between the results of the two techniques was tested using a Bland-Altman plot. Results: the medians for the perceptions measured using VAS were higher than those obtained using numerical questions for all variables. The perception of risk for acetaminophen showed the lower bias of the two techniques (bias=13.17; p<0.001 and exposure to radiotherapy, the higher (bias=25.02; p<0.001. Conclusion: there was no agreement between the measurements obtained using the two techniques for any of the risk perceptions under study. Risk perceptions were higher using VAS, for all kinds of exposure. Studies should be conducted to assess whether there is overestimation in other situations and social contexts owing to the use of VAS.

  19. INVESTMENTS AND INVESTMENT INCENTIVES IN THE BALKAN STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEHMET YÜCE

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Balkan region, located in the south eastern part of the European Continent, is composed Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Montenegro, Kosovo, Macedonia, Greece with a portion of the Croatia, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia and Turkey. Southeast Europe are composed of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Kosovo, Macedonia and Albania which known as the Western Balkans countries. That international investments are assessed on a regional and global scale in the Balkans, these investments gained importance after the 1990s with political, social and geographical variation. In the 2000s, after legal and administrative framework oriented reforms of investments which are continuations of global integration efforts, development of the investment opportunities in Balkans have been considered positively. While the investment incentive structures and rates differ on the basis of the countries, they are of capital importance for investors. After the 2008 global economic crisis which has happened because of the economic shrinkage on global scale, despite the worries for political and economic unsteadiness in specific countries, development of investments in Balkans has not been affected in a negative way. In this study development of investment in Balkans is analysed with negative and positive factors, investment opportunities and incentives are examined on the basis of countries. The Balkans gain acceleration positively thanks to the reforms of investment opportunities on the national scope. As to the need of investment development oriented local and international coordinated programme and approach is an important issue that should be analysed.

  20. Sexual agreements in the partnerships of internet-using men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Katherine; Hoff, Colleen C; Stephenson, Rob; Sullivan, Patrick S

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies among men who have sex with men (MSM) have found that the majority of HIV transmission results from sex with a main partner. One factor likely to affect the risk of transmission is the type of agreements the couple has regarding sexual behaviour within and outside the relationship. This study recruited 732 Internet-using MSM through Facebook banner ads. Participants completed an online questionnaire regarding demographic characteristics of the respondent and their main partner, the sexual behaviour of the couple, the existence of a sexual agreement, and the strength of investment in that agreement. The Pearson chi-square test was used to assess the association between sexual agreements (categorized as open, closed, or none) and the predictive variables. Respondents' investment in their sexual agreement was measured using the sexual agreement investment scale (a composite score ranging from 0 to 52). Ninety-one percent of respondents had some form of sexual agreement in place with their main partner. The presence and type of sexual agreement was found to be strongly associated with many characteristics of the individual and couple, including the respondent's HIV status, length of time with the main partner, having unprotected anal intercourse with a man other than their main partner, and happiness in the relationship. Increases in the strength of respondents' investment in their sexual agreement were found to be associated with newness of the relationship, relationship happiness, having a closed relationship, and decreases in risky sexual behaviour. This study offers further evidence of the important role that sexual agreements play in male couples. The overwhelming prevalence of sexual agreements and their association with relationship happiness and risky sexual behaviours has important implications for future HIV prevention and control strategies, including the implementation of couples voluntary counseling and testing. PMID:22375729

  1. Roaming and Investments in the Mobile Internet Market

    OpenAIRE

    Stühmeier, Torben

    2012-01-01

    This model discusses mobile network operators' (MNOs) incentives to invest in their network facilities such as new 4G networks under various regimes of data roaming charge regulation. Given an induced externality of investments (spillovers) due to the roaming agreements it will be shown that MNOs, competing on investments, widely set higher investments for below cost regulation of roaming charges. Otherwise, if MNOs are free to collaborate on investments, they set higher investment levels for...

  2. Creative Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Prices for Chinese art are shattering records locally and internationally. Is the investment well placed?Mem Aziz is brimming with confidence about the future of his business in China. Director of Australia’s Redrock Gallery,

  3. Agreement for depression diagnosis between DSM-IV-TR criteria, three validated scales, oncologist assessment, and psychiatric clinical interview in elderly patients with advanced ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhondali W

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Wadih Rhondali,1 Gilles Freyer,2 Virginie Adam,3 Marilène Filbet,4 Martine Derzelle,5 Gaelle Abgrall-Barbry,6 Sophie Bourcelot,7 Jean-Louis Machavoine,8 Muriel Chomat-Neyraud,9 Olivier Gisserot,10 Rémi Largillier,11 Annick Le Rol,12 Frank Priou,13 Pierre Saltel,14 Claire Falandry15 1Clinique Mon Repos, Clinea, Marseille, France; 2Medical Oncology Unit, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Université Lyon 1, Pierre-Benite, France; 3Institut de Cancérologie de Lorraine Alexis Vautrin, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France; 4Palliative Unit, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Université Lyon 1, Pierre-Benite, France; 5Institut Jean Godinot, Reims, France; 6Tenon Hospital, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France; 7Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon, France; 8Centre François Baclesse, Caen, France; 9Centre Hospitalier de la région d’Annecy, Pringy, France; 10Hôpital d’Instruction des Armées Sainte-Anne, Toulon, France; 11Centre Azuréen de Cancérologie, Mougins, France; 12Medical Oncology, Hôpital Perpétuel Secours, Levallois-Perret, France; 13Medical Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Départemental Les Oudairies, La Roche-sur-Yon, France; 14Supportive Care Department, Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon, France; 15Geriatrics and Oncology Unit, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Université Lyon 1, Pierre-Bénite, France Background: Depression, a major outcome in cancer patients, is often evaluated by physicians relying on their clinical impressions rather than patient self-report. Our aim was to assess agreement between patient self-reported depression, oncologist assessment (OA, and psychiatric clinical interview (PCI in elderly patients with advanced ovarian cancer (AOC.Methods: This analysis was a secondary endpoint of the Elderly Women AOC Trial 3 (EWOT3, designed to assess the impact of geriatric covariates, notably depression, on survival in patients older than 70 years of age. Depression was assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale-30 (GDS, the Hospital

  4. Value Investing

    OpenAIRE

    Kubínyi, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor's thesis deals with value investing in the form defined by Benjamin Graham. In clarifying the theoretical aspects, particular attention is given to an intrinsic value of stocks and to its calculation methods. A way to overcome the deficiencies in the two most widely used models of calculation is introduced. It is value screening, which by defining of certain criteria makes an assumption of undervalued stocks. Then the investment approach of the most successful investor, Warren B...

  5. Investment banks

    OpenAIRE

    Lejot, P

    2013-01-01

    Investment banking is a generic term for transactional activities involving financial intermediation conducted through open markets. It was long associated with a legal demarcation in the US and Japan that separated banks that made loans and took deposits from those that traded in securities, but now denotes risk-based activities in banks of any kind. This paper explains investment banking practices in terms of reputational capital, and contrasts the transactional skills and innovation found ...

  6. Survey on Current Conditions and Intention of Outbound Investment by Chinese Enterprises (Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    China Council for the Promotion of International T

    2010-01-01

    @@ Situation of the Overseas Investments of Chinese Enterprises 1. Small scale of investments Of the respondent enterprise having made overseas in-vestments, those with an investment amount of less than one million USD account for 61%, and only ten of them made investments exceeding 100 million USD, accounting for only about 1%. It thus appears that the overall scale of current overseas investments of Chinese enterprises is small, and only a very few enterprises have made large scale overseas invest-ments.

  7. The Re-Calibration of EU International Investment Agreement Policy and Its Impact on China-EU BIT Negotiation%欧盟国际投资协定政策的革新及其对中欧 BIT谈判的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春宝

    2015-01-01

    The launch of the EU comprehensive investment policy repre-sents one of the most significant development in the area of international invest-ment law in recent years.Since the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon in 2009, the scope of the EU's exclusive competence has been extended to include policies over foreign direct investment.The EU then decided to exercise this new competence by negotiating comprehensive investment agreements covering invest-ment liberalization, investment protection and sustainable development.These a-greements wil gradual y replace BITs signed by individual Member States.The freshly concluded CETA with Canada and FTA with Singapore are the first two products of the EU comprehensive investment policy.Compared to Member State BITs, these two agreements substantial y recalibrated investment protection provi-sions, with a view to rebalancing investors'rights and host countries'public inter-ests and improving the legitimacy of ISDS regime.This suggests an ongoing trend of convergence between the EU and China on treaty practice.However, diver-gence remains deep on a variety of rules, which might be the key chal enges to successful y negotiating a China—EU BIT.%欧盟综合性国际投资政策的实施是近年国际投资法领域最重大的发展之一。2009年《里斯本条约》生效后,外国直接投资成为欧盟的专属权能。依据新增加的权能,欧盟决定将国际投资协定的范围扩至投资自由化条款、投资保护条款和可持续发展条款,逐步取代成员国缔结的双边投资协定。《欧盟—加拿大综合经济和贸易协定》和《欧盟—新加坡自由贸易协定》是实施新政策后最先签署的综合性国际投资协定。相较于成员国双边投资协定,新的欧盟投资协定引入了诸多革新举措,意在实现投资者利益和缔约国公共利益的再平衡,增强投资争端解决机制的合法性。中欧双方晚近投资协定的实践日益

  8. Parent-Child Agreement Using the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale and a Thermometer in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. May

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD experience high anxiety which often prompts clinical referral and requires intervention. This study aimed to compare parent and child reports on the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale (SCAS and a child-reported “worry thermometer” in 88 children aged 8–13 years, 44 with ASD and 44 age, gender, and perceptual IQ matched typically developing children. There were no gender differences in child report on the SCAS and worry thermometers. Results indicated generally good correlations between parent and child self-reported SCAS symptoms for typically developing children but poor agreement in parent-child ASD dyads. The worry thermometer child-report did not reflect child or parent reports on the SCAS. Findings suggest 8–13-year-old children with ASD may have difficulties accurately reporting their anxiety levels. The clinical implications were discussed.

  9. Mathematical analysis of investment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Q. J.

    2007-02-01

    Investment systems are studied using a framework that emphasize their profiles (the cumulative probability distribution on all the possible percentage gains of trades) and their log return functions (the expected average return per trade in logarithmic scale as a function of the investment size in terms of the percentage of the available capital). The efficiency index for an investment system, defined as the maximum of the log return function, is proposed as a measure to compare investment systems for their intrinsic merit. This efficiency index can be viewed as a generalization of Shannon's information rate for a communication channel. Applications are illustrated.

  10. The Sicomines Agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansson, Johanna

    ), was to the benefit of the policy preferences of the IMF and the World Bank. This case thus indicates that since China’s own aspirations are changeable, its emergence as an alternative development partner may not bring about any substantive change of direction for the DRC’s international relations....... Furthermore, the investment into the DRC’s mining sector is in itself beneficial for the country, and the renegotiation of the agreement was positive in the sense that the Congolese state guarantee for the mining component was removed. However, the question of whether the Sicomines agreement is a good deal...... for the DRC will remain unanswered until the infrastructure projects have been delivered. The importance of the Congolese Agency for Public Works’ task to price each project and ensure that monitoring is conducted properly can therefore not be overestimated....

  11. Financing Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirth, Stefan; Flor, Christian Riis

    Intuition suggests that corporate investment should be decreasing in financing constraints. We show that even when financing is obtained using a standard debt contract and there is symmetric information between the firm and outside investors, the relation is actually U-shaped. We thus provide a new...... theoretical explanation for the recent empirical findings of Cleary et al. (2007). We split up the endogenously implied financing costs and propose a trade-off between expected liquidation costs and second-best investment costs. For rather unconstrained firms, the risk of costly liquidation dominates the cost...

  12. "Strategic International Agreement on Global Environment Management"

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuharu Kiyono; Masahiro Okuno-Fujiwara

    2004-01-01

    When future international agreement on global environmental control is anticipated, decisions for controlling current carbon gas emissions by improving the country's abatement capabilities are strongly affected by the likelihood of such agreements as well as their probable outcome. We construct a two-period, two-country model where the quality of the atmospheric environment is a global public capital. Countries invest in abatement investments in the first period and engage in production activ...

  13. Agreement Highlights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Chen Yunlin, President of the mainland’s Association for Relations Across the Taiwan Straits and Chiang Pinkung, Chairman of Taiwan-based Straits Exchange Foundation, signed agreements on direct air, shipping and postal services and food safety cooperation during their summit in Taipei on November 4. Direct Flights——The two sides agree to launch a cargo charter flight service between two mainland terminals, Pudong in Shanghai and Guangzhou airports, and two Taiwan ones, Taoyuan and Kaohsiung.

  14. Agreement technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Ossowski, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    More and more transactions, whether in business or related to leisure activities, are mediated automatically by computers and computer networks, and this trend is having a significant impact on the conception and design of new computer applications. The next generation of these applications will be based on software agents to which increasingly complex tasks can be delegated, and which interact with each other in sophisticated ways so as to forge agreements in the interest of their human users. The wide variety of technologies supporting this vision is the subject of this volume. It summarises

  15. Spillovers and international competition for investments

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Trond E.; Osmundsen, Petter

    2001-01-01

    Two jurisdictions compete to attract shares of the investment budget of a large multinational enterprise, whose investments confer positive spillovers on national firms. The firm has private information about its efficiency and about spillovers. It is shown that the firm may gain from governmental tax coordination. Relative to a cooperative tax agreement, tax competition may induce excessive investments in the country where the positive spillover effects are lowest. Also, with sufficiently as...

  16. 76 FR 74060 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    ... geographic scope to include Sri Lanka, the United Arab Emirates, Indonesia, Korea, and Australia. Agreement... Agriculture Investment Export, Inc. Filing Party: Wade S. Hooker, Esquire, 21 Central Park W.; New York, NY 10024. Synopsis: The agreement authorizes Great White Fleet to charter space to Agriculture...

  17. Option Strike Price and Managerial Investment Decisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鸿雁; 张维

    2003-01-01

    The manager′s investment decisions is modeled when the manager is risk-averse and has stock options as compensation. It is found that the strike price of options is crucial to the investment incentives of managers, and that the correct value, or interval of values, of managerial stock option strike price can bring stockholder and manager interests in agreement.

  18. Boosting Infrastructure Investments in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Donald Kaberuka

    2011-01-01

    The absolute and relative lack of infrastructure in Africa suggests that the continent’s competitiveness could be boosted by scaling up investments in infrastructure. Such investments would facilitate domestic and international trade, enhance Africa’s integration into the global economy and promote better human development outcomes, especially, by bringing unconnected rural communities into the mainstream economy. While there are yawning gaps in all infrastructure subsectors, inadequate e...

  19. The Role of International Investment Law in Renewable Energy Investment; focus on Build Operate and Transfer (BOT) Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Adetiloye, Idowu Adejoke

    2014-01-01

    Renewable energy is one of the ways of reducing greenhouse gas emission. There is need for more investment in this sector. However, lack of stable regulatory framework and change in policy makes it unattractive to investors. International investment laws through its protections in investment agreement can help to mitigate risks considered by investors especially those with Build, Operate and Transfer (BOT) type of contracts.

  20. Investing without credible inter-period regulations. A bargaining approach with application to investments in natural resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A government's lack of credibility when promising future taxation and regulation of foreign direct investment is often regarded as an obstacle to foreign investment. As shown in this paper, the total lack of inter-period credibility may not necessarily prevent investments from taking place. Both the government and the investor can benefit from negotiating a series of short-lived agreements in which the investor obtains a share of the revenue generated from previous investments against the undertaking of making new investments. This assumes that intra-period agreements are respected by the parties

  1. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Roshankumar M. Bhigania

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT (FDI : Introduction – Importance of Foreign Capital – Types of Foreign Capital – Government Policy on Foreign Direct Investment –Role of Foreign Direct Investment in the inflow of Foreign Capital.

  2. Achieving Investment Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Jeffrey B.

    1988-01-01

    Public investors can lower commissions through investment autonomy, that is, implementing the investment decision process without outside input. Details some techniques for fine-tuning the investment process. (MLF)

  3. Sustainable Markets Investment Briefings: Investment Treaties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo

    2007-08-15

    This is the second of a series of briefings which discuss the sustainable development issues raised by legal arrangements for the protection of foreign investment. The briefings are based on legal research by IIED and its partners. The goal is to provide accessible but accurate information for human rights, development and environmental organisations working on issues raised by foreign investment in low- and middle-income countries. Briefing 2 explains how investment treaties between states work to protect and promote foreign investment.

  4. Investments in human capital

    OpenAIRE

    Milost, Franko; Novak, Matic

    2016-01-01

    Investments in human capital (employees) include investments in the direct assurance of working abilities, investments in health and well-being and investments in loyalty to the company. These investments are crucial for the long-term existence and development of a company, but their value is not disclosed on the assets side of the classical balance sheet. The most important argument given by the proponents of this approach is that the economic benefits stemming from such investments are unce...

  5. 75 FR 21614 - Investing in Innovation Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... Register (75 FR 12072) a notice inviting applications for new awards for FY 2010 (NIA) for the Investing in... Investing in Innovation Fund Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) Numbers: 84.396A (Scale-up grants), 84.396B (Validation grants), and 84.396C (Development grants). AGENCY: Office of Innovation...

  6. 76 FR 34969 - Investing in Innovation Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... notices inviting applications for the i3 program in the Federal Register on June 3, 2011 (76 FR 32148... Investing in Innovation Fund AGENCY: Office of Innovation and Improvement, Department of Education. ACTION... Investing in Innovation Fund Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) Numbers: 84.411A (Scale-up...

  7. Land Use and Land Cover, Farmland Preservation Program - agreements, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Land Use and Land Cover dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2009. It...

  8. Parental Care and Investment

    OpenAIRE

    González-Voyer, Alejandro; Kolm, N.

    2010-01-01

    Parental care is common throughout the animal kingdom and among caring species there is a bewildering variation in how parents care for offspring, as well as in the amount of resources parents invest in care. For instance, there is considerable variation in the relative parental investment by the sexes – in some species females invest more, in others males invest more, and in some investment is more or less equally shared. Different hypotheses have been proposed to explain patterns of parenta...

  9. Evaluation of Investment Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Němeček, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Subject of this thesis is to evaluate the economic efficiency of the implemented investment plan. The theoretical part of the thesis is focused on presenting the most used methods of evaluation the economic effectivness of investment activity, it is also described the significance of the investment decisions and the investment plans. At the end of the theoretical part are the characteristics of the company and realized investment plan including the SWOT analysis. The practical par...

  10. Crowdfunding: disintermediated investment banking

    OpenAIRE

    Rubinton, Brian J

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces crowdfunding as a concept and model for the evolution of investment banking. Crowdfunding, an application of crowdsourcing, is defined as one party’s attempt to finance a project by offering three types of investment opportunities to potential investors. The investment opportunities are donations, passive investments, and active investments. From this foundation I develop a model in which interdependent agents operate in a dynamic, discrete setting. Potential investors d...

  11. Foreign Direct Investment in Mexico since the Approval of NAFTA

    OpenAIRE

    Cuevas, Alfredo; Messmacher, Miguel; Werner, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    Cross-country panel data are used to assess the effect of free-trade agreements on flows of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). Free-trade agreements are found to have a significant positive effect on FDI flows, and free-trade agreements are found to matter more for the smaller members of the agreement. For example, the North American Free-Trade Agreement's (NAFTA) effect on FDI flows into Me...

  12. Human Rights Promotion through Transnational Investment Regimes: An International Political Economy Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Cutler

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available International investment agreements are foundational instruments in a transnational investment regime that governs how states regulate the foreign-owned assets and the foreign investment activities of private actors. Over 3,000 investment agreements between states govern key governmental powers and form the basis for an emerging transnational investment regime. This transnational regime significantly decentralizes, denationalizes, and privatizes decision-making and policy choices over foreign investment. Investment agreements set limits to state action in a number of areas of vital public concern, including the protection of human and labour rights, the environment, and sustainable development. They determine the distribution of power between foreign investors and host states and their societies. However, the societies in which they operate seldom have any input into the terms or operation of these agreements, raising crucial questions of their democratic legitimacy as mechanisms of governance. This paper draws on political science and law to explore the political economy of international investment agreements and asks whether these agreements are potential vehicles for promoting international human rights. The analysis provides an historical account of the investment regime, while a review of the political economy of international investment agreements identifies what appears to be a paradox at the core of their operation. It then examines contract theory for insight into this apparent paradox and considers whether investment agreements are suitable mechanisms for advancing international human rights.

  13. Client/consultant model services agreement

    CERN Document Server

    International Federation of Consulting Engineers

    2006-01-01

    The terms of the Client Consultant Model Services agreement (The White Book) have been prepared by the Fédération Internationale des Ingénieurs-Conseils (FIDIC) and are recommended for general use for the purposes of pre-investment and feasibility studies, designs and administration of construction and project management, where proposals for such services are invited on an international basis. They are equally adaptable for domestic agreements. - See more at: http://fidic.org/books/clientconsultant-model-services-agreement-4th-ed-2006-white-book#sthash.3Uxy5qT3.dpuf

  14. An Enabling Regulatory Environment for Sustainable Investment: The Example of Trade Law

    OpenAIRE

    Bürgi, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    There is broad international agreement that investment flows to the agricultural sector in developing countries need to be increased. But there is also agreement that such investments need to be sustainable. For being sustainable, they must not only be beneficial to the public economy, but also to rural households and to the environment in the short and the long run. Whether sustainable investments take place, not least depends on the legal framework within which these investments are situate...

  15. Evolving trade policy and the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement: does it threaten Vietnam's access to medicine and its progress towards scaling up HIV prevention, treatment and care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linh, Nguyen Nhat; Huong, Nguyen Thanh; Thuy, Hua Thanh

    2015-01-01

    The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) has undergone 18 rounds of secretive negotiation between the USA and 11 Asia-Pacific countries. Aiming at a free trade area, this multilateral trade proposal covers all aspects of commercial relations among the countries involved. Despite some anticipated positive impacts in trade, specific articles in this proposal's intellectual property and transparency chapters might negatively impact access to medicine, in general, and to antiretroviral (ARV) drugs, in particular, in Vietnam. Drawing on a desk review and qualitative in-depth interviews with 20 key informants from government, academia, hospitals and civil society, we analyse various provisions of the proposal being negotiated leaked after the 14th round of negotiations in September 2012. Findings suggest that the TPP could lead to increased monopoly protection and could limit technological advancements within the local pharmaceutical manufacturing industry, resulting in higher medicine prices in Vietnam. This outcome would have a significant impact on Vietnam's ability to achieve goals for HIV prevention, treatment and care, and create barriers to universal health-care coverage. This research provides unique evidence for Vietnam to advocate for more equitable pharmaceutical provisions in and to raise awareness of the implications of the TPP among the pharmaceutical stakeholder community in Vietnam. PMID:25469870

  16. Agreement Workflow Tool (AWT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Agreement Workflow Tool (AWT) is a role-based Intranet application used for processing SSA's Reimbursable Agreements according to SSA's standards. AWT provides...

  17. Quantitative investment analysis

    CERN Document Server

    DeFusco, Richard

    2007-01-01

    In the "Second Edition" of "Quantitative Investment Analysis," financial experts Richard DeFusco, Dennis McLeavey, Jerald Pinto, and David Runkle outline the tools and techniques needed to understand and apply quantitative methods to today's investment process.

  18. HUMAN CAPITAL INVESTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Student Ioana - Julieta Josan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Once with the development of the human capital theory, the education received an economic value. Leading theorists and specialists in the field have shown that the remarkable economic effects of the investments in education influence the chances of acquiring a job and earnings, demonstrating how the theory justifies such an investment. At the hand, the allocation of resources in human capital brings performance and benefits to companies investing in their employees. Also, the investment in human capital is strategic for any country that seeks to create a knowledge economy. Considering the above arguments, the aim of this paper is to highlight the characteristics of investment in human capital, the types of investment, the factors of education investment and the entities interested in investing and their benefits.

  19. Foreign Investment Expanded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The paid-in foreign direct investment in China totaled $74.8 billion in 2007,up 13.6 percent year on year Foreign investment in China has continued robust growth despite the new corporate income tax poli- cies. Figures from the National Bureau of Statistics show that paid-in foreign direct investment(FDI)(excluding investment from foreign financial institutions)totaled $74.8 billion in 2007,up 13.6 percent year

  20. Pension Fund Investment Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Zvi Bodie

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to survey what is known about the investment policy of pension funds. Pension fund investment policy depends critically on the type of plan: defined contribution versus defined benefit. For defined contribution plans investment policy is not much different than it is for an individual deciding how to invest the money in an Individual Retirement Account (IRA). The guiding principle is efficient diversification, that is, achieving the maximum expected return for any...

  1. Investment under Anarchy

    OpenAIRE

    David M. Bruner; Oxoby, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental test of a 2-player, one-shot game of conflict in which we vary the strength of property rights and the return on investment. Our results suggest that stronger property rights reduce conflict and increase investment. Contrary to intuition, we find increasing the rate of return has practically no effect on investment and that this failure to stimulate investment is largely due to deficiencies in property right institutions.

  2. Irreversibility, Uncertainty, and Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Robert S. Pindyck

    1990-01-01

    Most investment expenditures have two important characteristics: First, they are largely irreversible; the firm cannot disinvest, so the expenditures are sunk costs. Second, they can be delayed, allowing the firm to wait for new information about prices, costs, and other market conditions before committing resources. An emerging literature has shown that this has important implications for investment decisions, and for the determinants of investment spending. Irreversible investment is especi...

  3. Optimal Responsible Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille

    The paper studies retail Socially Responsible Investment and portfolio allocation. It extends conventional portfolio theory by allowing for a personal value based investment decision. When preferences for responsibility enter the framework for mean-variance analysis, it yields an optimal...... responsible investment model. An example of index investing illustrates the theory. Results show that it is crucial for the responsible investor to consider portfolio risk, expected return, and responsibility simultaneously in order to obtain an optimal portfolio. The model enables responsible investors to...

  4. Gold as an investment

    OpenAIRE

    Zemánek, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Bachelor thesis was created to understand investments in gold, to analyse the develop-ment of its price, discussing the reasons why people should invest in gold. Moreover, it introduces different forms of availability and possible earnings from investing in gold. First part is focused on describing important properties of this valuable commodity. Second part of the thesis analyses specific possibilities of investments and compares them with each other from the point of view of an investor.

  5. A proposal to finance low carbon investment in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This year, Europe is confronted with a critical double challenge: addressing the climate change issue and pulling itself out of a persistent low growth trap. Today these two challenges are addressed separately. On the one hand, climate negotiations must reach a historical agreement in the Paris conference in December 2015. On the other hand, the Juncker Plan of 315 billion euros of investment, and above all the ECB announcement of a massive purchase of assets for an amount of around 1100 billion euros, must help to avoid a deflationary spiral and stimulate a new flow of investments. Regarding climate policies, public regulators have essentially focused on a carbon price, which remains today at an insufficient level to trigger the financing needs of the low carbon transition. The potential of the banking and saving channels (targets of the asset purchase program of the ECB) to scale up climate finance is however neglected. This 'Note d'analyse' proposes to make private low-carbon assets eligible for the ECB asset purchase program. The carbon impact of these assets would benefit from a public guarantee that would value their carbon externality at a level sufficient to compensate the absence of an adequate carbon price. This mechanism would immediately impact the investment decisions of private actors with a positive effect on growth. It would also strongly incite governments to progressively implement carbon pricing tools to ensure that the public backing of the value of the carbon assets remains neutral with respect to public budgets. (authors)

  6. Optimal Responsible Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille

    Numerous institutions are now engaged in Socially Responsible Investment or have signed the "UN Principles for Responsible Investment". Retail investors, however, are still lacking behind. This is peculiar since the sector constitutes key stakeholders in environmental, social and governmental...... new dimension is incorporated into the investment decision....

  7. Sustainable Markets Investment Briefings: Foreign investment contracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo

    2007-08-15

    This is the fourth of a series of briefings which discuss the sustainable development issues raised by legal arrangements for the protection of foreign investment. The briefings are based on legal research by IIED and its partners. The goal is to provide accessible but accurate information for human rights, development and environmental organisations working on issues raised by foreign investment in low- and middle-income countries. Briefing 4 sets out some of the ways in which foreign investment contracts can impact on sustainable development.

  8. A General Mathematical Framework for Calculating Systems-Scale Efficiency of Energy Extraction and Conversion: Energy Return on Investment (EROI and Other Energy Return Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam R. Brandt

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The efficiencies of energy extraction and conversion systems are typically expressed using energy return ratios (ERRs such as the net energy ratio (NER or energy return on investment (EROI. A lack of a general mathematical framework prevents inter-comparison of NER/EROI estimates between authors: methods used are not standardized, nor is there a framework for succinctly reporting results in a consistent fashion. In this paper we derive normalized mathematical forms of four ERRs for energy extraction and conversion pathways. A bottom-up (process model formulation is developed for an n-stage energy harvesting and conversion pathway with various system boundaries. Formations with the broadest system boundaries use insights from life cycle analysis to suggest a hybrid process model/economic input output based framework. These models include indirect energy consumption due to external energy inputs and embodied energy in materials. Illustrative example results are given for simple energy extraction and conversion pathways. Lastly, we discuss the limitations of this approach and the intersection of this methodology with “top-down” economic approaches.

  9. Action Investment Energy Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Laursen, Simon; Srba, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the formalism of action investment energy games where we study the trade-off between investments limited by given budgets and resource constrained (energy) behavior of the underlying system. More specifically, we consider energy games extended with costs of enabling actions and fixed...... budgets for each player. We ask the question whether for any Player 2 investment there exists a Player 1 investment such that Player 1 wins the resulting energy game. We study the action investment energy game for energy intervals with both upper and lower bounds, and with a lower bound only, and give a...

  10. Agricultural Investment Environment in Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The features of ageing,low educational level and female domination on the part of agricultural labor forces,determine that the sustainable development of agriculture can not rely entirely on farmers,who are engaged in dispersed planting and small-scale operation,therefore,improving agricultural investment environment,and taking positive measures to promote diversification of the main body of agricultural investment,is the key to the healthy development of agriculture.From four aspects(the industrial base of agriculture,arable land resource conditions,capital investment capacity,input of means of production),this article establishes evaluation indicator system of agricultural investment environment in Shaanxi Province,and based on this,make recommendations for improvement of agricultural investment environment in Shaanxi.

  11. Investment and investment finance in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Kolev, Atanas; Tanayama, Tanja; Wagenvoort, Rien

    2013-01-01

    Combining in-house research and work by leading academics, this report assesses how the crisis has impacted investment across the non-financial sector, in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), in infrastructure, and in R&D and innovation. It explains why and where investment has declined, looking at the impact of structural imbalances, policy uncertainty, new capital requirements for banks and the fragmentation of Europe's financial markets. In terms of policy options, it warns against p...

  12. Agreement between parents and children's report of self-rating scale of systemic family dynamics in China%系统家庭动力学自评问卷亲子报告的一致性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈一心; 李沙沙; 陈建平; 陈图农; 詹明心

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore agreement between parent-child report of self-rating scale of systemic family dynamics (SSFD),as well as factors that may influence the agreement.Methods SSFD was used to investigate the agreement between parent and child reports on family dynamics in a sample of 639 Chinese children aged 10 to 18 years from Mainland China,and possible influence factors.Results The results showed that there was significant difference between parent-child report of SSFD.The parents had significant lower score than their children at atmosphere,individuation and disease conception and had higher score at system logic (all P<0.01).But the two still had significant positive correlation (correlations ranging from 0.15 to 0.38),indicating a low to moderate agreement between them(r=-0.15-0.38,all P<0.01).The age factor was related to parent-children agreement on SSFD.Parent-child agreement was highest for family atmosphere,followed by individuation,system logic and disease conception.The age factor was related to parent-child agreement on SSFD.Conclusions Both parents' and children's reports of SSFD can be used to assess family dynamics,however,attention should be payed to the affection of parent-child report's difference and age factor to the results.%目的 探索系统家庭动力学自评问卷亲子报告的一致性及其影响因素.方法 应用系统家庭动力学自评问卷(self-rating scale of systemic family dynamics,SSFD)研究了639例10~18岁正常儿童及其父母对家庭动力学评价的一致性,以及可能的影响因素.结果 父母与子女对SSFD四个维度的评分差异有统计学意义,父母对家庭气氛、个性化和疾病观念三个维度的评分低于子女的评分(均P<0.01),而父母对系统逻辑的评分高于子女的评分(P<0.01);父母与子女对SSFD的报告呈正相关性,但一致性程度为中等偏下水平(r=0.15~0.38,均P<0.01).一致性水平由高到低分别为家庭气氛、个性化、

  13. Nuclear cooperation agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear cooperation agreements are reviewed in tabular form, especially agreements with developing countries. The reporting countries are the USA, the Federal Republic of Germany, Canada, Australia, Japan, and France. A separate EURATOM list is annexed

  14. 75 FR 26742 - Investing in Innovation Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    .../2010 (75 FR 5/12/2010 5/19/2010 7/12/2010 7/19/2010 in Innovation Fund (Scale-up, 12072). Validation... Investing in Innovation Fund Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) Numbers: 84.396A (Scale-up grants), 84.396B (Validation grants), and 84.396C (Development grants). AGENCY: Office of Innovation...

  15. Investment to the Rescue

    OpenAIRE

    Vasily Astrov; Rumen Dobrinsky; Vladimir Gligorov; Doris Hanzl-Weiss; Peter Havlik; Mario Holzner; Gabor Hunya; Michael Landesmann; Sebastian Leitner; Olga Pindyuk; Leon Podkaminer; Sandor Richter; Hermine Vidovic

    2014-01-01

    The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies (wiiw) expects GDP in Central, East and Southeast Europe (CESEE) to pick up speed and grow on average by 2-3% over the forecast period 2014-2016 a major driving force rooted in an upward reversal of public and private investment. The question remains, however, whether investment-led growth in the CESEE countries is merely a statistical base effect of a few replacement investments or an indication of a profound paradigmatic shift. Increas...

  16. Migration, trade and investment

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Dolman

    2008-01-01

    By lowering the cost of trade between the country of residence and the country of birth, migrants appear to reduce trade with other countries, so that the overall effect on aggregate trade is small. The effects of migrants on foreign direct investment appear to be different. Bilateral investment patterns show that migrants increase investment between their country of residence and country of birth, but there is no strong evidence that this is accompanied by a reduction of the stock of investm...

  17. Investment and Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Yishay Yafeh; Kenichi Ueda; Stijn Claessens

    2010-01-01

    We study how financial systems and institutional environments affect investment efficiency using a sample of some 300,000 firm-years from 48 countries. Based on a canonical investment model, we identify two possible channels by which institutional environments may affect investment: firm-level financial frictions and the macro-level required rate of return. We find that a good institutional environment, in particular strong corporate governance, reduces financial frictions and lowers the requ...

  18. Trade versus Investment Liberalization

    OpenAIRE

    James R. Markusen

    1997-01-01

    Despite several theoretical contributions and considerable informal empirical evidence" to the contrary, a notion that trade and investment are substitutes persists in trade policy" analysis. This paper considers the liberalization of commodity trade versus liberalization" allowing direct investment versus the two together. For a relatively skilled-labor-scarce" economy, I show that trade and investment liberalization are quite different together are in a sense complements. The intuition may ...

  19. Merchant Transmission Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Joskow, Paul L.; Tirole, Jean

    2003-01-01

    We examine the performance attributes of a merchant transmission investment framework that relies on ?market driven? transmission investment to provide the infrastructure to support competitive wholesale markets for electricity. Under a stringent set of assumptions, the merchant investment model appears to solve the natural monopoly problem and the associated need for regulating transmission companies traditionally associated with electric transmission networks. We expand the model to inc...

  20. Sustainable Investment. Literature Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weda, J.; Kerste, M.; Rosenboom, N.

    2010-08-15

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), or sustainability at the company level, entails incorporating ecological (environmental stakeholders) and social aspects (stakeholders other than shareholders and environmental stakeholders) when doing business. Socially Responsible Investment (SRI) concerns sustainability at the investment, fund or portfolio level and involves screening the sustainability of companies before investing in them. This report highlights leading literature and empirical findings on 'sustainable investment', amongst others addressing the economic rationale for CSR and SRI. This report is part of a set of SEO-reports on finance and sustainability. The other reports deal with: Financing the Transition to Sustainable Energy; Carbon Trading; Innovations in financing environmental and social sustainability.

  1. Shareholders' agreements in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2010-01-01

    The article warns that with effect from 1 March 2010, the new Danish Companies Act (on public and private limited companies) has seriously weakened the effect of shareholders’ agreements which have been entered into on Danish companies. These agreements (in the act’s new terminology: “owners......’ agreements”) cannot bind the company within the sense of company law under the new state of law, and voting rights agreements, agreements on right of pre-emption etc. will therefore only apply at the level of contract law between the parties to the agreement. This article for European Business Law Review...... analyses the consequences of this. Rights and duties in the owners’ agreements must now be reiterated to the greatest possible extent in the company’s articles of association so that the precepts become binding on the company and its management. Whether the parties to the owners’ agreement can be required...

  2. Accountable for Billions, School Boards Break into the Investment Big Leagues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rist, Marilee C.

    1988-01-01

    School budget dollars demand conscientious management and prudent investment, where permitted by law, in U.S. treasury bills, certificates of deposit, and repurchase agreements. Insets outline investment instruments and provide a money management primer and a chart of state-by-state investment rules. (MLH)

  3. INVESTMENT FUNDS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COPIL CRINA ANGELA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available I chose this topic because my goal was to capture in detail all aspects of the evolution of investment funds under the influence of factors leading to globalization of the banking financial market. Main motivation was that I proposed to present in an original manner the concept of investment in mutual funds by the thoroughness of the following points: the different types of investment funds from Romania, the advantages, the risks and the specific costs of the investment in mutual funds and the effects of the financial crisis on the industry of the investment funds on the national level. The financial crisis and the risk of infecting the global economy affected the taste of risk of the investors and their request for the investment fund, determining the orientation of the investors to the funds with a lower risk – the diversified funds, the funds of bonds and the monetary funds. I considered important the theoretical approach of the concept of investments in investment funds because they are a barometer of the macro economical stability, in case the economical increase is positive on the macro economical level the investments in investments funds are increasing too. In Romania the market of the mutual funds is at an incipient level, but with potential and perspectives of development. Due to the bankruptcy of FNI in the beginning of the years 2000 and due to the absence of a clear legislation regarding the calculation of the unitary value of the net asset and the control of the activity developed by the investment funds, the development of the industry of the investment funds had to fight against the crisis of credibility generated by these events. The convergence of the Romanian economy to the European standards will attract also a modification of the structure of the financial investments of the individuals, by an increase of the investments in funds. In the world the investment funds are preferred by the investors for their advantages

  4. Considerations in Duplex Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Arthur; Goen, Tom

    Problems of duplex investment are noted in the introduction to this booklet designed to provide a technique by which the investment decision can be approached, develop estimates of typical costs and returns under differing conditions, and encourage investors to analyze objectives and conditions before the decision to buy or build is made. A…

  5. Socially Responsible Investing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parisi, Cristiana; Stang, Andreas

    This paper analyzes the Scandinavian market for Socially Responsible Investing (SRI) mutual funds in order to determine the returns from discriminatory investment decision compared to the return from conventional portfolios. The analysis is conducted on 642 Scandinavian equity mutual funds. The...

  6. Investment Climate in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bridgman, David; Adamali, Aref

    2015-01-01

    The World Bank Group has been working on investment climate reform in Sub-Saharan Africa for nearly a decade, a period characterized by dramatic economic growth on the continent. Establishing links between such reform interventions and economic growth, however, is a complex problem. Although this note finds some connection between investment climate reform and economic growth, establishing ...

  7. Investing in the Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    THIS month the pretty coastal city of Xiamen is buzzing with African visitors and while they will be taking in the tourist attractions in their spare time,the focus of the visit is the High-Level Symposium on China-Africa Investment Cooperation,held on the sidelines of China International Fair for Investment and Trade (CIFIT).

  8. Indicators of responsible investing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert

    2014-01-01

    Responsible investment has witnessed significant changes in the past decade. It is estimated that about one fifth of assets under management in the US and about half of all assets under management in the EU are done on the basis of one of the seven responsible investment strategies. This paper discu

  9. Inviting Foreign Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING WENLEI

    2010-01-01

    @@ Multinational companies are expecting a more receptive environment for their investments in China,especially if those investments go to emerging industries,help with development efforts in central and west China,or facilitate reorganization and restructuring of Chinese enterprises.

  10. Evaluating the agreement between measurements and models of net ecosystem exchange at different times and time scales using wavelet coherence: an example using data from the North American Carbon Program Site-Level Interim Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Stoy

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Earth system processes exhibit complex patterns across time, as do the models that seek to replicate these processes. Model output may or may not be significantly related to observations at different times and on different frequencies. Conventional model diagnostics provide an aggregate view of model-data agreement, but usually do not identify the time and frequency patterns of model misfit, leaving unclear the steps required to improve model response to environmental drivers that vary on characteristic frequencies. Wavelet coherence can quantify the times and frequencies at which models and measurements are significantly different. We applied wavelet coherence to interpret the predictions of twenty ecosystem models from the North American Carbon Program (NACP Site-Level Interim Synthesis when confronted with eddy covariance-measured net ecosystem exchange (NEE from ten ecosystems with multiple years of available data. Models were grouped into classes with similar approaches for incorporating phenology, the calculation of NEE, and the inclusion of foliar nitrogen (N. Models with prescribed, rather than prognostic, phenology often fit NEE observations better on annual to interannual time scales in grassland, wetland and agricultural ecosystems. Models that calculate NEE as net primary productivity (NPP minus heterotrophic respiration (HR rather than gross ecosystem productivity (GPP minus ecosystem respiration (ER fit better on annual time scales in grassland and wetland ecosystems, but models that calculate NEE as GPP – ER were superior on monthly to seasonal time scales in two coniferous forests. Models that incorporated foliar nitrogen (N data were successful at capturing NEE variability on interannual (multiple year time scales at Howland Forest, Maine. Combined with previous findings, our results suggest that the mechanisms driving daily and annual NEE variability tend to be correctly simulated, but the magnitude of these fluxes is often

  11. Misinterpretations in agreement and agreement attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patson, Nikole D; Husband, E Matthew

    2016-05-01

    It has been well established that subject-verb number agreement can be disrupted by local noun phrases that differ in number from the subject head noun phrase. In sentence production, mismatches in the grammatical number of the head and local noun phrases lead to agreement errors on the verb as in: the key to the cabinets are. Similarly, although ungrammaticality typically causes disruption in measures of sentence comprehension, the disruption is reduced when the local noun phrase has a plural feature. Using a forced-choice comprehension question method, we report two experiments that provide evidence that comprehenders were likely to misinterpret the number information on the head noun phrase when morphosyntactic number markings on the local noun phrase and verb did not match the head. These results are consistent with a growing body of research that suggests that comprehenders often arrive at a final interpretation of a sentence that is not faithful to the linguistic input. PMID:25624171

  12. Investment Lending as a Method Of Investment Projects Financing

    OpenAIRE

    Svitlana Urvantseva

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the genesis consideration of "investment loan" definition. The author provides comparative characteristics of the main forms of investment projects financing involving credit institution. A generalized definition of the project financing and investment lending essence are suggested.

  13. Crowding - in Effect of Public Investment on Private Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Toshiya Hatano

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of public investment on private investment based on Japanese empirical data. Since public capital is accumulated in tandem with the accumulation of private capital in the long-run from a historical perspective, it is quite natural that there is a positive relationship between private investment and public investment. However, some previous studies have provided evidence for the crowding-in effect of public investment on private investment while other studie...

  14. The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement and health: few gains, some losses, many risks

    OpenAIRE

    Labonté, Ronald; Schram, Ashley; Ruckert, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Background In early October 2015, 12 nations signed the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPPA), promoted as a model ‘21st century’ trade and investment agreement that other countries would eventually join. There are growing concerns amongst the public health community about the potential health implications of such WTO+ trade and investment agreements, but little existing knowledge on their potential health impacts. Methods and results We conducted a health impact review which allows for ...

  15. The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement: Trading away our health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruckert, Arne; Schram, Ashley; Labonté, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    There is long-standing interest by the public health community in the potential implications of trade and investment agreements for public health. Our commentary highlights the main pathways by which the Trans-Pacific Partnerships (TPP), a comprehensive trade and investment agreement currently under negotiation, might undermine population health (based on analysis of and commentary about leaked chapters of the TPP), and calls for a more transparent and health-sensitive TPP negotiation process. We argue that use of comprehensive health impact assessments could be helpful in identifying how the potentially serious health consequences of the TPP and similar future international trade and investment agreements can be avoided, minimized or mitigated. PMID:26285198

  16. Knowledge Enclosures, Forced Specializations and Investment Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Belloc

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Like land before the industrial revolution, in the present global economy much knowledge is being enclosed in private hands. In this paper we argue that these enclosures have become a major factor in specialization among firms and among countries: both are forced to specialize in the fields that are not restricted by the enclosures of the others. We use data on 26 OECD countries over the 1978-2006 period. We estimate the effect of patents endowments of countries on their investment specialization across sectors and show that knowledge enclosures involve self-reinforcing innovation patterns. Moreover, we perform a structural change analysis and find that the TRIPs agreement has significantly strengthened the relationship between countries' patents specialization and investment specialization. We conclude by suggesting that stronger international patent protection may restrict global investment opportunities, and this may be one of the factors contributing to the present crisis.

  17. Energy investments and employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to assess the effect that different energy options would have on provincial and regional employment prospects in British Columbia. Current and future economic and employment patterns were examined to develop a more detailed understanding of the skills, age, gender, location, and other characteristics of British Columbia workers. Over 40 previous studies examining the energy/employment relationship were also reviewed. Based on this review and an analysis of the province's economic and labor conditions, the following conclusions are drawn. Investment in non-energy sectors offers better prospects for reducing unemployment than investment in the energy sector, whether for new supply or improving efficiency. Investments in the energy sector provide fewer jobs than investments in most other sectors of the economy. Among the available electricity supply options, large hydroelectric projects tend to produce the fewest jobs per investment dollar. Smaller thermal projects such as wood residue plants produce the most jobs. If and when more energy is needed in British Columbia, the most cost-effective combination of energy supply and efficiency options will also create the most jobs. Compared to traditional energy supply options, investments in energy efficiency would create about twice as many total jobs, create jobs that better match the skills of the province's unemployed and its population distribution, and create jobs that last longer on the average. Construction-related measures such as improved insulation tend to produce more jobs per investment dollar than the substitution of more energy-efficient equipment. 69 refs., 9 tabs

  18. Petroleum investment conditions in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report focuses on the current petroleum investment conditions in Peru, and Peru's hydrocarbon potential. Investment conditions are examined, and political risk, internal security, the economic environment, and the legal framework for investment are considered. (UK)

  19. Financing petroleum agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter describes the typical type of financing agreements which are currently used to finance North Sea petroleum projects whether they are in the cause of development or have been developed and are producing. It deals with the agreements which are entered into to finance borrowings for petroleum projects on a non-resource or limited resource basis. (UK)

  20. Investment Evaluation Difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Cosmin Gomoi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The financial criteria used for evaluation of the enterprise are not numerous; however, they are causing heated discussion on whether using a criterion at the expense of another. The most utilized financial criteria used in the ranking of investment alternatives are: the net present value criterion, the internal rate of return criterion, the payback period limit criterion and last, but not least, the profitability index criterion. These criteria have in mind, in the first place: \tinvestments impact on enterprise profitableness and results, by recording the future positive cash-flow \tinvestments influence on the balance of an enterprise, traced through the evolution, on one side of the working capital , on the other hand, the size of necessary working capital \tincidence of the investment project on enterprise risk level Therefore, to ensure the best possible decision making, investors must choose of using, and why not, even construction of relevant indicators regarding the opportunity of an investment decision in one alternative or another. It is advisable to take into account a number of principles, which are nothing more than to highlight various aspects of technical analysis of investment projects. As a result, it is preferable not to neglect the value of money in time problem, solved by using dynamic indicators of investment; investment project analysis with reference the binomial risk - profitableness, ensuring that profitableness of an investment is directly proportional to the risk category in which is framed; the basis for the investment decision to materialize with the help of marginal cash flow analysis and, certainly not with the help of paper profits; taking into consideration the fiscal policy of the company; elimination of the inflationary phenomenon in the decision process; targeting of low risk investment projects, because this risk adds to the whole risk of the enterprise etc.

  1. The Homomorphic Key Agreement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    There are various challenges that are faced in group communication, so it is necessary to ensure session key. Key agreement is the fundamental cryptographic primitive for establishing a secure communication. It is a process of computing a shared secret contributed by two or more entities such that no single node can predetermine the resulting value. An authenticated key agreement is attained by combining the key agreement protocol with digital signatures. After a brief introduction to existing key agreement in group communication, Making use of the additive-multiplicative homomorphism in the integer ring defined by Sander and Tschudin: A new protocols, called the homomorphism key agreement, was designed, which can be self-contributory, robust, scalable and applicable in group communication.

  2. Investment in the Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学文

    2004-01-01

    As we enter the end of the first economic quarter of 2004, statistics are indicating that by the end the year direct foreign investment will hit an all time high. However, as is often the case, economy and trade is not a one-way-street.This is why this month we take a closer look at Chinese investments abroad.While the footprints of Chinese investment can be discovered without greatdifficulty in America and Europe, CIB this month explores a similar trend emerging in countries such as Thailand, Bangladesh and Africa.

  3. The prudent investment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, M

    1997-01-01

    Are you a CFO, CEO or treasure of your organization? Are you a member of the board of directors or investment or pension committees? If you answered "yes" to these questions, you are likely to be considered a fiduciary of investment assets. This position carries with it prestige, responsibility, and potential personal liability should something go wrong. Of course, liability will most likely occur only if a failure has occurred in carrying out fiduciary responsibilities. But what are those responsibilities? And what is the most appropriate way to manage investment decisions? PMID:10165605

  4. Foreign Direct Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Roshankumar M. Bhigania

    1997-01-01

    This paper argues that the liberalisation of foregin direct investment (FDI) has made labour costs more important to domestic investment and long-run labour demand. It provides evidence from British and German data that is consistent with this view. First, high unit labour costs increase FDI outflows and lower FDI inflows. Second, the effect of unit labour costs on domestic manufacturing investment was more negative in the high-FDI 1980s than in the low-FDI 1970s, and this change was concentr...

  5. The strong building: a case study in direct investment

    OpenAIRE

    Walt A. Nelson

    2006-01-01

    Purpose –The purpose of this case study is to examine direct investment in commercial real estate from the perspective of the individual. While most research is dominated by studies concerning direct investment by institutions (REITs, pension funds, etc.), the bulk of direct investment in commercial property is still conducted by individuals. Design/methodology/approach -The paper presents accounting and financial data from the original purchase, management and disposal of a small-scale offic...

  6. South America: Investment target of the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The paper discusses investment in the oil and gas industries of South America. For Venezuela, first-round profit sharing, marginal field agreements, and drilling and production activities are described. Exploration, resource development, and production are also described for Argentina, Colombia, Brazil, Ecuador, Trinidad and Tobago, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, Uruguay, and the Falkland Islands. Political problems in Ecuador, licensing in Trinidad and Tobago, and the privatization of Petroperu are also mentioned.

  7. Advocating investments in information technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information and communication systems can improve the timeliness and quality of decisions. These benefits are strategically important to the utility industry in an era of increasing competition. Because these systems often do not reduce labor cost, however, they can be difficult to evaluate. This report presents a new process for reaching consensus of the value of capital investment in information and communication systems. The results of this project is A Strategic Advocacy Process (ASAP), a methodology that can be used to evaluate investments in information technology. ASAP uses belief graphs to produce a living business case showing facts, assumptions, goals, and metrics for measuring progress toward those goals; shows how to use option pricing theory to quantify the value of managerial flexibility; ASAP uses an organizational impact assessment tool to identify the potential impact of new information systems and how to realize the benefits of managerial flexibility. The ASAP methodology addresses the critical problem of correctly valuing information and communication systems. The methodology offers a way to account for the ''intangible'' value of these systems by recognizing the managerial flexibility these systems can provide in addressing risks and uncovering new business opportunities. Metrics for measuring progress toward new goals can be defined, and plans for achieving the goals can be made. As a result, agreement can be reached on the uses, value, and priority of projects based on a metric other than on labor replacement savings

  8. Innovation investment area: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mission of Environmental Management's (EM) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Innovation Investment Area is to identify and provide development support for two types of technologies that are developed to characterize, treat and dispose of DOE waste, and to remediate contaminated sites. They are: technologies that show promise to address specific EM needs, but require proof-of-principle experimentation; and (2) already proven technologies in other fields that require critical path experimentation to demonstrate feasibility for adaptation to specific EM needs. The underlying strategy is to ensure that private industry, other Federal Agencies, universities, and DOE National Laboratories are major participants in developing and deploying new and emerging technologies. To this end, about 125 different new and emerging technologies are being developed through Innovation Investment Area's (IIA) two program elements: RDDT ampersand E New Initiatives (RD01) and Interagency Agreements (RD02). Both of these activities are intended to foster research and development partnerships so as to introduce innovative technologies into other OTD program elements for expedited evaluation

  9. Innovation investment area: Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    The mission of Environmental Management`s (EM) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Innovation Investment Area is to identify and provide development support for two types of technologies that are developed to characterize, treat and dispose of DOE waste, and to remediate contaminated sites. They are: technologies that show promise to address specific EM needs, but require proof-of-principle experimentation; and (2) already proven technologies in other fields that require critical path experimentation to demonstrate feasibility for adaptation to specific EM needs. The underlying strategy is to ensure that private industry, other Federal Agencies, universities, and DOE National Laboratories are major participants in developing and deploying new and emerging technologies. To this end, about 125 different new and emerging technologies are being developed through Innovation Investment Area`s (IIA) two program elements: RDDT&E New Initiatives (RD01) and Interagency Agreements (RD02). Both of these activities are intended to foster research and development partnerships so as to introduce innovative technologies into other OTD program elements for expedited evaluation.

  10. China Welcomes Global Investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China is making an effort to building a fair market to attract overseas investment,China’s vice-premier told the gathering of CEOs in Beijing, adding that the meeting with its influence,will promote global business cooperation.

  11. Immigration Through Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Richard S.

    1978-01-01

    To qualify as an investor exempt from the labor certification requirement, the applicant must essentially establish, by documentary evidence, that he has made an investment or outlay of capital, totaling at least $40,000. (NQ)

  12. Sustainable investment: Literature overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Weda; M. Kerste; N. Rosenboom

    2010-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), or sustainability at the company level, entails incorporating ecological (environmental stakeholders) and social aspects (stakeholders other than shareholders and environmental stakeholders) when doing business. Socially Responsible Investment (SRI) concerns su

  13. Chinese Investment in Italy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    At the 12th China International Fair for Investment and Trade (CIFIT) held on September 8-11 in Xiamen, Fujian Province, government officials and entrepreneurs from all over the world canvassed Chinese entrepreneurs and investors to invest in their countries. Foreign countries and regions rented 16,000 square meters of exhibition space, an increase of more than 50 percent from last year. Among the 74 participating countries and regions, more than 50 held seminars about their invest- ment environments. Besides the Caribbean countries and underdeveloped African nations that are actively attracting investment, developed countries such as the Untied States, Germany, France, Italy and Sweden also showed extraordinary enthusiasm in trying to win over Chinese investors. Beijing Review interviewed Marinella Loddo, Director of the Industrial Cooperation Division of the Italian Institute for Foreign Trade which is also known as the Italian Trade Commission (ICE).

  14. Indirect ICT Investment.

    OpenAIRE

    Beretti, P-A.; Cette, G.

    2007-01-01

    Numerous economic studies have highlighted that ICT investment expenditure appears to be greater in the field of services, and above all in certain activities such as financial services and wholesale trade, than in industry. This analysis examines whether the investment data compiled by national accountants underestimate productive ICT expenditure, and whether this is more pronounced in the case of industry than for services. For that purpose, we propose an assessment of the size of ICT input...

  15. Lithuania : Investment Climate Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2005-01-01

    The World Bank undertook an investment climate assessment in Lithuania in 2004 as part of its efforts to support member countries through in-depth analysis of major microeconomic constraints in their business environments. Lithuania has made serious efforts in recent years to improve its investment climate. This report has attempted to capture as much as possible the achievements of those efforts as well as the shortcomings that remain. The general picture in 2004 was of impressively rapid pr...

  16. Investing in the Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    THIS month the pretty coastal city of Xiamen is buzzing with African visitors and while they will be taking in the tourist attractions in their spare time,the focus of the visit is the High-Level Symposium on China-Africa Investment Cooperation, held on the sidelines of China International Fair for Investment and Trade(CIFIT). Chinese government policymakers and business leaders will be on hand at the

  17. Investing in Conflict Management

    OpenAIRE

    GARANCE GENICOT; STERGIOS SKAPERDAS

    2002-01-01

    Achieving peace and building the institutions that will make it last require much time and effort on the part of adversaries. While making this effort, the likelihood of peace is uncertain, and preparations for conflict are ongoing. Using a model that takes such considerations into account, adversaries divide their resources between “guns,â€â€œbutter,†and investments in conflict management. Even when all adversaries undertake sizable investments in conflict management, peace is uncertain....

  18. Investments of Uncertain Cost

    OpenAIRE

    Robert S. Pindyck

    1992-01-01

    I study irreversible investment decisions when projects take time to complete, and are subject to two types of uncertainty over the cost of completion. The first is technical uncertainty, i.e., uncertainty over the amount of time, effort, and materials that will ultimately be required to complete the project, and that is only resolved as the investment proceeds. The second is input cost uncertainty, i.e., uncertainty over the prices and quantities of labor and materials required, and which is...

  19. Share Prices and Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Andersen; Robert Subbaraman

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we examine two related propositions: the efficiency of pricing of Australian shares and the influences of share prices on business investment. In line with similar studies overseas, we find that the Australian share market may deviate from efficient pricing over short time horizons but that there is little evidence of inefficiency over longer time horizons. To investigate the influence of share prices on investment decisions we use a simple model of real share prices to identify...

  20. International Fisheries Agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pintassilgo, Pedro; Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Lindroos, Marko

    2015-01-01

    This paper surveys the application of game theory to the economic analysis of international fisheries agreements. The relevance of this study comes not only from the existence of a vast literature on the topic but especially from the specific features of these agreements. The emphasis of the survey...... is on coalition games, an approach that has become prominent in the fisheries economics literature over the last decade. It is shown that coalition games were first applied to international fisheries agreements in the late 1990s addressing cooperative issues under the framework of characteristic...... formation and stability of international fisheries agreements. A key message that emerges from this literature strand is that self-enforcing cooperative management of internationally shared fish stocks is generally difficult to achieve. Hence, the international legal framework and regulations play a...

  1. The DMT's agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the numerous collaboration agreements signed by the Department of Mechanics and Technology (DMT) from the Direction of Nuclear Reactors (DRN) of the CEA with foreign research organisms and universities. (J.S.)

  2. Trade Agreements PTI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The objective of the Trade Agreements PTI is to advance CBP’s mission by working with internal and external stakeholders to facilitate legitimate trade and address...

  3. AGREEMENTS CONCLUDED ELECTRONICALLY

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Popovici, József-Attila Forró

    2010-01-01

    The internet is not merely a means of communication but also an important instrument in operating commercial relations. The agreements concluded electronically have as legal frame the law nr. 365/2002 on electronic commerce. The present article outlines the main discussions generated by this type of agreements: pre-contractual obligation of information, time of conclusion, the relative nullity of contracts concluded by electronic means, the right to unilateral withdrawal of contract, long-dis...

  4. The quid-pro-quo of environmental agreements: Reflections on industrial energy efficiency agreements from five countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helby, Peter

    2001-10-01

    This workshop paper reflects on the exchange of values between the government side and the business side, which is a core logic of environmental agreements. The reflections refer to case studies of industrial energy efficiency agreements from Denmark, France, Germany, Netherlands and Sweden, originating from the VAIE project (Voluntary Agreements, Implementation and Efficiency). The government bargaining chips discussed are monetary rewards, help to gain competitive advantage, regulatory flexibility and political protection. The business side bargaining chips are emission limits, organisational change, investments, information, submission to control and political pain reduction. The discussion underlines the need for substantial commitments by the government side, as a precondition for achieving effective agreements.

  5. Causality relations between foreign direct investment and portfolio investment volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Gozgor, Giray; Yaman O. Erzurumlu

    2010-01-01

    Following the liberalization of financial markets, Goldstein and Razin (2006) show that there is an information based trade-off between foreign direct investment and foreign portfolio investment, our paper examines the causality relations between foreign direct investment and volatility of foreign portfolio investment. Utilizing monthly and quarterly data set of Czech Republic, Poland, Russia and Turkey, volatility of portfolio investments, which indicated evidence of ARCH effe...

  6. Facilitating low-carbon investments: Lessons from natural gas

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann, Anne; Neuhoff, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    Decarbonisation of energy and transport infrastructure requires significant private sector investments. The natural gas industry has demonstrated such large scale private sector infrastructure investment over the last decades, typically using long-term contractual arrangements. Are therefore institutional frameworks necessary that facilitate long-term contracting or provide regulation reassuring about future resource streams associated with low-carbon infrastructure - or do factors idiosyncra...

  7. Solomon Islands : Towards Better Investment in Rural Communities

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    The aim of Solomon Islands Towards Better Investment in Rural Communities is to assist policymakers, program sponsors and implementers to make informed decisions about the design, financing, governance and overall advantages and disadvantages of programs that invest in small-scale infrastructure and income-generating opportunities for rural communities in the Solomon Islands. Completed in ...

  8. Transparency and International Investment Treaties - Definition and responses (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    KOTERA Akira

    2006-01-01

    The issue of transparency is becoming subject to increasing attention in the area of international investment law, as it has in other areas of international law. But what is transparency? What does it mean in the context of international investment law? Within the sphere of international economic law, the General Agreement on Trade and Services (GATS) was the first to shed light on the issue of transparency, defining it as one of its basic principles. The GATS principle calls for transparency...

  9. Concordância entre escalas de triagem e diagnóstico do desenvolvimento motor no sexto mês de vida Agreement between scales for screening and diagnosis of motor development at 6 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Campos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar o grau de concordância entre uma escala de triagem e uma de diagnóstico do desenvolvimento motor de lactentes no sexto mês de vida, estabelecendo o ponto de corte mais apropriado para triagem. MÉTODOS: Estudo seccional, incluindo recém-nascidos a termo, com idade gestacional entre 37 e 41 semanas, assintomáticos, que receberam alta da maternidade 2 dias após o nascimento, residentes na região de Campinas. Foram excluídas síndromes genéticas, malformações, infecções congênitas, internações em unidade de terapia intensiva e baixo peso ao nascimento. Os instrumentos de avaliação foram: Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS e Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID-II. Para a AIMS, foram utilizados dois pontos de corte, percentil 5 ou 10 e, para as BSID-II, foi utilizada a classificação dos lactentes na escala motora conforme a pontuação do index score (IS: desempenho inadequado (IS 85, maior ou igual a menos 1 desvio padrão da média. RESULTADOS: A amostra foi constituída por 43 lactentes. Seis lactentes (14,00% apresentaram desempenho motor inadequado. Considerando a classificação motora das BSID-II e o percentil 5 da AIMS, obteve-se sensibilidade = 100%, especificidade = 78,37%, acurácia = 81,39%, índice kappa = 0,50 e p OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the degree of agreement between a score for screening and another for diagnosis of motor development in 6-month old infants and to define the most appropriate cutoff point for screening. METHODS: A sectional study, enrolling asymptomatic full term newborns with gestational ages from 37 to 41 weeks, who were discharged from the maternity unit 2 days after birth and are resident in the Campinas area. Infants were excluded if they presented genetic syndromes, malformations, congenital infections, intensive care admission or low birth weight. The assessment instruments investigated were the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS and the Bayley Scales of Infant

  10. International petroleum agreements : Republic of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foreign investment in the oil and gas sector has had a profound impact on the development of crude oil production in Cuba. In 1982, in order to encourage economic development, the Cuban government adopted a form of Production Sharing Contract (PSC) for international petroleum agreements. In 1990, the first PSC was negotiated with a consortium of European companies. This was followed in 1992 through 1994 with companies from Canada, Europe and Latin America. Then in 1995, a more comprehensive foreign investment law was enacted to further encourage foreign investment in Cuba. Onshore and shallow water regions of Cuba were divided into 45 blocks, 19 of which were under licence in 2001. In addition, in 1999 the government of Cuba offered 53 blocks in the deep water zones of the Cuban sector of the Gulf of Mexico to foreign investment, of which 6 are already under licence. Most exploration for oil and gas since 1991 has been carried out by foreign companies. Crude oil production in 1991 totalled 11,000 bopd of heavy oil production from the north coast of Cuba. By 2001, domestic crude oil production increased to more than 50,000 bopd, mostly due to foreign investment in exploration and development. This paper described the model form for Cuban Production Sharing Contracts with reference to parties, rights granted, terms, relinquishments, minimum exploration commitments, discovery of hydrocarbons and recovery of petroleum operation expenses. The paper also discussed gross production, cost recovery for contractors, and sharing of profits with contractors and the state oil company, CubaPetroleo. 1 fig

  11. The impact of South-South trade agreements on FDI

    OpenAIRE

    Cherif, Mondher; Dreger, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The integration of emerging markets into the global economy is heavily promoted by foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows. Within the factors driving the location of FDI, regional trade agreements (RTAs) become increasingly relevant for emerging markets. We explore the impact of South-South trade agreements on FDI by dynamic panel models. The MENA countries are compared to the better performing regions in Latin America and Southeast Asia. Several striking results emerge from the analysis. Fi...

  12. Essays in Investment Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis analyzes different aspects of the investment decision. In the first chapter, we consider an economy in which different energy sources may produce electricity. The model focuses first on the optimal use of a hydroelectric dam from which water can be extracted and which is supplied with a random water flow. The presence of constraints on a minimal and on a maximal storage capacity makes electricity consumption smoothing possible only when the quantity of water available to the agent lies in a certain range that we determine. In a second stage, we introduce a second energy source with unlimited supply at some exogenous cost. The marginal propensity to produce hydroelectricity is an increasing function of the second technology cost. The availability at a low cost of the alternative source improves thus time diversification. Finally, the optimal electric park is composed of a number of dams that is increasing with the cost of the second technology. Chapter 2 studies the decision of an investor who wants to undertake an irreversible investment when he has the choice between two mutually exclusive projects that present input price and/or output price uncertainty. We prove that the investor decides not to invest in any project when each investment generates the same payoff independently of its size. Therefore, some inaction region appears in which the investor prefers not to invest whereas an immediate investment would have been optimal if no choice had been available: a 'choice value' is thus created. A key feature of this bidimensional degree of uncertainty is thus that the payoff generated by each project is not a sufficient statistic to make a rational investment. In this context, our analysis provides a new motive for waiting to invest: the benefits associated with the dominance of one project over the other. In chapter 3, we study the investment decision problem of a duo-poly with price competition on a market of finite size driven by stochastic taste

  13. Political Idea And Investments Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidotas Matutis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discussing about the potential threats to the investments safety evaluation system, creating the model of the system analysis methods when a new political concept is raised in the country. Traditionally, as we already know that politic and economic are inextricably linked. We can easily assure in it using the historical overview of the political and economic interactions. So the question: how the investment safeties are depending from political environment when a new political concept is raised in the country? Become actual and important. The method assumptions suggested and discussed in this paper are made according to the summaries of public surveys and research results of sociologists, political scientists and psychologists of different countries. These summaries are made analyzing the survey and research results systematically and separately from the variety of their initial objectives. We construct the dimensional frame of references combining the time axes, government forms scale, ideology scale and call they Politological system of axis. It help to us show that if a new political concept is raised in the country, it will be supported and developed by the majority of society members only if its political-ideological essence is possible to show in the chosen politological frame of reference and the point are possible to mark in the area of the most typical structures of the statistical division of the society individuals’ approaches at the set point of time and the deviance of this concept is not forecast in the nearest future. The methods we are discussing provide the specialists with the opportunity to evaluate the possibilities of inside threats to the investments safety still in the political concept raising process and its political-ideological core. To summarize this discussion, we can make once more conclusion as following: the main threat to the investments safety after the new political concept raising is the

  14. CAPITAL INVESTMENTS AND FINANCIAL PROFITABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Suzana Baresa; Sinisa Bogdan; Zoran Ivanovic

    2016-01-01

    Economic life of achieving economic and financial effects of an investment opportunity presents the period in which selected investment option remains economically superior from the other alternative investment opportunity. Time period in which the investment project needs to prove its justification, presents an extremely critical factor in the profitability of the investment project, therefore, special attention must be paid to the assessment of the economic and financial time pe...

  15. International Socially Responsible Investment Funds

    OpenAIRE

    Modestas Plakys

    2011-01-01

    The study deals with socially responsible investment funds as the type of investment funds universe. European and USA market for socially responsible investment funds is presented. The dynamics of assets under the management and number of these funds in the market are considered. The approaches for socially responsible investments are studied and reasons for increased interest in such investments are named. The main reasons why the global socially responsible funds become more and more popula...

  16. Investment Climate Reform in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Fortune, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The Ukraine must improve its investment climate at the regional and local level in order to achieve relatively large increases in economic growth. Estimates of cost of its poor investment climate suggest that the regulatory burden on business takes 14% of a manager's time each month. Changes in the investment climate could affect both foreign direct investment and local investment similarly. Because changes in regional leadership could lead to such gains being quickly lost, it is important fo...

  17. Finans/Invest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Ken L.

    Som det vil være velkendt for de fleste læsere, så er der skiftedag på Finans/Invest. Således var Finans/Invest 8/13 det sidste nummer med Anders Grosen som redaktør, og nærværende nummer er det første med professor Ken L. Bechmann som redaktør. I denne første leder beskriver den nye redaktør lidt...... om hans syn på Finans/Invest og tidsskriftets store betydning for formidling af faglig viden inden for finansiering. Yderligere beskrives nogle af de mindre redaktionelle ændringer, som den nye redaktør har planlagt. Endelig indeholder lederen traditionen tro redaktørens refleksioner over og...

  18. On Imprecise Investment Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piasecki Krzysztof

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The return rate is considered here as a fuzzy probabilistic set. Then the expected return is obtained as a fuzzy subset in the real line. This result is a theoretical foundation for new investment strategies. All considered strategies result of comparison profit fuzzy index and limit value. In this way we obtain an imprecise investment recommendation. Financial equilibrium criteria are a special case of comparison of the profit index and the limit value. The following criteria are generalized here: the Sharpe's Ratio, the Jensen's Alpha and the Treynor's Ratio. Moreover, the safety-first criteria are generalized here for the fuzzy case. The Roy Criterion, the Kataoka Criterion and the Telser Criterion are also generalized. Obtained results show that proposed theory is useful for the investment applications.

  19. Irreversible investments revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandal, Leif K.; Steinshamn, Stein I.; Hoff, Ayoe

    2007-01-01

    A multi-dimensional, non-linear dynamic model in continuous time is presented for the purpose of finding the optimal combination of exploitation and capital investment in optimal renewable resource management. Non-malleability of capital is incorporated in the model through an asymmetric cost...... previous literature, the state variables, namely the physical capital and the biological resource, enter the objective function. Due to the nonlinearities in this model some of the results are in sharp contrast to previous literature.......-function of investment, and investments can be both positive and negative. Exploitation is controlled through the utilisation rate of available capital. A novel feature in this model is that there are costs associated with the available capital whether it is utilised or not. And, in contrast to most of the...

  20. Developing country finance in a post-2020 global climate agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannam, Phillip M.; Liao, Zhenliang; Davis, Steven J.; Oppenheimer, Michael

    2015-11-01

    A central task for negotiators of the post-2020 global climate agreement is to construct a finance regime that supports low-carbon development in developing economies. As power sector investments between developing countries grow, the climate finance regime should incentivize the decarbonization of these major sources of finance by integrating them as a complement to the commitments of developed nations. The emergence of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, South-South Cooperation Fund and other nascent institutions reveal the fissures that exist in rules and norms surrounding international finance in the power sector. Structuring the climate agreement in Paris to credit qualified finance from the developing world could have several advantages, including: (1) encouraging low-carbon cooperation between developing countries; (2) incentivizing emerging investors to prefer low-carbon investments; and (3) enabling more cost-effective attainment of national and global climate objectives. Failure to coordinate on standards now could hinder low-carbon development in the decades to come.

  1. Real estate investment dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Gruber, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is motivated by the steadily increasing interest in the dynamic relationship between the macro-economy and the real estate sector. One of the main issues in this respect is to study the investment dynamics. Since the bursting of the U.S. housing bubble in 2006 is identified as the point of origin of the so called subprime crises, which led to the collapse of the U.S. financial system, the dynamics of real estate investments is of particular interest. In the first part of my the...

  2. Uranium agreements. Conditions considered fundamental for such agreements: Zambia, a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to secure effective development of the uranium resources of foreign lands there is need for the Developed Nations to conclude equitable agreements with host governments, usually Developing Nations of the world. In the case of Developed Nations it is the desire for commodity for sale to secure the much needed foreign exchange. In both cases the need for a mutually profitable and acceptable agreement is necessary the terms depending on market and urgency of each party to secure supplies. Several factors are of major importance like the potential for the required mineral, the political environment especially peace and order inducing substantial foreign investment to explore and eventually exploit the mineral, the legislative framework and fiscal laws consistent for sustained investment. The terms and conditions of an agreement concluded should be such to give confidence, credibility and indeed an equitable standing to contracting parties to enable stable and fruitful development. The features of the Zambian contractual agreements are considered a model worth adopting, as proof of its success has been established

  3. Agreement on African Venture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Mining giant Rio Tinto and Chinese aluminum company Chalco say they are committed to an iron ore project in Guinea china’s biggest aluminum producer Aluminum Corp. China Ltd.(Chalco) signed a binding agreement with the world’s second largest mining company,Rio Tinto,on July 29 in Beijing.

  4. Contract agreements via logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Bartoletti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We relate two contract models: one based on event structures and game theory, and the other one based on logic. In particular, we show that the notions of agreement and winning strategies in the game-theoretic model are related to that of provability in the logical model.

  5. Coefficients for Interrater Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegers, Frits E.

    1991-01-01

    The degree of agreement between two raters rating several objects for a single characteristic can be expressed through an association coefficient, such as the Pearson product-moment correlation. How to select an appropriate association coefficient, and the desirable properties and uses of a class of such coefficients--the Euclidean…

  6. Marine and coastal agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Six Central American nations have signed an agreement to improve coastal habitats, including mangrove swamps, beaches, and coral reefs.Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama signed the Convention on Cooperation in the Protection and Sustainable Development of the Marine and Coastal Environment of the Northeast Pacific on 18 February.

  7. Investment Strategy and Efficiency of Investment Activity of European Insurers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhabynets Olga Yo.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article studies investment strategy and efficiency of investment activity of European insurance companies. In particular, it analyses the share of investments of insurance companies of Europe in GDP, investment portfolio of European insurers and its structure, contribution of insurance companies – leaders of investment activity – into the European investment portfolio. It studies influence of the financial crisis upon investment strategy of European insurers and analyses efficiency of investment activity of European insurers in risk insurance and life insurance. The article proves that investment business models of insurance companies are capable of resisting crisis phenomena more efficiently than other financial institutions. It marks out that measures of insurance companies that are directed at increase of profitability of investments require from them both significant expenditures on creation of the system of investment risk management and open access to different categories of financial assets and markets, which influences the general risk level, taken upon by an insurance company. The author draws a conclusion that, taking into account recent developments, European insurers should focus on equity and investment risk management, finding new possibilities for their (investments growth and also adaptation of new systems and operations for solution of these important tasks.

  8. Investment Insight Opportunities Ahead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Over the next five years, China will be shitting its focus to more balanced development and what it sees as quality growth. Its two main strategies are promoting innovation-with the government-backed industrial upgrading-and strengthening the rural economy. This shift will lead to massive investment and fresh, wealth-making opportunities. In the stock

  9. Optimal investment horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, I.; Jensen, M. H.; Johansen, A.

    2002-06-01

    In stochastic finance, one traditionally considers the return as a competitive measure of an asset, i.e., the profit generated by that asset after some fixed time span Δt, say one week or one year. This measures how well (or how bad) the asset performs over that given period of time. It has been established that the distribution of returns exhibits ``fat tails'' indicating that large returns occur more frequently than what is expected from standard Gaussian stochastic processes [1-3]. Instead of estimating this ``fat tail'' distribution of returns, we propose here an alternative approach, which is outlined by addressing the following question: What is the smallest time interval needed for an asset to cross a fixed return level of say 10%? For a particular asset, we refer to this time as the investment horizon and the corresponding distribution as the investment horizon distribution. This latter distribution complements that of returns and provides new and possibly crucial information for portfolio design and risk-management, as well as for pricing of more exotic options. By considering historical financial data, exemplified by the Dow Jones Industrial Average, we obtain a novel set of probability distributions for the investment horizons which can be used to estimate the optimal investment horizon for a stock or a future contract.

  10. Investing in Youth: Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. This report provides a detailed diagnosis of the youth…

  11. Investing in Youth: Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. The present report on Lithuania is the fourth of a new…

  12. Investment and uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greasley, David; Madsen, Jakob B.

    2006-01-01

    A severe collapse of fixed capital formation distinguished the onset of the Great Depression from other investment downturns between the world wars. Using a model estimated for the years 1890-2000, we show that the expected profitability of capital measured by Tobin's q, and the uncertainty surro...... depression: rather, its slump helped to propel the wider collapse...

  13. Foreign Investment Welcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    BusinessWeek recently published an article reporting that China is becoming hostile to foreign capital and that China's policy on foreign investment will change to reflect that attitude. Yi Xianrong, a researcher at the Institute of Finance and Banking of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, explains China's position in an article posted on People's Daily Online.

  14. Gaining an Investment Edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitz, William T.

    2000-01-01

    Recommendations for investing college/university endowment funds focus on identifying structural and skill-based competitive advantages. These include the long institutional time horizon and the ability to endure short-term volatility. Implications for endowment management are applied to selecting an endowment manager and asset allocation. (DB)

  15. Mapping the Potential EU-EAEU Cooperation Agenda: Readmission Agreements, Visa-Free Regime, Labour Migration, Mobility of Pensions, Large-Scale Educational Exchanges, Recognition of Professional Diplomas and Certificates

    OpenAIRE

    Vinokurov, Evgeny; Pereboyev, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about the appropriateness of the official dialogue and deepening of cooperation between the European Union (EU) and the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU). The current state of debate on the EU side is truly disappointing. As a matter of fact, EU experts are currently debating not how to structure dialogue with the EAEU, but rather whether such a dialogue should exist at all. Nevertheless the authors consider the efforts invested in structuring and mapping a future EU-E...

  16. Investment and sources of investment finance in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Görg, Holger; Morrissey, Oliver; Udomkerdmongkol, Manop

    2007-01-01

    This paper uses annual aggregate data for 36 low or middle income countries covering the period 1995-2001 to test the responsiveness of investment to the sources of finance under (un)favourable regimes for investment. Two sources of private investment finance are considered: private investment and FDI inflows. We use four governance measures (voice and accountability, regulatory quality, political stability and control of corruption) to distinguish between ‘market-friendly' (favourable) and ‘...

  17. Overinvestment, Underinvestment, Efficient Investment Decrease, and Efficient Investment Increase

    OpenAIRE

    Hairong Tang; Yuqing Shen; Yao-Min Chiang

    2014-01-01

    Using data of Chinese listed companies, we find that the relationship between capital expenditure growth and stock return does not monotonously increase or decrease. Four types of relationships exist between capital expenditure growth and stock returns: overinvestment, underinvestment, efficient investment decrease, and efficient investment increase. The first two types show inefficient investments, whereas the last two types show efficient investments. We further explore how ownership struct...

  18. Green service level agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Ahmed; Alexandra, Klimova; Rondeau, Eric; Andrei, Rybin

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, when most businesses are moving forward to sustainability by providing or getting different services from different vendors, Service Level Agreement (SLA) becomes very important for both the business providers/vendors and for users/customers. There are many ways to inform users/customers about various services with the inherent execution functionalities and even nonfunctional/ Quality of Service (QoS) aspects through SLAs. However, these basic SLA actually did not cover eco-efficien...

  19. Designing a successful investment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpinski, J P

    1997-02-01

    Healthcare organizations have various asset pool funds that can be invested to increase nonoperating revenues. In order to maximize the long-term success of investment efforts, healthcare organizations need to develop comprehensive investment management programs. Such programs identify the assets that can be invested, establish the level of risk each asset type can be exposed to, and match long-term and short-term investment opportunities to the appropriate asset pool. Programs can be managed internally or outsourced to investment management firms with objectives and procedures that are compatible with those of the healthcare organizations' investment policies and guidelines. These policies and guidelines must address asset allocation. Oversight committees must be established to monitor investment performance and reallocate assets, as needed, to take advantage of market movements. PMID:10164878

  20. To Save or Savour: A Review of Wine Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Fogarty, James Joseph; Sadler, Rohan

    2012-01-01

    It has been argued that adding wine to an investment portfolio provides a diversification benefit. There is not, however, agreement on how the return to wine should be estimated. Nor is there agreement on a standard approach to test for a diversification benefit. By considering different approaches to estimating the return to wine and testing for a diversification benefit it is shown that claims wine provides a diversification benefit should be treated with caution.

  1. Payback on our training investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A tremendous amount of resources have been invested in training over the past few years. The return on the training investment will be evident over the next several years. The return will be in the form of financial savings to companies and improved performance of personnel. At the Cook Plant, the authors expect the return to outweigh the investment

  2. Thailand : Investment Climate Assessment Update

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2008-01-01

    This report provides an up-to-date assessment of the investment climate of Thailand. As the socio-economic framework in which enterprises operate including infrastructure, policies and regulations improving the investment climate is helpful for productivity and economic growth. The report is based mainly on the results of the second round of the Thailand Productivity and Investment Climate...

  3. Investment opportunities as real options

    OpenAIRE

    Rovčanin, Adnan

    2005-01-01

    Opportunity (optional) approach to capital investment appraisal represents, completely new theoretical and methodological framework for investment analysis. Compared to traditional, discount cash flow (DCF) model of analysis, the optional approach provides opportunity for valuation and managing flexibility, i.e. possibility of approaching (amending the previous decisions) in compliance with market changes. Risk and uncertainty are inevitably following the capital investment. Therefore, the im...

  4. Investment Appraisal Process

    OpenAIRE

    Akalu, M.M.; Turner, Rodney

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThis case study examines the capital budgeting practices of two chemical companies. It is found that the companies apply the value management tools to supplement the DCF measures. In addition, the R&D projects are assessed using qualitative methods. Moreover, the study revealed the symptom of a trend shift in the choice of investment appraisal techniques from traditional DCF to the newly crafted value management models.

  5. Investment Projects Analyse Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Simen Antoneta

    2012-01-01

    The IFIs analyze methodology of investment projects based on dynamic methods of assessment and financial analysis in which the predominant component is to update the flow of revenues and expenses. IFIs have adopted the method of analysis based on internal rate of return (financial and economic), considered the most appropriate because it allows comparison with the appropriate cost of capital, the reference standard for financial analysis in market economies. The expression of projects efficie...

  6. Real estate investing

    OpenAIRE

    Don T. Johnson

    2006-01-01

    Purpose –Aims to explain the rationale for producing an issue on the topic of real estate investing and how these articles fit together. Design/methodology/approach - Essay format. Findings - Real estate is probably the largest category of assets for investors and the works in this issue will assist in the decision making processes of real estate investors. Research limitations/implications - Each of these papers covers only a limited topic and more research in the area is needed. Practical i...

  7. Investment Opportunities & Job Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Shanghai Vacancies from Chinajob.com China Pacific Insurance (Group) Co. Ltd. Senior Investment Manager and Senior Accounting Analyst are needed, full time; annual salary: $50,000-100,000. China Europe International Business School wants professors or people with doctoral degrees to teach Accounting, Finance, Human Resources and Management, Strategic and General Management, Carving out Management, Production and Transportation Management, and Information Management Systems, full time. Salary starts at $1...

  8. Investment Appraisal Process

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    This case study examines the capital budgeting practices of two chemical companies. It is found that the companies apply the value management tools to supplement the DCF measures. In addition, the R&D projects are assessed using qualitative methods. Moreover, the study revealed the symptom of a trend shift in the choice of investment appraisal techniques from traditional DCF to the newly crafted value management models.

  9. Interaction Among Construction Investment, Other Investment and GDP in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑思齐; 刘洪玉

    2004-01-01

    With Granger causality method, this paper examines the causal dynamics among three economic fundamentals: construction investment, other investment and the gross domestic product (GDP). Short-run and long-run interactive effects among these three time series are analyzed from 1981 to 2001. The empirical results show that construction investment has a stronger short-run effect on economic growth than other investment, and economic growth has a long-term effect on both construction and other investments. These findings indicate that construction investment is an important factor influencing short-term economic growth fluctuations, with its growth stimulating economic growth and its slumps leading to downside fluctuations. At the same time, investment growth cannot be sustained without the support of the national economy. These empirical results have important implications for economic policy makers in China.

  10. Investment financing in cooperative firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Cuomo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available By general agreement, one of the main obstacles to the growth of producer cooperatives is difficult investment financing, due to inadequate Capitalisation levels and the resulting inability to lodge sufficient collateral with lenders. Moreover, worker-owned firms are considered not very reliable because they suffer from problems of moral hazard and insufficient commitment. Unfortunately, the literature on this issue is not extensive and has weaknesses that are highlighted in the paper. By means of its critical analysis, it is possible to provide evidence that the funding difficulties caused by the particular structure of cooperative firms can be effectively tackled by creating an institutional framework within which cooperatives would be offered a wider range of organizational options comparable to those open to traditional enterprises. Finally, it is proved that the willingness of the members to fund the operations of their cooperative with loan capital may not be enough to mobilize external credit. For member financings to persuade potential providers of funds to place trust in a firm, third-party claims must necessarily qualify as senior debt and be repaid before the claims of the partners are settled.

  11. Tax effect of the concession agreement, production sharing agreement and service contract; Analise dos efeitos tributarios dos contratos de concessao, partilha de producao e servicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botelho, Rodrigo Jacobina [Escola de Magistratura do Tribunal de Justica do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (EMERJ), RJ (Brazil); Instituicao de Ensino Superior no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Escritorio Doria, Jacobina, Rosado e Gondinho Advogados Associados, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Area de Direito Tributario

    2008-07-01

    The different nature of the E and P agreements recommends an analysis of the tax incidence in order to avoid the increasing of costs due to an inaccurate taxation process. The revenue obtained from Services Agreements must be, under the Brazilian legal system, taxed as the revenues obtained from the Concession Agreements, since those revenues are related to the risks supported, the investments and financial exposure, among others elements and not related to a specific public service provided. (author)

  12. THE TRANSATLANTIC TRADE AND INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOT Anca

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership is a project of exceptional importance which opens a new stage in the globalization process. Given its historical significance, this construction causes numerous debates and controversies. This article attempts to draft a few reflections regarding the main elements, dimensions, orientations, the basis values, objectives and the relevant actors (economic, political, formal and informal of this greatest bilateral trade agreement. We will attempt a decrypting, on the basis of press articles, of political discourse, and of different analyses and comments, what are the social and economic effects, what are the consequences on democracy of this market project.

  13. The Controversy over the Free-Trade Agreement TTIP

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp M. Richter; Greta F. Schäffer

    2014-01-01

    A short name is causing a lasting debate: TTIP [ti:t ]. Ever since the beginning of the negotiations in the summer of 2013, media coverage of the planned Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership between the EU and the US has contributed to a critical debate on the topic. In doing so, difficulties have arisen in differentiating factually substantiated arguments from one-sided statements. TTIP is a planned agreement on free trade and investment between the US and the EU, whose details are...

  14. Investor perception towards small medium enterprises investment in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aboah, J.; White, B.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to examine investor perceptions towards investing in SMEs in Africa. Data was collected via an online survey sent to investors on the Venture Capital for Africa (VC4Africa) platform. The Kendall’s coefficient of concordance was used to determine the degree of agreement among investo

  15. Corporate human rights obligations and international investment law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Letnar Cernic

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation has blurred the artificial borders that exist betweeneconomies and societies around the world. The activities of corporations in this globalised environment have often served as the catalyst for human rights violations; due to the lack of institutional protection, some corporations are able to exploit regulatory lacunae and the lack of human rights protection. It appears that the paradigmatic change demands an equal emphasis of rights and obligations of corporations. This article discusses and critically analyses corporate human rights obligations and the lack thereof under stabilization clauses in foreign investment contracts. First, stabilization clauses in foreign investment agreements are examined in relation to corporate obligations and responsibility for fundamental human rights. In doing so the substantive and procedural dimension of stabilization clauses is analysed. Second, using the concrete examples of the Mineral Development Agreement between Mittal Steel and the Government of Liberia Mittal Steel Agreement and of the Baku‐Tblisi‐Ceyhan Pipeline Project as case studies, this article considers an application of stabilization clauses in foreign investment contracts in relation to the fundamental human rights obligation of states and of corporations. Third, a proposal for reform in the form of a fundamental human rights clause is introduced. To be clear, the argument here is that the fundamental human rights obligations of investors, particularly of corporations, must be included in foreign investment agreements.

  16. Suzhou Industrial Park Attracts Investments From Central SOEs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Suzhou Industrial Park (SIP) held a press conference on January 5 in Beijing where it signed cooperation agreements on seven projects, including the branch office building of CITIC Bank and Phase 2 facilities of Suzhou Kaifa Technology, a subsidiary company of China Electronics Corp. The total investment of the

  17. Crisis will impact investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the content of Capgemini's 10. European Energy Markets Observatory (EEMO) report. The EEMO is an annual report that tracks the progress in establishing an open and competitive electricity and gas market in the 27 European countries, including Norway and Switzerland. This tenth edition is based on 2007 and winter 2007-2008 data sets. A 1 trillion euros infrastructure investment is required to build the plants, electrical lines and gas pipelines needed in Europe over the next 25 years. Although today's credit crunch could severely hurt the investment cycle, analysts also anticipate a difficult period for the European energy markets once the recession is over. The report said that Europe has yet to solve the related issues of responding to its energy demand, while curbing its carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. In 2007, even at a slower pace than previous years, analysts said European electricity consumption still increased by 0.9% and CO2 emissions stabilized, instead of decreasing. Despite the mild weather, the electricity security of supply deteriorated, analysts said. The Union for the Coordination of Transmission of Electricity (UCTE) real margin - which takes into account non-usable and unavailable generation capacities - dropped from 7.6% in 2006 to 5.3% in 2007. Analysts said without a significant and vigorous investment program in electricity and gas infrastructures, Europe's energy supply security will be threatened. Since the low point in 2005, utilities started to invest again, but have made energy mix choices that are not moving toward a reduction in CO2 emissions as the majority (58%) of the planned generation capacities will be fossil-fueled. In 2007, investments in renewable capacities grew fast, wind being the industry's preference, with an addition of 8.3 gigawatt (GW) renewables in Europe. However, analysts said this type of 'non-scheduable' source is not always available during peak hours. This partially explains the security of

  18. Optimal diversity in investments with recombinant innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Bergh, van den, J.C.J.M.; Zeppini-Rossi, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    The notion of dynamic, endogenous diversity and its role in theories of investment and technological innovation is addressed. We develop a formal model of an innovation arising from the combination of two existing modules with the objective to optimize the net benefits of diversity. The model takes into account increasing returns to scale and the effect of different dimensions of diversity on the probability of emergence of a third option. We obtain analytical solutions describing the dynamic...

  19. Gender Differences in Investment Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizamettin Bayyurt

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to explore how women and men differ in their individual investment preferences. Although there are some studies for the investors in developed countries, the subject has been overlooked in emerging and underdeveloped countries. Therefore, this study is the first empirical study exploring the investment behaviors of women and men by focusing on an emerging country, Turkey. For the purpose to find out how investment preferences of men and women differ towards six investment tools, namely, gold, foreign currency, funds, common stocks, real estates, and time deposits, a discriminant analysis and a logistic regression were exercised. The results revealed that while men investors prefer common stocks and real estate to invest women investors are more risk averse and invest fund, time deposit and gold. There is no significant difference between men and women in foreign currency investment.

  20. Aspects of investment protection in the case of raw material projects; Aspekte des Investitionsschutzes bei Rohstoffprojekten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolkewitz, Mathias [Wintershall Holding GmbH, Kassel (Germany). Bereich Recht, Steuern und Versicherungen; TU Clausthal (Germany). Inst. fuer Energierecht

    2011-04-15

    Addressing the question of investment protection currently is of particular importance under the tree aspects: (a) Due to the financial crisis and economic crisis, foreign investment in the years 2008 and 2009 have been drastically reduced; (b) There is a growing critique at the system of international investment protection; (c) For the first time, the Articles 206 and 207 of the Treaty of Lisbon of the European Union show a competence for foreign direct investment. These three aspects seem partly contradictory, but have a considerable changing potential in the area of investment protection. The author of the contribution under consideration describes the tools of investment protection as those are used for raw material projects. Subsequently the author picks out investment protection agreements and deals with some aspects that are important for practical applications in business companies. Raw material projects are projects for the exploration and production of oil and gas in foreign states.

  1. World oil and gas investment outlook. IEA Background Paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Securing a reliable supply of affordable energy is crucial to the economic health of all countries, members of the International Energy Agency and non-members alike. Ensuring long-term security of energy supply requires continuing large-scale investment in every step of the supply chain. The scale of the challenge is growing as energy needs expand: our most recent World Energy Outlook projects that global primary energy demand will increase by two-thirds over the next three decades. Oil and gas are expected to meet more than 70% of that increase. Energy resources are judged to be adequate, but the amount of investment needed for these resources to be exploited will be significantly larger than in the past. This paper assesses how much capital will be needed to finance the construction of the infrastructure needed to supply oil and gas to global markets, and discusses the obstacles that the oil and gas industry will need to overcome in order to attract this investment. It draws on the results of the World Energy Investment Outlook, a major IEA study published in November 2003. To our knowledge, that study was the first attempt ever made to quantify future global energy-investment needs in a detailed, fuel-by-fuel manner. The record sales notched up by the study demonstrate the importance now being attached to energy-financing issues and growing concern about whether all the investment needed will be forthcoming. The paper begins with a summary of global investment needs in the oil industry. This is followed by an assessment of investment needs and key uncertainties by sector: conventional oil exploration and production, non-conventional oil and oil refining and transportation. A summary of the results of a scenario in which oil investment in the Middle East is restricted is presented. Investment prospects and drivers in the natural gas sector are then analysed. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of our analysis for government policy

  2. Providing investment attractiveness of renewal and development of fixed assets in the energy sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy Anatolyevich Malyshev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is a comparative analysis of economic mechanisms for the realization of investment projects for new construction and modernization power generation capacity in the energy sector and their effect on private investment. In this connection, planned and actual volumes of generating capacity, particular features of the industry, causing investment attractiveness are discussed. The necessity of using, and a comparison of primary economic mechanisms in order to guarantee the return of investments in the new construction and modernization of power generation capacity is shown. The method of calculating the tariff under the agreement of supply power capacity is analyzed. The study proved that the presence of an effective working mechanism of return on investment is a key element influencing the investment in new construction and modernization of power generation capacity. Also, it is shown that with the end of using agreement of supply power capacity, industry will face a significant reduction in investment. In this connection, it is recommended to speed up the formation of long-term capacity market, which involves the application of new investment incentives in the industry. The research results can be applied by investment banks, and other stakeholders as a methodological apparatus assessing investment and whether to participate in their financing.

  3. The Economics of an Investment in Kaizen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visuwan, Danupun

    2010-10-01

    Kaizen has been widely accepted as a continuous process improvement with the gradualist approach. This paper presents the research carried out to explore the pattern of an investment in Kaizen to enhance overall profit. System dynamics-based simulation has been employed with an optimization technique, a Steepest Ascent approach, to improve experimental variables e.g. the amount of spending on prevention and appraisal activities, the time and the amount to reduce the investment which results in maximum Net Present Value (NPV) of profit. The simulation model in this study is based on a Thai automobile manufacturer as a case study company. The result suggests that the investment in Kaizen should spend on activities to eliminate and detect all defects in the early phase and then reduce economically when the process is under controlled. It can be named as the `Hybrid quality improvement', which was proved in this study that it provides greater overall profit than the Stepwise Kaizen and the constant spending. This study also presents the behavior of quality costs and profit against time scale along the different patterns of the investment in Kaizen.

  4. VALUATION AND INVESTMENT PROFESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Dedi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Investment professionals, particularly financial analysts or security analysts evaluate securities and try to determine characteristics of securities and to identify mispriced securities. For that purpose they use different models to estimate the intrinsic value of the common stocks. Traditional valuation models based on the present value of future cash flows are affected by estimated growth rate of the variable used and by the investor’s required rate of return. These models can be used for valuing fixed income securities, such as bonds and preferred stocks. However, in valuing companies with significant growth opportunities they have to expand traditional analysis with option valuation.

  5. Gas trade and investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The WOC 9 workshop of the CMG 2000 world gas congress was devoted to gas projects and economics. One round table chaired by G. Bouchard (Gaz de France) and T.H. Thorn (Enron) was devoted to the commercial and financial challenges the gas industry will have to face in the context of inter-region markets and investments. This article summarizes the discussion that took place during this round table: towards a progressive un-partitioning of regional markets, the strategic changes in the European gas market, the LNG industry: new actors and new markets, the gas producers at the crossroads. (J.S.)

  6. Investment in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of the European Investment Bank (EIB) in the financing of oil refining projects in the European Union is discussed. The EIB has done much to support the competitiveness of the energy industries in Europe, secure supply and contribute to conservation of the environment. Its track record is reviewed. How the EIB operates in appraising proposals, providing funding, and figures for funding, are all given. In 1997 the EIB's lending was 26.2 billion ECU. Challenges (such as low profit margins and environmental compliance) facing refining in Europe are also discussed. (UK)

  7. 20 CFR 667.110 - What is the Governor/Secretary Agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the Governor/Secretary Agreement? 667... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Funding § 667.110 What is the Governor/Secretary Agreement? (a) To establish a continuing relationship under the Act, the Governor and...

  8. ESG Integration and the Investment Management Process: Fundamental Investing Reinvented

    OpenAIRE

    van Duuren, Emiel; Plantinga, Auke; Scholtens, Lambertus

    2016-01-01

    We investigate how conventional asset managers account for environmental, social, and governance (ESG) factors in their investment process. We do so on the basis of an international survey among fund managers. We find that many conventional managers integrate responsible investing in their investment process. Furthermore, we find that ESG information in particular is being used for red flagging and to manage risk. We find that many conventional fund managers have already adopted features of r...

  9. Female Media Use Behavior and Agreement with Publicly Promoted Agenda-Specific Health Messages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yu Lyu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study set out to explore the relationship between female media use behavior and agreement with agenda-specific publicly promoted health messages. A random digit dial telephone cross-sectional survey was conducted using a nationally representative sample of female residents aged 25 and over. Respondents’ agreement with health messages was measured by a six-item Health Information Scale (HIS. Data were analyzed using chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression. This survey achieved a response rate of 86% (n = 1074. In this study the longest duration of daily television news watching (OR = 2.32, high self-efficacy (OR = 1.56, and greater attention to medical and health news (OR = 5.41 were all correlates of greater agreement with the selected health messages. Surprisingly, Internet use was not significant in the final model. Many women that public health interventions need to be targeting are not receptive to health information that can be accessed through Internet searches. However, they may be more readily targeted by television campaigns. Agenda-specific public health campaigns aiming to empower women to serve as nodes of information transmission and achieve efficient trickle down through the family unit might do better to invest more heavily in television promotion.

  10. Female media use behavior and agreement with publicly promoted agenda-specific health messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Shu-Yu; Chen, Ruey-Yu; Tsai, Liang-Ting; Wang, Shih-Fan Steve; Lo, Feng-En; Chi, Ying-Chen; Morisky, Donald E

    2014-12-01

    This study set out to explore the relationship between female media use behavior and agreement with agenda-specific publicly promoted health messages. A random digit dial telephone cross-sectional survey was conducted using a nationally representative sample of female residents aged 25 and over. Respondents' agreement with health messages was measured by a six-item Health Information Scale (HIS). Data were analyzed using chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression. This survey achieved a response rate of 86% (n = 1074). In this study the longest duration of daily television news watching (OR = 2.32), high self-efficacy (OR = 1.56), and greater attention to medical and health news (OR = 5.41) were all correlates of greater agreement with the selected health messages. Surprisingly, Internet use was not significant in the final model. Many women that public health interventions need to be targeting are not receptive to health information that can be accessed through Internet searches. However, they may be more readily targeted by television campaigns. Agenda-specific public health campaigns aiming to empower women to serve as nodes of information transmission and achieve efficient trickle down through the family unit might do better to invest more heavily in television promotion. PMID:25473941

  11. A Study of Education Investment and Xinjiang Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Jinbo Wang

    2009-01-01

    As a main form for human capital investment, education has irreplaceable effect on national or regional economic development. This paper, based on the relationship between Xinjiang regional economic development and education, analyzes the present conditions of Xinjiang educational investment, the scale and problems of Xinjiang education, the contribution of education to Xinjiang economy, and how to drive Xinjiang regional economic development. Finally, this paper puts forward relevant policy ...

  12. Seismic contracts and agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some points to consider regarding management of seismic projects within the Canadian petroleum industry were reviewed. Seismic projects involve the integration of many services. This paper focused on user-provider relationships, the project planning process, competitive bid considerations, the types of agreement used for seismic and their implications, and the impact that certain points of control may have on a company: (1) initial estimate versus actual cost, (2) liability, (3) safety and operational performance, and (4) quality of deliverables. The objective is to drive home the point that in today's environment where companies are forming, merging, or collapsing on a weekly basis , chain of command and accountability are issues that can no longer be dealt with casually. Companies must form business relationships with service providers with a full knowledge of benefits and liabilities of the style of relationship they choose. Diligent and proactive management tends to optimize cost, safety and liability issues, all of which have a bearing on the points of control available to the company

  13. International Socially Responsible Investment Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modestas Plakys

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with socially responsible investment funds as the type of investment funds universe. European and USA market for socially responsible investment funds is presented. The dynamics of assets under the management and number of these funds in the market are considered. The approaches for socially responsible investments are studied and reasons for increased interest in such investments are named. The main reasons why the global socially responsible funds become more and more popular are: an increase of interest of community in socially responsible companies, in problems regarding climate and environment changes, in government attitude towards alternative energy and investments of private and public pension funds.Article in Lithuanian

  14. VHA Data Sharing Agreement Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VHA Data Sharing Agreement Repository serves as a centralized location to collect and report on agreements that share VHA data with entities outside of VA. It...

  15. FISCAL RULES AND PUBLIC INVESTMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Perée, Eric; Välilä, Timo

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the link between fiscal rules and public investment both normatively and empirically. We first review the arguments for and against including public investment spending in a fiscal deficit rule. We then seek to assess the determinants of public investment, with a special focus on the role of the fiscal rules embodied in EMU. We conclude that there are practical difficulties precluding the introduction of a 'golden rule' and that there is virtually no evidence that EMU woul...

  16. Pension investments in employer stock

    OpenAIRE

    Even, William E.; David A. MacPherson

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the consequences of a pension fund investing in the stock of the sponsoring firm. Using a merger of data on pension asset holdings from IRS Form 5500 filings and financial data on the company's stock from CRSP, two broad questions are addressed: First, what factors influence the extent of a pension fund's investments in the employer's stock? Second, when a pension invests in the employer's stock, how much is lost as a result of poor diversification? The empirical results s...

  17. Investments in Fallen Angel Stocks

    OpenAIRE

    Mühlfriedel, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    This thesis addresses the research gap with regard to fallen angel stocks, thereby helping investors to make better investment decisions and bringing the investments styles of value and growth closer together. It is the first academic work that provides a systematic and empirically tested approach to investments in fallen angels by establishing a set of indicators to distinguish good (outperforming) from bad (underperforming) fallen angel stocks. Fallen angels are defined as companies with (i...

  18. A Classroom Investment Coordination Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Denise Hazlett

    2007-01-01

    In this classroom experiment students represent firms that make investment decisions. They play a repeated game with each firm privately choosing its level of investment. Participating in the experiment helps students understand theories that posit coordination failure as the cause of economic fluctuations. Students see that when firms expect a recession, their resulting low levels of investment actually cause a recession. Likewise, when firms expect an expansion, their resulting high levels ...

  19. Charity ethical investment in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Kreander, Niklas; Beattie, Vivien; McPhail, Ken

    2010-01-01

    The charity and voluntary sector in Norway is substantial (Sivesind, 2007). Yet we know of no academic research which focuses on charity ethical investment in Norway. We have examined charity ethical investment policies and how these policies relate to the aims of charitable organisations. We survey large Norwegian charities using a postal questionnaire and semi structured interviews. The findings show that few charities publish an ethical investment policy, and it is often lim...

  20. Relational Investing and Agency Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Ian Ayres; Peter Cramton

    1994-01-01

    This Article analyzes how, and when, corporate governance could be improved by utilizing "relational investing." The term relational investing is just coming into vogue and there does not yet seem to be a consensus on what it means. Although the term has been trumpeted on the cover of Business Week, before the Conference on Relational Investing at Columbia University, relatively little legal writing had been published on the subject. For the purposes of this Article, we define relational inve...

  1. Intellectual property and investment funds

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    IP needs to be considered as key factor in order to create value across industries, even though it correlates with many challenges. Nonetheless, IP as asset can be interconnected with the financial markets. Therefore, intermediaries, such as investment funds are necessary. Since Luxembourg is the leading investment fund centre in Europe and second in the world, this thesis analyses how IP can be interconnected with various investment fund structures in Luxembourg. Based on this, the most suit...

  2. What Future for Social Investment ?

    OpenAIRE

    Morel, Nathalie; Palier, Bruno; Palme, Joakim

    2009-01-01

    This report assesses the diversity feasibility, but also the relevance of the social investment strategy in Europe. What policies have been implemented in different countries, with what success? What have been the key drivers of change or impeding factors in pursuing a social investment strategy? The report also questions whether the goals defined in 2000 are still relevant, and whether the social investment strategy can help face not only traditional European problems but also new issues cre...

  3. Investing in Georgia? Starting Small

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Liqin

    2009-01-01

    @@ "The whole business of the United States is to develop business" said Tim TingKang Xia,Ph.D and Attorney at Law.He used this statement at the "Investment in Georgia" Trade and Investment Seminar held on August 20 and hosted by CCP1T to help Chinese enterprises that want to invest in the state of Georgia in the United States.However,with the current prevailing trade protectionism and "Buy America" trend,is this really the case?

  4. Venture Capital and Sequential Investments

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk Bergemann; Ulrich Hege; Liang Peng

    2008-01-01

    We present a dynamic model of venture capital financing, described as a sequential investment problem with uncertain outcome. Each venture has a critical, but unknown threshold beyond which it cannot progress. If the threshold is reached before the completion of the project, then the project fails, otherwise it succeeds. The investors decide sequentially about the speed of the investment and the optimal path of staged investments. We derive the dynamically optimal funding policy in response t...

  5. FDI Outflows and Domestic Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Dasgupta, Nandita

    2016-01-01

    The recent phenomenon of rising outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) flows has raised serious policy concerns about its effects on the domestic investment and capital formation in the countries of origin of such FDI flows. Does OFDI stimulate domestic investment or does it crowd it out? The concern arises because OFDI activities could shift not only some of the production activities from home to foreign destinations but also could possibly threaten the availability of scarce financial res...

  6. Competitive Capacity Investment under Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xishu; Zuidwijk, Rob; Koster, René; Dekker, Rommert

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe consider a long-term capacity investment problem in a competitive market under demand uncertainty. Two firms move sequentially in the competition and a firm’s capacity decision interacts with the other firm’s current and future capacity. Throughout the investment race, a firm can either choose to plan its investments proactively, taking into account possible responses from the other firm, or decide to respond reactively to the competition. In both cases, the optimal decision at...

  7. THE TPP AND TTIP TRADE AGREEMENTS: THE INTERNATIONAL NEGOTIATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana GUTU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Free trade is one of the ultimate purposes of the free trade agreements currently negotiated over the world. Two of these trials are represented by the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP. The common feature of these two trade deals is represented by the United States, a global actor that is making sure that it will be able to trade in best conditions on both of its geographical shores: on the Pacific and on The Atlantic. The negotiations are still ongoing, but results are expected on both sides. An important issue for the third parties, but not only, is represented by the secrecy of the negotiations undertaken and the lack of transparency shown by the negotiating Governments. If the agreements are concluded, a major global impact on trade and investments is expected, with significant positive implications for the TPP and TTIP negotiating states.

  8. Private investment in rental housing

    OpenAIRE

    Dent, P; Doling, J.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the investment record of the private rented sector as a way of understanding the prospects for private investment. A capital-asset-pricing model is used which enables investors, on the basis of the risk characteristics of investing in private rental housing, to quantify the rate of return they might require from investing in this sector. Aggregate data are used to show that in much of Britain fair rents have been greater than the target rate of return ident...

  9. Touristic Investments in Saranda Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakela Thano

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Development of tourism, in general presuppose completing of significant capital investment by the state and the private sector. Many times, it happens that investments done by the state and private sector for the touristic development, of a country, or of a region are not enough for the development of tourism. In such a situation, it helps foreign investments, which help touristic sector completing the touristic offer. Touristic investments are the second essential element of general expenditure after the touristic consume. The purpose of this research study is to analyze the development of investments (public and private ones in Saranda Region comparing them with general investments done in Albania and needs for investments in this sector. The given data belong to: Municipality of Saranda, INSTAT, Annual book of Statistics, Ministry of Tourism and Bank of Albania. Making a comparative analyze, we reached the conclusions that, to have the development of tourism, we required not only private investments, but even public investments and a strong collaboration between private and public sector

  10. Fire and EMS Districts, Districts deliniated by agreement between the Emergency Management Agency and fire departments., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Noble County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Fire and EMS Districts dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2008. It is described...

  11. Estimating the CDM market under the Bonn Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Jotzo, Frank; Michaelowa, Axel

    2001-01-01

    We analyse the impact of the agreement on implementation of the Kyoto Protocol achieved at COP6bis in Bonn in July 2001 on investment in greenhouse gas emission reduction projects in developing countries through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The required actual emission reductions for participating Annex B countries overall will be relatively small, as the United States do not intend to ratify the Protocol and significant amounts of carbon sequestered in domestic sinks will be credit...

  12. A Political-Economy Analysis of a GMO Trade Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Qianqian; Punt, Maarten; Wesseler, Justus

    2014-01-01

    The EU and the US launched negotiations on a Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) in July 2013. Among the TTIP aims, there are negotiable terms under which the EU would import more genetically modified (GM) products and change its labeling regulations on GM Organisms (GMOs). This paper discusses a trade agreement of agricultural products between two countries, with different GM regulatory regimes from a political economy perspective. We find the negotiation equilibrium of the...

  13. Incentive Problems and Investment Timing Options

    OpenAIRE

    Antle, Rick; Bogetoft, Peter; Stark, Andrew W.

    2001-01-01

    We characterize optimal investment and compensation strategies in a model of an investment opportunity with managerial incentive problems, caused by asymmetric information over investment costs and the manager's desire to consume slack, and flexibility over the timing of its acceptance. The flexibility over timing consists of the opportunity to invest immediately, delay investment for one period, or not invest at all. The timing option provides an opportunity to invest when circumstances are ...

  14. Socially responsible investments

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    In addition to well-established working principles based on conservative and capital preservation oriented investments that ensure it a sustainable future, the CERN Pension Fund recently introduced a new criterion for selecting the numerous opportunities that the market offers: philanthropy. Its first initiative, which also involves the Staff Association’s Long-Term Collection, will help support two orphanages in China.   The two charities are located near Beijing. Beijing’s “China Children Charity and Foundation” is an orphanage that cares for up to 80 babies who need surgery to correct birth defects. The other, “Hope Healing Home”, is an organization that deals with 300 babies and cares for sick and physically disabled babies who have been abandoned. All these babies are awaiting treatment and a medical solution. The CERN Pension Fund has over 6700 members. To ensure the greatest efficiency and profitability, the Fund’s por...

  15. Cogeneration – Investment dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy companies face several crucial investment dilemmas in the liberalized energy market. These are: the availability of energy sources, feed-in tariffs, market positioning and consumer satisfaction. Research analyzes profitability of the Cogeneration (Combined Heat and Power, CHP) project in the city of Rijeka. The CHP is designed to provide district heating for the University campus, the Hospital and active private consumers of district heating, and bring about further sales of electricity. Revitalization of the CHP project comprises necessary adaptive actions in the distribution power system but also real time monitoring, which enables the CHP island operation, with uninterrupted electric and thermal energy supply of critical consumers (e.g. hospital) in case of a serious disturbance. Results indicate the project profitability under several conditions: non-government regulation for heating price, feed-in tariffs and guaranteed sale of electricity together with added value from automatic control system (ACS)–island operation.

  16. Flower consumption lures investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShiSesheng

    2003-01-01

    In the Netherlands the annual fresh flower consumption is 150 items per person, in France it is 80, in the US it is 30, in Japan the money involved amounts to US$11 billion, but in urban China, this is less than I0. Globally when per capita GDP in a country or region goes up to US$6,000, flower consumption will go up too. As per capita GDP in Shanghai isgoing from US$5,000 to US$7,500, the municipal government should include the construction of floral markets as part of its infrastructural development, just as the construction of urban forests, urban parks, urban greenery, and urban environmental investment. The fostering of local floral markets also require joint efforts from the society at large in terms of finance.

  17. Predicting word sense annotation agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Alonso, Hector; Johannsen, Anders Trærup; Lopez de Lacalle, Oier;

    2015-01-01

    High agreement is a common objective when annotating data for word senses. However, a number of factors make perfect agreement impossible, e.g. the limitations of the sense inventories, the difficulty of the examples or the interpretation preferences of the annotations. Estimating potential...... agreement is thus a relevant task to supplement the evaluation of sense annotations. In this article we propose two methods to predict agreement on word-annotation instances. We experiment with a continuous representation and a three-way discretization of observed agreement. In spite of the difficulty of...

  18. Investment Activities within the Legal Framework of the World Trade Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnara Ruchkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article contains an analysis of legal regulation of investment activities within the framework of the WTO. It considers factors that promote the establishment of a favorable investment climate, including the availability of special legislation, an efficient law enforcement practice and, as noted by many experts, availability and clarity of the judicial mechanism for the protection of violated rights. Recent foreign experience is analyzed and some issues of investment dispute settlement are considered. The article also deals with issues concerning the formation of competitive relations that, in their turn, also constitute an important factor of a state’s investment appeal.Investment activities constitute a popular type of entrepreneurial activity. Every state, regardless of where it is located or its level of economic development, aims to increase its investment activities and raise foreign investment inflow. To do this they adopt national regulatory acts and sign bilateral agreements, multilateral agreements, and execute international legal acts in the area of investment activities. This results in the need for examination of legal regulation in this area. Russia joining the WTO has resulted in regular revisions of current legal regulation, in particular in the law on foreign investments.

  19. Some Business Cycle Consequences of Trade Agreements: Th e Case of the North American Free Trade Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Bejan, Maria

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of signing a trade agreement on the correlations of the business cycle fluctuations of consumption, investment and output between two countries. We construct an international business cycle model with trade costs and we calibrate it to the United States and Mexico in order to estimate the impact of NAFTA on their co-movements. Although there exist some discrepancies between the theory and data in the degree of correlation, the direction of change correspond...

  20. Investment Climate in Kyrgyz Republic

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    The World Bank Group’s investment climate project conducted a survey of foreign investors in the Kyrgyz Republic - both those currently operating and those that have terminated their operations for various reasons. The purpose of the survey was to assess selected aspects of the investment policy and legal environment in place in the Kyrgyz Republic, so as to determine whether the current r...

  1. Overseas Investment, Encouraging Long Journey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Janet Tang

    2010-01-01

    @@ In the context of the financial crisis,international capital flows,cross-border investment,as well as the mergers and acquisitions generally continues shrinking at a large range in 2009,while China's foreign investment and overseas cooperation still maintains a good momentum of development.

  2. Investment opportunities with YPFB capitalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investment opportunities with Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos (LPFB) in La Paz, Bolivia, were discussed, especially as they may be affected by the new Hydrocarbon Law No. 1689, whose main objective is to encourage investments in Bolivia and to increase production capacity through investors' incorporation. Some of the areas of potential importance examined included reserve development, transportation, upstream consulting, and hydrocarbon development

  3. Competitive Capacity Investment under Uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X. Li (Xishu); R.A. Zuidwijk (Rob); M.B.M. de Koster (René); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe consider a long-term capacity investment problem in a competitive market under demand uncertainty. Two firms move sequentially in the competition and a firm’s capacity decision interacts with the other firm’s current and future capacity. Throughout the investment race, a firm can eith

  4. Investment opportunities as real options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Rovčanin

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Opportunity (optional approach to capital investment appraisal represents, completely new theoretical and methodological framework for investment analysis. Compared to traditional, discount cash flow (DCF model of analysis, the optional approach provides opportunity for valuation and managing flexibility, i.e. possibility of approaching (amending the previous decisions in compliance with market changes. Risk and uncertainty are inevitably following the capital investment. Therefore, the importance of optional approach to investments is also that it provides possible better “treatment” of risks in the investment analysis, and also more rational allocation of resources, accordingly. This approach should be of more interest to the Countries in transition, considering the limited financial sources as well as risk and uncertainty are emphasized.

  5. Chinese investments in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haico EBBERS

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available China’s investments in the European Union are much lower than what you may expect given the economic size of both entities. These relatively low investments in Europe are a combination of priority and obstacles. The priority for investments is clearly in Asia, Africa and Latin America. This regional pattern is heavily influenced by the need to solve the resource shortage in the medium and long term. The investments in Europe and the United States are mostly market seeking investments. Research specifically focused on Chinese M&A abroad comes to the same conclusion. The success rate of Chinese M&A abroad is much lower than what we see with respect to American or European investments abroad. In this paper, we examine why Chinese firms are facing more difficulties in the European Union than in other regions. The paper focuses on Chinese M&A as proxy for total foreign direct investments abroad. By looking at the factors that have been documented as influencing the level of M&A abroad, it becomes clear that Chinese firms in Europe are hindered by many factors. For example, the trade between China and the EU is relatively low, the institutional quality is lower compared to the United States, there is less experience with respect to Europe and relatively many deals relate to State Owned Enterprises (SOE which makes the deal sensitive. So it is logical that Chinese investments are not very high in Europe. However, the research makes clear that the obstacles for Chinese investments in Europe are disappearing step by step. In that sense, we expect a strong increase of Chinese investments in Europe in the future.

  6. Investment behavior and investment aggregates during China's economic transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xi

    2006-01-01

    In view of the peculiar patterns of investment ownership structure and special investment phenomena in China,the paper sets up formal dynamic investment behavioral models for state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and non-state-owned enterprises(NSOEs)under the background of full-dimensional and gradual economic transition.The models are based on two key points: entrepreneurs of SOEs have dual and changing operational objectives as the result of property-rights reformation;and dual-track approach of price liberalization process and reformation of financing system alters the actual user costs of capital goods.Analytical solutions are provided and it is shown that there exists a normative and unified explanation of the peculiar phenomena such as "investment deficiency" of NSOEs,"investment thirst","investment inefficiency," and dual shrinkage of SOEs in both investment and output.Our research also sheds lights on evaluation of preceding reforms,understanding of SOEs' losses and bad bank loans.The paper partially justifies the property-rights-oriented reformation of SOEs.

  7. Investing in Agribusiness : A Retrospective View of a Development Bank's Investments in Agribusiness in Africa and Southeast Asia and the Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Tyler, Geoff; Dixie, Grahame

    2013-01-01

    Recent increases in the prices of agricultural commodities have spurred a surge of private investment into farming and agribusiness. Given the right types of large-scale investment, this can have a transformative effect in underdeveloped rural areas and have a positive effect on national economic development including the provision of domestic food supply to urban areas that can reduce dep...

  8. An Analysis of Southeast Asian Firms' Investment in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KaishengZeng

    2004-01-01

    Economic cooperation between China and Southeast Asian economies is increasingly attracting the attention of policy-makers, scholars, and practitioners. Firms from Southeast Asia have been playing an important role in China's utilization of foreign direct investment, though most of these firms have been viewed as small, labor-intensive, and ordinary in technology. This paper reveals one important dimension of economic cooperation between China and Southeast Asia. It investigates the factors that influence Southeast Asian firms' investments in Guangdong, which is one of the largest provinces in China in terms of utilization of foreign direct investment, and it tries to answer the question of what make Southeast Asian firms invest in China in a large scale and in the way of advancing waves.T he research outcomes contribute to the knowledge of the changing economic relations between China and Southeast Asia.

  9. PV investment in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hueser, Pius [Nova Energy GmbH, (Switzerland)

    2007-06-15

    This presentation is mainly about how the PV market in Europe has been growing, and which elements are going to determine if this market succeed or failed not only in Europe but also in the rest of the world. In the first part of this presentation, it is mentioned how in 2005 the development of some PV technologies triggered the PV market growth without any marketing control. Then, there are explained the aspects that changed such situation out of control, therefore, it emerged the beginning of the consolidation of this market. There are briefly explained those factors that are going to determine if this market succeed or failed in the future. Finally, there are given examples of some the PV investments. [Spanish] Esta presentacion habla principalmente de la manera en como ha crecido el Mercado de sistemas fotovoltaicos en Europa, asi tambien se mencionan los elementos fundamentales que determinaran el exito o fracaso de este mercado, no solamente en Europa sino tambien en el resto del mundo, en un futuro. En la primera parte de esta presentacion, se describe como en el 2005, debido al desarrollo de algunas tecnologias fotovoltaicas se desencadeno el crecimiento desenfrenado del mercado fotovoltaico. Despues, se explican los aspectos que hicieron que dicho crecimiento tomara su curso, teniendo como resultado el inicio de un mercado mas consolidado. Se explican brevemente los factores que determinaran si este mercado encuentra el exito o el fracaso en un futuro. Finalmente, se dan ejemplos de algunas adquisiciones fotovoltaicas.

  10. Labor Agreement Information System (LAIRS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Labor Agreement Information Retrieval System (LAIRS) is a database containing historical information on labor-management relations in the Federal Government. It...

  11. Voluntary agreements in environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A typically voluntary agreement is signed between the authorities and an industrial sector in order to reduce the emission of environmentally harmful substances. There are many different types of agreements. Voluntary agreements are not strictly voluntary, since in the background there is often some kind of ''threat'' about taxation or fees if the industry is unwilling to cooperate. This type of agreements has become popular in many OECD countries during the last decades. In Norway there are only a few agreements of this type. Experience with the use of voluntary agreements as well as research show that they are less cost-effective than market-based instruments such as taxes and quota systems. If there are great restrictions on the use of taxes and quota systems because of information- or measurement problems, or because these instruments are not politically acceptable, then voluntary agreements may be an interesting alternative. Thus, voluntary agreements are best used as a supplement to other instruments in some niche areas of the environmental policy. In some cases, voluntary agreements may be used between two countries or at a regional level, for example within the EU

  12. Agreements at the Pharmaceutical/University Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Katherine

    1987-01-01

    Specific agreements that arise at the interface between universities and pharmaceutical companies are described including sponsored research agreements, license agreements, clinical study agreements, material transfer agreements, and patient consent forms with respect to commercialization rights. (Author/MLW)

  13. Factors Affecting Public Investment in Manufacturing Sector of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulzar Ali

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Public Investment in manufacturing sector has emerged as one of the most active part all over the world. In Pakistan public investment had made a significant contribution in different sectors and has played a fundamental role in the financial system of the country. This study has been an attempt to identify the factors, which affect public investment in manufacturing sector significantly in Pakistan. The data used in this study are from 1981 to 2014. Descriptive as well as quantitative techniques are applied to derive the results and advance statistical software E-views are used. In time-series analysis there always remains a suspicion about spurious relationship. This research study is also based on time-series data, that’s why before going to estimate the model, the data are tested by applying Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF, but the data used in the study did not show any sign of spurious relationship. In order to capture the effect of various factors affecting public investment in manufacturing sector, the investment accelerator model is used and regressed through NLS and ARIMA model. The regression results shows that the variables Value-added in large-scale manufacturing sector (Vm, and Lagged Public Investment in Large-Scale Manufacturing Sector (Igm(-1, Index of Price of Capital (Ipk, Change in Domestic Credit available to Public Sector (ΔDcp and dummy (Dps for political stability and favorable economic conditions of the country plays a significant role in public investment in manufacturing sector. The study recommends that the government should create a sufficient demand by increasing domestic purchasing power, by export expansion, by import substitutions through assets redistribution. The study also found that stable political condition also necessary for the rapid economic and investment growth.

  14. When to invest in carbon capture and storage technology: A mathematical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present two models of the optimal investment decision in carbon capture and storage technology (CCS)—one where the carbon price is deterministic (based on the newly introduced carbon floor price in Great Britain) and one where the carbon price is stochastic (based on the ETS permit price in the rest of Europe). A novel feature of this work is that in both models investment costs are time dependent which adds an extra dimension to the decision problem. Our deterministic model allows for quite general dependence on carbon price and consideration of time to build and simple calculus techniques determine the optimal time to invest. We then analyse the effect of carbon price volatility on the optimal investment decision by solving a Bellman equation with an infinite planning horizon. We find that increasing the carbon price volatility increases the critical investment threshold and that adoption of this technology is not optimal at current prices, in agreement with other works. However reducing carbon price volatility by switching from carbon permits to taxes or by introducing a carbon floor as in Great Britain would accelerate the adoption of carbon abatement technologies such as CCS. - Highlights: • Analytic solution for the critical ETS permit price for optimal investment in CCS • Solution for the optimal time for investment in CCS in GB subject to carbon floor • Time varying investment cost included • Not optimal to invest at current ETS prices • ETS permit price volatility increases the optimal investment threshold

  15. Magnetized target fusion: No capital investment required

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The constraints of steady-state operation for magnetic confinement and of no magnetic field for inertial confinement have forced fusion research into two extreme corners separated by more than ten orders of magnitude in time and density scales and requiring multi-billion dollar capital investments for the next steps. Simple analysis shows that combining the compressional heating of inertial confinement with the thermal insulating properties of magnetic confinement and operating in a density and time space intermediate between the two conventional fusion approaches leads to a path to fusion that can be accessed by pulsed power facilities that either already exist or are under construction in non-fusion contexts

  16. State support of regional investment projects

    OpenAIRE

    Skopin Aleksey Olegovich

    2012-01-01

    The author provides an overview of the regulatory framework in the field of public support (at the federal level and at federation) regional investment projects in the form of capital investment. Marks a significant role in co-financing of regional investment projects Investment Fund of Russia, shows the role of regional investment funds, as a new instrument of government support for regional investment projects.

  17. Investing in Japan? Statistics Speak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Liqin

    2009-01-01

    @@ Is investing in Japan a good choice for ambitious Chinese enterprises? Xiong Lin, partner at the Beijing DaDi Law firm, reminded potential investors that understanding Sino-Japan cultural differences, local policies and the procedures concerning investment, as well as protecting intellectual property and prompt communication with local con-sulting finns are the keys to good prepa-ration. She gave this advice at the "2009 Investment in Japan Seminar" on March 5, a seminar co-hosted by CCPIT (China Council for the promotion of International Trade) and JETRO (Japan External Trade Organization) as the follow-up to a session held in 2007.

  18. Investing in the Long Term

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valerie; Sartor

    2007-01-01

    Janice Dai is a senior executive at Harvest Fund Management Co.Ltd.,one of China’s top fund management compa- nies,managing fixed income market investments across the country.She also leads her company’s overall institutional investments.Recently she agreed to talk about her company as well as comment on China’s booming financial indus- try,in the wake of overseas invest- ment bankers predicting tremen- dous returns on the Chinese main- land over the next few years.

  19. Cooperative investment in wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two fiscal options to invest in wind turbines are available in the Netherlands for enterprises: the EIA (energy investment deduction) and the VAMIL (random debit of environmental investments). Non-profit organizations (in this case, e.g. private persons, foundations, associations) can make use of the subsidy EINP (energy supply in non-profit and other special sectors). Attention is paid to the use of the fore-mentioned legal forms, while there are other, more advantageous forms, that can be used to start a cooperative to set up a wind farm

  20. Debt Covenant Renegotiation and Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnold, Marc; Westermann, Ramona

    induces a firm value maximizing investment financing policy and mitigates the overinvestment problem. Incorporating renegotiation outside corporate distress is crucial to explain empirical occurrence patterns of debt renegotiation, the impact of debt renegotiation on corporate securities, and the relation......This paper analyzes the impact of debt covenant renegotiation outside corporate distress on firms. We study a structural model of a levered firm that can renegotiate debt both at investment and in corporate distress. Covenant renegotiation at investment reduces the agency cost of debt because it...

  1. Investment appraisal techniques and constraints on capital investment

    OpenAIRE

    Hunjra, Ahmed Imran; Batool, Iram; Niazi, Ghulam Shabbir Khan; Rehman, Ijaz ur

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the level of application and perception of finance executives and analysts regarding the investment appraisal techniques in Pakistani corporate sector in the light of theory. This study also investigates the major constraints on capital investment. Total 63 questionnaires were distributed in different cities of Pakistan (Islamabad, Rawalpindi, Lahore, Multan and Faisalabad) but only 37 properly filled questionnaires were processed; the potential res...

  2. Recognition of Contracts as Investments in International Investment Arbitration

    OpenAIRE

    ZIVKOVIC, Velimir

    2012-01-01

    The issue of recognition of contractual rights as protected investments in international investment arbitration, primarily under the auspices of ICSID, has sparked divergent approaches in case law. Treatment of certain contracts and the criteria used differ, which leads to unwelcome consequence of lowering legal certainty in a very sensitive issue. The aim of this paper is to contribute to enhancement and clarification of legal reasoning in this area, with a special focus on the criteria to b...

  3. The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership - A View from America's Trenches

    OpenAIRE

    Bledowski Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Expectations run high about the cornucopia of riches which are supposed to fow from the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP). TTIP is a proposed free trade agreement between the United States and the European Union. It aims to build upon the already sweeping scope of the North American Free Trade Agreement concluded two decades earlier and the 2013 Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA), which removes 99 % of tariffs between the EU and Canada.1 Te TTIP negotiations...

  4. Report on the Participation of Argentina (Agreement Holder) in the ''Small-Scale Indigenous Production of Mo-99 Using LEU Targets Or Neutron Activation'' Coordinated Research Project [Country report: Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argentina’s National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) began a program for radioisotope production in the early ’50s. With the construction and starting-up of the RA-3 reactor in 1967, the first irradiations of different targets were performed, leading to commercial production of several radioisotopes for nuclear medicine. Argentina, through its CNEA, has participated in the CRP from the very beginning, attending the July 2003 meeting of consultants. During that first meeting, Argentine activities related to 99Mo production were presented and discussed the advantages of establishing a CRP, the Agency role and contract and agreement holders’ roles. Argentina established its position of being able to transfer the technology for producing 99Mo from LEU targets on commercial basis. Because of this situation, contract holders decided to accept the modified Cintichem technology, offered by the USA representatives with no cost for the receivers, employing uranium metal foil targets. With this scenario, participation of CNEA in the CRP finally was limited to being an adviser for receiving countries

  5. China's Investment Leade Dr, Alyce Su

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ I. Professional Background Dr. Alyce Su specializes in investment managemeng, managing portfolios consisted of investment opportunities originated from China's growth and internationalization, both'outbound and inbound.

  6. Money Matters: Mitigating risk to spark private investments in energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Scaling-up investment in energy efficiency is essential to achieving a sustainable energy future. Despite energy efficiency's recognised advantages as a bankable investment with immense climate change mitigation benefits, most of the energy efficiency potential remains untapped and the investment gap to achieve climate goals is tremendous. This report seeks to improve understanding as to why this is so, and what can be done about it.

  7. INDUSTRIAL SECTOR INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITY IN INDONESIA: CASE STUDY OF KARAWANG REGENCY WEST JAVA

    OpenAIRE

    ENJANG Sudarman

    2012-01-01

    Investment principles in Indonesia has been executed using some methods as well as industrial agglomeration establishment which is allocate and coordinate similar and interrelated industry within a certain industrial location; the industrial region functions as a mean and incentive industrial process to attain production economical scale and efficiency of production; to improve investment climate considers to capital rate of return and profit gain; green environment investment management cont...

  8. Environment investment: transition from end-investment to multi-investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Luqiang

    2006-01-01

    Environmental investment must change its direction from end-investment to multi-investment, such as ecological construction, recycling economy and environmental protection. Only it can meet the needs of breaking the bottleneck of resources and environment for Chinese sustainable development. And the transition can help us realize low-cost and high-speedy increasing of economy, as well as the construction of ecological health, beautiful environment, economic development and harmonious new society. Material recycling in ecosystem can run well by self-organization and self-regulation by nature with low-cost and even non-cost. So, the environmental investment in ecological construction should be the profits maximum investment. Butit needs country's support in financial policy on ecological or environmental compensation. Recycling economy is a brand-new pattern ofeconomic growth, which formed gradually in the course of mankind exploring and practicing sustainable development. Fountainhead prevention, reducing and whole processing control are its significant characteristics,which are different from any former economic and environmental protection system. Investing in technology development and relevant industry of recycling economy should be the other major field of environment investment in China in the future.

  9. Suzhou Industrial Park Attracts Investments From Central SOEs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Suzhou Industrial Park(SIP)held a press conference on January 5 in Beijing where it signed cooperation agreements on seven projects,including the branch office building of CITIC Bank and Phase 2 facilities of Suzhou Kaifa Technology,a subsidiary company of China Electronics Corp.The total investment of the six projects(excluding the strategic cooperation project with the CITIC Bank branch amounted to 1.55 billion yuan($227.9 million).

  10. Tariff structure and investment location: Peru in the 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    González-Vigil, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the effects of trade policy on the patterns of location of foreign direct investment (FDI) by country and sector. Particular attention is paid to FDI in manufactures, for which the market size is a very important locational factor, and therefore, so too is the preferential access to enlarged markets provided by trade agreements. Hence this article compares the performance of Peru in this field with those of its partners in the Andean Community of Nations (CAN), especiall...

  11. Mudaravila kinnistu arendajaks Alvarelli Invest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Pärnu mudaravila kinnistu 50-aastasest hoonestusõigusest oli huvitatud Andres Tiigi firma Alvarelli Invest. Firma peab 2009. a. suveks vana mudaravila restaureerima ja rajama sellele mere poole juurdeehitise

  12. Investment Processes in the Industrial Region: Current Status and Prospects of Enhancing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumaneeva Mariya Konstantinovna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The trends and direction of investment processes are the most important features of regional development. In modern conditions we observe the grave shortage of investment resources in the priority areas of industrialization. Despite the overall increase of investment volume, the investments in the production of high-tech products which have key value for the acceleration of industrialization continue to decline steadily. This process reveals itself urgently in the industrial regions of Russia. According to expert estimates, about two-thirds of investment savings are spent on the development of the mining sector. Under these conditions, the degradation of industrial structure is enhanced, the “scattering” of investment resources takes place as well as the increase of deficit in the industries which are the most priority and perspective for the development of the country. Therefore, the study of the efficiency of investment processes in the industrial region, as well as the existing models of investing in fixed assets represents an urgent task. The article describes the groups of economic sectors in Kemerovo region in terms of investments efficiency and the type of their financing. The results of the research showed that the nominal increase in the investments flow into the region’s economy does not always lead to a real investment increase. Otherwise speaking, under the inflationary pressures we can observe the actual effect of different scale for different sectors of regional economy. The author reveals that the lowest efficiency of investment in fixed assets is typical for the sectors of Kemerovo region’s economy, where the investment activity is determined by the existing public and regional policy. The articles contains the directions of investment processes intensification for the sectors of the Kemerovo region’s economy, taking into account the strategic development priorities and revealed efficiency of investments in fixed assets.

  13. Spillovers from Foreign Direct Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Klaus E.; Sinani, Evis

    2005-01-01

    The extensive empirical literature analyzing productivity spillovers from foreign direct investment to local firms provides inconclusive results. Some studies find that foreign presence has a positive impact on the productivity of domestic firms, while others find no evidence or a negative effect...... industrialized countries in the 1990s. Transition economies may experience spillovers, but these have been declining in recent years. Keywords: developing countries, transition economies, spillovers, foreign direct investment, technology transfer, meta-analysis...

  14. INVESTMENT BEHAVIOR AND ENERGY CONSERVATION

    OpenAIRE

    LaDue, Eddy L.; Miller, Lynn H.; Kwiatkowski, Joseph H.

    1990-01-01

    Binary logit and bivariate probit models were used to investigate the investment behavior of farmers relative to two energy-conserving assets, heat-recovery systems and precoolers. The bivariate probit procedure was useful in correcting for self-selectivity bias. Holdout samples and cross-validation procedures were used to develop true model statistics. Farm size, educational level of the operator, and the type of milking system in use were the important factors influencing investment behavior.

  15. Net neutrality and investment incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jay Pil; Kim, Byung-Cheol

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of net neutrality regulation on investment incentives for Internet service providers (ISPs) and content providers (CPs), and their implications for social welfare. We show that the ISP's decision on the introduction of discrimination across content depends on a potential trade-off between network access fee and the revenue from the trade of the first-priority. Concerning the ISP's investment incentives, we find that capacity expansion affects the sale price of ...

  16. Law and Investment in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Simplice A, Asongu

    2011-01-01

    Contrary to mainstream consensus on the dominance of English common law countries in investment prospects, this paper sets a new tone in the legal origins debate by providing empirical validity on the dominance of French civil-law countries in private investment. The assessment is based on 38 African countries for the period 1996-2007. The law mechanisms of regulation quality and rule of law are used to investigate how legal origins (French, English, French sub-Saharan, Portuguese and North A...

  17. Economic Instability and Aggregate Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Robert S. Pindyck; Solimano, Andres

    1993-01-01

    Recent literature suggests that because investment expenditures are irreversible and can be delayed, they may be highly sensitive to uncertainty. The authors briefly summarize the theory, stressing its empirical implications. Then, using cross-section and time-series data for a set of developing and industrial countries, they explore the empirical relevance of irreversibility and uncertainty to aggregate investment. They find that: (a) the volatility of the marginal profitability of capital (...

  18. Uncertainty, investment, and industry evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero, Ricardo J; Robert S. Pindyck

    1992-01-01

    We study the effects of aggregate and idiosyncratic uncertainty on the entry of firms, total investment, and prices in a competitive industry with irreversible investment. We first use standard dynamic programming methods to determine firms' entry decisions, and we describe the resulting industry equilibrium and its characteristics, emphasizing the effects of different sources of uncertainty. We then show how the conditional distribution of prices can be used as an alternative means of determ...

  19. Investment Under Uncertainty: A Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Mellati, Ali

    2008-01-01

    There must be a restricted time horizon within which investors trust their anticipations in an uncertain condition. In this circumstance investors are concerned about what happens if the worst condition (i.e. decreasing prices) occurs. A best-worst strategy in a discounted payback period framework is applied to examine the effect of uncertainty on the time horizon and investment. The model shows that increasing uncertainty will reduce the time horizon as well as investment. Moreover, the calc...

  20. Foreign Direct Investment For Sale

    OpenAIRE

    Onur Koska

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the choice of a multinational firm between two alternative entry modes, a greenfield investment and a joint venture, under incomplete information. The joint venture partner is selected by an auction, which distinguishes this study from other studies in the literature. A private values auction allows a multinational firm to increase its share of the joint venture profit so that a joint venture is always preferable to greenfield investment. The model also examines the nation...

  1. Essays on Islamic equity investing

    OpenAIRE

    Adamsson, Hampus

    2015-01-01

    Islamic finance is rapidly gaining momentum around the world. Interpretations of Shari’ah, or Islamic law, state that investments must be free from elements of riba (interest), gharar (uncertainty), maysir (speculation) and haram (unethical) business activities. Islamic equity investing, therefore, utilizes a set of business activity screens and accounting-based screens to exclude firms considered non-permissible under Shari’ah. Despite increased academic interest, there is still much uncerta...

  2. Credit Scores and College Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole Simpson; Felicia Ionescu

    2010-01-01

    The private market of student loans has become an important source of college financing in the U.S. Unlike government student loans, the terms on private student loans (i.e., credit limits and interest rates) are based on credit scores We quantify the effects of credit scores on college investment in a heterogeneous life-cycle economy that exhibits a government and private market for student loans. We find that students with higher credit scores invest in more college education. Furthermore, ...

  3. Venture Capital and Sequential Investments

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk Bergemann; Ulrich Hege; Liang Peng

    2008-01-01

    We present a dynamic model of venture capital financing, described as a sequential in­vestment problem with uncertain outcome. Each venture has a critical, but unknown threshold beyond which it cannot progress. If the threshold is reached before the completion of the project, then the project fails, otherwise it succeeds. The investors decide sequentially about the speed of the investment and the optimal path of staged investments. We derive the dynamically optimal funding policy in response ...

  4. Sustainable Markets Investment Briefings: Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo

    2007-08-15

    This is the first of a series of briefings which discuss the sustainable development issues raised by legal arrangements for the protection of foreign investment. The briefings are based on legal research by IIED and its partners. The goal is to provide accessible but accurate information for human rights, development and environmental organisations working on issues raised by foreign investment in low- and middle-income countries. Briefing 1 provides a general overview of key issues.

  5. Mapping model agreement on future climate projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebaldi, Claudia; Arblaster, Julie M.; Knutti, Reto

    2011-12-01

    Climate change projections are often based on simulations from multiple global climate models and are presented as maps with some form of stippling or measure of robustness to indicate where different models agree on the projected anthropogenically forced changes. The criteria used to determine model agreement, however, often ignore the presence of natural internal variability. We demonstrate that this leads to misleading presentations of the degree of model consensus on the sign and magnitude of the change if the ratio of the signal from the externally forced change to internal variability is low. We present a simple alternative method of depicting multimodel projections which clearly separates lack of climate change signal from lack of model agreement by assessing the degree of consensus on the significance of the change as well as the sign of the change. Our results demonstrate that the common interpretation of lack of model agreement in precipitation projections is largely an artifact of the large noise from climate variability masking the signal, an issue exacerbated by performing analyses at the grid point scale. We argue that separating more clearly the case of lack of agreement from the case of lack of signal will add valuable information for stake-holders' decision making, since adaptation measures required in the two cases are potentially very different.

  6. Federal Facility Agreement progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    The (SRS) Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) was made effective by the US. Environmental Protection Agency Region IV (EPA) on August 16, 1993. To meet the reporting requirements in Section XXV of the Agreement, the FFA Progress Report was developed. The FFA Progress Report is the first of a series of quarterly progress reports to be prepared by the SRS. As such this report describes the information and action taken to September 30, 1993 on the SRS units identified for investigation and remediation in the Agreement. This includes; rubble pits, runoff basins, retention basin, seepage basin, burning pits, H-Area Tank 16, and spill areas.

  7. Federal Facility Agreement progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The (SRS) Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) was made effective by the US. Environmental Protection Agency Region IV (EPA) on August 16, 1993. To meet the reporting requirements in Section XXV of the Agreement, the FFA Progress Report was developed. The FFA Progress Report is the first of a series of quarterly progress reports to be prepared by the SRS. As such this report describes the information and action taken to September 30, 1993 on the SRS units identified for investigation and remediation in the Agreement. This includes; rubble pits, runoff basins, retention basin, seepage basin, burning pits, H-Area Tank 16, and spill areas

  8. A Computable General Equilibrium Analysis of Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership and Trans-Pacific Partnership on Chinese Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Buhara Aslan; Merve Mavus Kutuk; Arif Oduncu

    2015-01-01

    As a result of deadlocked multilateral trade negotiations, many countries have commenced to establish bilateral and regional trade agreements. Among those agreements the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) and Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) are agreements with members from across the Atlantic and the Pacific respectively. This study focuses on the impacts of these agreements on Chinese economy under three scenarios by using the Global Trade Analysis Project database and a c...

  9. Massive public investment needed to grow green economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The President of the Communications Workers of America, Larry Cohen, urges large-scale investments in research and technology in response to economic turmoil and climate change. He envisions one million made-in-America hybrid cars running on U.S. roadways by 2015 and use of alternative energy doubling within three years. PMID:19608511

  10. Information, investment, and the stock market: A study of investment revision data of Japanese manufacturing industries

    OpenAIRE

    Ogawa, Kazuo; Suzuki, Kazuyuki

    2007-01-01

    We examined investment behavior in the Japanese manufacturing industry using investment revision data to analyze investment behavior from a fresh angle. We tested the martingale investment hypothesis and then the q-theory of investment by looking at the response of stock return and investment to news arriving at firms. The martingale hypothesis was generally accepted, and we also found evidence for the validity of the q-theory hypothesis. Investment was responsive to profit rate revision and ...

  11. Investment Frictions and the Relative Price of Investment Goods in an Open Economy Model

    OpenAIRE

    Parantap Basu; Christoph Thoenissen

    2007-01-01

    Is the relative price of investment goods a good proxy for investment frictions? We analyze investment frictions in an open economy, flexible price, two-country model and show that when the relative price of investment goods is endogenously determined in such a model, the relative price of investment can actually rise in response to a reduction in investment frictions. Only when the model is driven by TFP shocks do we observe a data congruent negative correlation between investment and the re...

  12. Fuzzy Real Investment Valuation Model for Giga-Investments, and a Note on Giga-Investment Lifecycle and Valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Collan, Mikael

    2004-01-01

    Very large industrial real investments are different from financial investments and from small real investments, even so, their profitability is commonly valued with the same methods. A definition of a group of very large industrial real investments is made, by requiring three common characteristics. The decision support needs arising from these characteristics are discussed and a summary of existing methods to value and to provide decision support for large industrial investments is presente...

  13. Corporate Integrity Agreement (CIA) documents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — OIG negotiates corporate integrity agreements (CIA) with health care providers and other entities as part of the settlement of Federal health care program...

  14. 43 CFR 29.11 - Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Investment. 29.11 Section 29.11 Public... Investment. (a) The monies accumulated in the Fund shall be prudently invested in the following types of... investment advisor or custodian to the Fund, or their affiliates may be purchased or held by the Fund....

  15. 12 CFR 24.4 - Investment limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ENTITIES, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND OTHER PUBLIC WELFARE INVESTMENTS § 24.4 Investment limits. (a... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment limits. 24.4 Section 24.4 Banks and...) Limited liability. A national bank may not make an investment under this part that would expose the...

  16. 12 CFR 615.5133 - Investment management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... management information systems that are appropriate for the level and complexity of your investment... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment management. 615.5133 Section 615... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5133 Investment management....

  17. Unit Method of Accounting for Investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Leigh A.

    1971-01-01

    The unit method of accounting for investments, also called the market-value method, is defined as a procedure for accurately allocating income and investment gains and losses, both realized and unrealized, between component funds of an investment pool. This procedure provides a data base for the calculation of investment performance. Advantages of…

  18. 13 CFR 301.4 - Investment rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... needs of the Region in which the Project is located, EDA will prioritize allocations of its Investment... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment rates. 301.4 Section... ELIGIBILITY, INVESTMENT RATE AND PROPOSAL AND APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS Investment Rates and Matching...

  19. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN TURKEY: LEGAL FRAMEWORK

    OpenAIRE

    Baklacı, Pınar; Akıntürk, Esen

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the current situation in the Turkish legislation on foreign direct investments. It reviews the Turkish Foreign Direct Investment Law (Law No 4875), which involves main concepts, definitions and principles on foreign direct investments in Turkey; acquisition of real estate by foreigners, employment of foreigners and settlement of investment disputes.

  20. 12 CFR 1.8 - Nonconforming investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonconforming investments. 1.8 Section 1.8 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INVESTMENT SECURITIES § 1.8 Nonconforming investments. (a) A national bank's investment in securities that no longer conform to this part but conformed when made will not be...

  1. 12 CFR 703.14 - Permissible investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permissible investments. 703.14 Section 703.14 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.14 Permissible investments. (a) Variable rate investment. A...

  2. International trade agreements, environmental policy, and relocation of production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper studies the influence of free trade agreements on national environmental policies and location strategies of polluting firms. It is shown that banning export subsidies makes relocation of production more attractive for firms. When export subsidies are banned relocation is profitable because: (1) the rival firm reduces output due to more stringent emission regulation in the host country of the investment and (2) relocation leads to lower emission tax rate in the original home country of the investing firm. When export subsidies are used, the first effect is absent because the host government is able to use the export subsidy to compensate the negative effect of more stringent emission taxation on domestic shareholders. (author)

  3. Rater agreement in lung scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The PIOPED criteria in their original and revised forms are today's standards in the interpretation of ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy. When the PIOPED criteria are used by experienced raters with training in consensus interpretation, the agreement rates have been demonstrated to be excellent. Our purpose was to investigate the rates of agreement between 2 experienced raters from different hospitals who had no training in consensus interpretation. Material and Methods: The 2 raters investigated a population of 195 patients. This group included 72 patients from a previous study who had an intermediate probability of pulmonary embolism and who had also been examined by pulmonary angiography. Results: The results demonstrated moderate agreement rates with a kappa value of 0.54 (0.45-0.63 in a 95% confidence interval), which is similar to the kappa value of the PIOPED study but significantly lower than the kappa values of agreement rates among consensus-trained raters. There was a low consistency in the intermediate probability category, with a proportional agreement rate of 0.39 between the experienced raters. Conclusion: The moderate agreement rates between raters from different hospitals make it difficult to compare study populations of a certain scintigraphic category in different hospitals. Further investigations are mandatory for accurate diagnosis when the scintigrams are in the category of intermediate probability of pulmonary embolism. (orig.)

  4. Flexible climate agreements after 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kyoto agreement is only a small step towards much stronger and broader commitments and new creativity is needed to further develop a really global climate policy. A flexible approach is necessary to obtain broad participation and substantial reduction of the emissions of greenhouse gases. Flexibility is also important to ease negotiations, to ensure cost-effectiveness and implement a global climate agreement. The US withdrawal from the Kyoto Protocol has rendered the agreement much less effective than the original goal of five per cent reduction of the emission from the industrialized countries. In addition the emissions are increasing much faster in countries that have not committed themselves to the agreement. The agreement runs out in 2012 and should be followed by a new agreement, the negotiations about which are to start up no later than 2005. Attempts by the European Union to begin a discussion about future commitments were very quickly wrecked by the G77 group with strong support from the U.S.A. To formulate a practical climate policy the general goal in the Climate Convention must be interpreted and specified. It may seem impossible to agree upon a long-term goal. But the clarity it provides will be very useful. It will be a guide for short-term goals and a reference for evaluation of success

  5. Cost-benefit assessment of energy efficiency investments: Accounting for future resources, savings and risks in the Australian residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article focuses on the impact of the discount rate on cost-benefit assessment of investment options for residential building efficiency. An integrated thermal modeling, life cycle costing approach is applied to an extensive sample of dominant house designs for Australian conditions. The relative significance of predicted thermal performance and the applied discount rate on the Present Value of energy savings from alternative investment scenarios is investigated. Costs and benefits are also evaluated at the economy-wide scale, including carbon pricing considerations, and for a test-case household faced with alternative investment options at the point of construction. The influence of the applied discount rate on produced cost-benefit calculations is investigated, as is the interaction between critical cost-benefit input parameters. Findings support that the discounting framework is the primary driver of difference in estimates about costs and benefits of higher standards of efficiency in the residential sector. Results demonstrate that agreement on a low discount rate based on sustainability principals would prioritise those projects with significant environmental benefits. - Highlights: ► High thermal efficiency is a key strategy to limit energy use in buildings. ► Integrated thermal modeling—life-cycle costing methods are applied to dominant house designs. ► The discounting framework is the primary driver of difference in observed costs. ► The selection of optimal performance investment options depends on the discount rate. ► Application of a discount rate of 3.5% or lower favours energy saving projects

  6. Survey on Current Conditions of and Intention for Outbound Investment by Chinese Enterprises [Part Ⅱ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (April,2009) Executive Summary After two preliminary trials in 2005 and 2006,China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT) conducted the "Survey on Current Conditions of and Intention for Outbound Investment by Chinese Enterprises" from December of 2008 to February of 2009.We standardized the samples and enlarged the scale to present an in-depth landscape of the current conditions of and intention for outbound investment by Chinese enterprises as China adopts the "Going Global" strategy to encouragc outbound investment,and the development of outbound investment by comparing the resuits of this survey and the previous two surveys.

  7. Is privatisation good for investment in Australia?

    OpenAIRE

    Margaret McKenzie

    2007-01-01

    Privatisation was expected to promote investment in the economy as part of improving dynamic efficiency. The relation between aggregate public and private investment in Australia is investigated in an endogeneous ECM framework. Model selection for a simple investment function allows restrictions for neoclassical crowding out or Keynesian crowding in (after Aschauer 1989) in a small open economy. An ECM is estimated including annual aggregate private investment, public investment, income, rate...

  8. Investment attractiveness of Ukraine: problems and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onishchenko Irina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes basic questions of the investment climate and investment attractiveness of Ukraine. Investment Attractiveness Index is analyzed by the methodology of European Business Association. The main advantages of Ukraine that attract foreign investors are revised. The article applies the comprehensive approach to study the problems hindering the increase of investment attractiveness of Ukraine. It determines the ways of solving the problems associated with deterring investment development.

  9. Retrospectives: John Maynard Keynes, Investment Innovator

    OpenAIRE

    David Chambers; Elroy Dimson

    2013-01-01

    John Maynard Keynes made a major contribution to the development of professional investment management. Based on detailed archival research at King's College, Cambridge, we describe Keynes' investment philosophy, his investment performance, and the evolution of his investment approach as the manager of a large educational endowment. His portfolios were actively managed and unconventional. He was an investment innovator both in making a substantial allocation to the then new institutional asse...

  10. Hedge Fund Investments: Risk Management Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Financial Systems and Bank Examination Department

    2007-01-01

    Hedge funds in Japan have recently been attracting more capital from institutional investors, including financial institutions. This paper highlights the relevant risk management issues for hedge fund investments. An investor investing in hedge funds requires a different risk management procedure from the investor investing in traditional securities. This is because the investor is actually investing in the hedge fund managers' investment skills and needs to monitor multiple entities involved...

  11. STRUCTURED INVESTMENT PRODUCTS GLOBAL MARKET TRENDS

    OpenAIRE

    Ignatyuk Aleksandr Sergeevich

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To determine the main directions of world structured investment products market, to identify key trends of structured investment products. Methodology The work is based on the partial analysis of the historical dynamics of structured investment products market. Results Market for structured investment products market is in the fourth stage of its historical development. This stage is characterized by: rapid growth of market size, the uneven distribution of investment in structured pro...

  12. Scheduling of interstate road and railway investments

    OpenAIRE

    Rothengatter, W.

    1986-01-01

    If investment activities are restricted by binding budget constraints, it may be even more important to find a good time schedule for investments rather than to determine the optimal investment program for a future time period. The problem of scheduling investments for interstate road and railway investments can be formulated as a mixed-integer programming model. But this model is so large, that it is hopeless to try to solve problems of practical relevance. For this reason two ways of simpli...

  13. Inter-rater Agreement on Sentence Formality

    CERN Document Server

    Lahiri, Shibamouli

    2011-01-01

    Formality is one of the most important dimensions of writing style variation. In this study we conducted an inter-rater reliability experiment for assessing sentence formality on a five-point Likert scale, and obtained good agreement results as well as different rating distributions for different sentence categories. We also performed a difficulty analysis to identify the bottlenecks of our rating procedure. Our main objective is to design an automatic scoring mechanism for sentence-level formality, and this study is important for that purpose.

  14. Intelligent investment; Inversion inteligente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-06-15

    In this presentation the company called Energia Renovable De Mexico SA de CV (ERDM), shows not only its obtained objectives but also its wanted objectives. This company is manufacturer and consultant of photovoltaic modules. In the first part, it is given a description of the following issues: the beginnings the company, the implemented marketing strategy, the signed agreement between ERDM and Q-CELLS AG in German, the construction of the San Andres Tuxtla's office as well as the PV module, the reasons why this company is considered a leader not only in Mexico but also in Latin America. Then, It is briefly explained the company's mission, which is mainly focused on the network-connected system that are currently allowed according to the Mexican laws. Besides, there are mentioned the key pieces that have made possible the success of this company. At the same time, there are briefly explained the plans for Mexico, in which there are found the use of both photovoltaic systems and wind turbines in order to feed the electric network. Such plans have as targets to reduce the energy cost in Mexico and to open the profitable market to potential investors. Finally, there are mentioned the future plans that are going to help the company's expansion and to improve some issues related to the energy. [Spanish] En esta presentacion la compania Energia Renovable De Mexico S.A. de C.V. (ERDM), describe tanto los objetivos alcanzados como los que desean alcanzar en el futuro, fungiendo no solo como fabricantes sino tambien como consultores de modulos fotovoltaicos. En la primera parte, se da una descripcion de: los inicios de la compania, las estrategias mercadologicas utilizadas, el acuerdo con Q-CELLS, Alemania; la construccion de la oficina de San Andres Tuxtla y del modulo PV, las causas que la han llevado a ser una empresa lider. Enseguida, se explica escuetamente la mision de la compania; ademas, se mencionan las piezas clave que la han llevado al exito

  15. From the bargain/bargaining "agreement" to the shipping agreement to the shipping agreement (I)

    OpenAIRE

    Anechitoae Constantin; Cojoc Mariana; Grigorut Cornel; Grigorut Lavinia-Maria

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of the legal components of the boarding agreement shows that this contract, in fact, is an individual employment contract concluded for a fixed period, with a particular suite of elements determined by very specific of the sailor profession. The individual boarding agreement is an undefined legal concept, which incidentally regulates the meaning of "individual employment contract concluded for a fixed period" by employees who are part of the crew

  16. From the bargain/bargaining "agreement" to the shipping agreement to the shipping agreement (III)

    OpenAIRE

    Anechitoae Constantin; Grigorut Cornel; Cojoc Mariana; Grigorut Lavinia-Maria

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of the legal components of the boarding agreement shows that this contract, in fact, is an individual employment contract concluded for a fixed period, with a particular suite of elements determined by very specific of the sailor profession. The individual boarding agreement is an undefined legal concept, which incidentally regulates the meaning of "individual employment contract concluded for a fixed period" by employees who are part of the crew

  17. From the bargain/bargaining "agreement" to the shipping agreement to the shipping agreement (II)

    OpenAIRE

    Anechitoae Constantin; Cojoc Mariana; Grigorut Cornel; Grigorut Lavinia-Maria

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of the legal components of the boarding agreement shows that this contract, in fact, is an individual employment contract concluded for a fixed period, with a particular suite of elements determined by very specific of the sailor profession. The individual boarding agreement is an undefined legal concept, which incidentally regulates the meaning of "individual employment contract concluded for a fixed period" by employees who are part of the crew

  18. Go Big or Go Home: Priorities for the Canada-EU Economic and Trade Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Schwanen

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive economic and trade agreement (CETA) between Canada and the European Union (EU) is both desirable and possible. For Canada, an agreement with the EU is a strategic opportunity to significantly diversify the market for its high-value-added goods, services and skills, to increase the attractiveness of its economy for investors, and to make a statement that it is ready to engage with other important trade partners on reducing barriers to mutually beneficial trade and investment. T...

  19. Foreing direct investments in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermira Korra

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Foreign Direct Investments are a very important segment in the economic activity of a country, due to the effects they bring with. This is mainly because of the trade liberalization, as well as other advantages such as higher returns on investments, potential resource seeking, new market seeking, or cheap labor force. The issue of Foreign Direct Investment is very broad, but in concrete terms, the main goal of this article is the theoretical analysis and its impact in related policies in Albania. Another objective is closely connected with the help of government authorities to better understand the potential and effective impact of FDI in the Albanian economy and use this information in their decision-making.

  20. Trade, investment and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As liberalisation of global trade and investment accelerates, what happens to the environment? As the world heads for confrontation in Seattle, the questions intensify. Does foreign direct investment mean forsaking environmental protection? Or do multinational corporations export higher standards when they invest abroad? Can a powerful trading nation ban imports of tropical timber produced unsustainably? Should the World Trade Organisation take the views of industry or environmental groups into account when deciding? Must world trade rules be changed to accommodate environmental concerns? This book analyzes key issues in this increasingly controversial arena and includes contributions from Renato Ruggiero, former Director General of the World Trade Organization; The Rt Hon Brian Wilson MP, former UK Minister of Trade; Dr Magda Shahin, Deputy Assistant Minister of Foreign Affairs at the Egyptian Ministry of Foreign Affairs; Pradeep Mehta, Secretary General, Consumer Unity and Trust Society, India; and Dr Michel Potier, Head of the Economics Division at the OECD's Environment Directorate. (Author)

  1. GOLD AS AN INVESTMENT VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arti Chandani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Gold has been used extensively for savings, investments and consumption since ages; however the importance of the gold as an investment instruments has been much talked in the recent times. This research paper intends to find various applications of gold portfolios as an alternate asset class: the benefits of including gold to an investment portfolio have been analyzed. The results indicate that gold has performed significantly better than other assets like debt and equity in both emerging and US markets. It was noted that addition of gold to portfolios helped reduce the volatility and increase overall returns during the period 2009-12. For example, in 2008, when the U.S. equity market plunged to 36.99%, gold in fact showed returns of 5.8%. It is also observed that the inverse correlation exists between the dollar index and the gold prices helped reduce the portfolio risk as a result of diversification.

  2. Credit and investment banking in Ukraine : current state and prospects of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolodizev Oleg M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is the study of the current state of credit and investment banks in Ukraine, identify gaps of its operation and prospects of further operation. As a result of the analysis, it was found that as of today the scale of investment in bank lending does not meet the needs of the productive sector of the economy in financial resources, despite the rather significant lending capacity of the banking system of Ukraine. The study indicated the main reasons hindering the development of credit and investment banks in Ukraine, which include macroeconomic and individual factors. It has been proposed a number of areas for development, the implementation of which will increase the level of participation of banks in the investment process. Prospects for further research on this subject can act to improve the mechanism of investment lending and development of new models for assessing investment risks in terms of different economic actors.

  3. Investing for a better environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To address the broad range of environmental issues in central and eastern Europe, including the former Soviet Union, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development has adopted a twofold operational strategy: a regional programme approach and a project-based approach. The Bank is undertaking studies of environmental legislation and standards, and of training, liability and public participation requirements in the countries where it operates. It has also initiated environmental assessments in sectors where future investment projects are anticipated. The principal objectives of this work are to assist the countries of central and eastern Europe, those who wish to invest in these countries and Bank staff in their environmental appraisal work

  4. Optimal Investment in Structured Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille; Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    The paper examines the role of structured bonds in the optimal portfolio of a small retail investor. We consider the typical structured bond essentially repacking an exotic option and a zero coupon bond, i.e. an investment with portfolio insurance. The optimal portfolio is found when the investment...... opportunities consist of a risky reference fund, a risk-free asset and a structured bond. Key model elements are the trading strategy and utility function of the investor. Our numerical results indicate structured bonds do have basis for consideration in the optimal portfolio. The product holdings are...

  5. Foreign Direct Investment In India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra N.Shendge

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of FDI in the upgradation of technology, skills and managerial capabilities is now well accepted. Additional investments over and above the investments possible with the available domestic resources help in providing much needed employment opportunities. Government has put in place a liberal and investorfriendly policy for FDI under which FDI up to 100% is permitted under the automatic route in most activities/ sectors. The policy on FDI is reviewed on an ongoing basis. Initiatives in policy liberalization during the past two years include enhancement of FDI cap in domestic airlines, telecom services, permitting FDI in FM Radio broadcating and other procedural simplification measures.

  6. Foreign investments and public goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors of this background paper were invited by the IEF to address two questions, one rather broad and the other more focused. Their broad mandate was to examine how international investors may be encouraged to invest in energy projects while providing optimal benefits to host countries. Their narrow mandate was to examine how the interests of foreign investors may be reconciled with host governments' concerns about national sovereignty. The paper submitted in response to these questions develops in detail the principal issues related to the real or perceived impediments to increased private investment in major oil-producing countries

  7. Tweeting is not investing! But...

    OpenAIRE

    Choffray, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    So, that’s it! Hundreds of Tweets on The Art and Science of Investing to “show you the way”, to share my most recent observations on the behavior of the markets, and to illustrate some of the key heuristics that I learned over the last twenty years. As, without any doubt, I am no Warren Buffett, feel free to disagree and develop you own “theory” of investing. Painful and solitary work... Success is at this price! And, based on what I did - and did not! - achieve, it shouldn’t be hard to do mu...

  8. Noncontractible Investments and Reference Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Hart

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyze noncontractible investments in a model with shading. A seller can make an investment that affects a buyer’s value. The parties have outside options that depend on asset ownership. When shading is not possible and there is no contract renegotiation, an optimum can be achieved by giving the seller the right to make a take-it-or-leave-it offer. However, with shading, such a contract creates deadweight losses. We show that an optimal contract will limit the seller’s offers, and possibly create ex post inefficiency. Asset ownership can improve matters even if revelation mechanisms are allowed.

  9. Investment under Uncertain Climate Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barradale, Merrill Jones

    2014-01-01

    actually be faced in the case of a particular investment. This concept helps explain both the surge of activity in 2005–2006 and the subsequent decline in interest in coal-fired power plant development in the U.S. The data for this case study comes from an extensive online survey of 700 U.S. energy......This paper introduces the concept of payment probability as an important component of carbon risk (the financial risk associated with CO2 emissions under uncertain climate policy). In modeling power plant investment decisions, most existing literature uses the expected carbon price (e.g., the price...

  10. Foreign Investment Catalogues and Investment Environment in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Tao

    2010-01-01

    @@ On 23 December 2008,the National Development and Reform Commission("NDRC")and Ministry of Commerce("MOFCOM")of People's Republic of China jointly issued Catalogue of Foreign Investment Advantageous Industries in Central and Western China("Central and Western Catalogue"),which became effective on 1 January 2009.

  11. Investment Timing When External Financing Is Costly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirth, Stefan; Uhrig-Homburg, Marliese

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the investment timing of firms facing two dimensions of financing constraints: Liquidity constraints and capital market frictions inducing financing costs. We show that liquidity constraints are not sufficient to explain voluntary investment delay. However, when additionally...... considering financing costs, we can explain both voluntary delay and acceleration of investment. More precisely, we find that investment thresholds are U-shaped in liquid funds. For high-liquidity firms, investment thresholds are decreasing (i.e. accelerated investment takes place) in either dimension of...... financing constraint. In contrast, investment thresholds are increasing (i.e. investment is further delayed) in either form of financing constraint for low-liquidity firms. For intermediate levels of liquidity, investment thresholds are U-shaped in market frictions....

  12. 48 CFR 25.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. 25.403 Section 25.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 25.403 World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements....

  13. 'Incorporating the OECD Guidelines in International Investment Agreements: Turning a Soft Law Obligation into Hard Law?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der E.L.

    2013-01-01

    This article has been written as a response to two recent developments. First, as a response to the recent update of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Guidelines on 25 May 2011, which seem to have taken a form based on human rights due diligence. Second, as a response

  14. Regulatory cooperation, aid for trade and the general agreement on trade in services

    OpenAIRE

    Hoekman, Bernard; Mattoo, Aaditya

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses what could be done to expand services trade and investment through a multilateral agreement in the World Trade Organization. A distinction is made between market access liberalization and the regulatory preconditions for benefiting from market opening. The authors argue that prospects for multilateral services liberalization would be enhanced by making national treatme...

  15. Wenzhou Pilots New Investment Channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGPEI

    2004-01-01

    Wenzhou, a coastal city in East China's Zhejiang province, has recently drawn much public attention with the establishment of two high profile private financial consortiums. Lying behind these two investment groups is the city's total available private capital, which according to official figures sits at 26o billion yuan (US$31 billion),including 160 billion yuan (US$19 billion) of bank savings.

  16. Responsible investing in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viviers, S.; Bosch, J.K.; Smit, vd M E.; Buijs, A.

    2009-01-01

    Given growing interest in the phenomenon of Responsible Investing (RI), both locally and internationally, the purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the RI sector in South Africa. It focuses on the definition and characteristics of RI within the South African context; the size and nature

  17. Teacher Investment in Learner Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Jenelle

    2009-01-01

    From a sociocultural perspective, teacher identity is constructed in relation to others, including other teachers and students. Drawing on positioning theory and the concept of investment, this study analyzed the case of a secondary English teacher who negotiated his teacher identity in relation to English language learners (ELLs). Findings…

  18. Inconsistent Investment and Consumption Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Morten Tolver; Steffensen, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    In a traditional Black–Scholes market we develop a verification theorem for a general class of investment and consumption problems where the standard dynamic programming principle does not hold. The theorem is an extension of the standard Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation in the form of a system of...

  19. Summary financial and investment mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilіy Prodan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the scientific literature, there is no single interpretation of the term «financial mechanism.» Therefore, the definition of a financial mechanismserves the main purpose of our work.Raised in this article, the problem studied in the works of a number of domestic and foreign economists L. Braginsky, V. Bocharov, I. Grishina,T. Denisova, G. Eghiazarian, B. Efimova, I. Zhuravkova, V. Ivanitskogo, E. Elias, A. Cossack, V. Krasowski, M. Kreynin, E. Cups, E. Melnikova, E.Mikhailova, W. Mikkova, G. Nikitina, A. Pilipenko, I. Roisman, V. Rybin, V. Rozhkov, A. Hachaturina.This paper analyzes the theoretical approaches to the definition of financial and investment mechanism. Also examined the mechanism of formationand use savings of economic agents, and the structure of the mechanism of formation and use savings.Thus, we came to the conclusions that the consumption of household savings is organized through the financial mechanism and organizing consumerspending ( consumption mechanism .The magnitude of long-term investments that are resistant to fluctuations in world financial markets , depends on the investment activity of thepopulation. Therefore, the concept of stimulation of investment activity in the economy is formulated based on the use of household savings . Oneimportant element of this concept is the formation and use of PPM savings of the population , since the value of sustainable, intensive investmentflows depends on the efficiency of this mechanism.

  20. Nuclear energy and investment requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author assesses the investment requirements of the French nuclear programme within the framework of the national economy. He then evokes the means of financing these requirements as well as drawing attention to certain constraints which must be taken into account

  1. GLOBALIZATION AND FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Maria - Ramona SARBU

    2015-01-01

    Much discussed and analyzed globalization is a multidimensional and complex process having today a significant magnitude as compared to the past, manifested through various forms of internationalization of production, foreign direct investment (FDI) flows, transnational corporations (TNCs), technology transfers, capital movements, migration flows, amplifying competition between investors and the connections between markets. The complexity phenomenon of globalization contributes to the diversi...

  2. Qatar - large capital investment planned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large capital investments are planned throughout Qatar's energy industry over the next five years totalling $25 billion. This article describes the successful commissioning of Qatar's first liquefied natural gas (LNG) project on time and within budget. The second LNG plant is well underway and plans for a third are under negotiation. (UK)

  3. Investment Management Of Natural Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Vitaliy Pylypiv; Vladimir Pavlenko

    2013-01-01

    The problem aspects of the effective use of natural resources income flow are described. Directions of economic development policy formation on the basis of capitalization of natural resources are defined. Advantages of natural capital investment management through the institute of trust fund are grounded. The features of functioning of trust fund of natural resources are exposed.

  4. Investment Climate and International Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Dollar, David; Hallward-Driemeier, Mary; Mengistae, Taye

    2004-01-01

    Drawing on recently completed firm-level surveys in Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Honduras, India, Nicaragua, Pakistan, and Peru, this paper investigates the relationship between investment climate and international integration. These standardized surveys of large, random samples of firms in common sectors reveal how firms experience bottlenecks and delays in hard infrastructure such as power...

  5. Scientific basis of investing agrarian sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novak I. M.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the scientific basis of investing agrarian economy of Ukraine. The emphasis is on the nature of the investment, the investment climate and the attractiveness of the agricultural sector. It is specified on the relevance of developing effective investment strategies for agricultural sector. It is proved that the creation of favorable conditions for investors improves the work of the financial system in the country. The factors that form and affect the investment climate are studied. Measures, aimed at disclosing and strengthening of investment potential of country are proposed.

  6. Assessing the Investment Climate for Climate Investments : A Comparative Framework for Clean Energy Investments in South Asia in a Global Context

    OpenAIRE

    Mani, Muthukumara S.

    2012-01-01

    One of the strong messages that came out of the recent United Nations Climate Change conference in Durban was that the private sector has to play an important role if we are to globally move toward a low carbon, climate resilient -- or "climate compatible" -- future. However, private investment will only flow at the scale and pace necessary if it is supported by clear, credible, and long-t...

  7. Between voluntary agreement and legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Hedegaard, Liselotte; Reisch, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    Voluntary agreements and self-imposed standards are broadly applied to restrict the influence food advertising exerts on children’s food choices – yet their effects are unknown. The current project will therefore investigate whether and, if yes, how the Danish Code for Responsible Food Marketing...

  8. Form 6 - gas balancing agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1988, a special Committee of the Rocky Mountain Mineral Law Foundation undertook a project to draft a model from gas balancing agreement. This project was initiated at the request of a number of Foundation members who felt that a model form gas balancing agreement would facilitate the negotiation of operating agreement, since gas balancing issues had become sticking points in the process. The Committee was composed of attorneys representing a wide cross-section of the oil and gas industry including both major and independent oil companies, production companies with interstate pipeline affiliates, and private practitioners. The Committee attempted to address the more controversial issues in gas balancing with optional provisions in the Form. To facilitate the negotiation process, the number of optional provisions was minimized. This form may be used as an Appendix to the new A.A.P.L. Form 610-1989 Model Form Operating Agreement. This book includes provision of this Form which are: Ownership of gas production; Balancing of production accounts; Cash balancing upon depletion; Deliverability tests; Nominations; Statements; Payment of taxes; Operating expenses; Overproducing allowable; Payment of leasehold burdens; Operator's liability; Successors and assigns; Audits; Arbitration; and Operator's fees

  9. Transatlantic Cooperation in Space: Eu-Canada Free Trade Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luise Weber-Steinhaus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available National governments are keenly aware of the need for investment in space. Canada, as a formal cooperating state in the European Space Agency (ESA, and Germany, as a leading member state of ESA, are interlinked in Europe’s space endeavours. Beyond ESA, Germany and Canada additionally have a strong history of bilateral cooperation on a range of space projects. This paper discusses the novel interdependencies between clear national and now supranational space policies, using the examples of the Canada-European Union (EU Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA. The agreement covers most aspects of the EU-Canada bilateral economic relationship and includes space. The paper focuses on international space policies, strategic bilateral co-operation, and technical accomplishments. It takes a closer look at German-Canadian collaboration in space programs and offers some reflection on the effect of both the EU and ESA’S transatlantic involvement in space.

  10. Self-Averaging Property of Minimal Investment Risk of Mean-Variance Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinzato, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    In portfolio optimization problems, the minimum expected investment risk is not always smaller than the expected minimal investment risk. That is, using a well-known approach from operations research, it is possible to derive a strategy that minimizes the expected investment risk, but this strategy does not always result in the best rate of return on assets. Prior to making investment decisions, it is important to an investor to know the potential minimal investment risk (or the expected minimal investment risk) and to determine the strategy that will maximize the return on assets. We use the self-averaging property to analyze the potential minimal investment risk and the concentrated investment level for the strategy that gives the best rate of return. We compare the results from our method with the results obtained by the operations research approach and with those obtained by a numerical simulation using the optimal portfolio. The results of our method and the numerical simulation are in agreement, but they differ from that of the operations research approach. PMID:26225761

  11. Inconsistent Investment and Consumption Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronborg, Morten Tolver, E-mail: mtk@atp.dk [ATP (Danish Labour Market Supplementary Pension Scheme) (Denmark); Steffensen, Mogens, E-mail: mogens@math.ku.dk [University of Copenhagen, Department of Mathematical Sciences (Denmark)

    2015-06-15

    In a traditional Black–Scholes market we develop a verification theorem for a general class of investment and consumption problems where the standard dynamic programming principle does not hold. The theorem is an extension of the standard Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation in the form of a system of non-linear differential equations. We derive the optimal investment and consumption strategy for a mean-variance investor without pre-commitment endowed with labor income. In the case of constant risk aversion it turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is independent of wealth. The optimal consumption strategy is given as a deterministic bang-bang strategy. In order to have a more realistic model we allow the risk aversion to be time and state dependent. Of special interest is the case were the risk aversion is inversely proportional to present wealth plus the financial value of future labor income net of consumption. Using the verification theorem we give a detailed analysis of this problem. It turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is given by a linear function of wealth plus the financial value of future labor income net of consumption. The optimal consumption strategy is again given as a deterministic bang-bang strategy. We also calculate, for a general time and state dependent risk aversion function, the optimal investment and consumption strategy for a mean-standard deviation investor without pre-commitment. In that case, it turns out that it is optimal to take no risk at all.

  12. Inconsistent Investment and Consumption Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a traditional Black–Scholes market we develop a verification theorem for a general class of investment and consumption problems where the standard dynamic programming principle does not hold. The theorem is an extension of the standard Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation in the form of a system of non-linear differential equations. We derive the optimal investment and consumption strategy for a mean-variance investor without pre-commitment endowed with labor income. In the case of constant risk aversion it turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is independent of wealth. The optimal consumption strategy is given as a deterministic bang-bang strategy. In order to have a more realistic model we allow the risk aversion to be time and state dependent. Of special interest is the case were the risk aversion is inversely proportional to present wealth plus the financial value of future labor income net of consumption. Using the verification theorem we give a detailed analysis of this problem. It turns out that the optimal amount of money to invest in stocks is given by a linear function of wealth plus the financial value of future labor income net of consumption. The optimal consumption strategy is again given as a deterministic bang-bang strategy. We also calculate, for a general time and state dependent risk aversion function, the optimal investment and consumption strategy for a mean-standard deviation investor without pre-commitment. In that case, it turns out that it is optimal to take no risk at all

  13. An analysis of household farm investment decisions under varying land tenure arrangements in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ayamga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Land tenure insecurity is widely perceived as a disincentive for long-term land improvement investment hence the objective of this paper is to evaluate how tenure (insecurity associated with different land use arrangements in Ghana influenced households’ plot level investment decisions and choices. The paper uses data from the Farmer-Based Organisations (FBO survey. The FBO survey collected information from 2,928 households across three ecological zones of Ghana using multistaged cluster sampling. Probit and Tobit models tested the effects of land tenancy and ownership arrangements on households’ investment behaviour while controlling other factors. It was found that marginal farm size was inversely related to tenure insecurity while tenure insecurity correlate positively with value of farm land and not farm size. Individual ownership and documentation of land significantly reduced the probability of households losing uncultivated lands. Individual land ownership increased both the probability of investing and level of investments made in land improvement and irrigation probably due to increasing importance households place on land ownership. Two possible explanations for this finding are: First, that land markets and land relations have changed significantly over the last two decades with increasing money transaction and fixed agreements propelled by population growth and increasing value of land. Secondly, inclusion of irrigation investment as a long term investment in land raises the value of household investment and the time period required to reap the returns on the investments. Households take land ownership and duration of tenancy into consideration if the resource implications of land investments are relatively huge and the time dimension for harvesting returns to investments is relatively long.

  14. Oil industry perspective on investment: in the CIS/Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the existance of abundant petroleum reserves in the CIS, oil production is decreasing through lack of sophisticated equipment, advanced technology and capital to fully exploit existing and now depleting oil fields and to open up new ones. The oil industry is in need of restructuring and substantial investment if it is to meet increasing domestic demand. Positive moves are being made within the CIS to create an attractive investment climate and encourage the setting up of joint ventures with foreign companies. The types of joint venture agreements that could be used are examined and the challenges and opportunities provided by such ventures are discussed. Notwithstanding serious problems, particularly those relating to political stability and the creation of a suitable legal framework, it is concluded that significant and promising opportunities exist for joint ventures in the oil and gas sectors. (UK)

  15. Czech OFDI: investment strategies and motivation to invest abroad

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemplinerová, Alena

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 2 (2012), s. 22-40. ISSN 0012-8775 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC10062; GA ČR(CZ) GAP402/11/2362 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : outward foreign direct investment * geographical and sectoral structures * company case studies Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.211, year: 2012

  16. Investment banks in AIC – alternative loan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Lysenok

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Determining the status and problems of modern investment in agricultural enterprises, as well as ways to improve their financial security. The article deals with the essence of investments and their varieties. The dynamics of the securities portfolio of domestic banks and investments in agriculture. According to a study submitted proposals to increase investment banking businesses in the agricultural sector, which is necessary to create such conditions are not included in the calculation of the volume of investment regulations investment banking provided by agribusiness companies; availability of specialized banks, which will focus its resources on the development of agricultural enterprises; give banks the opportunity to issue special investment certificates, which received funds will be channeled exclusively on investing in the development of agricultural enterprises; for the above to create an appropriate legal framework.

  17. INVESTMENT ANALYSIS BAKING INDUSTRY IN UKRAINE

    OpenAIRE

    Oleksandr S. Balan; Zoya A. Stepanjuk; Julia O. Dubenchuk

    2015-01-01

    The investment attractiveness of the baking industry in Ukraine is considered in the article. The factors that affect the investment attractiveness of the industry are considered. Dedicated key issues bakery products.

  18. STUDY OF INVESTMENT AND ECONOMIC RELAUNCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VĂDUVA MARIA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Investment is the main route of economic growth, and for carrying out a modern structures branches of production. By investments to ensure economic and social development of our country,

  19. APPROACHES FOR EVALUATING AND FINANCING INVESTMENT PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA-LOREDANA POPESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the financial investment approach and the investment evaluation methods, which are criteria for assessing both investment projects and their funding sources. An important role in the analysis carried out is played by the investment decision and financing decision quality. Making an investment decision implies computing the related investment efficiency indicators. They allow the comparison of several variants of the same investment project as well as their comparison with other projects in the same industry or in other industries. The financing decision concerns the selection between their own sources (share capital, depreciation fund, profits, reserve funds, additional capital, revenues from investments, attracted sources (domestic resource mobilization and borrowed sources (credits.

  20. An adaptation of the Interpersonal Problem Areas Rating Scale: pilot and interrater agreement study Adaptação da Escala de Áreas Problema da Psicoterapia Interpessoal: estudo piloto e avaliação de concordância

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Fontes de Andrade

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This article describes the adaptation of a rating scale of interpersonal psychotherapy problem areas to include a fifth problem area appropriate to bipolar disorder and an interrater agreement study in identifying interpersonal problem areas and selecting a primary treatment focus if patients were to engage in treatment. METHOD: Five research interpersonal psychotherapists assessed nine audiotapes of a single interview with five bipolar and four unipolar patients in which the interpersonal inventory and identification of problem areas were undertaken. RESULTS: Raters agreed on presence and absence of problem areas in seven tapes. Kappas for identification of problem areas were 1.00 (grief, 0.77 (role dispute, 0.61 (role transition, 0.57 (interpersonal deficits and 1.00 (loss of healthy self. Kappa for agreement on a primary clinical focus if patients were to engage in interpersonal psychotherapy treatment was 0.64. CONCLUSIONS: The adaptation of the original scale to include an area pertinent to bipolar disorder proved to be applicable and relevant for use with this population. The results show substantial interrater agreement in identifying problem areas and potential treatment focus.OBJETIVO: Este artigo descreve a adaptação de uma escala de avaliação de áreas problema da psicoterapia interpessoal que inclui uma área própria ao transtorno bipolar e um estudo de concordância em identificar áreas problema e selecionar um foco primário de tratamento caso os pacientes fossem participar de tratamento. MÉTODO: Cinco terapeutas interpessoais avaliaram nove audiotapes de uma única entrevista com cinco pacientes bipolares e quatro pacientes unipolares em que o inventário interpessoal e identificação de áreas problema foram empreendidos. RESULTADOS: Os avaliadores concordaram na presença e ausência de áreas problema em sete fitas. Kappas para identificação de áreas problema foram 1,00 (luto, 0,77 (disputa de papel, 0

  1. Public Policy and Private Investment in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Syed, Shabib Haider; Majeed, Muhammad Tariq

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes the importance of government policies in determining private investment in Pakistan. The empirical results show that public sector investment, changes in bank credit to the private sector and degree of capacity in the economy are playing an important role in the determination of private investment. The level of expected GDP also positively affected the private investment, which is consistent with flexible accelerator model. The results are also consistent with the mentione...

  2. Irreversible Investment, Operating Flexibility, and Time Lags

    OpenAIRE

    Takashima, Ryuta; GOTO, MAKOTO; Tsujimura, Motoh

    2010-01-01

    We consider an optimal investment problem when a firm such as an electric power company has the operational flexibility to expand and contract capacity with fixed cost. This problem is formulated as an impulse control problem combined with optimal stopping. Consequently, we obtain optimal investment timing, optimal capacity expansion and contraction timing, and the investment value. We also show investment, capacity expansion and contraction rule are influenced by the price volatility and the...

  3. IRREVERSIBLE INVESTMENT, OPERATING FLEXIBILITY, AND TIME LAGS

    OpenAIRE

    RYUTA TAKASHIMA; MAKOTO GOTO; MOTOH TSUJIMURA

    2010-01-01

    We consider an optimal investment problem when a firm such as an electric power company has the operational flexibility to expand and contract capacity with fixed cost. This problem is formulated as an impulse control problem combined with optimal stopping. Consequently, we obtain optimal investment timing, optimal capacity expansion and contraction timing, and the investment value. We also show investment, capacity expansion and contraction rule are influenced by the price volatility and the...

  4. ICT Investment and Productivity: A Provincial Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Sharpe; Jean-François Arsenault

    2008-01-01

    In 2008, Statistics Canada, for the first time, made available estimates of information and communication technology (ICT) investment by province. Given the importance of ICT investment for productivity growth, these data are important for the comparative analysis and understanding of productivity growth by province. The objective of this report is to present the basic data on ICT investment and ICT investment per worker in Canada and the ten provinces over the 1981-2007 period. The first par...

  5. CA Investment Casting Process of Complex Castings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    CA (Computer aided) investment casting technique used in superalloy castings of aerospace engine parts was presented. CA investment casting integrated computer application, RP (Rapid Prototyping) process, solidification simulation and investment casting process. It broke the bottle neck of making metal die. Solid model of complex parts were produced by UGII or other software, then translated into STL(Stereolithography) file, after RP process of SLS(Selective Laser Sintering), wax pattern used in investment ...

  6. Charity ethical investment : policy practice and disclosure

    OpenAIRE

    Kreander, Niklas; Beattie, Vivien; McPhail, Ken

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the ethical investment policies of leading UK charities. It is estimated that UK charities in 2004 had £79 billion in assets of which £44 billion were invested (NCVO, 2006), with further growth in both influence and size predicted (SustainAbility, 2003). Yet we know of no published academic research in the UK or Norway which focuses on charity ethical investment. Using various methods, we have investigated charity ethical investment policies and how these policies...

  7. Demand-Enhancing Investment in Mixed Duopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Bühler; Simon Wey

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines demand-enhancing investment and pricing in mixed duopoly. We analyze a model with differentiated products and reduced-form demand, making no assumptions on the relative efficiency of the public firm. First, we derive sufficient conditions for public investment to crowd out private investment. Second, we characterize the conditions under which individual investments (prices, respectively) in the mixed duopoly are higher (lower) than in the standard duopoly. Third, we show t...

  8. Differential Fecundity and Gender Biased Parental Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Aloysius Siow; Xiaodong Zhu

    1998-01-01

    Parents invest differently in sons and daughters. This paper formally re-examines the application of the Trivers Willard hypothesis to humans. Differential fecundity and assortive matching in marriage are necessary for parents to invest differently in the skills of their sons and daughters. Unlike the Trivers Willard hypothesis, better endowed parents do not necessarily invest relatively more on the survival of their sons relative to worse endowed parents. Parents invest more on the health of...

  9. Political and economic determinants of private investment

    OpenAIRE

    Quan V. Le

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents empirical evidence that links private investment to rate of return differential, risk aversion, and several types of political and economic risk. Estimating private investment equation for a panel of 25 developing countries over 21 years yields the following results: (i) socio-political instability characterized by nonviolent protests promotes private investment while violent uprisings hinder private investment; (ii) regime change instability characterized by constitutiona...

  10. STUDYING INVESTMENT PATTERNS IN RUSSIAN AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Bokusheva, R.; Bezlepkina, I.; Kypavykh, A.

    2007-01-01

    The study analyzes the investment behavior of Russian farms during the period of economic stabilization that followed the financial crisis of 1998. While the literature primarily uses accelerator and adjustment costs models to describe farms investment behavior in the context of transition countries, our study reveals that error-correction formulation of the investment equation is more suited to analyzing Russian farms investment patterns. In addition, by distinguishing between different cate...

  11. Foreign Direct Investments in European Union Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Georgeta Ilie

    2015-01-01

    The European Union continues to be an important source and destination of foreign direct investment (FDI) in the world measured by flows and stocks. Investment is part of the EU’s common commercial policy, because FDI is one of the vehicles through which each country can develop its industries. The EU's investment policy is focused on providing EU investors and investments with market access and with legal certainty and a stable, predictable, fair and properly regulated environment in which t...

  12. Options, the Value of Capital, and Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew B. Abel; Dixit, Avinash K; Janice C. Eberly; Robert S. Pindyck

    1995-01-01

    Capital investment decisions must recognize the limitations on the firm's ability later to sell off or expand capacity. This paper shows how opportunities for future expansion or contraction can be valued as options, how this valuation relates to the q-theory of investment, and how these options affect the incentive to invest. Generally, the option to expand reduces the incentive to invest, while the option to disinvest raises it. We show how these options interact to determine the effect of ...

  13. SIGNIFICANT FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT (FDI) IN ECONOMICS

    OpenAIRE

    Simona Mihaela POPOVICI

    2009-01-01

    Investments in development are essential to any economic system (business, civil organization or public institution, sector, national economy, etc..). Through them ensures the creation, consolidation, reclamation, improvement and growth of any of the system. Regarding foreign direct investment in recent years has been a pretty big interest worldwide in attracting foreign capital, some countries managed to attract higher foreign direct investment, other foreign investment portfolio, and only a...

  14. Regional Development and Effects of Investment Banks

    OpenAIRE

    İsmail Erkan Çelik; Umit Hacioglu; Hasan Dinçer

    2013-01-01

    The World Bank is the most important financier for international investment. The bank opens credits mostly for investment projects in developing countries. Turkey has received various investment credits since its membership to the World Bank on March 11, 1947. The credits were used for economic and social domains. Turkey has also been granted credits from the European Investment Bank (EIB). The credits received are composed of micro credits that belong to small and medium enterprises (SMEs). ...

  15. Managing Enterprise Service Level Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Li

    2010-01-01

    The continued trend of globalization and technology improvement like the internet and transportation have spawned an increasing number of complex service chains that span across local, regional and national boundaries. Service level agreement (SLA) plays a crucial role in gluing service chains together. In that regard, this paper provides a complete guidance of end-to-end lifecycle management of SLA, including SLA-aware service modelling and terms optimization, contract drafting and complianc...

  16. 31 CFR 586.312 - New investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New investment. 586.312 Section 586...) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 586.312 New investment. The term new investment means... to, or a loan or other extension of credit to, a public or private undertaking, entity, or...

  17. Zambia : An Assessment of the Investment Climate

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This Zambia Investment Climate Assessment (ICA) forms part of World Bank Group global initiative to systematically analyze conditions for private investment and enterprise growth. Improving the investment climate is recognized as a key pillar of developing countries' path to promote economic growth and reduce poverty. The I C A compliments and amplifies a series of diagnostic work on this ...

  18. Investments in art: opportunities and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Pashkus, M.

    2013-01-01

    Art as an investment avenue has been considered an interesting and profitable alternative, but it is also extremely risky. These alternative investments' performance is alluring. Indices tracking the performance of high-class art have held up well in the recent economic slowdown, while art-auction houses report record prices. This article discusses the basic problems of investment in works of Art.

  19. Equatorial Guinea : Public Investment Management Review

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz Moreno, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    The chapter offers concise diagnostics of the public investment management (PIM) system in Equatorial Guinea. It provides specific examples of how underperforming institutions throughout the investment process raise the risk of selecting white elephants, reducing the value for money of investment projects and undermining the quality of completed projects. Politically compatible recommendat...

  20. International Trade and Investment Report 2001

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Forfás' International Trade and Investment Report 2001 examines in detail Ireland's performance in international trade and in flows of investment, both inwards and outwards. This report shows the vital place of international trade and investment in the Irish economy.

  1. Principles for Managing a Tribe's Financial Investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Gelvin

    1996-01-01

    Argues that to manage a tribe's investment portfolio well requires knowledge of the tribe's needs as well as of the money management industry and its concepts and language. Discusses opportunities for the investment of tribal funds, examining mutual funds, the use of investment advisors and consultants, diversification, and levels of risk. (MAB)

  2. 12 CFR 228.23 - Investment test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment test. 228.23 Section 228.23 Banks... COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT (REGULATION BB) Standards for Assessing Performance § 228.23 Investment test. (a) Scope of test. The investment test evaluates a bank's record of helping to meet the credit needs of...

  3. CHINA'S INVESTMENT in 2010 H1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Attractiong foreign investment In the first half of 2010,the number of the newly established foreign-invested enterprises was 12377,an increase of 18.8%; the actual use of foreign investment was US$51.43billion,up 19.6%.

  4. Investment factor of economic development in Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravshan Yuldashev

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducing anti-crisis program and maintenance of high investment activity in Uzbekistan were among core factors of tackling with global crisis pressure. However, the high investment dynamics bears a threat of economic “overheating” and decrease of investment process effectiveness. Then, it can be neutralized by use of principles and tools of comprehensive innovation management.

  5. Quantitative investment strategies and portfolio management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, J.

    2012-01-01

    This book contains three essays on alternative investments and portfolio management. Taking from a portfolio investor’s perspective, the first essay analyzes the portfolio implication of investing in hedge funds when there is a hedge fund lockup period. The second essay studies the investment prefer

  6. 12 CFR 615.5140 - Eligible investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible investments. 615.5140 Section 615.5140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5140 Eligible investments....

  7. 12 CFR 25.23 - Investment test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment test. 25.23 Section 25.23 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT ACT AND INTERSTATE DEPOSIT PRODUCTION REGULATIONS Regulations Standards for Assessing Performance § 25.23 Investment test. (a) Scope of test. The investment...

  8. Monetary control and banks’ investment in securities

    OpenAIRE

    YUMANOVA N.N.; ILNITSKAYA T.O.

    2015-01-01

    The article considers the impact of monetary control on banks’ investment in securities. Basing on the analysis of evidence on commercial banks’ investment in securities over the last five years the authors identified current objectives and tools of banking investment, as well as peculiarities of their realization in the context of the monetary policy carried out by the Bank of Russia.

  9. 12 CFR 703.3 - Investment policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment policies. 703.3 Section 703.3 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.3 Investment policies. A Federal credit union's board of directors must...

  10. 12 CFR 703.18 - Grandfathered investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grandfathered investments. 703.18 Section 703.18 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.18 Grandfathered investments. (a) Subject to safety and...

  11. 12 CFR 347.108 - Portfolio investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Portfolio investments. 347.108 Section 347.108 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.108 Portfolio investments. (a) Portfolio investments. If a bank, directly...

  12. 12 CFR 615.5132 - Investment purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment purposes. 615.5132 Section 615.5132 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5132 Investment purposes....

  13. 12 CFR 563e.23 - Investment test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment test. 563e.23 Section 563e.23 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT Standards for Assessing Performance § 563e.23 Investment test. (a) Scope of test. The investment test...

  14. 12 CFR 211.9 - Investment procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment procedures. 211.9 Section 211.9... the case of an Edge corporation not engaged in banking. (5) Investment in a general partnership or... have no existing banking presence. (f) Prior notice. An investment that does not qualify for...

  15. GLOBALIZATION AND FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Chirilă – Donciu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mobilizing financial resources to cover investment needs is a concern of all countries, developed or developing ones, of consolidated market economies or emerging ones. A distinctive characteristic of Global Economy over the last few decades has been the rising rate and impressive increase in Foreign Direct Investment (FDI. The purpose of this research is to analyse global FDI inflows in Europe and in Romania. The results of the research support the idea that the balance of economic power is changing in the world economy and the countries that own a stable and solid industrial base are at an advantage. The new trends determined by the economic crisis in the field of FDI refer to the growing percentage of developing and emerging countries in the global flows of FDI.

  16. INVESTMENT PORTFOLIO MANAGER- MOBILE APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. ADAPANAWAR

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The application of this project is to help the user keep track of his investments and manage his portfolio anytime, anywhere. A system of this sort finds its applications in trading, keeping track of the user's/company's cumulative profit/loss from multiple investments in stocks, mutual funds or fixed income, helping the user keep an eye on the market fluctuations in real-time and aid in financial decision-making even when a user is on the move. The highly interactive and rich Interface of the application is both convenient and inviting to the user, while abstracting the underlying live fetching of data, manipulation and storage. Finally, the techniques will beimplemented on standard available hardware without compromising on performance. It takes advantage of Android, the most successful and popular endeavors of Google till date thus offering great potential in a huge market.

  17. Cost Estimates and Investment Decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When evaluating new investment projects, oil companies traditionally use the discounted cashflow method. This method requires expected cashflows in the numerator and a risk adjusted required rate of return in the denominator in order to calculate net present value. The capital expenditure (CAPEX) of a project is one of the major cashflows used to calculate net present value. Usually the CAPEX is given by a single cost figure, with some indication of its probability distribution. In the oil industry and many other industries, it is common practice to report a CAPEX that is the estimated 50/50 (median) CAPEX instead of the estimated expected (expected value) CAPEX. In this article we demonstrate how the practice of using a 50/50 (median) CAPEX, when the cost distributions are asymmetric, causes project valuation errors and therefore may lead to wrong investment decisions with acceptance of projects that have negative net present values. (author)

  18. Investment climate in the GCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future for oil producers in the Gulf is discussed and the emphasis is very much on Saudi Arabia. The net source flow to developing countries is illustrated but substantial changes are expected soon due to a combination of crises in the Far East and in Russia. Foreign investment in Saudi increased dramatically in 1997 and Saudi has great potential for maximising inward flows and minimising outward flows for the benefit of the national economy. It was stressed that at present, international factors are largely negative but domestic factors are very positive and will prevail in determining investments. The paper was presented under the sub-headings of (i) oil prices, (ii) the Asian crisis, (iii) stability in the Middle East, (iv) population growth (v) private sector viability, (vi) redefining the role of the state and (vii) long-term oil revenue prospects. Saudi Arabia is expected to continue to be a major player in the petroleum business

  19. Local investment in renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the vast majority of renewable energies projects are established by commercial developers, some of them are financed by ''ordinary citizens'' pooling together through different schemes. This is particularly frequent in Denmark and Germany, possibly a key reason for the continuous and so successful growth of various renewable energies sources in these countries. This guideline aims to define the term of local investment and provides examples of development and recommendations. (A.L.B.)

  20. Local investment in renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents european examples on the interest of the local investment, illustrated by cases studies in Germany, Denmark and Switzerland. Two main points were discussed: the financial tools and the french strategy. The colloquium provided many discussions and analyzes on the possibility of significant contribution to the collective efforts in favor of the public involvement in the renewable energies development in Europe. (A.L.B.)

  1. Citizenship, Fertility, and Parental Investments

    OpenAIRE

    Ciro Avitabile; Irma Clots-Figueras; Paolo Masella

    2014-01-01

    Citizenship rights are associated with better economic opportunities for immigrants. This paper studies how in a country with a large fraction of temporary migrants the fertility decisions of foreign citizens respond to a change in the rules that regulate child legal status at birth. The introduction of birthright citizenship in Germany in 2000, represented a positive shock to the returns to investment in child human capital. Consistent with Becker's "quality-quantity" model of fertility, we ...

  2. Citizenship, Fertility and Parental Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Ciro Avitabile; Irma Clots-Figueras; Paolo Masella

    2012-01-01

    Citizenship rights are associated with better economic opportunities for immigrants. This paper studies how in a country with a large fraction of temporary migrants the fertility decisions of foreign citizens respond to a change in the rules that regulate child legal status at birth. The introduction of birthright citizenship in Germany, following the introduction of the new German nationality law in 2000, represented a positive shock to the returns to investment in child human capital. Consi...

  3. Customer experiences receiving investment services

    OpenAIRE

    Szepe, Sanna

    2015-01-01

    Today the customers are able to compare the products of the different services available easily and between service companies, the experience the customer receives has become more and more important. Banking services have experienced the same evolution than the other surrounding service companies, and the importance of more complicated advisory services is sought after, when simpler transactions are taken care by the customers themselves. Investment services are one of the highest profiti...

  4. TERRITORIAL DIMENSION OF INTEGRATED INVESTMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Florin Marian BUHOCIU

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents new developments in territorial development plan starting from the need to accelerate them in a European context (EC,2013). It introduced the concept of Integrated Territorial Investments (ITI) as the main vector for the implementation of territorial development at the sub-regional, regional, national or trans-boundary level. It shows the features of this concept (advantages, disadvantages) and makes a brief presentation of the possibilities of implementation in Romania, Tu...

  5. A Goal Seeking Investment Model

    OpenAIRE

    K. O. Cogger; O. M. Joy; W. Ruland; P. L. YU

    1983-01-01

    A probabilistic investment model is formulated as a Wiener process with a barrier. A planning horizon, targeted rate of return, discount rate, and the mean and variance rate of return are the important parameters in the model. Sensitivity analyses are studied. Several significant statements can be made: (1) contrary to traditional mean-variance portfolio models, rate of return variance may not always be an undesirable characteristic, since higher variance can increase the chances of achieving...

  6. Alternative investments: return driving actors

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, K; G. Marcato

    2011-01-01

    In an asset allocation process, correlations are particularly important if one includes 'alternative investments' such as real estate, commodities and hedge funds, which have been proclaimed to provide diversifying benefits within the overall portfolio context. However, by looking at correlations between asset classes alone some diversification benefits may be over or under-stated. More recently, finance literature has focused on alternative asset classes to study their behaviour and to ident...

  7. Investing for Health - Consultation Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Department of Health; Social Services and Public Safety

    2000-01-01

    Investing for Health aims to improve the health of our people and reduce inequalities in health. It sets out a broad range of areas where new and concerted action could make a significant difference to health and wellbeing. Three priority groups are identified; the very young, children and young people, and older people. In line with best practice elsewhere a settings approach is proposed, and homes, schools, workplaces and communities are identified as priority settings. As part of an ...

  8. Global Governmental Investment in Nanotechnologies

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Lee

    2005-01-01

    Nanotechnologies seem to have huge potential to bring benefits in areas as diverse as drug development, water decontamination, information and communication infrastructures, and the production of stronger, lighter and perfect nanomaterials. This potential attracts global investment from governments and private sectors in nanotechnologies with the hopes that R&D and commercial applications of nanomaterials, nanodevices, nanoparticles and nanodrugs will provide new impetus, after the ebb-tides ...

  9. Volatility, Investment and Disappointment Aversion

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua Aizenman; Nancy Marion

    1995-01-01

    This study uncovers a statistically significant negative correlation between volatility and private investment over the 1970-93 period in a set of almost fifty developing countries and provides a possible interpretation of this result by using the disappointment- aversion expected utility framework first described by Gul (1991). We consider a number of different volatility measures related to domestic policies or to external factors. As the various volatility measures tend to be positively co...

  10. Technological Diffusion and Investment Decision

    OpenAIRE

    Balatsky, Ye.

    2012-01-01

    The article offers the model of investment decision, which allows to understand the microeconomic motivation of the company, when it chooses between the imitation and innovation strategies. Proposed and tested applied method for estimation of the technological frontier, which allows the change from the regime of borrowing technologies to the regime of their creation. The author gives the interpretation of technological changes in terms of technological traps theory.

  11. Public investment under fiscal constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Missale; emanuele bacchiocchi; elisa borghi

    2009-01-01

    EU New Member States must comply with the Stability and Growth Pact (SGP) and the investment requirements implied by the Lisbon Agenda. However, the SGP rules may result in underinvestment or distortions in the allocation of public expenditure. This paper provides new evidence on the effects of debt sustainability and SGP fiscal constraints on government expenditure in fixed capital, education and health in OECD countries by estimating government expenditure reaction functions to public debt ...

  12. Effects of Deployment Investment on the Growth of the Biofuels Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, L. J.; Bush, B. W.

    2013-12-01

    In support of the national goals for biofuel use in the United States, numerous technologies have been developed that convert biomass to biofuels. Some of these biomass to biofuel conversion technology pathways are operating at commercial scales, while others are in earlier stages of development. The advancement of a new pathway toward commercialization involves various types of progress, including yield improvements, process engineering, and financial performance. Actions of private investors and public programs can accelerate the demonstration and deployment of new conversion technology pathways. These investors (both private and public) will pursue a range of pilot, demonstration, and pioneer scale biorefinery investments; the most cost-effective set of investments for advancing the maturity of any given biomass to biofuel conversion technology pathway is unknown. In some cases, whether or not the pathway itself will ultimately be technically and financially successful is also unknown. This report presents results from the Biomass Scenario Model -- a system dynamics model of the biomass to biofuels system -- that estimate effects of investments in biorefineries at different maturity levels and operational scales. The report discusses challenges in estimating effects of such investments and explores the interaction between this deployment investment and a volumetric production incentive. Model results show that investments in demonstration and deployment have a substantial positive effect on the development of the biofuels industry. Results also show that other conditions, such as supportive policies, have major impacts on the effectiveness of such investments.

  13. The Possible Effects of Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership and Trans-Pacific Partnership on Chinese Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Aslan, Buhara; Mavuş, Merve; Oduncu, Arif

    2014-01-01

    The failure to advance the multilateral trade negotiations of the World Trade Organization (WTO) was a disruption for the international trading system. Alternatively, many countries have commenced to establish bilateral and regional Free Trade Agreements (FTA). Among those agreements the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) and Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) are agreements with members from across the Atlantic and the Pacific respectively. This note focuses on the impacts of...

  14. 29 CFR 2550.404c-5 - Fiduciary relief for investments in qualified default investment alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; provide a rate of return generally consistent with that earned on intermediate investment grade bonds; and... plan offers a “broad range of investment alternatives” within the meaning of 29 CFR 2550.404c-1(b)(3... default investment alternative, including a description of the investment objectives, risk and...

  15. 12 CFR 703.5 - Discretionary control over investments and investment advisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discretionary control over investments and investment advisers. 703.5 Section 703.5 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.5 Discretionary control over investments...

  16. DIRECT INVESTMENT ON REGIONAL MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIU NEAMŢU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investment are that category of investments that allow participation in leadership andeffective control of the companies in which it invests. It's so new firms, as well as the establishment ofinternational operations of the company through expansion of existing operations. Typically, the companyincurred in a market that is confined to a distinct geographical area, but the limits of market changes. Thechange can be the result of higher management decisions on market opening and development of a newtechnology or product. Markets with a lower level of development are likely to attract a higher level of directinvestments than those in more developed countries. The specific reasons behind the decision of a company toinvest abroad are operating efficiency, reduce risk, market development and Government policy in the hostcountry. Transnational corporations are large conglomerates which consists of the parent company and itssubsidiaries/branches, both in the country of residence and abroad. Transnational corporations affect stronglyboth the production and the world of international economic relations. This influence is determined by themotivations of expansion that they promote. The expansion of transnational corporations has as satisfying"ambitions" of global expansion, and impulsionate getting supraprofiturilor. The strength of these structures isbased on maximizing profits.

  17. Green investment as a financing tool for solar energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of a workshop on the title subject (25 March 1997) are presented. The purpose of the workshop was to transfer knowledge and disseminate information about the fiscal options and regulations in the Netherlands to invest in environment-friendly projects (EIA, VAMIL, Regeling Groenprojecten). Next to presentations of representatives of a bank, involved in green funding projects, a public utility and a housing corporation, four cases were discussed in which green investment options for solar energy system projects have been evaluated: (1) large-scale solar boiler project (150 m2) in a health care home (utility building); (2) large-scale photovoltaic (PV) project (1000 m2) in the facade of a new office building; (3) application of solar water heaters in a housing project of 1000 private property houses; and (4) a cluster project of 100 private property houses with a 5 m2 roof-integrated PV-system for each house

  18. Will open markets, restructuring and regulation support investment in innovation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    : expected investment in innovation, large scale generation, information technology, transmission technology, the challenge of investment in innovation, and a new paradigm in the electricity sector

  19. A postnational marketplace: negotiating the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Bartl; E. Fahey

    2014-01-01

    The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP), the new trade agreement between the EU and the US, has a great ambition: not only if measured by the size of the emergent market, but also the potential spill over of its regulatory standards to the global level. The cooperation between the

  20. 12 CFR 225.143 - Policy statement on nonvoting equity investments by bank holding companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... agreement placing long-term restrictions on the rights of a holder of voting securities. (12 CFR 225.2(b)(4... their investments, prevent takeovers by others, and allow for sale of their options, warrants, or rights... distribution in the event of sale, have a much greater prospect of achieving consistency with the Act...

  1. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL EFFICIENCY OF PROPERTY INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Oana Virlanuta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Investments play a key part within the goods and services industry, consumerism and community as well. The effects generated by any investment project substantiate this statement, regardless the sector of activity in which they are implemented. In the current market economy, economic efficiency indicators are playing an important role in assessing and analyzing an investment project since due to these indicators, the investor can become aware of the most important aspects they need to respond promptly. In this respect, we conducted a market analysis of real estate investments in Romania, highlighting economic and social efficiency of property investments.

  2. China's Outward Direct and Portfolio Investments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hung-Gay Fung; Qingfeng Wilson Liu; Erin H. C. Kao

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes developments and trends related to China's outward direct and financial investments by examining Chinese firms' overseas acquisitions, China's holdings of US Treasury securities, and the recently formally launched Qualified Domestic Institutional Investor programs. Strategies should be developed to reach optimal decisions for both direct and portfolio investments. We argue that China should have a longer-term view for both direct and portfolio investments, enabling China to become the leader in Asia while maintaining its sustainable growth objective. China should invest heavily in the development of the Asian bond market and the Asian Currency Fund when making both portfolio and direct investment decisions.

  3. Financing for Infrastructure Investment in G-20 Countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Sengupta, Ramprasad; Mukherjee, Sacchidananda; Gupta, Manish

    2015-01-01

    This study looks into various sources of financing infrastructure and the demands for infrastructure investments and highlights the mismatch between demand and supply of funds for infrastructure financing in India. In order to address this mismatch, and given the constraints of traditional sources of infrastructure finance in India, this paper suggests credit enhancement scheme (CES) as an alternative framework for mobilizing long-term infrastructure finance. It suggests for scaling up CES as...

  4. Mineral processing techniques for recycling investment casting shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlin, Cheryl L.; Nilsen, David N.; Dahlin, David C.; Hunt, Alton H.; Collins, W. Keith

    2002-01-01

    The Albany Research Center of the U.S. Department of Energy used materials characterization and minerals beneficiation methods to separate and beneficially modify spent investment-mold components to identify recycling opportunities and minimize environmentally sensitive wastes. The physical and chemical characteristics of the shell materials were determined and used to guide bench-scale research to separate reusable components by mineral-beneficiation techniques. Successfully concentrated shell materials were evaluated for possible use in new markets.

  5. Investment Appraisal Process in the Banking & Finance Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Akalu, M.M.; Turner, Rodney

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWe have studied how the banking and finance industry performs investment appraisal, measures subsequent follow-up and designates project success or failure. Furthermore, the authors looked into the extent of use of the new generation value management models. The result shows that firms are not using the same measurement scale in all stages of a project. Moreover, there is a tendency to shift from traditional appraisal methods to the new generation value management models.

  6. Observations on Judicial Approaches to Discerning Investment Adviser Status under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Carroll

    2015-01-01

    ENGLISH: This article analyzes judicial approaches to interpreting the definition of an investment adviser under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, the United States federal statute governing investment advisers. It starts by noting the role of investment advisers in the United States financial services industry and introduces the statutory definition of an investment adviser and each element of this definition. It explains briefly why adviser status is important and touches on the relation...

  7. 2008 East Asia Investment Forum Investment Cooperation in East Asia Facing Global Financial Fluctuations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ 2008 East Asia Investment Forum was held from May 10 to May 11 in Beijing with the theme of"Investment Cooperation in East Asia Facing Global Financial Fluctuations".It shed light on investment challenges and opportunities in Vietnam,Lao,Cambodia and Burma which are the four emerging markets in East Asia,and investment hotspots in Vietnam as well as the potential for investment cooperation in East Asia.

  8. The returns and risks of investment portfolio in stock market crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang-Cheng; Long, Chao; Chen, Xiao-Dan

    2015-06-01

    The returns and risks of investment portfolio in stock market crashes are investigated by considering a theoretical model, based on a modified Heston model with a cubic nonlinearity, proposed by Spagnolo and Valenti. Through numerically simulating probability density function of returns and the mean escape time of the model, the results indicate that: (i) the maximum stability of returns is associated with the maximum dispersion of investment portfolio and an optimal stop-loss position; (ii) the maximum risks are related with a worst dispersion of investment portfolio and the risks of investment portfolio are enhanced by increasing stop-loss position. In addition, the good agreements between the theoretical result and real market data are found in the behaviors of the probability density function and the mean escape time.

  9. The risks and returns of stock investment in a financial market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang-Cheng; Mei, Dong-Cheng

    2013-03-01

    The risks and returns of stock investment are discussed via numerically simulating the mean escape time and the probability density function of stock price returns in the modified Heston model with time delay. Through analyzing the effects of delay time and initial position on the risks and returns of stock investment, the results indicate that: (i) There is an optimal delay time matching minimal risks of stock investment, maximal average stock price returns and strongest stability of stock price returns for strong elasticity of demand of stocks (EDS), but the opposite results for weak EDS; (ii) The increment of initial position recedes the risks of stock investment, strengthens the average stock price returns and enhances stability of stock price returns. Finally, the probability density function of stock price returns and the probability density function of volatility and the correlation function of stock price returns are compared with other literatures. In addition, good agreements are found between them.

  10. 7 CFR 1717.657 - Investments above the 15 percent level by certain borrowers not exempt under § 1717.656(a).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO INSURED AND GUARANTEED ELECTRIC LOANS Investments, Loans, and Guarantees by Electric Borrowers § 1717.657 Investments above the 15 percent level by certain borrowers not exempt under... provisions of their mortgage, loan contract, and any other agreements with RUS and that do not qualify for...

  11. Service Level Agreements in BREIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Bastian; Frutos, Henar Munoz; Laria, Giuseppe

    With electronic business (eBusiness) becoming ubiquitous, the traditional ways of doing commerce need to be changed or completely replaced to support the end users effectively in performing their business. This includes especially the representation of business relationships with an electronic format to allow for automated processing of the respective parts of e.g. contractual obligations. One prominent representation tool are Service Level Agreements. Conceptually established as paper representation to describe parts of contracts of telecom operators, SLAs have become a research topic in the ICT domain now since several years.

  12. Impact of Real-world Factors Influencing Investment Decisions on the Costs and Distribution of Climate Change Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, J.; Iyer, G.; McJeon, H. C.; Leon, C.; Hultman, N.

    2015-12-01

    Strategies to mitigate dangerous anthropogenic climate change require a dramatic transformation of the energy system to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, that in turn requires large-scale investments. Investment decisions depend not only on investment capital availability but also on investment risks. A number of factors such as national policy environments, quality of public and private institutions, sector, firm and technology specific characteristics can affect investors' assessments of risks, leading to a wide variation in the business climate for investment. Such heterogeneity in investment risks can have important implications, as investors usually respond to risks by requiring higher returns for riskier projects; delaying or forgoing the investments; or preferring to invest in existing, familiar projects. We study the impact of variation in investment risks on regional patterns of emissions mitigation, the cost of emissions mitigation and patterns of technology deployment. We modify an integrated assessment model, widely used in global climate policy analyses (the Global Change Assessment Model) and incorporate decisions on investments based on risks along two dimensions. Along the first dimension, we vary perceived risks associated with particular technologies. To do so, we assign a higher cost of capital for investment in low-carbon technologies as these involve intrinsically higher levels of regulatory and market risk. The second dimension uses a proxy to vary investment risks across regions, based on an institutional quality metric published by the World Economic Forum. Explicit representation of investment risks has two major effects. First, it raises the cost of emissions mitigation relative to a world with uniform investment risks. Second, it shifts the pattern of emissions mitigation, with industrialized countries mitigating more, and developing countries mitigating less. Our results suggest that institutional reforms aimed at lowering investment

  13. Aplikasi Smart Investment Planner Berbasis Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasetya K.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The lack of knowledge of investment products lead many people decided not to invest for their future. This can be overcome by utilizing the information and communication technology development by making a web application of Smart Investment Planner with the aim to recognize various types of investment product as well as the character investment and tips for users. This application uses a set of data as knowledge base which obtained from the literature, discussions with economic experts, database design, user interface design, as well as tests and evaluations by experts. The result of these applications concluded that this application collect the information as well as investment products that suit into their needs and also encourage them to start invest.

  14. Ex-ante versus ex-post assessments of the economic benefits of Free Trade Agreements: Lessons from the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

    OpenAIRE

    Grumiller, Jan-Augustin

    2014-01-01

    Much of the current discussion about the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) is focused on the potential welfare and employment effects. Supporters of TTIP often support their argument by highlighting the optimistic results of computable general equilibrium (CGE) models. CGE-models are the methodological backbone of most ex-ante impact assessments of free-trade agreements, as for instance published by the European Commission. The objective of this paper is to assess the accu...

  15. 7 CFR 947.111 - Marketing agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing agreement. 947.111 Section 947.111 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Definitions § 947.111 Marketing agreement. Marketing agreement means Marketing Agreement No. 114, as amended....

  16. 46 CFR Sec. 4 - Service agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service agreements. Sec. 4 Section 4 Shipping MARITIME... Service agreements. Contract MA ___ Service Agreement, Federal Port Controller This agreement, made as of... diligence to protect the interests of the United States in support of any deployment of the Armed Forces...

  17. 5 CFR 2421.20 - Election agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Election agreement. 2421.20 Section 2421... Election agreement. Election agreement means an agreement under part 2422 of this subchapter signed by all... representation election in an appropriate unit....

  18. Parent-teacher agreement on children's problems in 21 societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rescorla, Leslie A; Bochicchio, Lauren; Achenbach, Thomas M;

    2014-01-01

    informant differences varied in magnitude across the societies studied. Cross-informant correlations for problem scale scores varied moderately across societies studied and were significantly higher for Externalizing than Internalizing problems. Parents and teachers tended to rate the same items as low......Parent-teacher cross-informant agreement, although usually modest, may provide important clinical information. Using data for 27,962 children from 21 societies, we asked the following: (a) Do parents report more problems than teachers, and does this vary by society, age, gender, or type of problem......? (b) Does parent-teacher agreement vary across different problem scales or across societies? (c) How well do parents and teachers in different societies agree on problem item ratings? (d) How much do parent-teacher dyads in different societies vary in within-dyad agreement on problem items? (e) How...

  19. Development of investments in the context of socially responsible business

    OpenAIRE

    Дружинина, Евгения Олеговна

    2015-01-01

    The meaning of the concepts of investments, social investments, and socially responsible investments has been elucidated in the article. Differentiation of investments by the level of social responsibility has been suggested. Preconditions, which contribute to formation of socially responsible investments, as well as criteria of attributing real investments to this category have been considered.

  20. Sexual Agreements among Gay Male Couples

    OpenAIRE

    Hoff, Colleen H.; Beougher, Sean C.

    2008-01-01

    Many gay male couples make agreements about whether or not to permit sex with outside partners, yet little is known about the development and maintenance of these agreements, their impact on relationships, and whether they are an effective HIV prevention strategy. Using semi-structured, qualitative interviews, 39 gay male couples were asked about their sexual agreements and about other relationship dynamics that might affect their agreements. Analysis revealed a wide range of agreement types,...

  1. Investment and Upgrade in Distributed Generation under Uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqui, Afzal; Maribu, Karl

    2008-08-18

    The ongoing deregulation of electricity industries worldwide is providing incentives for microgrids to use small-scale distributed generation (DG) and combined heat and power (CHP) applications via heat exchangers (HXs) to meet local energy loads. Although the electric-only efficiency of DG is lower than that of central-station production, relatively high tariff rates and the potential for CHP applications increase the attraction of on-site generation. Nevertheless, a microgrid contemplatingthe installation of gas-fired DG has to be aware of the uncertainty in the natural gas price. Treatment of uncertainty via real options increases the value of the investment opportunity, which then delays the adoption decision as the opportunity cost of exercising the investment option increases as well. In this paper, we take the perspective of a microgrid that can proceed in a sequential manner with DG capacity and HX investment in order to reduce its exposure to risk from natural gas price volatility. In particular, with the availability of the HX, the microgrid faces a tradeoff between reducing its exposure to the natural gas price and maximising its cost savings. By varying the volatility parameter, we find that the microgrid prefers a direct investment strategy for low levels of volatility and a sequential one for higher levels of volatility.

  2. International funding sources for major coal investment projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, T.L.

    2006-02-15

    This study investigates the key investors in clean coal technology (CCT) projects worldwide. After a brief overview of several clean coal technologies that are near commercial status, the report focuses on investors and their appetite for CCT project investments. Financing approaches are discussed in some detail, including most forms of debt and equity financing utilised for power plants development. This includes traditional bank loans, private placements and 114 securities, vendor financing, project financing and private equity. The financing structure of past large-scale CCT projects discussed, a swell as the structure and key development bank and commercial bank participation. Extensive lists of potential investors are provided, including commercial and investment banks, development banks, hedge funds, private equity firms and governments. The lists were compiled from research on investors in CCT projects or energy/power projects with similar risk characteristics. A major section of the report discusses the key issues and risk for CCT investments. Government policy incentive levers are reviewed as to effectiveness: tax credits and deductions, loans, loan guarantees, rate incentives, price supports availability insurance, performance guarantees and grants. Regulations and emissions trading schemes are also included in the discussion of government levers. The final section offers several conclusions and recommendations for how both public and private participants can encourage increased investments in clean coal technology projects over the next decade and beyond. 61 refs., 5 figs., 15 tabs.

  3. Investing in e-health

    CERN Document Server

    Gustafson, David H; Hawkins, Robert P

    2007-01-01

    As the Internet's presence in health care grows more pervasive, an increasing number of health care providers have begun to implement eHealth innovations in their practice. This book explores the development of a model to predict and explain the degree of success it is possible to achieve in implementing e-health systems. This model allows an institution to benchmark its progress towards IHCS implementation and advises administrators where to invest resources to increase the chance of successful implementation. A set of case studies highlights key features of the model, with each case study fu

  4. Quality improvement as an investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, William B

    2002-01-01

    Health care organizations are experiencing increasing internal and external pressures to improve the quality of care that they provide. However, there is not a framework that can be used to help understand the value of quality improvement projects and to prioritize competing projects. By understanding the current processes, costs and outcomes of care, enumerating the costs and benefits of change, anticipating the timing of the costs and benefits, and performing a financial analysis, quality improvement efforts can be evaluated as investments. Only by understanding and adapting to the financial environments in which health care organizations operate can continuous quality improvement in health care succeed. PMID:12512466

  5. The UK's international investment position

    OpenAIRE

    Damian Whittard; Jawed Khan

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARYThis paper describes the path of the UK's net asset position with the rest of the world. Notwithstanding that the UK has run a substantial current account deficit for over a quarter of a century, at the beginning of 2009 the net asset position was not far off balance. The paper begins by detailing recent developments in both the UK's overseas balance sheet, known as the international investment position (IIP), and the current account deficit. It examines the link between the IIP and th...

  6. The globalisation of angel investments

    OpenAIRE

    Lerner, Josh; Schoar, Antoinette; Sokolinski, Stanislav; Wilson, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The last decade has seen a rapid expansion and deepening of the types of vehicles that fund start-up firms in the U.S. and worldwide. In particular, we have seen a growing role of angel groups and other more "individualistic" funding options for start-ups, such as super angels or crowd sourcing platforms. We seek to understand the nature and consequences of angel investments across a variety of geographies with varying levels of venture capital markets and other forms of risk capital. We ask ...

  7. Gold in the investment portfolio

    OpenAIRE

    Demidova-Menzel, Nadeshda; Heidorn, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The paper examines the key drivers of gold investment. Since 2000 the gold price has risen drastically, making gold an interesting add-on to a portfolio. As gold futures have negative roll returns, gold pool accounts are characterized by high credit risk and physical possession of gold means high transaction costs, Xetra-Gold might be the most efficient way to enter the market. Xetra-Gold is a product created by the Deutsche Börse in 2007, which is handled like a security but can be exchanged...

  8. The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership - A View from America's Trenches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bledowski Krzysztof

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Expectations run high about the cornucopia of riches which are supposed to fow from the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP. TTIP is a proposed free trade agreement between the United States and the European Union. It aims to build upon the already sweeping scope of the North American Free Trade Agreement concluded two decades earlier and the 2013 Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA, which removes 99 % of tariffs between the EU and Canada.1 Te TTIP negotiations were launched in July 2013 with an initial time frame of completion within two years.

  9. Investing in human and natural capital. An alternative paradigm for sustainable development in Awassa, Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethiopia remains underdeveloped due to limitations in natural, human, social and built capital. A 2006 scientific atelier conducted in the city of Awassa, Ethiopia investigated investments in human and natural capital as a sustainable development strategy. Local stakeholders identified firewood shortages, degradation of croplands, rising lake levels encroaching on croplands and poor water quality as major impediments to development. They further identified ecological degradation as a key component of these problems, and they acknowledged multiple vicious cycles compounding the environmental and economic threats to the Awassa community. Proposed solutions included investment in natural capital in the form of reforestation activities, investment in human capital in the form of promoting more efficient wood stoves along with increasing public awareness of environmental threats, and investments in social capital in the form of inter-institutional coordination to address environmental problems. All recommended investments rely primarily on national resources, in distinct contrast to the extensive imports required for most built capital investments. Unfortunately, Awassa lacks the surplus necessary for major capital investments of any kind. The atelier therefore helped local participants identify potential funders and write grant proposals for various projects, though none have been funded so far. Reversing the ecological degradation on the scale necessary for sustained economic development in Ethiopia however will require a steady flow of substantial investments, and cannot rely solely on the short term generosity of funders. International payments for carbon sequestration and other ecosystem services could help provide the necessary resources. (author)

  10. Evaluation of investment processes in agriculture in Poland in 2000-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Grzelak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the article is evaluation of investment processes in agriculture in Poland in 2000-2011. Tendencies in range of investment activity after 2000 should by favourably estimate. Essential improvement in this area has happened especially after integration with the EU, in relationship to possibilities of funding investments by union funds. Also the enlargement of integration investment activity in agriculture has been noticed on background of tendency in total economy. In spite an increasing tendency in case of ability to invest in agriculture, its level was insufficient to set – back decapitalization of fixed assets in the whole agriculture. The situation would be positive if the tendency of growth degree of consumption of assets was stopped. On the other hand, awareness is necessary of the considerable differentiation in relation to investment activity with regard to the scale of production. It can be supposed, that started investment processes will bring to a part of agricultural farms multiplied effects which will actively use the investment support under the CAP instruments and preferential credits. It will intensify the processes of polarization in agriculture.

  11. The evolving notion of 'investment' in investment law : governing the access to the international investment protection framework

    OpenAIRE

    Magnús Ellert Bjarnason 1990

    2015-01-01

    The core of this thesis is a comprehensive study on the evolving notion of ‘investment’ in investment law, with an emphasis on the imperative role it serves in governing the access to the international investment protection framework. The objective is to determine if there exists a viable approach for defining its meaning. The majority of states prioritize securing meaningful protection for the foreign investment of their investors, given its necessity for economic and social development. The...

  12. Port Investment Strategies under Uncertainty: The Case of a Southeast Asian Multipurpose Port1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis N. Lagoudis

    2014-12-01

    The methodology has been applied on the expansion evaluation of warehousing facilities in a multipurpose port. For the evaluation of the alternatives, the expected net present value (ENPV is based on earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA. Results show that the investment strategy for a new 4-level warehouse with a flexible option was the optimal choice when compared with strategies of similar scale. However, depending on the emphasis placed on the various investment metrics the optimal investment strategy seems to be closer to a non-flexible 5-level warehouse.

  13. China Nonferrous Metal Invested 1.3-billion in a Rare Earth Separation Project in Xinfeng,Guangdong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>On the 9th Oct,a signing ceremony on project investment and construction was held between China Nonferrous Metal Industry’s Foreign Engineering and Construction Co.,Ltd.and the Xinfeng County Government,Guangdong.According to agreement,the company will invest RMB 1.3 billion in Xinfeng County to develop a rare earth separation project in the south,in

  14. Pdvsa, seeks foreign investment hike

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looking at a protracted cash crunch, state oil company Petroleos de Venezuela SA plans to encourage accelerated investment by foreign companies in Venezuela's oil sector. Pdvsa late last month sliced about $1 billion from its capital and operating budget for 1992. This paper reports that in the medium term, Pdvsa plans to focus on investment in quicker payout projects in oil production and refining while seeking foreign capital for as many projects as possible in oil and gas exploration and development, petrochemicals, and coal. And it will continue to expand its presence in other countries, especially the US, to maintain market shares of crude and refined products exports. Those are among the business strategies outlined by new Pdvsa Pres. Gustavo Roosen after his first 100 days on the job. Pdvsa sees a key window of opportunity in gaining part of the market share lost by US crude producers as their production continues to decline. Pdvsa production outlays this decade are estimated at $4.4 billion. Pdvsa continues to hold to its target of crude productive capacity at 3.3 million b/d by 1996. The company wants to jump capacity as quickly as prudently possible from the yearend 1991 level of 2.83 million b/d. Currently, Pdvsa must buy 6000,000 b/d of oil on the US market to meet all of its commitments

  15. Rubber molds for investment casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the project is to investigate different types of molding rubbers used for investment casting. The level of shape complexity which can be achieved by using these rubber molds is also studied. It was almost impossible to make complex shapes molds using metal molds, in that cases rubber molds are very important because they arc flexible and give accurate and precise part dimensions. Turbine blades are hi-tech components with air-foil geometries that have close dimensional tolerances. They are made of super-alloys and manufactured by investment casting. The final blade profile depends upon the dimensional accuracy in each of the processing steps. In the present work experimental study for the production of high quality low cost castings of turbine blades using rubber molds and injected wax patterns is presented. Natural Rubber molds and wax patterns from these molds were made. Different types of molding rubbers were studied including natural rubber, silicone rubber and liquid silicone rubber. It was found that by using rubber molds we can make most complex shape with very less finishing required. The shrinkage was 12% as compared to original master pattern. Rubber molds were made using laboratory hot press. Three layers of rubber above and below the master pattern. After that vulcanization was done by giving temperature and pressure. (author)

  16. Policy Uncertainty, Investment and Commitment Periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Today's investment decisions in key sectors such as energy, forestry or transport have significant impacts on the levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions over the coming decades. Given the economic and environmental long-term implications of capital investment and retirement, a climate mitigation regime should aim to encourage capital investment in climate-friendly technologies. Many factors affect technology choice and the timing of investment, including investor expectations about future prices and policies. Recent international discussions have focused on the importance of providing more certainty about future climate policy stringency. The design of commitment periods can play a role in creating this environment. This paper assesses how the length of commitment periods influences policy uncertainty and investment decisions. In particular, the paper analyses the relationship between commitment period length and near term investment decisions in climate friendly technology.

  17. EQUITY INVESTMENT TRENDS IN BHUSAVAL MUNICIPAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Madhukar Sarode

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Investors tend to look at the Return – the potential return possible from investment; Risk- the variability in returns from an investment in avenues due to value going up and down or market fluctuations. An individual investor has to confront his/her d emo g r a p h i c s, l ife st y l e a n d investment psychology whether the investor's age or occupation or annual income plays a significant role while making preference for investment avenues. This Study tried to explore the Equities Investment Pattern of Individual Investor who resides in Bhusawal Municipal Area. The objective of the study is to know the investment pattern of people those who are trading in stock market. The scope of this study is geographically limited to Bhusawal Municipal Area. The income of investors, education qua l ifi cation and oc cupation parameters are tested for equities product selection in the study.

  18. Interaction between Dynamic Financing and Investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dockner, Engelbert J.; Mæland, Jøril; Miltersen, Kristian R.

    Debt priority rules, i.e., the rules determining how different classes of debt split the firm's assets after bankruptcy, influence the firm's investment decisions. Existing debt benefits from an investment either because the investment is equity financed or because new debt issued to (partly......) finance the investment has lower priority in the event of bankruptcy as is the case for the commonly used absolute priority rule (APR). This incentivizes equity holders to under invest. If debt priority rules are specified in such a way that existing debt can be exploited by issuing new debt, do equity...... optimal initial leverage ratio. We quantify distortions resulting from well-known debt priority structures and introduce an efficient priority rule (EPR) that incentivizes equity holders to choose first best investment timing and financing. Additionally, we derive the firm's cost of capital associated...

  19. Chinese Investment BuoysAfrica's Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to Xinhua News Agency,athough Africa is a diverse continent,containing a variety of countries and cultures,the representatives of African countries do have one thing in common:their desire to attract Chinese investment.“We look forward to Chinese enterprises'investments.Chinese investment helps us to fund the construction of transportation and medical infrastructure,” Bernadette Artivor,executive director of the Namibia Investment Center,said on September 8.Artivor made the remark at the High-Level Symposium for China-Africa Investment and Cooperation,an event held as part of the 15th China International Fair for Investment and Trade (CIFIT) which opened in southeast Chinas coastal city of Xiamen.

  20. Regional Development and Effects of Investment Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Erkan Çelik

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The World Bank is the most important financier for international investment. The bank opens credits mostly for investment projects in developing countries. Turkey has received various investment credits since its membership to the World Bank on March 11, 1947. The credits were used for economic and social domains. Turkey has also been granted credits from the European Investment Bank (EIB. The credits received are composed of micro credits that belong to small and medium enterprises (SMEs. A regional development bank, Islamic Development Bank, has also received credits through Eximbank and Industrial Development Bank of Turkey (TSKB to finance Turkish SMEs. This paper deals with Turkish investment strategies in the framework of basic principles of investment – development banks.