... because of the fear, anxiety or avoidance Your phobia and avoidance usually lasts six months or longer ... for agoraphobia include: Having panic disorder or other phobias Responding to panic attacks with excessive fear and ...
Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Powers, M.B.; Thomas, J.C.; Hersen, M.
This chapter summarizes the literature on assessment, maintenance, treatment, and mechanisms of change in treatment of patients with panic disorder with or without agoraphobia. Relevant theoretical contributions which are discussed may help to understand the genesis and maintenance factors of panic
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between psychoanalytical personality types and agoraphobia. Thirty-two panic disorder with agoraphobia patients and 18 agoraphobia without panic disorder patients attending an inpatient 11-week behavioral-psychodynamic treatment program were assessed repeatedly from pretreatment to 2 years after the end of treatment. On personality scales measuring oral, obsessive, hysterical, and reality-weak traits, there were no differences between agoraphobic patients with and without panic disorder. The examined traits correlated across the period from pretreatment to 2-year follow-up, although the potential influence of symptoms were controlled for. Higher scores on the oral scale predicted poorer course of symptoms in the year immediately after treatment. Scores on the oral scale decreased with the improvements of agoraphobic and general symptoms, but did not attain a normal level. The results supported a combined predisposition-state model for the relationship between oral traits and agoraphobia.
Full Text Available Panic Disorder and agoraphobia offer considerable diagnostic and management challenges, particularly in general practice. We describe a typical case of panic disorder in a young adult. The recent advances in our understanding of brain functions can be used to explain to a certain extent the biologic basis of panic disorder. A hypothetical model integrating current views on panic disorder and agoraphobia has been proposed. The management principles including the role of cognitive therapy and pharmacotherapy have been discussed.
... Updated by: Fred K. Berger, MD, addiction and forensic psychiatrist, Scripps Memorial Hospital, La Jolla, CA. Also ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...
Levitan, Michelle Nigri; Simoes, Pedro; Sardinha, Aline G; Nardi, Antonio E
Despite developments in panic disorder (PD) research, a significant percentage of patients do not benefit from conventional treatments. Interpersonal factors have been identified as potential predictors of treatment failures. We aimed to evaluate assertiveness in a sample of patients with PD and its implications for treatment. Forty-six symptomatic patients with PD and 46 college students responded to assessment scales regarding assertiveness and clinical data. Seventy-five percent of the patients had a secondary diagnosis of agoraphobia. We found that the PD group was characterized as nonassertive and slightly less assertive than control subjects. Furthermore, the deficit in the level of assertiveness correlated with the severity of the PD. The diagnosis of agoraphobia was correlated with unassertiveness (p assertiveness in patients with PD accompanied by agoraphobia.
Manfredi de Poderoso, Clelia; Linetzky, Leonardo
This paper refers to the relationship between panic and agoraphobia, regarding Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia (DSM IV), from two different points of view coming from Psychoanalysis and Psychiatry. Psychoanalysis (S. Freud) considers agoraphobia as a defensive organization to avoid anxiety, not bound to the original conflict, but to substitutive formation. The exposure to space (its unconscious significance) provokes panic attack. The psychiatric approach considers agoraphobia, meaningless by its own, as a consequence of spontaneous panic attacks. The etiology is referred to neurophysiological mechanisms. The authors reviewd D Klein's hypothesis about panic and Freud's theories on anxiety, partiularly Anxiety Neurosis.
Full Text Available Aim: In this study we aim to get more information about agoraphobia (AG which is an independent diagnosis in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5 and to evaluate overlaps or differences between agoraphobia and panic disorder (PD upon sociodemographic features and comorbidity with considering relation of these two disorders. Material and Method: Sociodemographic Data Form was given and Structural Clinical Interview for DSM Axis I Disorders (SCID-I was applied to 33 patients diagnosed as AG and 34 patients diagnosed as PD with AG (PDA.Results: AG group consisted of 21 females (63.1%, 12 males (36%, totally 33 patients and PDA group consisted of 23 females (67.6%, 11 males (32.4%, totally 34 patients. Mean age of onset was 32.4±10.2 in PDA group and 31.1±12.1 in AG group. According to sociodemographic features, violence in family and smoking rates were significantly higher in PDA group than AG group. Major Depressive Disorder (MDD as a comorbidity was higher in PDA group. Discussion: In this study, we tried to identify the overlaps and differences of PDA and AG. For a better recognition of AG, further studies are needed.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. To examine gender differences in the major psychopathologic features in agoraphobia with panic disorder. Method. The study was conducted as a clinical study. The sample consisted of 119 patients, 32 men (26.9% and 87 women (73.1% with the basic diagnosis of agoraphobia with panic disorder. All the patients were evaluated with the clinical instruments suitable for the assessment of various clinical features associated with agoraphobia with panic disorder - questionnaires (the Hopkins Symptom Checklist 90, the Panic Appraisal Inventory, the Fear Questionnaire, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Beck Depression Inventory, and the clinical rating scale (the Panic and Agoraphobia Scale. After the data collection, the sample was divided into two groups by the gender. Then the groups were compared. Results. There were no differences between the genders in the global psychopathologic features (the age at the onset of a disorder, duration of a disorder, severity and frequency of panic attacks, intensity of general psychiatric symptoms, intensity of general anxiety and depression. The women, however, reported a subjective perception of a more severe agoraphobic avoidance and males were significantly more likely than the females to anticipate the serious somatic consequences of panic attacks and worry about somatic health. Conclusion. There were a few gender specific psychopathologic features in patients with agoraphobia with panic disorder, so further studies would be necessary to come to a more precise conclusion.
Asmundson, G.J.G.; Taylor, S.; Smits, J.A.J.
The recently published DSM-5 contains a number of changes pertinent to panic disorder and agoraphobia. These changes include separation of panic disorder and agoraphobia into separate diagnoses, the addition of criteria and guidelines for distinguishing agoraphobia from specific phobia, the addition
de Ruiter, C.; Cohen, L.
In this study, we tested several hypotheses derived from self psychology (Diamond, 1987) regarding personality features of patients suffering from panic disorder and agoraphobia (PDA). PDA patients are thought to suffer from a deficit in negative affect-regulating capacity, surrounded by defenses
Emmelkamp, Paul M.G.
The effects on agoraphobia of (1) self-observation with a minimum of therapeutic intervention. (2) flooding, (3) a combination of flooding and self-observation, and (4) no-treatment control were compared. Assessments were made at the beginning of treatment, during and at the end of treatment and at
Pehlivanidis, A; Koulis, S; Papakostas, Y
While progress in the aetiopathology and treatment of panic disorder is indisputable, research regarding agoraphobia lacks behind. One significant-yet untested- theory by Guidano and Liotti, suggests the existence of inner representations of fear of "constraint" and fear of "loneliness" as two major schemata, important in the pathogenesis and manifestation of agoraphobia. Activation of these schemata may occur in situations in which the patient: (a) feels as in an inescapable trap (constraint) or (b) alone, unprotected and helpless (loneliness). Upon activation, the "constraint" schema elicits such symptoms as asphyxiation, chest pain, difficult breathing, motor agitation and muscular tension, while the "loneliness" schema elicits such symptoms as sensation of tachycardia, weakness of limbs, trembling or fainting. Activation of these schemata by content-compatible stimuli is expected to trigger various, yet distinct, response patterns, both of which are indiscriminately described within the term "agoraphobia". In order to investigate this hypothesis and its possible clinical applications, several mental and physical probes were applied to 20 patients suffering primarily from agoraphobia, and their responses and performance were recorded. Subjects also completed the "10-item Agoraphobia Questionnaire" prepared by our team aiming at assessing cognitions related to Guidano and Liotti's notion of "loneliness" and "constraint". Breath holding (BH) and Hyperventilation (HV) were selected as physical probes. BH was selected as an easily administered hypercapnea - induced clinical procedure, because of its apparent resemblance to the concept of "constraint". Subjects were instructed to hold their breath for as long as they could and stop at will. Similarly, it was hypothesized that HV might represent a physical "loneliness" probe, since it can elicit such symptoms as dizziness, paraesthesias, stiff muscles, cold hands or feet and trembling, reminiscent of a "collapsing
Quero, Soledad; Pérez-Ara, M. Ángeles; Bretón-López, Juana; García-Palacios, Azucena; Baños, Rosa M.; Botella, Cristina
Interoceptive exposure (IE) is a standard component of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for panic disorder and agoraphobia. The virtual reality (VR) program "Panic-Agoraphobia" has several virtual scenarios designed for applying exposure to agoraphobic situations; it can also simulate physical sensations. This work examines patients'…
Denise Troll Covey
Full Text Available This article places the struggle to open access to the dissertation in the context of the crisis in doctoral education and the transition from print to digital literacy. It explores the underlying cultural calcification and agoraphobia that deter engagement with openness. Solving the problems will require overhauling the curriculum and conventions of doctoral education. Opening access to dissertations is an important first step, but insufficient to end the crisis. Only opening other dimensions of the dissertation – the structure, media, notion of authorship, and methods of assessment – can foster the digital literacy needed to save PhD programs from extinction. If higher education institutions invested heavily in remedying obsolete practices, the remedies would reverberate throughout the academy, accelerate advancement in the disciplines, and revolutionize scholarly publishing. The article ends with a discussion of the significant role librarians could play in facilitating needed changes given appropriate institutional commitment.
Cornacchio, Danielle; Chou, Tommy; Sacks, Hayley; Pincus, Donna; Comer, Jonathan
Background In DSM-5, the agoraphobia core symptom criterion has been revised to require fear about multiple situations from across at least two distinct domains in which escape might be difficult or panic-like symptoms might develop. The present study examined patterns and correlates of the recent change in a sample of anxious youth with symptom presentations consistent with the DSM-IV agoraphobia definition and/or specific phobia (SP) to consider how the recent diagnostic change impacts the prevalence and composition of agoraphobia in children and adolescents. Method Analyses (N=151) evaluated impairment and correlates of agoraphobic youth who no longer meet the DSM-5 agoraphobia criteria relative to agoraphobic youth who do meet the new DSM-5 criteria. Secondary analyses compared agoraphobic youth not meeting DSM-5 criteria to SP youth. Results One-quarter of youth with symptom presentations consistent with the DSM-IV agoraphobia definition no longer met criteria for DSM-5 agoraphobia, but showed comparable severity and impairment across most domains to youth who do meet criteria for DSM-5 agoraphobia. Further, these youth showed higher levels of anxiety sensitivity and internalizing psychopathology relative to youth with SP. Conclusions A substantial proportion of impaired youth with considerable agoraphobic symptom presentations have been left without a specified anxiety diagnosis by the DSM-5, which may affect their ability to receive and/or get coverage for services and their representation in treatment evaluations. Future DSM iterations may do well to include a “circumscribed” agoraphobia specifier that would characterize presentations of fear or anxiety about multiple situations, but that do not span across at least two distinct situational domains. PMID:25845579
Hagenaars, M.A.; Minnen, A. van
The present study investigated the effect of fear on paralinguistic aspects of speech in patients suffering from panic disorder with agoraphobia (N = 25). An experiment was conducted that comprised two modules: Autobiographical Talking and Script Talking. Each module consisted of two emotional
Pitti, Carmen T; Peñate, Wenceslao; de la Fuente, Juan; Bethencourt, Juan M; Roca-Sánchez, María J; Acosta, Leopoldo; Villaverde, María L; Gracia, Ramón
This study compares the differential efficacy of three groups of treatments for agoraphobia: paroxetine combined with cognitive-behavioral therapy, paroxetine combined with cognitive-behavioral therapy and virtual reality exposure, and a group with only paroxetine. 99 patients with agoraphobia were finally selected. Both combined treatment groups received 11 sessions of cognitive-behavioral therapy, and one of the groups was also exposed to 4 sessions of virtual reality treatment. Treatments were applied in individual sessions once a week for 3 months. The three treatment groups showed statistically significant improvements. In some measures, combined treatment groups showed greater improvements. The virtual reality exposure group showed greater improvement confronting phobic stimuli. Treatments combining psychopharmacological and psychological therapy showed greater efficacy. Although the use of new technologies led to greater improvement, treatment adherence problems still remain.
Salkovskis, Paul M; Hackmann, Ann; Wells, Adrian; Gelder, Michael G; Clark, David M
Exposure therapy and cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) are both effective in the treatment of panic disorder with agoraphobia. Cognitive theories suggest that the way in which exposure to avoided situations is implemented in either treatment may be crucial. In particular, it is suggested that clinical improvement will be greatest if opportunities for disconfirmation of feared catastrophes are maximized. In a small pilot study, 16 patients with panic disorder and (moderate or severe) agoraphobia were randomly allocated to either habituation based exposure therapy (HBET) or exposure planned as a belief disconfirmation strategy and accompanied by dropping of safety-seeking behaviours. Both treatments were brief (total of 3.25 h of exposure) and were similar in terms of expectancy of change. Patients in the CBT condition showed significantly greater improvements in self-report measures of anxiety, panic and situational avoidance. They also completed significantly more steps in a standardized behavioural walk, during which they experienced significantly less anxiety. The controlled effect sizes for CBT were substantial (range 1.7-2.7), which suggests it may be a particularly efficient way of managing therapeutic exposure to feared situations in panic disorder with agoraphobia. Further research is needed to clarify the mechanism of change involved.
Meyerbröker, K.; Morina, N.; Kerkhof, G.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Wiederhold, B.K.; Bouchard, S.; Riva, G.
In this study the effects of virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) were investigated in patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia. The level of presence in VRET was compared between using either a head-mounted display (HMD) or a computer automatic virtual environment (CAVE). Results indicate
Rudaz, M.; Craske, M.G.; Becker, E.S.; Ledermann, T.; Margraf, J.
Background: This study is aimed to evaluate the role of two vulnerability factors, health anxiety and fear of :Par in the prediction of the onset of panic disorder/agoraphobia (PDA) relative to a comparison anxiety disorder Methods: Young women, aged between 18 and 24 years, were investigated at
Full Text Available Piero Mannu, Salvatore Rinaldi, Vania Fontani, Alessandro Castagna, Matteo Lotti MargottiDepartment of Neuro Psycho Physio Pathology, Rinaldi Fontani Institute, Florence, ItalyBackground: Agoraphobia is considered to be the most serious complication of panic disorder. It involves progressive development of debilitating anxiety symptoms related to being in situations where one would be extremely embarrassed and could not be rescued in the case of a panic attack. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of noninvasive brain stimulation using a radioelectric asymmetric conveyor (REAC for agoraphobia.Patients and methods: Twenty-three patients (3 males and 20 females suffering from agoraphobia and without a history of panic disorder were evaluated by a psychiatrist using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, and the Agoraphobia Scale (AS. The patients were subjected to two 18-session cycles of noninvasive brain stimulation with the REAC, according to an established therapeutic protocol called neuro-psycho-physical optimization.Results: Analyzing the anxiety and avoidance parameters of the AS after the first and second cycles of REAC treatment revealed variation in levels of response to treatment, including weak (AS item 7, moderate (AS items 10 and 13, and good responses (AS items 1–6, 8, 9, 11, 12, and 14–20.Conclusion: These results highlight the potential of the REAC to treat complex clinical situations such as agoraphobia, which is typically resistant to pharmacologic treatments. Furthermore, these data show the advantages of REAC treatment, even compared with modern cognitive behavioral therapy, including a relatively rapid and “stable” clinical response (just over 6 months and economic cost.Keywords: anxiety, avoidance, fear, REAC
En-Young N Wagner
Full Text Available Anxiety disorders have been linked to an increased risk of incident coronary heart disease in which inflammation plays a key pathogenic role. To date, no studies have looked at the association between proinflammatory markers and agoraphobia.In a random Swiss population sample of 2890 persons (35-67 years, 53% women, we diagnosed a total of 124 individuals (4.3% with agoraphobia using a validated semi-structured psychiatric interview. We also assessed socioeconomic status, traditional cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., body mass index, hypertension, blood glucose levels, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio, and health behaviors (i.e., smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity, and other major psychiatric diseases (other anxiety disorders, major depressive disorder, drug dependence which were treated as covariates in linear regression models. Circulating levels of inflammatory markers, statistically controlled for the baseline demographic and health-related measures, were determined at a mean follow-up of 5.5 ± 0.4 years (range 4.7 - 8.5.Individuals with agoraphobia had significantly higher follow-up levels of C-reactive protein (p = 0.007 and tumor-necrosis-factor-α (p = 0.042 as well as lower levels of the cardioprotective marker adiponectin (p = 0.032 than their non-agoraphobic counterparts. Follow-up levels of interleukin (IL-1β and IL-6 did not significantly differ between the two groups.Our results suggest an increase in chronic low-grade inflammation in agoraphobia over time. Such a mechanism might link agoraphobia with an increased risk of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, and needs to be tested in longitudinal studies.
Bischoff, Sophie; Wieder, Gesine; Einsle, Franziska; Petzold, Moritz B; Janßen, Christiane; Mumm, Jennifer L M; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Fydrich, Thomas; Plag, Jens; Ströhle, Andreas
Exposure-based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (eb-CBT) represents the most evidence-based psychotherapeutic approach in anxiety disorders. However, its efficacy may be limited by a delay in onset of action and a substantial number of patients does not respond sufficiently to treatment. In this context, aerobic exercise was found to be effective in reducing clinical anxiety as well as to improve (elements of) disorder-specific CBT in some mental disorders. We therefore investigated the effect of aerobic exercise supplementary to an eb-CBT in panic disorder and agoraphobia (PD/AG). 77 patients with PD/AG performed a 30 min treadmill task with moderate or low intensity (70% or 30% of the maximal oxygen uptake [VO 2max ]) prior to five exposure sessions within a standardized seven-week CBT. At baseline, after completing the treatment period (post) and six month after post (follow-up), several measures of (un)specific psychopathology (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale [Ham-A], Mobility Inventory [MI], Panic and Agoraphobia Scale [PAS], Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire [ACQ], Body Sensations Questionnaire [BSQ]) were established to assess for clinical changes. All patients experienced a significant improvement of symptoms from baseline to post (for all measures p < .001) but repeated-measures analyses of variance found a trend towards a significant time × group interaction in the Ham-A in favor for the moderate intense exercise group (f[1, 74] = 4.15, p = .045, α=.025). This trend, however, disappeared at follow-up since the low-intense exercise group further improved significantly in Ham-A after post. Our findings therefore might point to an accelerating effect of moderate-intense exercise within an exposure-based CBT for AG/PD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The place where a patient experiences his/her first panic attack (FPA may be related to their agoraphobia later in life. However, no investigations have been done into the clinical features according to the place where the FPA was experienced. In particular, there is an absence of detailed research examining patients who experienced their FPA at home. In this study, patients were classified by the location of their FPA and the differences in their clinical features were explored (e.g., symptoms of FPA, frequency of agoraphobia, and severity of FPA. Methods The subjects comprised 830 panic disorder patients who were classified into 5 groups based on the place of their FPA (home, school/office, driving a car, in a public transportation vehicle, outside of home, The clinical features of these patients were investigated. Additionally, for panic disorder patients with agoraphobia at their initial clinic visit, the clinical features of patients who experienced their FPA at home were compared to those who experienced their attack elsewhere. Results In comparison of the FPAs of the 5 groups, significant differences were seen among the 7 descriptors (sex ratio, drinking status, smoking status, severity of the panic attack, depression score, ratio of agoraphobia, and degree of avoidance behavior and 4 symptoms (sweating, chest pain, feeling dizzy, and fear of dying. The driving and public transportation group patients showed a higher incidence of co-morbid agoraphobia than did the other groups. Additionally, for panic disorder patients with co-morbid agoraphobia, the at-home group had a higher frequency of fear of dying compared to the patients in the outside-of-home group and felt more severe distress elicited by their FPA. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that the clinical features of panic disorder patients vary according to the place of their FPA. The at-home group patients experienced "fear of dying" more frequently
Pompoli, Alessandro; Furukawa, Toshi A; Imai, Hissei; Tajika, Aran; Efthimiou, Orestis; Salanti, Georgia
Panic disorder is characterised by the presence of recurrent unexpected panic attacks, discrete periods of fear or anxiety that have a rapid onset and include symptoms such as racing heart, chest pain, sweating and shaking. Panic disorder is common in the general population, with a lifetime prevalence of 1% to 4%. A previous Cochrane meta-analysis suggested that psychological therapy (either alone or combined with pharmacotherapy) can be chosen as a first-line treatment for panic disorder with or without agoraphobia. However, it is not yet clear whether certain psychological therapies can be considered superior to others. In order to answer this question, in this review we performed a network meta-analysis (NMA), in which we compared eight different forms of psychological therapy and three forms of a control condition. To assess the comparative efficacy and acceptability of different psychological therapies and different control conditions for panic disorder, with or without agoraphobia, in adults. We conducted the main searches in the CCDANCTR electronic databases (studies and references registers), all years to 16 March 2015. We conducted complementary searches in PubMed and trials registries. Supplementary searches included reference lists of included studies, citation indexes, personal communication to the authors of all included studies and grey literature searches in OpenSIGLE. We applied no restrictions on date, language or publication status. We included all relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) focusing on adults with a formal diagnosis of panic disorder with or without agoraphobia. We considered the following psychological therapies: psychoeducation (PE), supportive psychotherapy (SP), physiological therapies (PT), behaviour therapy (BT), cognitive therapy (CT), cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), third-wave CBT (3W) and psychodynamic therapies (PD). We included both individual and group formats. Therapies had to be administered face-to-face. The
Rapinesi, Chiara; Serata, Daniele; Del Casale, Antonio; Kotzalidis, Giorgio D; Romano, Silvia; Milioni, Mara; Capezzuto, Silvia; Carbonetti, Paolo; Angeletti, Gloria; Fensore, Claudio; Tatarelli, Roberto; Girardi, Paolo
A 36-year-old man with comorbid panic disorder with agoraphobia, major depression, and histrionic personality disorder since age 21 was resistant to combined drug and psychotherapy treatment. His conditions had progressively worsened with time, causing him to withdraw socially and to simultaneously require continuous physical restraint, which further worsened his functioning. He spent almost 3 consecutive years in restraint, until he consented to receive bilateral ECT treatment. He improved after 13 sessions in all areas (social and role functioning, and panic, depressive, and histrionic symptoms) and is well 3 months later with a lithium-atypical antipsychotic combination.
Latas, M; Starcevic, V; Trajkovic, G; Bogojevic, G
The aim of this study was to ascertain predictors of comorbid personality disorders in patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDAG). Sixty consecutive outpatients with PDAG were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II) for the purpose of diagnosing personality disorders. Logistic regressions were used to identify predictors of any comorbid personality disorder, any DSM-IV cluster A, cluster B, and cluster C personality disorder. Independent variables in these regressions were gender, age, duration of panic disorder (PD), severity of PDAG, and scores on self-report instruments that assess the patient's perception of their parents, childhood separation anxiety, and traumatic experiences. High levels of parental protection on the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), indicating a perception of the parents as overprotective and controlling, emerged as the only statistically significant predictor of any comorbid personality disorder. This finding was attributed to the association between parental overprotection and cluster B personality disorders, particularly borderline personality disorder. The duration of PD was a significant predictor of any cluster B and any cluster C personality disorder, suggesting that some of the cluster B and cluster C personality disorders may be a consequence of the long-lasting PDAG. Any cluster B personality disorder was also associated with younger age. In conclusion, despite a generally nonspecific nature of the relationship between parental overprotection in childhood and adult psychopathology, the findings of this study suggest some specificity for the association between parental overprotection in childhood and personality disturbance in PDAG patients, particularly cluster B personality disorders.
Godemann, F; Ahrens, B; Behrens, S; Berthold, R; Gandor, C; Lampe, F; Linden, M
A model for the development of anxiety disorders (panic disorder with or without agoraphobia) is needed. Patients with an implantable cardioverter/defibrillator (ICD) are exposed to repeated electric shocks. If the theory of anxiety development by aversive classic conditioning processes is valid, these repeated shocks should lead to an increased risk of anxiety disorders. To study this hypothesis, we retrospectively studied 72 patients after implantation of an automatic ICD. Patients were assessed with the semistructured Diagnostic Interview of Psychiatric Disease 1 to 6 years after implantation of an automatic ICD. Panic disorder and/or agoraphobia was diagnosed in patients who fulfilled all DSM-III-R criteria for those conditions. Anxiety disorder developed in 15.9% of patients after ICD implantation. This was significantly related to the frequency of repeated defibrillation (shocks) to stop malignant ventricular arrhythmias. Dysfunctional cognitions are an additional vulnerability factor. The data support both the conditioning hypothesis and the cognitive model of anxiety development. These findings suggest that ICD patients are an appropriate risk population for a prospective study of the development of anxiety disorders.
Na, Kyoung-Sae; Ham, Byung-Joo; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Leen; Kim, Yong-Ku; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung
Patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA) have clinical symptoms such as the fear of being outside or of open spaces from which escape would be difficult. Although recent neurobiological studies have suggested that fear conditioning and extinction are associated with PDA, no study has examined the possible structural abnormalities in patients with PDA. This preliminary study compares the gray matter volume among patients with PDA, those with panic disorder without agoraphobia (PDW), and healthy controls (HC) using high-resolution 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Compared with HC, patients with PDA showed decreased gray matter volume in their left medial orbitofrontal gyrus. However, differences were not found in the gray matter volumes of patients with PDW and whole panic disorder compared with HC. These findings suggest that the phobic avoidance found in patients with PDA arise from abnormalities in the medial orbitofrontal cortex, which plays an important role in fear extinction. Future studies should investigate the neuroanatomical substrates of PDA and distinguish them from those of PDW. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
van Apeldoorn, F.J.; Timmerman, M.E.; Mersch, P.P.A.; Hout, W.J.P.J.; Visser, S.; van Dyck, R.; den Boer, J.A.
Objective: To establish the long-term effectiveness of 3 treatments for DSM-IV panic disorder with or without agoraphobia: cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), pharmacotherapy using a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), or the combination of both (CBT + SSRI). As a secondary objective, the
White, Kamila S.; Payne, Laura A.; Gorman, Jack M.; Shear, M. Katherine; Woods, Scott W.; Saksa, John R.; Barlow, David H.
Objective: We examined the possibility that maintenance cognitive behavior therapy (M-CBT) may improve the likelihood of sustained improvement and reduced relapse in a multi-site randomized controlled clinical trial of patients who met criteria for panic disorder with or without agoraphobia. Method: Participants were all patients (N = 379) who…
Botella, Cristina; Villa, Helena; García Palacios, Azucena; Quero, Soledad; Baños, Rosa M; Alcaniz, Mariano
Panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA) is considered an important public health problem. The efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for PDA has been widely demonstrated. The American National Institute of Health recommended Cognitive-Behavioral programs as the treatment of choice for this disorder. This institution also recommended that researchers develop treatments whose mode of delivery increases the availability of these programs. Virtual Reality based treatments can help to achieve this goal. VR has several advantages compared with conventional techniques. One of the essential components to treat these disorders is exposure. In VR the therapist can control the feared situations at will and with a high degree of safety for the patient, as it is easier to grade the feared situations. Another advantage is that VR is more confidential because treatment takes place in the therapist's office. It is also less time consuming as it takes place in the therapist's office. Considering the wide number of situations and activities that agoraphobic patients use to avoid, VR can save time and money significantly. Another advantage in treating PDA using VR is the possibility of doing VR interoceptive. VR could be a more natural setting for interoceptive exposure than the consultation room because we can elicit bodily sensations while the patient is immerse in VR agoraphobic situations. Finally, we think that VR exposure can be a useful intermediate step for those patients who refuse in vivo exposure because the idea of facing the real agoraphobic situations is too aversive for them. In this chapter we offer the work done by our research team at the VEPSY-UPDATED project. We describe the VR program we have developed for the treatment of PDA and we summarize the efficacy and effectiveness data of a study where we compare a cognitive-behavioral program including VR for the exposure component with a standard cognitive-behavioral program including in vivo exposure and with a
Full Text Available Giampaolo Perna1-3, Silvia Daccò2, Roberta Menotti2, Daniela Caldirola21Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Maastricht, Maastricht, the Netherlands; 2Department of Clinical Neuroscience, San Benedetto Hospital, Hermanas Hospitalarias, Albese con Cassano, Como, Italy; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Leonard M Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USABackground: Although there are controversial issues (the "American view" and the "European view" regarding the construct and definition of agoraphobia (AG, this syndrome is well recognized and it is a burden in the lives of millions of people worldwide. To better clarify the role of drug therapy in AG, the authors summarized and discussed recent evidence on pharmacological treatments, based on clinical trials available from 2000, with the aim of highlighting pharmacotherapies that may improve this complex syndrome.Methods: A systematic review of the literature regarding the pharmacological treatment of AG was carried out using MEDLINE, EBSCO, and Cochrane databases, with keywords individuated by MeSH research. Only randomized, placebo-controlled studies or comparative clinical trials were included.Results: After selection, 25 studies were included. All the selected studies included patients with AG associated with panic disorder. Effective compounds included selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, selective noradrenergic reuptake inhibitors, and benzodiazepines. Paroxetine, sertraline, citalopram, escitalopram, and clomipramine showed the most consistent results, while fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, and imipramine showed limited efficacy. Preliminary results suggested the potential efficacy of inositol; D-cycloserine showed mixed results for its ability to improve the outcome of exposure-based cognitive behavioral therapy
Rudaz, Myriam; Craske, Michelle G; Becker, Eni S; Ledermann, Thomas; Margraf, Jürgen
This study is aimed to evaluate the role of two vulnerability factors, health anxiety and fear of fear, in the prediction of the onset of panic disorder/agoraphobia (PDA) relative to a comparison anxiety disorder. Young women, aged between 18 and 24 years, were investigated at baseline and, 17 months later, using the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule-Lifetime and measures of health anxiety and fear of bodily sensations (subscale disease phobia of the Whiteley Index, and total score of the Body Sensations Questionnaire). First, 22 women with current PDA were compared to 81 women with current social phobia and 1,283 controls. Second, 24 women with an incidence of PDA were compared to 60 women with an incidence of social phobia and 1,036 controls. Multiple logistic regression analyses adjusted for history of physical diseases, somatic symptoms, and other psychological disorders revealed that (a) fear of bodily sensations was elevated for women with PDA vs. controls as well as women with social phobia, and (b) health anxiety (and history of physical diseases) was elevated in women who developed PDA vs. controls and vs. women who developed social phobia. These results suggest that health anxiety, as well as history of physical diseases, may be specific vulnerability factors for the onset of PDA relative to social phobia. Whereas fear of bodily sensations was not found to be a risk factor for the onset of panic disorder/agoraphobia, it was a specific marker of existing PDA relative to social phobia. Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Much of the literature on panic disorder (PD-bipolar disorder (BP cormorbidity concerns BP-I. This literature emphasizes the difficulties encountered in pharmacologic treatment and outcome when such comorbidity is present. The present report explores these issues with respect to BP-II. Methods The sample comprised 326 outpatients (aged 34.5 ± 11.5 years old; 222 females with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 3rd edn, revised (DSM-III-R PD-agoraphobia; among them 52 subjects (16% were affected by lifetime comorbidity with BP-II. Patients were evaluated by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID, the Panic-Agoraphobia Interview, and the Longitudinal Interview Follow-up Examination (Life-Up and treated according to routine clinical practice at the University of Pisa, Italy, for a period of 3 years. Clinical and course features were compared between subjects with and without BP-II. All patients received the clinicians' choice of antidepressants and, in the case of the subsample with BP-II, mood stabilizers (for example, valproate, lithium were among the mainstays of treatment. Results In comparison to patients without bipolar comorbidity, those with BP-II showed a significantly greater frequency of social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, alcohol-related disorders, and separation anxiety during childhood and adolescence. Regarding family history, a significantly greater frequency of PD and mood disorders was present among the BP-II. No significant differences were observed in the long-term course of PD or agoraphobic symptoms under pharmacological treatment or the likelihood of spontaneous pharmacological treatment interruptions. Conclusion Although the severity and outcome of panic-agoraphobic symptomatology appear to be similar in patients with and without lifetime bipolar comorbidity, the higher number of concomitant disorders in our PD patients with BP-II does indicate a greater
Weck, Florian; Grikscheit, Florian; Höfling, Volkmar; Kordt, Anne; Hamm, Alfons O; Gerlach, Alexander L; Alpers, Georg W; Arolt, Volker; Kircher, Tilo; Pauli, Paul; Rief, Winfried; Lang, Thomas
Treatment delivery factors (i.e., therapist adherence, therapist competence, and therapeutic alliance) are considered to be important for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for panic disorder and agoraphobia (PD/AG). In the current study, four independent raters conducted process evaluations based on 168 two-hour videotapes of 84 patients with PD/AG treated with exposure-based CBT. Two raters evaluated patients' interpersonal behavior in Session 1. Two raters evaluated treatment delivery factors in Session 6, in which therapists provided the rationale for conducting exposure exercises. At the 6-month follow-up, therapists' adherence (r=0.54) and therapeutic alliance (r=0.31) were significant predictors of changes in agoraphobic avoidance behavior; therapist competence was not associated with treatment outcomes. Patients' interpersonal behavior in Session 1 was a significant predictor of the therapeutic alliance in Session 6 (r=0.17). The findings demonstrate that treatment delivery factors, particularly therapist adherence, are relevant to the long-term success of CBT for PD/AG. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (PD/A and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD are characterized by major behavioral dysruptions that may affect patients’ social and marital functioning. The disorders’ impact on interpersonal relationships may also affect the quality of support patients receive from their social network. The main goal of this systematic review is to determine the association between social or marital support and symptom severity among adults with PD/A or OCD. A systematic search of databases was executed and provided 35 eligible articles. Results from OCD studies indicated a negative association between marital adjustment and symptom severity, and a positive association between accommodation from relatives and symptom severity. However, results were inconclusive for negative forms of social support (e.g. criticism, hostility. Results from PD/A studies indicated a negative association between perceived social support and symptom severity. Also, results from studies using an observational measure of marital adjustment indicated a negative association between quality of support from the spouse and PD/A severity. However, results were inconclusive for perceived marital adjustment and symptom severity. In conclusion, this systematic review generally suggests a major role of social and marital support in PD/A and OCD symptomatology. However, given diversity of results and methods used in studies, more are needed to clarify the links between support and symptom severity among patients with PD/A and OCD.
Mosing, Miriam A.; Gordon, Scott D.; Medland, Sarah E.; Statham, Dixie J.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Heath, Andrew C.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wray, Naomi R.
Background Major depression (MD) and anxiety disorders such as panic disorder (PD), agoraphobia (AG) and social phobia (SP) are heritable and highly comorbid. However, the relative importance of genetic and environmental aetiology of the covariation between these disorders, particularly the relationship between PD and AG is less clear. Methods The present study measured MD, PD and AG in a population sample of 5440 twin pairs and 1245 single twins, about 45% of whom were also scored for SP. Prevalences, within individual comorbidity and twin odds ratios for comorbidity are reported. A behavioural genetic analysis of the four disorders using the classical twin design was conducted. Results Odds ratios for MD, PD, AG, and SP in twins of individuals diagnosed with one of the four disorders were increased. Heritability estimates under a threshold-liability model for MD, PD, AG, and SP respectively were 0.33 (CI:0.30–0.42), 0.38 (CI:0.24–0.55), 0.48 (CI:0.37–0.65) of, and 0.39 (CI:0.16–0.65), with no evidence for any variance explained by the common environment shared by twins. We find that a common genetic factor explains a moderate proportion of variance in these four disorders. The genetic correlation between PD and AG was 0.83. Conclusion MD, PD, AG, and SP strongly co-aggregate within families and common genetic factors explain a moderate proportion of variance in these four disorders. The high genetic correlation between PD and AG and the increased odds ratio for PD and AG in siblings of those with AG without PD suggests a common genetic aetiology for PD and AG. PMID:19750555
Christiane K. Kämpfe
Full Text Available Se examinó si la sensibilidad a la ansiedad (SA y la evitación experiencial (EE, dos constructos potencialmente relevantes en la evolución de los trastornos de ansiedad relacionadas con importantes consecuencias de los tratamientos cognitivoconductuales, se relacionan de forma diferencial con la expresión de síntomas en pacientes con trastorno de pánico y agorafobia. Dentro de un estudio multicentro, 369 pacientes que cumplían con los criterios DSM-IV-TR para el trastorno de pánico con agorafobia (TP/AG completaron la Panic and Agoraphobia Scale (PAS, el Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI, el Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II y el Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II. Paralelamente se examina la validez predictiva de la SA y la EE mediante análisis exploratorio de los ítems y análisis de regresión múltiple. SA y EE correlacionaron de forma moderada entre sí (r = 0,50, p < 0,01. SA explicó un porcentaje de la varianza de las subescalas Ansiedad anticipatoria y Pánico relacionado con la incapacidad, pero no de Ataques de pánico, Evitación agorafóbica y Preocupaciones por la salud. ASI, AAQ-II y BDI-II explicaron un porcentaje de varianza entre bajo y moderado de las cinco subescalas PAS (R 2 = 0,04-0,29, p < 0,005. SA y EE se superponen en constructos distintos. Los resultados sugieren que SA contribuye a una comprensión mucho mejor de la vulnerabilidad, al menos en pacientes con TP/AG.
Mosing, Miriam A; Gordon, Scott D; Medland, Sarah E; Statham, Dixie J; Nelson, Elliot C; Heath, Andrew C; Martin, Nicholas G; Wray, Naomi R
Major depression (MD) and anxiety disorders such as panic disorder (PD), agoraphobia (AG), and social phobia (SP) are heritable and highly co-morbid. However, the relative importance of genetic and environmental etiology of the covariation between these disorders, particularly the relationship between PD and AG, is less clear. This study measured MD, PD, and AG in a population sample of 5,440 twin pairs and 1,245 single twins, about 45% of whom were also scored for SP. Prevalences, within individual co-morbidity and twin odds ratios for co-morbidity, are reported. A behavioral genetic analysis of the four disorders using the classical twin design was conducted. Odds ratios for MD, PD, AG, and SP in twins of individuals diagnosed with one of the four disorders were increased. Heritability estimates under a threshold-liability model for MD, PD, AG, and SP respectively were .33 (CI: 0.30-0.42), .38 (CI: 0.24-0.55), .48 (CI: 0.37-0.65), and .39 (CI: 0.16-0.65), with no evidence for any variance explained by the common environment shared by twins. We find that a common genetic factor explains a moderate proportion of variance in these four disorders. The genetic correlation between PD and AG was .83. MD, PD, AG, and SP strongly co-aggregate within families and common genetic factors explain a moderate proportion of variance in these four disorders. The high genetic correlation between PD and AG and the increased odds ratio for PD and AG in siblings of those with AG without PD suggests a common genetic etiology for PD and AG.
Hiller, Thomas Stephan; Freytag, Antje; Breitbart, Jörg; Teismann, Tobias; Schöne, Elisabeth; Blank, Wolfgang; Schelle, Mercedes; Vollmar, Horst Christian; Margraf, Jürgen; Gensichen, Jochen
Behavior therapy-oriented methods are recommended for treating anxiety disorders in primary care. The treatment of patients with long-term conditions can be improved by case management and structured clinical monitoring. The present paper describes the rationale, design and application of the 'Jena Anxiety Monitoring List' (JAMoL), a monitoring tool for the treatment of patients with panic disorder, with or without agoraphobia, in primary care. JAMoL's design was based on established clinical measures, the rationale of exposure-based anxiety treatment, and research on family practice-based case management. After piloting, the JAMoL was used in the clinical study 'Jena-PARADISE' (ISRCTN64669297), where non-physician practice staff monitored patients with panic disorder by telephone. Using semi-structured interviews in concomitant studies, study participants were asked about the instrument's functionality. The JAMoL assesses the severity of anxiety symptoms (6 items) as well as the patient's adherence to therapy (4 items) and fosters the case management-related information exchange (3 items). An integrated traffic light scheme facilitates the evaluation of monitoring results. Within the clinical study, non-physician practice staff carried out a total of 1,525 JAMoL-supported monitoring calls on 177 patients from 30 primary care practices (median calls per patient: 10 [interquartile range, 9-10]). Qualitative analyses revealed that most practice teams and patients rated the JAMoL as a practicable and treatment-relevant tool. The JAMoL enables primary care practice teams to continuously monitor anxiety symptoms and treatment adherence in patients with panic disorder with or without agoraphobia. Within the behavior therapy-oriented treatment program 'Jena-PARADISE', the JAMoL constitutes an important case management tool. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier GmbH.
Audun C. Irgens
Full Text Available Background: Thought field therapy (TFT is used for many psychiatric conditions, but its efficacy has not been sufficiently documented. Hence, there is a need for studies comparing TFT to well-established treatments. This study compares the efficacy of TFT and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT for patients with agoraphobia.Methods: Seventy-two patients were randomized to CBT (N = 24, TFT (N = 24 or a wait-list condition (WLC (N = 24 after a diagnostic procedure including the MINI PLUS that was performed before treatment or WLC. Following a 3 months waiting period, the WL patients were randomized to CBT (n = 12 or TFT (n = 12, and all patients were reassessed after treatment or waiting period and at 12 months follow-up. At first we compared the three groups CBT, TFT, and WL. After the post WL randomization, we compared CBT (N = 12 + 24 = 36 to TFT (N = 12 + 24 = 36, applying the pre-treatment scores as baseline for all patients. The primary outcome measure was a symptom score from the Anxiety Disorders Interview Scale that was performed by an interviewer blinded to the treatment condition. For statistical comparisons, we used the independent sample’s t-test, the Fisher’s exact test and the ANOVA and ANCOVA tests.Results: Both CBT and TFT showed better results than the WLC (p < 0.001 at post-treatment. Post-treatment and at the 12-month follow-up, there were not significant differences between CBT and TFT (p = 0.33 and p = 0.90, respectively.Conclusion: This paper reports the first study comparing TFT to CBT for any disorder. The study indicated that TFT may be an efficient treatment for patients with agoraphobia.Trial Registration:https://clinicaltrials.gov/, identifier NCT00932919.
Support Vector Machine Analysis of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Interoception Does Not Reliably Predict Individual Outcomes of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia
Full Text Available BackgroundThe approach to apply multivariate pattern analyses based on neuro imaging data for outcome prediction holds out the prospect to improve therapeutic decisions in mental disorders. Patients suffering from panic disorder with agoraphobia (PD/AG often exhibit an increased perception of bodily sensations. The purpose of this investigation was to assess whether multivariate classification applied to a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI interoception paradigm can predict individual responses to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT in PD/AG.MethodsThis analysis is based on pretreatment fMRI data during an interoceptive challenge from a multicenter trial of the German PANIC-NET. Patients with DSM-IV PD/AG were dichotomized as responders (n = 30 or non-responders (n = 29 based on the primary outcome (Hamilton Anxiety Scale Reduction ≥50% after 6 weeks of CBT (2 h/week. fMRI parametric maps were used as features for response classification with linear support vector machines (SVM with or without automated feature selection. Predictive accuracies were assessed using cross validation and permutation testing. The influence of methodological parameters and the predictive ability for specific interoception-related symptom reduction were further evaluated.ResultsSVM did not reach sufficient overall predictive accuracies (38.0–54.2% for anxiety reduction in the primary outcome. In the exploratory analyses, better accuracies (66.7% were achieved for predicting interoception-specific symptom relief as an alternative outcome domain. Subtle information regarding this alternative response criterion but not the primary outcome was revealed by post hoc univariate comparisons.ConclusionIn contrast to reports on other neurofunctional probes, SVM based on an interoception paradigm was not able to reliably predict individual response to CBT. Results speak against the clinical applicability of this technique.
Dron, Jon; Anderson, Terry
Read/write social technologies enable rich pedagogies that centre on sharing and constructing content but have two notable weaknesses. Firstly, beyond the safe, nurturing environment of closed groups, students participating in more or less public network- or set-oriented communities may be insecure in their knowledge and skills, leading to…
João Daniel Caliman e Gurgel
Full Text Available Tontura é uma das queixas mais freqüentes no consultório médico tanto primário quanto especializado. Muitos dos pacientes que se apresentam com tontura sem causa orgânica aparente, portanto considerados como portadores de tontura idiopática, podem ter um distúrbio psiquiátrico. Além disso, mesmo a tontura de causa orgânica pode desencadear ou exacerbar alterações psiquiátricas "latentes". Um dos distúrbios mais comumente associados à tontura é o Distúrbio do Pânico, com ou sem Agorafobia. O objetivo deste estudo é relatar o caso de uma paciente com essa associação e realizar uma revisão da literatura relacionada ao assunto.Dizziness is one of the most frequent complaints in both primary and specialized medical care facilities. Many dizzy patients, without a known organic cause, considered as having idiopathic dizziness, may have a psychiatric disorder. Besides, even organic dizziness may cause or exacerbate latent psychiatric alterations. One of the most common disorders associated with dizziness is Panic Disorder with or without Agoraphobia. The aim of this paper is to report a patient’s case and make a literature review on the subject.
Transdiagnostic group CBT vs. standard group CBT for depression, social anxiety disorder and agoraphobia/panic disorder: Study protocol for a pragmatic, multicenter non-inferiority randomized controlled trial.
Arnfred, Sidse M; Aharoni, Ruth; Hvenegaard, Morten; Poulsen, Stig; Bach, Bo; Arendt, Mikkel; Rosenberg, Nicole K; Reinholt, Nina
Transdiagnostic Cognitive Behavior Therapy (TCBT) manuals delivered in individual format have been reported to be just as effective as traditional diagnosis specific CBT manuals. We have translated and modified the "The Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders" (UP-CBT) for group delivery in Mental Health Service (MHS), and shown effects comparable to traditional CBT in a naturalistic study. As the use of one manual instead of several diagnosis-specific manuals could simplify logistics, reduce waiting time, and increase therapist expertise compared to diagnosis specific CBT, we aim to test the relative efficacy of group UP-CBT and diagnosis specific group CBT. The study is a partially blinded, pragmatic, non-inferiority, parallel, multi-center randomized controlled trial (RCT) of UP-CBT vs diagnosis specific CBT for Unipolar Depression, Social Anxiety Disorder and Agoraphobia/Panic Disorder. In total, 248 patients are recruited from three regional MHS centers across Denmark and included in two intervention arms. The primary outcome is patient-ratings of well-being (WHO Well-being Index, WHO-5), secondary outcomes include level of depressive and anxious symptoms, personality variables, emotion regulation, reflective functioning, and social adjustment. Assessments are conducted before and after therapy and at 6 months follow-up. Weekly patient-rated outcomes and group evaluations are collected for every session. Outcome assessors, blind to treatment allocation, will perform the observer-based symptom ratings, and fidelity assessors will monitor manual adherence. The current study will be the first RCT investigating the dissemination of the UP in a MHS setting, the UP delivered in groups, and with depressive patients included. Hence the results are expected to add substantially to the evidence base for rational group psychotherapy in MHS. The planned moderator and mediator analyses could spur new hypotheses about mechanisms of change in
Subtipo respiratório versus não respiratório no transtorno de pânico com agorafobia: avaliação com terapia cognitivo-comportamental Respiratory versus non respiratory subtypes of panic disorder with agoraphobia: cognitive behavioral therapy assessment
Anna Lucia Spear King
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a resposta dos pacientes com transtorno de pânico com agorafobia à modelo proposto de terapia cognitivo-comportamental (TCC nos dois subtipos respiratórios de transtorno de pânico: o subtipo respiratório (SR e subtipo não respiratório (SNR Amostra randomizada por sorteio com 50 pacientes diagnosticados segundo o Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico dos Transtornos Mentais. A medicação: antidepressivos tricíclicos ou inibidores seletivos de recaptação da serotonina. Setenta e sete ponto seis porcento da amostra de pacientes de ambos os grupos apresentaram o SR e 22,4 % o SNR. Os pacientes do SR, responderam satisfatoriamente ao tratamento com técnicas da TCC, reduzindo ansiedade, sintomas respiratórios e os ataques de pânico. Os pacientes do SR melhoraram, segundo a escala de avaliação global do funcionamento, de 55,8 para 70,9 em comparação com o SNR.The objective of the present study was to verify the response of patients with panic disorder (agoraphobia to existing cognitive-behavior therapy models (CBT of two respiratory subtypes of panic disorder (PD: respiratory subtype (RS and non respiratory subtype (NRS. We randomly selected a sample of 50 patients diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The medication used was tricycle or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants. Seventy-seven point six percent of the patients from both groups showed RS and 22.4% the NRS. The RS patients responded satisfactorily to the treatment with techniques of CBT decreasing anxiety, breathing symptoms and panic attacks. According to the global functioning assessment scale, RS patients improved from 55.8 to 70.9 in comparison with NRS ones.
Faravelli, C; Panichi, C; Pallanti, S; Paterniti, S; Grecu, L M; Rivelli, S
Thirty-two patients with a DSM-III-R diagnosis of panic disorder (PD) were administered the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), a 25-item self-report questionnaire devised to evaluate parental rearing practices. Compared with 32 matched healthy controls, PD patients scored both their parents as being significantly less caring and more overprotective. Moreover, the consistency of parental attitudes between the 2 parents was significantly lower, indicating lesser uniformity in the rearing patterns.
Schmidt, Norman B.; Norr, Aaron M.; Korte, Kristina J.
With the upcoming release of the fifth edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (DSM-V) there has been a necessary critique of the DSM-IV including questions regarding how to best improve the next iteration of the DSM classification system. The aim of this article is to provide commentary on the probable…
Wenceslao Peñate Castro
Full Text Available En este estudio se comparó la eficacia de la exposición a estímulos virtuales combinada con terapia cognitivo-conductual (VRET con un programa tradicional cognitivo-conductual (CBT para reducir la sintomatología fóbica en una muestra de personas con agorafobia de larga evolución. Se utilizó un diseño entre sujetos con tres condiciones experimentales (grupo VRET, N = 30; grupo CBT, N = 30; y grupo con sólo medicación, N = 20 y medidas repetidas (pre, post- tratamiento y seguimiento a los seis meses. Todos los pacientes estaban tomando antidepresivos. Los resultados mostraron que todas las terapias fueron estadísticamente eficaces, tanto en el post-tratamiento como en el seguimiento. El grupo VRET mostró mayores mejoras clínicas en el seguimiento. El grupo CBT mostró las tasas más altas de abandono. VRET probablemente juega un papel intermedio para una exposición eficiente a los estímulos fóbicos. Más allá de las ventajas de un procedimiento VRET para el tratamiento de la agorafobia en términos de coste-beneficios, este estudio también destaca los posibles beneficios en la mejora en la motivación y adherencia al tratamiento.
Arnfred, Sidse Marie Hemmingsen; Aharoni, Ruth; Pedersen, Morten Hvenegaard
Background: Transdiagnostic Cognitive Behavior Therapy (TCBT) manuals delivered in individual format have been reported to be just as effective as traditional diagnosis specific CBT manuals. We have translated and modified the “The Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional...... Disorders” (UP-CBT) for group delivery in Mental Health Service (MHS), and shown effects comparable to traditional CBT in a naturalistic study. As the use of one manual instead of several diagnosis-specific manuals could simplify logistics, reduce waiting time, and increase therapist expertise compared...... to diagnosis specific CBT, we aim to test the relative efficacy of group UP-CBT and diagnosis specific group CBT. Methods/design: The study is a partially blinded, pragmatic, non-inferiority, parallel, multi-center randomized controlled trial (RCT) of UP-CBT vs diagnosis specific CBT for Unipolar Depression...
Arnfred, Sidse M.; Aharoni, Ruth; Hvenegaard, Morten
Background: Transdiagnostic Cognitive Behavior Therapy (TCBT) manuals delivered in individual format have been reported to be just as effective as traditional diagnosis specific CBT manuals. We have translated and modified the “The Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional...... of depressive and anxious symptoms, personality variables, emotion regulation, reflective functioning, and social adjustment. Assessments are conducted before and after therapy and at 6 months follow-up. Weekly patient-rated outcomes and group evaluations are collected for every session. Outcome assessors...... included. Hence the results are expected to add substantially to the evidence base for rational group psychotherapy in MHS. The planned moderator and mediator analyses could spur new hypotheses about mechanisms of change in psychotherapy and the association between patient characteristics and treatment...
Payne, Laura A; White, Kamila S; Gallagher, Matthew W; Woods, Scott W; Shear, M Katherine; Gorman, Jack M; Farchione, Todd J; Barlow, David H
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and pharmacotherapy are efficacious for the short-term treatment of panic disorder. Less is known about the efficacy of these therapies for individuals who do not respond fully to short-term CBT. The current trial is a second-step stratified randomized design comparing two treatment conditions-selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI; paroxetine or citalopram; n = 34) and continued CBT (n = 24)-in a sample of individuals classified as treatment nonresponders to an initial course of CBT for panic disorder. Participants were randomized to 3 months of treatment and then followed for an additional 9 months. Only treatment responders after 3 months were maintained on the treatment until 12-month follow-up. Data analysis focused on panic disorder symptoms and achievement of response status across the first 3 months of treatment. Final follow-up data are presented descriptively. Participants in the SSRI condition showed significantly lower panic disorder symptoms as compared to continued CBT at 3 months. Results were similar when excluding individuals with comorbid major depression or analyzing the entire intent-to-treat sample. Group differences disappeared during 9-month naturalistic follow-up, although there was significant attrition and use of nonstudy therapies in both arms. These data suggest greater improvement in panic disorder symptoms when switching to SSRI after failure to fully respond to an initial course of CBT. Future studies should further investigate relapse following treatment discontinuation for nonresponders who became responders. Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00000368; https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00000368. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
van Apeldoorn, F.J.; van Hout, W.J.P.J.; Huisman, P.P.A.M.; Slaap, B.R.; Hale, W.W.; Visser, S.; van Dyck, R.; den Boer, J.A.
Objective: To establish whether the combination of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and pharmacotherapy (SSRI) was more effective in treating panic disorder (PD) than either CBT or SSRI alone, and to evaluate any differential effects between the mono-treatments. Method: Patients with PD (n = 150)
van Apeldoorn, F. J.; van Hout, W. J. P. J.; Huisman, J.M.E.; Slaap, B. R.; Hale, W. W.; Visser, S.; van Dyck, R.; den Boer, J. A.; Mersch, P.P.A.
Objective: To establish whether the combination of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and pharmacotherapy (SSRI) was more effective in treating panic disorder (PD) than either CBT or SSRI alone, and to evaluate any differential effects between the mono-treatments. Method: Patients with PD (n = 150)
van Apeldoorn, F.J.; Hout, W.J.P.J.; Mersch, P.P.A.; Huisman, M.; Slaap, B.R.; Hale, W.W., III; Visser, S.; van Dyck, R.; den Boer, J.A.
Objective: To establish whether the combination of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and pharmacotherapy (SSRI) was more effective in treating panic disorder (PD) than either CBT or SSRI alone, and to evaluate any differential effects between the monotreatments. Method: Patients with PD (n = 150)
Van Apeldoorn, Franske J.; Van Hout, Wiljo J. P. J.; Timmerman, Marieke E.; Mersch, Peter Paul A.; den Boer, Johan A.
Background: Existing literature on panic disorder (PD) yields no data regarding the differential rates of improvement during Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) or both combined (CBT+SSRI). Method: Patients were randomized to CBT, SSRI or CBT+SSRI which
Hofmeijer-Sevink, Mieke Klein; Duits, Puck; Rijkeboer, Marleen M.; Hoogendoorn, Adriaan W; Van Megen, Harold J.; Vulink, Nienke C.; Denys, Damiaan A.; Van Den Hout, Marcel A.; van Balkom, Anton J L M; Cath, Danielle C.
Purpose/Background D-cycloserine (DCS) is a partial N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor agonist that potentially augments response to exposure therapy in anxiety disorders by enhancing extinction learning. This randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled augmentation trial examined (1) the
Hofmeijer-Sevink, Mieke Klein; Duits, Puck; Rijkeboer, Marleen M; Hoogendoorn, Adriaan W; van Megen, Harold J; Vulink, Nienke C; Denys, D.; van den Hout, Marcel A; van Balkom, Anton J L M; Cath, Danielle C
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: D-cycloserine (DCS) is a partial N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor agonist that potentially augments response to exposure therapy in anxiety disorders by enhancing extinction learning. This randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled augmentation trial examined (1) the
Hofmeijer-Sevink, Mieke Klein; Duits, Puck; Rijkeboer, Marleen M.; Hoogendoorn, Adriaan W.; van Megen, Harold J.; Vulink, Nienke C.; Denys, Damiaan A.; van den Hout, Marcel A.; van Balkom, Anton J.; Cath, Danielle C.
Purpose/Background: D-cycloserine (DCS) is a partial N-methyl-Daspartate receptor agonist that potentially augments response to exposure therapy in anxiety disorders by enhancing extinction learning. This randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled augmentation trial examined (1) the
Hofmeijer-Sevink, Mieke Klein; Duits, Puck; Rijkeboer, Marleen M.; Hoogendoorn, Adriaan W.; van Megen, Harold J.; Vulink, Nienke C.; Denys, Damiaan A.; van den Hout, Marcel A.; van Balkom, Anton J.; Cath, Danielle C.
Purpose/Background: D-cycloserine (DCS) is a partial N-methyl-Daspartate receptor agonist that potentially augments response to exposure therapy in anxiety disorders by enhancing extinction learning. This randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled augmentation trial examined (1) the
Does rTMS Alter Neurocognitive Functioning in Patients with Panic Disorder/Agoraphobia? An fNIRS-Based Investigation of Prefrontal Activation during a Cognitive Task and Its Modulation via Sham-Controlled rTMS
Full Text Available Objectives. Neurobiologically, panic disorder (PD is supposed to be characterised by cerebral hypofrontality. Via functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS, we investigated whether prefrontal hypoactivity during cognitive tasks in PD-patients compared to healthy controls (HC could be replicated. As intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS modulates cortical activity, we furthermore investigated its ability to normalise prefrontal activation. Methods. Forty-four PD-patients, randomised to sham or verum group, received 15 iTBS-sessions above the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC in addition to psychoeducation. Before first and after last iTBS-treatment, cortical activity during a verbal fluency task was assessed via fNIRS and compared to the results of 23 HC. Results. At baseline, PD-patients showed hypofrontality including the DLPFC, which differed significantly from activation patterns of HC. However, verum iTBS did not augment prefrontal fNIRS activation. Solely after sham iTBS, a significant increase of measured fNIRS activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG during the phonological task was found. Conclusion. Our results support findings that PD is characterised by prefrontal hypoactivation during cognitive performance. However, verum iTBS as an “add-on” to psychoeducation did not augment prefrontal activity. Instead we only found increased fNIRS activation in the left IFG after sham iTBS application. Possible reasons including task-related psychophysiological arousal are discussed.
Does rTMS alter neurocognitive functioning in patients with panic disorder/agoraphobia? An fNIRS-based investigation of prefrontal activation during a cognitive task and its modulation via sham-controlled rTMS.
Deppermann, Saskia; Vennewald, Nadja; Diemer, Julia; Sickinger, Stephanie; Haeussinger, Florian B; Notzon, Swantje; Laeger, Inga; Arolt, Volker; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Zwanzger, Peter; Fallgatter, Andreas J
Neurobiologically, panic disorder (PD) is supposed to be characterised by cerebral hypofrontality. Via functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), we investigated whether prefrontal hypoactivity during cognitive tasks in PD-patients compared to healthy controls (HC) could be replicated. As intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) modulates cortical activity, we furthermore investigated its ability to normalise prefrontal activation. Forty-four PD-patients, randomised to sham or verum group, received 15 iTBS-sessions above the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in addition to psychoeducation. Before first and after last iTBS-treatment, cortical activity during a verbal fluency task was assessed via fNIRS and compared to the results of 23 HC. At baseline, PD-patients showed hypofrontality including the DLPFC, which differed significantly from activation patterns of HC. However, verum iTBS did not augment prefrontal fNIRS activation. Solely after sham iTBS, a significant increase of measured fNIRS activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) during the phonological task was found. Our results support findings that PD is characterised by prefrontal hypoactivation during cognitive performance. However, verum iTBS as an "add-on" to psychoeducation did not augment prefrontal activity. Instead we only found increased fNIRS activation in the left IFG after sham iTBS application. Possible reasons including task-related psychophysiological arousal are discussed.
Arch, Joanna J.; Craske, Michelle G.
In this paper, we present a client with panic disorder and agoraphobia who relapses following a full course of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). To frame the client's treatment, the major components of CBT for panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (PD/A) are reviewed. Likely reasons for the treatment's failure and strategies for improving…
A phobia is a type of anxiety disorder. It is a strong, irrational fear of something that poses little or no real danger. There are many specific phobias. Acrophobia is a fear of heights. Agoraphobia is ...
The statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) was used for the analysis. ... and mania) and anxiety disorders (General anxiety, agoraphobia, social phobia, ... Keywords: Prevalence, Psychiatric disorder, HIV infection, Mental challenges ...
Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in HIV patients in the ... mania) and anxiety disorders (General anxiety, agoraphobia, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder and post traumatic stress disorder). ..... Belfer, M. L. Child and adolescent.
van der Aa, H.P.A.; Comijs, H.C.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; van Rens, G.H.M.B.; van Nispen, R.M.A.
PURPOSE. We assessed the prevalence of subthreshold depression and anxiety, and major depressive, dysthymic, and anxiety disorders (panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, and general anxiety disorder) in visually impaired older adults and compared these estimates with those of normally sighted
Space phobia in 13 patients is described with features distinct from agoraphobia. Its hallmark is fear of absent visuospatial support (open spaces) and of falling, unlike the fear of public places found in agoraphobia. Other distinctions are the much later mean age of onset (55 years compared with 24 years), rarity of depression or free floating anxiety, limited response to treatment by exposure in vivo, and the frequent presence of diverse neurological and cardiovascular disorders which can ...
Walz, Nora; Mühlberger, Andreas; Pauli, Paul
Thigmotaxis refers to a specific behavior of animals (i.e., to stay close to walls when exploring an open space). Such behavior can be assessed with the open field test (OFT), which is a well-established indicator of animal fear. The detection of similar open field behavior in humans may verify the translational validity of this paradigm. Enhanced thigmotaxis related to anxiety may suggest the relevance of such behavior for anxiety disorders, especially agoraphobia. A global positioning system was used to analyze the behavior of 16 patients with agoraphobia and 18 healthy individuals with a risk for agoraphobia (i.e., high anxiety sensitivity) during a human OFT and compare it with appropriate control groups (n = 16 and n = 19). We also tracked 17 patients with agoraphobia and 17 control participants during a city walk that involved walking through an open market square. Our human OFT triggered thigmotaxis in participants; patients with agoraphobia and participants with high anxiety sensitivity exhibited enhanced thigmotaxis. This behavior was evident in increased movement lengths along the wall of the natural open field and fewer entries into the center of the field despite normal movement speed and length. Furthermore, participants avoided passing through the market square during the city walk, indicating again that thigmotaxis is related to agoraphobia. This study is the first to our knowledge to verify the translational validity of the OFT and to reveal that thigmotaxis, an evolutionarily adaptive behavior shown by most species, is related to agoraphobia, a pathologic fear of open spaces, and anxiety sensitivity, a risk factor for agoraphobia. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dold, Markus; Bartova, Lucie; Souery, Daniel; Mendlewicz, Julien; Serretti, Alessandro; Porcelli, Stefano; Zohar, Joseph; Montgomery, Stuart; Kasper, Siegfried
This naturalistic European multicenter study aimed to elucidate the association between major depressive disorder (MDD) and comorbid anxiety disorders. Demographic and clinical information of 1346 MDD patients were compared between those with and without concurrent anxiety disorders. The association between explanatory variables and the presence of comorbid anxiety disorders was examined using binary logistic regression analyses. 286 (21.2%) of the participants exhibited comorbid anxiety disorders, 10.8% generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), 8.3% panic disorder, 8.1% agoraphobia, and 3.3% social phobia. MDD patients with comorbid anxiety disorders were characterized by younger age (social phobia), outpatient status (agoraphobia), suicide risk (any anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia), higher depressive symptom severity (GAD), polypsychopharmacy (panic disorder, agoraphobia), and a higher proportion receiving augmentation treatment with benzodiazepines (any anxiety disorder, GAD, panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia) and pregabalin (any anxiety disorder, GAD, panic disorder). The results in terms of treatment response were conflicting (better response for panic disorder and poorer for GAD). The logistic regression analyses revealed younger age (any anxiety disorder, social phobia), outpatient status (agoraphobia), suicide risk (agoraphobia), severe depressive symptoms (any anxiety disorder, GAD, social phobia), poorer treatment response (GAD), and increased administration of benzodiazepines (any anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia) and pregabalin (any anxiety disorder, GAD, panic disorder) to be associated with comorbid anxiety disorders. Our findings suggest that the various anxiety disorders subtypes display divergent clinical characteristics and are associated with different variables. Especially comorbid GAD appears to be characterized by high symptom severity and poor treatment response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All
injury (2) Which of the following will likely help you recover? C (a) Late-day coffee (b) Energy drinks (c) Avoid re-injury (d) Avoid friends/family (3...disorder, obsessive -compulsive disorder, social phobia, hypochondriasis, and agoraphobia. The 9-item ART Intake Questionnaire is designed to capture...subscale scores of the PDSQ, included obsessive compulsive disorder (61%), agoraphobia (61%), generalized anxiety disorder (60%), somatization disorder (56
Someya, T; Kitamura, H; Uehara, T; Sakado, K; Kaiya, H; Tang, S W; Takahashi, S
Although recent studies have found dysfunctional parental rearing behaviour is associated with certain aspects of psychopathology of panic disorder (PD), the results are not in complete agreement. By using a translated Japanese version of the EMBU (Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran), we investigated the parental rearing behavior perceived by 103 normal subjects, 71 PD patients with agoraphobia, and 32 PD patients without agoraphobia. The PD patients scored both parents as more rejecting and overprotective than did the controls. However, subgroup analysis showed that the patients with agoraphobia reported significantly more rejection from both parents and less emotional warmth from mothers, while the patients without agoraphobia, by contrast, reported more overprotection from both parents and more favouring subject from fathers than did the controls. Interestingly, these results were consistent with those documented in the Western literature, which reported "affectionless control" as a parenting style in PD, and, furthermore, indicated a cross-cultural similarity of parental rearing factor. In addition, it was suggested that a lack of care might be associated with the development of agoraphobia in Japan.
Longley, Susan L; Watson, David; Noyes, Russell; Yoder, Kevin
A dimensional and psychometrically informed taxonomy of anxiety is emerging, but the specific and nonspecific dimensions of panic and phobic anxiety require greater clarification. In this study, confirmatory factor analyses of data from a sample of 438 college students were used to validate a model of panic and phobic anxiety with six content factors; multiple scales from self-report measures were indicators of each model component. The model included a nonspecific component of (1) neuroticism and two specific components of panic attack, (2) physiological hyperarousal, and (3) anxiety sensitivity. The model also included three phobia components of (4) classically defined agoraphobia, (5) social phobia, and (6) blood-injection phobia. In these data, agoraphobia correlated more strongly with both the social phobia and blood phobia components than with either the physiological hyperarousal or the anxiety sensitivity components. These findings suggest that the association between panic attacks and agoraphobia warrants greater attention.
Full Text Available A compared, 12 week, placebo controlled study, with fixed dose, outpatient study of patients diagnosed with panic disorder with and without agoraphobia according to ICD-10, was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sertraline and alprazolam. The study included 40 patients, divided in two groups. We evaluated number of ICD-10-defined panic attacks, agoraphobia and anticipatory anxiety. All patients were aged 18 year and older and were randomized to either sertraline or alprazolam. Sertraline applied in fixed doses of 20 mg/day and alprazolam in doses 1-1,5 mg/day significantly reduced the frequency of panic attacks in panic disorder patients, reduced symptoms of agoraphobia and anticipatory anxiety
van Apeldoorn, F. J.; Stant, A. D.; van Hout, W. J. P. J.; Mersch, P. P. A.; den Boer, J. A.
Objective The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of three empirically supported treatments for panic disorder with or without agoraphobia: cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), pharmacotherapy using a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), or the combination of both
Middeldorp, C.M.; Birley, A.J.; Cath, D.C.; Gillespie, N.A.; Willemsen, G.; Statham, D.J.; Geus, de J.C.N.; Andrews, J.G.; Dyck, van R.; Beem, A.L.; Sullivan, P.F.; Martin, N.G.; Boomsma, D.I.
The aim of this study was to investigate familial influences and their dependence on sex for panic disorder and/or agoraphobia, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder and major depression. Data from Australian (N = 2287) and Dutch (N = 1185) twins and siblings who were selected for a linkage
Charles B Pull
Full Text Available Charles B Pull1, Cristian Damsa21Department of Neurosciences, Centre Hospitalier de Luxembourg, Luxembourg; 2Department of Psychiatry, Clinical Investigation Program, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, USAAbstract: Panic disorder (PD is a common, persistent and disabling mental disorder. It is often associated with agoraphobia. The present article reviews the current status of pharmacotherapy for PD with or without agoraphobia as well as the current status of treatments combing pharmacotherapy with cognitive behavior therapy (CBT. The review has been written with a focus on randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, and reviews that have been published over the past few years. Effective pharmacological treatments include tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and various benzodiazepines. Treatment results obtained with CBT compare well with pharmacotherapy, with evidence that CBT is at least as effective as pharmacotherapy. Combining pharmacotherapy with CBT has been found to be superior to antidepressant pharmacotherapy or CBT alone, but only in the acute-phase treatment. Long term studies on treatments combining pharmacotherapy and CBT for PD with or without agoraphobia have found little benefit, however, for combination therapies versus monotherapies. New investigations explore the potential additional value of sequential versus concomitant treatments, of cognitive enhancers and virtual reality exposure therapy, and of education, self management and Internet-based interventions.Keywords: Panic disorder, agoraphobia, pharmacotherapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, combination treatments.
van Ballegooijen, Wouter; Riper, Heleen; Donker, Tara; Martin Abello, Katherina; Marks, Isaac; Cuijpers, Pim
The advent of web-based treatments for anxiety disorders creates a need for quick and valid online screening instruments, suitable for a range of social groups. This study validates a single-item multimedia screening instrument for agoraphobia, part of the Visual Screener for Common Mental Disorders
Alberdi, Francisco; Rosenbaum, Bent
In general, psychodynamic psychotherapy is not considered evidence-based treatment. This review includes recent meta-analyses and review papers. We conclude that evidence in favour of psychodynamic psychotherapy exists for unipolar depression, panic anxiety with and without agoraphobia, social...
Coleman, Priscilla K; Coyle, Catherine T; Shuping, Martha; Rue, Vincent M
The purpose of this study was to examine associations between abortion history and a wide range of anxiety (panic disorder, panic attacks, PTSD, Agoraphobia), mood (bipolar disorder, mania, major depression), and substance abuse disorders (alcohol and drug abuse and dependence) using a nationally representative US sample, the national comorbidity survey. Abortion was found to be related to an increased risk for a variety of mental health problems (panic attacks, panic disorder, agoraphobia, PTSD, bipolar disorder, major depression with and without hierarchy), and substance abuse disorders after statistical controls were instituted for a wide range of personal, situational, and demographic variables. Calculation of population attributable risks indicated that abortion was implicated in between 4.3% and 16.6% of the incidence of these disorders. Future research is needed to identify mediating mechanisms linking abortion to various disorders and to understand individual difference factors associated with vulnerability to developing a particular mental health problem after abortion.
Bienvenu, O J; Nestadt, G; Samuels, J F; Costa, P T; Howard, W T; Eaton, W W
This study investigated five-factor model personality traits in anxiety (simple phobia, social phobia, agoraphobia, and panic disorder) and major depressive disorders in a population-based sample. In the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Follow-up Study, psychiatrists administered the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry to 333 adult subjects who also completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. All of the disorders except simple phobia were associated with high neuroticism. Social phobia and agoraphobia were associated with low extraversion. In addition, lower-order facets of extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were associated with certain disorders (i.e., low positive emotions in panic disorder; low trust and compliance in certain phobias; and low competence, achievement striving, and self-discipline in several disorders). This study emphasizes the utility of lower-order personality assessments and underscores the need for further research on personality/psychopathology etiologic relationships.
Full Text Available Anxienty is closely related to sexual disorders, being their source, preserver, and consequence. Therefore, it represents an important obstacle in the course of a therapy. The role of anxiety in sexual disorders has already been widely investigated, but the question whether the above mentioned connection exists at a micro level remains unanswered. The present study focused on two specific anxiety disorders: agoraphobia and obsessive compulsive disorder. Two translated questionnaries were used: Mobility Inventory for Agoraphobia MIA (Chambless, Caputo, Jasin, & Gracely, 1985 and Padua Inventory PI (Sanavio, 1988. Participants were patients with sexual disorders who sought psychiatric help, and a group of students represented a control group. Results demonstrated a strong connection between agoraphobic and obsessive compulsive symptoms on one side and sexual disorders on the other. Among the possible explanations for this connection the circular model seems to be the most appropriate.
Chou, Tina; Asnaani, Anu; Hofmann, Stefan G
To examine the association between the perception of racial discrimination and the lifetime prevalence rates of psychological disorders in the three most common ethnic minorities in the United States, we analyzed data from a sample consisting of 793 Asian Americans, 951 Hispanic Americans, and 2,795 African Americans who received the Composite International Diagnostic Interview through the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies. The perception of racial discrimination was associated with the endorsement of major depressive disorder, panic disorder with agoraphobia, agoraphobia without history of panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and substance use disorders in varying degrees among the three minority groups, independent of the socioeconomic status, level of education, age, and gender of participants. The results suggest that the perception of racial discrimination is associated with psychopathology in the three most common U.S. minority groups.
Bener, A; Ghuloum, S; Dafeeah, E E
The aim of this study was to identify the most common phobias in children and adolescents and to determine the prevalence, age distribution, and socio-demographic correlates of phobias. This was a prospective cross-sectional study conducted at public and private schools from July 2009 to February 2009. The questionnaire included socio-demographic information, extra-curricular activities and hobbies, behaviour at home and various phobic fears and it was distributed among children aged 6 to 18 years. Psychiatrists determined the definitive diagnosis for various phobias by checking and screening their symptoms. Of the studied subjects, 44% were males and 56% were females. The overall prevalence of phobia in children and adolescents was 19.7%. Among children with phobia, females had higher rates of phobias (62.4% vs 37.6%) than males. Nearly half of total sufferers were in the 12-15 year age group (46.3%). Social phobia (12.7%) was the commonest phobia found followed by agoraphobia (8.6%). Secondary school children were highly afflicted with social phobia (14.9%), agoraphobia (11.7%) and specific phobia (9.6%), while preparatory students (8.3%) were more likely to have 'medical' phobia (fear of physical illness, medical tests and procedures). A significant difference was observed between the age groups in children with agoraphobia (p=0.002). The overall prevalence of phobia in children and adolescents in Qatar was higher than rates found in other epidemiologic studies, with the most common phobias observed being social phobia, agoraphobia and specific phobia.
Domschke , Katharina; Reif , Andreas; Weber , Heike; Richter , Jan; Hohoff , Christa; Ohrmann , Patricia; Pedersen , Anya; Bauer , Jochen; Suslow , Thomas; Kugel , Harald; Heindel , Walter L; Baumann , Christian; Klauke , Benedikt; Jacob , Christian; Maier , Wolfgang
Abstract Animal studies have suggested neuropeptide S (NPS) and its receptor (NPSR) to be involved in the pathogenesis of anxiety-related behavior. In the present study, a multilevel approach was applied to further elucidate the role of NPS in the etiology of human anxiety. The functional NPSR A/T (Asn107Ile) variant (rs324981) was investigated for association with (1) panic disorder with and without agoraphobia in two large, independent case-control studies, (2) dimensional an...
Bandelow, Borwin; Michaelis, Sophie; Wedekind, Dirk
Anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder/agoraphobia, social anxiety disorder, and others) are the most prevalent psychiatric disorders, and are associated with a high burden of illness. Anxiety disorders are often underrecognized and undertreated in primary care. Treatment is indicated when a patient shows marked distress or suffers from complications resulting from the disorder. The treatment recommendations given in this article are based on guidelines, meta-analyses...
Bergstrom, Jan; Andersson, Gerhard; Ljotsson, Brjann; Ruck, Christian; Andreewitch, Sergej; Karlsson, Andreas; Carlbring, Per; Andersson, Erik; Lindefors, Nils
Background: Internet administered cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is a promising new way to deliver psychological treatment, but its effectiveness in regular care settings and in relation to more traditional CBT group treatment has not yet been determined. The primary aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Internet- and group administered CBT for panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia) in a randomised trial within a regular psychiatric care setting. The second aim of the...
Anxiety disorders share the feature of excessive fear, anxiety and related behavioural disturbances. Fear is defined as the emotional response to a real or a perceived imminent threat and anxiety is the anticipation of a future threat. The anxiety disorders covered in this thesis are panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, social phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and anxiety disorder not otherwise specified. Cognitive behavioural treatment protocols are ...
Mustafa Ozkan; Abdurrahman Altindag
Personality disorders are common in subjects with panic disorder. Personality disorders have shown to affect the course of panic disorder. The purpose of this study was to examine which personality disorders effect clinical severity in subjects with panic disorder. This study included 122 adults (71 female, 41 male), who met DSM-IV criteria for panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia). Clinical assessment was conducted by using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders...
Alberdi, Francisco; Rosenbaum, Bent
In general, psychodynamic psychotherapy is not considered evidence-based treatment. This review includes recent meta-analyses and review papers. We conclude that evidence in favour of psychodynamic psychotherapy exists for unipolar depression, panic anxiety with and without agoraphobia, social...... phobia, generalised anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. For complex mental conditions, long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy shows greater effect than no treatment, standard treatment and short-term psychotherapy. Psychodynamic psychotherapy can be recommended for treatment of specific...
Full Text Available ASSESSMENT OF THE SEVERITY AND PANIC COMORBID DISORDERS ABSTRACT Background: Panic disorder with or without agoraphobia is a common anxiety disorders. Panic disorder patients who seek medical attention complaining of different emerging and many patients also suffer from anxiety disorders / other psychiatric or substance abuse disorders. Methods: This was a cross sectional study conducted using DSM IV TR criteria for panic disorder. Then patients with a diagnosis of panic disorder, panic disorder severity scale measured by 7 items (PDSS to assess the severity of panic disorder. Clinically evaluated for the presence of agoraphobia or not. Special attention is given to check whether the patients had other comorbid psychiatric disorders. Results: The majority of patients 65% were women, 52.5% were in the age group 15-24 years and the mean age of patients was 23.82 years. The mean age of onset of symptoms of panic disorder was 21.3 years. The most frequent use of a substance is tobacco in 30% of patients. The most frequent comorbidities are major depressive disorder in 40% of patients. Agoraphobia was found in 24 (60% patients. PA is the average duration of 22.37 minutes. 60% experienced moderate PD. The majority of the patterns of symptoms 67.5% of patients experienced symptoms of cardiovascular system (CVS. Conclusion: panic disorder often found in the age group 15-24 years. Symptoms often appear are the symptoms of a cardiovascular system that needs to be distinguished carefully. Needed attention to the high rates of comorbid substance use and psychiatric disorders in patients with panic disorder. Keywords: panic disorder, agoraphobia, epidemiology, severity, comorbidity
van der Feltz-Cornelis Christina M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Appropriate management of anxiety disorders in primary care requires clinical assessment and monitoring of the severity of the anxiety. This study focuses on the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI as a severity indicator for anxiety in primary care patients with different anxiety disorders (social phobia, panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, agoraphobia or generalized anxiety disorder, depressive disorders or no disorder (controls. Methods Participants were 1601 primary care patients participating in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA. Regression analyses were used to compare the mean BAI scores of the different diagnostic groups and to correct for age and gender. Results Patients with any anxiety disorder had a significantly higher mean score than the controls. A significantly higher score was found for patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia compared to patients with agoraphobia only or social phobia only. BAI scores in patients with an anxiety disorder with a co-morbid anxiety disorder and in patients with an anxiety disorder with a co-morbid depressive disorder were significantly higher than BAI scores in patients with an anxiety disorder alone or patients with a depressive disorder alone. Depressed and anxious patients did not differ significantly in their mean scores. Conclusions The results suggest that the BAI may be used as a severity indicator of anxiety in primary care patients with different anxiety disorders. However, because the instrument seems to reflect the severity of depression as well, it is not a suitable instrument to discriminate between anxiety and depression in a primary care population.
edge” or nervous, fatigue, sleep disturbance, vivid dreams Behavioral Avoidance of situations, obsessive or compulsive behavior, distress in...Panic disorder 2.7 . Obsessive –compulsive disorder 1.0 . Agoraphobia (without panic) 0.8 . Any anxiety...right things.” Providing support is often the little things: spending time with the person, having a cup of coffee , chatting about everyday things
Cangas, Adolfo J.; Navarro, Noelia; Parra, Jos? M. A.; Ojeda, Juan J.; Cangas, Diego; Piedra, Jose A.; Gallego, Jose
This paper presents the results from the application of a serious game called Stigma-Stop among a group of high school students with the aim of reducing the stigma toward mental illnesses. The video game features characters with various mental disorders (schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder, and panic disorder with agoraphobia) and provides information about these problems. Additionally, the game asks players about whether they have ever felt the same as the characters, if they believe...
Anna Lucia Spear King
Full Text Available Objective: To compare patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia treated with cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT associated with the medication with patients treated only with medication and verify the behaviour of the cardio-respiratory symptoms of both groups. Methods: Randomized sample in the Psychiatry Institute of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, divided in two groups of 25 participants each. Group 1 undertook 10 weekly sessions of CBT with one hour of duration each together with medication. Group 2, Control, were administered medication that only consisted of tricyclic anti-depressants and selective inhibitors of the re-uptake of serotonin. Evaluation instruments were applied at the beginning and to the end of the interventions. Results: According to the applied scales, group 1 showed statistically more significant results than group 2, with: reduction of panic attacks, cardio-respiratory symptoms, anticipatory anxiety, agoraphobia avoidance and fear of bodily sensations. Conclusion: Exposures (in vivo and interoceptive, especially for induction symptom exercises and relaxation, were considered essential to prepare patients with panic disorder to handle future cardio-respiratory symptoms and panic attacks with agoraphobia.
Full Text Available Katarzyna Jakuszkowiak-Wojten, Jerzy Landowski, Mariusz S Wiglusz, Wiesław Jerzy Cubała Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland Background: It is unclear whether hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis is involved in the pathophysiology of panic disorder (PD. The findings remain inconsistent. Cortisol awakening response (CAR is a noninvasive biomarker of stress system activity. We designed the study to assess CAR in drug-naïve PD patients. Materials and methods: We assessed CAR in 14 psychotropic drug-naïve outpatients with PD and 14 healthy controls. The severity of PD was assessed with Panic and Agoraphobia Scale. The severity of anxiety and depression was screened with Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results: No significant difference in CAR between PD patients and control group was found. No correlations were observed between CAR and anxiety severity measures in PD patients and controls. Limitations: The number of participating subjects was relatively small, and the study results apply to nonsuicidal drug-naïve PD patients without agoraphobia and with short-illness duration. There was a lack of control on subjects’ compliance with the sampling instructions. Conclusion: The study provides no support for elevated CAR levels in drug-naïve PD patients without agoraphobia. Keywords: panic disorder, PD, CAR, cortisol awakening response, HPA axis, hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis
Czajkowski, N; Kendler, K S; Tambs, K; Røysamb, E; Reichborn-Kjennerud, T
To explore the genetic and environmental factors underlying the co-occurrence of lifetime diagnoses of DSM-IV phobia. Female twins (n=1430) from the population-based Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel were assessed at personal interview for DSM-IV lifetime specific phobia, social phobia and agoraphobia. Comorbidity between the phobias were assessed by odds ratios (ORs) and polychoric correlations and multivariate twin models were fitted in Mx. Phenotypic correlations of lifetime phobia diagnoses ranged from 0.55 (agoraphobia and social phobia, OR 10.95) to 0.06 (animal phobia and social phobia, OR 1.21). In the best fitting twin model, which did not include shared environmental factors, heritability estimates for the phobias ranged from 0.43 to 0.63. Comorbidity between the phobias was accounted for by two common liability factors. The first loaded principally on animal phobia and did not influence the complex phobias (agoraphobia and social phobia). The second liability factor strongly influenced the complex phobias, but also loaded weak to moderate on all the other phobias. Blood phobia was mainly influenced by a specific genetic factor, which accounted for 51% of the total and 81% of the genetic variance. Phobias are highly co-morbid and heritable. Our results suggest that the co-morbidity between phobias is best explained by two distinct liability factors rather than a single factor, as has been assumed in most previous multivariate twin analyses. One of these factors was specific to the simple phobias, while the other was more general. Blood phobia was mainly influenced by disorder specific genetic factors.
Canuto, Alessandra; Weber, Kerstin; Baertschi, Marc; Andreas, Sylke; Volkert, Jana; Dehoust, Maria Christina; Sehner, Susanne; Suling, Anna; Wegscheider, Karl; Ausín, Berta; Crawford, Mike J; Da Ronch, Chiara; Grassi, Luigi; Hershkovitz, Yael; Muñoz, Manuel; Quirk, Alan; Rotenstein, Ora; Santos-Olmo, Ana Belén; Shalev, Arieh; Strehle, Jens; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Schulz, Holger; Härter, Martin
Previous estimates of the prevalence of anxiety disorders in late life vary greatly due to the lack of reliable diagnostic tools. This MentDis_ICF65+ study assessed 12-month prevalence rates of anxiety disorders and age- and gender-related differences in comorbidities, as well as impact on quality of life. The study used a cross-sectional multicenter survey. The study sample comprised 3,142 men and women aged 65 to 84 years, living in five European countries and Israel. Anxiety disorders were assessed using computer-assisted face-to-face interviews with an age-appropriate diagnostic interview (CIDI65+). The prevalence of anxiety disorders was 17.2%. Agoraphobia was the most frequent disorder (4.9%), followed by panic disorder (3.8%), animal phobia (3.5%), general anxiety disorder (3.1%), post-traumatic stress disorder (1.4%), social phobia (1.3%), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (0.8%). The prevalence rate of any anxiety disorder dropped by 40% to 47% in adults aged 75-84 years compared with those aged 65-74 years. Women were twice as likely to present with agoraphobia or general anxiety disorder as men. Only panic disorder and phobia were associated with comorbid major depression. The negative relationship with quality of life was limited to agoraphobia and generalized anxiety disorder. The age-appropriate CIDI65+ led to higher prevalence rates of anxiety disorders in the elderly, yet to weaker associations with comorbidities and impaired quality of life compared with previous studies. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Focus of the text is on psychoanalytic epistemology of agoraphobic syndrome which is still not sufficiently clarified in psychodynamic parameters. Detailed theorethic study starts from the very origins, theoretical and practical suggestions of Sigmund Freud. Early psychoanalytic formulations include psychodynamic models of Karl Abraham, Helene Deutsch and Edoardo Weiss, as well as a number of other significant analysts who gave significant insight to the metapsychological formulations of agoraphobia in the beginning of XX century. After portraying crucial theoretic frames of dynamics of agoraphobia originating from French psychoanalysis, illustrated through the work of Maurice Bouvet and Jannine Chasseguet - Smirgle, author moves towards psychoanalytic models presented to the psychoanalytic community during the first and second decade of XXI century. This segment incorporates autistic objects of agoraphobic neurotic according to Donald Cartwright and synthesis of crucial traits of representations of self and representations of object according to Barbara Milrod. Leading us towards the conclusion author makes a resume of the actual psychoanalytic epistemology of the agoraphoic syndrome pointing out at the centrality of non adequately solved separation - individuation stage, as well as ego defects associated to he agoraphobic syndrome. Specificity of object relations of agoraphobic neurotic she illustrates pointing out at the nature of his relationship with the follower, that psychic fusion which provides the feeling of certainty outside the safety of ones own home. This detailed overview of severely insufficient published literature devoted to agoraphobia is resumed accenting the necessity for its further research, as well as clear notion that although neurotic disorder, agoraphobic syndrome by at least one of its pole gravitates towards nozologycal unit marking personality disorders.
van Balkom Anton
Full Text Available Abstract Background Panic disorder (PD is a common, severe and persistent mental disorder, associated with a high degree of distress and occupational and social disability. A substantial proportion of the population experiences subthreshold and mild PD and is at risk of developing a chronic PD. A promising intervention, aimed at preventing panic disorder onset and reducing panic symptoms, is the 'Don't Panic' course. It consists of eight sessions of two hours each. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of this early intervention – based on cognitive behavioural principles – on the reduction of panic disorder symptomatology. We predict that the experimental condition show superior clinical and economic outcomes relative to a waitlisted control group. Methods/design A pragmatic, pre-post, two-group, multi-site, randomized controlled trial of the intervention will be conducted with a naturalistic follow-up at six months in the intervention group. The participants are recruited from the general population and are randomized to the intervention or a waitlist control group. The intervention is offered by community mental health centres. Included are people over 18 years of age with subthreshold or mild panic disorder, defined as having symptoms of PD falling below the cut-off of 13 on the Panic Disorder Severity Scale-Self Report (PDSS-SR. Primary outcomes are panic disorder and panic symptoms. Secondary outcomes are symptoms of agoraphobia, anxiety, cognitive aspects of panic disorder, depressive symptoms, mastery, health-related quality of life, and cost-effectiveness. We will examine the following variables as potential mediators: cognitive aspects of panic disorder, symptoms of agoraphobia, anxiety and mastery. Potential moderating variables are: socio-demographic characteristics, panic disorder, agoraphobia, treatment credibility and mastery. Discussion This study was designed to evaluate the (cost effectiveness of an
The study was based on the non-participant involvement of the researcher in four six-to-eight weeks' mindfulness meditation training courses led by chartered psychologists. The participants suffered from stress/sleeplessness, depression or agoraphobia in the presented cases. They were selected...... and practicing mindfulness meditation. It is not the intention to give evidence about the effectiveness of mindfulness meditation in general, but to present the whats and hows of cases where mindfulness meditation appears to improve quality of life, health and well-being. Keywords: Mindfulness meditation...
Hofmann, Stefan G.; Suvak, Michael K.; Barlow, David H.; Shear, M. Katherine; Meuret, Alicia E.; Rosenfield, David; Gorman, Jack M.; Woods, Scott W.
Cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) and pharmacotherapy are similarly effective for treating panic disorder with mild or no agoraphobia, but little is known about the mechanism through which these treatments work. The present study examined some of the criteria for cognitive mediation of treatment change in CBT alone, imipramine alone, CBT plus imipramine, and CBT plus placebo. Ninety-one individuals who received 1 of these interventions were assessed before and after acute treatment, and after a 6-month maintenance period. Multilevel moderated mediation analyses provided preliminary support for the notion that changes in panic-related cognitions mediate changes in panic severity only in treatments that include CBT. PMID:17563154
Sheeran, T; Zimmerman, M
We examined the factor structure of the Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening Questionnaire (PDSQ), a 125-item self-report scale that screens for 15 of the most common Axis I psychiatric disorders for which patients seek treatment in outpatient settings. The sample consisted of 2440 psychiatric outpatients. Thirteen factors were extracted. Ten mapped directly onto the DSM-IV diagnosis for which they were designed and one represented suicidal ideation. The remaining two factors reflected closely related disorders: Panic Disorder/Agoraphobia, and Somatization/Hypochondriasis. A psychosis factor was not extracted. Overall, the factor structure of the PDSQ was consistent with the DSM-IV nosology upon which it was developed.
Full Text Available Personality disorders are common in subjects with panic disorder. Personality disorders have shown to affect the course of panic disorder. The purpose of this study was to examine which personality disorders effect clinical severity in subjects with panic disorder. This study included 122 adults (71 female, 41 male, who met DSM-IV criteria for panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia. Clinical assessment was conducted by using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II and the Panic and Agoraphobia Scale (PAS, Global Assessment Functioning Scale (GAF, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. Patients who had a history of sexual abuse were assessed with Sexual Abuse Severity Scale. Logistic regressions were used to identify predictors of suicide attempts, suicidal ideation, agoraphobia, different panic attack symptoms, sexual abuse, and early onset of disorders. The rates of comorbid Axis I and Axis II psychiatric disorders were 80.3% and 33.9%, consecutively, in patients with panic disorder. Panic disorder patients with comorbid personality disorders had more severe anxiety, depression and agoraphobia symptoms, and had earlier ages of onset, and lower levels of functioning. The rates of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts were 34.8% and 9.8%, consecutively, in subjects with panic disorder. The rate of patients with panic disorder had a history of childhood sexual abuse was 12.5%. The predictor of sexual abuse was more than one comorbid Axis II diagnosis. The predictors of suicide attempt were comorbid paranoid and borderline personality disorders, and the predictor of suicidal ideation was major depressive disorder in subjects with panic disorder. In conclusion, this study documents that comorbid personality disorders increase the clinical severity of panic disorder. Patients with more than one
Full Text Available Secretion curves for prolactin, cortisol, TSH, and GH from a 37-year old woman with dysthymia and panic disorder with agoraphobia were determined one day prior to (day I, and during a panic attack (day II associated with an oral dose of 60 mg dl-fenfluramine, a drug known to increase anticipatory anxiety. The increased cortisol secretion observed is discussed in relation to the hormonal correlates of anxiety and the possible role of depression, dl-fenfluramine, and serotonergic receptor sensitivity
Borge, Finn-Magnus; Hoffart, Asle; Sexton, Harold
The predictors of residential cognitive (RCT) and residential interpersonal Treatment (RIPT) for social phobia were explored. (1) Sotsky et al. (1991) found differential effects of CT and IPT for depression, suggesting that the level of cognitive or social dysfunction predicted differential outcome. We examined whether an analogous effect could be demonstrated in 10 weeks of residential treatment of 80 social phobia subjects. (2) We also included expectations, age of onset, severity of illness, concurrent anxiety, mood, avoidant personality disorder, and body dysmorphic disorder as predictors in this exploratory study. Main outcome was the social phobia subscale of Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SPAI SP). DSM-IV axis I and II interviews were completed. (1) Sotsky et al. (1991) findings were not reproduced. However, RIPT subjects with poor general functioning were less improved following treatment. Subjects with concurrent agoraphobia responded better with RCT than subjects without agoraphobia. (2) Age of onset and expectations were the most powerful predictors of post treatment outcome. Some patient characteristics appear to impact outcome with RIPT and RCT differentially. The findings are discussed. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zilcha-Mano, Sigal; McCarthy, Kevin S.; Dinger, Ulrike; Chambless, Dianne L.; Milrod, Barbara L.; Kunik, Lauren; Barber, Jacques P.
Objective Panic disorder (PD) is associated with significant personal, social, and economic costs. However, little is known about specific interpersonal dysfunctions that characterize the PD population. The current study systematically examined these interpersonal dysfunctions. Method The present analyses included 194 patients with PD out of a sample of 201 who were randomized to cognitive-behavioral therapy, panic-focused psychodynamic psychotherapy, or applied relaxation training. Interpersonal dysfunction was measured using the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems–Circumplex (Horowitz, Alden, Wiggins, & Pincus, 2000). Results Individuals with PD reported greater levels of interpersonal distress than that of a normative cohort (especially when PD was accompanied by agoraphobia), but lower than that of a cohort of patients with major depression. There was no single interpersonal profile that characterized PD patients. Symptom-based clusters (with versus without agoraphobia) could not be discriminated on core or central interpersonal problems. Rather, as revealed by cluster analysis based on the pathoplasticity framework, there were two empirically derived interpersonal clusters among PD patients which were not accounted for by symptom severity and were opposite in nature: domineering-intrusive and nonassertive. The empirically derived interpersonal clusters appear to be of clinical utility in predicting alliance development throughout treatment: While the domineering-intrusive cluster did not show any changes in the alliance throughout treatment, the non-assertive cluster showed a process of significant strengthening of the alliance. Conclusions Empirically derived interpersonal clusters in PD provide clinically useful and non-redundant information about individuals with PD. PMID:26030762
van Apeldoorn, F J; Stant, A D; van Hout, W J P J; Mersch, P P A; den Boer, J A
The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of three empirically supported treatments for panic disorder with or without agoraphobia: cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), pharmacotherapy using a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), or the combination of both (CBT+SSRI). Cost-effectiveness was examined based on the data from a multicenter randomized controlled trial. The Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale was selected as a primary health outcome measure. Data on costs from a societal perspective (i.e., direct medical, direct non-medical, and indirect non-medical costs) were collected in the study sample (N=150) throughout a 24-month period in which patients received active treatment during the first twelve months and were seen twice for follow-up in the next twelve months. Total costs were largely influenced by costs of the interventions and productivity losses. The mean total societal costs were lower for CBT as compared to SSRI and CBT+SSRI. Costs of medication use were substantial for both SSRI and CBT+SSRI. When examining the balance between costs and health outcomes, both CBT and CBT+SSRI led to more positive outcomes than SSRI. Cognitive behavioral therapy is associated with the lowest societal costs. Cognitive behavioral therapy and CBT+SSRI are more cost-effective treatments for panic disorder with or without agoraphobia as compared to SSRI only. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Laidra, Kaia; Rahu, Kaja; Tekkel, Mare; Aluoja, Anu; Leinsalu, Mall
To study the long-term mental health consequences of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident among cleanup workers from Estonia. In 2010, 614 Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers and 706 geographically and age-matched population-based controls completed a mail survey that included self-rated health, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL), alcohol symptoms (AUDIT), and scales measuring depressive, anxiety, agoraphobia, fatigue, insomnia, and somatization symptoms. Respondents were dichotomized into high (top quartile) and low symptom groups on each measure. Logistic regression analysis detected significant differences between cleanup workers and controls on all measures even after adjustment for ethnicity, education, marital status, and employment status. The strongest difference was found for somatization, with cleanup workers being three times more likely than controls to score in the top quartile (OR = 3.28, 95% CI 2.39-4.52), whereas for alcohol problems the difference was half as large (OR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.16-1.99). Among cleanup workers, arrival at Chernobyl in 1986 (vs. later) was associated with sleep problems, somatization, and symptoms of agoraphobia. The toll of cleanup work was evident 24 years after the Chernobyl accident among Estonian cleanup workers indicating the need for focused mental health interventions.
Zilcha-Mano, Sigal; McCarthy, Kevin S; Dinger, Ulrike; Chambless, Dianne L; Milrod, Barbara L; Kunik, Lauren; Barber, Jacques P
Panic disorder (PD) is associated with significant personal, social, and economic costs. However, little is known about specific interpersonal dysfunctions that characterize the PD population. The current study systematically examined these interpersonal dysfunctions. The present analyses included 194 patients with PD out of a sample of 201 who were randomized to cognitive-behavioral therapy, panic-focused psychodynamic psychotherapy, or applied relaxation training. Interpersonal dysfunction was measured with the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Circumplex (Horowitz, Alden, Wiggins, & Pincus, 2000). Individuals with PD reported greater levels of interpersonal distress than that of a normative cohort (especially when PD was accompanied by agoraphobia), but lower than that of a cohort of patients with major depression. There was no single interpersonal profile that characterized PD patients. Symptom-based clusters (with vs. without agoraphobia) could not be discriminated on core or central interpersonal problems. Rather, as revealed by cluster analysis based on the pathoplasticity framework, there were 2 empirically derived interpersonal clusters among PD patients that were not accounted for by symptom severity and were opposite in nature: domineering-intrusive and nonassertive. The empirically derived interpersonal clusters appear to be of clinical utility in predicting alliance development throughout treatment: Although the domineering-intrusive cluster did not show any changes in the alliance throughout treatment, the nonassertive cluster showed a process of significant strengthening of the alliance. Empirically derived interpersonal clusters in PD provide clinically useful and nonredundant information about individuals with PD. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
King, Anna Lucia Spear; Valença, Alexandre Martins; Silva, Adriana Cardoso; Sancassiani, Federica; Machado, Sergio; Nardi, Antonio Egidio
Panic disorder refers to the frequent and recurring acute attacks of anxiety. Objective: This study describes the routine use of mobiles phones (MPs) and investigates the appearance of possible emotional alterations or symptoms related to their use in patients with panic disorder (PD). Background: We compared patients with PD and agoraphobia being treated at the Panic and Respiration Laboratory of The Institute of Psychiatry, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to a control group of healthy volunteers. Methods: An MP-use questionnaire was administered to a consecutive sample of 50 patients and 70 controls. Results: People with PD showed significant increases in anxiety, tachycardia, respiratory alterations, trembling, perspiration, panic, fear and depression related to the lack of an MP compared to the control group. Conclusions: Both groups exhibited dependence on and were comforted by having an MP; however, people with PD and agoraphobia showed significantly more emotional alterations as well as intense physical and psychological symptoms when they were apart from or unable to use an MP compared to healthy volunteers. PMID:24669231
Renata André Laurino
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to verify the degree of anxiety, respiratory distress, and health-related quality of life in a group of asthmatic patients who have experienced previous panic attacks. Additionally, we evaluated if a respiratory physiotherapy program (breathing retraining improved both asthma and panic disorder symptoms, resulting in an improvement in the health-related quality of life of asthmatics. METHODS: Asthmatic individuals were assigned to a chest physiotherapy group that included a breathing retraining program held once a week for three months or a paired control group that included a Subtle Touch program. All patients were assessed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV, the Sheehan Anxiety Scale, the Quality of Life Questionnaire, and spirometry parameter measurements. RESULTS: Both groups had high marks for panic disorder and agoraphobia, which limited their quality of life. The Breathing Retraining Group program improved the clinical control of asthma, reduced panic symptoms and agoraphobia, decreased patient scores on the Sheehan Anxiety Scale, and improved their quality of life. Spirometry parameters were unchanged. CONCLUSION: Breathing retraining improves the clinical control of asthma and anxiety symptoms and the health-related quality of life in asthmatic patients.
Tsuchiya, Masao; Kawakami, Norito; Ono, Yutaka; Nakane, Yoshibumi; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Tachimori, Hisateru; Iwata, Noboru; Uda, Hidenori; Nakane, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Makoto; Naganuma, Yoichi; Furukawa, Toshiaki A; Hata, Yukihiro; Kobayashi, Masayo; Miyake, Yuko; Takeshima, Tadashi; Kikkawa, Takehiko; Kessler, Ronald C
Although often considered of minor significance in themselves, evidence exists that early-onset phobic disorders might be predictors of later more serious disorders, such as major depressive disorder (MDD). The purpose of this study is to investigate the association of phobic disorders with the onset of MDD in the community in Japan. Data from the World Mental Health Japan 2002-2004 Survey were analyzed. A total of 2,436 community residents aged 20 and older were interviewed using the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0 (response rate, 58.4%). A Cox proportional hazard model was used to predict the onset of MDD as a function of prior history of DSM-IV specific phobia, agoraphobia, or social phobia, adjusting for gender, birth-cohort, other anxiety disorders, education, and marital status at survey. Social phobia was strongly associated with the subsequent onset of MDD (hazard ratio [HR]=4.1 [95% CI: 2.0-8.7]) after adjusting for sex, birth cohort, and the number of other anxiety disorders. The association between agoraphobia or specific phobia and MDD was not statistically significant after adjusting for these variables. Social phobia is a powerful predictor of the subsequent first onset of MDD in Japan. Although this finding argues against a simple neurobiological model and in favor of a model in which the cultural meanings of phobia play a part in promoting MDD, an elucidation of causal pathways will require more fine-grained comparative research.
Miller, Mark W.; Fogler, Jason M.; Wolf, Erika J.; Kaloupek, Danny G.; Keane, Terence M.
This study examined the latent structure of psychiatric disorders in a sample with a high prevalence of PTSD. A series of confirmatory factor analyses tested competing models for the covariation between SCID diagnoses among 1,325 Vietnam veterans. The best fitting solution was a three-factor model that included two correlated internalizing factors: anxious-misery, defined by PTSD and major depression, and fear, defined by panic disorder/agoraphobia and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The third factor, externalizing, was defined by antisocial personality disorder, alcohol abuse/dependence, and drug abuse/dependence. Both substance-related disorders also showed significant, albeit smaller, cross-loadings on the anxious-misery factor. These findings shed new light on the structure of psychiatric comorbidity in a treatment-seeking sample characterized by high rates of PTSD. PMID:18302181
Vleugels, L; Pfennings, L E; Pouwer, F
Psychological functioning in two types of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients is assessed: primary progressive (PP) and secondary progressive (SP) patients. On the basis of differences in clinical course and underlying pathology we hypothesized that primary progressive patients and secondary...... progressive patients might have different psychological functioning. Seventy patients treated in an MS centre were examined cross-sectionally. Forty had an SP course of MS and 30 a PP course. The 33 male and 37 female patients had a mean age of 48.4 years (SD 11.2) and mean age of onset of MS of 30.7 years...... (SD 11.1). Patients completed questionnaires measuring among others the following aspects of psychological functioning: depression (BDI, SCL-90), anxiety (STAI, SCL-90), agoraphobia (SCL-90), somatic complaints (SCL-90), hostility (SCL-90) and attitude towards handicap (GHAS). Patients with a PP...
Creswell, Cathy; Waite, Polly; Cooper, Peter J
Anxiety disorders in childhood and adolescence are extremely common and are often associated with lifelong psychiatric disturbance. Consistent with DSM-5 and the extant literature, this review concerns the assessment and treatment of specific phobias, separation anxiety disorder, generalised anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder and agoraphobia. Evidence-based psychological treatments (cognitive behaviour therapy; CBT) for these disorders have been developed and investigated, and in recent years promising low-intensity versions of CBT interventions have been proposed that offer a means to increase access to evidence-based treatments. There is some evidence of effectiveness of pharmacological treatments for anxiety disorders in children and young people, however, routine prescription is not recommended due to concerns about potential harm.
The fifth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, the DSM-5 appeared officially in May 2013 during the development of the 166th Annual Meetingof the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in San Francisco. The drafting process was long and complex; much of the debate became public so that the expectations were great. And it must be said that the new edition did not disappoint, as many changes were made in relation to their predecessors. In Chapter of Anxiety Disorders, which is reviewed in this article, the changes were significant. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and Stress-related disorders were excluded and new clinical pictures, such as separation anxiety disorder and selective mutism, were included. And took place was the long awaited split between panic disorder and agoraphobia, now two separate disorders.
Full Text Available Virtual reality is a relatively new exposure tool that uses three-dimensional computer-graphics-based technologies which allow the individual to feel as if they are physically inside the virtual environment by misleading their senses. As virtual reality studies have become popular in the field of clinical psychology in recent years, it has been observed that virtual-reality-based therapies have a wide range of application areas, especially on anxiety disorders. Studies indicate that virtual reality can be more realistic than mental imagery and can create a stronger feeling of resenceԻ that it is a safer starting point compared to in vivo exposure; and that it can be applied in a more practical and controlled manner. The aim of this review is to investigate exposure studies based on virtual reality in anxiety disorders (specific phobias, panic disorder and agoraphobias, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, posttraumatic stress disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Morocco, no epidemiological study has been conducted to show the current prevalence of mental disorders in the general population. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence and comorbidity of anxiety disorders in Moroccan subjects. Methods We used cross-sectional study, with a representative sample of Casablanca city. Direct interviews used the Mini International Neurpsychiatric Interview in its validated Moroccan Arabic version Results Among 800 subjects, 25.5% met criteria of at least one current anxiety disorder: Panic Disorder (2%, Agoraphobia (7.6% Social phobia (3.4, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (6.1%, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (3.4%, Generalized Anxiety Disorder (4.3% Conclusion The results are generally similar to those of Western countries. Future studies need to replicate these results and to concentrate on their impact on the quality of life and the cost of such conditions in the community.
Karno, M; Golding, J M; Burnam, M A; Hough, R L; Escobar, J I; Wells, K M; Boyer, R
This report from the Los Angeles site of the NIMH Epidemiologic Catchment Area study reveals significant ethnic and national origin differences in lifetime prevalence rates for three out of six specific, DSM-III-defined anxiety disorders. In the case of simple phobia, United States-born Mexican Americans report higher rates than native non-Hispanic whites or immigrant Mexican Americans, the latter two groups having similar rates. Mexican Americans born in the United States had higher rates of agoraphobia than immigrant Mexican Americans, and non-Hispanic whites reported higher lifetime rates of generalized anxiety disorder compared with both immigrant and native Mexican Americans. Neither ethnic nor national origin differences in lifetime prevalence rates were found for panic disorder, social phobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Selective migration is postulated as a potential factor influencing prevalence differences between native and immigrant Mexican Americans.
Zugliani, Morena M; Martin-Santos, Rocio; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Freire, Rafael Christophe
Panic disorder (PD) is often correlated with high neuroticism and low extraversion. This study aims to ascertain whether PD patients differ from healthy controls in regard to personality traits and determine if these traits are correlated with comorbid disorders, anxiety, and depression symptoms. Personality traits of 69 PD patients and 42 controls were compared using the Maudsley Personality Inventory. In PD patients, comorbidities, anxiety, and depression symptoms were also evaluated. PD patients showed higher neuroticism and lower extraversion compared with healthy controls. Patients without comorbidities presented similar results to controls, whereas those with comorbidities presented higher neuroticism and lower extraversion scores. PD per se may be unrelated to deviant personality traits, although comorbidities with major depressive disorder and agoraphobia are probably associated with high neuroticism and low extraversion. These traits show a strong correlation with the accumulation and severity of these disorders.
Sujita Kumar Kar
Full Text Available Psychiatric co-morbidities are commonly seen with pediatric epilepsy, which can be in the form of cognitive deficits like - inattention and intellectual disability, motor disturbances like - hyperactivity, emotional disturbances like - depression and anxiety disorders and behavioral problems like - impulsivity, aggression and even psychotic behavior. Anxiety disorders like - Obsessive compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, social phobia, separation anxiety disorder, agoraphobia and panic attacks are commonly seen with pediatric epilepsy. Presence of co-morbid anxiety disorder in pediatric epilepsy is responsible for scholastic decline, peer maladjustment and poor quality of life. Management of anxiety disorders in children with epilepsy is always a challenge. Until, there is no general consensus regarding management of anxiety disorders in pediatric epilepsy. Despite its enormous impact on an individual′s life, this area has not been addressed adequately through clinical research. This review focuses on psychiatric aspects of pediatric epilepsy with specific emphasis on anxiety disorders.
Howe, A. S.; Buttenschön, Henriette N; Bani-Fatemi, A.
The utilization of molecular genetics approaches in examination of panic disorder (PD) has implicated several variants as potential susceptibility factors for panicogenesis. However, the identification of robust PD susceptibility genes has been complicated by phenotypic diversity, underpowered...... association studies and ancestry-specific effects. In the present study, we performed a succinct review of case-control association studies published prior to April 2015. Meta-analyses were performed for candidate gene variants examined in at least three studies using the Cochrane Mantel-Haenszel fixed......-effect model. Secondary analyses were also performed to assess the influences of sex, agoraphobia co-morbidity and ancestry-specific effects on panicogenesis. Meta-analyses were performed on 23 variants in 20 PD candidate genes. Significant associations after correction for multiple testing were observed...
Hackmann, Ann; Holmes, Emily A
The authors provide an overview of the papers in the special issue of Memory on mental imagery and memory in psychopathology. The papers address emotional, intrusive mental imagery across a range of psychological disorders including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), agoraphobia, body dysmorphic disorder, mood disorders, and psychosis. They include work on information processing issues including modelling cravings, conditioning, and aversions, as well as imagery qualities such as vividness and emotionality. The overview aims to place the articles in a broader context and draw out some exciting implications of this novel work. It provides a clinical context to the recent growth in this area from a cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) perspective. We begin with PTSD, and consider links to imagery in other disorders. The clinical implications stemming from this empirical work and from autobiographical memory theory are discussed. These include consideration of a variety of techniques for eliminating troublesome imagery, and creating healthy, realistic alternatives.
Fentz, Hanne Nørr; Arendt, Mikkel; OToole, Mia Skytte
Cognitive models of panic disorder (PD) with and without agoraphobia have stressed the role of catastrophic beliefs of bodily symptoms as a central mediating variable of the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Perceived ability to cope with or control panic attacks, panic self......-efficacy, has also been proposed to play a key role in therapeutic change; however, this cognitive factor has received much less attention in research. The aim of the present review is to evaluate panic self-efficacy as a mediator of outcome in CBT for PD using descriptive and meta-analytic procedures. We...... an association between change in panic self-efficacy and change in outcome during therapy (criterion 2); three tested, and one established formal statistical mediation of panic self-efficacy (criterion 3); while four tested and three found change in panic self-efficacy occurring before the reduction of panic...
Eher, R; Windhaber, J; Rau, H; Schmitt, M; Kellner, E
Conflict and conflict resolution in intimate relationships are not only among the most important factors influencing relationship satisfaction but are also seen in association with clinical symptoms. Styles of conflict will be assessed in patients suffering from panic disorder with and without agoraphobia, in alcoholics and in patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis. 176 patients and healthy controls filled out the Styles of Conflict Inventory and questionnaires concerning severity of clinical symptoms. A cluster analysis revealed 5 types of conflict management. Healthy controls showed predominantely assertive and constructive styles, patients with panic disorder showed high levels of cognitive and/or behavioral aggression. Alcoholics showed high levels of repressed aggression, and patients with rheumatoid arthritis often did not exhibit any aggression during conflict. 5 Clusters of conflict pattern have been identified by cluster analysis. Each patient group showed considerable different patterns of conflict management.
Full Text Available Alprazolam is a triazolo analog of the 1,4 benzodiazepine class, widely used to treat patients with anxiety disorder, panic attacks and anxiety comorbidity with depressive disorder. Following oral administration, alprazolam is readily absorbed with peack plasma levels in 2 hours; extensive hepatic metabolism occurs and about 80% of the oral dose is excreted by kidney. The main metabolic route is hydroxylation catalyzed by cytochrome P450 3A: alpha-hydroxy alprazolam is partially active. Alprazolam possesses anxiolytic properties similar to other benzodiazepines; however, the triazolo ring confers to alprazolam a peculiar antidepressant and antipanic activity. Anxiety disorder, panic attacks with or without agoraphobia, and mixed anxiety-depressive disorder represent an heavy economic burden to National Health System (NHS and to society. In the present work the clinical pharmacology and the therapeutic profile of alprazolam are reviewed and analysed under the pharmacoeconomic perspectives of the italian patients, General Practitioners, NHS and society.
Chugunov, D A; Schmilovitch, A A
To study the psychopathology of anxiety-phobic disorders and motives of hospitalization of patients in a psychiatric hospital. One hundred and thirty-two patients were examined, 72 patients of the main group were admitted to general psychiatric departments, 60 patients of the control group in the sanatorium psychiatric departments. Clinical-psychopathological, follow-up, psychometric and statistical methods were used. Patients with hospital anxiety-phobic disorders had agoraphobia with panic disorder, social phobias, hypochondriacal phobias, specific phobias and multiple phobias. The main reasons for hospitalization were: the intensity of anxiety-phobic disorders, contrast content of phobias, multiplicity of anxiety-phobic disorders, ambulance calls, personality accentuations and rental aims.
VALENÇA ALEXANDRE MARTINS
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of clonazepam, in a fixed dose (2 mg/day, compared with placebo in the treatment of panic disorder patients. METHOD: 24 panic disorder patients with agoraphobia were randomly selected. The diagnosis was obtained using the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV . All twenty-four subjects were randomly assigned to either treatment with clonazepam (2 mg/day or placebo, during 6 weeks. Efficacy assessments included: change from baseline in the number of panic attacks; CGI scores for panic disorder; Hamilton rating scale for anxiety; and panic associated symptoms scale. RESULTS: At the therapeutic endpoint, only one of 9 placebo patients (11.1% were free of panic attacks, compared with 8 of 13 (61.5% clonazepam patients (Fisher exact test; p=0,031. CONCLUSION: the results provide evidence for the efficacy of clonazepam in panic disorder patients.
Servet Kacar Basaran
Full Text Available This study aims to review empirical studies that evaluate effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy programs for treatment for panic disorder. Articles in English and Turkish that were published between the years of 2000 and 2015 (February have been searched in the national and international databases. The articles that were not therapy effectiveness studies, and group therapies that not based on cognitive behavioral approach were eliminated. The remaining 19 studies that were met the criteria were introduced in terms of method, therapy characteristics and results. The results of the studies showed that cognitive behavioral group therapies have similar efficacy with individual cognitive behavioral therapy on panic disorder symptoms (panic attacks frequency, the level of agoraphobia etc. and comorbid disorders (depression, anxiety sensitivity. However, cognitive behavioral group therapy is more cost-effective. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(Supplement 1: 79-94
Women who finished a violent relationship: personality, psychopathological, and socio-demographic characteristics [Mujeres que finalizaron una relación maltratante: características de personalidad, psicopatológicas y sociodemográficas
Paola Marcela Preciado-Gavidia
Full Text Available This study examined the personality, psychopathological, and socio-demographic characteristics of women that concluded a violent partner relationship (n=54, comparing them with women that continued with this type of relationship (n=41. The participants are between 18-60 years (M=37.4. The applied instruments were a socio-demographic survey, the Big Five Questionnaire of Personality (Caprara, Barbaranelli, Borgogni & Perugini, 1995, and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (Sheehan & Lecrubier, 2000. The participants that finished the abusive relationship presented bigger punctuations in the dimensions of Agreeableness, Neuroticism, and Openness, a lower number of children, bigger help-seeking in government institutions after the violence episodes, and a lower prevalence of mayor depressive episode, dysthymia, low suicidal risk, panic disorder, agoraphobia, and generalized anxiety.
Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard
provides an overview of research on sex and gender differences in anxiety disorders ranging from the well-established female preponderance in prevalence and severity to possible sex differences in the risk and protective factors associated with anxiety, sex differences in the clinical presentation......Several studies have examined sex differences in different anxiety disorders. Females are repeatedly found to be more likely than males to suffer from anxiety in general and to be diagnosed with most anxiety disorders, including agoraphobia (AG), panic disorder (PD), separation anxiety (SA...... of anxiety disorders, and potential sex differences in the effectiveness of different treatments. The chapter contains suggestions for future research, including important questions that remain to be answered....
Benjaminsen, Sigurd E.; Thomsen, Rita L T; Balsløv, Kim D.
in the family and social circle. Significantly more attempters suffered from depressive disorder, feelings of hopelessness, anxiety attacks, agoraphobia, substance abuse or cluster B personality disorders (dissocial, impulsive, borderline, and histrionic). Also significantly more suicide attempters had......Of 181 alcoholics who consecutively sought treatment as out- or inpatients, 68 (37.6%) had attempted suicide at least once. Compared with non-attempters, the suicide attempters were significantly more likely to be female, have had a chaotic upbringing and to have known suicide attempts...... committed crimes and received early pension. Assessment of coping showed that suicide attempters had a significantly lower tendency to make plans or to make the best of a stressful situation by growing from it They were significantly more likely to show mental disengagement, to resort to denial and drink...
O'Toole, Mia Skytte; Arendt, Mikkel; Fentz, Hanne Nørr; Hougaard, Esben; Rosenberg, Nicole K
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) has been associated with cluster A personality disorder (PD) traits, mainly paranoid and schizoid traits. The aim of the study was to further investigate cluster A personality pathology in patients with SAD. Self-reported PD traits were investigated in a clinical sample of 161 participants with SAD and in a clinical comparison group of 145 participants with panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (PAD). A diagnosis of SAD was associated with more paranoid and schizotypal PD traits, and an association between depression and personality pathology could indicate a state-effect of depression on PD traits. Patients with SAD had more cluster A personality pathology than patients with PAD, with the most solid indication for paranoid personality pathology.
The impact of comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder in patients with major depressive disorder on clinical features, pharmacological treatment strategies, and treatment outcomes - Results from a cross-sectional European multicenter study.
Dold, Markus; Bartova, Lucie; Kautzky, Alexander; Souery, Daniel; Mendlewicz, Julien; Serretti, Alessandro; Porcelli, Stefano; Zohar, Joseph; Montgomery, Stuart; Kasper, Siegfried
This international, multicenter, cross-sectional study comprising 1346 adult in- and outpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD) investigated the association between MDD as primary diagnosis and comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In a cross-sectional data collection process, the presence of comorbid PTSD was determined by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and the patients' socio-demographic, clinical, psychopharmacological, and response information were obtained. Clinical features between MDD with and without concurrent PTSD were compared using descriptive statistics, analyses of covariance (ANCOVA), and binary logistic regression analyses. 1.49% of the MDD patients suffered from comorbid PTSD. Significantly more MDD + comorbid PTSD patients exhibited atypical features, comorbid anxiety disorders (any comorbid anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, and social phobia), comorbid bulimia nervosa, current suicide risk, and augmentation treatment with low-dose antipsychotic drugs. In the binary logistic regression analyses, the presence of atypical features (odds ratio (OR) = 4.49, 95%CI:1.01-20.12; p≤.05), any comorbid anxiety disorder (OR = 3.89, 95%CI:1.60-9.44; p = .003), comorbid panic disorder (OR = 6.45, 95%CI:2.52-16.51; p = .001), comorbid agoraphobia (OR = 6.51, 95%CI:2.54-16.68; p≤.001), comorbid social phobia (OR = 6.16, 95%CI:1.71-22.17; p≤.001), comorbid bulimia nervosa (OR = 10.39, 95%CI:1.21-88.64; p = .03), current suicide risk (OR = 3.58, 95%CI:1.30-9.91; p = .01), and augmentation with low-potency antipsychotics (OR = 6.66, 95%CI:2.50-17.77; pdisorders, and (3.) the increased suicide risk due to concurrent PTSD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.
Del Valle Del Valle, Gema; Carrió, Carmen; Belloch, Amparo
Help-seeking for mental disorders is a complex process, which includes different temporary stages, and in which the motivational variables play an especially relevant role. However, there is a lack of instruments to evaluate in depth both the temporary and motivational variables involved in the help-seeking process. This study aims to analyse in detail these two sets of variables, using a specific instrument designed for the purpose, to gain a better understanding of the process of treatment seeking. A total of 152 patients seeking treatment in mental health outpatient clinics of the NHS were individually interviewed: 71 had Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, 21 had Agoraphobia, 18 had Major Depressive Disorder), 20 had Anorexia Nervosa, and 22 had Cocaine Dependence. The patients completed a structured interview assessing the help-seeking process. Disorder severity and quality of life was also assessed. The patients with agoraphobia and with major depression took significantly less time in recognising their mental health symptoms. Similarly, patients with major depression were faster in seeking professional help. Motivational variables were grouped in 3 sets: motivators for seeking treatment, related to the negative impact of symptoms on mood and to loss of control over symptoms; motivators for delaying treatment, related to minimisation of the disorder; and stigma-associated variables. The results support the importance of considering the different motivational variables involved in the several stages of the help-seeking process. The interview designed to that end has shown its usefulness in this endeavour. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Janssens, Karin A M; Zijlema, Wilma L; Joustra, Monica L; Rosmalen, Judith G M
Functional somatic syndromes (FSSs) have often been linked to psychopathology. The aim of the current study was to compare prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders among individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), fibromyalgia (FM), and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This study was conducted in 94,516 participants (mean [standard deviation] age = 44.6 [12.5] years, 58.7% women) of the general-population cohort LifeLines. FSSs were assessed by self-reports. Mood disorders (i.e., major depressive disorder and dysthymia) and anxiety disorders (i.e., generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic disorder with/without agoraphobia, and agoraphobia) were assessed by means of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Risks on psychiatric disorders were compared for individuals with CFS, FM, and IBS by using logistic regression analyses adjusted for age and sex. Prevalence rates of CFS, FM, and IBS were 1.3%, 3.0%, and 9.7%, respectively. Individuals with CFS, FM, and IBS had significantly more mood (odds ratios [ORs] = 1.72-5.42) and anxiety disorders (ORs = 1.52-3.96) than did individuals without FSSs, but prevalence rates were low (1.6%-28.6%). Individuals with CFS more often had mood (ORs = 2.00-4.08) and anxiety disorders (ORs = 1.63-2.32) than did individuals with FM and IBS. Major depressive disorder was more common in FM than in IBS (OR = 1.58, 95% confidence interval = 1.24-2.01), whereas these groups did not differ on dysthymia or anxiety disorders. Mood and anxiety disorders are more prevalent in individuals with FSSs, and particularly CFS, than in individuals without FSSs. However, most individuals with FSSs do not have mood or anxiety disorders.
Mojtabai, Ramin; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Hwang, Irving; Eaton, William W; Sampson, Nancy; Kessler, Ronald C
The study sought to examine the association of mental disorders with educational attainment in a community sample. Data were from 5001 respondents aged 15-54 in the 1990-1992 National Comorbidity Survey (NCS), re-interviewed in the 2001-2003 NCS follow-up (NCS-2). Discrete-time survival analysis was used to examine the association of disorders present at baseline (NCS) or having first onset after the baseline (assessed in NCS-2) with educational outcomes among 3954 eligible respondents. Mental disorders were categorized into internalizing fear disorders (simple phobia, social phobia, panic disorder with/without agoraphobia and agoraphobia without panic disorder), internalizing anxiety-misery disorders (major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder), externalizing disorders (alcohol and drug use disorders, conduct disorder) and bipolar disorder. Analyses were conducted separately in students and non-students at baseline. Among students, baseline bipolar and externalizing disorders, as well as fear, anxiety-misery and externalizing disorders with onset after baseline were associated with lower odds of high school graduation; baseline anxiety-misery disorders with lower odds of going to college; and baseline externalizing disorders and bipolar disorder with onset after baseline with lower odds of college graduation. Among non-students, baseline fear disorders were associated with lower odds of high school graduation and bipolar disorder with lower odds of going to college. Assuming that the regression coefficients represent causal effects, mental disorders accounted for 5.8-11.0% of high school and 3.2-11.4% of college non-completion. Expanding access to mental health services for youth might have a net positive societal value by helping to prevent some of these adverse educational outcomes.
Full Text Available Validity and Reliability of Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire-Turkish Version Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the validity and reliability of Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire -Turkish Version (ACQ. Method: ACQ was administered to 92 patients with agoraphobia or panic disorder with agoraphobia. BSQ Turkish version completed by translation, back-translation and pilot assessment. Reliability of ACQ was analyzed by test-retest correlation, split-half technique, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. Construct validity was evaluated by factor analysis after the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO and Bartlett test had been performed. Principal component analysis and varimax rotation used for factor analysis. Results: 64% of patients evaluated in the study were female and 36% were male. Age interval was between 18 and 58, mean age was 31.5±10.4. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.91. Analysis of test-retest evaluations revealed that there were statistically significant correlations ranging between 24% and 84% concerning questionnaire components. In analysis performed by split-half method reliability coefficients of half questionnaires were found as 0.77 and 0.91. Again Spearmen-Brown coefficient was found as 0.87 by the same analysis. To assess construct validity of ACQ, factor analysis was performed and two basic factors found. These two factors explained 57.6% of the total variance. (Factor 1: 34.6%, Factor 2: 23% Conclusion: Our findings support that ACQ-Turkish version had a satisfactory level of reliability and validity
Full Text Available Abstract Background Most help-seeking substance abusers have comorbid psychiatric disorders. The importance of such disorders for the long-term course of substance abuse is, however, still unclear. The aim of this paper is to describe six-year outcomes regarding death and relapse among alcoholics and poly-substance abusers and to analyse the predictive value of lifetime psychiatric disorders on relapse. Methods A consecutive sample of substance-dependent patients who received treatment in two counties in Norway (n = 287 was followed up after approximately six years. Information on socio-demographics, Axis I (CIDI and II disorders (MCMI-II and mental distress (HSCL-25 was gathered at baseline. At follow-up, detailed information regarding socio-demographics, use of substances (AUDIT and DUDIT and mental distress (HSCL-25 was recorded (response rate: 63%. Results At six-year follow-up, 11% had died, most often male alcoholics (18%. Among the surviving patients, 70% had drug or alcohol related problems the year prior to follow-up. These patients were, classified as "relapsers". There were no significant differences in the relapse rate between women and men and among poly-substance abusers and alcoholics. The relapsers had an earlier onset of a substance use disorder, and more frequently major depression and agoraphobia. Multivariate analysis indicated that both psychiatric disorders (major depression and substance use factors (early onset of a substance use disorder were independent predictors of relapse. Conclusion For reducing the risk of long-term relapse, assessment and treatment of major depression (and agoraphobia are important. In addition, we are in need of a comprehensive treatment and rehabilitation program that also focuses on the addictive behaviour.
Osunwale Dahunsi Oni
Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Anxiety disorders impact negatively on morbidity and mortality poststroke. Few studies have, however, been done on poststroke anxiety disorders (PSAD, particularly in Africa. The study aims to determine the prevalence, associated clinicodemographic factors, and impact of PSAD on quality of life (QoL among outpatients at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. Methods: Seventy stroke survivors attending Outpatient Clinics at Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria, were recruited into the study. Participants were assessed using sociodemographic/clinical questionnaire, the modified Mini–Mental State Examination, the Modified Rankin Scale, the Schedule for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry, and the World Health Organization-QoL-Bref. Data collection took 5 months and analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS® software version 17.0. Results: The mean age of respondents was 57.43 (±9.67 years and 38 respondents (54% were male. Majority of the stroke survivors had infarctive stroke 55 (78.6%, right hemispheric lesions 37 (52.9%, and significant poststroke disabilities 57 (81.4%. The prevalence of PSAD was 10% and agoraphobia with panic attacks was elicited in 42.8% of those diagnosed with PSAD. Participants with PSAD were significantly more likely to be unemployed (P = 0.01 and pay more than ₦10,000 ($62.50 at December 2013 monthly for health care. The mean QoL scores were lower in participants with PSAD across all QoL spheres, and significantly so for overall health (P = 0.04, health satisfaction (P = 0.02, and physical health (P = 0.01 domains. Conclusion: PSAD, especially agoraphobia in association with unemployment and high health-care costs correlated with poor well-being among stroke survivors. Proactive measures to ensure prompt identification and management may potentially improve outcome and QoL after stroke.
Full Text Available Vertigo, dizziness and unsteadiness (VDU are common symptoms traditionally considered to result from different kinds of vestibular and non-vestibular dysfunctions. The epidemiology of each symptom and how they relate to each other and to migraine, agoraphobia, motion sickness susceptibility (MSS, vaso-vagal episodes (VVE and anxiety-depression (AD was the object of this population-based study in north-eastern France. A self-administered questionnaire was returned by 2987 adults (age span 18-86 years, 1471 women. The 1-year prevalence for vertigo was 48.3%, for unsteadiness 39.1% and for dizziness 35.6%. The three symptoms were correlated with each other, occurred mostly (69.4% in various combinations rather than in isolation, less than once per month, and 90% of episodes lasted ≤ 2 minutes. The three symptoms were similar in terms of female predominance, temporary profile of the episodes and their link to falls and nausea. Symptom episodes of >1 hour increase the risk of falls. VDU are much more common than the known prevalence of vestibular disorders. The number of drugs taken increase VDU even when controlling for age. Each VDU symptom was correlated with each co-morbidity in Chi2 tests. The data suggest that the three symptoms are more likely to represent a spectrum resulting from a range of similar — rather than from different, unrelated — mechanisms or disorders. Logistic regressions controlling for each vestibular symptom showed that vertigo correlated with each co-morbidity but dizziness and unsteadiness did not, suggesting that vertigo is certainly not a more specific symptom than the other two. A logistic regression using a composite score of VDU, controlling for each co-morbidity showed a correlation of VDU to migraine and VVE but not to MSS and not to agoraphobia in men, only in women.
Amami, O; Aloulou, J; Siala, M; Aribi, L
We propose some reflexions on the validity of the conceptualization of panic disorder, its nosographical place, and its clinical homogeneity, through the study of the frequency of some of its psychiatric comorbidities. To define a panic attack, DSM IV requires a number of symptoms which vary from four to 13. However, some patients suffer from panic attacks with less than four symptoms (paucisymptomatic attacks) and which fill the other criteria of panic disorder. These patients would have a biological vulnerability, familial antecedents, and a treatment response which are similar to those that fill the criteria of the panic attack according to the DSM. Some authors differentiate the panic disorder in several sub-groups, such as the panic disorder with cardiorespiratory symptoms, or vestibular symptoms, or cognitive symptoms. This division of the panic disorder in several sub-groups would have an interest in the knowledge of the etiopathogeny, the attacks' frequency, the disorder severity and the treatment response. Panic disorder with prevalent somatic expression includes crises without cognitive symptoms. This sub-type can be common in the medical context, especially in cardiology, but it is often ignored, at the price of loss of socio-professional adaptability, and a medical overconsumption. The relationship between panic disorder and agoraphobia appears to be the subject of controversies. According to the behavioral theory, phobic disorder is the primum movens of the sequence of appearance of the disorders. American psychiatry considers agoraphobia as a secondary response to the panic disorder, and pleads for a central role of panic attacks as an etiopathogenic factor in the development of agoraphobia. The distinction between panic disorder and generalized anxiety disorder can be difficult. This is due to the existence of paucisymptomatic panic attacks. Their paroxystic nature is difficult to distinguish from the fluctuations of the generalized anxiety disorder
afraid that they will have heart attack, become stroke etc.Sometimes patient think they will loss control or be crazy. By the time patient will avoid the place and situation their panic attack have occured, especially social activities or the place which escape would be formidable is thought to cause the Agoraphobia. Etilogy of Panic Disorder can be biological factors, genetic or psychosocial factors. The most effective treatments are combine pharmacotherapy and psychoterapy.In this case report a 26 years woman come with chief complain like panic attack many time since 6 moths before, cause of not get adequate treatment patient become PanicLAPORAN KASUS235Disorder with Agoraphobia. From etiology we consider psychosocial factors: patient had many psychosocial trauma since she was a child that is divorced of her parent, live with her auntie and step mother full with stressor during her schooltime, When she live with her mother, she often face the disharmony of her mother and her step father. With the combination of pharmacotherapy and psychotearpy give good result.Key word : Panic Attack, Panic Disorder. Agoraphobia.
Dannon, Pinhas N; Iancu, Iulian; Cohen, Ami; Lowengrub, Katherine; Grunhaus, Leon; Kotler, Moshe
This naturalistic open label follow-up study had three objectives: 1) To observe the course of illness in Panic Disorder patients receiving long-term versus intermediate-term paroxetine treatment, 2) To compare the relapse rates and side-effect profile after long-term paroxetine treatment between patients with Panic Disorder and Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia, 3) To observe paroxetine's tolerability over a 24 month period. 143 patients with panic disorder (PD), with or without agoraphobia, successfully finished a short-term (ie 12 week) trial of paroxetine treatment. All patients then continued to receive paroxetine maintenance therapy for a total of 12 months. At the end of this period, 72 of the patients chose to discontinue paroxetine pharmacotherapy and agreed to be monitored throughout a one year discontinuation follow-up phase. The remaining 71 patients continued on paroxetine for an additional 12 months and then were monitored, as in the first group, for another year while medication-free. The primary limitation of our study is that the subgroups of patients receiving 12 versus 24 months of maintenance paroxetine therapy were selected according to individual patient preference and therefore were not assigned in a randomized manner. Only 21 of 143 patients (14%) relapsed during the one year medication discontinuation follow-up phase. There were no significant differences in relapse rates between the patients who received intermediate-term (up to 12 months) paroxetine and those who chose the long-term course (24 month paroxetine treatment). 43 patients (30.1%) reported sexual dysfunction. The patients exhibited an average weight gain of 5.06 kg. All patients who eventually relapsed demonstrated significantly greater weight increase (7.3 kg) during the treatment phase. The extension of paroxetine maintenance treatment from 12 to 24 months did not seem to further decrease the risk of relapse after medication discontinuation. Twenty-four month paroxetine
Full Text Available Abstract Background This naturalistic open label follow-up study had three objectives: 1 To observe the course of illness in Panic Disorder patients receiving long-term versus intermediate-term paroxetine treatment 2 To compare the relapse rates and side-effect profile after long-term paroxetine treatment between patients with Panic Disorder and Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia. 3 To observe paroxetine's tolerability over a 24 month period. Methods 143 patients with panic disorder (PD, with or without agoraphobia, successfully finished a short-term (ie 12 week trial of paroxetine treatment. All patients then continued to receive paroxetine maintenance therapy for a total of 12 months. At the end of this period, 72 of the patients chose to discontinue paroxetine pharmacotherapy and agreed to be monitored throughout a one year discontinuation follow-up phase. The remaining 71 patients continued on paroxetine for an additional 12 months and then were monitored, as in the first group, for another year while medication-free. The primary limitation of our study is that the subgroups of patients receiving 12 versus 24 months of maintenance paroxetine therapy were selected according to individual patient preference and therefore were not assigned in a randomized manner. Results Only 21 of 143 patients (14% relapsed during the one year medication discontinuation follow-up phase. There were no significant differences in relapse rates between the patients who received intermediate-term (up to 12 months paroxetine and those who chose the long-term course (24 month paroxetine treatment. 43 patients (30.1% reported sexual dysfunction. The patients exhibited an average weight gain of 5.06 kg. All patients who eventually relapsed demonstrated significantly greater weight increase (7.3 kg during the treatment phase. Conclusions The extension of paroxetine maintenance treatment from 12 to 24 months did not seem to further decrease the risk of relapse after
International study of expert judgment on therapeutic use of benzodiazepines and other psychotherapeutic medications: VI. Trends in recommendations for the pharmacotherapy of anxiety disorders, 1992-1997.
Uhlenhuth, E H; Balter, M B; Ban, T A; Yang, K
To assemble expert clinical experience and judgment regarding the treatment of anxiety disorders in a systematic, quantitative manner, particularly with respect to changes during the preceding five years. A panel of 73 internationally recognized experts in the pharmacotherapy of anxiety and depression was constituted by multistage peer nomination. Sixty-six completed a questionnaire in 1992, and 51 of those completed a follow-up questionnaire in 1997. This report focuses on the experts' responses to questions about therapeutic options relevant to seven vignettes describing typical cases of different anxiety disorders. The preferred initial treatment strategy in 1992 was a combination of medication with a psychological therapy for all vignettes except simple phobia, where a psychological procedure alone was favored. There was little change in 1997, primarily some decrease in the choice of psychological therapy and some increase in the choice of medication for social phobia. Experts recommending a medication in 1992 most often chose as first-line treatment a benzodiazepine anxiolytic (BZ) for panic disorder (PD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), simple phobia, and adjustment disorder. They recommended a beta-blocker most often for social phobia and a tricyclic anti-depressant (TCA) for agoraphobia and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Nearly a fourth chose a combination of medications, usually a TCA plus a BZ. In 1997, the expert panel's most frequent recommendation for agoraphobia, PD, and OCD changed to a specific serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI); and they also recommended these compounds more often for GAD, social phobia, and simple phobia. Fewer experts chose BZs or TCAs. However, in 1997 many again chose a combination of medications, often a BZ plus a SSRI, so that, overall, there was only a small decline in recommendations for BZs. As second-line medications (1997 only), the experts recommended SSRIs most often for most vignettes, but a TCA for PD and
Juliana Belo Diniz
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In obsessive-compulsive disorder, early treatment discontinuation can hamper the effectiveness of first-line treatments. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the clinical correlates of early treatment discontinuation among obsessive-compulsive disorder patients. METHODS: A group of patients who stopped taking selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs or stopped participating in cognitive behavioral therapy before completion of the first twelve weeks (total n = 41; n = 16 for cognitive behavioral therapy and n = 25 for SSRIs were compared with a paired sample of compliant patients (n = 41. Demographic and clinical characteristics were obtained at baseline using structured clinical interviews. Chisquare and Mann-Whitney tests were used when indicated. Variables presenting a p value <0.15 for the difference between groups were selected for inclusion in a logistic regression analysis that used an interaction model with treatment dropout as the response variable. RESULTS: Agoraphobia was only present in one (2.4% patient who completed the twelve-week therapy, whereas it was present in six (15.0% patients who dropped out (p = 0.044. Social phobia was present in eight (19.5% patients who completed the twelve-week therapy and eighteen (45% patients who dropped out (p = 0.014. Generalized anxiety disorder was present in eight (19.5% patients who completed the twelve-week therapy and twenty (50% dropouts (p = 0.004, and somatization disorder was not present in any of the patients who completed the twelveweek therapy; however, it was present in six (15% dropouts (p = 0.010. According to the logistic regression model, treatment modality (p = 0.05, agoraphobia, the Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale scores (p = 0.03 and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (p = 0.02 scores were significantly associated with the probability of treatment discontinuation irrespective of interactions with other variables. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Early treatment
Detecting depressive and anxiety disorders in distressed patients in primary care; comparative diagnostic accuracy of the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS
Verhaak Peter FM
Full Text Available Abstract Background Depressive and anxiety disorders often go unrecognized in distressed primary care patients, despite the overtly psychosocial nature of their demand for help. This is especially problematic in more severe disorders needing specific treatment (e.g. antidepressant pharmacotherapy or specialized cognitive behavioural therapy. The use of a screening tool to detect (more severe depressive and anxiety disorders may be useful not to overlook such disorders. We examined the accuracy with which the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS are able to detect (more severe depressive and anxiety disorders in distressed patients, and which cut-off points should be used. Methods Seventy general practitioners (GPs included 295 patients on sick leave due to psychological problems. They excluded patients with recognized depressive or anxiety disorders. Patients completed the 4DSQ and HADS. Standardized diagnoses of DSM-IV defined depressive and anxiety disorders were established with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC analyses were performed to obtain sensitivity and specificity values for a range of scores, and area under the curve (AUC values as a measure of diagnostic accuracy. Results With respect to the detection of any depressive or anxiety disorder (180 patients, 61%, the 4DSQ and HADS scales yielded comparable results with AUC values between 0.745 and 0.815. Also with respect to the detection of moderate or severe depressive disorder, the 4DSQ and HADS depression scales performed comparably (AUC 0.780 and 0.739, p 0.165. With respect to the detection of panic disorder, agoraphobia and social phobia, the 4DSQ anxiety scale performed significantly better than the HADS anxiety scale (AUC 0.852 versus 0.757, p 0.001. The recommended cut-off points of both HADS scales appeared to be too low while those of the 4DSQ anxiety
Detecting depressive and anxiety disorders in distressed patients in primary care; comparative diagnostic accuracy of the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS).
Terluin, Berend; Brouwers, Evelien P M; van Marwijk, Harm W J; Verhaak, Peter F M; van der Horst, Henriëtte E
Depressive and anxiety disorders often go unrecognized in distressed primary care patients, despite the overtly psychosocial nature of their demand for help. This is especially problematic in more severe disorders needing specific treatment (e.g. antidepressant pharmacotherapy or specialized cognitive behavioural therapy). The use of a screening tool to detect (more severe) depressive and anxiety disorders may be useful not to overlook such disorders. We examined the accuracy with which the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) are able to detect (more severe) depressive and anxiety disorders in distressed patients, and which cut-off points should be used. Seventy general practitioners (GPs) included 295 patients on sick leave due to psychological problems. They excluded patients with recognized depressive or anxiety disorders. Patients completed the 4DSQ and HADS. Standardized diagnoses of DSM-IV defined depressive and anxiety disorders were established with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analyses were performed to obtain sensitivity and specificity values for a range of scores, and area under the curve (AUC) values as a measure of diagnostic accuracy. With respect to the detection of any depressive or anxiety disorder (180 patients, 61%), the 4DSQ and HADS scales yielded comparable results with AUC values between 0.745 and 0.815. Also with respect to the detection of moderate or severe depressive disorder, the 4DSQ and HADS depression scales performed comparably (AUC 0.780 and 0.739, p 0.165). With respect to the detection of panic disorder, agoraphobia and social phobia, the 4DSQ anxiety scale performed significantly better than the HADS anxiety scale (AUC 0.852 versus 0.757, p 0.001). The recommended cut-off points of both HADS scales appeared to be too low while those of the 4DSQ anxiety scale appeared to be too high. In general
Tinoco-González, Daniella; Fullana, Miquel Angel; Torrents-Rodas, David; Bonillo, Albert; Vervliet, Bram; Pailhez, Guillem; Farré, Magí; Andión, Oscar; Perez, Víctor; Torrubia, Rafael
Although enhanced fear conditioning has been implicated in the origins of social anxiety disorder (SAD), laboratory evidence in support of this association is limited. Using a paradigm employing socially relevant unconditioned stimuli, we conducted two separate studies to asses fear conditioning in individuals with SAD and non-clinical individuals with high social anxiety (subclinical social anxiety [SSA]). They were compared with age-matched and gender-matched individuals with another anxiety disorder (panic disorder with agoraphobia) and healthy controls (Study 1) and with individuals with low social anxiety (Study 2). Contrary to our expectations, in both studies, self-report measures (ratings of anxiety, unpleasantness and arousal to the conditioned stimuli) of fear conditioning failed to discriminate between SAD or SSA and the other participant groups. Our results suggest that enhanced fear conditioning does not play a major role in pathological social anxiety. We used a social conditioning paradigm to study fear conditioning in clinical and subclinical social anxiety. We found no evidence of enhanced fear conditioning in social anxiety individuals. Enhanced fear conditioning may not be a hallmark of pathological social anxiety. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Angulo, Melina; Rooks, Brian T; Gill, MaryKay; Goldstein, Tina; Sakolsky, Dara; Goldstein, Benjamin; Monk, Kelly; Hickey, Mary Beth; Diler, Rasim S; Hafeman, Danella; Merranko, John; Axelson, David; Birmaher, Boris
To examine the psychometrics of the Screen for Adult Anxiety Related Disorders (SCAARED). The SCAARED was adapted from the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders. Participants (N=336) ages 18-27 years old were evaluated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders (SCID). The SCAARED was completed at or within two-weeks before the SCID. The psychometrics of the SCAARED were analyzed using standard statistical analyses including principal components, and Receiver Operant Curve analyses. A replication was performed in an age/sex matched independent sample (N=158). The SCAARED showed four factors: somatic/panic/agoraphobia, generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, and social anxiety. The total and each factor scores demonstrated good internal consistency (α=0.86-0.97) and good discriminant validity between anxiety and other disorders and within anxiety disorders for generalized and social anxiety. Area Under the Curve for the total and each of the factor scores ranged between 0.72 and 0.84 (ppsychometric properties supporting its use to screen adults for anxiety disorders, longitudinal studies following youth into adulthood and studies comparing child and adult populations. Further replication studies in larger community and clinical samples are indicated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Anderson, Page L; Zimand, Elana; Hodges, Larry F; Rothbaum, Barbara O
This study used an open clinical trial to test a cognitive-behavioral treatment for public-speaking anxiety that utilized virtual reality as a tool for exposure therapy. Treatment was completed by participants (n = 10) meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV criteria for social phobia, or panic disorder with agoraphobia in which public speaking was the predominantly feared stimulus. Treatment was conducted by a licensed psychologist in an outpatient clinic. Treatment consisted of eight individual therapy sessions, including four sessions of anxiety management training and four sessions of exposure therapy using a virtual audience, according to a standardized treatment manual. Participants completed standardized self-report questionnaires assessing public-speaking anxiety at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 3-month follow-up. Participants were asked to give a speech to an actual audience at pre- and post-treatment. Results showed decreases on all self-report measures of public-speaking anxiety from pre- to post-treatment, which were maintained at follow-up (n = 8; all P = 05). Participants were no more likely to complete a speech post-treatment than at pre-treatment. This study provides preliminary evidence that a cognitive-behavioral treatment using virtual reality for exposure to public speaking may reduce public-speaking anxiety and suggests that further research with a controlled design is needed. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Full Text Available After the Public Spaces (PB 35, it is the right time to speak about fences. Space and fencing. We, the members of the editorial board, probably suffer from an acute form of agoraphilia – the love for an open space, a wide and open world made us talk about it (82. Our cities suffer from agoraphobia, a fear of open spaces, and its complication – fencephilia.Chekhov’s claustrophobia brought him to Sakhalin and gave widely cited descriptions to many Siberian cities. Irkutsk, unlike Tomsk, for example, was called “a cultured city… Almost Europe!” But not every Irkutsk citizen knows that this quotation is cut short. When using the word ‘cultured’, the writer meant the absence of “nasty fences, absurd advertisements and wastelands where signs prohibit stopping”.However, after 100 some odd years, “the cultural layer has grown, and the cultural level has dropped”.Why? Let’s return to education. Alexander Rappaport opens discussion about a school of the future (30.This issue comprises international and Siberian architectural events (14. And many good and different fences. Good fences are represented in the collection of articles on fences of all times and nations. The hot times of fencing are analyzed in the article by psychologist Konstantin Lidin (72.
Fentz, Hanne N; Arendt, Mikkel; O'Toole, Mia S; Rosenberg, Nicole K; Hougaard, Esben
Despite a long tradition of research on the relationship between parenting style and anxiety disorders, few studies have taken the effect of comorbid depression into account. This study investigated perceived parenting in 504 outpatients with panic disorder/agoraphobia, social phobia or obsessive-compulsive disorder, and in 210 psychology students. The anxiety group reported both parents as less caring and their fathers as more controlling than did the student group. However, these between-group differences disappeared when taking self-reported depressive symptoms into consideration. Also no differences in parental style were found between the three diagnostic anxiety groups, when depressive symptoms were taken into account. Self-reported depressive symptoms were more consistently associated with negatively perceived parenting style than with self-reported anxiety symptoms in both the anxiety group and the student group. Results do not support theories of parental control as a specific risk factor for anxiety disorders, but they are in accordance with prior findings showing an association between depression and perceived lack of parental care. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Iancu, I; Dannon, P N; Poreh, A; Lepkifker, E; Grunhaus, L
To evaluate the prevalence of suicidal behavior in patients with panic disorder (PD) and to study the role of alexithymia (AL), an affect component, as a predictor of suicidal behavior in PD, we compared 42 patients with PD with or without agoraphobia with 24 healthy controls with regards to depression, AL and suicide risk. Only 5% of the PD patients reported previous suicide attempts. A higher frequency of positive AL (score > 73) was found among the PD patients (39% v 4% among the controls). PD patients had a higher suicide risk and AL as compared to controls, but only the increased suicide risk reached statistical significance. AL subjects had higher suicide risk scores as compared to non-AL subjects. Significant correlations were found between the AL score and suicide risk, although the most significant correlation was, as expected, between the depression level and the suicide risk. A low rate of previous suicide attempts was found in the PD group, perhaps reflecting the low comorbidity in our sample. We suggest that AL may have a role in the causation of suicidal behavior in PD patients, although further studies should re-examine this issue with larger samples. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company
Wong, Chin Hoong; Sultan Shah, Zia U Bakt; Teng, Cheong Lieng; Lin, Tzi Quen; Majeed, Zainab Abdul; Chan, Chun Wai
Anxiety disorders are common mental health disorders with significant impact on the individual as well as burden on the country as a whole. A systematic review of databases, reference lists, internet sources, and input from content experts revealed 42 studies that documented the prevalence of anxiety symptoms or disorders. 12 of these studies specifically evaluated anxiety disorders. 4 studies looked at the prevalence of anxiety disorders in the general population, whilst the remainder focused on selected population groups: university students (4 studies); substance abuse (3 studies); and victims of abuse (1 study). Studies in the general population showed that the prevalence of generalised anxiety disorder was 0.4-5.6%, mixed anxiety and depression were 3-5%, panic without agoraphobia 0.4%, phobia unspecified 0.5-%, and anxiety not-otherwise-specified 0.3-6.5%. We found significant variability in anxiety disorders in the studies in selected population groups. The variability could also have been affected by methodological factors within each study. This study provides a broad overview of the prevalence of anxiety disorders in Malaysia. More research is required to develop diagnostic instruments that are validated for local use and comparable with international standards. Reliable prevalence estimates are lacking within certain groups, e.g. those in rural, indigenous, migrant population groups and those exposed to natural disasters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Loken, E K; Hettema, J M; Aggen, S H; Kendler, K S
Although prior genetic studies of interview-assessed fears and phobias have shown that genetic factors predispose individuals to fears and phobias, they have been restricted to the DSM-III to DSM-IV aggregated subtypes of phobias rather than to individual fearful and phobic stimuli. We examined the lifetime history of fears and/or phobias in response to 21 individual phobic stimuli in 4067 personally interviewed twins from same-sex pairs from the Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Abuse Disorders (VATSPSUD). We performed multivariate statistical analyses using Mx and Mplus. The best-fitting model for the 21 phobic stimuli included four genetic factors (agora-social-acrophobia, animal phobia, blood-injection-illness phobia and claustrophobia) and three environmental factors (agora-social-hospital phobia, animal phobia, and situational phobia). This study provides the first view of the architecture of genetic and environmental risk factors for phobic disorders and their subtypes. The genetic factors of the phobias support the DSM-IV and DSM-5 constructs of animal and blood-injection-injury phobias but do not support the separation of agoraphobia from social phobia. The results also do not show a coherent genetic factor for the DSM-IV and DSM-5 situational phobia. Finally, the patterns of co-morbidity across individual fears and phobias produced by genetic and environmental influences differ appreciably.
Coelho, Carlos M; Gonçalves, Daniela C; Purkis, Helena; Pocinho, Margarida; Pachana, Nancy A; Byrne, Gerard J
Differential diagnosis implies identifying shared and divergent characteristics between clinical states. Clinical work with older adults demands not only the knowledge of nosological features associated with differential diagnosis, but also recognition of idiosyncratic factors associated with this population. Several factors can interfere with an accurate diagnosis of specific phobia in older cohorts. The goal of this paper is to review criteria for specific phobia and its differential diagnosis with panic disorder, agoraphobia, post-traumatic stress disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder, while stressing the specific factors associated with aging. A literature search regarding specific phobia in older adults was carried out using PubMed. Relevant articles were selected and scanned for further pertinent references. In addition, relevant references related to differential diagnosis and assessment were used. Etiologic factors, specificity of feared stimulus or situation, fear predictability and the nature of phobic situations are key points to be assessed when implementing a differential diagnosis of specific phobia. First, age-related sensory impairments are common and interfere both with information processing and communication. Second, medical illnesses create symptoms that might cause, interfere with, or mimic anxiety. Third, cohort effects might result in underreporting, through the inability to communicate or recognize anxiety symptoms, misattributing them to physical conditions. Finally, diagnostic criteria and screening instruments were usually developed using younger samples and are therefore not adapted to the functional and behavioral characteristics of older samples.
Érica Toledo Piza Peluso
Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Dizziness is one of the most prevalent symptoms in the elderly. Anxiety and depression are common in dizzy adult patients, but there is scarce information about comorbidity between vestibular disturbances and psychiatric disorders in the aged. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of anxiety and depression disorders in elderly with chronic dizziness of vestibular origin. METHODS: Transversal study that used the Brazilian version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 to assess anxiety and depressive disorders in elderly patients (≥60 years old with chronic dizziness. RESULTS: Most of the 44 patients included in the study were female (88.6% with a mean age of 71 years (±7.5, 68.1% had experienced dizziness for 1 year or more. The most prevalent diagnosis was benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (52.3%. The prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder and specific phobias during life were 29.5% and 22.7%, respectively, and, in the last 12 months, 18.2% and 15.9%. There was no patient with panic disorder, agoraphobia or social phobia. The prevalence of depressive disorder during life was 45.4%, and, in the last 12 months, were 11.3%. CONCLUSION: Aged patients with chronic dizziness had high prevalence of some mental disorders.
Batelaan, Neeltje M; ten Have, Margreet; van Balkom, Anton J L M; Tuithof, Marlous; de Graaf, Ron
Anxiety has been linked to onset of cardiovascular disease. This study examines the differential impact of types of anxiety (panic, phobia and worry) on 3-year onset of non-fatal cardiovascular disease (CVD). By investigating anxiety disorders as opposed to anxiety symptoms and by using a reliable diagnostic instrument to assess anxiety, limitations of previous studies are considered. 5149 persons at risk for CVD were interviewed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The panic-type included panic disorder and panic attacks; the phobic-type included agoraphobia and social phobia, and the worry-type included generalized anxiety disorder. CVD was self-reported and required treatment or monitoring by a doctor. Analyses were adjusted for sociodemographics, behavioral variables, and comorbid somatic and psychiatric disorders. During follow-up, 62 persons (1.2%) developed CVD. Baseline generalized anxiety disorder was strongly associated with onset of CVD (adjusted OR: 3.39). Further research should replicate findings and focus on biological underpinnings of this association. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
van den Broek, Egon L
The voice embodies three sources of information: speech, the identity, and the emotional state of the speaker (i.e., emotional prosody). The latter feature is resembled by the variability of the F0 (also named fundamental frequency of pitch) (SD F0). To extract this feature, Emotional Prosody Measurement (EPM) was developed, which consists of 1) speech recording, 2) removal of speckle noise, 3) a Fourier Transform to extract the F0-signal, and 4) the determination of SD F0. After a pilot study in which six participants mimicked emotions by their voice, the core experiment was conducted to see whether EPM is successful. Twenty-five patients suffering from a panic disorder with agoraphobia participated. Two methods (story-telling and reliving) were used to trigger anxiety and were compared with comparable but more relaxed conditions. This resulted in a unique database of speech samples that was used to compare the EPM with the Subjective Unit of Distress to validate it as measure for anxiety/stress. The experimental manipulation of anxiety proved to be successful and EPM proved to be a successful evaluation method for psychological therapy effectiveness.
Adolfo J. Cangas
Full Text Available This paper presents the results from the application of a serious game called Stigma-Stop among a group of high school students with the aim of reducing the stigma toward mental illnesses. The video game features characters with various mental disorders (schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder, and panic disorder with agoraphobia and provides information about these problems. Additionally, the game asks players about whether they have ever felt the same as the characters, if they believe the characters are psychologically well, and if they think they could help these individuals. Similarly, a variety of reactions are provided for players to choose from when they encounter the characters with these problems. A total of 552 students between the ages of 14 and 18 participated in the study, and they were randomly assigned to either the experimental group, which used Stigma-Stop, or the control group, which utilized a video game completely unrelated to mental health. Both video games were used for similar lengths of time. Following the application of Stigma-Stop, a statistically significant decrease was obtained in levels of stigma toward schizophrenia, both in terms of stereotypes and, to a greater extent, its potential dangerousness. However, this was not the case in the control group. Results thus demonstrate the video game’s usefulness toward eradicating erroneous notions about serious mental disorders like schizophrenia.
Parker, G; Wilhelm, K; Asghari, A
The aim of this study was to determine risk factors that may differentiate early onset from late onset depression. A non-clinical cohort that had been assessed from 1978 to 1993 at 5 yearly intervals and that had a high prevalence rate of lifetime depression took part in the study. We established an appropriate age cut-off to distinguish early onset (i.e. before 26 years) of major and of minor depression, and examined the relevance of a number of possible determinants of early onset depression assessed over the life of the study. Despite several dimensional measures of depression, self-esteem and personality being considered, they generally failed (when assessed early in the study) to discriminate subsequent early onset depression, with the exception of low masculinity scores being a weak predictor of major and/or minor depression. Early onset depression was strongly predicted, however, by a lifetime episode of a major anxiety disorder, with generalised anxiety being a somewhat stronger and more consistent predictor than panic disorder, agoraphobia and minor anxiety disorders (ie social phobia, simple phobia). The possibility that anxiety may act as a key predispositional factor to early onset depression and to a greater number of depressive episodes is important in that clinical assessment and treatment of any existing anxiety disorder may be a more efficient and useful strategy than focussing primarily on the depressive disorder.
Johnson, Sverre Urnes; Hoffart, Asle; Nordahl, Hans M; Wampold, Bruce E
Few studies have compared the effects of Metacognitive therapy (MCT) and Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for comorbid anxiety disorders. In the current study we compared CBT and MCT for heterogeneous anxiety disorders in a residential setting. Ninety patients with a primary diagnosis of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, Social Phobia or Panic disorder, with and without Agoraphobia, were randomized to either CBT or MCT. Patients were assessed at pre-treatment, post-treatment and one-year follow-up. Primary outcome measures were Beck Anxiety Inventory and ADIS IV and secondary outcome measures were SCID II, Beck Depression Inventory, Penn State Worry Questionnaire, The Symptom Checklist-90 and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-64. Treatment fidelity was satisfactory and therapist credibility was equal in both treatments. There was a significant difference in the level of anxiety favouring MCT at post-treatment (d=0.7), but there were no differences at one-year follow-up, mainly due to a further improvement in the CBT group during the follow-up period. Both treatments were efficacious. No differences in effect on comorbid diagnoses and symptoms were found, but MCT produced larger change in personality problems. MCT seems to have a more rapid effect on anxiety symptoms, but there were no significant differences in the long term for patients with comorbid anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Fontenelle, Leonardo F; Cocchi, Luca; Harrison, Ben J; Shavitt, Roseli G; do Rosário, Maria Conceição; Ferrão, Ygor A; de Mathis, Maria Alice; Cordioli, Aristides V; Yücel, Murat; Pantelis, Christos; Mari, Jair de Jesus; Miguel, Euripedes C; Torres, Albina R
We evaluated whether traumatic events are associated with a distinctive pattern of socio-demographic and clinical features of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We compared socio-demographic and clinical features of 106 patients developing OCD after post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD; termed post-traumatic OCD), 41 patients developing OCD before PTSD (pre-traumatic OCD), and 810 OCD patients without any history of PTSD (non-traumatic OCD) using multinomial logistic regression analysis. A later age at onset of OCD, self-mutilation disorder, history of suicide plans, panic disorder with agoraphobia, and compulsive buying disorder were independently related to post-traumatic OCD. In contrast, earlier age at OCD onset, alcohol-related disorders, contamination-washing symptoms, and self-mutilation disorder were all independently associated with pre-traumatic OCD. In addition, patients with post-traumatic OCD without a previous history of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) showed lower educational levels, greater rates of contamination-washing symptoms, and more severe miscellaneous symptoms as compared to post-traumatic OCD patients with a history of OCS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The aim of this study was to survey the available literature on psychological development of panic disorder with or without agoraphobia [PD(A)] and its relationship with the neurobiology and the treatment of panic. Both a computerized (PubMed) and a manual search of the literature were performed. Only English papers published in peer-reviewed journals and referring to PD(A) as defined by the diagnostic classifications of the American Psychiatric Association or of the World Health Organization were included. A staging model of panic exists and is applicable in clinical practice. In a substantial proportion of patients with PD(A), a prodromal phase and, despite successful treatment, residual symptoms can be identified. Both prodromes and residual symptoms allow the monitoring of disorder evolution during recovery via the rollback phenomenon. The different stages of the disorder, as well as the steps of the rollback, have a correspondence in the neurobiology and in the treatment of panic. However, the treatment implications of the longitudinal model of PD(A) are not endorsed, and adequate interventions of enduring effects are missing.
Kang, Eun-Ho; Kim, Borah; Choe, Ah Young; Lee, Jun-Yeob; Choi, Tai Kiu; Lee, Sang-Hyuk
Panic disorder (PD) is a very common anxiety disorder and is often a chronic disabling condition. However, little is known about the factors that predict health-related quality of life (HRQOL) other than sociodemographic factors and illness-related symptomatology that explain HRQOL in only small to modest degrees. This study explored whether anxiety-related individual traits including anxiety sensitivity and trait anxiety can predict independently HRQOL in panic patients. Patients with panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (N=230) who met the diagnostic criteria in the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV were recruited. Stepwise regression analysis was performed to determine the factors that predict HRQOL in panic disorder. HRQOL was assessed by the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Anxiety sensitivity was an independent predictor of bodily pain and social functioning whereas trait anxiety independently predicted all of the eight domains of the SF-36. Our data suggests that the assessment of symptomatology as well as individual anxiety-related trait should be included in the evaluation of HRQOL in panic patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ural, Cenk; Belli, Hasan; Akbudak, Mahir; Tabo, Abdulkadir
This study assessed childhood trauma history, dissociative symptoms, and dissociative disorder comorbidity in patients with panic disorder (PD). A total of 92 psychotropic drug-naive patients with PD, recruited from outpatient clinics in the psychiatry department of a Turkish hospital, were involved in the study. Participants were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders (SCID-D), Dissociation Questionnaire, Panic and Agoraphobia Scale, Panic Disorder Severity Scale, and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Of the patients with PD, 18 (19%) had a comorbid dissociative disorder diagnosis on screening with the SCID-D. The most prevalent disorders were dissociative disorder not otherwise specified, dissociative amnesia, and depersonalization disorders. Patients with a high degree of dissociation symptoms and dissociative disorder comorbidity had more severe PD than those without (p dissociation and PD. Among all of the subscales, the strongest relationship was with childhood emotional abuse. Logistic regression analysis showed that emotional abuse and severity of PD were independently associated with dissociative disorder. In our study, a significant proportion of the patients with PD had concurrent diagnoses of dissociative disorder. We conclude that the predominance of PD symptoms at admission should not lead the clinician to overlook the underlying dissociative process and associated traumatic experiences among these patients.
Gensthaler, Angelika; Maichrowitz, Verena; Kaess, Michael; Ligges, Marc; Freitag, Christine M; Schwenck, Christina
Selective mutism (SM) is an anxiety disorder with a close link to childhood social phobia (SP). Our studies compare behavioral problem profiles in children and adolescents with SM and SP and control groups and assess the comorbidity patterns of SM and SP. Participants aged 3-18 years with SM (n = 95), SP (n = 74) and internalizing disorders (INT, n = 46) and a typically developing control group (CG, n = 119) were assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL); adolescents were additionally assessed with the Youth Self-Report (YSR). Comorbidity was assessed in SM and SP participants with a diagnostic interview. SP was detected in 94% of children with SM. SM participants showed different behavioral and psychiatric symptoms than SP: they were more frequently affected by lifetime separation anxiety disorder (SM: 45%, SP: 26%) and oppositional defiant disorder (SM: 22%, SP: 5%), and less by generalized anxiety disorder (SM: 6%, SP: 20%) and major depression (SM: 12%, SP: 26%). Adolescents with SM showed high rates of agoraphobia (SM 27%; SP 10%) and more social problems (YSR), and were more withdrawn (CBCL, YSR) than those with SP alone. Specific behavioral problems of SM and SP compared to INT and CG were observed. SM and SP represent separate but closely related disorders, distinct from other INT and CG, with specific patterns of lifetime comorbidities. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Möller, Eline L; Bögels, Susan M
With DSM-5, the American Psychiatric Association encourages complementing categorical diagnoses with dimensional severity ratings. We therefore examined the psychometric properties of the DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales, a set of brief dimensional scales that are consistent in content and structure and assess DSM-5-based core features of anxiety disorders. Participants (285 males, 255 females) completed the DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales for social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobia, agoraphobia, and panic disorder that were included in previous studies on the scales, and also for separation anxiety disorder, which is included in the DSM-5 chapter on anxiety disorders. Moreover, they completed the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders Adult version (SCARED-A). The DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales demonstrated high internal consistency, and the scales correlated significantly and substantially with corresponding SCARED-A subscales, supporting convergent validity. Separation anxiety appeared present among adults, supporting the DSM-5 recognition of separation anxiety as an anxiety disorder across the life span. To conclude, the DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales are a valuable tool to screen for specific adult anxiety disorders, including separation anxiety. Research in more diverse and clinical samples with anxiety disorders is needed. © 2016 The Authors International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Noyes, R; Kathol, R G; Fisher, M M; Phillips, B M; Suelzer, M T; Woodman, C L
The purpose of this study was to determine the nature and extent of comorbidity among patients with DSM-III-R hypochondriasis and to examine the relationships between this disorder and coexisting psychiatric illness. For this purpose, patients seen in a general medicine clinic were screened using measures of hypochondriacal attitudes and somatic symptoms. Those scoring above an established cutoff were given a structured diagnostic interview. In this manner, 50 patients who met DSM-III-R criteria for hypochondriasis and 50 age- and sex-matched controls were identified. The presence of other psychiatric disorders (current and past) was determined by means of the same diagnostic interview. More hypochondriacal subjects (62.0%) had lifetime comorbidity than did controls (30.0%). Major depression, the most frequent comorbid disturbance, was usually current and most often had an onset after that of hypochondriasis. Panic disorder with agoraphobia, the most frequent anxiety disorder, was also current but often began before or at the same time as hypochondriasis. Few subjects met criteria for somatization disorder but a third qualified for a subsyndromal form of this disorder. The data show that, in medical outpatients with hypochondriasis, mood and anxiety disorders frequently coexist. This comorbidity is subject to varying interpretations including overlap of symptom criteria, treatment-seeking bias, and the possibility that hypochondriasis predisposes to or causes the comorbid disorder, as seems likely in the case of depression. In some instances hypochondriasis may be an associated feature of another illness.
Özgün Karaer KARAPIÇAK
Full Text Available Objective: Health anxiety is the fear of being or getting seriously sick due to the misinterpretation of physical symptoms. Severe health anxiety is also named as hypochondriasis. Belief of having a disease due to the misinterpretation of physical symptoms is also seen in panic disorder and somatization disorder. The aim of this study is to search the health anxiety in panic disorder, somatization disorder and hypochondriasis and compare it with healthy volunteers. Method: SCID-I was used to determine psychiatric disorders in patient group. In order to assess the clinical state and disease severity of the patient group; Panic and Agoraphobia Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology were used for patients with panic disorder and Symptom Interpretation Questionnaire, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology were used for patients with somatization disorder and hypochondriasis. Brief Symptom Inventory was used to assess psychopathology in healthy group. In order to evaluate health anxiety of both groups, Health Anxiety Inventory-Short Form was used. Results: Results of this study support that health anxiety is a significant major component of hypochondriasis. On the other hand, health anxiety seems to be common in panic disorder and somatization disorder. Health anxiety also may be a part of depression or present in healthy people. Conclusion: Further studies are needed in order to search how to manage health anxiety appropriately and which psychotherapeutic interventions are more effective.
Hiller, Wolfgang; Leibbrand, Rolf; Rief, Winfried; Fichter, Manfred M
Hypochondriasis and panic disorder are both characterized by prevalent health anxieties and illness beliefs. Therefore, the question as to whether they represent distinct nosological entities has been raised. This study examines how clinical characteristics can be used to differentiate both disorders, taking the possibility of mixed symptomatologies (comorbidity) into account. We compared 46 patients with hypochondriasis, 45 with panic disorder, and 21 with comorbid hypochondriasis plus panic disorder. While panic patients had more comorbidity with agoraphobia, hypochondriasis was more closely associated with somatization. Patients with panic disorder were less pathological than hypochondriacal patients on all subscales of the Whiteley Index (WI) and the Illness Attitude Scales (IAS) except for illness behavior. These differences were independent of somatization. Patients with hypochondriasis plus panic had higher levels of anxiety, more somatization, more general psychopathology and a trend towards increased health care utilization. Clinicians were able to distinguish between patient groups based upon the tendency of hypochondriacal patients to demand unnecessary medical treatments. These results confirm that hypochondriasis and panic disorder are distinguishable clinical conditions, characterized by generally more psychopathology and distress in hypochondriasis.
Arias, Francisco; Szerman, Nestor; Vega, Pablo; Mesias, Beatriz; Basurte, Ignacio; Morant, Consuelo; Ochoa, Enriqueta; Poyo, Félix; Babin, Francisco
The main objective of this study was to analyse the cocaine addict subgroup from the Madrid study of prevalence of dual disorders in community mental health and substance misuse services. The sample consisted of 837 outpatients from Madrid, Spain. We compared 488 subjects who had a lifetime diagnosis of cocaine abuse or dependence, and 222 subjects who did not have a cocaine substance use disorder. We used the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview to evaluate axis I mental disorders, and the Personality Disorder Questionnaire to evaluate personality disorders. Almost three-quarters (73.4%) of cocaine addicts had a current dual disorder. Most prevalent were mood and anxiety disorders. Almost half (49.6%) had a personality disorder. Most of them (94.9%) had other substance use disorders. Cocaine addicts did not have higher prevalence rates of dual pathology than addicts with no cocaine abuse or dependence. Cocaine addicts were associated to a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, agoraphobia, and post-traumatic stress disorder, and they had an early age of onset of alcohol and cannabis use. Dual pathology is no higher in cocaine addicts in treatment than in addicts who do not use cocaine, however cocaine addicts started other drugs earlier, and were associated with specific mental disorders. Copyright © 2012 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Arias, Francisco; Szerman, Nestor; Vega, Pablo; Mesias, Beatriz; Basurte, Ignacio; Morant, Consuelo; Ochoa, Enriqueta; Poyo, Félix; Babín, Francisco
The objective was to quantify the prevalence of dual diagnosis and to evaluate the characteristics of these patients from community mental health and substance misuse services in Madrid. The sample consisted of 837 outpatients from Madrid, 208 from mental health services and 629 from substance misuse services. We used the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and Personality Disorder Questionnaire (PDQ4+) to evaluate disorders from axis I and II. It was considered that 517 (61.8%) patients had dual pathology (current diagnoses of axis I or II disorders and an addictive disorder): 36,1% in mental health services and 70,3% in substance misuse services. There were fewer males amongst the dual patients and it was also found that they had a worse employment situation, along with higher figures of alcohol and cannabis dependence than addicts without dual diagnoses (n=194). When comparing them with patients with mental disorder diagnoses only, excluding substance use disorder (n=126), there were differences in all socio-demographic characteristics analyzed, and dual patients were associated with diagnoses of bipolar disorder, agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and had more suicide risk and different personality disorders. Thus, dual pathology is higher in patients who are in treatment and have differential characteristics (higher suicide risk, worse employment situation) that suggest greater severity that could be of help in the planning of care resource policies for these patients.
Kamaradova, Dana; Latalova, Klara; Prasko, Jan; Grambal, Ales; Sigmundova, Zuzana; Kasalova, Petra; Cakirpaloglu, Snezana
There is no consensus on the definition of Quality of life (QoL). It is considered to be comprised of both psychological and somatical well-being. A variety of tools has been developed to measure subjective and objective (QoL). A number of factors, including demographical and medical may have an impact on QoL. The aim of our study was to compare the QoL in selected anxiety disorders and evaluate the influence of comorbid personality disorder. We evaluated data from 278 patients suffering from social phobia, panic disorder and/or agoraphobia, adjustment disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Personality disorders were diagnosed in 90 probands. The Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction (Q-LES-Q) was used to assess patients´perceived QoL. Up to our data there was no statistical difference in overall score of quality of life in selected anxiety disorders. The only significant difference between patients was found in subscale "household." Comorbid personality disorder had no influence on the overall score or any domain of Q-LES-Q. Our study proved that presence of anxiety disorder means a decrease in QoL. Particular anxiety disorders did not differ in overall scores of Q-LES-Q. Furthermore, comorbid personality disorder had no impact on quality of life of patients.
LeBeau, Richard T; Glenn, Daniel; Liao, Betty; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Ollendick, Thomas; Craske, Michelle G
The present review was conducted in order to evaluate the current diagnostic criteria for specific phobia (SP) in light of the empirical evidence gathered since DSM-IV and to propose changes to DSM-V where change is clearly and reliably indicated by the evidence. In response to questions put forth by the DSM-V Anxiety, OC Spectrum, Posttraumatic, and Dissociative Disorder Work Group, four primary areas were determined for this review: the accuracy and utility of the current SP type classification system, the validity of test anxiety as a type of SP, the boundary between agoraphobia and SP, and the reliability and utility of the diagnostic criteria for SP. Developmental issues are addressed within each area. Literature reviews examining academic findings published between 1994 and 2009 were carried out and the results are included herein. The review presents a number of options and preliminary recommendations to be considered for DSM-V. All of these recommendations should be considered tentative as they await the field trials and expert consensus necessary prior to their inclusion in the DSM-V. The present review also reveals a great need for future research in the area of SP and directions for such research is provided.
Hallak, Jaime E C; Crippa, José Alexandre S; Quevedo, João; Roesler, Rafael; Schröder, Nadja; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Kapczinski, Flávio
Translational medicine has been described as the integrated application of innovative pharmacology tools, biomarkers, clinical methods, clinical technologies and study designs to improve the understanding of medical disorders. In medicine, translational research offers an opportunity for applying the findings obtained from basic research to every-day clinical applications. The National Science and Technology Institute for Translational Medicine is comprised of six member institutions (Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Universidade de São Paulo-Ribeirão Preto, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Universidade Estadual de Santa Catarina and a core facility that serves all centers). The objectives of the project are divided into four areas: Institutional, Research, Human Resources and Technology for the Community and Productive Sector. In this manuscript, we describe some of the approaches used to attain the main objectives of the National Science and Technology Institute for Translational Medicine, which include the development of 1) animal models for bipolar disorder; 2) strategies to investigate neurobehavioral function and cognitive dysfunction associated with brain disorders; 3) experimental models of brain function and behavior, neuropsychiatric disorders, cell proliferation, and cancer; 4) Simulated Public Speaking and 5) Virtual reality simulation for inducing panic disorder and agoraphobia. The main focus of the National Science and Technology Institute for Translational Medicine is the development of more useful methods that allow for a better application of basic research-based knowledge to the medical field.
Nemeroff, Charles B; Bremner, J Douglas; Foa, Edna B; Mayberg, Helen S; North, Carol S; Stein, Murray B
This article reviews the state-of-the-art research in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from several perspectives: (1) Sex differences: PTSD is more frequent among women, who tend to have different types of precipitating traumas and higher rates of comorbid panic disorder and agoraphobia than do men. (2) Risk and resilience: The presence of Group C symptoms after exposure to a disaster or act of terrorism may predict the development of PTSD as well as comorbid diagnoses. (3) Impact of trauma in early life: Persistent increases in CRF concentration are associated with early life trauma and PTSD, and may be reversed with paroxetine treatment. (4) Imaging studies: Intriguing findings in treated and untreated depressed patients may serve as a paradigm of failed brain adaptation to chronic emotional stress and anxiety disorders. (5) Neural circuits and memory: Hippocampal volume appears to be selectively decreased and hippocampal function impaired among PTSD patients. (6) Cognitive behavioral approaches: Prolonged exposure therapy, a readily disseminated treatment modality, is effective in modifying the negative cognitions that are frequent among PTSD patients. In the future, it would be useful to assess the validity of the PTSD construct, elucidate genetic and experiential contributing factors (and their complex interrelationships), clarify the mechanisms of action for different treatments used in PTSD, discover ways to predict which treatments (or treatment combinations) will be successful for a given individual, develop an operational definition of remission in PTSD, and explore ways to disseminate effective evidence-based treatments for this condition.
Perreault, Michel; Bouchard, Stéphane; Lapalme, Micheline; Laverdure, Anick; Audet, Denis; Cusson, Jean-Claude; Zacchia, Camillo; Milton, Diana; Sam Tion, Michaël; Chartier-Otis, Mariko; Marchand, André; Bélanger, Claude
Support groups can help to reach individuals with anxiety disorders who are not or are only partly obtaining health services. The present study is based on a program that involves peer helpers as animators of a self-treatment group (Zéro-ATAQ). Their perspective has been documented in order to identify the aspects of the program which can be improved. Eleven peer helpers led the 12 sessions of the program, which was dispensed in four regions of Quebec for 32 persons having panic disorders with agoraphobia. The perspectives of ten peer animators were documented based on a semi-structured interview that took place at the end of the program, and a focus group that was held over six months later with peer animators from each of the groups. Their comments were transcribed and a thematic content analysis was conducted. All of the peer helper animators reported that they enjoyed participating in the program, that they appreciated being able to help others having an anxiety disorder, and that the program helped them in their role as animators of these types of activities. Nearly all of the peer helpers emphasized the importance of being able to count on the supervision of a professional when needed. This study revealed (1) the feasibility of implementing a program of this kind in partnership with peers, (2) the qualifications necessary to lead this type of program, (3) the requirements in terms of training and available material, and (4) the importance of supervision.
What characterizes substance abusers who commit suicide attempts? Factors related to Axis I disorders and patterns of substance use disorders. A study of treatment-seeking substance abusers in Norway.
Landheim, A S; Bakken, K; Vaglum, P
The frequency of suicide attempts and clinical characteristics of attempters among poly-substance abusers and alcoholics were examined. A consecutive sample (n = 260) of in- and outpatients from two Norwegian counties were assessed by Composite International Diagnostic Interview (Axis I disorders), Millon's Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (Axis II disorders) and the Norwegian National Client Assessment Form. When analysing the association between suicide attempters and the range of predictor variables, logistic regression analysis was conducted. Almost half (47%) of the sample reported lifetime suicide attempts; significantly more frequently in poly-substance abusers (58%) than alcoholics (38%). A substance use disorder with duration of >or=15 years and an early onset (suicide attempter after controlling for Axis I disorders. In addition, eating disorders, agoraphobia and major depression were strongly and independently associated with being a suicide attempter. Attempts at preventing suicidal behaviour should not ignore the suicide risk among poly-substance abusers. In addition, prevention of suicidal behaviour demands a treatment programme focusing concomitantly on both addictive behaviour and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Pedro S. A. Wolf
Full Text Available Animal behaviorists have made extensive use of GPS technology since 1991. In contrast, psychological research has made little use of the technology, even though the technology is relatively inexpensive, familiar, and widespread. Hence, its potential for pure and applied psychological research remains untapped. We describe three methods psychologists could apply to individual differences research, clinical research, or spatial use research. In the context of individual differences research, GPS technology permits us to test hypotheses predicting specific relations among patterns of spatial use and individual differences variables. In a clinical context, GPS technology provides outcome measures that may relate to the outcome of interventions designed to treat psychological disorders that, for example, may leave a person homebound (e.g. Agoraphobia, PTSD, TBI. Finally, GPS technology provides natural measures of spatial use. We, for example, used GPS technology to quantify traffic flow and exhibit use at the Arizona Sonora Desert Museum. Interested parties could easily extend this methodology some aspects of urban planning or business usage.DOI: 10.2458/azu_jmmss.v1i1.74
Ford, Briggett C; Bullard, Kai McKeever; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Toler, Amanda K; Neighbors, Harold W; Jackson, James S
The purpose of this study was to estimate lifetime and 12-month prevalence of 13 psychiatric disorders for older African Americans. Data are from the older African American subsample of the National Survey of American Life. Selected measures of lifetime and 12-month Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) psychiatric disorders were examined (i.e., panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder, dysthymia, bipolar I and II disorders, alcohol abuse/dependence, and drug abuse/dependence). Twenty-three percent of older African Americans reported at least one lifetime disorder and 8.54% reported at least one 12-month disorder. Alcohol abuse, PTSD, and major depression were the most prevalent lifetime disorders. The most prevalent 12-month disorders were PTSD, major depression, and social phobia. Age, sex, education, and region were significantly associated with the odds of having a lifetime disorder. This is the first study of prevalence rates of serious mental disorders for older African Americans based on a national sample. Demographic correlates of the prevalence of disorders are discussed with an emphasis on age and regional differences.
Ritsher, Jennifer Boyd; Struening, Elmer L; Hellman, Fred; Guardino, Mary
We tested the factor structure of the National Anxiety Disorder Screening Day instrument (n=14860) within five ethnic groups (White, Black, Hispanic, Asian, Native American). Conducted yearly across the US, the screening is meant to detect five common anxiety syndromes. Factor analyses often fail to confirm the validity of assessment tools' structures, and this is especially likely for minority ethnic groups. If symptoms cluster differently across ethnic groups, criteria for conventional DSM-IV disorders are less likely to be met, leaving significant distress unlabeled and under-detected in minority groups. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses established that the items clustered into the six expected factors (one for each disorder plus agoraphobia). This six-factor model fit the data very well for Whites and not significantly worse for each other group. However, small areas of the model did not appear to fit as well for some groups. After taking these areas into account, the data still clearly suggest more prevalent PTSD symptoms in the Black, Hispanic and Native American groups in our sample. Additional studies are warranted to examine the model's external validity, generalizability to more culturally distinct groups, and overlap with other culture-specific syndromes.
Full Text Available Background: The 2010 iteration of the Global Burden of Disease statistics (Murray et al., 2012 points to the growing impact of injury and highlights the mounting burden of psychiatric disorder. It is essential to examine the intersection between these two contributors to disease burden. Methods: The Australian Injury Vulnerability Study collected data of over 1,000 injury patients from their initial hospitalization to 6 years post-injury. Structured clinical interviews were used to diagnose psychiatric disorder and self-report measures for disability and symptom severity. Results: A wide range of psychiatric disorders developed following injury, which included posttraumatic stress disorder, agoraphobia, depression, and substance use disorders (Bryant, O'Donnell, Creamer, Silove, & McFarlane, 2010. Although prevalence rates for these disorders were generally consistent over time, examination of trajectory data showed that different people had the disorders at different times. Importantly, the data showed that early anxiety, depression, and PTSD symptoms played a significant role in the development of long term disability after injury (Carty, O'Donnell, Evans, Kazantzis, & Creamer, 2011; O'Donnell et al., 2013. Conclusions: These data support the view that transdiagnostic models for early intervention may be required to address the complex psychiatric disorder trajectories that develop after injury.
Sadetski, M; Tourinho Moretto, M L; Correia de Araujo, R P; de Carvalho, J F
Objectives To detect the frequency of psychological alterations in primary antiphospholipid syndrome patients. Methods Thirty-six primary antiphospholipid syndrome patients were analyzed by a psychological interview using a standard protocol and review of medical charts. Clinical manifestations, associated comorbidities, antiphospholipid antibodies, and treatment were also evaluated. Results The mean age was 44.2 ± 10.8 years, 29 (80%) were women and 29 (80%) were of Caucasian race. The mean duration of disease was 7.3 ± 5.2 years. The frequency of the presence of psychological alterations was 97.1%. Family dependence was observed in 14 (40%), memory loss in 12 (34.3%), social losses in 12 (34.3%), sexual limitations in seven (20%), sadness in six (17.1%), severe speech limitation in four (11.4%), anxiety in three (8.6%), learning difficulty in two (5.7%), generalized phobia in two (5.7%), suicide ideation in one (2.6%), agoraphobia in one (2.6%), and obsessive-compulsive disorder in one (2.6%). Conclusion This study demonstrated that almost all primary antiphospholipid syndrome patients have psychological alterations. These data reinforce the need for psychological evaluation in primary antiphospholipid syndrome patients.
Cangas, Adolfo J; Navarro, Noelia; Parra, José M A; Ojeda, Juan J; Cangas, Diego; Piedra, Jose A; Gallego, Jose
This paper presents the results from the application of a serious game called Stigma-Stop among a group of high school students with the aim of reducing the stigma toward mental illnesses. The video game features characters with various mental disorders (schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder, and panic disorder with agoraphobia) and provides information about these problems. Additionally, the game asks players about whether they have ever felt the same as the characters, if they believe the characters are psychologically well, and if they think they could help these individuals. Similarly, a variety of reactions are provided for players to choose from when they encounter the characters with these problems. A total of 552 students between the ages of 14 and 18 participated in the study, and they were randomly assigned to either the experimental group, which used Stigma-Stop, or the control group, which utilized a video game completely unrelated to mental health. Both video games were used for similar lengths of time. Following the application of Stigma-Stop, a statistically significant decrease was obtained in levels of stigma toward schizophrenia, both in terms of stereotypes and, to a greater extent, its potential dangerousness. However, this was not the case in the control group. Results thus demonstrate the video game's usefulness toward eradicating erroneous notions about serious mental disorders like schizophrenia.
Wittchen, H-U; Heinig, I; Beesdo-Baum, K
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5 (DSM-5) "anxiety, obsessive-compulsive spectrum, posttraumatic, and dissociative disorders" work group addressed reconceptualization issues regarding all anxiety-related disorders. Based on systematic literature reviews, reanalyses of available data and evaluation of results following the DSM-5 principles it was decided to rearrange the disorder spectrum into separate groupings for the classical anxiety disorders, trauma- and stressor-related disorders, obsessive-compulsive and related disorders, and dissociative disorders. Among the classical anxiety disorders DSM-5 now also includes selective mutism and separation anxiety disorder. A major change from DSM-IV is a drastically simplified classification of panic disorder and agoraphobia. Both conditions can be separately coded in DSM-5 and the overlap is disclosed by a comorbid double diagnosis. The anxiety disorder criteria have been generally harmonized regarding content and order. It was assured that criteria are applicable to all age, gender and cultural groups. Furthermore, diagnosis-specific and cross-cutting dimensional anxiety scales have been developed to supplement categorical diagnosis which appears to facilitate assessment of severity and course of treatment.
Background Anxiety and related disorders are among the most common mental disorders, with lifetime prevalence reportedly as high as 31%. Unfortunately, anxiety disorders are under-diagnosed and under-treated. Methods These guidelines were developed by Canadian experts in anxiety and related disorders through a consensus process. Data on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment (psychological and pharmacological) were obtained through MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and manual searches (1980–2012). Treatment strategies were rated on strength of evidence, and a clinical recommendation for each intervention was made, based on global impression of efficacy, effectiveness, and side effects, using a modified version of the periodic health examination guidelines. Results These guidelines are presented in 10 sections, including an introduction, principles of diagnosis and management, six sections (Sections 3 through 8) on the specific anxiety-related disorders (panic disorder, agoraphobia, specific phobia, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder), and two additional sections on special populations (children/adolescents, pregnant/lactating women, and the elderly) and clinical issues in patients with comorbid conditions. Conclusions Anxiety and related disorders are very common in clinical practice, and frequently comorbid with other psychiatric and medical conditions. Optimal management requires a good understanding of the efficacy and side effect profiles of pharmacological and psychological treatments. PMID:25081580
Priscilla, Das; Hamidin, Awang; Azhar, M Zain; Noorjan, Khin Ohnmar Naing; Salmiah, M Said; Bahariah, Khalid
To determine the relationship between major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders and the quality of life of haematological cancer patients. This cross-sectional study was conducted at Ampang Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, a tertiary referral centre hospital for haematological cancer. The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview was used for the diagnosis of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire was utilised to measure patients' quality of life. A total of 105 haematological cancer patients were included in the study with response rate of 100%. Major depressive disorder correlated with almost all domains of the quality of life, except the pain scores. Logistic regression showed that insomnia and financial difficulties were related to major depressive disorder. Different anxiety disorders also correlated with quality of life in specific domains. The leading anxiety disorders that correlated mostly with quality-of-life scales were generalised anxiety disorder, followed by obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder, as well as post-traumatic stress disorder and panic disorder with agoraphobia (p<0.05). Psychological treatment along with medication and intervention should be implemented to improve the overall quality of life and psychiatric disorder symptoms among the haematological cancer patients.
Full Text Available Augmented reality (AR technology is useful for treating several psychological problems, including phobias such as fear of flying, agoraphobia, claustrophobia, and phobia to insects and small animals. However, the currently existing applications for therapy of cockroach phobia that uses AR technology are still very dependent towards the presence of markers, which might lessen the feeling of being in an actual scenario from everyday lives. In this paper, we created a system that is able to use everyday things as a replacement for markers for phobia therapy for cockroach. There are five main processes: getting the live streaming feed from camera, preprocessing, extracting the center point of the objects, tracking the marker-substitute objects, and lastly, instantiating cockroaches randomly after user lifts the objects according to the number and mode of the cockroaches, whether it is moving or not, that are predetermined by the user. The evaluation in this paper includes eight participants that are carefully selected based on their Fear of Spiders Questionnaire (FSQ score that is translated into Indonesian and modified to accommodate cockroaches instead of spiders. The results is that the system can induce anxiety level on participants with the highest score of 10, which is the highest score in Standard Unit of Discomfort scale (SUDs. While the presence and reality judgment of this paper has the highest score of 7 which is also the highest score in Slater-Usoh-Steed Questionnaire (SUS.
Forbes, David; Lockwood, Emma; Elhai, Jon D; Creamer, Mark; O'Donnell, Meaghan; Bryant, Richard; McFarlane, Alexander; Silove, Derrick
The nature and structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been the subject of much interest in recent times. This research has been represented by two streams, the first representing a substantive body of work which focuses specifically on the factor structure of PTSD and the second exploring PTSD's relationship with other mood and anxiety disorders. The present study attempted to bring these two streams together by examining structural models of PTSD and their relationship with dimensions underlying other mood and anxiety disorders. PTSD, anxiety and mood disorder data from 989 injury survivors interviewed 3-months following their injury were analyzed using a series of confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) to identify the optimal structural model. CFA analyses indicated that the best fitting model included PTSD's re-experiencing (B1-5), active avoidance (C1-2), and hypervigilance and startle (D4-5) loading onto a Fear factor (represented by panic disorder, agoraphobia and social phobia) and the PTSD dysphoria symptoms (numbing symptoms C3-7 and hyperarousal symptoms D1-3) loading onto an Anxious Misery/Distress factor (represented by depression, generalized anxiety disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder). The findings have implications for informing potential revisions to the structure of the diagnosis of PTSD and the diagnostic algorithm to be applied, with the aim of enhancing diagnostic specificity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Feinstein, Justin S; Khalsa, Sahib S; Yeh, Hung-Wen; Wohlrab, Colleen; Simmons, W Kyle; Stein, Murray B; Paulus, Martin P
Floatation-REST (Reduced Environmental Stimulation Therapy) reduces sensory input to the nervous system through the act of floating supine in a pool of water saturated with Epsom salt. The float experience is calibrated so that sensory signals from visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, thermal, tactile, vestibular, gravitational and proprioceptive channels are minimized, as is most movement and speech. This open-label study aimed to examine whether Floatation-REST would attenuate symptoms of anxiety, stress, and depression in a clinical sample. Fifty participants were recruited across a spectrum of anxiety and stress-related disorders (posttraumatic stress, generalized anxiety, panic, agoraphobia, and social anxiety), most (n = 46) with comorbid unipolar depression. Measures of self-reported affect were collected immediately before and after a 1-hour float session, with the primary outcome measure being the pre- to post-float change score on the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory. Irrespective of diagnosis, Floatation-REST substantially reduced state anxiety (estimated Cohen's d > 2). Moreover, participants reported significant reductions in stress, muscle tension, pain, depression and negative affect, accompanied by a significant improvement in mood characterized by increases in serenity, relaxation, happiness and overall well-being (p Floatation-REST may be a promising technique for transiently reducing the suffering in those with anxiety and depression. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03051074.
Thaíse Campos Mondin
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence of anxiety disorders and associated factors in young adults. Methods: Cross-sectional population-based study of individuals between the ages of 18 and 24 years randomly selected from 89 census-based sectors to ensure an adequate sample size. Household selection within the sectors was performed according to a systematic sampling process. Anxiety disorders were assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI. The final sample comprised 1,560 young adults. Results: Of the participants who were diagnosed with anxiety disorders, 12.3% had agoraphobia, 9.7% had generalised anxiety disorder, 4.0% had social phobia, 3.3% had obsessive-compulsive disorder, 2.5% had panic disorder, and 2.1% had post-traumatic stress disorder; only 23.8% had received any previous treatment. Anxiety disorders were associated with sex, socioeconomic status, psychiatric problems in parents, alcohol abuse, and tobacco use. Conclusions: The identification of factors associated with anxiety disorders in young people enables us to develop intervention strategies. Anxiety disorders are not only highly prevalent but are also associated with significant functional impairment, significant reductions in quality of life, lower productivity, and higher rates of comorbidities.
Marco Andre Mezzasalma
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and effectiveness of imipramine on the treatment of comorbid chronic dizziness and panic disorder. METHOD: Nine patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia associated with chronic dizziness underwent otoneurological screening and were treated with a 3-months course of imipramine. Anxiety levels were measured with the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A, dizziness levels were evaluated using the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI, and panic severity and treatment outcome were assessed with the Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI. RESULTS: At the baseline 33.3% (n=3 had a bilateral peripheral deficit vestibulopathy, the mean scores for HAM-A were 27.2±10.4, for DHI were 51.7±22.7, and for CGI-S were 4.8±0.9. All patients had a significant reduction in their HAM-A (11.1±5.5, p=0.008, DHI (11.5±8.1, p=0.008 and CGI-I (1.8±0.7, p=0.011 levels after 3-months imipramine treatment (mean=72.2±23.2 mg/day. CONCLUSION: This study found a decrease in anxiety levels and in the impact of dizziness in the patients' quality of life after a 3-months treatment course with imipramine.
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to verify the sensitivity to the carbon dioxide (CO2 challenge test of panic disorder (PD patients with respiratory and nonrespiratory subtypes of the disorder. Our hypothesis is that the respiratory subtype is more sensitive to 35% CO2. Twenty-seven PD subjects with or without agoraphobia were classified into respiratory and nonrespiratory subtypes on the basis of the presence of respiratory symptoms during their panic attacks. The tests were carried out in a double-blind manner using two mixtures: 1 35% CO2 and 65% O2, and 2 100% atmospheric compressed air, 20 min apart. The tests were repeated after 2 weeks during which the participants in the study did not receive any psychotropic drugs. At least 15 of 16 (93.7% respiratory PD subtype patients and 5 of 11 (43.4% nonrespiratory PD patients had a panic attack during one of two CO2 challenges (P = 0.009, Fisher exact test. Respiratory PD subtype patients were more sensitive to the CO2 challenge test. There was agreement between the severity of PD measured by the Clinical Global Impression (CGI Scale and the subtype of PD. Higher CGI scores in the respiratory PD subtype could reflect a greater sensitivity to the CO2 challenge due to a greater severity of PD. Carbon dioxide challenges in PD may define PD subtypes and their underlying mechanisms.
Manfro Gisele G
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to assess the association between the Serotonin Transporter Promoter Polymorphism (5-HTTLPR and Panic Disorder (PD. Methods This is a systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control studies with unrelated individuals of any ethnic origin examining the role of the 5-HTTLPR in PD according to standard diagnostic criteria (DSM or ICD. Articles published in any language between January 1996 and April 2007 were eligible. The electronic databases searched included PubMed, PsychInfo, Lilacs and ISI. Two separate analyses were performed: an analysis by alleles and a stratified analysis separating studies by the quality of control groups. Asymptotic DerSimonian and Laird's Q test were used to assess heterogeneity. Results of individual studies were combined using the fixed effect model with respective 95% confidence intervals. Results Nineteen potential articles were identified, and 10 studies were included in this meta-analysis. No statistically significant association between 5-HTTLPR and PD was found, OR = 0.91 (CI95% 0.80 to 1.03, p = 0.14. Three sub-analyses divided by ethnicity, control group quality and Agoraphobia comorbidity also failed to find any significant association. No evidence of heterogeneity was found between studies in the analyses. Conclusion Results from this systematic review do not provide evidence to support an association between 5-HTTLPR and PD. However, more studies are needed in different ethnic populations in order to evaluate a possible minor effect.
Caroline A. Bonham
Full Text Available Background. Anxiety disorders are associated with considerable disability in the domains of (1 work, (2 social, and (3 family and home interactions. Psychiatric comorbidity is also known to be associated with disability. Methods. Data from the Cross-National Collaborative Panic Study was used to identify rates of comorbid diagnoses, anxiety and depression symptom ratings, and Sheehan disability scale ratings from a clinical sample of 1165 adults with panic disorder. Results. Comorbid diagnoses of agoraphobia, major depression, and social phobia were associated with disability across the three domains of work, social, and family and home interactions. The symptom of agoraphobic avoidance makes the largest contribution to disability but there is no single symptom cluster that entirely predicts impairment and disability. Limitations. The findings about the relative contributions that comorbid diagnoses make to disability only apply to a population with panic disorder. Conclusions. Although panic disorder is not generally considered to be among the serious and persistent mental illnesses, when it is comorbid with other diagnoses, it is associated with considerable impairment. In particular, the presence of agoraphobic avoidance should alert the clinician to the likelihood of important functional impairment. When measuring the functional impact of comorbid anxiety disorders, both the categorical and the dimensional approaches to diagnosis make valuable contributions.
A. D. Faye
Full Text Available Background. Anxiety and panic are known to be associated with bronchial asthma with variety of impact on clinical presentation, treatment outcome, comorbidities, quality of life, and functional disability in patients with asthma. This study aims to explore the pattern of panic symptoms, prevalence and severity of panic disorder (PD, quality of life, and disability in them. Methods. Sixty consecutive patients of bronchial asthma were interviewed using semistructured proforma, Panic and Agoraphobia scale, WHO Quality of life (QOL BREF scale, and WHO disability schedule II (WHODAS II. Results. Though 60% of the participants had panic symptoms, only 46.7% had diagnosable panic attacks according to DSM IV TR diagnostic criteria and 33.3% had PD. Most common symptoms were “sensations of shortness of breath or smothering,” “feeling of choking,” and “fear of dying” found in 83.3% of the participants. 73.3% of the participants had poor quality of life which was most impaired in physical and environmental domains. 55% of the participants had disability score more than a mean (18.1. Conclusion. One-third of the participants had panic disorder with significant effect on physical and environmental domains of quality of life. Patients with more severe PD and bronchial asthma had more disability.
This panel is a series of presentations by a father and his three sons. The first is a critique of the concept of the Unus Mundus, an idea that goes back at least as far as Plato's Cave in western intellectual history. A longing for unchanging foundational ideas lies at the core of much of our culture, psychology, and theology. The subsequent presentations describe various unforeseen, destructive results stemming from the perspective of the Unus Mundus. The first example is of persons with Alzheimer's disease, whose singular subjectivity is often ignored because they are seen as a category. They are 'Alzheimer-ed', subtly enabling those around them to avoid an anxiety-producing encounter with their enigmatic otherness. Another important perspective is the modernist re-construction of city spaces that has resulted in the loss of an organic sense of containment. The lengthy horizon of the grand boulevards seemed like openings upon infinity, often provoking panic and agoraphobia, as seen in the work of Edvard Munch. Lastly, the genocidal tendencies of modern times epitomize the dangers of totalizing, Utopian ideas. Violent elimination may be visited upon groups or peoples who are deemed 'impure', as besmirching idealized social visions. Such examples illustrate some of the ethical dangers of conceptualizations related to the Unus Mundus. © 2011, The Society of Analytical Psychology.
Mellon, Robert C; Moutavelis, Adrianos G
Schoolchildren reported their parents' use of aversive control and positive reinforcement contingencies in their educational interventions, as well as parental non-responsiveness to their requests for educational assistance. They also reported their own levels of six dimensions of anxiety disorder-related phenomena. Both parental use of aversive control and non-responsiveness were directly related to overall levels of child anxiety disorder-related behavior; these correlations were more robust than those observed in previous investigations of more diffuse dimensions of parenting style and trait anxiety. Panic disorder/agoraphobia and Generalized anxiety disorder were the dimensions most strongly correlated with both parental aversive control and non-responsiveness, while Compulsive behavior was uniquely uncorrelated with parental non-responsiveness and uniquely correlated with parental use of positive reinforcement contingencies. Differences in the magnitudes of correlations between anxiety disorder-related dimensions and parental educational practices are interpreted in terms of the probable differential effectiveness of their constituent behaviors in terminating parent-mediated negative reinforcers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alciati, Alessandra; Caldirola, Daniela; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo; Atzeni, Fabiola; Grassi, Massimiliano; Perna, Giampaolo
To investigate the influence of panic disorder (PD) with/without agoraphobia on the clinical severity of fibromyalgia (FM). Eighty-one patients with FM, among those consecutively referring to a tertiary-care setting, were included in this cross-sectional study. Psychiatric diagnoses were made by the structured clinical interview in accordance with the 4th-TR version of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. The clinical severity of FM was measured by means of the following self-administered scales: Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), Fibromyalgia Assessment Status (FAS), Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ). A final sample of 66 females with FM with or without past PD was included in the analyses. The two groups did not significantly differ in age, years of education, length of illness or medication distribution. We did not find significant differences between the two groups in the FIQ and FAS scale scores, whereas subjects with FM and past PD showed significantly higher HAQ scale scores than those without past PD (p<.001). A history of PD in patients with FM increases the severity of functional impairment in performing a wide range of daily-life activities, as measured by the HAQ scale, with no effects on the severity of other clinical dimensions of FM. Potential underlying mechanisms and clinical implications will be discussed.
Shetty, Reshma A; Sadananda, Monika
In order to understand links that exist between inherited risk or predisposition, brain and behavioural development, endocrine regulation and social/environmental stimuli, animal models are crucial. The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat has been shown to have validity as a model of adult and adolescent depression. While sex- and age-specific differences in some of the face, predictive and construct validities of the model such as depression-like behaviours have been established, anhedonia and anxiety using other induced anxiety paradigms such as elevated plus maze remain equivocal. First, post-weaning social isolation effects on inherent and induced anxiety behaviours were tested during two critical time periods, early- and mid-adolescence. Isolation induced immediate effects on novel environment-induced hyperactivity and anxiety-related behaviours. Adolescent WKYs demonstrated reduced 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations suggesting agoraphobia-like behaviours. Second, isolated rats, despite being subsequently social-/group-housed demonstrated longer lasting effects on social interaction measures and anhedonia. This establishes that the depression-like profile observed during early- and mid-adolescence persists into late adolescence and early adulthood in WKY. Further, that interventions at a later stage during adolescence may not be able to reverse early adolescent effects in the context of pre-disposition, thus highlighting the irreversibility of being double-hit during critical time periods of brain and behavioural development and maturation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kanehisa, Masayuki; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Ando, Tomoko; Okamoto, Shizuko; Maruyama, Yoshihiro; Kohno, Kentaro; Ninomiya, Taiga; Higuma, Haruka; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Tsuru, Jusen; Hanada, Hiroaki; Kodama, Kensuke; Akiyoshi, Jotaro
Previous animal studies have suggested that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) could be associated with depression- and anxiety-related behaviors. Our aim was to relate serum HGF levels with State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Profile of Mood State (POMS), and Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) scores in patients with panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia) and healthy controls. We examined 67 patients with panic disorders and 97 controls. Patients were split into two groups according to whether they exhibited a 50% improvement in test scores (good/high response group: n = 26) or not (poor/low response group: n = 41). In both healthy control and panic disorder individuals, there were no significant associations between HGF serum levels and STAI or NEO-PI-R scores. However, there was a significant correlation between serum HGF levels and fatigue in healthy control subjects in as scored by POMS testing. HGF concentration in the good/high response group was significantly elevated compared to both the low/poor response group (p disorders. 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yang, Fuzhong; Li, Yihan; Xie, Dong; Shao, Chunhong; Ren, Jianer; Wu, Wenyuan; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Zhen; Zou, Ying; Zhang, Jiulong; Qiao, Dongdong; Gao, Chengge; Li, Youhui; Hu, Jian; Deng, Hong; Wang, Gang; Du, Bo; Wang, Xumei; Liu, Tiebang; Gan, Zhaoyu; Peng, Juyi; Wei, Bo; Pan, Jiyang; Chen, Honghui; Sun, Shufan; Jia, Hong; Liu, Ying; Chen, Qiaoling; Wang, Xueyi; Cao, Juling; Lv, Luxian; Chen, Yunchun; Ha, Baowei; Ning, Yuping; Chen, YiPing; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Flint, Jonathan; Shi, Shenxun
Background Individuals with early-onset depression may be a clinically distinct group with particular symptom patterns, illness course, comorbidity and family history. This question has not been previously investigated in a Han Chinese population. Methods We examined the clinical features of 1970 Han Chinese women with DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) between 30 and 60 years of age across China. Analysis of linear, logistic and multiple logistic regression models was used to determine the association between age at onset (AAO) with continuous, binary and discrete characteristic clinical features of MDD. Results Earlier AAO was associated with more suicidal ideation and attempts and higher neuroticism, but fewer sleep, appetite and weight changes. Patients with an earlier AAO were more likely to suffer a chronic course (longer illness duration, more MDD episodes and longer index episode), increased rates of MDD in their parents and a lower likelihood of marriage. They tend to have higher comorbidity with anxiety disorders (general anxiety disorder, social phobia and agoraphobia) and dysthymia. Conclusions Early AAO in MDD may be an index of a more severe, highly comorbid and familial disorder. Our findings indicate that the features of MDD in China are similar to those reported elsewhere in the world. PMID:21782247
Yang, Fuzhong; Li, Yihan; Xie, Dong; Shao, Chunhong; Ren, Jianer; Wu, Wenyuan; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Zhen; Zou, Ying; Zhang, Jiulong; Qiao, Dongdong; Gao, Chengge; Li, Youhui; Hu, Jian; Deng, Hong; Wang, Gang; Du, Bo; Wang, Xumei; Liu, Tiebang; Gan, Zhaoyu; Peng, Juyi; Wei, Bo; Pan, Jiyang; Chen, Honghui; Sun, Shufan; Jia, Hong; Liu, Ying; Chen, Qiaoling; Wang, Xueyi; Cao, Juling; Lv, Luxian; Chen, Yunchun; Ha, Baowei; Ning, Yuping; Chen, Yiping; Kendler, Kenneth S; Flint, Jonathan; Shi, Shenxun
Individuals with early-onset depression may be a clinically distinct group with particular symptom patterns, illness course, comorbidity and family history. This question has not been previously investigated in a Han Chinese population. We examined the clinical features of 1970 Han Chinese women with DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) between 30 and 60 years of age across China. Analysis of linear, logistic and multiple logistic regression models was used to determine the association between age at onset (AAO) with continuous, binary and discrete characteristic clinical features of MDD. Earlier AAO was associated with more suicidal ideation and attempts and higher neuroticism, but fewer sleep, appetite and weight changes. Patients with an earlier AAO were more likely to suffer a chronic course (longer illness duration, more MDD episodes and longer index episode), increased rates of MDD in their parents and a lower likelihood of marriage. They tend to have higher comorbidity with anxiety disorders (general anxiety disorder, social phobia and agoraphobia) and dysthymia. Early AAO in MDD may be an index of a more severe, highly comorbid and familial disorder. Our findings indicate that the features of MDD in China are similar to those reported elsewhere in the world. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Giltay, Erik J; Enter, Dorien; Zitman, Frans G; Penninx, Brenda W J H; van Pelt, Johannes; Spinhoven, Phillip; Roelofs, Karin
Low circulating levels of testosterone have been associated with major depression, but there is more limited evidence for differences in patients with anxiety disorders. The use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and other antidepressants is associated with sexual side effects, warranting testing for interactions with testosterone. Data are from 722 male and 1380 female participants of The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA), who were recruited from the community, general practice care, and specialized mental health care. Depressive and anxiety diagnoses were assessed using the DSM-IV Composite International Diagnostic Interview. To smooth the episodic secretion, the four morning saliva samples per participant and the two evening samples were pooled before testosterone analysis. Morning median testosterone levels were 25.2 pg/ml in men and 16.2 pg/ml in women, with lower evening levels of 18.2 and 14.1 pg/ml, respectively. Significant determinants of testosterone levels were sex, age, time of the day, use of contraceptives, and smoking status. Female patients with a current (1-month) depressive disorder (effect size 0.29; P=0.002), generalized anxiety disorder (0.25; P=0.01), social phobia (0.30; Pdepressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, and agoraphobia as compared to female controls. SSRIs may increase salivary testosterone in men and women. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Matteo Preve,1 Cristiana Nisita,1 Massimo Bellini,2 Liliana Dell'Osso1 1Department of Psychiatry, Neurobiology, Pharmacology and Biotechnology, 2Department of Gastroenterology, Gastrointestinal Unit, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy Abstract: Panic disorder is the most common type of anxiety disorder, and its most common expression is panic attacks characterized with sudden attacks of anxiety with numerous symptoms, including palpitations, tachycardia, tachypnea, nausea, and vertigo: ie, cardiovascular, gastroenterologic, respiratory, and neuro-otologic symptoms. In clinical practice, panic disorder manifests with isolated gastroenteric or cardiovascular symptoms, requiring additional clinical visits after psychiatric intervention. The first-line treatment for anxiety disorders, and in particular for panic disorder, is the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. However, these drugs can have adverse effects, including sexual dysfunction, increased bodyweight, and abnormal bleeding, that may be problematic for some patients. Here we report the case of a 29-year-old Caucasian woman affected by panic disorder with agoraphobia who was referred to our clinic for recurrent gastroenteric panic symptoms. The patient reported improvement in her anxiety symptoms and panic attacks while on a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, but not in her gastric somatic problems, so the decision was taken to start her on duloxetine, a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. After 6 months of treatment, the patient achieved complete remission of her gastric and panic-related symptoms, and was able to stop triple gastric therapy. Other authors have hypothesized and confirmed that duloxetine has greater initial noradrenergic effects than venlafaxine and is effective in patients with panic disorder. This case report underscores the possibility of tailoring therapeutic strategies for the gastroenteric expression of panic disorder. Keywords: anxiety disorder, panic
de Jonge, Peter; Roest, Annelieke M.; Lim, Carmen C.W.; Florescu, Silvia E.; Bromet, Evelyn; Stein, Dan; Harris, Meredith; Nakov, Vladimir; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Levinson, Daphna; Al-Hamzawi, Ali O.; Haro, Josep Maria; Viana, Maria Carmen; Borges, Gui; O’Neill, Siobhan; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Demyttenaere, Koen; Gureje, Oye; Iwata, Noboru; Lee, Sing; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Aimee; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Browne, Mark Oakley; Piazza, Maria; Posada-Villa, José; Torres, Yolanda; ten Have, Margreet L.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Scott, Kate M.
Context The scarcity of cross-national reports and the changes in DSM-5 regarding panic disorder (PD) and panic attacks (PAs) call for new epidemiological data on PD and PAs and its subtypes in the general population. Objective To present representative data about the cross-national epidemiology of PD and PAs in accordance with DSM-5 definitions. Design and Setting Nationally representative cross-sectional surveys using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0. Participants Respondents (n=142,949) from 25 high, middle and lower-middle income countries across the world aged 18 years or older. Main Outcome Measures PD and presence of single and recurrent PAs. Results Lifetime prevalence of PAs was 13.2% (s.e. 0.1%). Among persons that ever had a PA, the majority had recurrent PAs (66.5%; s.e. 0.5%), while only 12.8% fulfilled DSM-5 criteria for PD. Recurrent PAs were associated with a subsequent onset of a variety of mental disorders (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.8–2.2) and their course (OR 1.3; 95% CI 1.2–2.4) whereas single PAs were not (OR 1.1; 95% CI 0.9–1.3 and OR 0.7; 95% CI 0.6–0.8). Cross-national lifetime prevalence estimates were 1.7% (s.e. 0.0%) for PD with a median age of onset of 32 (IQR 20–47). Some 80.4% of persons with lifetime PD had a lifetime comorbid mental disorder. Conclusions We extended previous epidemiological data to a cross-national context. The presence of recurrent PAs in particular is associated with subsequent onset and course of mental disorders beyond agoraphobia and PD, and might serve as a generic risk marker for psychopathology. PMID:27775828
Goldstein, Risë B; Chou, S Patricia; Saha, Tulshi D; Smith, Sharon M; Jung, Jeesun; Zhang, Haitao; Pickering, Roger P; Ruan, W June; Huang, Boji; Grant, Bridget F
To present current, nationally representative US findings on prevalence, correlates, psychiatric comorbidity, disability, and treatment of DSM-5 antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and adulthood antisocial behavioral syndrome without conduct disorder before 15 years of age (AABS). Face-to-face interviews were conducted with respondents (N = 36,309) in the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III. DSM-5 alcohol, nicotine, and specific drug use disorders and selected mood, anxiety, trauma-related, eating, and personality disorders were assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-5. Prevalences of ASPD and AABS were 4.3% and 20.3%, respectively, and were highest among male, white, Native American, younger, and unmarried respondents, those with high school or less education, lower incomes, and Western residence. Both antisocial syndromes were significantly associated with 12-month and lifetime substance use, dysthymia/persistent depressive, bipolar I, posttraumatic stress, and borderline and schizotypal personality disorders (odds ratios [ORs] = 1.2-7.0). ASPD was additionally associated with 12-month agoraphobia and lifetime generalized anxiety disorder (ORs = 1.3-1.6); AABS, with 12-month and lifetime major depressive and 12-month generalized anxiety disorders (ORs = 1.2-1.3). Both were associated with significant disability (P antisocial survey respondents were untreated. One in 4 US adults exhibits syndromal antisocial behavior, with similar sociodemographic and psychiatric correlates and disability regardless of whether onset occurred before 15 years of age, illustrating the clinical and public health significance of both ASPD and AABS. In addition to laying groundwork for estimates of social and economic costs, and further etiologic and nosologic research, these findings highlight the urgency of effectively preventing and treating antisocial syndromes, including investigation of
van der Veen, D C; van Zelst, W H; Schoevers, R A; Comijs, H C; Voshaar, R C Oude
Comorbid anxiety disorders are common in late-life depression and negatively impact treatment outcome. This study aimed to examine personality characteristics as well as early and recent life-events as possible determinants of comorbid anxiety disorders in late-life depression, taking previously examined determinants into account. Using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 2.0), we established comorbid anxiety disorders (social phobia (SP), panic disorder (PD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and agoraphobia (AGO)) in 350 patients (aged ≥60 years) suffering from a major depressive disorder according to DSM-IV-TR criteria within the past six months. Adjusted for age, sex, and level of education, we first examined previously identified determinants of anxious depression: depression severity, suicidality, partner status, loneliness, chronic diseases, and gait speed in multiple logistic regression models. Subsequently, associations were explored with the big five personality characteristics as well as early and recent life-events. First, multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted with the presence of any anxiety disorder (yes/no) as dependent variable, where after analyses were repeated for each anxiety disorder, separately. In our sample, the prevalence rate of comorbid anxiety disorders in late-life depression was 38.6%. Determinants of comorbid anxiety disorders were a lower age, female sex, less education, higher depression severity, early traumatization, neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness. Nonetheless, determinants differed across the specific anxiety disorders and lumping all anxiety disorder together masked some determinants (education, personality). Our findings stress the need to examine determinants of comorbid anxiety disorder for specific anxiety disorders separately, enabling the development of targeted interventions within subgroups of depressed patients.
Hirschmann, S; Dannon, P N; Iancu, I; Dolberg, O T; Zohar, J; Grunhaus, L
The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of pindolol as an augmentor of fluoxetine in treatment-resistant panic disorder (PD). Twenty-five outpatients having PD with or without agoraphobia were included. These patients had not responded to two different trials with antidepressants and an 8-week trial of fluoxetine 20 mg/day. Treatment-resistant PD was defined as a less than 20% reduction in score on the Panic Self-Questionnaire (number of attacks per week) (PSQ) and the Clinical Anxiety Scale With Panic Attacks (CAS+PA). These patients continued to receive fluoxetine 20 mg/day and were randomly assigned to additionally receive either pindolol (2.5 mg three times daily) or placebo for the following 4 weeks. Evaluations were performed weekly using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), the CAS+PA, the NIMH Anxiety Scale, the PSQ, and the Clinical Global Impression Scale. The data were analyzed using a repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a t-test for independent samples. Patients treated with the combination of pindolol and fluoxetine (N = 13) demonstrated a significant improvement over the patients treated with fluoxetine and placebo on all rating scales, with the exception of HAM-D. The statistical differences were shown using the repeated-measures ANOVA (baseline, week 2, week 4) and also with t-tests from the second week of the trial. These preliminary results demonstrate that pindolol has an augmenting effect on fluoxetine in patients with treatment-resistant PD.
Dannon, Pinhas N; Lowengrub, Katherine; Amiaz, Revital; Grunhaus, Leon; Kotler, Moshe
The aim of the study was to compare the treatment of panic disorder in patients with or without cannabis use according to response, relapse and side effects. 66 panic disorder (PD) patients were included in our study. All the subjects met the DSM-IV diagnosis of panic disorder (n=45) or panic disorder with agoraphobia (n=21). Twenty four patients experienced their first panic attack within 48 h of cannabis use and then went on to develop PD. All the patients received pharmacologic treatment with paroxetine (gradually increased up to 40 mg/d). A masked rater that was blind to the group allocation, assessed patients in order to rate anxiety symptoms and medication side effects. Relapse was defined as the occurrence of a single panic attack after remission of panic symptoms. The instruments were administered at baseline and also at the 4, 8 and 12 weeks visits and at the 1 year visit. The two groups responded equally well to paroxetine treatment as measured at the 8 weeks and 12 months follow-up visits. There were no significant effects of age, sex and duration of illness as covariates with response rates between the two groups. Also PD or PDA diagnosis did not affect the treatment response in either group. There were no significant differences in weight gain, sexual side effects or relapse rates between patients according to gender or comorbid diagnosis. Acute cannabis use can be associated with the onset of panic attacks and panic disorder, and panic disorder which develops after cannabis use is responsive to pharmacotherapy. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Schröder, Johanna; Jelinek, Lena; Moritz, Steffen
Many individuals with anxiety disorders do not receive professional treatment. Internet interventions have shown to be effective in the treatment of anxiety. The present randomized controlled trial was designed to examine the effectiveness of a short-term (4-week) Internet intervention in treating panic disorder, agoraphobia, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobias ('ConfID'). We addressed the questions of whether this transdiagnostic program would affect these disorders to varying degrees and whether there would be moderators of effectiveness. Adults who were recruited in online forums for anxiety underwent an online baseline assessment (N = 179) and were randomized either to the intervention group (ConfID) or the control group (care as usual). Online post-assessment took place 4 weeks later. The primary outcome was assessed with the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI); the secondary outcomes targeted the disorder-specific symptoms, depression, and somatization. Participants in the intervention group showed a significantly stronger anxiety reduction compared to participants receiving care as usual (small-to-medium effect size between groups in intention-to-treat analysis). The treatment effect was similar for the different disorders and was moderated by participants' attitudes towards Internet interventions. Secondary outcomes yielded effect sizes in the medium range. Moderate treatment adherence, lack of measures beyond online self-reports, and unavailability of long-term results. The study provides further evidence that transdiagnostic Internet interventions are promising in reducing the existing treatment gap in individuals with panic disorder and phobias. Results extend previous findings by showing that significant effects can also be reached by comprehensive short-term programs and that the effects might be moderated by participants' attitudes towards Internet interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Clark, C.; Pike, C.; McManus, S.; Harris, J.; Bebbington, P.; Brugha, T.; Jenkins, R.; Meltzer, H.; Weich, S.; Stansfeld, S.
Background Evidence for an effect of work stressors on common mental disorders (CMD) has increased over the past decade. However, studies have not considered whether the effects of work stressors on CMD remain after taking co-occurring non-work stressors into account. Method Data were from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, a national population survey of participants ⩾16 years living in private households in England. This paper analyses data from employed working age participants (N=3383: 1804 males; 1579 females). ICD-10 diagnoses for depressive episode, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, panic or mixed anxiety and depression in the past week were derived using a structured diagnostic interview. Questionnaires assessed self-reported work stressors and non-work stressors. Results The effects of work stressors on CMD were not explained by co-existing non-work stressors. We found independent effects of work and non-work stressors on CMD. Job stress, whether conceptualized as job strain or effort–reward imbalance, together with lower levels of social support at work, recent stressful life events, domestic violence, caring responsibilities, lower levels of non-work social support, debt and poor housing quality were all independently associated with CMD. Social support at home and debt did not influence the effect of work stressors on CMD. Conclusions Non-work stressors do not appear to make people more susceptible to work stressors; both contribute to CMD. Tackling workplace stress is likely to benefit employee psychological health even if the employee's home life is stressful but interventions incorporating non-work stressors may also be effective. PMID:21896237
Gregg, Lynsey; Tarrier, Nicholas
Several virtual reality (VR) applications for the understanding, assessment and treatment of mental health problems have been developed in the last 10 years. The purpose of this review is to outline the current state of virtual reality research in the treatment of mental health problems. PubMed and PsycINFO were searched for all articles containing the words "virtual reality". In addition a manual search of the references contained in the papers resulting from this search was conducted and relevant periodicals were searched. Studies reporting the results of treatment utilizing VR in the mental health field and involving at least one patient were identified. More than 50 studies using VR were identified, the majority of which were case studies. Seventeen employed a between groups design: 4 involved patients with fear of flying; 3 involved patients with fear of heights; 3 involved patients with social phobia/public speaking anxiety; 2 involved people with spider phobia; 2 involved patients with agoraphobia; 2 involved patients with body image disturbance and 1 involved obese patients. There are both advantages in terms of delivery and disadvantages in terms of side effects to using VR. Although virtual reality based therapy appears to be superior to no treatment the effectiveness of VR therapy over traditional therapeutic approaches is not supported by the research currently available. There is a lack of good quality research on the effectiveness of VR therapy. Before clinicians will be able to make effective use of this emerging technology greater emphasis must be placed on controlled trials with clinically identified populations.
Rodney A. Lambert
Full Text Available Routine general practice (GP care is rarely comprehensively described in clinical trials. This paper examines routine GP care within the lifestyle approach to managing panic (LAMP study. The aim of this paper is to describe/discuss routine GP care for panic disorder (PD patients within both study arms in the LAMP study. An unblinded pragmatic randomised controlled trial in 15 East of England GP practices (2 primary care trusts. Participants met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for PD with/without agoraphobia. Follow-up measures recorded at 20 weeks/10 months following randomisation. Control arm, unrestricted routine GP care (practice appointments, referrals and prescriptions. Trial arm, occupational therapyled lifestyle treatment comprising lifestyle review of fluid intake, diet pattern, exercise, caffeine, alcohol and nicotine. Primary outcome measure: beck anxiety inventory. At baseline, participants attended 2-3 times more GP appointments than population average, reducing at 10 months to 1.6 times population average for routine GP care and 0.97 population average for lifestyle arm. At 10 months, 33% fewer referrals (6 referrals; 0 mental health than at baseline (9 referrals; 2 mental health were made for lifestyle arm patients compared with 42% increase (from 12 referrals; 8 mental health at baseline to 17 referrals; 7 mental health in GP care arm. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors were prescribed most often. Benzodiazepines and beta-blockers were prescribed more often than tricyclic against current clinical guidelines. In conclusion, we found that PD patients at baseline were high healthcare resource users. Treatment in both study arms reduced resource use. Routine GP care requires further review for this patient group.
Khalsa, Sahib S.; Yeh, Hung-wen; Wohlrab, Colleen; Simmons, W. Kyle; Stein, Murray B.; Paulus, Martin P.
Floatation-REST (Reduced Environmental Stimulation Therapy) reduces sensory input to the nervous system through the act of floating supine in a pool of water saturated with Epsom salt. The float experience is calibrated so that sensory signals from visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, thermal, tactile, vestibular, gravitational and proprioceptive channels are minimized, as is most movement and speech. This open-label study aimed to examine whether Floatation-REST would attenuate symptoms of anxiety, stress, and depression in a clinical sample. Fifty participants were recruited across a spectrum of anxiety and stress-related disorders (posttraumatic stress, generalized anxiety, panic, agoraphobia, and social anxiety), most (n = 46) with comorbid unipolar depression. Measures of self-reported affect were collected immediately before and after a 1-hour float session, with the primary outcome measure being the pre- to post-float change score on the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory. Irrespective of diagnosis, Floatation-REST substantially reduced state anxiety (estimated Cohen’s d > 2). Moreover, participants reported significant reductions in stress, muscle tension, pain, depression and negative affect, accompanied by a significant improvement in mood characterized by increases in serenity, relaxation, happiness and overall well-being (p < .0001 for all variables). In reference to a group of 30 non-anxious participants, the effects were found to be more robust in the anxious sample and approaching non-anxious levels during the post-float period. Further analysis revealed that the most severely anxious participants reported the largest effects. Overall, the procedure was well-tolerated, with no major safety concerns stemming from this single session. The findings from this initial study need to be replicated in larger controlled trials, but suggest that Floatation-REST may be a promising technique for transiently reducing the suffering in those with anxiety and
Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Objectives: This survey was conducted in order to assess the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children of the war-wounded veterans, and to compare it with the general population of Shiraz.Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional survey on a random sample of children and adolescents of 223 veteran's (25%-70% families between 12-20 years old. The control group consisted of students of 12-20 years of age. Diagnosis was made using semi-structured clinical interviews on the basis of DSM-IV, through K-SADS-PL.Results: Out of 223 veteran's families interviewed, 123 families had at least one child with one psychiatric disorder. Those children, 52 boys (15 % and 71 girls (20%, suffered from at least one of the psychiatric disorders. The prevalence of depressive disorders such as dysthymia was 2.3%, major depressive disorder 8.4%, and minor depression 5.8%. The prevalence of anxiety disorders including generalized anxiety disorder was (10.1%, separation anxiety disorder (1.4% obsessive compulsive disorder (4%, panic disorder (3.2%, post traumatic stress disorder (3.2%, social phobia (4.3% specific phobia (2% and agoraphobia was (1.4%. Conclusio: Although the prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders did not significantly differ from that of control group, but more studies, and more consultative, preventive and therapeutic actions seem to be necessary for children of veterans, due to a higher prevalence of some of anxiety disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder and some depression symptoms.Keywords: Prevalence; Anxiety Disorders; Depressive Disorders; Child; Shiraz , Iran.
Torres, Albina R; Fontenelle, Leonardo F; Shavitt, Roseli G; Ferrão, Ygor A; do Rosário, Maria Conceição; Storch, Eric A; Miguel, Euripedes C
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has a heterogeneous and complex phenomenological picture, characterized by different symptom dimensions and comorbid psychiatric disorders, which frequently co-occur or are replaced by others over the illness course. To date, very few studies have investigated the associations between specific OCD symptom dimensions and comorbid disorders. Cross-sectional, multicenter clinical study with 1001 well-characterized OCD patients recruited within the Brazilian Research Consortium on Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders. The primary instruments were the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (DY-BOCS) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders. Bivariate analyses between symptom dimensions and comorbidities were followed by logistic regression. The most common comorbidities among participants (56.8% females) were major depression (56.4%), social phobia (34.6%), generalized anxiety disorder (34.3%), and specific phobia (31.4%). The aggressive dimension was independently associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), separation anxiety disorder, any impulse-control disorder and skin picking; the sexual-religious dimension was associated with mood disorders, panic disorder/agoraphobia, social phobia, separation anxiety disorder, non-paraphilic sexual disorder, any somatoform disorder, body dysmorphic disorder and tic disorders; the contamination-cleaning dimension was related to hypochondriasis; and the hoarding dimension was associated with depressive disorders, specific phobia, PTSD, impulse control disorders (compulsive buying, skin picking, internet use), ADHD and tic disorders. The symmetry-ordering dimension was not independently associated with any comorbidity. Cross-sectional design; participants from only tertiary mental health services; personality disorders not investigated. Different OCD dimensions presented some specific associations with comorbid disorders, which may influence
Petterson, Lanna J; VanderLaan, Doug P; Vasey, Paul L
The current study evaluated the possibility that greater negative mental health outcomes reported among gay, lesbian, and gender-atypical individuals, compared to gender-typical individuals, are present in childhood and persist into adulthood. Sex and sexual orientation differences in self-reported adulthood and recalled childhood indicators of depression and anxiety and their association with current and retrospectively reported gender (a)typicality were examined in a non-clinically recruited community sample of Canadian heterosexual men (n = 98), heterosexual women (n = 142), gay men (n = 289), and lesbian women (n = 69). Indicators of depression and anxiety were constructed based on diagnostic criteria for generalized anxiety disorder, major depression, agoraphobia, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and specific phobias. Factor reduction analyses yielded three factors: (1) indicators of childhood separation anxiety, (2) indicators of childhood depression and anxiety, and (3) indicators of adulthood depression and anxiety. Lesbian women scored higher on childhood separation anxiety than all other groups. Heterosexual men scored lower on indicators of childhood separation anxiety than gay men and lower on indicators of childhood and adulthood depression and anxiety than all other groups. No other significant group differences were observed. Correlational analysis suggested that for men, but not for women, gender-atypical behavior was associated with negative mental health. The current study indicated that childhood should be considered a critical time period during which the noted sexual orientation-related mental health discrepancies manifest and that childhood gender atypicality is a key factor for understanding the emergence of such discrepancies.
Full Text Available Introduction: Epilepsy is a common disorder worldwide, commonly starting during childhood. Despite the high impact of psychiatric comorbidities in these patients, little is known about Iranian children with epilepsy. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in the tertiary clinics of the Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. All of the children (aged between 6 and 18 with a diagnosis of epilepsy were enrolled in this study. A semi-structured psychiatric interview was carried out using the Farsi (Persian version of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL. Results: From a total of 298 participants, 270 (90.6% completed the process, including 120 (44.4% girls and 150 (55.6% boys. At least one psychiatric diagnosis was made in 222 (82.2% patients. The most prevalent psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents with epilepsy were attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (34.4%, major depressive disorder (MDD (29.6%, social phobia (14.8% and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD (14.8%. Agoraphobia and anorexia nervosa were significantly more prevalent among girls. The following disorders were more prevalent in children aged between 13 and 18: MDD (47.5%, psychotic disorder (2.5%, social phobia (23.7%, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD (15.3%, conduct disorder (13.6%, chronic motor tic disorder (13.6% and substance related disorders (4.8%. Separation anxiety (15.1% and enuresis (1.5%, on the other hand, were more prevalent among younger children. A logistic regression model showed that psychiatric disorders in parents or siblings could independently predict at least one psychiatric comorbidity in children with epilepsy.Conclusion: Iranian children with epilepsy face a high burden of psychiatric and behavioral comorbidities compared to same aged general population that should be considered for comprehensive care.
Newby, Jill M; Hobbs, Megan J; Mahoney, Alison E J; Wong, Shiu Kelvin; Andrews, Gavin
To investigate the reliability, validity and utility of DSM-5 illness anxiety disorder (IAD) and somatic symptom disorder (SSD), and explore their overlap with DSM-IV Hypochondriasis in a health anxious sample. Treatment-seeking patients with health anxiety (N=118) completed structured diagnostic interviews to assess DSM-IV Hypochondriasis, DSM-5 IAD, SSD, and comorbid mental disorders, and completed self-report measures of health anxiety, comorbid symptoms, cognitions and behaviours, and service utilization. IAD and SSD were more reliable diagnoses than Hypochondriasis (kappa estimates: IAD: 0.80, SSD: 0.92, Hypochondriasis: 0.60). 45% of patients were diagnosed with SSD, 47% with IAD, and 8% with comorbid IAD/SSD. Most patients with IAD fluctuated between seeking and avoiding care (61%), whereas care-seeking (25%) and care-avoidant subtypes were less common (14%). Half the sample met criteria for DSM-IV Hypochondriasis; of those, 56% met criteria for SSD criteria, 36% for IAD, and 8% for comorbid IAD/SSD. Compared to IAD, SSD was characterized by more severe health anxiety, somatic symptoms, depression, and higher health service use, and higher rates of major depressive disorder, panic disorder and agoraphobia. DSM-5 IAD and SSD classifications reliably detect more cases of clinically significant health anxiety than DSM-IV Hypochondriasis. The differences between IAD and SSD appear to be due to severity. Future research should explore the generalizability of these findings to other samples, and whether diagnostic status predicts treatment response and long-term outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kok Robin N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Phobic disorders are highly prevalent and constitute a considerable burden for patients and society. As patients wait for face-to-face psychotherapy for phobic disorders in outpatient clinics, this time can be used for guided self-help interventions. The aim of this study is to investigate a five week internet-based guided self-help programme of exposure therapy in terms of clinical effectiveness and impact on speed of recovery in psychiatric outpatients, as well as the cost-effectiveness of this pre-treatment waiting list intervention. Methods/design A randomised controlled trial will be conducted among 244 Dutch adult patients recruited from waiting lists of outpatient clinics for face-to-face psychotherapy for phobic disorders. Patients suffering from at least one DSM-IV classified phobic disorder (social phobia, agoraphobia or specific phobia are randomly allocated (at a 1:1 ratio to either a five-week internet-based guided self-help program followed by face-to-face psychotherapy, or a control group followed by face-to-face psychotherapy. Waiting list status and duration are unchanged and actual need for further treatment is evaluated prior to face-to-face psychotherapy. Clinical and economic self-assessment measurements take place at baseline, post-test (five weeks after baseline and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after baseline. Discussion Offering pre-treatment internet-based guided self-help efficiently uses time otherwise lost on a waiting list and may increase patient satisfaction. Patients are expected to need fewer face-to-face sessions, reducing total treatment cost and increasing speed of recovery. Internet-delivered treatment for phobias may be a valuable addition to psychotherapy as demand for outpatient treatment increases while budgets decrease. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register NTR2233
Wintermann, Gloria-Beatrice; Donix, Markus; Joraschky, Peter; Gerber, Johannes; Petrowski, Katja
Patients with Panic Disorder (PD) direct their attention towards potential threat, followed by panic attacks, and increased sweat production. Onés own anxiety sweat odor influences the attentional focus, and discrimination of threat or non-threat. Since olfactory projection areas overlap with neuronal areas of a panic-specific fear network, the present study investigated the neuronal processing of odors in general and of stress-related sweat odors in particular in patients with PD. A sample of 13 patients with PD with/ without agoraphobia and 13 age- and gender-matched healthy controls underwent an fMRI investigation during olfactory stimulation with their stress-related sweat odors (TSST, ergometry) as well as artificial odors (peach, artificial sweat) as non-fearful non-body odors. The two groups did not differ with respect to their olfactory identification ability. Independent of the kind of odor, the patients with PD showed activations in fronto-cortical areas in contrast to the healthy controls who showed activations in olfaction-related areas such as the amygdalae and the hippocampus. For artificial odors, the patients with PD showed a decreased neuronal activation of the thalamus, the posterior cingulate cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex. Under the presentation of sweat odor caused by ergometric exercise, the patients with PD showed an increased activation in the superior temporal gyrus, the supramarginal gyrus, and the cingulate cortex which was positively correlated with the severity of the psychopathology. For the sweat odor from the anxiety condition, the patients with PD showed an increased activation in the gyrus frontalis inferior, which was positively correlated with the severity of the psychopathology. The results suggest altered neuronal processing of olfactory stimuli in PD. Both artificial odors and stress-related body odors activate specific parts of a fear-network which is associated with an increased severity of the psychopathology.
Full Text Available Patients with Panic Disorder (PD direct their attention towards potential threat, followed by panic attacks, and increased sweat production. Onés own anxiety sweat odor influences the attentional focus, and discrimination of threat or non-threat. Since olfactory projection areas overlap with neuronal areas of a panic-specific fear network, the present study investigated the neuronal processing of odors in general and of stress-related sweat odors in particular in patients with PD.A sample of 13 patients with PD with/ without agoraphobia and 13 age- and gender-matched healthy controls underwent an fMRI investigation during olfactory stimulation with their stress-related sweat odors (TSST, ergometry as well as artificial odors (peach, artificial sweat as non-fearful non-body odors.The two groups did not differ with respect to their olfactory identification ability. Independent of the kind of odor, the patients with PD showed activations in fronto-cortical areas in contrast to the healthy controls who showed activations in olfaction-related areas such as the amygdalae and the hippocampus. For artificial odors, the patients with PD showed a decreased neuronal activation of the thalamus, the posterior cingulate cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex. Under the presentation of sweat odor caused by ergometric exercise, the patients with PD showed an increased activation in the superior temporal gyrus, the supramarginal gyrus, and the cingulate cortex which was positively correlated with the severity of the psychopathology. For the sweat odor from the anxiety condition, the patients with PD showed an increased activation in the gyrus frontalis inferior, which was positively correlated with the severity of the psychopathology.The results suggest altered neuronal processing of olfactory stimuli in PD. Both artificial odors and stress-related body odors activate specific parts of a fear-network which is associated with an increased severity of the
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dermatological patients quite commonly depict psychiatric morbidity. PURPOSES: To study the psychiatric morbidity among skin patients of our clinic. METHODS: In the present study, the patients who were treated in the Dermatology Clinic of Inonu University Medical Faculty were evaluated retrospectively. The age, gender, marital status, habits, dermatological and systemic diseases, previously used drugs, current therapy and psychiatric diagnosis of each patient were recorded. FINDINGS: Of 636 patients involved in the study, 15.3% had psychopathological problems, which were depression (32.0%, adjustment difficulty (15.5%, anxiety (13.4%, psychosomatic disorders (10.3%, obsessive-compulsive disorder and conversion (5.1%, dysthymic disorder (4.1%, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (2.1%, panic attack (1.0%, premenstrual syndrome, schizophrenia, somatization disorder, insomnia, alcohol dependency, bipolar affective disorder, mental retardation, agoraphobia, social phobia and dementia. The dermatological diseases defined for the patients with psychopathology diagnosis were chronic urticaria (25.8%; psoriasis (15.5%; alopecia areata, totalis and iniversalis (11.3%; acute urticaria, neurodermatitis and Behcet′s disease (5.1%; atopic dermatitis and drug eruptions (4.1%; pemphigus (3.1%; angioedema, contact dermatitis and generalized pruritus (2.1%; folliculitis and the others (1.0%. CONCLUSIONS: Psychiatric morbidity has an affect on the course of dermatological diseases. When required, psychiatric consultation should be sought by dermatology clinics and patients should be followed with the cooperation of dermatologists and psychiatrists. LIMITATION: The indoor-based study had not included any control group and any domicillary patient.
Keefe, John R; Milrod, Barbara L; Gallop, Robert; Barber, Jacques P; Chambless, Dianne L
No studies of psychotherapies for panic disorder (PD) have examined effects on comorbid personality disorders (PersD), yet half such patients have a PersD. In a randomized trial for PD with and without agoraphobia comparing Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Panic-Focused Psychodynamic Psychotherapy (PFPP), PersD was assessed pre-to-post treatment with the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnosis of Axis-II Disorders (SCID-II). For patients completing therapy (n = 118, 54 with PersD), covariance between panic and SCID-II criteria improvements was analyzed. SCID-II diagnostic remission and recovery were evaluated. Comparative efficacy of PFPP versus CBT for improving PersD was analyzed both for the average patient, and as a function of PersD severity. 37 and 17% of PersD patients experienced diagnostic PersD remission and recovery, respectively. Larger reductions in PersD were related to more panic improvement, with a modest effect size (r = 0.28). Although there was no difference between treatments in their ability to improve PersD for the average patient (d = 0.01), patients meeting more PersD criteria did better in PFPP compared to CBT (P = .007), with PFPP being significantly superior at 11 criteria and above (d = 0.66; 3 more criteria lost). PersD presenting in the context of primary PD rarely resolves during psychotherapies focused on PD, and change in PersD only moderately tracks panic improvements, indicating non-overlap of the constructs. Patients receiving panic-focused psychotherapies may require additional treatment for their PersD. PFPP may be superior at improving severe PersD, but replication of this finding is required. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Clark, C; Pike, C; McManus, S; Harris, J; Bebbington, P; Brugha, T; Jenkins, R; Meltzer, H; Weich, S; Stansfeld, S
Evidence for an effect of work stressors on common mental disorders (CMD) has increased over the past decade. However, studies have not considered whether the effects of work stressors on CMD remain after taking co-occurring non-work stressors into account. Data were from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, a national population survey of participants 6 years living in private households in England. This paper analyses data from employed working age participants (N=3383: 1804 males; 1579 females). ICD-10 diagnoses for depressive episode, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, panic or mixed anxiety and depression in the past week were derived using a structured diagnostic interview. Questionnaires assessed self-reported work stressors and non-work stressors. The effects of work stressors on CMD were not explained by co-existing non-work stressors. We found independent effects of work and non-work stressors on CMD. Job stress, whether conceptualized as job strain or effort-reward imbalance, together with lower levels of social support at work, recent stressful life events, domestic violence, caring responsibilities, lower levels of non-work social support, debt and poor housing quality were all independently associated with CMD. Social support at home and debt did not influence the effect of work stressors on CMD. Non-work stressors do not appear to make people more susceptible to work stressors; both contribute to CMD. Tackling workplace stress is likely to benefit employee psychological health even if the employee's home life is stressful but interventions incorporating non-work stressors may also be effective.
Arias, Francisco; Szerman, Nestor; Vega, Pablo; Mesias, Beatriz; Basurte, Ignacio; Morant, Consuelo; Ochoa, Enriqueta; Poyo, Félix; Babin, Francisco
Cannabis use has been associated to a wide variety of mental disorders, the possible causal role of this use in the etiology of severe mental disorders as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder standing out. Moreover, the cannabinoid system is involved in emotional regulation, so cannabis use could disturb this process and provoke anxiety and mood disorders. The main objective of this study was to analyze the cannabis addict subgroup from Madrid study of prevalence of dual disorders in community mental health and substance misuse services. The sample consisted of 837 outpatients under treatment in the mental health network or drug network of the Community of Madrid (Spain). Of these, 353 subjects had a lifetime diagnosis of cannabis abuse or dependence and 357 subjects did not have cannabis substance use disorder. We used the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) to evaluate axis I mental disorders, and Personality Disorder Questionnaire to evaluate personality disorders. It was considered that 76.5% of the cannabis addicts had a current dual disorder. The most prevalent ones were mood and anxiety disorders. Of those addicted to cannabis, 51% had a personality disorder. Most of them had several substance use disorders. Cannabis abuse or dependence subjects had an earlier onset in consumption of other drugs such as alcohol, cocaine, and tobacco than addicts without cannabis abuse or dependence. The cannabis addicts also differed from the other addicts because of an association to antisocial personality disorder, bipolar disorder, psychosis and agoraphobia. The presence of these mental disorders was significantly associated to a lower age at initiation of cannabis use. Dual pathology is very high in cannabis addicts under treatment. Said consumption of cannabis, probably within a polysubstance use pattern, is associated to severe mental disorders as psychosis and bipolar disorder. An earlier age of onset in cannabis use is associated to a greater risk of
Heylens, Gunter; Verroken, Charlotte; De Cock, Sanne; T'Sjoen, Guy; De Cuypere, Griet
At the start of gender reassignment therapy, persons with a gender identity disorder (GID) may deal with various forms of psychopathology. Until now, a limited number of publications focus on the effect of the different phases of treatment on this comorbidity and other psychosocial factors. The aim of this study was to investigate how gender reassignment therapy affects psychopathology and other psychosocial factors. This is a prospective study that assessed 57 individuals with GID by using the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) at three different points of time: at presentation, after the start of hormonal treatment, and after sex reassignment surgery (SRS). Questionnaires on psychosocial variables were used to evaluate the evolution between the presentation and the postoperative period. The data were statistically analyzed by using SPSS 19.0, with significance levels set at P < 0.05. The psychopathological parameters include overall psychoneurotic distress, anxiety, agoraphobia, depression, somatization, paranoid ideation/psychoticism, interpersonal sensitivity, hostility, and sleeping problems. The psychosocial parameters consist of relationship, living situation, employment, sexual contacts, social contacts, substance abuse, and suicide attempt. A difference in SCL-90 overall psychoneurotic distress was observed at the different points of assessments (P = 0.003), with the most prominent decrease occurring after the initiation of hormone therapy (P < 0.001). Significant decreases were found in the subscales such as anxiety, depression, interpersonal sensitivity, and hostility. Furthermore, the SCL-90 scores resembled those of a general population after hormone therapy was initiated. Analysis of the psychosocial variables showed no significant differences between pre- and postoperative assessments. A marked reduction in psychopathology occurs during the process of sex reassignment therapy, especially after the initiation of hormone therapy. © 2013
Nations, Kari R; Smits, Jasper A J; Tolin, David F; Rothbaum, Barbara O; Hofmann, Stefan G; Tart, Candyce D; Lee, Allen; Schipper, Jacques; Sjogren, Magnus; Xue, Dixi; Szegedi, Armin; Otto, Michael W
A growing body of evidence supports the efficacy of D-cycloserine (DCS), a partial agonist at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor, as augmentation to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in the treatment of anxiety disorders. Org 25935 is a glycine transporter 1 inhibitor that acts to increase synaptic glycine levels and enhance NMDA-mediated glutamatergic activity. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of a glutamatergic compound other than DCS in a CBT augmentation paradigm. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trial for which participants were recruited from November 2008 through February 2010. Eligible adult patients diagnosed (DSM-IV) with panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (N = 40) were scheduled to receive 5 manualized CBT treatment sessions. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either a dose of Org 25935 (4 mg or 12 mg) or placebo 2 hours prior to the start of CBT sessions 3, 4, and 5. The primary endpoint was symptomatic change as measured by the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) 1 week following the last CBT session. Although mean PDSS total scores decreased significantly from baseline to end of treatment in every group, no statistically significant benefit was observed for Org 25935 (4 or 12 mg) over placebo on the primary endpoint or on any secondary efficacy endpoint. Org 25935 showed no safety issues at either dose but was much better tolerated at the 4-mg dose level than at the 12-mg dose level. Org 25935 demonstrated no benefit over placebo in augmenting CBT for panic disorder. Study limitations and implications are discussed. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00725725. © Copyright 2012 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Watson, David; Stasik, Sara M; Ellickson-Larew, Stephanie; Stanton, Kasey
The goal of this study was to explicate how the lower order facets of extraversion are related to psychopathology. We used a "bottom-up" approach in which specific extraversion scales from 3 comprehensive personality inventories were used to model these facets as latent factors. We collected both self-report and interview measures of a broad range of psychopathology from a large community sample. Replicating previous findings using a similar approach (Naragon-Gainey & Watson, 2014; Naragon-Gainey, Watson, & Markon, 2009), structural analyses yielded four factors: Positive Emotionality, Sociability, Assertiveness, and Experience Seeking. Scores on these latent dimensions were related to psychopathology in correlational analyses and in two sets of regressions (the first series used the four facets as predictors; the second included composite scores on the other Big Five domains as additional predictors). These results revealed a striking level of specificity. As predicted, Positive Emotionality displayed especially strong negative links to depressive symptoms and diagnoses. Sociability also was negatively related to psychopathology, showing particularly strong associations with indicators of social dysfunction and the negative symptoms of schizotypy (i.e., social anxiety, social aloofness, and restricted affectivity). Assertiveness generally had weak associations at the bivariate level but was negatively related to social anxiety and was positively correlated with some forms of externalizing. Finally, Experience Seeking had substantial positive associations with a broad range of indicators related to externalizing and bipolar disorder; it also displayed negative links to agoraphobia. These differential correlates demonstrate the importance of examining personality-psychopathology relations at the specific facet level. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Guimarães, Patrícia M; Passos, Sonia R; Calvet, Guilherme A; Hökerberg, Yara H; Lessa, José L; Andrade, Carlos A de
To evaluate psychiatric comorbidities in outpatients receiving care for HIV and Chagas disease at Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas (IPEC), Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Cross-sectional study with a consecutive sample of 125 patients referred to an outpatient psychiatric clinic from February to December 2010. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was used. Factors associated with more frequent mental disorders were estimated by odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) by multiple logistic regression. Seventy-six (60.8%) patients with HIV, 40 (32%) patients with Chagas disease, and nine (7.2%) patients with human T-lymphotropic virus were interviewed. The majority were women (64%), with up to 8 years of formal education (56%), and unemployed (81.6%). The median age was 49 years. Suicide risk (n=71) (56%), agoraphobia (n=65) (52%), major depressive episode (n=56) (44.8%), and alcohol/drug abuse (n=43) (34.4%) predominated, the latter being directly associated with lower family income (OR = 2.64; 95%CI 1.03-6.75) and HIV infection (OR = 5.24; 95%CI 1.56-17.61). Suicide risk was associated with non-white skin color (OR = 2.21; 95%CI 1.03-4.75), unemployment (OR = 2.72; 95%CI 1.01-7.34), and diagnosis of major depression (OR = 3.34; 95%CI 1.54-7.44). Measures targeting adverse socioeconomic conditions and psychiatric and psychological monitoring and care should be encouraged in this population, considering the association with abuse of alcohol/other psychoactive drugs and suicide risk.
Patrícia M. Guimarães
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate psychiatric comorbidities in outpatients receiving care for HIV and Chagas disease at Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas (IPEC, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods: Cross-sectional study with a consecutive sample of 125 patients referred to an outpatient psychiatric clinic from February to December 2010. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI was used. Factors associated with more frequent mental disorders were estimated by odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI by multiple logistic regression. Results: Seventy-six (60.8% patients with HIV, 40 (32% patients with Chagas disease, and nine (7.2% patients with human T-lymphotropic virus were interviewed. The majority were women (64%, with up to 8 years of formal education (56%, and unemployed (81.6%. The median age was 49 years. Suicide risk (n=71 (56%, agoraphobia (n=65 (52%, major depressive episode (n=56 (44.8%, and alcohol/drug abuse (n=43 (34.4% predominated, the latter being directly associated with lower family income (OR = 2.64; 95%CI 1.03-6.75 and HIV infection (OR = 5.24; 95%CI 1.56-17.61. Suicide risk was associated with non-white skin color (OR = 2.21; 95%CI 1.03-4.75, unemployment (OR = 2.72; 95%CI 1.01-7.34, and diagnosis of major depression (OR = 3.34; 95%CI 1.54-7.44. Conclusion: Measures targeting adverse socioeconomic conditions and psychiatric and psychological monitoring and care should be encouraged in this population, considering the association with abuse of alcohol/other psychoactive drugs and suicide risk.
Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Klotsche, Jens; Knappe, Susanne; Craske, Michelle G; Lebeau, Richard T; Hoyer, Jürgen; Strobel, Anja; Pieper, Lars; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich
Dimensional assessments are planned to be included as supplements to categorical diagnoses in DSM-V. The aim of this study was to examine the unidimensionality, reliability, validity, and clinical sensitivity of brief self-rated scales for specific anxiety disorders in an unselected German sample of consecutive attendees to a psychological clinic. These scales use a common template to assess core constructs of fear and anxiety. Dimensional scales for social anxiety disorder, specific phobia, agoraphobia, panic disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder were administered along with established scales to 102 adults seeking treatment for mental health problems at a German university outpatient clinic for psychotherapy. The computer-assisted clinical version of the Munich-Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to assess mental disorders according to DSM-IV criteria. Dimensionality and scale reliability were examined using confirmatory factor analyses. Convergent and discriminant validity were examined by testing differences in the size of correlations between each dimensional anxiety scale and each of the previously validated scales. Each dimensional scale's ability to correctly differentiate between individuals with versus without an anxiety diagnosis was examined via the area under the curve. Analyses revealed unidimensionality for each scale, high reliability, and convergent and discriminant validity. Classification performance was good to excellent for all scales except for specific phobia. The application of the dimensional anxiety scales may be an effective way to screen for specific anxiety disorders and to supplement categorical diagnoses in DSM-V, although further evaluation and refinement of the scales (particularly the specific phobia scale) is needed. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Paavonen, Vesa; Luoto, Kaisa; Lassila, Antero; Leinonen, Esa; Kampman, Olli
Individual temperament is associated with psychiatric morbidity and could explain differences in psychiatric comorbidities. We investigated the association of temperament profile clusters with anxiety disorder comorbidity in patients with depression. We assessed the temperament of 204 specialized care-treated depressed patients with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-R) and their diagnoses with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Two-step cluster analysis was used for defining patients' temperament profiles and logistic regression analysis was used for predicting different anxiety disorders for various temperament profiles. Four temperament clusters were found: 1) Novelty seekers with highest Novelty Seeking scores (n = 56),2) Persistent with highest Persistence scores (n = 36), 3) Reserved with lowest Novelty Seeking scores (n = 66) and 4) Wearied with highest Harm avoidance, lowest Reward Dependence and lowest Persistence scores (n = 58). After adjusting for clinical variables, panic disorder and/or agoraphobia were predicted by Novelty seekers' temperament profile with odds ratio [OR] = 3.5 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.8 - 6.9, p < 0.001), social anxiety disorder was predicted by Wearied temperament profile with OR = 3.4 (95% CI = 1.6 - 7.5, p = 0.002), and generalized anxiety disorder was predicted by Reserved temperament profile with OR = 2.6 (95% CI = 1.2 - 5.3, p = 0.01). The patients' temperament profiles were assessed while displaying depressive symptoms, which may have affected results. Temperament clusters with unique dimensional profiles were specifically associated with different anxiety disorders in this study. These results suggest that TCI-R could offer a valuable dimensional method for predicting the risk of anxiety disorders in diverse depressed patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gottschalk, M G; Cooper, J D; Chan, M K; Bot, M; Penninx, B W J H; Bahn, S
Panic disorder with or without comorbid agoraphobia (PD/PDA) has been linked to an increased risk to develop subsequent depressive episodes, yet the underlying pathophysiology of these disorders remains poorly understood. We aimed to identify a biomarker panel predictive for the development of a depressive disorder (major depressive disorder and/or dysthymia) within a 2-year-follow-up period. Blood serum concentrations of 165 analytes were evaluated in 120 PD/PDA patients without depressive disorder baseline diagnosis (6-month-recency) in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). We assessed the predictive performance of serum biomarkers, clinical, and self-report variables using receiver operating characteristics curves (ROC) and the area under the ROC curve (AUC). False-discovery-rate corrected logistic regression model selection of serum analytes and covariates identified an optimal predictive panel comprised of tetranectin and creatine kinase MB along with patient gender and scores from the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS) rating scale. Combined, an AUC of 0.87 was reached for identifying the PD/PDA patients who developed a depressive disorder within 2 years (n = 44). The addition of biomarkers represented a significant (p = 0.010) improvement over using gender and IDS alone as predictors (AUC = 0.78). For the first time, we report on a combination of biological serum markers, clinical variables and self-report inventories that can detect PD/PDA patients at increased risk of developing subsequent depressive disorders with good predictive performance in a naturalistic cohort design. After an independent validation our proposed biomarkers could prove useful in the detection of at-risk PD/PDA patients, allowing for early therapeutic interventions and improving clinical outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Muris, Peter; Simon, Ellin; Lijphart, Hester; Bos, Arjan; Hale, William; Schmeitz, Kelly
The Youth Anxiety Measure for DSM-5 (YAM-5) is a new self- and parent-report questionnaire to assess anxiety disorder symptoms in children and adolescents in terms of the contemporary classification system. International panels of childhood anxiety researchers and clinicians were used to construct a scale consisting of two parts: part one consists of 28 items and measures the major anxiety disorders including separation anxiety disorder, selective mutism, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder, whereas part two contains 22 items that focus on specific phobias and (given its overlap with situational phobias) agoraphobia. In general, the face validity of the new scale was good; most of its items were successfully linked to the intended anxiety disorders. Notable exceptions were the selective mutism items, which were frequently considered as symptoms of social anxiety disorder, and some specific phobia items especially of the natural environment, situational and other type, that were regularly assigned to an incorrect category. A preliminary investigation of the YAM-5 in non-clinical (N = 132) and clinically referred (N = 64) children and adolescents indicated that the measure was easy to complete by youngsters. In addition, support was found for the psychometric qualities of the measure: that is, the internal consistency was good for both parts, as well as for most of the subscales, the parent-child agreement appeared satisfactory, and there was also evidence for the validity of the scale. The YAM-5 holds promise as a tool for assessing anxiety disorder symptoms in children and adolescents.
Hollifield, Michael; Finley, M Rosina; Skipper, Betty
The epidemiology of panic disorder is well known, but data about some phenomenological aspects are sparse. The symptom criteria for panic disorder were developed largely from rational expert consensus methods and not from empirical research. This fact calls attention to the construct validity of the panic disorder diagnosis, which may affect accuracy of epidemiological findings. Seventy self-identified Non-Hispanic-Caucasian (Anglo) and Hispanic-Caucasian (Hispanic) people who were diagnosed with DSM-III-R panic disorder with or without agoraphobia were invited to complete a Panic Phenomenological Questionnaire (PPQ), which was constructed for this study from the Hamilton Anxiety Scale Items and The DSM-III-R panic symptoms. Fifty (71%) subjects agreed to participate, and there was no response bias detected. Seven symptoms on the PPQ that are not in the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria were reported to occur with a high prevalence in this study. Furthermore, many symptoms that occurred with a high frequency and were reported to be experienced as severe are also not included in current nosology. A few of the DSM-IV criterion symptoms occurred with low prevalence, frequency, and severity. Cognitive symptoms were reported to occur with higher frequency and severity during attacks than autonomic or other symptoms. There were modest differences between ethnic groups with regard to panic attack phenomena. Further research using multiple empirical methods aimed at improving the content validity of the panic disorder diagnosis is warranted. This includes utilizing consistent methods to collect data that will allow for rational decisions about how to construct valid panic disorder criteria across cultures. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Traumatic events and their consequences are often hidden or minimised by patients for reasons linked to the post-traumatic stress disorder itself (inexpressibility, shame, depressive thoughts, fear of stigmatisation, etc.). Although post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains the most widely known disorder, chronic post-traumatic psychiatric disorders are many and varied. After a trauma, the practitioner has to check for the different clinical forms of post-traumatic psychological consequences: PTSD is not the only diagnosis. Based on our own clinical experience compared to the international literature, we think necessary to build a didactic classification describing chronic post-traumatic symptoms and syndromes. Post traumatic depressions and bereavement lead to high risk of suicidal crisis and self-harm behaviours. Re-experiencing are felt with anxiety, hyper arousal increases anxious reactivity, and avoidance strategies increase anticipatory anxiety, indicating post-traumatic anxiety disorders (agoraphobia, specific phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder, separation anxiety, social phobia). Characterising an often-severe clinical picture, the co-occurrence of post-traumatic and chronic psychotic symptoms is not unusual (post-traumatic schizophrenia, post-traumatic depression with mood-congruent psychotic features, non-schizophrenic post-traumatic psychotic disorder, and bipolar reaction to trauma). A physical injury occurring at the same time as a traumatic exposure increases the risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder later which, in turn, afflicts the subjective perception of the physical health (development of somatoform and psychosomatic disorders, comorbidity with a post-concussion syndrome). The trauma may cause a rupture in the biography of a person, also in his/her internal physiological functioning as in his/her social activities (impacts of instinctive functions and behaviours, personality changes, and adjustment difficulties on professional
Won, K. S.; Jun, S. K.; Kim, J. B.; Jang, E. J.
This study attempted to prospectively investigate changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) on SPECT and clinical response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in patients with panic disorder with (PDA) and without (PD) agoraphobia. Using 99mTc-ECD brain SPECT, we assessed brain perfusion in 5 out patients at rest before and after CBT. The subjects received 12 weekly sessions of CBT. Subjects were assessed by Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire, Body Sensations Questionnaire, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Anxiety Sensitivity Index, Beck Depression Inventory-II, Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) and clinical global improvement (CGI) scale measurement were used as outcome measures. Patients were considered responders to CBT if they are much or very much improved on CGI scale and have a PDSS score at least 30% below their baseline. The scans were statistically analyzed by using statistical parametric mapping (SPM99). The baseline scans were compared to the post-CBT scans by using the statistics option multi subject, different conditions. Of 5 subjects 4 were male, 3 diagnosed PDA, and 4 on anti-anxiety medication. All of the subjects were classified as CBT responders. Their mean pretreatment and posttreatment PDSS were 17.4 (SD=8.2) and 4.2 (SD=3.1), respectively. The results of SPM analysis showed a significant decrease in blood flow after CBT in the thalamus bilaterally and right middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann's area 6). All results were thresholded at an uncorrected p<0.001 (for voxel height) and a corrected p<0.04 (for spatial extent). These preliminary data suggest that SPM analysis of 99mTc-ECD brain SPECT can reveal the change of rCBF in patient with panic disorder before and after CBT and the CBT effect may be associated with limbic and thalamic networks. However this study was a short trial with small number of subjects. Further studies with larger patient cohorts are needed
Ajai Kumar Singh
Full Text Available Objective: To study the prevalence of psychiatric co-morbidity in patients of chronic daily headache (CDH and compare the efficacy of treatment between various type of headache associated with psychiatric co-morbidity. Materials and Methods: Prospective case control cohort study, 92 consecutive patients of CDH meeting eligibility criteria. The diagnosis of various subtypes of CDH was made according to the IHS criteria. Age, sex, educational, marital and socioeconomic status, matched controls were also selected. Patients were evaluated with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI scale at the time of enrolment and at 3 months. Results: CDH accounted for 28% of all headache patients. The mean age of presentation was 30.2 ± 10.3 years, male: Female ratio of 28:64 and mean duration of 4.56 ± 0.56 years. Chronic migraine (CM accounted for 59 patients, chronic tension type headache (CTTH 22 patients, new daily persistent headache (NDPH 3 patients and miscellaneous 8 patients. Psychiatric co-morbidity was present in 53.3% patients with CDH, and was more common in CM (62.7% as compared to CTTH (36.4%. Single psychiatric co-morbidity was seen in 26 patients, while 23 patients had multiple co-morbidity. Major depressive episode, anxiety disorder, agoraphobia and dysthymia were significant psychiatric co-morbidities. Patients with CM were treated with topiramate or divalproex sodium ER and CTTH were treated with amitriptyline. 55 patients came for follow up at 3 months, improvement in headache was seen in 29 patients. Conclusion: Psychiatric co-morbidity was present in more than 50% patients with CDH and its presence along with a duration of ≥2 years was associated with a poor response to treatment.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The core domains of social anxiety disorder (SAD, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD, panic disorder (PD with and without agoraphobia (GA, and specific phobia (SP are cognitive and physical symptoms that are related to the experience of fear and anxiety. It remains unclear whether these highly comorbid conditions that constitute the anxiety disorder subgroups of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders--Fifth Edition (DSM-5 represent distinct disorders or alternative presentations of a single underlying pathology. METHODS: A systematic search of voxel-based morphometry (VBM studies of SAD, GAD, PD, GA, and SP was performed with an effect-size signed differential mapping (ES-SDM meta-analysis to estimate the clusters of significant gray matter differences between patients and controls. RESULTS: Twenty-four studies were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Reductions in the right anterior cingulate gyrus and the left inferior frontal gyrus gray matter volumes (GMVs were noted in patients with anxiety disorders when potential confounders, such as comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD, age, and antidepressant use were controlled for. We also demonstrated increased GMVs in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC in comorbid depression-anxiety (CDA, drug-naïve and adult patients. Furthermore, we identified a reduced left middle temporal gyrus and right precentral gyrus in anxiety patients without comorbid MDD. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that a reduced volume of the right ventral anterior cingulate gyrus and left inferior frontal gyrus is common in anxiety disorders and is independent of comorbid depression, medication use, and age. This generic effect supports the notion that the four types of anxiety disorders have a clear degree of overlap that may reflect shared etiological mechanisms. The results are consistent with neuroanatomical DLPFC models of physiological responses, such as worry and
Logue, Mark W; Bauver, Sarah R; Knowles, James A; Gameroff, Marc J; Weissman, Myrna M; Crowe, Raymond R; Fyer, Abby J; Hamilton, Steven P
Replication has been difficult to achieve in linkage studies of psychiatric disease. Linkage studies of panic disorder have indicated regions of interest on chromosomes 1q, 2p, 2q, 3, 7, 9, 11, 12q13, 12q23, and 15. Few regions have been implicated in more than one study. We examine two samples, the Iowa (IA) and the Columba panic disorder families. We use the fuzzy-clustering method presented by Kaabi et al. [Kaabi et al. (2006); Am J Hum Genet 78: 543-553] to summarize liability to panic disorder, agoraphobia, simple phobia, and social phobia. Kaabi et al. applied this method to the Yale panic disorder linkage families and found evidence of linkage to chromosomes 4q21, 4q32, 7p, and 8. When we apply the same method to the IA families, we obtain overlapping evidence of linkage to chromosomes 4q21 and 7p. Additionally, we find evidence of linkage on chromosomes 1, 5, 6, 16, and 22. The Columbia (CO) data does not indicate linkage to any of the Kaabi et al. peaks, instead implicating chromosomes 2 and 22q11 (2 Mb from COMT). There is some evidence of overlapping linkage between the IA and CO datasets on chromosomes 1 and 14. While use of fuzzy clustering has not produced complete concordance across datasets, it has produced more than previously seen in analyses of panic disorder proper. We conclude that chromosomes 4q21 and 7p should be considered strong candidate regions for panic and fear-associated anxiety disorder loci. More generally, this suggests that analyses including multiple aspects of psychopathology may lead to greater consistency across datasets. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Won, K. S.; Jun, S. K.; Kim, J. B.; Jang, E. J. [College of Medicine, Univ. of Kyemyoung, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)
This study attempted to prospectively investigate changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) on SPECT and clinical response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in patients with panic disorder with (PDA) and without (PD) agoraphobia. Using 99mTc-ECD brain SPECT, we assessed brain perfusion in 5 out patients at rest before and after CBT. The subjects received 12 weekly sessions of CBT. Subjects were assessed by Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire, Body Sensations Questionnaire, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Anxiety Sensitivity Index, Beck Depression Inventory-II, Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) and clinical global improvement (CGI) scale measurement were used as outcome measures. Patients were considered responders to CBT if they are much or very much improved on CGI scale and have a PDSS score at least 30% below their baseline. The scans were statistically analyzed by using statistical parametric mapping (SPM99). The baseline scans were compared to the post-CBT scans by using the statistics option multi subject, different conditions. Of 5 subjects 4 were male, 3 diagnosed PDA, and 4 on anti-anxiety medication. All of the subjects were classified as CBT responders. Their mean pretreatment and posttreatment PDSS were 17.4 (SD=8.2) and 4.2 (SD=3.1), respectively. The results of SPM analysis showed a significant decrease in blood flow after CBT in the thalamus bilaterally and right middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann's area 6). All results were thresholded at an uncorrected p<0.001 (for voxel height) and a corrected p<0.04 (for spatial extent). These preliminary data suggest that SPM analysis of 99mTc-ECD brain SPECT can reveal the change of rCBF in patient with panic disorder before and after CBT and the CBT effect may be associated with limbic and thalamic networks. However this study was a short trial with small number of subjects. Further studies with larger patient cohorts are needed.
Schuch, Jérôme J J; Roest, Annelieke M; Nolen, Willem A; Penninx, Brenda W J H; de Jonge, Peter
Although an overall gender difference in prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) has been well established, several questions concerning gender differences in the clinical manifestation of depression remain. This study aims to identify gender differences in psychopathology, treatment, and public health consequences in patients with MDD. Baseline data from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) were used, including 1115 participants (364 men, 751 women, mean age 41 years) with a DSM-IV diagnosis of current MDD. Characteristics studied included symptom profiles, comorbidity, treatment, and public health consequences. Women reported a younger age of onset of single (27.8 years vs. 31.6 years; p=0.001) and recurrent MDD (24.8 years vs. 27.6 years; p=0.014), a higher comorbidity of panic disorder with agoraphobia (24.9% vs. 17.3%; p=0.006) and life-time overall anxiety disorder (77.6% vs. 71.4%; p=0.029) than men. More men than women suffered from comorbid alcohol dependence or abuse (48.1% vs. 24.5%; pdepression in women (24.6% vs. 17.3%; p=0.009) was found. Women were treated more frequently by an alternative caretaker (20.6% vs. 14.8%; p=0.025), men more often in mental health care organizations (61.0% vs. 53.7%; p=0.025). No gender differences in frequency of medication use or counseling were found. Cross sectional design. Main gender differences in the clinical presentation of MDD concerned a younger age of onset, higher anxiety and lower alcohol use comorbidity and higher prevalence of atypical depression in women. These differences were accompanied by differences in health care use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sardinha, Aline; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Araújo, Claudio Gil Soares de; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Eifert, Georg H.
Cardiac Anxiety (CA) is the fear of cardiac sensations, characterized by recurrent anxiety symptoms, in patients with or without cardiovascular disease. The Cardiac Anxiety Questionnaire (CAQ) is a tool to assess CA, already adapted but not validated to Portuguese. This paper presents the three phases of the validation studies of the Brazilian CAQ. To extract the factor structure and assess the reliability of the CAQ (phase 1), 98 patients with coronary artery disease were recruited. The aim of phase 2 was to explore the convergent and divergent validity. Fifty-six patients completed the CAQ, along with the Body Sensations Questionnaire (BSQ) and the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN). To determine the discriminative validity (phase 3), we compared the CAQ scores of two subgroups formed with patients from phase 1 (n = 98), according to the diagnoses of panic disorder and agoraphobia, obtained with the MINI - Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. A 2-factor solution was the most interpretable (46.4% of the variance). Subscales were named 'Fear and Hypervigilance' (n = 9; alpha = 0.88), and 'Avoidance', (n = 5; alpha = 0.82). Significant correlation was found between factor 1 and the BSQ total score (p < 0.01), but not with factor 2. SPIN factors showed significant correlations with CAQ subscales (p < 0.01). In phase 3, 'Cardiac with panic' patients scored significantly higher in CAQ factor 1 (t = -3.42; p < 0.01, CI = -1.02 to -0.27), and higher, but not significantly different, in factor 2 (t = -1.98; p = 0.51, CI = -0.87 to 0.00). These results provide a definite Brazilian validated version of the CAQ, adequate to clinical and research settings
Sardinha, Aline, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Nardi, Antonio Egidio [Laboratório de Pânico e Respiração do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Psiquiatria e Saúde Mental do Instituto de Psiquiatria da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia - Translational Medicine (INCT-TM, CNPq), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Araújo, Claudio Gil Soares de [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências do Exercício e do Esporte da Universidade Gama Filho, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); CLINIMEX - Clínica de Medicina do Exercício, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Ferreira, Maria Cristina [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Psicologia da Universidade Salgado de Oliveira, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Eifert, Georg H. [Schmid College of Science and Technology Psychology, Crean School of Health and Life Sciences -Chapman University (United States)
Cardiac Anxiety (CA) is the fear of cardiac sensations, characterized by recurrent anxiety symptoms, in patients with or without cardiovascular disease. The Cardiac Anxiety Questionnaire (CAQ) is a tool to assess CA, already adapted but not validated to Portuguese. This paper presents the three phases of the validation studies of the Brazilian CAQ. To extract the factor structure and assess the reliability of the CAQ (phase 1), 98 patients with coronary artery disease were recruited. The aim of phase 2 was to explore the convergent and divergent validity. Fifty-six patients completed the CAQ, along with the Body Sensations Questionnaire (BSQ) and the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN). To determine the discriminative validity (phase 3), we compared the CAQ scores of two subgroups formed with patients from phase 1 (n = 98), according to the diagnoses of panic disorder and agoraphobia, obtained with the MINI - Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. A 2-factor solution was the most interpretable (46.4% of the variance). Subscales were named 'Fear and Hypervigilance' (n = 9; alpha = 0.88), and 'Avoidance', (n = 5; alpha = 0.82). Significant correlation was found between factor 1 and the BSQ total score (p < 0.01), but not with factor 2. SPIN factors showed significant correlations with CAQ subscales (p < 0.01). In phase 3, 'Cardiac with panic' patients scored significantly higher in CAQ factor 1 (t = -3.42; p < 0.01, CI = -1.02 to -0.27), and higher, but not significantly different, in factor 2 (t = -1.98; p = 0.51, CI = -0.87 to 0.00). These results provide a definite Brazilian validated version of the CAQ, adequate to clinical and research settings.
Kristensen, Pål; Weisaeth, Lars; Hussain, Ajmal; Heir, Trond
Bereavement following disasters is a devastating experience for family members. The aim of this study was to examine the long-term mental health effects of losing a loved one in a natural disaster. Ninety-four Norwegians aged 18-80 years who lost close family members in the 2004 Southeast Asian tsunami were evaluated 2 and 6 years after the disaster. The participants were either staying in an affected area at the time of the disaster (i.e., directly exposed) or not (i.e., not directly exposed). The prevalence of psychiatric disorders was assessed by the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I). Prolonged grief disorder (PGD) was self-reported using the Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG), and functional impairment was self-reported using the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS). We did not identify a significant decrease in the prevalence of PGD, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), or major depressive disorder (MDD) from 2 to 6 years. Approximately, one-third of the bereaved (36%) had a psychiatric disorder 6 years after the tsunami. The most common disorder was PGD (12%) followed by general anxiety disorder (GAD, 11%), agoraphobia (11%), and MDD (10%). The prevalence of PTSD and MDD was higher among family members who were directly exposed to the disaster compared to those who were not (21 vs. 0%, and 25 vs. 3%). PGD was associated with functional impairment independent of other disorders. Loss of a close family member in a natural disaster can have a substantial adverse long-term effect on mental health and everyday functioning. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Teri S Krebs
Full Text Available The classical serotonergic psychedelics LSD, psilocybin, mescaline are not known to cause brain damage and are regarded as non-addictive. Clinical studies do not suggest that psychedelics cause long-term mental health problems. Psychedelics have been used in the Americas for thousands of years. Over 30 million people currently living in the US have used LSD, psilocybin, or mescaline.To evaluate the association between the lifetime use of psychedelics and current mental health in the adult population.Data drawn from years 2001 to 2004 of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health consisted of 130,152 respondents, randomly selected to be representative of the adult population in the United States. Standardized screening measures for past year mental health included serious psychological distress (K6 scale, mental health treatment (inpatient, outpatient, medication, needed but did not receive, symptoms of eight psychiatric disorders (panic disorder, major depressive episode, mania, social phobia, general anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and non-affective psychosis, and seven specific symptoms of non-affective psychosis. We calculated weighted odds ratios by multivariate logistic regression controlling for a range of sociodemographic variables, use of illicit drugs, risk taking behavior, and exposure to traumatic events.21,967 respondents (13.4% weighted reported lifetime psychedelic use. There were no significant associations between lifetime use of any psychedelics, lifetime use of specific psychedelics (LSD, psilocybin, mescaline, peyote, or past year use of LSD and increased rate of any of the mental health outcomes. Rather, in several cases psychedelic use was associated with lower rate of mental health problems.We did not find use of psychedelics to be an independent risk factor for mental health problems.
Lai, Meng-Chuan; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Gadow, Kenneth D; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Hwu, Hai-Gwo
There have been no published reports regarding the epidemiological and psychiatric features of gender dysphoria in non-clinical young adults. The current study aimed to investigate the demographics, co-occurring psychiatric symptoms, and perceived parenting style and family support in Taiwanese young adults with gender dysphoria. The sample consisted of 5010 university freshmen (male, 51.6%) with a mean age of 19.6 years (SD = 2.7) from a national university in Taiwan. The questionnaires used for this university-based survey included the Adult Self Report Inventory-4 for psychopathology (including gender dysphoria), the Parental Bonding Instrument for parenting style, and the Family APGAR for perceived family support. Results showed that gender dysphoria was more prevalent in females (7.3%) than males (1.9%). Young adults with gender dysphoria were more likely to meet a wide but specific range of co-occurring psychiatric symptoms. The most significantly associated symptoms for males were agoraphobia, hypochondriasis, manic episode, and pathological gambling, and for females dissociative disorder, hypochondriasis, and body dysmorphic disorder. Both males and females with gender dysphoria perceived significantly less support from their families and less affection/care from both parents. Findings suggest that gender dysphoria, associated with a specific range of psychopathology and family/parenting dissatisfaction (with both similar and dissimilar patterns between sexes), is not uncommon in Taiwanese university students, particularly in females. This implies the importance of attention and specific measures to offset psychiatric conditions and to promote mental well-being of this population.
Goldstein, Risë B.; Chou, S. Patricia; Saha, Tulshi D.; Smith, Sharon M.; Jung, Jeesun; Zhang, Haitao; Pickering, Roger P.; Ruan, W. June; Huang, Boji; Grant, Bridget F.
Objective To present current, nationally representative U.S. findings on prevalence, correlates, psychiatric comorbidity, disability and treatment of DSM-5 antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and syndromal adult antisocial behavior without conduct disorder before age 15 (AABS). Method Face-to-face interviews with respondents (n=36,309) in the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions–III. DSM-5 alcohol, nicotine, specific drug use disorders, and selected mood, anxiety, trauma-related, eating, and personality disorders were assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule–5. Results Prevalences of ASPD and AABS were 4.3% and 20.3%, highest among male, white, Native American, younger, and unmarried respondents, those with high school or less education, lower incomes, and Western residence. Both antisocial syndromes were significantly associated with 12-month and lifetime substance use, dysthymia/persistent depressive, bipolar I, posttraumatic stress and borderline and schizotypal personality disorders (ORs=1.2-7.0). ASPD was additionally associated with 12-month agoraphobia and lifetime generalized anxiety disorder; AABS, with 12-month and lifetime major depressive and 12-month generalized anxiety disorders. Both were associated with significant disability (pantisocial respondents were untreated. Conclusions One in 4 U.S. adults exhibits syndromal antisocial behavior, with similar sociodemographic and psychiatric correlates and disability regardless of whether onset occurred before age 15, illustrating the clinical and public health significance of both ASPD and AABS. In addition to laying groundwork for estimates of social and economic costs, and further etiologic and nosologic research, these findings highlight the urgency of effectively preventing and treating antisocial syndromes, including investigation of whether treatment for comorbidity hastens symptomatic remission and improves
Sardinha, Aline; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; de Araújo, Claudio Gil Soares; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Eifert, Georg H.
Background Cardiac Anxiety (CA) is the fear of cardiac sensations, characterized by recurrent anxiety symptoms, in patients with or without cardiovascular disease. The Cardiac Anxiety Questionnaire (CAQ) is a tool to assess CA, already adapted but not validated to Portuguese. Objective This paper presents the three phases of the validation studies of the Brazilian CAQ. Methods To extract the factor structure and assess the reliability of the CAQ (phase 1), 98 patients with coronary artery disease were recruited. The aim of phase 2 was to explore the convergent and divergent validity. Fifty-six patients completed the CAQ, along with the Body Sensations Questionnaire (BSQ) and the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN). To determine the discriminative validity (phase 3), we compared the CAQ scores of two subgroups formed with patients from phase 1 (n = 98), according to the diagnoses of panic disorder and agoraphobia, obtained with the MINI - Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Results A 2-factor solution was the most interpretable (46.4% of the variance). Subscales were named "Fear and Hypervigilance" (n = 9; alpha = 0.88), and "Avoidance", (n = 5; alpha = 0.82). Significant correlation was found between factor 1 and the BSQ total score (p < 0.01), but not with factor 2. SPIN factors showed significant correlations with CAQ subscales (p < 0.01). In phase 3, "Cardiac with panic" patients scored significantly higher in CAQ factor 1 (t = -3.42; p < 0.01, CI = -1.02 to -0.27), and higher, but not significantly different, in factor 2 (t = -1.98; p = 0.51, CI = -0.87 to 0.00). Conclusions These results provide a definite Brazilian validated version of the CAQ, adequate to clinical and research settings. PMID:24145391
Rush, A John; Zimmerman, Mark; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Fava, Maurizio; Hollon, Steven D; Warden, Diane; Biggs, Melanie M; Shores-Wilson, Kathy; Shelton, Richard C; Luther, James F; Thomas, Brandi; Trivedi, Madhukar H
This study evaluated the clinical and sociodemographic features associated with various degrees of concurrent comorbidity in adult outpatients with nonpsychotic major depressive disorder (MDD). Outpatients enrolled in the STAR*D trial completed the Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening Questionnaire (PDSQ). An a priori 90% specificity threshold was set for PDSQ responses to ascertain the presence of 11 different concurrent DSM-IV Axis I disorders. Of 1376 outpatients, 38.2% had no concurrent comorbidities, while 25.6% suffered one, 16.1% suffered two, and 20.2% suffered three or more comorbid conditions. Altogether, 29.3% met threshold for social anxiety disorder, 20.8% for generalized anxiety disorder, 18.8% for posttraumatic stress disorder, 12.4% for bulimia, 11.9% for alcohol abuse/dependence, 13.4% for obsessive-compulsive disorder, 11.1% for panic disorder, 9.4% for agoraphobia, 7.3% for drug abuse/dependence, 3.7% for hypochondriasis, and 2.2% for somatoform disorder. Those with more concurrent Axis I conditions had earlier ages at first onset of MDD, longer histories of MDD, greater depressive symptom severity, more general medical comorbidity (even though they were younger than those with fewer comorbid conditions), poorer physical and mental function, health perceptions, and life satisfaction; and were more likely to be seen in primary care settings. Participants had to meet entry criteria for STAR*D. Ascertainment of comorbid conditions was not based on a structured interview. Concurrent Axis I conditions (most often anxiety disorders) are very common with MDD. Greater numbers of concurrent comorbid conditions were associated with increased severity, morbidity, and chronicity of their MDD.
Justin S Feinstein
Full Text Available Floatation-REST (Reduced Environmental Stimulation Therapy reduces sensory input to the nervous system through the act of floating supine in a pool of water saturated with Epsom salt. The float experience is calibrated so that sensory signals from visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, thermal, tactile, vestibular, gravitational and proprioceptive channels are minimized, as is most movement and speech. This open-label study aimed to examine whether Floatation-REST would attenuate symptoms of anxiety, stress, and depression in a clinical sample. Fifty participants were recruited across a spectrum of anxiety and stress-related disorders (posttraumatic stress, generalized anxiety, panic, agoraphobia, and social anxiety, most (n = 46 with comorbid unipolar depression. Measures of self-reported affect were collected immediately before and after a 1-hour float session, with the primary outcome measure being the pre- to post-float change score on the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory. Irrespective of diagnosis, Floatation-REST substantially reduced state anxiety (estimated Cohen's d > 2. Moreover, participants reported significant reductions in stress, muscle tension, pain, depression and negative affect, accompanied by a significant improvement in mood characterized by increases in serenity, relaxation, happiness and overall well-being (p < .0001 for all variables. In reference to a group of 30 non-anxious participants, the effects were found to be more robust in the anxious sample and approaching non-anxious levels during the post-float period. Further analysis revealed that the most severely anxious participants reported the largest effects. Overall, the procedure was well-tolerated, with no major safety concerns stemming from this single session. The findings from this initial study need to be replicated in larger controlled trials, but suggest that Floatation-REST may be a promising technique for transiently reducing the suffering in those with
Eun, John David; Paksarian, Diana; He, Jian-Ping; Merikangas, Kathleen Ries
We examined associations between parenting style and past-year mental disorders in a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of US adolescents and whether the associations differed by adolescent demographic characteristics. The sample included 6483 adolescents aged 13-18 years who were interviewed for a full range of DSM-IV mental disorders. Parenting style was assessed by adolescent-reported maternal and paternal care and control using items from the Parental Bonding Instrument. We controlled for socio-demographics, parental history of mental disorders, stressful life events, sexual violence, inter-parental conflict, and household composition. We also tested for two-way interactions between parental care and control and adolescent age, sex, and race/ethnicity. In adjusted models, high maternal care was associated with lower odds of depressive, eating, and behavioral disorders, and high maternal control was associated with greater odds of depressive, anxiety, eating, and behavioral disorders. High paternal care was associated with lower odds of social phobia and alcohol abuse/dependence. High paternal control was associated with greater odds of agoraphobia and alcohol abuse/dependence but with lower odds of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Associations of maternal and paternal control with anxiety disorders and substance abuse/dependence differed by sex. High paternal care was associated with lower odds of anxiety disorders only among Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks. Perceived parental care and control were associated with adolescent mental disorders after controlling for multiple potential confounders. Differential patterns of association were found according to adolescent sex and race/ethnicity. Findings have implications for prevention and intervention programs that incorporate familial contextual factors.
Stepped care for depression and anxiety: from primary care to specialized mental health care: a randomised controlled trial testing the effectiveness of a stepped care program among primary care patients with mood or anxiety disorders
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mood and anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and have a large impact on the lives of the affected individuals. Therefore, optimal treatment of these disorders is highly important. In this study we will examine the effectiveness of a stepped care program for primary care patients with mood and anxiety disorders. A stepped care program is characterized by different treatment steps that are arranged in order of increasing intensity. Methods This study is a randomised controlled trial with two conditions: stepped care and care as usual, whereby the latter forms the control group. The stepped care program consists of four evidence based interventions: (1 Watchful waiting, (2 Guided self-help, (3 Problem Solving Treatment and (4 Medication and/or specialized mental health care. The study population consists of primary care attendees aged 18–65 years. Screeners are sent to all patients of the participating general practitioners. Individuals with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders (DSM diagnosis of major depression, dysthymia, panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, or social phobia are included as well as individuals with minor depression and anxiety disorders. Primary focus is the reduction of depressive and anxiety symptoms. Both conditions are monitored at 8, 16 and 24 weeks. Discussion This study evaluates the effectiveness of a stepped care program for patients with depressive and anxiety disorder. If effective, a stepped care program can form a worthwhile alternative for care as usual. Strengths and limitations of this study are discussed. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trails: ISRCTN17831610.
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Background and Objectives: This survey was conducted in order to assess the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children of the war-wounded veterans, and to compare it with the general population of Shiraz.
Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional survey on a random sample of children and adolescents of 223 veteran's (25%-70% families between 12-20 years old. The control group consisted of students of 12-20 years of age. Diagnosis was made using semi-structured clinical interviews on the basis of DSM-IV, through K-SADS-PL.
Results: Out of 223 veteran's families interviewed, 123 families had at least one child with one psychiatric disorder. Those children, 52 boys (15 % and 71 girls (20%, suffered from at least one of the psychiatric disorders. The prevalence of depressive disorders such as dysthymia was 2.3%, major depressive disorder 8.4%, and minor depression 5.8%. The prevalence of anxiety disorders including generalized anxiety disorder was (10.1%, separation anxiety disorder (1.4% obsessive compulsive disorder (4%, panic disorder (3.2%, post traumatic stress disorder (3.2%, social phobia (4.3% specific phobia (2% and agoraphobia was (1.4%.
Conclusio: Although the prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders did not significantly differ from that of control group, but more studies, and more consultative, preventive and therapeutic actions seem to be necessary for children of veterans, due to a higher prevalence of some of anxiety disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder and some depression symptoms.
Jorm Anthony F
Full Text Available Abstract Background Panic attacks are common, and while they are not life-threatening events, they can lead to the development of panic disorder and agoraphobia. Appropriate help at the time that a panic attack occurs may decrease the fear associated with the attack and reduce the risk of developing an anxiety disorder. However, few people have the knowledge and skills required to assist. Simple first aid guidelines may help members of the public to offer help to people who experience panic attacks. Methods The Delphi method was used to reach consensus in a panel of experts. Experts included 50 professionals and 6 people who had experience of panic attacks and were active in mental health advocacy. Statements about how to assist someone who is having a panic attack were sourced through a systematic search of both professional and lay literature. These statements were rated for importance as first aid guidelines by the expert and consumer panels and guidelines were written using the items most consistently endorsed. Results Of 144 statements presented to the panels, 27 were accepted. These statements were used to develop the guidelines appended to this paper. Conclusion There are a number of actions which are considered to be useful for members of the public to do if they encounter someone who is having a panic attack. These guidelines will be useful in revision of curricula of mental health first aid programs. They can also be used by members of the public who want immediate information about how to assist someone who is experiencing panic attacks.
Alexandre Martins Valença
Full Text Available CONTEXT: This study makes a comparison between two subtypes of panic disorder regarding the clinical efficacy of clonazepam, a benzodiazepine. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of clonazepam in a fixed dosage (2 mg/day, compared to placebo, in the treatment of panic disorder patients and to verify whether there are any differences in the responses to clonazepam between panic disorder patients with the respiratory and non-respiratory subtypes. TYPE OF STUDY: Randomized study with clonazepam and placebo. SETTING: Outpatient Anxiety and Depression Unit of the Institute of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: 34 patients with a diagnosis of panic disorder with agoraphobia, between 18 and 55 years old. PROCEDURES: Administration of clonazepam or placebo for 6 weeks, in panic disorder patients, after they were classified within two subtypes of panic disorder: respiratory and non-respiratory. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Changes in the number of panic attacks in comparison with the period before the beginning of the study; Hamilton Anxiety Scale; Global Clinical Impression Scale; and Patient's Global Impression scale. RESULTS: In the group that received clonazepam, by the end of the 6th week there was a statistically significant clinical improvement, shown by the remission of panic attacks (p < 0.001 and decrease in anxiety (p = 0.024. In the group that received clonazepam there was no significant difference between the respiratory and non-respiratory subtypes of panic disorder, regarding the therapeutic response to clonazepam. CONCLUSION: Clonazepam was equally effective in the treatment of the respiratory and non-respiratory subtypes of panic disorder, suggesting there is no difference in the therapeutic response between the two subtypes.
Chi Ming Leung
Full Text Available Bipolar II (BP-II depression is often misdiagnosed as unipolar (UP depression, resulting in suboptimal treatment. Tools for differentiating between these two types of depression are lacking. This study aimed to develop a simple, self-report screening instrument to help distinguish BP-II depression from UP depressive disorder. A prototype BP-II depression questionnaire (BPIIDQ-P was constructed following a literature review, panel discussions and a field trial. Consecutively assessed patients with a diagnosis of depressive disorder or BP with depressive episodes completed the BPIIDQ-P at a psychiatric outpatient clinic in Hong Kong between October and December 2013. Data were analyzed using discriminant analysis and logistic regression. Of the 298 subjects recruited, 65 (21.8% were males and 233 (78.2% females. There were 112 (37.6% subjects with BP depression [BP-I = 42 (14.1%, BP-II = 70 (23.5%] and 182 (62.4% with UP depression. Based on family history, age at onset, postpartum depression, episodic course, attacks of anxiety, hypersomnia, social phobia and agoraphobia, the 8-item BPIIDQ-8 was constructed. The BPIIDQ-8 differentiated subjects with BP-II from those with UP depression with a sensitivity/specificity of 0.75/0.63 for the whole sample and 0.77/0.72 for a female subgroup with a history of childbirth. The BPIIDQ-8 can differentiate BP-II from UP depression at the secondary care level with satisfactory to good reliability and validity. It has good potential as a screening tool for BP-II depression in primary care settings. Recall bias, the relatively small sample size, and the high proportion of females in the BP-II sample limit the generalization of the results.
Full Text Available The objective of the present randomized, open-label, naturalistic 8-week study was to compare the efficacy and safety of treatment with clonazepam (N = 63 and paroxetine (N = 57 in patients with panic disorder with or without agoraphobia. Efficacy assessment included number of panic attacks and clinician ratings of the global severity of panic disorders with the clinical global impression (CGI improvement (CGI-I and CGI severity (CGI-S scales. Most patients were females (69.8 and 68.4% in the clonazepam and paroxetine groups, respectively and age (mean ± SD was 35.9 ± 9.6 years for the clonazepam group and 33.7 ± 8.8 years for the paroxetine group. Treatment with clonazepam versus paroxetine resulted in fewer weekly panic attacks at week 4 (0.1 vs 0.5, respectively; P < 0.01, and greater clinical improvements at week 8 (CGI-I: 1.6 vs 2.9; P = 0.04. Anxiety severity was significantly reduced with clonazepam versus paroxetine at weeks 1 and 2, with no difference in panic disorder severity. Patients treated with clonazepam had fewer adverse events than patients treated with paroxetine (73 vs 95%; P = 0.001. The most common adverse events were drowsiness/fatigue (57%, memory/concentration difficulties (24%, and sexual dysfunction (11% in the clonazepam group and drowsiness/fatigue (81%, sexual dysfunction (70%, and nausea/vomiting (61% in the paroxetine group. This naturalistic study confirms the efficacy and tolerability of clonazepam and paroxetine in the acute treatment of patients with panic disorder.
Soaham Dilip Desai
Full Text Available Background: Psychiatric disorders are common in patients attending neurology clinics with headache. Evaluation of psychiatric comorbidity in patients with headache is often missed in the busy neurology clinics. Aims: To assess the prevalence of Axis-I DSM-IV psychiatric disorders in patients with primary headache disorders in a rural-based tertiary neurology clinic in Western India. Settings and Design : A cross-sectional observation survey was conducting assessing all patients with migraine, tension-type headache and chronic daily headache attending the Neurology Clinic of Shree Krishna Hospital, a rural medical teaching hospital in Karamsad, in Gujarat in Western India. Materials and Methods: A total of 101 consecutive consenting adults with headache were interviewed using Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I., a structured diagnostic clinical interview to assess prevalence of Axis-I DSM-IV psychiatric disorders. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics were calculated using SPSS software version 16 and a binomial regression model was used to study the relationship of psychiatric co-morbidity with patient-related factors. Results: 49 out of 101 (48.5% patients with headache suffered from depressive disorders (dysthymia or depression or suicidality, 18 out of 101 patients with headache (17.90% suffered from anxiety related disorders (generalized anxiety disorder or agoraphobia or social phobia or panic disorder. Conclusions: Axis-I psychiatric disorders are a significant comorbidity among patients with headache disorders. M.I.N.I. can be used as a short, less time consuming instrument to assess all patients with headache disorders.
Beesdo, Katja; Pine, Daniel S; Lieb, Roselind; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich
Controversy surrounds the diagnostic categorization of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). To examine the incidence, comorbidity, and risk patterns for anxiety and depressive disorders and to test whether developmental features of GAD more strongly support a view of this condition as a depressive as opposed to an anxiety disorder. Face-to-face, 10-year prospective longitudinal and family study with as many as 4 assessment waves. The DSM-IV Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview was administered by clinically trained interviewers. Munich, Germany. A community sample of 3021 individuals aged 14 to 24 years at baseline and 21 to 34 years at last follow-up. Cumulative incidence of GAD, other anxiety disorders (specific phobias, social phobia, agoraphobia, and panic disorder), and depressive disorders (major depressive disorder, and dysthymia). Longitudinal associations between GAD and depressive disorders are not stronger than those between GAD and anxiety disorders or between other anxiety and depressive disorders. Survival analyses reveal that the factors associated with GAD overlap more strongly with those specific to anxiety disorders than those specific to depressive disorders. In addition, GAD differs from anxiety and depressive disorders with regard to family climate and personality profiles. Anxiety and depressive disorders appear to differ with regard to risk constellations and temporal longitudinal patterns, and GAD is a heterogeneous disorder that is, overall, more closely related to other anxiety disorders than to depressive disorders. More work is needed to elucidate the potentially unique aspects of pathways and mechanisms involved in the etiopathogenesis of GAD. Grouping GAD with depressive disorders, as suggested by cross-sectional features and diagnostic comorbidity patterns, minimizes the importance of longitudinal data on risk factors and symptom trajectories.
McTeague, Lisa M.; Lang, Peter J.
Guided by the diagnostic nosology, anxiety patients are expected to show defensive hyperarousal during affective challenge, irrespective of the principal phenotype. In the current study, patients representing the whole spectrum of anxiety disorders (i.e., specific phobia, social phobia, panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), posttraumatic stress disorder(PTSD)), and healthy community control participants, completed an imagery-based fear elicitation paradigm paralleling conventional intervention techniques. Participants imagined threatening and neutral narratives as physiological responses were recorded. Clear evidence emerged for exaggerated reactivity to clinically relevant imagery—most pronounced in startle reflex responding. However, defensive propensity varied across principal anxiety disorders. Disorders characterized by focal fear and impairment (e.g., specific phobia) showed robust fear potentiation. Conversely, for disorders of long-enduring, pervasive apprehension and avoidance with broad anxiety and depression comorbidity (e.g., PTSD secondary to cumulative trauma, GAD), startle responses were paradoxically diminished to all aversive contents. Patients whose expressed symptom profiles were intermediate between focal fearfulness and broad anxious-misery in both severity and chronicity exhibited a still heightened but more generalized physiological propensity to respond defensively. Importantly, this defensive physiological gradient—the inverse of self-reported distress—was evident not only between but also within disorders. These results highlight that fear circuitry could be dysregulated in chronic, pervasive anxiety, and preliminary functional neuroimaging findings suggest that deficient amygdala recruitment could underlie attenuated reflex responding. In summary, adaptive defensive engagement during imagery may be compromised by long-term dysphoria and stress—a phenomenon
Operating characteristics of depression and anxiety disorder phenotype dimensions and trait neuroticism: a theoretical examination of the fear and distress disorders from the Netherlands study of depression and anxiety.
Tully, Phillip J; Wardenaar, Klaas J; Penninx, Brenda W J H
The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) of anhedonic depression and anxious arousal to detect the distress- (major depression, dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder) and fear-disorder clusters (i.e. panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia) have not been reported in a large sample. A sample of 2981 persons underwent structured psychiatric interview; n=652 were without lifetime depression and anxiety disorder history. Participants also completed a neuroticism scale (Revised NEO Five Factor Inventory [NEO-FFI]), and the 30-item short adaptation of the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ-D30) measuring anhedonic depression, anxious arousal and general distress. Maximal sensitivity and specificity was determined by the Youden Index and the area-under-the-curve (AUC) in ROC analysis. A total of 2624 completed all measures (age M=42.4 years±13.1, 1760 females [67.1%]), including 1060 (40.4%) persons who met criteria for a distress-disorder, and 973 (37.1%) who met criteria for a fear-disorder. The general distress dimension provided the highest ROC values in the detection of the distress-disorders (AUC=.814, sensitivity=71.95%, specificity=76.34%, positive predictive value=67.33, negative predictive value=80.07). None of the measures provided suitable operating characteristics in the detection of the fear-disorders with specificity values depression and anxiety disorders may lead to inflated positive- and negative predictive values. The MASQ-D30 general distress dimension showed clinically suitable operating characteristics in the detection of distress-disorders. Neither neuroticism nor the MASQ-D30 dimensions provided suitable operating characteristics in the detection of the fear-disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R; Micco, Jamie A; Henin, Aude; Petty, Carter; Faraone, Stephen V; Mazursky, Heather; Bruett, Lindsey; Rosenbaum, Jerrold F; Biederman, Joseph
The authors examined the specificity and course of psychiatric disorders from early childhood through adolescence in offspring of parents with confirmed panic disorder and major depressive disorder. The authors examined rates of psychiatric disorders at 10-year-follow-up (mean age, 14 years) in four groups: offspring of referred parents with panic and depression (N=137), offspring of referred parents with panic without depression (N=26), offspring of referred parents with depression without panic (N=48), and offspring of nonreferred parents with neither disorder (N=80). Follow-up assessments relied on structured interviews with the adolescents and their mothers; diagnoses were rated present if endorsed by either. Parental panic disorder, independently of parental depression, predicted lifetime rates in offspring of multiple anxiety disorders, panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Parental depression independently predicted offspring bipolar, drug use, and disruptive behavior disorders. Parental panic and depression interacted to predict specific phobia and major depressive disorder. Phobias were elevated in all at-risk groups, and depression was elevated in both offspring groups of parents with depression (with or without panic disorder), with the highest rates in the offspring of parents with depression only. Parental depression independently predicted new onset of depression, parental panic disorder independently predicted new onset of social phobia, and the two interacted to predict new onset of specific phobia and generalized anxiety disorder. At-risk offspring continue to develop new disorders as they progress through adolescence. These results support the need to screen and monitor the offspring of adults presenting for treatment of panic disorder or major depressive disorder.
Lueken, Ulrike; Straube, Benjamin; Yang, Yunbo; Hahn, Tim; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Konrad, Carsten; Ströhle, Andreas; Wittmann, André; Gerlach, Alexander L; Pfleiderer, Bettina; Arolt, Volker; Kircher, Tilo
Depression is frequent in panic disorder (PD); yet, little is known about its influence on the neural substrates of PD. Difficulties in fear inhibition during safety signal processing have been reported as a pathophysiological feature of PD that is attenuated by depression. We investigated the impact of comorbid depression in PD with agoraphobia (AG) on the neural correlates of fear conditioning and the potential of machine learning to predict comorbidity status on the individual patient level based on neural characteristics. Fifty-nine PD/AG patients including 26 (44%) with a comorbid depressive disorder (PD/AG+DEP) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Comorbidity status was predicted using a random undersampling tree ensemble in a leave-one-out cross-validation framework. PD/AG-DEP patients showed altered neural activation during safety signal processing, while +DEP patients exhibited generally decreased dorsolateral prefrontal and insular activation. Comorbidity status was correctly predicted in 79% of patients (sensitivity: 73%; specificity: 85%) based on brain activation during fear conditioning (corrected for potential confounders: accuracy: 73%; sensitivity: 77%; specificity: 70%). No primary depressed patients were available; only medication-free patients were included. Major depression and dysthymia were collapsed (power considerations). Neurofunctional activation during safety signal processing differed between patients with or without comorbid depression, a finding which may explain heterogeneous results across previous studies. These findings demonstrate the relevance of comorbidity when investigating neurofunctional substrates of anxiety disorders. Predicting individual comorbidity status may translate neurofunctional data into clinically relevant information which might aid in planning individualized treatment. The study was registered with the ISRCTN80046034. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
González-Robles, Alberto; García-Palacios, Azucena; Baños, Rosa; Riera, Antonio; Llorca, Ginés; Traver, Francisco; Haro, Gonzalo; Palop, Vicente; Lera, Guillem; Romeu, José Enrique; Botella, Cristina
Emotional disorders (depression and anxiety disorders) are highly prevalent mental health problems. Although evidence showing the effectiveness of disorder-specific treatments exists, high comorbidity rates among emotional disorders limit the utility of these protocols. This has led some researchers to focus their interest on transdiagnostic interventions, a treatment perspective that might be more widely effective across these disorders. Also, the current way of delivering treatments makes it difficult provide assistance to all of the population in need. The use of the Internet in the delivery of evidence-based treatments may help to disseminate treatments among the population. In this study, we aim to test the effectiveness of EmotionRegulation, a new transdiagnostic Internet-based protocol for unipolar mood disorders, five anxiety disorders (panic disorder, agoraphobia, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and anxiety disorder not otherwise specified), and obsessive-compulsive disorder in comparison to treatment as usual as provided in Spanish public specialized mental health care. We will also study its potential impact on basic temperament dimensions (neuroticism/behavioral inhibition and extraversion/behavioral activation). Expectations and opinions of patients about this protocol will also be studied. The study is a randomized controlled trial. 200 participants recruited in specialized care will be allocated to one of two treatment conditions: a) EmotionRegulation or b) treatment as usual. Primary outcome measures will be the BAI and the BDI-II. Secondary outcomes will include a specific measure of the principal disorder, and measures of neuroticism/behavioral inhibition and extraversion/behavioral activation. Patients will be assessed at baseline, post-treatment, and 3- and 12-month follow-ups. Intention to treat and per protocol analyses will be performed. Although the effectiveness of face-to-face transdiagnostic protocols has been
Fernandez, Cristina A; Vicente, Benjamin; Marshall, Brandon Dl; Koenen, Karestan C; Arheart, Kristopher L; Kohn, Robert; Saldivia, Sandra; Buka, Stephen L
With an increasing number of individuals surviving natural disasters, it is crucial to understand who is most at risk for developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The objective of this study was to prospectively examine the role that pre-existing psychopathology plays in developing PTSD after a disaster. This study uses data from a prospective 5-wave longitudinal cohort (years 2003-11) of Chilean adults from 10 health centres ( N = 1708). At baseline, participants completed the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), a comprehensive psychiatric diagnostic instrument. In 2010, the sixth most powerful earthquake on record struck Chile. One year later, a modified version of the PTSD module of the CIDI was administered. Marginal structural logistic regressions with inverse probability censoring weights were constructed to identify pre-disaster psychiatric predictors of post-disaster PTSD. The majority of participants were female (75.9%) and had a high-school/college education (66.9%). After controlling for pre-disaster PTSD, pre-existing dysthymia [odds ratio (OR) = 2.21; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.39-3.52], brief psychotic disorder (OR = 2.67; 95% CI = 1.21-5.90), anxiety disorders (not including PTSD; OR = 1.49; 95% CI = 1.27-1.76), panic disorder (OR = 2.46; 95% CI = 1.37-4.42), agoraphobia (OR = 2.23; 95% CI = 1.22-4.10), social phobia (OR = 1.86; 95% CI = 1.06-3.29), specific phobia (OR = 2.07; 95% CI = 1.50-2.86) and hypochondriasis (OR = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.05-4.18) were predictors of post-disaster PTSD. After controlling for pre-disaster anxiety disorders, dysthymia, and non-affective psychotic disorders, individuals with pre-disaster PTSD (vs those without pre-disaster PTSD) had higher odds of developing post-disaster PTSD (OR = 2.53; 95% CI = 1.37-4.65). This is the first Chilean study to demonstrate prospectively that pre-disaster psychiatric disorders
Kok, Robin N; van Straten, Annemieke; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Cuijpers, Pim
Internet-based guided self-help has been successfully used in the general population, but it is unknown whether this method can be effectively used in outpatient clinics for patients waiting for face-to-face psychotherapy for phobias. The aim was to assess the clinical effectiveness of Phobias Under Control, an Internet-based intervention based on exposure therapy with weekly guidance. We conducted a randomized controlled trial, recruiting 212 outpatients scheduled to receive face-to-face psychotherapy for any type of phobia at an outpatient clinic. Participants suffering from at least 1 DSM-IV or ICD-10 classified phobia (social phobia, agoraphobia with or without panic disorder, and/or specific phobia as ascertained by a telephone interview at baseline) were randomly allocated to either a 5-week Internet-based guided self-help program based on exposure therapy with weekly student support followed by face-to-face psychotherapy (n=105) or a wait-list control group followed by face-to-face psychotherapy (n=107). Primary outcome was the Fear Questionnaire (FQ). Secondary outcomes were the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Center of Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D). Assessments took place by telephone at baseline (T0) and on the Internet at posttest (T1, self-assessment at 5 weeks after baseline). Missing data at T1 were imputed. At posttest, analysis of covariance on the intention-to-treat sample showed significant but small effect sizes between intervention and control groups on the FQ (d=0.35, P=.02), CES-D (d=0.34, P=.03), and a nonsignificant effect size on the BAI (d=0.28. P=.05). Although initial acceptance was good, high nonresponse was observed, with 86 of 212 participants (40.5%) lost to follow-up at T1 and only 14 of 105 (13.3%) intervention participants finishing all 5 weeks. Phobias Under Control is modestly effective in lowering phobic and depressive symptoms in a relatively short period and may be clinically beneficial when implemented in
Full Text Available Introduction. A cognitive model of aetiology of panic disorder assumes that people who experience frequent panic attacks have tendencies to catastrophically interpret normal and benign somatic sensations - as signs of serious illness. This arise the question: is this cognition specific for patients with panic disorder and in what intensity it is present in patients with serious somatic illness and in healthy subjects. Objective. The aim of the study was to ascertain the differences in the frequency and intensity of 'catastrophic' cognitions related to body sensations, and to ascertain the differences in the frequency and intensity of anxiety caused by different body sensations all related to three groups of subjects: a sample of patients with panic disorder, a sample of patients with history of myocardial infarction and a sample of healthy control subjects from general population. Methods. Three samples are observed in the study: A 53 patients with the diagnosis of panic disorder; B 25 patients with history of myocardial infarction; and C 47 healthy controls from general population. The catastrophic cognitions were assessed by the Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire (ACQ and the Body Sensations Questionnaire (BSQ. These questionnaires assess the catastrophic thoughts associated with panic and agoraphobia (ACQ and the fear of body sensations (BSQ. All study subjects answered questionnaires items, and the scores of the answers were compared among the groups. Results. The results of the study suggest that: 1 There is no statistical difference in the tendency to catastrophically interpret body sensations and therefore to induce anxiety in the samples of healthy general population and patients with history of myocardial infarction; 2 The patients with panic disorder have a statistically significantly more intensive tendency to catastrophically interpret benign somatic symptoms and therefore to induce a high level of anxiety in comparison to the
Servant, D; Germe, A; Autuori, M; De Almeida, F; Hay, M; Douilliez, C; Vaiva, G
The literature data show that relaxation practice is effective in reducing anxiety symptoms. Different techniques such as progressive muscular relaxation, autogenic training, applied relaxation and meditation have been evaluated independently for anxiety disorders. The question is to know whether the combination of various techniques may be of interest in the transdiagnostic treatment of anxiety disorders. The present study assessed the short-term efficacy of a 10-week integrative and transdiagnostic relaxation program for anxiety disorders in outpatients of an anxiety disorders unit. The diagnoses were made according to the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI; Sheehan et al., 1998) and completed with an assessment of anxiety and depressive symptoms using: the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Y, -S and -T), the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II). Four techniques were integrated into the structured 10-week protocol: breathing control, muscular relaxation, meditation and mental visualization. Twenty-eight patients (12 men and 16 women), mean age (S.D.)=38.82 years (11.57), were included in the study. All the included patients fulfilled the DSM-IV criteria for a current diagnosis of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (n=13) or Panic Disorder (n=15) with or without agoraphobia. At the end of the 10 sessions, we found a significant reduction in mean scores (S.D.) on the STAI-T from 53.179 (6.037) to 49.821 (8.028) (P<0.02), the BDI-II 20.964 (13.167) to 15.429 (11.341) (d=0.6543) and the QIPS 55.071 (10.677) to 49.679 (11.7) (d=0.5938). The observed reduction in the STAI-S (d=0.2776) was not significant. The results of this open study showed that this program significantly decreases the level of trait anxiety, depression and worry. The integrative and transdiagnostic relaxation program could represent an accessible and effective treatment to reduce anxious and depressive symptoms in various anxiety disorders
Full Text Available Abstract Background Access to psychotherapy is limited by psychopathology (e.g. agoraphobia, physical disability, occupational or social constraints and/or residency in under-served areas. For these populations, interventions delivered via remote communication technologies (e.g. telephone, internet may be more appropriate. However, there are concerns that such delivery may influence the therapeutic relationship and thus reduce therapy effectiveness. This review aimed to determine the clinical effectiveness of remotely communicated, therapist-delivered psychotherapy. Methods Systematic review (including electronic database searching and correspondence with authors of randomised trials of individual remote psychotherapy. Electronic databases searched included MEDLINE (1966–2006, PsycInfo (1967–2006, EMBASE (1980–2006 and CINAHL databases (1982–2006. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL and the Cochrane Collaboration Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Controlled Trials Register (CCDAN-CTR. All searches were conducted to include studies with a publication date to July 2006. Results Thirteen studies were identified, ten assessing psychotherapy by telephone, two by internet and one by videoconference. Pooled effect sizes for remote therapy versus control conditions were 0.44 for depression (95%CI 0.29 to 0.59, 7 comparisons, n = 726 and 1.15 for anxiety-related disorders (95%CI 0.81 to 1.49, 3 comparisons, n = 168. There were few comparisons of remote versus face-to-face psychotherapy. Conclusion Remote therapy has the potential to overcome some of the barriers to conventional psychological therapy services. Telephone-based interventions are a particularly popular research focus and as a means of therapeutic communication may confer specific advantages in terms of their widespread availability and ease of operation. However, the available evidence is limited in quantity and quality. More rigorous trials are required to
Emeny, Rebecca T; Baumert, Jens; Zannas, Anthony S; Kunze, Sonja; Wahl, Simone; Iurato, Stella; Arloth, Janine; Erhardt, Angelika; Balsevich, Georgia; Schmidt, Mathias V; Weber, Peter; Kretschmer, Anja; Pfeiffer, Liliane; Kruse, Johannes; Strauch, Konstantin; Roden, Michael; Herder, Christian; Koenig, Wolfgang; Gieger, Christian; Waldenberger, Melanie; Peters, Annette; Binder, Elisabeth B; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz
Epigenetic regulation in anxiety is suggested, but evidence from large studies is needed. We conducted an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) on anxiety in a population-based cohort and validated our finding in a clinical cohort as well as a murine model. In the KORA cohort, participants (n=1522, age 32-72 years) were administered the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) instrument, whole blood DNA methylation was measured (Illumina 450K BeadChip), and circulating levels of hs-CRP and IL-18 were assessed in the association between anxiety and methylation. DNA methylation was measured using the same instrument in a study of patients with anxiety disorders recruited at the Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry (MPIP, 131 non-medicated cases and 169 controls). To expand our mechanistic understanding, these findings were reverse translated in a mouse model of acute social defeat stress. In the KORA study, participants were classified according to mild, moderate, or severe levels of anxiety (29.4%/6.0%/1.5%, respectively). Severe anxiety was associated with 48.5% increased methylation at a single CpG site (cg12701571) located in the promoter of the gene encoding Asb1 (β-coefficient=0.56 standard error (SE)=0.10, p (Bonferroni)=0.005), a protein hypothetically involved in regulation of cytokine signaling. An interaction between IL-18 and severe anxiety with methylation of this CpG cite showed a tendency towards significance in the total population (p=0.083) and a significant interaction among women (p=0.014). Methylation of the same CpG was positively associated with Panic and Agoraphobia scale (PAS) scores (β=0.005, SE=0.002, p=0.021, n=131) among cases in the MPIP study. In a murine model of acute social defeat stress, Asb1 gene expression was significantly upregulated in a tissue-specific manner (p=0.006), which correlated with upregulation of the neuroimmunomodulating cytokine interleukin 1 beta. Our findings suggest epigenetic regulation of the stress
Full Text Available Cochlear implantation (CI is increasingly being used in the auditory rehabilitation of deaf patients. Here, we investigated whether the auditory rehabilitation can be influenced by the psychological burden caused by mental conditions. Our sample included 47 patients who underwent implantation. All patients were monitored before and 6 months after CI. Auditory performance was assessed using the Oldenburg Inventory (OI and Freiburg monosyllable (FB MS speech discrimination test. The health-related quality of life was measured with Nijmegen Cochlear implantation Questionnaire (NCIQ whereas tinnitus-related distress was measured with the German version of Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ. We additionally assessed the general perceived quality of life, the perceived stress, coping abilities, anxiety levels and the depressive symptoms. Finally, a structured interview to detect mental conditions (CIDI was performed before and after surgery. We found that CI led to an overall improvement in auditory performance as well as the anxiety and depression, quality of life, tinnitus distress and coping strategies. CIDI revealed that 81% of patients in our sample had affective, anxiety, and/or somatoform disorders before or after CI. The affective disorders included dysthymia and depression, while anxiety disorders included agoraphobias and unspecified phobias. We also diagnosed cases of somatoform pain disorders and unrecognizable figure somatoform disorders. We found a positive correlation between the auditory performance and the decrease of anxiety and depression, tinnitus-related distress and perceived stress. There was no association between the presence of a mental condition itself and the outcome of auditory rehabilitation. We conclude that the CI candidates exhibit high rates of psychological disorders, and there is a particularly strong association between somatoform disorders and tinnitus. The presence of mental disorders remained unaffected by CI but the
Full Text Available Montserrat Gerez,1–3 Enrique Suárez,2,3 Carlos Serrano,2,3 Lauro Castanedo,2 Armando Tello1,3 1Departamento de Neurofisiología Clínica, Hospital Español de México, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Departamento de Psiquiatría, Hospital Español de México, Mexico City, Mexico; 3Unidad de Postgrado, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico Background: Despite the devastating impact of anxiety disorders (ADs worldwide, long-lasting debates on causes and remedies have not solved the clinician’s puzzle: who should be treated and how? Psychiatric classifications conceptualize ADs as distinct entities, with strong support from neuroscience fields. Yet, comorbidity and pharmacological response suggest a single “serotonin dysfunction” dimension. Whether AD is one or several disorders goes beyond academic quarrels, and the distinction has therapeutic relevance. Addressing the underlying dysfunctions should improve treatment response. By its own nature, neurophysiology can be the best tool to address dysfunctional processes.Purpose: To search for neurophysiological dysfunctions and differences among panic disorder (PD, agoraphobia-social-specific phobia, obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD and generalized anxiety disorder.Methods: A sample population of 192 unmedicated patients and 30 aged-matched controls partook in this study. Hypothesis-related neurophysiological variables were combined into ten independent factors: 1 dysrhythmic patterns, 2 delta, 3 theta, 4 alpha, 5 beta (whole-head absolute power z-scores, 6 event-related potential (ERP combined latency, 7 ERP combined amplitude (z-scores, 8 magnitude, 9 site, and 10 site of hyperactive networks. Combining single variables into representative factors was necessary because, as in all real-life phenomena, the complexity of interactive processes cannot be addressed through single variables and the multiplicity of potentially implicated variables would demand an extremely large
Bryant, Richard A; Creamer, Mark; O'Donnell, Meaghan; Silove, Derrick; McFarlane, Alexander C; Forbes, David
This study addresses the extent to which DSM-IV and DSM-5 definitions of acute stress disorder (ASD) predict subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related psychiatric disorders following trauma. Patients with randomized admissions to 5 hospitals across Australia (N = 596) were assessed in hospital and reassessed for PTSD at 3 (n = 508), 12 (n = 426), 24 (n = 439), and 72 (n = 314) months using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale; DSM-IV definition of PTSD was used at each assessment, and DSM-5 definition was used at 72 months. The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was used at each assessment to assess anxiety, mood, and substance use disorders. Forty-five patients (8%) met DSM-IV criteria, and 80 patients (14%) met DSM-5 criteria for ASD. PTSD was diagnosed in 93 patients (9%) at 3, 82 patients (10%) at 12, 100 patients (12%) at 24, and 26 patients (8%) at 72 months; 19 patients (6%) met DSM-5 criteria for PTSD at 72 months. Comparable proportions of those diagnosed with ASD developed PTSD using DSM-IV (3 months = 46%, 12 months = 39%, 24 months = 32%, and 72 months = 25%) and DSM-5 (43%, 42%, 33%, and 24%) ASD definitions. Sensitivity was improved for DSM-5 relative to DSM-IV for depression (0.18 vs 0.30), panic disorder (0.19 vs 0.41), agoraphobia (0.14 vs 0.40), social phobia (0.12 vs 0.44), specific phobia (0.24 vs 0.58), obsessive-compulsive disorder (0.17 vs 0.47), and generalized anxiety disorder (0.20 vs 0.47). More than half of participants with DSM-5-defined ASD had a subsequent disorder. The DSM-5 criteria for ASD results in better identification of people who will subsequently develop PTSD or another psychiatric disorder relative to the DSM-IV criteria. Although prediction is modest, it suggests that the new ASD diagnosis can serve a useful function in acute trauma settings for triaging those who can benefit from either early intervention or subsequent monitoring. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency of anxiety and depression disorders in patients with chronic pain. METHOD: Patients receiving care at the pain clinic of the Federal University of Bahia between February 2003 and November 2006. The MINI PLUS - Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview was used to evaluate the patients and establish psychiatric diagnoses. RESULTS: 400 patients were evaluated mean age was 45.6±11.37 years; 82.8% were female, 17.3% male; 48.5% were married; 55.1% were Catholics; and 40.5% had only high school education. Of these 29.9% reported intense pain and 70.8% reported suffering pain daily. The most frequent medical diagnosis was herniated disc (24.5%, and 48.5% of patients had been undergoing treatment at the pain clinic for less than 3 months. Comorbidities found were depressive episodes (42%, dysthymia (54%, social phobia (36.5%, agoraphobia (8.5% and panic disorder (7.3%. CONCLUSION: Psychiatric comorbidities are prevalent in patients suffering chronic pain.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a freqüência de transtornos ansiosos e depressivos em pacientes com dor crônica. MÉTODO: Os pacientes foram avaliados na clínica da dor da Universidade Federal da Bahia entre fevereiro 2003 e novembro 2006. O Mini-plus - entrevista neuropsiquiátrica internacional foi usado para estabelecer diagnósticos psiquiátricos nos pacientes. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 400 pacientes com idade média de 45,6±11,37 anos; 82,8% eram mulheres, homens 17,3%; 48,5% eram casados; 55,1% católicos; e 40,5% concluíram o segundo grau, 29,9% relataram dor intensa e 70,8% relataram sentir dor diariamente. O diagnóstico médico o mais freqüente foi hérnia de disco (24,5%, e 48,5% dos pacientes submeteu-se ao tratamento na clínica da dor por menos de 3 meses. Comorbidades encontradas foram episódios depressivos (42%, distimia (54%, fobia social (36,5%, agorafobia (8,5% e transtorno de pânico (7,3%. CONCLUSÃO: Comorbidades psiquiátricas s
Perugi, Giulio; Toni, Cristina; Travierso, Maria Chiara; Akiskal, Hagop S
Recent data, including our own, indicate significant overlap between atypical depression and bipolar II. Furthermore, the affective fluctuations of patients with these disorders are difficult to separate, on clinical grounds, from cyclothymic temperamental and borderline personality disorders. The present analyses are part of an ongoing Pisa-San Diego investigation to examine whether interpersonal sensitivity, mood reactivity and cyclothymic mood swings constitute a common diathesis underlying the atypical depression-bipolar II-borderline personality constructs. We examined in a semi-structured format 107 consecutive patients who met criteria for major depressive episode with DSM-IV atypical features. Patients were further evaluated on the basis of the Atypical Depression Diagnostic Scale (ADDS), the Hopkins Symptoms Check-list (HSCL-90), and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD), coupled with its modified form for reverse vegetative features as well as Axis I and SCID-II evaluated Axis II comorbidity, and cyclothymic dispositions ('APA Review', American Psychiatric Press, Washington DC, 1992). Seventy-eight percent of atypical depressives met criteria for bipolar spectrum-principally bipolar II-disorder. Forty-five patients who met the criteria for cyclothymic temperament, compared with the 62 who did not, were indistinguishable on demographic, familial and clinical features, but were significantly higher in lifetime comorbidity for panic disorder with agoraphobia, alcohol abuse, bulimia nervosa, as well as borderline and dependent personality disorders. Cyclothymic atypical depressives also scored higher on the ADDS items of maximum reactivity of mood, interpersonal sensitivity, functional impairment, avoidance of relationships, other rejection avoidance, and on the interpersonal sensitivity, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation and psychoticism of the HSCL-90 factors. The total number of cyclothymic traits was significantly correlated with 'maximum
Bryan, J W; Freed, F W
150 (80 females and 70 males) community college students were surveyed regarding their attitudes toward abortion, their sexual behavior, and their problems. The profile of the students was Caucasian (95%), young (18-24 years = 87%), single (87%), middle and lower middle class, and Catholic (70%). 82% supported abortion choice, 86% had engaged in premarital sex, 70% used contraception, and 26% had premarital pregnancies. The hard reasons for abortion (rape, the woman's life, is endangered, and the fetus is defective) received high support. The soft reasons (the family cannot afford more children or the woman does not want to marry the man) received lower support. The students were divided into 3 groups of 50 students based on the number of abortion reasons they supported out of 43 reasons. The low-group that accepted 0-10 reasons was called anti-abortion. 50% of them still believed a woman has a right to an abortion vs. 97% of the pro-abortion students. The students reported many problems in their families: alcoholic home (39%), loss of a parent through death, divorce, or separation (33%), victims of severe corporal punishment (31%), one or more family members physically abused (20%), and deprived of parental affection while growing up (20%). When the anti-abortion females (N=30) were compared with the pro-abortion females (N=50), they reported significantly (p.01) more hospitalization, a greater number of physical handicaps, and more shyness (p.1). When the anti-abortion males (N=20) were compared with the pro-abortion males (N=50), they reported significantly more obesity and agoraphobia (p.05) and more convictions for a crime (p.1). Comparison of women who had abortion (N=13) with the women who had their baby (N=8) indicated that the latter reported significantly (p.01) more battering by their boyfriend or husband, significantly (p.05) more battering in their family of origin and childhood sexual abuse, and a greater tendency (p.1) to have been raped.
Full Text Available Papan Thaipisuttikul, Pichai Ittasakul, Punjaporn Waleeprakhon, Pattarabhorn Wisajun, Sudawan Jullagate Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand Background: Psychiatric comorbidities are common in major depressive disorder (MDD. They may worsen outcome and cause economic burden. The primary objective was to examine the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities in MDD. The secondary objectives were to compare the presence of comorbidities between currently active and past MDD, and between patients with and without suicidal risk.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. A total of 250 patients with lifetime MDD and age ≥18 years were enrolled. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI, Thai version, was used to confirm MDD diagnosis and classify comorbidities. MDD diagnosis was confirmed in 190, and 60 patients were excluded due to diagnosis of bipolar disorder.Results: Of the 190 MDD patients, 25.8% had current MDD and 74.2% had past MDD. Eighty percent were women. The mean age at enrollment was 50 years, and at MDD onset was 41 years. Most patients were married (53.2%, employed (54.8%, and had ≥12 years of education (66.9%. There were 67 patients (35.3% with one or more psychiatric comorbidities. Comorbidities included dysthymia (19.5%, any anxiety disorders (21.1% (panic disorder [6.8%], agoraphobia [5.8%], social phobia [3.7%], obsessive–compulsive disorder [OCD] [4.7%], generalized anxiety disorder [5.3%], and post-traumatic stress disorder [4.2%], alcohol dependence (0.5%, psychotic disorder (1.6%, antisocial personality (1.1%, and eating disorders (0%. Compared with past MDD, the current MDD group had significantly higher OCD (P<0.001, psychotic disorder (P=0.048, past panic disorder (P=0.017, and suicidal risk (P<0.001. Suicidal risk was found in 32.1% of patients. Patients with suicidal risk had more comorbid anxiety disorder of any type (P=0.019 and
José Maria Montiel
Full Text Available RESUMO: O transtorno do pânico (TP é caracterizado por ataques de pânico, os quais surgem acompanhados por uma série de pensamentos inadequados ao contexto. Objetivo: identificar e sistematizar a distorção cognitiva e os tipos de pensamentos negativos automáticos (PNA presentes em pacientes com TP. Participantes: 20 indivíduos na faixa etária de 32 anos e com diagnóstico de TP. Instrumentos: Anamnese e entrevista semi-estruturada, Inventário Beck de Ansiedade e Escala para Pânico e Agorafobia. Resultados: os dados apontaram níveis de ansiedade significativos, corroborando o diagnóstico de transtorno do pânico nos sujeitos. Já os PNA - como «Estou com dor de cabeça. Será que é uma crise?» - e os padrões de distorções cognitivas identificados, incluindo suposição, catastrofização, generalização e subestimação/ superestimação, estão em acordo com a literatura apresentada e são condizentes com a prática clínica. ABSTARCT: Panic disorder (PD is characterized by attacks of panic, which are accompanied by a series of thoughts, inappropriate to the context. Objective: to identify and systematize the cognitive distortion and the types of automatic negative thoughts (ANT present in patients with (PD. Participants: 20 individuals in the age of 32 years and with a diagnosis of PD. Instruments: Anamnesis and semi-structured interview, Beck anxiety inventory and scale of panic and agoraphobia. Results: data showed significant levels of anxiety, corroborating the diagnosis of disorders of panic in the subjects. Already the ANT - as «I have a headache. Is it a crisis?» - and the standards identified cognitive distortions, including assumptions, pessimism, generalization and under-estimation / over-estimation, they are subject to the presented literature and they are suitable for clinical practice.
Prasko, Jan; Grambal, Ales; Kasalova, Petra; Kamardova, Dana; Ociskova, Marie; Holubova, Michaela; Vrbova, Kristyna; Sigmundova, Zuzana; Latalova, Klara; Slepecky, Milos; Zatkova, Marta
The central goal of the study was to analyze the impact of dissociation on the treatment effectiveness in patients with anxiety/neurotic spectrum and depressive disorders with or without comorbid personality disorders. The research sample consisted of inpatients who were hospitalized in the psychiatric department and met the ICD-10 criteria for diagnosis of depressive disorder, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, mixed anxiety-depressive disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, adjustment disorders, dissociative/conversion disorders, somatoform disorder, or other anxiety/neurotic spectrum disorder. The participants completed these measures at the start and end of the therapeutic program - Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, a subjective version of Clinical Global Impression-Severity, Sheehan Patient-Related Anxiety Scale, and Dissociative Experience Scale. A total of 840 patients with anxiety or depressive spectrum disorders, who were resistant to pharmacological treatment on an outpatient basis and were referred for hospitalization for the 6-week complex therapeutic program, were enrolled in this study. Of them, 606 were statistically analyzed. Data from the remaining 234 (27.86%) patients were not used because of various reasons (103 prematurely finished the program, 131 did not fill in most of the questionnaires). The patients' mean ratings on all measurements were significantly reduced during the treatment. Also, 67.5% reached at least minimal improvement (42.4% showed moderate and more improvement, 35.3% of the patients reached remission). The patients without comorbid personality disorder improved more significantly in the reduction of depressive symptoms than those with comorbid personality disorder. However, there were no significant differences in change in anxiety levels and severity of the mental issues between the patients with and without personality disorders. Higher
Hiperventilação: A terapia cognitivo-comportamental e a técnica dos exercícios de indução dos sintomas no transtorno de pânico Hyperventilation: The cognitive-behavior-therapy and the technique of the exercises in the induction of panic disorder symptoms
Anna Lucia Spear King
Full Text Available O transtorno de pânico (TP caracteriza -se por ataques agudos de ansiedade frequentes e recorrentes. A actual concepção para o TP realça o medo das sensações corporais a partir do momento em que o indivíduo associa de forma equivocada as sensações físicas que se apresentam como sendo prenúncio de uma doença grave e/ou morte iminente, não conseguindo interpretá -las como mecanismos fisiológicos naturais. Relatamos três casos graves de TP do subtipo respiratório, com agorafobia, cujos sintomas de hiperventilação predominavam sobre os demais. O tratamento consistiu na prescrição de antidepressivos tricíclicos e no encaminhamento para sessões de terapia cognitivo -comportamental (TCC. O objectivo do relato dos casos é demonstrar a evolução satisfatória do tratamento com a técnica dos exercícios de indução de sintomas (EIS em ambiente de laboratório para a redução e/ou extinção dos sintomas hiperventilatórios, entre outros. Esse procedimento foi considerado fundamental na evolução do tratamento e permitiu preparar os doentes para enfrentarem situações agorafóbicas subsequentes.Panic disorder (PD is characterized by frequent and recurrent acute panic attacks. The current cognitive conception for PD enhances the fear of corporal sensations, when the individual define his physical sensations as being related to a serious disease or imminent death, not interpreting them as natural physiologic mechanisms. We reported three severe cases of PD of the respiratory subtype, with agoraphobia, whose symptoms of hyperventilation predominated on clinical picture. The treatment consisted on tricycles antidepressant and cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT sessions. The objective of reporting the cases is to demonstrate the satisfactory evolution of the treatment with the technique of panic symptoms induction exercises (SIE in controlled laboratory environment. On that way, reducing or extinguishing hyperventilation symptoms
Göğçegöz Gül I
Full Text Available Işil Göğçegöz Gül, Gül Eryilmaz, Eylem Özten, Gökben Hizli Sayar Neuropsychiatry Health, Practice, and Research Center, Uskudar University, Istanbul, Turkey Aim: The relationship between psychological stress and platelet activation has been widely studied. It is well known that platelets may reflect certain biochemical changes that occur in the brain when different mental conditions occur. Platelet 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT is also extensively studied in psychiatry. The mean platelet volume (MPV, the accurate measure of platelet size, has been considered a marker and determinant of platelet function. The aim of the present study was to search for any probable difference in the MPV of subjects with panic disorder (PD.Methods: A total of 37 drug-free subjects, aged 18 to 65 years, diagnosed with PD, with or without agoraphobia, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth edition (DSM-IV criteria and 45 healthy control subjects were included in the study. Platelet count and MPV were measured and recorded for each subject.Results: There were no statistically significant differences between groups in terms of female/male ratio, age, or body mass index between the PD group and control group (P=0.91, P=0.82, and P=0.93, respectively. The MPV was found to be significantly lower in the PD group compared with the control group (8.8±0.9 fL vs 9.2±0.8 fL; P=0.02. All the participants had MPV values in the standard range of 6.9–10.8 fL.Conclusion: We concluded that abnormalities of the 5-HT1A receptor function in the central nervous system of subjects with a diagnosis of PD are also mirrored in as an alteration in platelet activity. Measurements of platelet activity may be used as a tool for neuropsychiatric and psychopharmacological research and for studying how certain mental diseases and medications affect the central nervous system. Keywords: 5-HT, thrombocyte, anxiety
Full Text Available Abstract Background Internet administered cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT is a promising new way to deliver psychological treatment, but its effectiveness in regular care settings and in relation to more traditional CBT group treatment has not yet been determined. The primary aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Internet-and group administered CBT for panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia in a randomised trial within a regular psychiatric care setting. The second aim of the study was to establish the cost-effectiveness of these interventions. Methods Patients referred for treatment by their physician, or self-referred, were telephone-screened by a psychiatric nurse. Patients fulfilling screening criteria underwent an in-person structured clinical interview carried out by a psychiatrist. A total of 113 consecutive patients were then randomly assigned to 10 weeks of either guided Internet delivered CBT (n = 53 or group CBT (n = 60. After treatment, and at a 6-month follow-up, patients were again assessed by the psychiatrist, blind to treatment condition. Results Immediately after randomization 9 patients dropped out, leaving 104 patients who started treatment. Patients in both treatment conditions showed significant improvement on the main outcome measure, the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS after treatment. For the Internet treatment the within-group effect size (pre-post on the PDSS was Cohen's d = 1.73, and for the group treatment it was d = 1.63. Between group effect sizes were low and treatment effects were maintained at 6-months follow-up. We found no statistically significant differences between the two treatment conditions using a mixed models approach to account for missing data. Group CBT utilised considerably more therapist time than did Internet CBT. Defining effect as proportion of PDSS responders, the cost-effectiveness analysis concerning therapist time showed that Internet treatment had superior cost
Prevention of anxiety and depression in the age group of 75 years and over: a randomised controlled trial testing the feasibility and effectiveness of a generic stepped care programme among elderly community residents at high risk of developing anxiety and depression versus usual care [ISRCTN26474556
van Oppen Patricia
Full Text Available Abstract Background In frail elderly, the effects of depression and anxiety are deep encroaching. Indicated prevention studies, aimed at subjects with subthreshold disorder, have shown that well designed interventions are capable of reducing the incidence of depression and anxiety. In this randomised prevention trial for elderly, living in the community and suffering from subthreshold depression and anxiety, a stepped care programme was put together to be tested versus usual (GP care. Methods/design Design: randomised controlled trial. (See figure 1: organisation chart together with two other projects, this project is part of a national consortium that investigates the prevention of anxiety and depressive disorders in later life using a stepped care programme. The three projects have their own particular focus. This project is aimed at elderly living in the community. Inclusion: subjects with a high risk for depression and anxiety without clinical evidence of these syndromes. The participants are 75 years of age and over and have subthreshold symptoms of depression and or anxiety: they score above the cut-off point on the self-report Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D scale, but the criteria for a major depressive disorder or anxiety disorder (panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder according to a validated interview, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI are not fulfilled. Outcomes: primary outcome: incidence of a depressive or anxiety disorder over a period of two years (MINI; secondary outcome: a positive influence of the intervention, a stepped care programme, on symptoms of depression and anxiety and on quality of life as assessed with the CES D, the HADS A and the SF36 respectively (i.e. stabilisation or improvement of symptoms [see table 1]. Measurements: Take place at baseline and at 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months. Trained independent evaluators assess depression and
Full Text Available The International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition (ICD-10 defines atypical bulimia nervosa (ABN as an eating disorder that encompasses several different syndromes, including the DSM-IV binge eating disorder (BED. We investigated whether patients with BED can be differentiated clinically from patients with ABN who do not meet criteria for BED. Fifty-three obese patients were examined using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and the ICD-10 criteria for eating disorders. All volunteers completed the Binge Eating Scale (BES, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90. Individuals fulfilling criteria for both ABN and BED (N = 18, ABN without BED (N = 16, and obese controls (N = 19 were compared and contrasted. Patients with ABN and BED and patients with ABN without BED displayed similar levels of binge eating severity according to the BES (31.05 ± 7.7 and 30.05 ± 5.5, respectively, which were significantly higher than those found in the obese controls (18.32 ± 8.7; P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively. When compared to patients with ABN and BED, patients with ABN without BED showed increased lifetime rates of agoraphobia (P = 0.02 and increased scores in the somatization (1.97 ± 0.85 vs 1.02 ± 0.68; P = 0.001, obsessive-compulsive (2.10 ± 1.03 vs 1.22 ± 0.88; P = 0.01, anxiety (1.70 ± 0.82 vs 1.02 ± 0.72; P = 0.02, anger (1.41 ± 1.03 vs 0.59 ± 0.54; P = 0.005 and psychoticism (1.49 ± 0.93 vs 0.75 ± 0.55; P = 0.01 dimensions of the SCL-90. The BED construct may represent a subgroup of ABN with less comorbities and associated symptoms.
Bittner, Antje; Goodwin, Renee D; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Beesdo, Katja; Höfler, Michael; Lieb, Roselind
The goal of this study was to examine the associations between specific anxiety disorders and the risk of major depressive disorder and to explore the role of various clinical characteristics of anxiety disorders in these relationships using a prospective, longitudinal design. The data are from a 4-year prospective, longitudinal community study, which included both baseline and follow-up survey data on 2548 adolescents and young adults aged 14 to 24 years at baseline. DSM-IV diagnoses were made using the Munich-Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The presence at baseline of any anxiety disorder (odds ratio [OR] = 2.2 [95% CI = 1.6 to 3.2]) and each of the anxiety disorders (specific phobia, OR = 1.9 [95% CI = 1.3 to 2.8]; social phobia, OR = 2.9 [95% CI = 1.7 to 4.8]; agoraphobia, OR = 3.1 [95% CI = 1.4 to 6.7]; panic disorder, OR = 3.4 [95% CI = 1.2 to 9.0]; generalized anxiety disorder, OR = 4.5 [95% CI = 1.9 to 10.3]) was associated with a significantly (p depressive disorder. These associations remained significant after we adjusted for mental disorders occurring prior to the onset of the anxiety disorder, with the exception of the panic disorder association. The following clinical characteristics of anxiety disorders were associated with a significantly (p depressive disorder: more than 1 anxiety disorder, severe impairment due to the anxiety disorder, and comorbid panic attacks. In the final model, which included all clinical characteristics, severe impairment remained the only clinical characteristic that was an independent predictor of the development of major depressive disorder (OR = 2.2 [95% CI = 1.0 to 4.4]). Our findings suggest that anxiety disorders are risk factors for the first onset of major depressive disorder. Although a number of clinical characteristics of anxiety disorders appear to play a role in the association between anxiety disorders and depression, severe impairment is the strongest predictor of major depressive disorder.
Albina Rodrigues Torres
ógicas identificáveis e relevantes, com implicações diagnósticas e terapêuticas.Introduction/Objectives: Hypochondriasis has been associated with several anxiety disorders, especially with panic disorder (PD. It is estimated that 50% to 70% of PD patients have hypochondriacal symptoms and 13% to 17% of patients with hypochondriasis have associated PD. The objective of this study was to review the literature on clinical, phenomenological, cognitive and psychodynamic relationships between PD and hypochondriasis, and to discuss conceptual aspects and diagnostic criteria. Methods: A Medline search was conducted between 1990 and 2001 using the following keywords: panic disorder, agoraphobia, hypochondriasis, and hypochondriacal concerns. Results: It is considered hypochondriasis comorbidity in PD only when health worries are not restricted to panic attack symptoms. Although usually regarded as a secondary phenomenon, hypochondriacal preoccupations precede the first panic attack in many PD patients and may be considered prodromal symptoms. In a vicious circle, anxiety may lead to excessive health worries, selective self-observation and anticipation of the worst outcomes. Though a catastrophic bias is common to both diseases, in PD the autonomic symptoms increase rapidly culminating in a panic attack, and the dread catastrophe seems to be imminent, leading to avoidant behaviors and immediate quest for help. Hypochondriasis is characterized by a fear of more insidious diseases, hypervigilance, search for reassurance behaviors, more dysfunctional beliefs, poorer doctor-patient relationship, and a wider range of feelings misinterpreted as catastrophic. Pathological fear of death and alexithymia may play an important role in both disorders. Conclusions: The clinical overlapping of PD/agoraphobia and hypochondriasis is significant but not complete. The relationship between the two disorders is complex and possibly bidirectional, both increasing their mutual vulnerability. There are
Dannon, Pinhas N; Iancu, Iulian; Lowengrub, Katherine; Gonopolsky, Yehudit; Musin, Ernest; Grunhaus, Leon; Kotler, Moshe
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are currently considered as the first drug of choice in the treatment of panic disorder (PD). The aim of this long-term, naturalistic comparison study was to compare 4 SSRIs with respect to tolerability and treatment outcome of PD. Outcome measures included relapse rates and adverse effects. Two hundred patients with PD were enrolled in our study. All subjects met DSM-IV criteria for PD or PD with agoraphobia (PDA). All patients were assigned to receive SSRI monotherapy for 12 months with either citalopram (n = 50), fluoxetine (n = 50), fluvoxamine (n = 50), or paroxetine (n = 50) in a randomized, nonblinded fashion. Both the treating psychiatrist and the patients were not blind to the assigned treatment, but the clinician raters were blind to the study medication. The study design allowed for assignment of a particular SSRI as indicated according to the clinical judgment of the study psychiatrists. The Panic Self-Questionnaire, which is a self-report scale, was administered at baseline and then once per month during the duration of the 12-month study. The visual analog scale and the Clinical Global Impression Scale were administered at baseline and then once per month during the period of the study. Reports of sexual dysfunction were assessed using a nonstructured clinical interview at monthly visits. The body weight of study subjects was measured at baseline, and then at the 12th month visit end point. Of 200 patients who entered the study, 127 patients (63.5%) completed the full 12-month protocol. Retention rates were highest for paroxetine (76% [38/50]), intermediate for citalopram (68% [34/50]) and fluvoxamine (60% [30/50]), and lowest for fluoxetine (50% [25/50]). Patients who completed the 12-month protocol responded favorably to the study treatment. The paroxetine and the citalopram groups had significantly lower rates of panic symptoms as measured at visits on weeks 4 and 8. At visits on months 3, 6, 9, and
Porteret, R; Bouchez, J; Baylé, F J; Varescon, I
3 symptoms at least of one and/or the other category). Regarding the ICDs, we found a proportion of 66 % of patients manifesting at least one, the most frequent ICD being the Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED): 29.6 %, followed by Compulsive Buying (CB): 23.4 %, Pathological Gambling (PG): 7.4 %, Kleptomania and Compulsive Sexual Behaviour: 2.4 %, and Trichotillomania: 1.2 %. Among the psychiatric comorbidities evaluated, generalized anxiety disorder: 61.7 %, followed by dysthymia: 44.4 %, major depressive episode: 28.3 %, Agoraphobia: 22.2 %, panic disorder: 17.2 %, hypomanic episode: 16 %, social phobia: 11.1 %, bulimia nervosa: 8.6 %, and antisocial personality disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder: 3.7 %. Regarding the addictive comorbidities, we found a prevalence of 14.8 % of substance abuse (non-alcohol), followed by 7.4 % of alcohol abuse, 6.1 % of substance dependence (non-alcohol), and 3.7 % of alcohol dependence. ADH/D in adults continues to be unrecognized in France. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of impulse control disorders, psychiatric and addictive comorbidities in adults with ADH/D. The results enable us to appreciate quantitative and qualitative data for 81 French adults with ADH/D. This disorder rarely remains isolated and is often associated with many others, especially anxiety and mood disorders. We also observed that impulsivity stays at the heart of the ADH/D, either through impulsive behaviours or addictive disorders. Considering the lack of studies with ADH/D adults, it is difficult to compare our data. The diagnosis of ADH/D is complex and stays controversial, moreover the strong prevalence of comorbidities points out the importance of differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
A importância e as limitações do uso do DSM-IV na prática clínica La importancia y los límites del uso del DSM-IV en la práctica clínica Importance and constraints of the DSM-IV use in the clinical practice
Evandro Gomes de Matos
instrumento diagnóstico para el espectro del pánico agorafóbico, conforme al modelo dimensional.INTRODUCTION: The DSM-IV is a diagnostic and statistical system for the classification of mental disorders that follows a categorical model. It is used in the clinical practice and research in the psychiatry area. The aim of this study was to analyze the use of the DSM-IV in the clinical practice and to report on its advantages and limitations. METHODS: A wide bibliographic review was made to show the relevance of the topic. Some probable changes were pointed out, which will be included in the next editions. A discussion on the diagnostic models, both dimensional and categorical, was carried out as well. The paper was divided into the following sections: history, concept, advantages and disadvantages of the DSM-IV, discussion and conclusion. The article also presents a project developed by the Núcleo de Atendimento dos Transtornos de Ansiedade (NATA, from the Department of Psychiatry at FCM/UNICAMP, which will use an instrument for the diagnostic of the agoraphobia disorder that will follow a dimensional model.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to survey the available literature on psychological development of panic disorder with or without agoraphobia [PD(A] and its relationship with the neurobiology and the treatment of panic. METHODS: Both a computerized (PubMed and a manual search of the literature were performed. Only English papers published in peer-reviewed journals and referring to PD(A as defined by the diagnostic classifications of the American Psychiatric Association or of the World Health Organization were included. CONCLUSIONS: A staging model of panic exists and is applicable in clinical practice. In a substantial proportion of patients with PD(A, a prodromal phase and, despite successful treatment, residual symptoms can be identified. Both prodromes and residual symptoms allow the monitoring of disorder evolution during recovery via the rollback phenomenon. The different stages of the disorder, as well as the steps of the rollback, have a correspondence in the neurobiology and in the treatment of panic. However, the treatment implications of the longitudinal model of PD(A are not endorsed, and adequate interventions of enduring effects are missing.OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi fazer um levantamento da literatura disponível sobre o desenvolvimento psicológico do transtorno do pânico com ou sem agorafobia [TP(A] e sua relação com a neurobiologia e o tratamento do pânico. MÉTODOS: A busca da literatura foi realizada tanto manualmente quanto via computador (PubMed. Somente os artigos publicados em inglês em revistas revisadas por especialistas e abordando o TP(A de acordo com as classificações diagnósticas da Associação Americana de Psiquiatria ou da Organização Mundial de Saúde foram incluídos. CONCLUSÕES: Existe um modelo de classificação por estágios do pânico aplicável na prática clínica. A fase prodrômica e, a despeito de tratamentos bem-sucedidos, os sintomas residuais podem ser identificados em
Full Text Available Jan Prasko,1 Ales Grambal,1 Petra Kasalova,1 Dana Kamardova,1 Marie Ociskova,1 Michaela Holubova,1,2 Kristyna Vrbova,1 Zuzana Sigmundova,1 Klara Latalova,1 Milos Slepecky,3 Marta Zatkova3 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University in Olomouc, University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, 2Psychiatric Department, Hospital Liberec, Liberec, Czech Republic; 3Department of Psychology Sciences, Faculty of Social Science and Health Care, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Nitra, Slovak Republic Objective: The central goal of the study was to analyze the impact of dissociation on the treatment effectiveness in patients with anxiety/neurotic spectrum and depressive disorders with or without comorbid personality disorders.Methods: The research sample consisted of inpatients who were hospitalized in the psychiatric department and met the ICD-10 criteria for diagnosis of depressive disorder, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, mixed anxiety–depressive disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, adjustment disorders, dissociative/conversion disorders, somatoform disorder, or other anxiety/neurotic spectrum disorder. The participants completed these measures at the start and end of the therapeutic program – Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, a subjective version of Clinical Global Impression-Severity, Sheehan Patient-Related Anxiety Scale, and Dissociative Experience Scale.Results: A total of 840 patients with anxiety or depressive spectrum disorders, who were resistant to pharmacological treatment on an outpatient basis and were referred for hospitalization for the 6-week complex therapeutic program, were enrolled in this study. Of them, 606 were statistically analyzed. Data from the remaining 234 (27.86% patients were not used because of various reasons (103 prematurely finished the program, 131 did not fill in most of the
Estudo retrospectivo da associação entre transtorno de pânico em adultos e transtorno de ansiedade na infância Retrospective study of the association between adulthood panic disorder and childhood anxiety disorders
Gisele Gus Manfro
history of childhood anxiety disorders. There was a significant association between generalized anxiety disorder history during childhood and panic disorder in adult life and its comorbidities such as agoraphobia (p=0,05 and depression (p=0,03. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that childhood anxiety disorder may be a predictor of the severity of panic disorder in adult life.
Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia em Medicina Translacional (INCT-TM: abordagens metodológicas National Science and Technology Institute for Translational Medicine (INCT-TM: advancing the field of translational medicine and mental health
Jaime E. C. Hallak
, translational research offers an opportunity for applying the findings obtained from basic research to every-day clinical applications. The National Science and Technology Institute for Translational Medicine is comprised of six member institutions (Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Universidade de São Paulo-Ribeirão Preto, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Universidade Estadual de Santa Catarina and a core facility that serves all centers. The objectives of the project are divided into four areas: Institutional, Research, Human Resources and Technology for the Community and Productive Sector. METHOD: In this manuscript, we describe some of the approaches used to attain the main objectives of the National Science and Technology Institute for Translational Medicine, which include the development of 1 animal models for bipolar disorder; 2 strategies to investigate neurobehavioral function and cognitive dysfunction associated with brain disorders; 3 experimental models of brain function and behavior, neuropsychiatric disorders, cell proliferation, and cancer; 4 Simulated Public Speaking and 5 Virtual reality simulation for inducing panic disorder and agoraphobia. CONCLUSION: The main focus of the National Science and Technology Institute for Translational Medicine is the development of more useful methods that allow for a better application of basic research-based knowledge to the medical field.
Transtornos de humor e de ansiedade comórbidos em vítimas de violência com transtorno do estresse pós-traumático Comorbid mood and anxiety disorders in victims of violence with posttraumatic stress disorder
Lucas C. Quarantini
disorder and mood disorders, as well as between posttraumatic stress disorder and other anxiety disorders. METHOD: We searched Medline for studies, published in English through April, 2009, using the following keywords: "posttraumatic stress disorder", "PTSD", "mood disorder", "major depressive disorder", "major depression", "bipolar disorder", "dysthymia", "anxiety disorder", "generalized anxiety disorder", "agoraphobia", "obsessive-compulsive disorder", "panic disorder", "social phobia", and "comorbidity". RESULTS: Major depression is one of the most frequent comorbid conditions in posttraumatic stress disorder individuals, but individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder are also more likely to present with bipolar disorder, other anxiety disorders and suicidal behaviors. These comorbid conditions are associated with greater clinical severity, functional impairment, and impaired quality of life in already compromised individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder. Depression symptoms also mediate the association between posttraumatic stress disorder and severity of pain among patients with chronic pain. CONCLUSION: Available studies suggest that individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder are at increased risk of developing affective disorders compared with trauma-exposed individuals who do not develop posttraumatic stress disorder. Conversely, pre-existing affective disorders increase a person's vulnerability to the posttraumatic stress disorder--inducing effects of traumatic events. Also, common genetic vulnerabilities can help to explain these comorbidity patterns. However, because the studies addressing this issue are few in number, heterogeneous and based on a limited sample, more studies are needed in order to adequately evaluate these comorbidities, as well as their clinical and therapeutic implications.
Cristiane Schumann Silva
Identification Test (AUDIT. RESULTS: Most pregnant women practiced a religion (60.8%. Religious women show a lower frequency (p < 0.05 of diagnoses of Major Depressive Episode with Melancholic features, Hypomania episode, current Panic disorder with Agoraphobia, current Social Anxiety disorder, and Post-traumatic stress disorder. In the diagnosis of abuse of one or more psychoactive substances, there was a tendency to lower prevalence in the groups of religious women (p = 0,057. DISCUSSION: It was observed in this study, that the religious women tend to have lower rates of mood disorders and anxiety disorders than pregnant women that do not practice their religion.
Anna Lucia Spear King
Full Text Available Resumo: O transtorno de pÃ¢nico (TP caracteriza-se por ataques agudos de ansiedade frequentes e recorrentes. A actual concepÃ§Ã£o para o TP realÃ§a o medo das sensaÃ§Ãµes corporais a partir do momento em que o indivÃduo associa de forma equivocada as sensaÃ§Ãµes fÃsicas que se apresentam como sendo prenÃºncio de uma doenÃ§a grave e/ou morte iminente, nÃ£o conseguindo interpretÃ¡-las como mecanismos fisiolÃ³gicos naturais. Relatamos trÃªs casos graves de TP do subtipo respiratÃ³rio, com agorafobia, cujos sintomas de hiperventilaÃ§Ã£o predominavam sobre os demais. O tratamento consistiu na prescriÃ§Ã£o de antidepressivos tricÃclicos e no encaminhamento para sessÃµes de terapia cognitivo-comportamental (TCC. O objectivo do relato dos casos Ã© demonstrar a evoluÃ§Ã£o satisfatÃ³ria do tratamento com a tÃ©cnica dos exercÃcios de induÃ§Ã£o de sintomas (EIS em ambiente de laboratÃ³rio para a reduÃ§Ã£o e/ou extinÃ§Ã£o dos sintomas hiperventilatÃ³rios, entre outros. Esse procedimento foi considerado fundamental na evoluÃ§Ã£o do tratamento e permitiu preparar os doentes para enfrentarem situaÃ§Ãµes agorafÃ³bicas subsequentes.Rev Port Pneumol 2007; XIV (2: 303-308 Abstract: Panic disorder (PD is characterized by frequent and recurrent acute panic attacks. The current cognitive conception for PD enhances the fear of corporal sensations, when the individual define his physical sensations as being related to a serious disease or imminent death, not interpreting them as natural physiologic mechanisms. We reported three severe cases of PD of the respiratory subtype, with agoraphobia, whose symptoms of hyperventilation predominated on clinical picture. The treatment consisted on tricycles antidepressant and cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT sessions. The objective of reporting the cases is to demonstrate the satisfactory evolution of the treatment with the technique of panic
Valfrido Leão de Melo-Neto
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Panic disorder (PD patients show more physical and psychological impairment, than the general population. OBJECTIVES: Our aims are to compare quality of life between PD patients during treatment and healthy subjects and to associate social, demographic and clinical factors with quality of life scores. METHODS: It is a cross-sectional study with 20 PD patients and 20 healthy controls. Anxiety levels assessment: Beck Anxiety Inventory, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, STAIT - Form Y. Panic severity; Panic Agoraphobia Scale; social and environmental problems and global assessment functioning (Axis IV and V, DSM-IV-TR and quality of life by WHOQOL-BREF. RESULTS: PD patients were 65% female. Mean age = 37.55 ± 9.06. Quality of life domain scores: physical = 57.86 ± 17.56; psychological = 56.04 ± 18.31; social = 56.25 ± 25.92; and environmental = 47.03 ± 16.92; smokers = 20%; BAI = 23.40 ± 15; STAI-S= 43.50 ± 8.79; STAI-T = 50.10 ± 9.19; PAS = 13.60 ± 9.40. DISCUSSION: No significant differences were observed between groups about gender, age, schooling, religion, marital status nor individual income, but family income was significantly higher among controls. All domains of quality of life are significantly impaired among PD patients, compared to healthy controls. Panic disorder compromises well being. Psychosocial problems and high levels of anxiety can also negatively impact quality of life of PD patients.CONTEXTO: Pacientes com transtorno de pânico (TP apresentam maior comprometimento físico e psicológico que a população geral. OBJETIVOS: Comparar escores de qualidade de vida entre pacientes com TP em tratamento e indivíduos normais. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de estudo transversal com 20 portadores de TP e 20 controles normais. Avaliação da ansiedade inclui: Inventário de Ansiedade de Beck, Escala de Ansiedade de Hamilton, Inventário de Estado e Traço Ansioso, Escala de Pânico e Agorafobia; além de avaliação de problemas
Simone H. Bianchi Sanches
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders are often associated with several non-psychiatric medical conditions. Among the clinical conditions found in association with anxiety stands out the joint hypermobility (JH. OBJECTIVES: To carry out a systematic review of the clinical association between anxiety disorders and JH. METHOD: A survey was conducted in MEDLINE, PsychINFO, LILACS e SciELO databases up to December 2011. We searched for articles using the keywords 'anxiety', 'joint' and 'hypermobility' and Boolean operators. The review included articles describing empirical studies on the association between JH and anxiety. The reference lists of selected articles were systematically hand-searched for other publications relevant to the review. RESULTS: Seventeen articles were included in the analysis and classified to better extract data. We found heterogeneity between the studies relate to the methodology used. Most of the studies found an association between anxiety features and JH. Panic disorder/agoraphobia was the anxiety disorder associated with JH in several studies. Etiological explanation of the relationship between anxiety and JH is still controversial. CONCLUSION: Future research in large samples from the community and clinical setting and longitudinal studies of the association between anxiety and HA and the underlying biological mechanisms involved in this association are welcome.INTRODUÇÃO: Os transtornos de ansiedade estão frequentemente associados a vários quadros clínicos não psiquiátricos. Dentre os quadros clínicos associados à ansiedade destaca-se a hipermobilidade articular (HA. Objetivo: Realizar uma revisão sistemática da associação entre os transtornos de ansiedade e a HA. MÉTODO: Foi realizada uma pesquisa nos bancos de dados MEDLINE, PsychINFO, LILACS e SciELO em busca de artigos publicados até dezembro de 2011. Usamos as palavras-chave anxiety , joint e hypermobility e os operadores boolianos. A revisão incluiu
Alexandre M Valença
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: There is evidence that asthma is associated with increased frequency of psychiatric symptoms and mental disorders. Our aim was to assess the frequency of anxiety and depressive disorders in a sample of asthmatic outpatients and observe if there is any relationship between this comorbidity and the severity of asthma. METHOD: Sixty-two consecutive patients of two outpatient asthma clinics located in university hospitals were evaluated. Psychiatric diagnoses were assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview 4.4 Version. RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients (43.5% met criteria for at least one psychiatric diagnosis. The most frequent diagnoses were major depression (24%, generalized anxiety disorder (20.9% and panic disorder/agoraphobia spectrum disorders (17.7%. We found no significant differences in the prevalence of anxiety disorders and depression between the groups with mild/moderate and severe asthma. Despite the high frequency of depression and anxiety disorders, only 4 (6.5% patients were under psychiatric treatment and 13 (20.9% patients were taking benzodiazepines. Twelve of 15 (80% patients who reported present use of psychotropic medication were not under psychiatric treatment at the moment of the study. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the high morbidity of anxiety and depressive disorders in asthmatic patients, independent of the severity of asthma.OBJETIVO: Existem evidências de que a asma está associada a um aumento da presença de sintomas psiquiátricos e de transtornos mentais. O objetivo do presente estudo é o de averiguar a freqüência de transtornos de ansiedade e depressão em uma amostra de pacientes asmáticos ambulatoriais e observar se há relação deste tipo de comorbidade com a gravidade da asma. MÉTODO: Sessenta e dois pacientes consecutivos de dois ambulatórios universitários especializados em asma foram examinados. Os diagnósticos psiquiátricos foram obtidos em entrevista com a
Al-Asadi, Ali M; Klein, Britt; Meyer, Denny
Although relatively new, the field of e-mental health is becoming more popular with more attention given to researching its various aspects. However, there are many areas that still need further research, especially identifying attrition predictors at various phases of assessment and treatment delivery. The present study identified the predictors of posttreatment assessment completers based on 24 pre- and posttreatment demographic and personal variables and 1 treatment variable, their impact on attrition bias, and the efficacy of the 5 fully automated self-help anxiety treatment programs for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social anxiety disorder (SAD), panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (PD/A), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A complex algorithm was used to diagnose participants' mental disorders based on the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition, Text Revision; DSM-IV-TR). Those who received a primary or secondary diagnosis of 1 of 5 anxiety disorders were offered an online 12-week disorder-specific treatment program. A total of 3199 individuals did not formally drop out of the 12-week treatment cycle, whereas 142 individuals formally dropped out. However, only 347 participants who completed their treatment cycle also completed the posttreatment assessment measures. Based on these measures, predictors of attrition were identified and attrition bias was examined. The efficacy of the 5 treatment programs was assessed based on anxiety-specific severity scores and 5 additional treatment outcome measures. On average, completers of posttreatment assessment measures were more likely to be seeking self-help online programs; have heard about the program from traditional media or from family and friends; were receiving mental health assistance; were more likely to learn best by reading, hearing and doing; had a lower pretreatment Kessler-6 total score; and were older
Pélissolo, A; Huron, C; Fanget, F; Servant, D; Stiti, S; Richard-Berthe, C; Boyer, P
Only few clinical epidemiologic studies have been conducted on social phobia in France to date. It is however a frequent disorder, with often severe alteration of social adaptation and quality of life, and for which effective treatments exist. Thus, it seems really important to further explore how these patients are nowadays identified and treated in psychiatry. It was the objective of the Phoenix study. In this observational multi-center study, 952 psychiatric in- or out-patients, with a primary diagnosis of social phobia according to DSM IV criteria, were included. Numerous diagnostic and psychometric evaluations were carried out, in order to evaluate the comorbidity (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), the intensity of social anxiety (Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale), and various aspects of the functional and emotional impact (Various Impact of Social Anxiety scale, Sheehan Disability Scale, SF-36, Positive and Negative Emotionality scale). The patients were in majority females (57.6%), with a mean age 37.5 years, and with a mean duration of social anxiety disorder 12.5 years. The mean scores of social anxiety on Liebowitz scale was 40.3 +/- 12.6 for the fear factor, and 38.3 +/- 13.6 for the avoidance factor. The generalized social anxiety subtype (anxiety in most social situations) was present in 67.8% of the patients. A major depressive disorder was found in 47.7% of the sample, and the prevalence of agoraphobia was even higher (49.2%). As known in clinical practice and in other studies, the prevalence rates of current alcohol dependence and substances abuse were also important in this population (respectively 10.6% and 12.7%). Mean scores of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) sub-scales were 13.9 +/-3.8 for anxiety and 9.1 +/-4.5 for depression. About 15% of the patients had a history of suicide attempt, and a suicidal risk was present in nearly 40% of the sample. The psychosocial impact and the
Olthuis, Janine V; Watt, Margo C; Bailey, Kristen; Hayden, Jill A; Stewart, Sherry H
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is an evidence-based treatment for anxiety disorders. Many people have difficulty accessing treatment, due to a variety of obstacles. Researchers have therefore explored the possibility of using the Internet to deliver CBT; it is important to ensure the decision to promote such treatment is grounded in high quality evidence. To assess the effects of therapist-supported Internet CBT (ICBT) on remission of anxiety disorder diagnosis and reduction of anxiety symptoms in adults as compared to waiting list control, unguided CBT, or face-to-face CBT. Effects of treatment on quality of life and patient satisfaction with the intervention were also assessed. We searched the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Review Group Specialised Register (CCDANCTR) to 16 March 2015. The CCDANCTR includes relevant randomised controlled trials from MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CENTRAL. We also searched online clinical trial registries and reference lists of included studies. We contacted authors to locate additional trials. Each identified study was independently assessed for inclusion by two authors. To be included, studies had to be randomised controlled trials of therapist-supported ICBT compared to a waiting list, attention, information, or online discussion group; unguided CBT (that is, self-help); or face-to-face CBT. We included studies that treated adults with an anxiety disorder (panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, acute stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, and specific phobia) defined according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders III, III-R, IV, IV-TR or the International Classification of Disesases 9 or 10. Two authors independently assessed the risk of bias of included studies and judged overall study quality. We used data from intention-to-treat analyses wherever possible. We assessed treatment effect for the dichotomous outcome
孙渊博; 祝扬; 李丁; 王晓慧; 李秀珍; 宋瑞华; 王瑛
-psychiatric departments from June to August in 2014 using the Mini International Neuropsychiatry Interview (MINI). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using SPSS 22.0. Results The occurrence of mental disorders was 17.6％, including depressive disorder (9.4％), generalized anxiety disorder (3.7％), dysthymia (1.7％), suicidality (1.2％), hypomanic episode (1.2％), panic disorder (0.3％), agoraphobia (0.5％), socialphobia (0.2％),obsessive-compulsive disorder (1.0％), posttraumatic stress disorder (2.0％), alcohol abuse and dependence (2.0％), non-alcohol psychoactive substance use disorder (0.5％), psychotic disorder (0.7％), anorexia nervosa (0.7％), bulimia nervosa (0.2％), and antisocial personality disorder (0.0％). The high prevalence was in four departments including Department of Gastroenterology (44.9％), Rehabilitation Department (25.0％), Geriatric Ward (24.1％) and Department of Neurology (19.0％). The discrimination ratio was 51.4％, the four departments with high discrimination ratio included Department of Neurology (87.5％), Department of Neurosurgery (71.4％), Department of Respiratory Medicine (60.0％) and Geriatric Ward (53.8％). The logistic regression results showed the departments, living styles, history of mental illness and treatment will were the independent risk factors. Conclusions It is noticeable that low incidence and high recognization rate of mental disorders have been found in the inpatients of a general hospital. The inpatients of internal medicine in a general hospital, who live along, have a history of mental disorders, or discriminate the psychopath, are prone to get sick with mental disorders. PTSD should be excluded for the inpatients with traumatic injury.
Alexandre M Valença
those from spontaneous panic attacks. METHODS: Thirty-one patients with panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (DSM-IV were selected. After one week without receiving any medication, these patients were asked to perform two full inhalations (vital capacity: one with a carbonic mixture (35% CO2, 65% O2 and the other with compressed atmospheric air (placebo, assigned randomly and separated by a 20-minute interval. These inhalations were repeated after 2 weeks. During this period no participants in the study received any kind of psychotropic drug. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients (71.0% had a panic attack in at least one of the tests where the CO2 mixture was used. Among them (n=22, the most frequently reported symptoms were: shortness of breath (n=20, 91.0%, a feeling of suffocation or asphyxia (n=18, 81.8%, dizziness (n=18, 81.8%, trembling (n=14, 63.6%, palpitations (n=13, 59.0%, and fear of losing one's mind (n=12, 54.5%. Eleven patients (50.0% thought the laboratory-induced panic attacks were more intense than the spontaneous ones, 4 (18.2% felt both had the same intensity and 7 (31.8% considered the laboratory-induced panic attacks as less intense. CONCLUSION: Panic disorder patients have high sensitivity to CO2. The 35% CO2 mixture inhalation triggers in these patients symptoms similar to those seen in spontaneous panic attacks. This test may be considered a good experimental model for studying panic disorder.
Pérez Benítez, Carlos I; Vicente, Benjamin; Zlotnick, Caron; Kohn, Robert; Johnson, Jennifer; Valdivia, Sandra; Rioseco, Pedro
is not an uncommon psychiatric illness, it is associated with a high degree of psychiatric comorbidity, it is more likely to predate other psychiatric disorders. Also, the results showed that men are more likely to be exposed to traumas than women, women are more likely than men to develop PTSD, and that PTSD is associated with relatively high treatment utilization.However, compared to another country in Latin America, such as Mexico, Chile has a lower prevalence of PTSD and trauma exposure, which may due to socio-economic factors, such as less inequity between the wealthy and the poor and less violence, crime, and poverty in Chile than Mexico. These studies also suggest that traumatic events that occur in childhood are related to specific disorders rather than those that occurred later in life.Individuals with childhood interpersonal trauma exposure are more likely to suffer from lifetime panic disorder, agoraphobia or PTSD compared to those who experience interpersonal trauma as an adult. However, research should examine the specificity of these disorders in relation to various types of childhood traumas.Limitations of the current study include the use of lay interviewers who, despite acceptable levels of reliability and validity, may be less accurate than clinicians as interviewers.Also the retrospective recall of lifetime disorders is likely to be less accurate than a more recent time frame. The sample used in this study does not show nation wide perspective, because the Southern portion of the country which includes much of the indigenous population was excluded. This study, like most epidemiological studies, did not use an-depth or validated index of trauma, which may have diluted findings. Since this study was cross-sectional, a direct cause-effect relationship cannot be assumed between trauma exposure and subsequent disorders.