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Sample records for agonist cd40 antibody

  1. Multivalent porous silicon nanoparticles enhance the immune activation potency of agonistic CD40 antibody.

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    Gu, Luo; Ruff, Laura E; Qin, Zhengtao; Corr, Maripat; Hedrick, Stephen M; Sailor, Michael J

    2012-08-01

    One of the fundamental paradigms in the use of nanoparticles to treat disease is to evade or suppress the immune system in order to minimize systemic side effects and deliver sufficient nanoparticle quantities to the intended tissues. However, the immune system is the body's most important and effective defense against diseases. It protects the host by identifying and eliminating foreign pathogens as well as self-malignancies. Here we report a nanoparticle engineered to work with the immune system, enhancing the intended activation of antigen presenting cells (APCs). We show that luminescent porous silicon nanoparticles (LPSiNPs), each containing multiple copies of an agonistic antibody (FGK45) to the APC receptor CD40, greatly enhance activation of B cells. The cellular response to the nanoparticle-based stimulators is equivalent to a 30-40 fold larger concentration of free FGK45. The intrinsic near-infrared photoluminescence of LPSiNPs is used to monitor degradation and track the nanoparticles inside APCs.

  2. Agonistic anti-CD40 antibody profoundly suppresses the immune response to infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus

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    Bartholdy, Christina; Kauffmann, Susanne Ørding; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard;

    2007-01-01

    also collapsed prematurely, and virus clearance was delayed. Additional analysis revealed that, following anti-CD40 treatment, the virus-specific CD8 T cells initially proliferated normally, but an increased cell loss compared with that in untreated mice was observed. The anti-CD40-induced abortion...... of virus-specific CD8 T cells during LCMV infection was IL-12 independent, but depended partly on Fas expression. Notably, similar anti-CD40 treatment of vesicular stomatitis virus-infected mice resulted in an improved antiviral CD8 T cell response, demonstrating that the effect of anti-CD40 treatment...

  3. Immunization of chickens with an agonistic monoclonal anti-chicken CD40 antibody-hapten complex: rapid and robust IgG response induced by a single subcutaneous injection.

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    Chen, Chang-Hsin; Abi-Ghanem, Daad; Waghela, Suryakant D; Chou, Wen-Ko; Farnell, Morgan B; Mwangi, Waithaka; Berghman, Luc R

    2012-04-30

    Producing diagnostic antibodies in chicken egg yolk represents an alternate animal system that offers many advantages including high productivity at low cost. Despite being an excellent counterpart to mammalian antibodies, chicken IgG from yolk still represents an underused resource. The potential of agonistic monoclonal anti-CD40 antibodies (mAb) as a powerful immunological adjuvant has been demonstrated in mammals, but not in chickens. We recently reported an agonistic anti-chicken CD40 mAb (designated mAb 2C5) and showed that it may have potential as an immunological adjuvant. In this study, we examined the efficacy of targeting a short peptide to chicken CD40 [expressed by the antigen-presenting cells (APCs)] in enhancing an effective IgG response in chickens. For this purpose, an immune complex consisting of one streptavidin molecule, two directionally biotinylated mAb 2C5 molecules, and two biotinylated peptide molecules was produced. Chickens were immunized subcutaneously with doses of this complex ranging from 10 to 90 μg per injection once, and relative quantification of the peptide-specific IgG response showed that the mAb 2C5-based complex was able to elicit a strong IgG response as early as four days post-immunization. This demonstrates that CD40-targeting antigen to chicken APCs can significantly enhance antibody responses and induce immunoglobulin isotype-switching. This immunization strategy holds promise for rapid production of hapten-specific IgG in chickens.

  4. 计算机模建和点突变分析抗人CD40单克隆抗体5C11识别的抗原表位%Antigenic epitopes of anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody (5C11) analyzed by computer modeling and site-directed mutagenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婷; 张学光; 瞿秋霞; 章良

    2011-01-01

    Objective; To primarily identify the antigenic epitopes of agonist type anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody, 5C11, which was constructed in our previous research, by means of computer modeling and site-directed mutation experiments. Methods: The structures of antigen and antibody were modeled by Insight II software and the immune complex was constructed. The antigenic epitope of 5C11 antibody was calculated and speculated. The full length of wide type human CD40 (wtCD40) gene and two site-directed mutant CD40 gene (70muCD40 and 114muCD40) were amplified by RT-PCR; pIRES2-EGFP/wtCD40, pIRES2-EGFP/70muCD40 and pIRES2-EGFP/114muCD40 recombinant vectors were constructed. These vectors were transfected into HEK293 cells by Lipofect method, and HEK293 cells stably transfected with pIRES2-EGFP/wtCD40, pIRES2-EGFP/70muCD40 and pIRES2-EGFP/l 14muCD40 vectors (named HEK293/ wtCD40, HEK293/70muCD40 and HEK293/114muCD40 cells, respectively) were screened. The binding abilities of HEK293/wtCD40, HEK293/70muCD40 and HEK293/114muCD40 cells with 5C11 were examined by flow cytometry and Western blotting analysis. Results: The recombinant eukaryotic expression vectors pIRES2-EGFP/wtCD40, pIRES2-EGFP/70muCD40 and pIRES2-EGFP/l 14muCD40 were successfully constructed and the corresponding stably transfected HEK293 cells were obtained. The binding ability between 5C11 antibody and HEK293/70muCD40 and HEK293/ 114muCD40 cells were lower than that with HEK293/wtCD40 cells. Western blotting results showed that 5C11 antibody only recognized HEK293/wtCD40 cells but not HEK293/70muCD40 and HEK293/114muCD40 cells. Conclusion; The 70' threonine and 114 glutamic acids in human CD40 amino acid sequence are the antigenic epitopes of 5C11 monoclonal antibody, which has potential clinical significance for humanized CD40 antibody research.%目的:通过计算机模拟与点突变实验初步探讨本课题组前期研制的抗人CD40激发型单克隆抗体5C11识别的抗原表位.方法:利用InsightⅡ

  5. Modulation of the CD40-CD40 ligand interaction using human anti-CD40 single-chain antibody fragments obtained from the n-CoDeR phage display library.

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    Ellmark, Peter; Ottosson, Camilla; Borrebaeck, Carl A K; Malmborg Hager, Ann-Christin; Furebring, Christina

    2002-08-01

    CD40 plays a central regulatory role in the immune system and antibodies able to modulate CD40 signalling may consequently have a potential in immunotherapy, in particular for treatment of lymphomas and autoimmune disease like multiple sclerosis. As a first step to achieve this goal, we describe the selection and characterization of a novel set of fully human anti-CD40 antibody fragments (scFv) from a phage display library (n-CoDeR). In order to determine their biological potential, these antibody fragments have been analysed for their ability to promote B-cell activation, rescue from apoptosis and to block the CD40-CD40 ligand (CD40L) interaction. The selected cohort of human scFv could be subcategorized, each expressing a distinct functional signature. Thus scFv were generated that induced B-cell proliferation, rescued B cells from apoptosis and blocked the CD40-CD40L interaction to different extents. In particular, one of the scFv clones (F33) had the ability to abrogate completely this interaction. The epitope recognition patterns as well as individual rate constants were also determined and the affinity was shown to vary from low to high nanomolar range. In conclusion, this panel of human anti-CD40 scFv fragments displays a number of distinct properties, which may constitute a valuable source when evaluating candidates for in vivo trials.

  6. CD40 agonist converting CTL exhaustion via the activation of the mTORC1 pathway enhances PD-1 antagonist action in rescuing exhausted CTLs in chronic infection.

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    Xu, Aizhang; Wang, Rong; Freywald, Andrew; Stewart, Kristoffor; Tikoo, Suresh; Xu, Jianqing; Zheng, Changyu; Xiang, Jim

    2017-03-11

    Expansion of PD-1-expressing CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and associated CTL exhaustion are chief issues for ineffective virus-elimination in chronic infectious diseases. PD-1 blockade using antagonistic anti-PD-L1 antibodies results in a moderate conversion of CTL exhaustion. We previously demonstrated that CD40L signaling of ovalbumin (OVA)-specific vaccine, OVA-Texo, converts CTL exhaustion via the activation of the mTORC1 pathway in OVA-expressing adenovirus (AdVova)-infected B6 mice showing CTL inflation and exhaustion. Here, we developed AdVova-infected B6 and transgenic CD11c-DTR (termed AdVova-B6 and AdVova-CD11c-DTR) mice with chronic infection, and assessed a potential effect of CD40 agonist on the conversion of CTL exhaustion and on a potential enhancement of PD-1 antagonist action in rescuing exhausted CTLs in our chronic infection models. We demonstrate that a single dose of anti-CD40 alone can effectively convert CTL exhaustion by activating the mTORC1 pathway, leading to CTL proliferation, up-regulation of an effector-cytokine IFN-γ and the cytolytic effect in AdVova-B6 mice. Using anti-CD4 antibody and diphtheria toxin (DT) to deplete CD4(+) T-cells and dendritic cells (DCs), we discovered that the CD40 agonist-induced conversion in AdVova-B6 and AdVova-CD11c-DTR mice is dependent upon host CD4(+) T-cell and DC involvements. Moreover, CD40 agonist significantly enhances PD-1 antagonist effectiveness in rescuing exhausted CTLs in chronic infection. Taken together, our data demonstrate the importance of CD40 signaling in the conversion of CTL exhaustion and its ability to enhance PD-1 antagonist action in rescuing exhausted CTLs in chronic infection. Therefore, our findings may positively impact the design of new therapeutic strategies for chronic infectious diseases.

  7. A novel, blocking, Fc-silent anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody prolongs nonhuman primate renal allograft survival in the absence of B cell depletion.

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    Cordoba, F; Wieczorek, G; Audet, M; Roth, L; Schneider, M A; Kunkler, A; Stuber, N; Erard, M; Ceci, M; Baumgartner, R; Apolloni, R; Cattini, A; Robert, G; Ristig, D; Munz, J; Haeberli, L; Grau, R; Sickert, D; Heusser, C; Espie, P; Bruns, C; Patel, D; Rush, J S

    2015-11-01

    CD40-CD154 pathway blockade prolongs renal allograft survival in nonhuman primates (NHPs). However, antibodies targeting CD154 were associated with an increased incidence of thromboembolic complications. Antibodies targeting CD40 prolong renal allograft survival in NHPs without thromboembolic events but with accompanying B cell depletion, raising the question of the relative contribution of B cell depletion to the efficacy of anti-CD40 blockade. Here, we investigated whether fully silencing Fc effector functions of an anti-CD40 antibody can still promote graft survival. The parent anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody HCD122 prolonged allograft survival in MHC-mismatched cynomolgus monkey renal allograft transplantation (52, 22, and 24 days) with accompanying B cell depletion. Fc-silencing yielded CFZ533, an antibody incapable of B cell depletion but still able to potently inhibit CD40 pathway activation. CFZ533 prolonged allograft survival and function up to a defined protocol endpoint of 98-100 days (100, 100, 100, 98, and 76 days) in the absence of B cell depletion and preservation of good histological graft morphology. CFZ533 was well-tolerated, with no evidence of thromboembolic events or CD40 pathway activation and suppressed a gene signature associated with acute rejection. Thus, use of the Fc-silent anti-CD40 antibody CFZ533 appears to be an attractive approach for preventing solid organ transplant rejection.

  8. Sensitivity of HIV type 1 primary isolates to human anti-CD40 antibody-mediated suppression is related to coreceptor use.

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    Abayneh, Sisay A; Ellmark, Peter; Karlsson, Ulf; Andersson, Henrik; Borrebaeck, Carl A K; Karlsson, Ingrid; Fenyö, Eva Maria

    2008-03-01

    The effect of CD40 ligation on infection by HIV-1 primary isolates with different R5 phenotypes was evaluated with a novel set of anti-CD40 monoclonal antibodies originating from a human phage display library. Five human monoclonal anti-CD40 antibodies of IgG1 subtype characterized by the ability to activate B cells via CD40 were tested for induction of the CC-chemokines RANTES and MIP-1alpha and inhibition of HIV-1 replication in primary monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). All activating anti-CD40 antibodies were able to induce CC-chemokines in MDM. We chose the most potent antibody, clone B44, for further experiments. This antibody had a suppressive effect on HIV-1 isolates of the R5 phenotype with limited use of CCR5/CXCR4 chimeric receptors. In comparison, HIV-1 isolates with broader use of CCR5/CXCR4 chimeric receptors or with CXCR4 use were less sensitive to anti-CD40-induced suppression. The results indicate that HIV-1 replication is inhibited by human anti-CD40 monoclonal antibodies through the mechanism of CC-chemokine induction. This effect is thus restricted to HIV-1 isolates sensitive to inhibition by CC-chemokines.

  9. Immunoliposome co-delivery of bufalin and anti-CD40 antibody adjuvant induces synergetic therapeutic efficacy against melanoma

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    Li Y

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ying Li,1,* Jiani Yuan,1,* Qian Yang,1 Wei Cao,1 Xuanxuan Zhou,1 Yanhua Xie,1 Honghai Tu,2 Ya Zhang,1 Siwang Wang1 1Department of Natural Medicine and Institute of Materia Medica, School of Pharmacy, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, People’s Republic of China; 2Institute for Drug and Instrument Control, Xinjiang Military Area Command, Urumqi, Xinjiang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Liposomes constitute one of the most popular nanocarriers for improving the delivery and efficacy of agents in cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to design and evaluate immunoliposome co-delivery of bufalin and anti-CD40 to induce synergetic therapeutic efficacy while eliminating systemic side effects. Bufalin liposomes (BFL conjugated with anti-CD40 antibody (anti-CD40-BFL showed enhanced cytotoxicity compared with bufalin alone. In a mouse B16 melanoma model, intravenous injection of anti-CD40-BFL achieved smaller tumor volume than did treatment with BFL (average: 117 mm3 versus 270 mm3, respectively; the enhanced therapeutic efficacy through a caspase-dependent pathway induced apoptosis, which was confirmed using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-Fluorescein nick end labeling and Western blot assay. Meanwhile, anti-CD40-BFL elicited unapparent body-weight changes and a significant reduction in serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, interferon-γ, and hepatic enzyme alanine transaminase, suggesting minimized systemic side effects. This may be attributed to the mechanism by which liposomes are retained within the tumor site for an extended period of time, which is supported by the following biodistribution and flow cytometric analyses. Taken together, the results demonstrated a highly promising strategy for liposomal vehicle transport of anti-CD40 plus bufalin that can be used to enhance antitumor effects via synergetic systemic

  10. CD40L deficiency attenuates diet-induced adipose tissue inflammation by impairing immune cell accumulation and production of pathogenic IgG-antibodies.

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    Dennis Wolf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adipose tissue inflammation fuels the metabolic syndrome. We recently reported that CD40L--an established marker and mediator of cardiovascular disease--induces inflammatory cytokine production in adipose cells in vitro. Here, we tested the hypothesis that CD40L deficiency modulates adipose tissue inflammation in vivo. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: WT or CD40L(-/- mice consumed a high fat diet (HFD for 20 weeks. Inflammatory cell recruitment was impaired in mice lacking CD40L as shown by a decrease of adipose tissue macrophages, B-cells, and an increase in protective T-regulatory cells. Mechanistically, CD40L-deficient mice expressed significantly lower levels of the pro-inflammatory chemokine MCP-1 both, locally in adipose tissue and systemically in plasma. Moreover, levels of pro-inflammatory IgG-antibodies against oxidized lipids were reduced in CD40L(-/- mice. Also, circulating low-density lipoproteins and insulin levels were lower in CD40L(-/- mice. However, CD40L(-/- mice consuming HFD were not protected from the onset of diet-induced obesity (DIO, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis, suggesting that CD40L selectively limits the inflammatory features of diet-induced obesity rather than its metabolic phenotype. Interestingly, CD40L(-/- mice consuming a low fat diet (LFD showed both, a favorable inflammatory and metabolic phenotype characterized by diminished weight gain, improved insulin tolerance, and attenuated plasma adipokine levels. CONCLUSION: We present the novel finding that CD40L deficiency limits adipose tissue inflammation in vivo. These findings identify CD40L as a potential mediator at the interface of cardiovascular and metabolic disease.

  11. PPARα agonist fenofibrate attenuates TNF-α-induced CD40 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes via the SIRT1-dependent signaling pathway

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    Wang, Weirong [Department of Pharmacology, Cardiovascular Research Center, School of Medicine, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710061 (China); Lin, Qinqin [Physical Education College, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, Hebei 066004 (China); Lin, Rong, E-mail: linrong63@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Cardiovascular Research Center, School of Medicine, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710061 (China); Zhang, Jiye [Faculty of Pharmacy, School of Medicine, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710061 (China); Ren, Feng; Zhang, Jianfeng; Ji, Meixi; Li, Yanxiang [Department of Pharmacology, Cardiovascular Research Center, School of Medicine, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710061 (China)

    2013-06-10

    The ligand-activated transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) participates in the regulation of cellular inflammation. More recent studies indicated that sirtuin1 (SIRT1), a NAD{sup +}-dependent deacetylase, regulates the inflammatory response in adipocytes. However, whether the role of PPARα in inflammation is mediated by SIRT1 remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of PPARα agonist fenofibrate on the expressions of SIRT1 and pro-inflammatory cytokine CD40 and underlying mechanisms in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We found that fenofibrate inhibited CD40 expression and up-regulated SIRT1 expression in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-stimulated adipocytes, and these effects of fenofibrate were reversed by PPARα antagonist GW6471. Moreover, SIRT1 inhibitors sirtinol/nicotinamide (NAM) or knockdown of SIRT1 could attenuate the effect of fenofibrate on TNF-α-induced CD40 expression in adipocytes. Importantly, NF-κB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) augmented the effect of fenofibrate on CD40 expression in adipocytes. Further study found that fenofibrate decreased the expression of acetylated-NF-κB p65 (Ac-NF-κB p65) in TNF-α-stimulated adipocytes, and the effect of fenofibrate was abolished by SIRT1 inhibition. In addition, fenofibrate up-regulated SIRT1 expression through AMPK in TNF-α-stimulated adipocytes. Taken together, these findings indicate that PPARα agonist fenofibrate inhibits TNF-α-induced CD40 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes via the SIRT1-dependent signaling pathway. -- Highlights: • Fenofibrate up-regulates SIRT1 expression in TNF-α-stimulated adipocytes. • Fenofibrate inhibits CD40 expression through SIRT1 in adipocytes. • The effects of fenofibrate on CD40 and SIRT1 expressions are dependent on PPARα. • Fenofibrate inhibits CD40 expression via SIRT1-dependent deacetylation of NF-κB. • Fenofibrate increases SIRT1 expression through PPARα and AMPK in adipocytes.

  12. Protective Mechanisms of Guanosine from Solanum lycopersicum on Agonist-Induced Platelet Activation: Role of sCD40L

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    Iván Palomo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past 30 years, only three natural products have been sources of new drugs with antiplatelet activity. In this study, we have demonstrated for the first time that guanosine from Solanum lycopersicum possesses antiplatelet (secretion, spreading, adhesion and aggregation activity in vitro and inhibition of platelet inflammatory mediator of atherosclerosis (sCD40L. According to ADP-induced platelet aggregation inhibiting, the total extract residue was fractionated by liquid chromatography/phase separation, affording an aqueous fraction. This fraction was subjected to repeated permeation over Sephadex LH-20 and semi-preparative TLC. The isolated compound finally obtained was identified as guanosine on the basis of its UV-spectra, HPLC and 1H-NMR data. Guanosine concentration dose-dependently (1 to 4 mmol/L inhibited platelet secretion and aggregation induced by ADP and collagen. Spread of human platelets on collagen in the presence of guanosine was fully inhibited. After incubation of whole blood with guanosine, the platelet adhesion and aggregation under flow conditions was inhibited concentration dependently (0.2 to 2 mmol/L. At the same concentrations that guanosine inhibits platelet aggregation, levels of sCD40L were significantly decreased. Guanosine is thus likely to exert significant protective effects in thromboembolic-related disorders by inhibiting platelet aggregation.

  13. CD40 signaling and Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis.

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    Town, T; Tan, J; Mullan, M

    2001-01-01

    The interaction between CD40 and its cognate ligand, CD40 ligand, is a primary regulator of the peripheral immune response, including modulation of T lymphocyte activation, B lymphocyte differentiation and antibody secretion, and innate immune cell activation, maturation, and survival. Recently, we and others have identified CD40 expression on a variety of CNS cells, including endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, astroglia and microglia, and have found that, on many of these cells, CD40 expression is enhanced by pro-inflammatory stimuli. Importantly, the CD40-CD40 ligand interaction on microglia triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that are discussed, beginning with Src-family kinase activation and culminating in microglial activation as evidenced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion. Based on the involvement of microglial activation and brain inflammation in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis, we have investigated co-stimulation of microglia, smooth muscle, and endothelial cells with CD40 ligand in the presence of low doses of freshly solubilized amyloid-beta peptides. Data reviewed herein show that CD40 ligand and amyloid-beta act synergistically to promote pro-inflammatory responses by these cells, including secretion of interleukin-1 beta by endothelial cells and tumor necrosis factor-alpha by microglia. As these cytokines have been implicated in neuronal injury, a comprehensive model of pro-inflammatory CD40 ligand and amyloid-beta initiated Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis (mediated by multiple CNS cells) is proposed.

  14. Anti-CD40-mediated cancer immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Sufia Butt; Sørensen, Jesper Freddie; Olsen, Barbara Nicola

    2014-01-01

    activation and thus enhancement of immune responses. Treatment with anti-CD40 monoclonal antibodies has been exploited in several cancer immunotherapy studies in mice and led to the development of anti-CD40 antibodies for clinical use. Here, Dacetuzumab and Lucatumumab are in the most advanced stage...... with other cancer immunotherapies, in particular interleukin (IL)-2. An in-depth analysis of this immunotherapy is provided elsewhere. In the present review, we provide an update of the most recent clinical trials with anti-CD40 antibodies. We present and discuss recent and ongoing clinical trials...... in this field, including clinical studies which combine anti-CD40 treatment with other cancer-treatments, such as Rituximab and Tremelimumab....

  15. 一株识别肿瘤细胞上CD40突变体分子的单克隆抗体的研制及其生物学功能研究%Preparation and characterization of a mouse anti-human CD40 mutant monoclonal antibody

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑舒丹; 马泓冰; 高超; 汪家敏; 孙静; 罗先富; 张学光

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To prepare and characterize a mouse anti-human CD40 mutant monoclonal mAb. METHODS: Female BALB/c mice of 6-8 weeks old were immunized with CD40 mutant transfectant (L929-CD40mu) as immunogen. The spleen B cells of the mice were fused with Sp2/0 myeloma cells. The hybridoma cells were screened with CD40 mutant transfectant (L929-CD40mu) by FCM. Faststrip analysis was performed to identify Ig subclass of this mAb. The epitope recognized by this mAb was detected by Bio-5C11 competitive assay. Western blot technique was adopted to identify the mAb. The proliferation of tumor cells in vitro was analyzed by MTT assay and apoptosis of tumor cells in vitro was analyzed by PI-annexin V assay. RESULTS: One hybridoma cell line named 10C5 was obtained, which had the property of secreting anti-human CD40 mutant monoclonal antibody continuously and steadily. This mAb specifically recognized human CD40 mutant molecule and induced the apoptosis of tumor cells in vitro. CONCLUSION: One hybridoma cell line which can secret a mouse anti-human CD40 mutant mAb has been prepared successfully. This mAb can inhibit the growth of tumor cells expressing CD40 mutant and induce their apoptosis in vitro.%目的:以本科室发现肿瘤细胞上表达的CD40 787AA突变为基础,研制识别肿瘤细胞上CD40突变体分子的单克隆抗体(mAb),并对其生物学特性作初步分析.方法:以转人CD40突变体转基因细胞L929-CD40mu为免疫原,免疫6~8周龄的雌性BALB/c小鼠;采用B淋巴细胞融合技术,将免疫小鼠脾脏细胞与Sp2/0融合,以L929-CD40mu转基因细胞为抗体筛选阳性细胞,免疫荧光标记法对杂交瘤进行反复筛选和多次的克隆化培养;采用快速定性试纸法及竞争抑制结合试验分析该mAb的亚类及抗原识别位点;免疫印迹法对该mAb进行鉴定;采用MTT法分析mAb在体外对肿瘤细胞的抑制增殖效应以及PI-annexin V方法进行细胞凋亡测定.结果:获得1株稳定分泌鼠抗人CD40mu m

  16. CD40 engagement on dendritic cells induces cyclooxygenase-2 and EP2 receptor via p38 and ERK MAPKs.

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    Harizi, Hedi; Limem, Ilef; Gualde, Norbert

    2011-02-01

    We have previously reported that cyclooxygenase (COX)-2-derived prostaglandin (PG)E2 critically regulates dendritic cell (DC) inflammatory phenotype and function through EP2/EP4 receptor subtypes. As genes activated by CD40 engagement are directly relevant to inflammation, we examined the effects of CD40 activation on inflammatory PGs in murine bone marrow-derived DC (mBM-DC). We showed for the first time that activation of mBM-DC with agonist anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody (anti-CD40 mAb) dose dependently induces the synthesis of significant amounts of PGE2 via inducible expression of COX-2 enzyme, as NS-398, a COX-2-selective inhibitor reduces this upregulation. In contrast to lipopolysaccharide, which upregulates mBM-DC surface levels of EP2 and EP4 receptors, CD40 crosslinking on mBM-DC increases EP2, but not EP4, receptor expression. Flow cytometry analysis and radioligand-binding assay showed that EP2 was the major EP receptor subtype, which binds to PGE2 at the surface of anti-CD40-activated mBM-DC. Upregulation of COX-2 and EP2 levels by CD40 engagement was accompanied by dose-dependent phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and was abrogated by inhibitors of both pathways. Collectively, we demonstrated that CD40 engagement on mBM-DC upregulates COX-2 and EP2 receptor expression through activation of p38 and ERK1/2 MAPK signaling. Triggering the PGE2/EP2 pathway by anti-CD40 mAb resulted on the induction of Th2 immune response. Thus, CD40-induced production of PGE2 by mBM-DC could represent a negative feedback mechanism involving EP2 receptor and limiting the propagation of Th1 responses. Blocking CD40 pathway may represent a novel therapeutic pathway of inhibiting COX-2-derived prostanoids in chronically inflamed tissues (that is, arthritis).

  17. CD40-TNF activation in mice induces extended sickness behavior syndrome co-incident with but not dependent on activation of the kynurenine pathway.

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    Cathomas, Flurin; Fuertig, Rene; Sigrist, Hannes; Newman, Gregory N; Hoop, Vanessa; Bizzozzero, Manuela; Mueller, Andreas; Luippold, Andreas; Ceci, Angelo; Hengerer, Bastian; Seifritz, Erich; Fontana, Adriano; Pryce, Christopher R

    2015-11-01

    The similarity between sickness behavior syndrome (SBS) in infection and autoimmune disorders and certain symptoms in major depressive disorder (MDD), and the high co-morbidity of autoimmune disorders and MDD, constitutes some of the major evidence for the immune-inflammation hypothesis of MDD. CD40 ligand-CD40 immune-activation is important in host response to infection and in development of autoimmunity. Mice given a single intra-peritoneal injection of CD40 agonist antibody (CD40AB) develop SBS for 2-3days characterized by weight loss and increased sleep, effects that are dependent on the cytokine, tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Here we report that CD40AB also induces behavioral effects that extend beyond acute SBS and co-occur with but are not mediated by kynurenine pathway activation and recovery. CD40AB led to decreased saccharin drinking (days 1-7) and decreased Pavlovian fear conditioning (days 5-6), and was without effect on physical fatigue (day 5). These behavioral effects co-occurred with increased plasma and brain levels of kynurenine and its metabolites (days 1-7/8). Co-injection of TNF blocker etanercept with CD40AB prevented each of SBS, reduced saccharin drinking, and kynurenine pathway activation in plasma and brain. Repeated oral administration of a selective indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) inhibitor blocked activation of the kynurenine pathway but was without effect on SBS and saccharin drinking. This study provides novel evidence that CD40-TNF activation induces deficits in saccharin drinking and Pavlovian fear learning and activates the kynurenine pathway, and that CD40-TNF activation of the kynurenine pathway is not necessary for induction of the acute or extended SBS effects.

  18. The Signaling Role of CD40 Ligand in Platelet Biology and in Platelet Component Transfusion

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    Chaker Aoui

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The CD40 ligand (CD40L is a transmembrane molecule of crucial interest in cell signaling in innate and adaptive immunity. It is expressed by a variety of cells, but mainly by activated T-lymphocytes and platelets. CD40L may be cleaved into a soluble form (sCD40L that has a cytokine-like activity. Both forms bind to several receptors, including CD40. This interaction is necessary for the antigen specific immune response. Furthermore, CD40L and sCD40L are involved in inflammation and a panoply of immune related and vascular pathologies. Soluble CD40L is primarily produced by platelets after activation, degranulation and cleavage, which may present a problem for transfusion. Soluble CD40L is involved in adverse transfusion events including transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI. Although platelet storage designed for transfusion occurs in sterile conditions, platelets are activated and release sCD40L without known agonists. Recently, proteomic studies identified signaling pathways activated in platelet concentrates. Soluble CD40L is a good candidate for platelet activation in an auto-amplification loop. In this review, we describe the immunomodulatory role of CD40L in physiological and pathological conditions. We will focus on the main signaling pathways activated by CD40L after binding to its different receptors.

  19. THE EFFECT OF CD40 SIGNAL ON THE ANGIOGENESIS OF CERVICAL CANCER%CD40信号对宫颈癌血管生成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪冬梅; 黄沁; 瞿秋霞; 沈宗姬

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of CD40 signal on the angiogenesis of cervical cancer. Methods The expression of CD40 in human cervical squamous epithelium cancer cell line (SiHa) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were determined by flow cytometry (FCM). Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the secretion for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) of SiHa and HUVEC. And agonistic anti-human CD40 monoclonal antibody(5C11) was used to active CD40 signal. The proliferation of HUVEC was analyzed by 3-(4,5)-dimethylthna 20(-z-yl)-2, 5-diphernyltetra zolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay after treating with 5C11 and SiHa. Results SiHa and HUVEC cell lines both highly expressed CD40,their expression rates were 91. 3% and 91. 1% respectively. SiHa can autocrine VEGF and IL-6, and 5C11 can significantly increase their secretion. HUVEC can autocrine VEGF and IL-6,but,5C11 had no effect on their secretion. 5C11 had no effect on the proliferation of HUVEC, while SiHa can significantly promote the proliferation of HUVEC and 5C11 combined with SiHa can much more significantly promote the proliferation of HUVEC. Conclusion Human cervical cancer cell can autocrine VEGF and IL-6,and CD40 signal can increase their secretion. CD40 signal may promote the proliferation of vascular endothelial cell by increasing the secretion of VEGF and IL-6 in cervical cancer. The CD40 signal may play an important role in the angiogenesis of cervical cancer.%目的 探讨CD40信号对宫颈癌血管生成的影响.方法 采用流式细胞术检测CD40在宫颈鳞癌细胞株(human cervical squamous epithelium cancer cell line,SiHa)及人脐静脉内皮细胞(human umbilical vein endothelial cells,HUVEC)上的表达;酶联免疫吸附实验(enzyme linked immunosorbent assay,ELISA)检测CD40信号对SiHa及HUVEC分泌血管内皮生长因子(vascular endothelial growth factor,VEGF)及白细胞介素6(interleukin-6,IL-6)的影响;噻唑蓝法检测CD

  20. Synergy between CD40 and MyD88 Does Not Influence Host Survival to Salmonella Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Ulf Alexander; Fernandez-Santoscoy, Maria; Tam, Miguel A; Tegtmeyer, Pia; Wick, Mary Jo

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies using purified toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands plus agonistic anti-CD40 antibodies showed that TLRs and CD40 can act synergistically on dendritic cells (DCs) to optimize T cell activation and Th1 differentiation. However, a synergistic effect of TLRs and CD40 during bacterial infection is not known. Here, we show that mice lacking the TLR adaptor MyD88 alone, or lacking both MyD88 and CD40 [double knockout (DKO) mice], are compromised in survival to Salmonella infection but have intact recruitment of neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes as well as unaltered abundance of DC subsets and DC activation in infected tissues. In contrast to infected wildtype and CD40(-/-) mice, both MyD88(-/-) mice and DKO mice lack detectable serum IFN-γ and have elevated IL-10. A synergistic effect of TLRs and CD40 was revealed in co-culture experiments where OT-II T cell proliferation was compromised when DKO DCs were pulsed with OVA protein and OVA323-339 peptide, but not with heat-killed Salmonella expressing OVA (HKSOVA), relative to MyD88(-/-) DCs. By contrast, MyD88(-/-) or DKO DCs pulsed with any of the antigens had a similar ability to induce IFN-γ that was lower than WT or CD40(-/-) DCs. DKO DCs pulsed with HKSOVA, but not with OVA or OVA323-339, had increased IL-10 relative to MyD88(-/-) DCs. Finally, HKSOVA-pulsed MyD88(-/-) and DKO DCs had similar and low induction of NFκB-dependent and -independent genes upon co-culture with OT-II cells. Overall, our data revealed that synergistic effects of CD40 and MyD88 do not influence host survival to Salmonella infection or serum levels of IFN-γ or IL-10. However, synergistic effects of MyD88 and CD40 may be apparent on some (IL-10 production) but not all (OT-II proliferation and IFN-γ production) DC functions and depend on the complexity of the antigen. Indeed, synergistic effects observed using purified ligands and well-defined antigens may not necessarily apply when complex antigens, such as live bacteria

  1. Synergy between CD40 and MyD88 does not influence host survival to Salmonella infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Alexander Wenzel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies using purified TLR ligands plus agonistic anti-CD40 antibodies showed that TLRs and CD40 can act synergistically on dendritic cells (DCs to optimize T cell activation and Th1 differentiation. However, a synergistic effect of TLRs and CD40 during bacterial infection is not known. Here we show that mice lacking the TLR adaptor MyD88 alone, or lacking both MyD88 and CD40 (DKO mice, are compromised in survival to Salmonella infection but have intact recruitment of neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes as well as unaltered abundance of DC subsets and DC activation in infected tissues. In contrast to infected wildtype and CD40-/- mice, both MyD88-/- mice and DKO mice lack detectable serum IFN-γ and have elevated IL-10. A synergistic effect of TLRs and CD40 was revealed in co-culture experiments where OT-II T cell proliferation was compromised when DKO DCs were pulsed with OVA protein and OVA323-339 peptide, but not with heat-killed Salmonella expressing OVA (HKSOVA, relative to MyD88-/- DCs. In contrast, MyD88-/- or DKO DCs pulsed with any of the antigens had a similar ability to induce IFN-γ that was lower than WT or CD40-/- DCs. DKO DCs pulsed with HKSOVA, but not with OVA or OVA323-339, had increased IL-10 relative to MyD88-/- DCs. Finally, HKSOVA-pulsed MyD88-/- and DKO DCs had similar and low induction of NFκB- dependent and -independent genes upon co-culture with OT-II cells. Overall, our data revealed that synergistic effects of CD40 and MyD88 do not influence host survival to Salmonella infection or serum levels of IFN-γ or IL-10. However, synergistic effects of MyD88 and CD40 may be apparent on some (IL-10 production but not all (OT-II proliferation and IFN-γ production DC functions and depend on the complexity of the antigen. Indeed, synergistic effects observed using purified ligands and well-defined antigens may not necessarily apply when complex antigens, such as live bacteria, challenge the immune system.

  2. CD40 activation rescues antiviral CD8⁺ T cells from PD-1-mediated exhaustion.

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    Masanori Isogawa

    Full Text Available The intrahepatic immune environment is normally biased towards tolerance. Nonetheless, effective antiviral immune responses can be induced against hepatotropic pathogens. To examine the immunological basis of this paradox we studied the ability of hepatocellularly expressed hepatitis B virus (HBV to activate immunologically naïve HBV-specific CD8⁺ T cell receptor (TCR transgenic T cells after adoptive transfer to HBV transgenic mice. Intrahepatic priming triggered vigorous in situ T cell proliferation but failed to induce interferon gamma production or cytolytic effector function. In contrast, the same T cells differentiated into cytolytic effector T cells in HBV transgenic mice if Programmed Death 1 (PD-1 expression was genetically ablated, suggesting that intrahepatic antigen presentation per se triggers negative regulatory signals that prevent the functional differentiation of naïve CD8⁺ T cells. Surprisingly, coadministration of an agonistic anti-CD40 antibodyCD40 inhibited PD-1 induction and restored T cell effector function, thereby inhibiting viral gene expression and causing a necroinflammatory liver disease. Importantly, the depletion of myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs strongly diminished the αCD40 mediated functional differentiation of HBV-specific CD8⁺ T cells, suggesting that activation of mDCs was responsible for the functional differentiation of HBV-specific CD8⁺ T cells in αCD40 treated animals. These results demonstrate that antigen-specific, PD-1-mediated CD8⁺ T cell exhaustion can be rescued by CD40-mediated mDC-activation.

  3. Constitutive activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase predisposes diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cell lines to CD40-mediated cell death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollmann, C Annette; Owens, Trevor; Nalbantoglu, Josephine;

    2006-01-01

    CD40 promotes survival, proliferation, and differentiation of normal B cells but can cause activation-induced cell death in malignant B lymphocytes. CD40 ligand and anti-CD40 antibodies have been used successfully to induce apoptosis in lymphoma lines both in vitro and in xenograft tumor models...... a specific cell line or tumor will undergo apoptosis when stimulated with CD40 and to identify targets downstream of CD40 that affect only the apoptotic arm of CD40 signaling. We have analyzed gene expression patterns in CD40-sensitive and CD40-resistant diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cell lines...... and no increase in ERK activity in response to CD40 stimulation. Our results suggest that constitutive activation of ERK may be required for death signaling by CD40....

  4. Agonistic antibodies reveal the function of GPR56 in human glioma U87-MG cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Shigeyuki; Sakaguchi, Sayaka; Kobayashi, Yuki; Mizuno, Norikazu; Tago, Kenji; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    GPR56 is a member of the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) and is highly expressed in parts of tumor cells. The involvement of GPR56 in tumorigenesis has been reported. We generated agonistic monoclonal antibodies against human GPR56 and analyzed the action and signaling pathway of GPR56. The antibodies inhibited cell migration through the Gq and Rho pathway in human glioma U87-MG cells. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis indicated that the interaction between the GPR56 extracellular domain and transmembrane domain was potentiated by agonistic antibodies. These results demonstrated that functional antibodies are invaluable tools for GPCR research and should open a new avenue for therapeutic treatment of tumors.

  5. TWEAK inhibits TRAF2-mediated CD40 signaling by destabilization of CD40 signaling complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzmann, Steffen; Lang, Isabell; Rosenthal, Alevtina; Schäfer, Viktoria; Weisenberger, Daniela; Carmona Arana, José Antonio; Trebing, Johannes; Siegmund, Daniela; Neumann, Manfred; Wajant, Harald

    2013-09-01

    We found recently that TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) and fibroblast growth factor-inducible-14 (Fn14) by virtue of their strong capability to reduce the freely available cytoplasmic pool of TNFR-associated factor (TRAF)2 and cellular inhibitors of apoptosis (cIAPs) antagonize the functions of these molecules in TNFR1 signaling, resulting in sensitization for apoptosis and inhibition of classical NF-κB signaling. In this study, we demonstrate that priming of cells with TWEAK also interferes with activation of the classical NF-κB pathway by CD40. Likewise, there was strong inhibition of CD40 ligand (CD40L)-induced activation of MAPKs in TWEAK-primed cells. FACS analysis and CD40L binding studies revealed unchanged CD40 expression and normal CD40L-CD40 interaction in TWEAK-primed cells. CD40L immunoprecipitates, however, showed severely reduced amounts of CD40 and CD40-associated proteins, indicating impaired formation or reduced stability of CD40L-CD40 signaling complexes. The previously described inhibitory effect of TWEAK on TNFR1 signaling has been traced back to reduced activity of the TNFR1-associated TRAF2-cIAP1/2 ubiquitinase complex and did not affect the stability of the immunoprecipitable TNFR1 receptor complex. Thus, the inhibitory effect of TWEAK on CD40 signaling must be based at least partly on other mechanisms. In line with this, signaling by the CD40-related TRAF2-interacting receptor TNFR2 was also attenuated but still immunoprecipitable in TWEAK-primed cells. Collectively, we show that Fn14 activation by soluble TWEAK impairs CD40L-CD40 signaling complex formation and inhibits CD40 signaling and thus identify the Fn14-TWEAK system as a potential novel regulator of CD40-related cellular functions.

  6. Agonist antibodies activating the Met receptor protect cardiomyoblasts from cobalt chloride-induced apoptosis and autophagy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, S; Gatti, S; Sala, V; Albano, R; Costelli, P; Casanova, E; Comoglio, P M; Crepaldi, T

    2014-01-01

    Met, the tyrosine kinase receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), mainly activates prosurvival pathways, including protection from apoptosis. In this work, we investigated the cardioprotective mechanisms of Met activation by agonist monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Cobalt chloride (CoCl2), a chemical mimetic of hypoxia, was used to induce cardiac damage in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts, which resulted in reduction of cell viability by (i) caspase-dependent apoptosis and (ii) – surprisingly – autophagy. Blocking either apoptosis with the caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-VAD-fluoromethylketone or autophagosome formation with 3-methyladenine prevented loss of cell viability, which suggests that both processes contribute to cardiomyoblast injury. Concomitant treatment with Met-activating antibodies or HGF prevented apoptosis and autophagy. Pro-autophagic Redd1, Bnip3 and phospho-AMPK proteins, which are known to promote autophagy through inactivation of the mTOR pathway, were induced by CoCl2. Mechanistically, Met agonist antibodies or HGF prevented the inhibition of mTOR and reduced the flux of autophagosome formation. Accordingly, their anti-autophagic function was completely blunted by Temsirolimus, a specific mTOR inhibitor. Targeted Met activation was successful also in the setting of low oxygen conditions, in which Met agonist antibodies or HGF demonstrated anti-apoptotic and anti-autophagic effects. Activation of the Met pathway is thus a promising novel therapeutic tool for ischaemic injury. PMID:24743740

  7. Bim regulates B-cell receptor-mediated apoptosis in the presence of CD40 signaling in CD40-pre-activated splenic B cells differentiating into plasma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuanyuan; Kazama, Hirotaka; Yonehara, Shin

    2012-05-01

    B-cell receptor (BCR)-mediated apoptosis is critical for B-cell development and homeostasis. CD40 signaling has been shown to protect immature or mature B cells from BCR-mediated apoptosis. In this study, to understand the fate of CD40-pre-activated splenic B cells stimulated by BCR engagement in the presence of CD40 signaling, murine splenic B cells were cultured with anti-Igκ and anti-CD40 antibodies after pre-activation with anti-CD40 antibody. We found that apoptosis was induced in the cultured B cells even in the presence of CD40 signaling during the 3-4 days cultivation. We detected up-regulation of Bim expression followed by Bax activation in this apoptotic process and cessation of the apoptosis in Bim-deficient B cells, indicating that Bim is a key regulator of the BCR-mediated apoptosis in the presence of CD40 signaling in CD40-pre-activated B cells. Importantly, this BCR-mediated apoptosis in CD40-pre-activated B cells was shown to be induced at the initiation of plasma cell differentiation at around the preplasmablast stage, and Bim-deficient B cells cultured under these conditions differentiated into plasma cells. Additionally, transforming growth factor-β was found to protect CD40-pre-activated B cells from BCR-mediated apoptosis in the presence of CD40 signaling. Our identified BCR-mediated apoptosis, which is unpreventable by CD40 signaling, suggests a potential mechanism that regulates the elimination of peripheral B cells, which should be derived from nonspecific T-dependent activation of bystander B cells and continuous stimulation with antigens including self-antigens in the presence of T cell help through CD40.

  8. Analysis of the association between CD40 and CD40 ligand polymorphisms and systemic sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teruel, M.; Simeon, C.P.; Broen, J.C.A.; Vonk, M.C.; Carreira, P.; Camps, M.T.; Garcia-Portales, R.; Delgado-Frias, E.; Gallego, M.; Espinosa, G.; Spanish Scleroderma, G.; Beretta, L.; Airo, P.; Lunardi, C.; Riemekasten, G.; Witte, T.; Krieg, T.; Kreuter, A.; Distler, J.H.; Hunzelmann, N.; Koeleman, B.P.; Voskuyl, A.E.; Schuerwegh, A.J.; Gonzalez-Gay, M.A.; Radstake, T.R.D.J.; Martin, J.

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible role of CD40 and CD40 ligand (CD40LG) genes in the susceptibility and phenotype expression of systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: In total, 2,670 SSc patients and 3,245 healthy individuals from four European populations (Spain

  9. Direct Interaction of CD40 on Tumor Cells with CD40L on T Cells Increases the Proliferation of Tumor Cells by Enhancing TGF-β Production and Th17 Differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyemin Kim

    Full Text Available It has recently been reported that the CD40-CD40 ligand (CD40L interaction is important in Th17 development. In addition, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β promotes tumorigenesis as an immunosuppressive cytokine and is crucial in the development of Th17 cells. This study investigated the role of CD40 in breast cancer cells and its role in immunosuppressive function and tumor progression. CD40 was highly expressed in the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB231, and its stimulation with CD40 antibodies caused the up-regulation of TGF-β. Direct CD40-CD40L interaction between MDA-MB231 cells and activated T cells also increased TGF-β production and induced the production of IL-17, which accelerated the proliferation of MDA-MB231 cells through the activation of STAT3. Taken together, the direct CD40-CD40L interaction of breast tumor cells and activated T cells increases TGF-β production and the differentiation of Th17 cells, which promotes the proliferation of breast cancer cells.

  10. Involvement of the cytoplasmic cysteine-238 of CD40 in its up-regulation of CD23 expression and its enhancement of TLR4-triggered responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadiri, Amal; Jundi, Malek; El Akoum, Souhad; Hassan, Ghada S; Yacoub, Daniel; Mourad, Walid

    2015-11-01

    CD40, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, plays a key role in both adaptive and innate immunity. Engagement of CD40 with its natural trimeric ligand or with cross-linked antibodies results in disulfide-linked CD40 (dl-CD40) homodimer formation, a process mediated by the cysteine-238 residues of the cytoplasmic tail of CD40. The present study was designed to elucidate the biological relevance of cysteine-238-mediated dl-CD40 homodimers to the expression of CD23 on B cells and to investigate its possible involvement in the innate response. Our results indicate that cysteine-238-mediated dl-CD40 homodimerization is required for CD40-induced activation of PI3-kinase/Akt signaling and the subsequent CD23 expression, as inhibition of dl-CD40 homodimer formation through a point mutation-approach specifically impairs these responses. Interestingly, cysteine-238-mediated dl-CD40 homodimers are also shown to play a crucial role in Toll-like receptor 4-induced CD23 expression, further validating the importance of this system in bridging innate and adaptive immune responses. This process also necessitates the activation of the PI3-kinase/Akt cascade. Thus, our results highlight new roles for CD40 and cysteine-238-mediated CD40 homodimers in cell biology and identify a potential new target for therapeutic strategies against CD40-associated chronic inflammatory diseases.

  11. B-NHL患者骨髓单个核细胞表面CD40CD40L的表达及意义%Expressions and significance of CD40,CD40L in bone marrow mononuclear cell surface of patients with B-cell Non-Hodgkin′s Lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘爱春; 任宏伟; 鄂明艳; 王燕

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨B细胞非霍奇金淋巴瘤(B cell Non-Hodgkin′s Lymphoma,B-NHL)患者骨髓单个核细胞( BMMC)表面CD40CD40 L的表达情况及变化规律,分析CD40CD40 L表达与淋巴瘤发病、侵袭性及预后的关系及意义。方法采集20例初诊B-NHL伴有骨髓侵犯的患者(实验组)的骨髓标本及12例健康者(对照组)的骨髓标本,分离单个核细胞,采用直接荧光抗体标记,应用流式细胞仪检测细胞表面CD40CD40 L的表达情况。相关实验结果进行统计学比较。结果(1) B-NHL中CD40阳性率(45.78±3.82)%显著高于正常对照组(13.99±2.20)%,P<0.01;B-NHL中CD40L阳性率(3.44±0.88)%显著低于正常对照组(10.64±1.03)%,P<0.01;(2) B -NHL 伴有骨髓侵犯的患者CD40CD40L阳性率与病理类型、LDH值、全身症状呈显著相关,P<0.05;(3) B-NHL伴有骨髓侵犯的患者中CD40CD40L表达呈负相关,r =-0.47,P<0.05。结论(1) CD40CD40L阳性率与病理类型、LDH值、全身症状密切相关,其可能与B-NHL的侵袭性及预后有关;(2) B-NHL患者中CD40表达的增高、CD40L表达的减少可能是影响其发病的因素之一;(3) B-NHL患者中CD40L表达的减少可能与肿瘤免疫逃逸机制有关。%Objective To explore the expressions and changing regularity of CD 40,CD40L in surface of bone marrow mononuclear cell (BMMC)of patients with B -cell Non-Hodgkin′s Lymphoma.To study the rela-tionship between the expressions of CD 40,CD40L and the pathogenesis、infestation、prognosis,clinical implication of patients with Lymphoma .Methods Twenty bone marrow specimens of B -NHL ( experimental group ) and twelve healthy bone marrow specimens(contiol group)were collected.To separate mononuclear cell,we used di-rect fluorescent antibody to mark cells ,the expressions of CD40 and CD40L were determined by flow cytometry

  12. Enhancement of binding activity of soluble human CD40 to CD40 ligand through incorporation of an isoleucine zipper motif

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-hui HE; Li-hui XU; Yi LIU

    2006-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the effect of incorporation of all isoleucine zipper(IZ)motif into CD40 on binding activity of CD40 for the CD40 ligand (CD40L).Methods:Prokaryotic expression vectors for 2 soluble CD40 derivatives,shCD40His and shCD40IZ containing an IZ dowain,were constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli.The recombinant proteins were purified to homogeneity after refolding from inclusion bodies.Their molecular weights in solution of shCD40His and shCD40IZ were compared by size-exclusion chromatography,and their binding activity for CD40L on Jurkat T cells was determined by flow cytometry.Results:shCD40His and shCD40IZ were generated.Both of them possessed significant binding activity for the cognate ligand CD40L expressed on the cell surface.shCD40IZ had much higher binding activity to its ligand(CD40L)than did shCD40His.Furthermore,size-exclusion chromatography demonstrated that shCD40IZ existed in high molecular mass forms that were most likely to be trimers in solution.Conclusion:Incorporation of an IZ motif into CD40 enhances its binding activity for CD40L through trimerization of the CD40 derivative.

  13. Liposomal co-entrapment of CD40mAb induces enhanced IgG responses against bacterial polysaccharide and protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Hatzifoti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antibody against CD40 is effective in enhancing immune responses to vaccines when chemically conjugated to the vaccine antigen. Unfortunately the requirement for chemical conjugation presents some difficulties in vaccine production and quality control which are compounded when multivalent vaccines are required. We explore here an alternative to chemical conjugation, involving the co-encapsulation of CD40 antibody and antigens in liposomal vehicles. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Anti-mouse CD40 mAb or isotype control mAb were co-entrapped individually in cationic liposomal vehicles with pneumococcal polysaccharides or diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. Retention of CD40 binding activity upon liposomal entrapment was assessed by ELISA and flow cytometry. After subcutaneous immunization of BALB/c female mice, anti-polysaccharide and DT/TT responses were measured by ELISA. Simple co-encapsulation of CD40 antibody allowed for the retention of CD40 binding on the liposome surface, and also produced vaccines with enhanced imunogenicity. Antibody responses against both co-entrapped protein in the form of tetanus toxoid, and Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide, were enhanced by co-encapsulation with CD40 antibody. Surprisingly, liposomal encapsulation also appeared to decrease the toxicity of high doses of CD40 antibody as assessed by the degree of splenomegaly induced. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Liposomal co-encapsulation with CD40 antibody may represent a practical means of producing more immunogenic multivalent vaccines and inducing IgG responses against polysaccharides without the need for conjugation.

  14. Efficacy of a triple treatment with irradiation, agonistic TRAIL receptor antibodies and EGFR blockade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niyazi, Maximilian; Marini, Patrizia [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, CCC Tuebingen (Germany); Daniel, Peter T. [Clinical and Molecular Oncology, Charite, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany); Humphreys, Robin [Oncology Research Dept., Human Genome Sciences Inc., Rockville, MD (United States); Jendrossek, Verena [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, CCC Tuebingen (Germany); Dept. of Molecular Cell Biology, Essen (Germany); Belka, Claus [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, CCC Tuebingen (Germany); Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Ludwig Maximilian Univ., Munich (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    Background and purpose: since the efficacy of a single targeted agent in combination with ionizing radiation is limited by putative treatment resistances, a rationally designed triple treatment consisting of an agonistic antibody targeting either TRAIL-R1 (mapatumumab) or TRAIL-R2 (lexatumumab), radiation and an epidermal growth factor receptor-(EGFR-)inhibiting antibody (cetuximab) was tested. Material and methods: induction of apoptosis after triple treatment was determined in Colo205, HCT116 and FaDu cells by Hoechst 33342 stain. The degree of interaction was determined by isobologram analysis. A knockout variant of HCT116 was used to examine Bax dependence of the triple treatment. The role of Akt/PKB signaling was analyzed using the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002. Clonogenic assays were performed to examine the effect on clonogenic survival of tumor cells. Results: a synergistic effect of radiation, cetuximab and agonistic TRAIL-R antibodies was demonstrated in cell lines derived from colorectal tumors or head-and-neck cancers. The efficacy of this multimodal approach was dependent on Bax and inhibition of Akt/PKB in the cell systems used. The results also show a positive impact on clonogenic cell death in several cell lines. Conclusion: these data suggest that rationally designed multimodal therapy approaches integrating radiation with more than one targeted agent will open new perspectives in radiation oncology. (orig.)

  15. Persistence of high CD40 and CD40L expression after restorative proctocolectomy for ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lino Polese; Mauro Frego; Davide F D'Amico; Tmerio Angriman; Giuseppe De Franchis; Attilio Cecchetto; Giacomo C. Sturniolo; Renata D'Incà; Marco Scarpa; Cesare Ruffolo; Lorenzo Norberto

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To focus on the role of CD40 and CD40L in their pathogenesis.METHODS: We analyzed by immunohistochemistry the CD40 and CD40L expression in the pouch mucosa of 28 patients who had undergone RPC for UC, in the terminal ileum of 6 patients with UC and 11 healthy subjects. We also examined by flow cytometry the expression of CD40 by B lymphocytes and monocytes in the peripheral blood of 20 pouch patients, 15 UC patients and 11 healthy controls.RESULTS: Ileal pouch mucosa leukocytes presented a significantly higher expression of CD40 and CD40L as compared to controls. This alteration correlated with pouchitis, but was also present in the healthy pouch and in the terminal ileum of UC patients. CD40 expression of peripheral B lymphocytes was significantly higher in patients with UC and pouch, respect to controls. Increased CD40 levels in blood B cells of pouch patients correlatedwith the presence of spondyloarthropathy, but not with pouchitis, or inflammatory indices.CONCLUSION: High CD40 expression in the ileal pouch mucosa could be implied in the pathogenesis of pouchitis following proctocolectomy for UC, whereas its increased levels on peripheral blood B lymphocytes are associated with the presence of extraintestinal manifestations.

  16. HOIL-1L interacting protein (HOIP as an NF-kappaB regulating component of the CD40 signaling complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce S Hostager

    Full Text Available The tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR superfamily mediates signals critical for regulation of the immune system. One family member, CD40, is important for the efficient activation of antibody-producing B cells and other antigen-presenting cells. The molecules and mechanisms that mediate CD40 signaling are only partially characterized. Proteins known to interact with the cytoplasmic domain of CD40 include members of the TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF family, which regulate signaling and serve as links to other signaling molecules. To identify additional proteins important for CD40 signaling, we used a combined stimulation/immunoprecipitation procedure to isolate CD40 signaling complexes from B cells and characterized the associated proteins by mass spectrometry. In addition to known CD40-interacting proteins, we detected SMAC/DIABLO, HTRA2/Omi, and HOIP/RNF31/PAUL/ZIBRA. We found that these previously unknown CD40-interacting partners were recruited in a TRAF2-dependent manner. HOIP is a ubiquitin ligase capable of mediating NF-kappaB activation through the ubiquitin-dependent activation of IKKgamma. We found that a mutant HOIP molecule engineered to lack ubiquitin ligase activity inhibited the CD40-mediated activation of NF-kappaB. Together, our results demonstrate a powerful approach for the identification of signaling molecules associated with cell surface receptors and indicate an important role for the ubiquitin ligase activity of HOIP in proximal CD40 signaling.

  17. Evaluation of CD40, its ligand CD40L and Bcl-2 in psoriatic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Chodynicka

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a chronic, recurrent, inflammatory disease. Recent investigations indicate an autoimmune pathogenesis of the disease. Apoptosis plays an important role in the regulation of immune mechanisms in many autoimmune diseases. Although CD40, CD40L, and Bcl-2 have already been studied in psoriatic skin lesions, little is known about their circulating forms. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the serum concentrations of Bcl-2, soluble CD40 and CD40L in psoriatic patients. The study was performed using ELISA kits in 39 psoriatic patients before treatment and after two weeks of topical ointment. Data was analyzed with respect to severity of psoriasis, duration of the disease, and coexisting psoriatic arthritis. Our results revealed that serum concentrations of soluble CD40 and CD40L before and after treatment were significantly higher (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001 in patients with psoriasis compared to the control group. Topical treatment of psoriatic lesions with dithranol ointment failed to decrease serum of CD40 and CD40L, which has not been described until now. There was no significant difference in serum Bcl-2 concentration between the compared groups. We did not find significant differences in serum concentrations of Bcl-2, CD40 or CD40L between patients with mild or severe psoriasis, nor any correlation between disease duration and the presence of psoriatic arthritis symptoms. Our data indicates upregulation of the CD40/CD40L system in psoriatic patients despite topical treatment and suggests their possible role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

  18. Significant mucosal sIgA production after a single oral or parenteral administration using in vivo CD40 targeting in the chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Wen-Ko; Chen, Chang-Hsin; Vuong, Christine N; Abi-Ghanem, Daad; Waghela, Suryakant D; Mwangi, Waithaka; Bielke, Lisa R; Hargis, Billy M; Berghman, Luc R

    2016-10-01

    Many pathogens enter the host through mucosal surfaces and spread rapidly via the circulation. The most effective way to prevent disease is to establish mucosal and systemic immunity against the pathogen. However, current vaccination programs in poultry industry require repeated administrations of live-attenuated virus or large amounts (10 to 100μg) of antigen together with adjuvant to induce specific secretory IgA immune responses at the mucosal effector sites. In the present study, we show that a single administration of 0.4μg of oligopeptide complexed with an agonistic anti-chicken CD40 (chCD40) monoclonal antibody (Mab) effectively targets antigen-presenting cells of the bird's mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in vivo, and induces peptide-specific secretory IgA (sIgA) in the trachea 7days post administration. Anti-chCD40 Mab-peptide complex was administered once to four-week old male Leghorns via various mucosal routes (orally, via cloacal drinking, or oculo-nasally) or via subcutaneous (s.c.) immunization. Immunization through any of the three mucosal induction routes induced significant peptide-specific mucosal sIgA responses 7 and 14days after immunization. Interestingly, s.c. injection of the complex also induced mucosal sIgA. Our data suggest in vivo targeting of CD40 as a potential adjuvant platform, particularly for the purpose of enhancing and speeding up mucosal vaccine responses in chickens, and potentially other food animals. This is the first study able to elicit specific sIgA immune responses in remote mucosal sites with a single administration of only 0.4μg of antigen.

  19. Establishment and Identification of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Lines with Stable Expression of Soluble CD40 Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIANG Hua-wei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish the Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO cell lines with stable expression of soluble CD40 ligands (sCD40L. Methods: Recombinant plasmid pIRES2-EGFP-sCD40L, enzyme digestion and sequencing identification were obtained by cloning sCD40L coding sequences into eukaryotic expression vector pIRES2-EGFP from carrier pDC316-sCD40 containing sCD40L. CHO cells were transfected by electroporation, followed by screening of resistant clones with G418, after which monoclones were obtained by limited dilution assay and multiply cultured. Flow cytometer and reverted fluorescence microscope were applied to observe the expression of green fluorescent protein, while sCD40L expression was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA from aspects of deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA, messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA and protein, respectively. CHO-sCD40L was cultured together with MDA-MB-231 cells to compare the expression changes of surface molecule fatty acid synthase (Fas by flow cytometer and observe the apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells after Fas activated antibodies (CH-11 were added 24 h later. Results: Plasmid pIRES2-EGFP-sCD40L was successfully established, and cell lines with stable expression of sCD40L were obtained with cloned culture after CHO cell transfection, which was named as B11. Flow cytometer and reverted fluorescence microscope showed >90% expression of green fluorescent protein, while PCR, RT-PCR and ELISA suggested integration of sCD40L genes into cell genome DNA, transcription of sCD40L mRNA and sCD40L protein expression being (4.5±2.1 ng/mL in the supernatant of cell culture, respectively. After co-culture of B11 and MDA-MB-231 cells, the surface Fas expression of MDA-MB-231 cells was increased from (3±1.02 % to (34.8±8.75%, while the apoptosis rate 24 h after addition of CH11 from (5.4±1.32% to (20.7±5.24%, and the differences

  20. Expression of CD40 and CD40L in Gastric Cancer Tissue and Its Clinical Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Li

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available To study expression of CD40 and CD40L in gastric cancer tissue we assessed gastric cancer patients admitted to the Department of Gastroenterology of The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University and control subjects. Gastric cancer and normal (from around tumours tissue samples were obtained from patients. Venous blood samples (gastric cancer and ulcer groups were drawn on the morning of the day before surgery for the measurement of peripheral sCD40L. The expression of CD40 in gastric carcinoma specimens was examined immuno-histochemically. The clinicopathological factors, including age, sex, tumor size, gross appearance, degree of cellular differentiation, histological classification, depth of tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis, peritoneal dissemination, and TNM stage were analyzed according to the different expression of CD40. The results indicated a high CD40 expression in gastric cancer tissues. This positive expression of CD40 revealed a significant (P < 0.05 correlation with lymphatic metastasis and tumor TNM stage in gastric cancer patients. It is concluded that higher CD40 expression existed in expanding type tumors and could play an important role in clinical diagnosis of gastric cancer patients.

  1. Nanovesicle-targeted Kv1.3 knockdown in memory T cells suppresses CD40L expression and memory phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimote, Ameet A; Hajdu, Peter; Kottyan, Leah C; Harley, John B; Yun, Yeoheung; Conforti, Laura

    2016-05-01

    Ca(2+) signaling controls activation and effector functions of T lymphocytes. Ca(2+) levels also regulate NFAT activation and CD40 ligand (CD40L) expression in T cells. CD40L in activated memory T cells binds to its cognate receptor, CD40, on other cell types resulting in the production of antibodies and pro-inflammatory mediators. The CD40L/CD40 interaction is implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders and CD40L is widely recognized as a therapeutic target. Ca(2+) signaling in T cells is regulated by Kv1.3 channels. We have developed lipid nanoparticles that deliver Kv1.3 siRNAs (Kv1.3-NPs) selectively to CD45RO(+) memory T cells and reduce the activation-induced Ca(2+) influx. Herein we report that Kv1.3-NPs reduced NFAT activation and CD40L expression exclusively in CD45RO(+) T cells. Furthermore, Kv1.3-NPs suppressed cytokine release and induced a phenotype switch of T cells from predominantly memory to naïve. These findings indicate that Kv1.3-NPs operate as targeted immune suppressive agents with promising therapeutic potentials.

  2. Differential pathway coupling efficiency of the activated insulin receptor drives signaling selectivity by xmeta, an allosteric partial agonist antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    XMetA, an anti-insulin receptor (IR) monoclonal antibody, is an allosteric partial agonist of the IR. We have previously reported that XMetA activates the “metabolic-biased” Akt kinase signaling pathway while having little or no effect on the “mitogenic” MAPK signaling pathwayof ERK 1/2. To inves...

  3. Vav-1 expression correlates with NFkappaB activation and CD40-mediated cell death in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollmann, Annette; Aloyz, Raquel; Baker, Kristi;

    2010-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is an aggressive malignancy with a variable response to therapy. We have previously shown that DLBCL cell lines differ in their susceptibility to CD40-mediated cell death, and that resistance to CD40-targeted antibodies correlated with increased expression...... of markers of immature B-cell and absence of Vav-1 mRNA. We used gene expression profiling to investigate the mechanism of CD40 resistance in these cell lines, and found that resistance correlated with lack of Vav-1 and inability to activate NFkappaB upon CD40 ligation. Analysis of tissue microarrays of 213...

  4. Soluble CD40 Ligand in Sera of Subjects Exposed to Leishmania infantum Infection Reduces the Parasite Load in Macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrícia Alvisi de Oliveira

    Full Text Available While CD40L is typically a membrane glycoprotein expressed on activated T cells and platelets that binds and activates CD40 on the surface on antigen presenting cells, a soluble derivative (sCD40L that appears to retain its biological activity after cleavage from cell membrane also exists. We recently reported that sCD40L is associated with clinical resolution of visceral leishmaniasis and protection against the disease. In the present study we investigated if this sCD40L is functional and exerts anti-parasitic effect in L. infantum-infected macrophages.Macrophages from normal human donors were infected with L. infantum promastigotes and incubated with either sera from subjects exposed to L. infantum infection, monoclonal antibodies against human CD40L, or an isotype control antibody. We then evaluated infection by counting the number of infected cells and the number of parasites in each cell. We also measured a variety of immune modulatory cytokines in these macrophage culture supernatants by Luminex assay. The addition of sCD40L, either recombinant or from infected individuals' serum, decreased both the number of infected macrophages and number of intracellular parasites. Moreover, this treatment increased the production of IL-12, IL-23, IL-27, IL-15, and IL1β such that negative correlations between the levels of these cytokines with both the infection ratio and number of intracellular parasites were observed.sCD40L from sera of subjects exposed to L. infantum is functional and improves both the control of parasite and production of inflamatory cytokines of infected macrophages. Although the mechanisms involved in parasite killing are still unclear and require further exploration, these findings indicate a protective role of sCD40L in visceral leishmaniasis.

  5. Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity Effector-Enhanced EphA2 Agonist Monoclonal Antibody Demonstrates Potent Activity against Human Tumors

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    Elizabeth M. Bruckheimer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available EphA2 is a receptor tyrosine kinase that has been shown to be overexpressed in a variety of human tumor types. Previous studies demonstrated that agonist monoclonal antibodies targeting EphA2 induced the internalization and degradation of the receptor, thereby abolishing its oncogenic effects. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC activity of EphA2 effector-enhanced agonist monoclonal antibodies was evaluated. With tumor cell lines and healthy human peripheral blood monocytes, the EphA2 antibodies demonstrated ∼80% tumor cell killing. In a dose-dependent manner, natural killer (NK cells were required for the in vitro ADCC activity and became activated as demonstrated by the induction of cell surface expression of CD107a. To assess the role of NK cells on antitumor efficacy in vivo, the EphA2 antibodies were evaluated in xenograft models in severe compromised immunodeficient (SCID mice (which have functional NK cells and monocytes and SCID nonobese diabetic (NOD mice (which largely lack functional NK cells and monocytes. Dosing of EphA2 antibody in the SCID murine tumor model resulted in a 6.2-fold reduction in tumor volume, whereas the SCID/nonobese diabetic model showed a 1.6-fold reduction over the isotype controls. Together, these results demonstrate that the anti-EphA2 monoclonal antibodies may function through at least two mechanisms of action: EphA2 receptor activation and ADCC-mediated activity. These novel EphA2 monoclonal antibodies provide additional means by which host effector mechanisms can be activated for selective destruction of EphA2-expressing tumor cells.

  6. SLAM/SLAM interactions inhibit CD40-induced production of inflammatory cytokines in monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réthi, Bence; Gogolák, Péter; Szatmari, Istvan; Veres, Agota; Erdôs, Erika; Nagy, Laszlo; Rajnavölgyi, Eva; Terhorst, Cox; Lányi, Arpád

    2006-04-01

    Signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM, CD150, or SLAMF1) is a self-ligand receptor on the surface of activated T- and B-lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs). Here we examine the effect of SLAM/SLAM interactions on CD40L-induced CD40 signaling pathways in human DCs. CD40L-expressing L929 cells induced DCs to produce interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and IL-12, which was strongly inhibited by coexpression of SLAM on the surface of the L929 cells. Similarly, transfection of DCs with SLAM strongly reduced CD40L-induced IL-12 production. Furthermore, the negative effect of SLAM/SLAM interactions on CD40L-induced DC activation was also detected in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS-induced IL-12 secretion, however, was not inhibited by SLAM engagement. CD40L-activated DCs affected by exposure to SLAM/SLAM engagement were impaired in their ability to induce differentiation of naive T lymphocytes into interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-producing T-helper 1 (Th1) effector cells. These inhibitory effects were not the result of a general unresponsiveness of DCs to CD40L, as SLAM/SLAM interactions did not prevent CD40L-induced up-regulation of CD83, CD86, or human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ on the surface of DCs. Taken together, the results indicate that SLAM/SLAM interactions inhibit CD40-induced signal transduction in monocyte-derived dendritic cells, an effect that was not detectable in earlier studies using anti-SLAM monoclonal antibodies.

  7. Giving blood: a new role for CD40 in tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Stephan; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo

    2006-10-30

    CD40 was initially identified as a receptor expressed by B cells that is crucial for inducing an effective adaptive immune response. CD40 was subsequently shown to be expressed by endothelial cells and to promote angiogenesis. New data now show that in tumor-prone transgenic mice, CD40-mediated neovascularization is essential for early stage tumorigenicity. This suggests, at least in this mouse model, that CD40 has an important role in the angiogenic process that is coupled to carcinogenesis, a finding that could lead to novel therapeutic opportunities.

  8. CD40/CD40L Dyad in the Inflammatory and Immune Responses in the Central Nervous System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keqiang Chen; Jian Huang; Wanghua Gong; Lingzhi Zhang; Peichu Yu; Ji Ming Wang

    2006-01-01

    CD40 and its cognate ligand (CD40L) are a pair of regulators of pro-inflammatory and immune responses. In the central nervous system (CNS), CD40 is expressed on a variety of cells, including vascular endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, astrocytes and microglia (the brain macrophages, being the most sensitive cell type to respond to CD40 ligand). Interaction between CD40 on microglia and CD40L presented by infiltrating T lymphocytes and other resident CNS cells triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that promote the production of a wide array of cytokines, chemokines and neurotoxins. Thus, both molecules serve as amplifiers of pro-inflammatory and immune responses in the CNS and constitute important molecular targets for therapeutic intervention of diseases.

  9. 红笛鲷CD40和去除信号肽CD40的原核表达%Optimization of Prokaryotic Expression of CD40 and CD40 Gene without Signal Sequence in Red Snapper (Lutjanus sanguineus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊云霞; 简纪常; 鲁义善; 吴灶和

    2013-01-01

    Two pairs of gene specific primer were designed according to the red snapper CD40 gene cDNA sequences. The open reading frame and partial without signal sequence of CD40 from the head kidney were amplified using RT-PCR method, and then inserted them into the pET-32a(+) vector to construct prokaryotic expression plasmids pET32-CD40 and pET32-△CD40, respectively. The recombinant pET32-CD40 and pET32-△CD40 fusion proteins were transformed to E.coli Rosetta cells in the presence of IPTG. There were two clear protein bands in the 54 ku and 53 ku, respectively. To enhance the expression level of the fusion protein, the optimized induction conditions of pET32-CD40 were 37 ℃, initial D(600 nm) 0.4, IPTG 0.08 mmol/L, and induction time 5 h;and the optimized induction conditions of pET32-△CD40 were 37 ℃, initial D(600 nm) 0.6, IPTG 0.10 mmol/L, and induction time 6 h. Under the optimal expression condition, the expression of pET32-△CD40 was higher than that of pET-CD40. RNA structure software analysis showed that the 5’ end sequences of CD40 mRNA had formed a complex and relatively stable secondary structure to repress the transcriptional initiation, which indicated that the existence of the signal peptide sequences may had an influence on the CD40 gene in prokaryotic expression.%根据红笛鲷(Lutjanus sanguineus)CD40基因cDNA全长序列设计2对特异性引物,利用RT-PCR技术从红笛鲷头肾组织中扩增出CD40 ORF序列和去信号肽序列,分别与原核表达载体pET-32a(+)相连,构建原核重组表达质粒,命名为pET32-CD40和pET32-△CD40,并分别转化至大肠杆菌Rosetta,经IPTG诱导后,分别于54 ku和53 ku处有清晰的目的蛋白条带。融合蛋白的表达效率最佳的表达条件,pET32-CD40是诱导温度37℃,起始D(600nm)为0.4,IPTG浓度为0.08 mmol/L,诱导5 h;pET32-△CD40是诱导温度37℃,起始D(600nm)为0.6,IPTG浓度为0.10 mmol/L,诱导6 h。在各自优

  10. Relationship between expression of CD40-CD40 ligand system and serum cholesterol levels in patients with hypercholesterolemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严金川; 吴宗贵; 李莉; 仲人前; 孔宪涛

    2004-01-01

    @@ Hypercholesterolemia is associated with the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Enhanced levels of thrombin, fibrinogen and factor Ⅶc directly correlate with cholesterol levels.1 Activated platelets adhere to the intact endothelium and induce inflammatory responses in the endothelium, which substantially contribute to the early phase of atherosclerosis. Emerging lines of evidence support the role of CD40-CD40L interactions in atherosclerosis, thrombosis and inflammation.2 In atherosclerosis, inhibition of the CD40-CD40L interaction in LDL receptors or ApoE-deficient mice prevents the initiation of atherosclerosis and the evolvement of established atherosclerotic lesions to more advanced lesions.

  11. Soluble CD40 ligand in acute coronary syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Heeschen (Christopher); S. Dimmeler (Stefanie); C.W. Hamm (Christian); A.M. Zeiher (Andreas); M.L. Simoons (Maarten); M.J.B.M. van den Brand (Marcel); H. Boersma (Eric)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: CD40 ligand is expressed on platelets and released from them on activation. We investigated the predictive value of soluble CD40 ligand as a marker for clinical outcome and the therapeutic effect of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor inhibition in patients with acute coronary syn

  12. Human agonistic TRAIL receptor antibodies Mapatumumab and Lexatumumab induce apoptosis in malignant mesothelioma and act synergistically with cisplatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felley-Bosco Emanuela

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM is associated with exposure to asbestos, and projections suggest that the yearly number of deaths in Western Europe due to MPM will increase until 2020. Despite progress in chemo- and in multimodality therapy, MPM remains a disease with a poor prognosis. Inducing apoptosis by tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL or agonistic monoclonal antibodies which target TRAIL-receptor 1 (TRAIL-R1 or TRAIL-R2 has been thought to be a promising cancer therapy. Results We have compared the sensitivity of 13 MPM cell lines or primary cultures to TRAIL and two fully human agonistic monoclonal antibodies directed to TRAIL-R1 (Mapatumumab and TRAIL-R2 (Lexatumumab and examined sensitization of the MPM cell lines to cisplatin-induced by the TRAIL-receptor antibodies. We found that sensitivity of MPM cells to TRAIL, Mapatumumab and Lexatumumab varies largely and is independent of TRAIL-receptor expression. TRAIL-R2 contributes more than TRAIL-R1 to death-receptor mediated apoptosis in MPM cells that express both receptors. The combination of cisplatin with Mapatumumab or Lexatumumab synergistically inhibited the cell growth and enhanced apoptotic death. Furthermore, pre-treatment with cisplatin followed by Mapatumumab or Lexatumumab resulted in significant higher cytotoxic effects as compared to the reverse sequence. Combination-induced cell growth inhibition was significantly abrogated by pre-treatment of the cells with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine. Conclusion Our results suggest that the sequential administration of cisplatin followed by Mapatumumab or Lexatumumab deserves investigation in the treatment of patients with MPM.

  13. Simvastatin antagonizes CD40L secretion, CXC chemokine formation, and pulmonary infiltration of neutrophils in abdominal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Su; Rahman, Milladur; Zhang, Songen; Qi, Zhongquan; Thorlacius, Henrik

    2011-05-01

    Statins have been reported to exert anti-inflammatory actions and protect against septic organ dysfunction. Herein, we hypothesized that simvastatin may attenuate neutrophil activation and lung damage in abdominal sepsis. Male C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with simvastatin (0.5 or 10 mg/kg) before CLP. In separate groups, mice received an anti-CD40L antibody or a CXCR2 antagonist (SB225002) prior to CLP. BALF and lung tissue were harvested for analysis of neutrophil infiltration, as well as edema and CXC chemokine formation. Blood was collected for analysis of Mac-1 and CD40L expression on neutrophils and platelets, as well as soluble CD40L in plasma. Simvastatin decreased CLP-induced neutrophil infiltration and edema formation in the lung. Moreover, Mac-1 expression increased on septic neutrophils, which was significantly attenuated by simvastatin. Inhibition of CD40L reduced CLP-induced up-regulation of Mac-1 on neutrophils. Simvastatin prevented CD40L shedding from the surface of platelets and reduced circulating levels of CD40L in septic mice. CXC chemokine-induced migration of neutrophils in vitro was decreased greatly by simvastatin. Moreover, simvastatin abolished CLP-evoked formation of CXC chemokines in the lung, and a CXCR2 antagonist attenuated pulmonary accumulation of neutrophils. Our data suggest that the inhibitory effect of simvastatin on pulmonary accumulation of neutrophils may be related to a reduction of CD40L secretion into the circulation, as well as a decrease in CXC chemokine formation in the lung. Thus, these protective mechanisms help to explain the beneficial actions exerted by statins, such as simvastatin, in sepsis.

  14. beta-Adrenergic agonist activity of a monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillet, J G; Kaveri, S V; Durieu, O; Delavier, C; Hoebeke, J; Strosberg, A D

    1985-03-01

    Hybridoma cells bearing monoclonal antibody against the beta-adrenergic ligand alprenolol were used as an immunogen to raise monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies. Of six anti-idiotypic antibodies, which inhibit ligand binding, three were able to recognize beta-adrenergic receptors. One of them, mAb2B4, an IgM that could be amplified into ascites, binds to the beta-adrenergic catecholamine receptors of intact epidermoid A431 cells and precipitates receptors solubilized from plasma membranes by digitonin. This antibody identifies the beta 2-adrenergic receptor of A431 cells as a single 55-kDa protein and stimulates adenylate cyclase activity. This stimulation is inhibited by the beta-adrenergic antagonist propranolol.

  15. Targeting apoptosis: preclinical and early clinical experience with mapatumumab, an agonist monoclonal antibody targeting TRAIL-R1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Patricia; Hotte, Sébastien J

    2009-03-01

    In spite of the advances in survival with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, many cancer patients continue to experience failure with treatments. Advances in molecular oncology and the development of numerous targeted therapies, used by themselves or in combination with at present available treatments such as chemotherapy and radiation, will hopefully improve the fate of these patients. It has been well understood for many years now that deregulation of apoptosis is a major hallmark of cancer cells. Mapatumumab, a fully human agonistic monoclonal antibody to TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor 1, has been developed to induce apoptosis in cancer cells although having minimal effects on normal cells. This paper reviews the preclinical and early clinical data of this exciting new agent and discusses options for future development of mapatumumab, mostly in combinations with other therapies.

  16. CD40 ligand immunotherapy in cancer: an efficient approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwashima, N; Kageyama, S; Eto, Y; Urashima, M

    2001-01-01

    Cancer cells do not elicit a clinically sufficient anti-tumor immune response that results in tumor rejection. Recently, many investigators have been trying to enhance anti-tumor immunity and encouraging results have been reported. This review will discuss current anti-cancer immunotherapy; interleukin-2 therapy, tumor vaccine secreting Granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor, dendritic cells fused with tumor cells, and CD40 ligand immunotherapy. Moreover, we introduce our two kinds of CD40 ligand immuno-genetherapy; (1) oral CD40 ligand gene therapy against lymphoma using attenuated Salmonella typhimurium (published in BLOOD 2000), (2) cancer vaccine transfected with CD40 ligand ex vivo for neuroblastoma (unpublished). Both approaches resulted in a high degree of protection against the tumor progression and they are simple and safe in the murine system.

  17. Effect of interruption of CD40-CD40 ligand interaction induced by CD40 siRNA on proliferation and migration in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells%CD40 siRNA阻断CD40-CD40L轴对HUVEC增殖及迁移的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严金川; 王标; 徐良洁; 杨萍; 王翠平

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨小干扰RNA(siRNA)阻断CD40-CD40配体轴对体外培养人脐静脉内皮细胞(HUVEC)增殖及迁移的影响.方法 采用Ⅱ型胶原酶消化法培养人脐静脉内皮细胞,以3H-胸腺嘧啶脱氧核苷(3H-TdR)、3H-亮氨酸(3H-Leu)掺入法分别测定HUVEC增殖,采用琼脂糖凝胶刮取法,倒置显微镜观察HUVEC迁移.结果 CD40配体能明显促进HUVEC 3H-TdR、3H-Leu的掺入并显著增加HUVEC迁移率,CD40 siRNA能明显抑制上述效应,且呈浓度依赖效应,而最佳预处理细胞时间在48 h.结论 CD40 siRNA能明显抑制CD40-CD40L相互作用引起的HUVEC增殖和迁移.

  18. Increased CD40 ligand in patients with acute anterior uveitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øgard, Carsten; Sørensen, Torben Lykke; Krogh, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The inflammatory response in acute anterior uveitis (AU) is believed to be primarily mediated by autoreactive T-cells. We wanted to evaluate whether the T-cell activation marker CD40 ligand is involved in the AU immunopathogenesis.......The inflammatory response in acute anterior uveitis (AU) is believed to be primarily mediated by autoreactive T-cells. We wanted to evaluate whether the T-cell activation marker CD40 ligand is involved in the AU immunopathogenesis....

  19. Dendritic cells induce Tc1 cell differentiation via the CD40/CD40L pathway in mice after exposure to cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Liang-Jian; Deng, Ting-Ting; Wang, Qin; Qiu, Shi-Lin; Liang, Yi; He, Zhi-Yi; Zhang, Jian-Quan; Bai, Jing; Li, Mei-Hua; Deng, Jing-Min; Liu, Guang-Nan; Liu, Ji-Feng; Zhong, Xiao-Ning

    2016-09-01

    Dendritic cells and CD8(+) T cells participate in the pathology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, including emphysema, but little is known of the involvement of the CD40/CD40L pathway. We investigated the role of the CD40/CD40L pathway in Tc1 cell differentiation induced by dendritic cells in a mouse model of emphysema, and in vitro. C57BL/6J wild-type and CD40(-/-) mice were exposed to cigarette smoke (CS) or not (control), for 24 wk. In vitro experiments involved wild-type and CD40(-/-) dendritic cells treated with CS extract (CSE) or not. Compared with the control groups, the CS mice (both wild type and CD40(-/-)) had a greater percentage of lung dendritic cells and higher levels of major histocompatability complex (MHC) class I molecules and costimulatory molecules CD40 and CD80. Relative to the CS CD40(-/-) mice, the CS wild type showed greater signs of lung damage and Tc1 cell differentiation. In vitro, the CSE-treated wild-type cells evidenced more cytokine release (IL-12/p70) and Tc1 cell differentiation than did the CSE-treated CD40(-/-) cells. Exposure to cigarette smoke increases the percentage of lung dendritic cells and promotes Tc1 cell differentiation via the CD40/CD40L pathway. Blocking the CD40/CD40L pathway may suppress development of emphysema in mice exposed to cigarette smoke.

  20. CD40 Ligand Expression on Stimulated T-Helper Lymphocytes in Patients with Common Variable Immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Ravanbakhsh

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID is the most common symptomatic primary antibody deficiency, characterized by reduced serum immunoglobulins levels and increased susceptibility to recurrent pyogenic infections. In this study, we evaluated CD40 ligand expression on stimulated versus unstimulated T-helper lymphocytes of nine Common variable immunodeficient patients in comparison with fifteen normal controls. Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA and Ionomycin were used to stimulate cells in vitro. After six hours stimulation, the cells were subjected to surface staining with three-color staining procedure. Events were analyzed by flow cytometer, using FloMax software. Results were reported as the percentage of lymphocytes expressing CD markers. We did not find any significant statistical difference in CD40 ligand expression between patients and controls (p>0.05, despite having stimulation documented by CD69 expression as activation marker in each run. The results of this study are in agreement with some other studies, indicating that CD40 ligand expression on stimulated T-helper lymphocytes of Common variable immunodeficiency patients is similar to normal controls.  

  1. Preliminary evidence for a matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2)-dependent shedding of soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) from activated platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinboldt, Stephan; Wenzel, Folker; Rauch, Bernhard H; Hohlfeld, Thomas; Grandoch, Maria; Fischer, Jens W; Weber, Artur-Aron

    2009-09-01

    Platelets are the major source of soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) in the blood. It has been demonstrated that CD40L is cleaved from the surface of activated platelets to release sCD40L. However, the enzyme involved in sCD40L shedding has not been identified yet. Using a panel of pharmacological inhibitors of serine, cysteine, aspartate, or metalloproteinases, preliminary evidence is presented for the hypothesis that matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) might be the protease, primarily responsible for CD40L cleavage from platelet surface.

  2. Mechanisms of Nifedipine-Downregulated CD40L/sCD40L Signaling in Collagen Stimulated Human Platelets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tso-Hsiao Chen

    Full Text Available The platelet-derived soluble CD40L (sCD40L release plays a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis. Nifedipine, a dihydropyridine-based L-type calcium channel blocker (CCB, has been reported to have an anti-atherosclerotic effect beyond its blood pressure-lowering effect, but the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The present study was designed to investigate whether nifedipine affects sCD40L release from collagen-stimulated human platelets and to determine the potential role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/-γ (PPAR-β/-γ. We found that treatment with nifedipine significantly inhibited the platelet surface CD40L expression and sCD40L release in response to collagen, while the inhibition was markedly reversed by blocking PPAR-β/-γ activity with specific antagonist such as GSK0660 and GW9662. Meanwhile, nifedipine also enhanced nitric oxide (NO and cyclic GMP formation in a PPAR-β/-γ-dependent manner. When the NO/cyclic GMP pathway was suppressed, nifedipine-mediated inhibition of sCD40L release was abolished significantly. Collagen-induced phosphorylation of p38MAPK, ERK1/2 and HSP27, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 expression/activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS formation were significantly inhibited by nifedipine, whereas these alterations were all attenuated by co-treatment with PPAR-β/-γ antagonists. Collectively, these results demonstrate that PPAR-β/-γ-dependent pathways contribute to nifedipine-mediated downregulation of CD40L/sCD40L signaling in activated platelets through regulation of NO/ p38MAPK/ERK1/2/HSP27/MMP-2 signalings and provide a novel mechanism regarding the anti-atherosclerotic effect of nifedipine.

  3. Reversal of New-Onset Type 1 Diabetes With an Agonistic TLR4/MD-2 Monoclonal Antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednar, Kyle J; Tsukamoto, Hiroki; Kachapati, Kritika; Ohta, Shoichiro; Wu, Yuehong; Katz, Jonathan D; Ascherman, Dana P; Ridgway, William M

    2015-10-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is currently an incurable disease, characterized by a silent prodromal phase followed by an acute clinical phase, reflecting progressive autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells. Autoreactive T cells play a major role in β-cell destruction, but innate immune cell cytokines and costimulatory molecules critically affect T-cell functional status. We show that an agonistic monoclonal antibody to TLR4/MD-2 (TLR4-Ab) reverses new-onset diabetes in a high percentage of NOD mice. TLR4-Ab induces antigen-presenting cell (APC) tolerance in vitro and in vivo, resulting in an altered cytokine profile, decreased costimulatory molecule expression, and decreased T-cell proliferation in APC:T-cell assays. TLR4-Ab treatment increases T-regulatory cell (Treg) numbers in both the periphery and the pancreatic islet, predominantly expanding the Helios(+)Nrp-1(+)Foxp3(+) Treg subset. TLR4-Ab treatment in the absence of B cells in NOD.scid mice prevents subsequent T cell-mediated disease, further suggesting a major role for APC tolerization in disease protection. Specific stimulation of the innate immune system through TLR4/MD-2, therefore, can restore tolerance in the aberrant adaptive immune system and reverse new-onset T1D, suggesting a novel immunological approach to treatment of T1D in humans.

  4. CD40 Ligand Deficient C57BL/6 Mouse Is a Potential Surrogate Model of Human X-Linked Hyper IgM (X-HIGM Syndrome for Characterizing Immune Responses against Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Lopez-Saucedo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with X-HIGM syndrome fail to express functional CD40 ligand; consequently they cannot mount effective protective antibody responses against pathogenic bacteria. We evaluated, compared, and characterized the humoral immune response of wild type (WT and C57-CD40L deficient (C57-CD40L−/− mice infected with Citrobacter rodentium. Basal serum isotype levels were similar for IgM and IgG3 among mice, while total IgG and IgG2b concentrations were significantly lower in C57-CD40L−/− mice compared with WT. Essentially IgG1 and IgG2c levels were detectable only in WT mice. C57-CD40L−/− animals, orally inoculated with 2×109 CFU, presented several clinical manifestations since the second week of infection and eventually died. In contrast at this time point no clinical manifestations were observed among C57-CD40L−/− mice infected with 1×107 CFU. Infection was subclinical in WT mice inoculated with either bacterial dose. The serum samples from infected mice (1×107 CFU, collected at day 14 after infection, had similar C. rodentium-specific IgM titres. Although C57-CD40L−/− animals had lower IgG and IgG2b titres than WT mice, C57-CD40L−/− mice sera displayed complement-mediated bactericidal activity against C. rodentium. C. rodentium-infected C57-CD40L−/− mice are capable of producing antibodies that are protective. C57-CD40L−/− mouse is a useful surrogate model of X-HIGM syndrome for studying immune responses elicited against pathogens.

  5. CD40 Expression in Fibrocytes Is Induced by TSH: Potential Synergistic Immune Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mester, Tünde; Raychaudhuri, Nupur; Gillespie, Erin F.; Chen, Hong; Smith, Terry J.; Douglas, Raymond S.

    2016-01-01

    Context Fibrocytes appear to participate in inflammation and tissue remodeling in patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). These patients have increased frequencies of circulating TSH receptor (TSHR)- and CD40-positive fibrocytes, suggesting TSHR and CD40 may play roles in proinflammatory cytokine production, which ultimately leads to orbital inflammation and tissue remodeling. Objective To investigate the potential interactions between the TSHR and CD40 signaling pathways and their roles in IL-6 and TNF-α production. Design and Outcome Measures CD40 expression on fibrocytes was assessed using flow cytometry; IL-6 and TNF-α protein release using Luminex technology; increased IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA abundance, using real-time PCR; TSH- and CD40 ligand (CD40L)-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in fibrocytes, by western blot analysis; TSHR-CD40 protein-protein interaction, using co-immunoprecipitation, and CD40-TSHR co-localization, using immunocytochemistry. Results TSH enhances CD40 expression at a pre-translational level in fibrocytes. Production of IL-6 and TNF-α after costimulation with TSH and CD40L was greater than that after TSH or CD40L stimulation alone. TSH and CD40L costimulation also resulted in greater Akt phosphorylation. Akt and nuclear factor (NF)-κB inhibitors significantly reduced cytokine production after TSH and CD40L costimulation. TSHR and CD40L are colocalized on the cell surface and form a complex. Conclusions TSHR and CD40 in fibrocytes appear to be physically and functionally related. TSH stimulates CD40 production on the fibrocyte surface. Cytokine expression upon simultaneous stimulation of TSHR and CD40 is greater than levels achieved with TSH or CD40L alone. Increased expression of CD40 by TSH is a potential mechanism for this process. PMID:27631497

  6. Study of association of CD40-CD154 gene polymorphisms with disease susceptibility and cardiovascular risk in Spanish rheumatoid arthritis patients.

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    Mercedes García-Bermúdez

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with increased cardiovascular (CV mortality. Since CD40-CD154 binding has direct consequences on inflammation process initiation, we aimed to replicate previous findings related to disease susceptibility in Spanish RA population. Furthermore, as the major complication in RA disease patients is the development of CV events due to accelerated atherosclerosis, and elevated levels of CD40L/CD154 are present in patients with acute myocardial infarction, we assessed the potential association of CD40 and CD154/CD40L gene variants with CV risk in Spanish RA patients. METHODS: One thousand five hundred and seventy-five patients fulfilling the 1987 ACR classification criteria for RA and 1600 matched controls were genotyped for the CD40 rs1883832, rs4810485 and rs1535045 and CD154 rs3092952 and rs3092920 gene polymorphisms, using predesigned TaqMan single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping assays. Afterwards, we investigated the influence of CD40-CD154 gene variants in the development of CV events. Also, in a subgroup of 273 patients without history of CV events, we assessed the influence of these polymorphisms in the risk of subclinical atherosclerosis determined by carotid ultrasonography. RESULTS: Nominally significant differences in the allele frequencies for the rs1883832 CD40 gene polymorphism between RA patients and controls were found (p=0.038. Although we did not observe a significant association of CD40-CD154 gene variants with the development of CV events, an ANCOVA model adjusted for sex, age at the time of the ultrasonography assessment, follow-up time, traditional CV risk factors and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies disclosed a significant association (p=0.0047 between CD40 rs1535045 polymorphism and carotid intima media thickness, a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis. CONCLUSION: Data from our pilot study indicate a potential association of rs

  7. 咖啡对血小板糖蛋白ⅡbⅢa、CD40L表达的 急性影响%ACUTE EFFECT OF COFFEE ON EXPRESSION OF PLATELET GLYCOPROTEINS ⅡbⅢa,CD40L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘磊; 潘娟娟; 凌怡; 潘力健; 龚辉

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether the consumption of coffee affects platelets function.Methods Twelve healthy men were enrolled in a 3-week crossover study. In 3 different sessions, subjects drank either coffee (containing 180 mg caffeine), or a caffeine tablet (180mg), or placebo. Platelet glycoproteins Ⅱb/Ⅲa (GPⅡb/Ⅲa), and CD40L expression were detected by flow cytometry at 0h, 2h, 4h. Effects of different concentrations of caffeine on platelet GPⅡb/Ⅲa were detected in vitro.Results Coffee drinking inhibited ADP induced GPⅡb/Ⅲa (P<0.05 VS control at 2h and 4h) and CD40L expression (P<0.05 VS control at 2h and 4h). Coffee drinking also inhibited arachidonic acid induced GPⅡb/Ⅲa (P<0.05 VS control at 2h and 4h) and CD40L expression (P<0.05 VS control at 2h). Caffeine intake did not affect platelet GPⅡb/Ⅲa, CD40L expression induced by the agonists.Conclusion These results indicate that coffee is active in inhibiting platelet GPⅡb/Ⅲa and CD40L expression to some extent in vivo, and may be responsible for the beneficial effects of platelet function. Caffeine dose not show such effect at safe concentrations.%目的 研究咖啡对血小板功能的影响,阐明其中可能的机制.方法 12名健康男性被随机分配到三组之一,进行为期3w的交叉试验,分别饮用相同咖啡因含量(180 mg)的咖啡、咖啡因片剂或安慰剂.分别在即刻0、2、4h采血,对血小板进行全血流式细胞仪分析,测定血小板活化状态糖蛋白ⅡbⅢa(glycoprotein ⅡbⅢa, GPⅡbⅢa)、CD40L表达.另在体外,测定不同浓度咖啡因对血小板GPⅡbⅢa影响.结果 与对照组比较,饮用咖啡抑制二磷酸腺苷(ADP)诱导的GPⅡbⅢa表达(2h和4h,P <0.05)和CD40L表达(2h和4h,P <0.05).咖啡也抑制花生四烯酸诱导GPⅡbⅢa表达(2h和4h,P <0.05)和CD40L表达(2h,P <0.05).安全剂量咖啡因的摄入不影响血小板活化后GPⅡbⅢa和CD40L表达.结论 咖啡在体内可以通过减少血小板GPⅡbⅢa、CD

  8. Novel information on the epitope of an inverse agonist monoclonal antibody provides insight into the structure of the TSH receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Rong Chen

    Full Text Available The TSH receptor (TSHR comprises an extracellular leucine-rich domain (LRD linked by a hinge region to the transmembrane domain (TMD. Insight into the orientation of these components to each other is required for understanding how ligands activate the receptor. We previously identified residue E251 at the LRD-hinge junction as contributing to coupling TSH binding with receptor activation. However, a single residue cannot stabilize the LRD-hinge unit. Therefore, based on the LRD crystal structure we selected for study four other potential LRD-hinge interface charged residues. Alanine substitutions of individual residues K244, E247, K250 and R255 (as well as previously known E251A did not affect TSH binding or function. However, the cumulative mutation of these residues in varying permutations, primarily K250A and R255A when associated with E251A, partially uncoupled TSH binding and function. These data suggest that these three residues, spatially very close to each other at the LRD base, interact with the hinge region. Unexpectedly and most important, monoclonal antibody CS-17, a TSHR inverse agonist whose epitope straddles the LRD-hinge, was found to interact with residues K244 and E247 at the base of the convex LRD surface. These observations, together with the functional data, exclude residues K244 and E247 from the TSHR LRD-hinge interface. Further, for CS-17 accessibility to K244 and E247, the concave surface of the TSHR LRD must be tilted forwards towards the hinge region and plasma membrane. Overall, these data provide insight into the mechanism by which ligands either activate the TSHR or suppress its constitutive activity.

  9. Adsorption of Toll-Like Receptor 4 Agonist to Alum-Based Tetanus Toxoid Vaccine Dampens Pro-T Helper 2 Activities and Enhances Antibody Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolatto, Juliana; Mirotti, Luciana; Rodriguez, Dunia; Gomes, Eliane; Russo, Momtchilo

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum salts gels (alum) are TLR-independent adjuvants and have been used to boost antibody responses in alum-based vaccines such as diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus toxoid (DPT) triple vaccine. However, the pro-Th2 activity of alum-based vaccine formulations has not been fully appreciated. Here we found that alum-based tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccine was biased toward a Th-2 profile as shown by TT-induced airway eosinophilic inflammation, type 2 cytokine production, and high levels of IgE anaphylactic antibodies. The adsorption into alum of prototypic TLR4 agonists such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS) derived from Escherichia coli consistently dampened TT-induced Th2 activities without inducing IFNγ or Th1-like responses in the lung. Conversely, adsorption of monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) extracted from Salmonella minnesota, which is a TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β- (TRIF-) biased TLR4 agonist, was less effective in decreasing Th-2 responses. Importantly, in a situation with antigenic competition (OVA plus TT), TT-specific IgG1 or IgG2a was decreased compared with TT sensitization. Notably, LPS increased the production of IgG1 and IgG2a TT-specific antibodies. In conclusion, the addition of LPS induces a more robust IgG1 and IgG2a TT-specific antibody production and concomitantly decreases Th2-cellular and humoral responses, indicating a potential use of alum/TLR-based vaccines.

  10. Involvement of nuclear factor {kappa}B in platelet CD40 signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hachem, Ahmed [Laboratory of Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Montreal Heart Institute, 5000 Belanger, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H1T 1C8 (Canada); Yacoub, Daniel [Laboratory of Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Montreal Heart Institute, 5000 Belanger, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H1T 1C8 (Canada); Centre Hospitalier Universite de Montreal, 264 boul. Rene-Levesque est, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H2X 1P1 (Canada); Zaid, Younes [Laboratory of Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Montreal Heart Institute, 5000 Belanger, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H1T 1C8 (Canada); Mourad, Walid [Universite de Montreal, Department of Medicine, 2900 boul. Edouard-Montpetit, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3T 1J4 (Canada); Centre Hospitalier Universite de Montreal, 264 boul. Rene-Levesque est, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H2X 1P1 (Canada); Merhi, Yahye, E-mail: yahye.merhi@icm-mhi.org [Laboratory of Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Montreal Heart Institute, 5000 Belanger, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H1T 1C8 (Canada); Universite de Montreal, Department of Medicine, 2900 boul. Edouard-Montpetit, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3T 1J4 (Canada)

    2012-08-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer sCD40L induces TRAF2 association to CD40 and NF-{kappa}B activation in platelets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation downstream of CD40L/CD40 signaling is independent of p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer I{kappa}B{alpha} is required for sCD40L-induced platelet activation and potentiation of aggregation. -- Abstract: CD40 ligand (CD40L) is a thrombo-inflammatory molecule that predicts cardiovascular events. Platelets constitute the major source of soluble CD40L (sCD40L), which has been shown to potentiate platelet activation and aggregation, in a CD40-dependent manner, via p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Rac1 signaling. In many cells, the CD40L/CD40 dyad also induces activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B). Given that platelets contain NF-{kappa}B, we hypothesized that it may be involved in platelet CD40 signaling and function. In human platelets, sCD40L induces association of CD40 with its adaptor protein the tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 2 and triggers phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha}, which are abolished by CD40L blockade. Inhibition of I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation reverses sCD40L-induced I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation without affecting p38 MAPK phosphorylation. On the other hand, inhibition of p38 MAPK phosphorylation has no effect on I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation, indicating a divergence in the signaling pathway originating from CD40 upon its ligation. In functional studies, inhibition of I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation reverses sCD40L-induced platelet activation and potentiation of platelet aggregation in response to a sub-threshold concentration of collagen. This study demonstrates that the sCD40L/CD40 axis triggers NF-{kappa}B activation in platelets. This signaling pathway plays a critical role in platelet activation and aggregation upon sCD40L stimulation and may represent an important target against thrombo

  11. The involvement of the CD40-CD40L pathway in activated platelet-induced changes in HUVEC COX-2 and PPARα expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan-qing; Chen, Xiao-shu; Chai, Jun-bing

    2012-06-01

    We aim to determine the extent of the CD40-CD40L pathway involvement in activated platelet-induced changes in human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs). Activated platelets were co-incubated with HUVECs in the presence or absence of CD40LmAb. HUVECs were also directly stimulated with rhCD40L. HUVEC endothelial cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) expression was then assessed. To estimate COX-2 activity, PGE2 concentration was determined. PPARα activity was assessed using a nuclear factor activity kit. Co-incubation with activated platelets increased HUVEC COX-2 and PPARα mRNA expression (P HUVEC COX-2 mRNA and protein (P HUVEC COX-2 expression and activity partly through the CD40-CD40L pathway.

  12. Co-stimulation by anti-immunoglobulin is required for B cell activation by CD40Llow T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poudrier, J; Owens, T

    1994-01-01

    During cognate B:T interactions, B cells encounter antigen (Ag) through surface immuno-globulin (sIg) and present antigenic peptides to T helper (Th) cells. However, most in vitro systems used to study contact events involved in the delivery of T help for B cells circumvent the requirement for T...... cell Ag specificity by using anti-CD3/T cell receptor (TcR) monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to activate T cells. To study the role of sIg engagement in the responsiveness of B cells to T help, we pre-treated small resting B cells with soluble anti-kappa mAb prior to contact with an activated Th1 clone....... By reducing the concentration of anti-TcR mAb we obtained low levels of CD40 ligand (CD40Llow) on Th cells, comparable to those expressed by lymph node T cells activated in vitro (ex vivo T cells). In contrast to untreated B cells, which did not respond to CD40Llow Th, anti-Ig-treated B cells responded...

  13. Trypanosoma cruzi infection induces the expression of CD40 in murine cardiomyocytes favoring CD40 ligation-dependent production of cardiopathogenic IL-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Mariela Alejandra Moreno; Casasco, Agustina; González, Mariela; Postan, Miriam; Corral, Ricardo Santiago; Petray, Patricia Beatriz

    2016-02-01

    The inflammatory response in the myocardium is an important aspect of the pathogenesis of Chagas' heart disease raised by Trypanosoma cruzi. CD40, a transmembrane type I receptor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family, is expressed in a broad spectrum of cell types and is crucial in several inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Activation of CD40 through ligation to CD40L (CD154) induces multiple effects, including the secretion of proinflammatory molecules. In the present study, we examined the ability of T. cruzi to trigger the expression of CD40 in cardiac myocytes in vitro and in a murine model of chagasic cardiomyopathy. Our results indicate, for the first time, that T. cruzi is able to induce the expression of CD40 in HL-1 murine cardiomyocytes. Moreover, ligation of CD40 receptor upregulated interleukin-6 (IL-6), associated with inflammation. Furthermore, the induction of this costimulatory molecule was demonstrated in vivo in myocardium of mice infected with T. cruzi. This suggests that CD40-bearing cardiac muscle cells could interact with CD40L-expressing lymphocytes infiltrating the heart, thus contributing to inflammatory injury in chagasic cardiomyopathy.

  14. Chronic immune activation in HIV-1 infection contributes to reduced interferon alpha production via enhanced CD40:CD40 ligand interaction.

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    Norbert Donhauser

    Full Text Available Although a signature of increased interferon (IFN-alpha production is observed in HIV-1 infection, the response of circulating plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDC to Toll-like receptor ligand stimulation is substantially impaired. This functional PDC deficit, which we specifically observed in HIV-1 infected individuals with less than 500 CD4+ T cells/µl, is not well understood. We provide evidence that the peripheral IFN-alpha production in HIV-1 infection is actively suppressed by the enhanced interaction of CD40 ligand (CD40L, a member of the tumor necrosis factor family, and its receptor CD40, which are both upregulated upon immune activation. Plasma levels of soluble CD40L were significantly higher in untreated HIV-1 infected individuals (n = 52 than in subjects on long-term antiretroviral therapy (n = 62, p<0.03 and in uninfected control donors (n = 16, p<0.001. Concomitantly, cell-associated CD40L and the expression of the receptor CD40 on the PDC were significantly upregulated in HIV-1 infection (p<0.05. Soluble and cell-associated CD40L inhibited the PDC-derived IFN-alpha production by CpG oligodeoxynucleotides dose-dependently. This suppressive effect was observed at much lower, physiological CD40L concentrations in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC of HIV-1 infected individuals compared to controls (p<0.05. The CpG-induced IFN-alpha production in PBMC of HIV-1 infected donors was directly correlated with PDC and CD4+ T cell counts, and inversely correlated with the viral loads (p<0.001. In HIV-1 infected donors with less than 500 CD4+ T cells/µl, the CpG-induced IFN-alpha production was significantly correlated with the percentage of CD40-expressing PDC and the level of CD40 expression on these cells (p<0.05, whereas CD40L plasma levels played a minor role. In addition, low-dose CD40L contributed to the enhanced production of interleukin 6 and 8 in PBMC of HIV-1 infected donors compared to controls. Our data support

  15. Role for CD40L in the Therapy of Human Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Wei; Xiubao Ren; Xishan Hao

    2005-01-01

    CD40L-CD40 interaction is central to the control of thymusdependent humoral .immunity and cell mediated immune responses.CD40, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNF- R) family,has been found on the surface of B lymphocytes, monocytes, hematopoietic progenitors, dendritic cells (DCs), endothelial cells, epithelial cells and so on. Its natural ligand (CD40 ligand, CD40L), CD154, a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family, is mainly expressed on activated CD4+ T lymphocytes. A direct growth-inhibitory effect can be found when ligated CD40 is on human breast, ovarian, cervical, bladder, non-small cell lung, and squamous epithelial carcinoma cells. This effect is related to the induction of cell cycle blockage and/or apoptosis. CD40L induces phenotypic and functional maturation of DCs, and can increase tumor immunogenicity through up-regulation of costimulatory molecular expression and cytokine production by epithelial cancer cells. As a result,CD40L can enhance tumor rejection immune responses. Furthermore, by means of a "bystander effect", even CD40-negative tumor subsets can be eliminated by activated tumor-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes(CTL),This review summarizes recent findings on CD40L recombinant protein and gene therapy-based tumor treatment approaches.

  16. CD40-CD40 ligand (CD154) engagement is required but not sufficient for modulating MHC class I, ICAM-1 and Fas expression and proliferation of human non-small cell lung tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, M; Shiroko, T; Kawaguchi, Y; Sugiyama, Y; Egilmez, N K; Chen, F A; Bankert, R B

    2001-05-15

    To determine the possible functional significance of CD40 expression on human non-small cell lung carcinomas and to assess the potential of CD40 as a therapeutic target, 18 lung tumor cell lines were established from biopsy tissues and were monitored for phenotypic changes on the cell surface and alterations in tumor cell proliferation after the ligation of CD40 with a trimeric fusion protein complex of CD40 ligand (CD40Lt). CD40 cross-linking resulted in up to a 6-fold increase in the surface expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I, Fas and intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 in a subset of tumors expressing the highest levels of CD40. Suppression of tumor proliferation was seen after the ligation of CD40 on CD40Lt-responsive cell lines. The suppression was dose dependent, reversible and resulted from a delay of the tumor cells entering S-phase. No change in the cell phenotype or in proliferation were observed in CD40-negative tumors or in tumors expressing moderate-to-low levels of CD40 after incubation with CD40Lt. CD40-negative tumors transfected with the CD40 gene expressed high levels of CD40 on their surface, but were also unresponsive to CD40Lt cross-linking of CD40. Our data establish that CD40 is required (but not sufficient) for transducing a signal that results in phenotypic changes in human lung tumors and suppression in their proliferation. We conclude that CD40 on non-small cell lung tumors may represent a potential therapeutic target, but only on a subset of the CD40+ tumors.

  17. Is Delayed Pressure Urticaria Associated with Increased Systemic Release of sCD40L?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jasinska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Elevated levels of soluble CD40 Ligand (sCD40L were found in serum but not in plasma of patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria (CU. What is important is that sCD40L has proinflammatory properties, and its elevated plasma level may indicate increased risk of cardiovascular events. These observations should stimulate further evaluation of sCD40L in different forms of urticaria. Aim. In the present study, sCD40L plasma level was investigated in delayed pressure urticaria (DPU. Methods. As platelets are predominant and variable sources of sCD40L, we investigated sCD40L concentration in platelet-poor plasma (PPP, which seems the best way to minimize the potential contribution of these cells to the ligand level. Results. Plasma sCD40L concentration was significantly increased in the DPU group compared to the healthy controls. Conclusions. It seems that DPU is associated with increased systemic release of sCD40L, which is believed to derive predominantly from activated platelets. The present study as well as the earlier contributions suggest that distinct cells activity, including platelets, may be identified in different types of urticaria.

  18. Toll-like receptor 4 agonistic antibody promotes innate immunity against severe pneumonia induced by coinfection with influenza virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akitaka; Nakamura, Shigeki; Seki, Masafumi; Fukudome, Kenji; Iwanaga, Naoki; Imamura, Yoshifumi; Miyazaki, Taiga; Izumikawa, Koichi; Kakeya, Hiroshi; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Kohno, Shigeru

    2013-07-01

    Coinfection with bacteria is a major cause of mortality during influenza epidemics. Recently, Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists were shown to have immunomodulatory functions. In the present study, we investigated the effectiveness and mechanisms of the new TLR4 agonistic monoclonal antibody UT12 against secondary pneumococcal pneumonia induced by coinfection with influenza virus in a mouse model. Mice were intranasally inoculated with Streptococcus pneumoniae 2 days after influenza virus inoculation. UT12 was intraperitoneally administered 2 h before each inoculation. Survival rates were significantly increased and body weight loss was significantly decreased by UT12 administration. Additionally, the production of inflammatory mediators was significantly suppressed by the administration of UT12. In a histopathological study, pneumonia in UT12-treated mice was very mild compared to that in control mice. UT12 increased antimicrobial defense through the acceleration of macrophage recruitment into the lower respiratory tract induced by c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) pathway-dependent monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) production. Collectively, these findings indicate that UT12 promoted pulmonary innate immunity and may reduce the severity of severe pneumonia induced by coinfection with influenza virus and S. pneumoniae. This immunomodulatory effect of UT12 improves the prognosis of secondary pneumococcal pneumonia and makes UT12 an attractive candidate for treating severe infectious diseases.

  19. Humanization of an agonistic anti-death receptor 4 single chain variable fragment antibody and avidity-mediated enhancement of its cell death-inducing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hyun; Park, Dong-Woon; Sung, Eun-Sil; Park, Hye-Ran; Kim, Jin-Kyoo; Kim, Yong-Sung

    2010-01-01

    Development of agonistic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the pro-apoptotic molecule death receptor 4 (DR4) [or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptor 1] is an attractive anti-cancer strategy because of their potential for inducing tumor-specific cell death. In this study, we humanized an agonistic anti-DR4 AY4 scFv raised in mice (mAY4) by grafting the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) onto a fixed human framework, while preserving the so-called Vernier zone residues, a group of framework (FR) residues directly underneath the CDRs, with the murine residues in the humanized antibody, hAY4. The humanized hAY4 scFv maintained the antigen binding affinity and epitope specificity of mAY4. To investigate how the valence of hAY4 scFv affects DR4-mediated cell death, bivalent and trivalent forms of hAY4 scFv were generated by linking a hinge region to the coiled-coil domain of a dimerizing leucine zipper and trimerizing isoleucine zipper, respectively. Compared to the monovalent and bivalent forms, the trivalent hAY4 scFv induced more potent caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death as evidenced by increased activation of caspase-8 and downstream pro-apoptotic molecules. Our results suggest that like other TNF family receptors, avidity-mediated oligomerization of DR4 augments the receptor-mediated apoptotic cell death by promoting intracellular cell death signaling.

  20. Cloning and high level expression of the biologically active extracellular domain of Macaca mulatta CD40 in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shengyun; Wan, Lin; Yang, Hao; Cheng, Jingqiu; Lu, Xiaofeng

    2016-03-01

    The CD40-mediated immune response contributes to a wide variety of chronic inflammatory diseases. CD40 antagonists have potential as novel therapies for immune disorders. However, the CD40 pathway has not been well characterized in the rhesus monkey Macaca mulatta, which is a valuable animal model for human immune disease. An 834 bp transcript was cloned from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of rhesus monkey using specific primers designed according to the predicted sequence of M. mulatta CD40 (mmCD40) in GenBank. Sequence analysis demonstrated that mmCD40 is highly homologous to human CD40 (hCD40), with an amino acid sequence identity of 94%. Genes encoding the extracellular domain of mmCD40 and the Fc fragment of the hIgG1 were inserted into a pPIC9K plasmid to produce mmCD40Ig by Pichia pastoris. Approximately 15-20 mg of the mmCD40Ig protein with ∼90% purity could be recovered from 1 L of culture. The purified mmCD40Ig protein can form dimers and can specifically bind CD40L-positive cells. Additionally, the mmCD40Ig protein can bind hCD40L protein in phosphate buffered saline and form a stable combination in a size-exclusion chromatography assay using a Superdex 200 column. Moreover, mmCD40Ig is as efficient as M. mulatta CTLA4Ig (mmCTLA4Ig) to suppress Con A-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation. Additionally, mmCD40Ig only showed mild immunosuppressive activity in a one-way mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) system. These results suggest that mmCD40Ig secreted by P. pastoris was productive and functional, and it could be used as a tool for pathogenesis and therapies for chronic inflammatory diseases in a M. mulatta model.

  1. Antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    An antibody is a protein produced by the body's immune system when it detects harmful substances, called antigens. Examples ... microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses) and chemicals. Antibodies may be produced when the immune system mistakenly ...

  2. CD40L Deficiency Ameliorates Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Metabolic Manifestations of Obesity in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Poggi; D. Engel; A. Christ; L. Beckers; E. Wijnands; L. Boon; A. Driessen; J. Cleutjens; C. Weber; N. Gerdes; E. Lutgens

    2011-01-01

    Obese adipose tissue shows hallmarks of chronic inflammation, which promotes the development of metabolic disorders. The mechanisms by which immune cells interact with each other or with metabolism-associated cell types, and the players involved, are still unclear. The CD40-CD40L costimulatory dyad

  3. Structural basis of LaDR5, a novel agonistic anti-death receptor 5 (DR5 monoclonal antibody, to inhibit DR5/TRAIL complex formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Chunxia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a member of the TNF superfamily, TRAIL could induce human tumor cell apoptosis through its cognate death receptors DR4 or DR5, which can induce formation of the death inducing signaling complex (DISC and activation of the membrane proximal caspases (caspase-8 or caspase-10 and mitochondrial pathway. Some monoclonal antibodies against DR4 or DR5 have been reported to have anti-tumor activity. Results In this study, we reported a novel mouse anti-human DR5 monoclonal antibody, named as LaDR5, which could compete with TRAIL to bind DR5 and induce the apoptosis of Jurkat cells in the absence of second cross-linking in vitro. Using computer-guided molecular modeling method, the 3-D structure of LaDR5 Fv fragment was constructed. According to the crystal structure of DR5, the 3-D complex structure of DR5 and LaDR5 was modeled using molecular docking method. Based on distance geometry method and intermolecular hydrogen bonding analysis, the key functional domain in DR5 was predicted and the DR5 mutants were designed. And then, three mutants of DR5 was expressed in prokaryotic system and purified by affinity chromatograph to determine the epitope of DR5 identified by LaDR5, which was consistent with the theoretical results of computer-aided analysis. Conclusions Our results demonstrated the specific epitope located in DR5 that plays a crucial role in antibody binding and even antineoplastic bioactivity. Meanwhile, revealed structural features of DR5 may be important to design or screen novel drugs agonist DR5.

  4. Human Genetics in Rheumatoid Arthritis Guides a High-Throughput Drug Screen of the CD40 Signaling Pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Gang; Diogo, Dorothee; Wu, Di; Spoonamore, Jim; Dancik, Vlado; Franke, Lude; Kurreeman, Fina; Rossin, Elizabeth J.; Duclos, Grant; Hartland, Cathy; Zhou, Xuezhong; Li, Kejie; Liu, Jun; De Jager, Philip L.; Siminovitch, Katherine A.; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Bowes, John; Eyre, Steve; Padyukov, Leonid; Gregersen, Peter K.; Worthington, Jane; Gupta, Namrata; Clemons, Paul A.; Stahl, Eli; Tolliday, Nicola; Plenge, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Although genetic and non-genetic studies in mouse and human implicate the CD40 pathway in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), there are no approved drugs that inhibit CD40 signaling for clinical care in RA or any other disease. Here, we sought to understand the biological consequences of a CD40 risk variant

  5. Urgent percutaneous coronary intervention leads to a decrease in serum concentrations of soluble CD40 ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratković Nenad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Inflammation as a consequence of vascular injury after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI is a pathological substrate of restenosis and of its complications. The aim of the study was to examine perprocedural inflammatory response expressed by soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L and C-reactive protein (CRP in patients treated with PCI and dual antiplatelet therapy. Methods. The experimental group included 52 patients (80.8% men, age 60 ± 9 years with angina pectoris treated by PCI (22 urgent PCI with stent implantation, and dual antiplatelet therapy (tienopiridins and aspirin, according to the current recommendations for the execution of the intervention. The control group consisted of 8 patients (70.5% men, age 59 ± 7 years with angina pectoris, who had undergone coronarography taking aspirin 3 days prior to it. In all the patients 24 hours before and after the PCI concentrations of CRP and sCD40L in the blood were determined. Results. In the experimental group, the concentration of sCD40L was lower as compared to the control (p < 0.02. In 34 (65% patients postprocedural decrease in sCD40L was recorded, in 18 (34.6% of them increase, while in 50 (96% patients there was a rise in CRP. The patients with postprocedural fall in sCD40L hod greater preprocedural concentration of sCD40L (p < 0.001, and less postprocedural concentration of sCD40L (p < 0.001, compared to the group with an increase in sCD40L after the PCI, while CRP levels tients treated with emergency PCI compared to elective patietns had a postprocedural decrease in sCD40L (p = 0.02. Increase in the level of CRP was higher in the group with emergency PCI in relation to elective PCI (p < 0.01. Conclusion. Emergency PCI procedures in the treatment of patients with unstable angina pectoris lead to a postprocedural fall in the serum concentration of sCD40L. Dual antiplate therapy with tienopiridins and aspirin inhibits the release of sCD40L. Regardless a clinical presentation

  6. Rac1 regulates platelet shedding of CD40L in abdominal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwaiz, Rundk; Rahman, Milladur; Zhang, Enming; Thorlacius, Henrik

    2014-09-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) regulates platelet shedding of CD40L in abdominal sepsis. However, the signaling mechanisms controlling sepsis-induced shedding of CD40L from activated platelets remain elusive. Rac1 has been reported to regulate diverse functions in platelets; we hypothesized herein that Rac1 might regulate platelet shedding of CD40L in sepsis. The specific Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 (N6-[2-[[4-(diethylamino)-1-methylbutyl] amino]-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinyl]-2 methyl-4, 6-quinolinediamine trihydrochloride) was administered to mice undergoing cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Levels of CD40L and MMP-9 in plasma, platelets, and neutrophils were determined by use of ELISA, western blot, and confocal microscopy. Platelet depletion abolished the CLP-induced increase in plasma levels of CD40L. Rac1 activity was significantly increased in platelets from septic animals. Administration of NSC23766 abolished the CLP-induced enhancement of soluble CD40L levels in the plasma. Moreover, Rac1 inhibition completely inhibited proteinase-activated receptor-4-induced surface mobilization and secretion of CD40L in isolated platelets. CLP significantly increased plasma levels of MMP-9 and Rac1 activity in neutrophils. Treatment with NSC23766 markedly attenuated MMP-9 levels in the plasma from septic mice. In addition, Rac1 inhibition abolished chemokine-induced secretion of MMP-9 from isolated neutrophils. Finally, platelet shedding of CD40L was significantly reduced in response to stimulation with supernatants from activated MMP-9-deficient neutrophils compared with supernatants from wild-type neutrophils, indicating a direct role of neutrophil-derived MMP-9 in regulating platelet shedding of CD40L. Our novel data suggest that sepsis-induced platelet shedding of CD40L is dependent on Rac1 signaling. Rac1 controls surface mobilization of CD40L on activated platelets and MMP-9 secretion from neutrophils. Thus, our findings indicate that targeting Rac1 signaling might be a

  7. T Cell Cancer Therapy Requires CD40-CD40L Activation of Tumor Necrosis Factor and Inducible Nitric-Oxide-Synthase-Producing Dendritic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marigo, Ilaria; Zilio, Serena; Desantis, Giacomo; Mlecnik, Bernhard; Agnellini, Andrielly H R; Ugel, Stefano; Sasso, Maria Stella; Qualls, Joseph E; Kratochvill, Franz; Zanovello, Paola; Molon, Barbara; Ries, Carola H; Runza, Valeria; Hoves, Sabine; Bilocq, Amélie M; Bindea, Gabriela; Mazza, Emilia M C; Bicciato, Silvio; Galon, Jérôme; Murray, Peter J; Bronte, Vincenzo

    2016-09-12

    Effective cancer immunotherapy requires overcoming immunosuppressive tumor microenvironments. We found that local nitric oxide (NO) production by tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells is important for adoptively transferred CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells to destroy tumors. These myeloid cells are phenotypically similar to inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2)- and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-producing dendritic cells (DC), or Tip-DCs. Depletion of immunosuppressive, colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF-1R)-dependent arginase 1(+) myeloid cells enhanced NO-dependent tumor killing. Tumor elimination via NOS2 required the CD40-CD40L pathway. We also uncovered a strong correlation between survival of colorectal cancer patients and NOS2, CD40, and TNF expression in their tumors. Our results identify a network of pro-tumor factors that can be targeted to boost cancer immunotherapies.

  8. An agonistic monoclonal antibody against DR5 induces ROS production, sustained JNK activation and Endo G release in Jurkat leukemia cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caifeng Chen; Yanxin Liu; Dexian Zheng

    2009-01-01

    We have previously reported that AD5-10, a novel agonistic monoclonal antibody against DRS, possessed a strong cytotoxic activity in various tumor cells, via induction of caspase-dependent and-independent signaling pathways. The present study further demonstrates that reactive oxygen species (ROS) were generated in abundance in Jurkat leukemia cells upon ADS-10 stimulation and that ROS accumulation subsequently evoked sustained activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and release of endonuclease G (Endo G) from mitochondria into the cytosol. The reducing agent, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), effectively inhibited the sustained activation of JNK, release of Endo G, and cell death in Jurkat cells treated by ADS-10. Moreover, a dominant-nega-tive form of JNK (but not of p38) enhanced NF-KB activation, suppressed caspase-8 recruitment in death-inducing signaling complexes (DISCs), and reduced adverse effects on mitochondria, thereby inhibiting AD5-10-induced cell death in Jurkat leukemia cells. These data provide novel information on the DRS-mediated cell death-signaling path-way and may shed new light on effective strategies for leukemia and solid tumor therapies.

  9. p62 regulates CD40-mediated NFκB activation in macrophages through interaction with TRAF6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seibold, Kristina; Ehrenschwender, Martin, E-mail: martin.ehrenschwender@ukr.de

    2015-08-14

    CD40 is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family. Activation-induced recruitment of adapter proteins, so-called TNF-receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) to the cytoplasmic tail of CD40 triggers signaling cascades important in the immune system, but has also been associated with excessive inflammation in diseases such as atherosclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Especially, pro-inflammatory nuclear factor κB (NFκB) signaling emanating from CD40-associated TRAF6 appears to be a key pathogenic driving force. Consequently, targeting the CD40-TRAF6 interaction is emerging as a promising therapeutic strategy, but the underlying molecular machinery of this signaling axis is to date poorly understood. Here, we identified the multifunctional adaptor protein p62 as a critical regulator in CD40-mediated NFκB signaling via TRAF6. CD40 activation triggered formation of a TRAF6-p62 complex. Disturbing this interaction tremendously reduced CD40-mediated NFκB signaling in macrophages, while TRAF6-independent signaling pathways remained unaffected. This highlights p62 as a potential target in hyper-inflammatory, CD40-associated pathologies. - Highlights: • CD40 activation triggers interaction of the adapter protein TRAF6 with p62. • TRAF6-p62 interaction regulates CD40-mediated NFκB signaling in macrophages. • Defective TRAF6-p62 interaction reduces CD40-mediated NFκB activation in macrophages.

  10. Agonist anti-GITR monoclonal antibody induces melanoma tumor immunity in mice by altering regulatory T cell stability and intra-tumor accumulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam D Cohen

    Full Text Available In vivo GITR ligation has previously been shown to augment T-cell-mediated anti-tumor immunity, yet the underlying mechanisms of this activity, particularly its in vivo effects on CD4+ foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs, have not been fully elucidated. In order to translate this immunotherapeutic approach to the clinic it is important gain better understanding of its mechanism(s of action. Utilizing the agonist anti-GITR monoclonal antibody DTA-1, we found that in vivo GITR ligation modulates regulatory T cells (Tregs directly during induction of melanoma tumor immunity. As a monotherapy, DTA-1 induced regression of small established B16 melanoma tumors. Although DTA-1 did not alter systemic Treg frequencies nor abrogate the intrinsic suppressive activity of Tregs within the tumor-draining lymph node, intra-tumor Treg accumulation was significantly impaired. This resulted in a greater Teff:Treg ratio and enhanced tumor-specific CD8+ T-cell activity. The decreased intra-tumor Treg accumulation was due both to impaired infiltration, coupled with DTA-1-induced loss of foxp3 expression in intra-tumor Tregs. Histological analysis of B16 tumors grown in Foxp3-GFP mice showed that the majority of GFP+ cells had lost Foxp3 expression. These "unstable" Tregs were absent in IgG-treated tumors and in DTA-1 treated TDLN, demonstrating a tumor-specific effect. Impairment of Treg infiltration was lost if Tregs were GITR(-/-, and the protective effects of DTA-1 were reduced in reconstituted RAG1(-/- mice if either the Treg or Teff subset were GITR-negative and absent if both were negative. Our results demonstrate that DTA-1 modulates both Teffs and Tregs during effective tumor treatment. The data suggest that DTA-1 prevents intra-tumor Treg accumulation by altering their stability, and as a result of the loss of foxp3 expression, may modify their intra-tumor suppressive capacity. These findings provide further support for the continued development of agonist

  11. Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF{alpha}) regulates CD40 expression through SMAR1 phosphorylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Kamini; Sinha, Surajit; Malonia, Sunil Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Samit, E-mail: samit@nccs.res.in

    2010-01-08

    CD40 plays an important role in mediating inflammatory response and is mainly induced by JAK/STAT phosphorylation cascade. TNF{alpha} is the key cytokine that activates CD40 during inflammation and tumorigenesis. We have earlier shown that SMAR1 can repress the transcription of Cyclin D1 promoter by forming a HDAC1 dependent repressor complex. In this study, we show that SMAR1 regulates the transcription of NF-{kappa}B target gene CD40. SMAR1 recruits HDAC1 and forms a repressor complex on CD40 promoter and keeps its basal transcription in check. Further, we show that TNF{alpha} stimulation induces SMAR1 phosphorylation at Ser-347 and promotes its cytoplasmic translocation, thus releasing its negative effect. Concomitantly, TNF{alpha} induced phosphorylation of STAT1 at Tyr-701 by JAK1 facilitates its nuclear translocation and activation of CD40 through p300 recruitment and core Histone-3 acetylation. Thus, TNF{alpha} mediated regulation of CD40 expression occurs by dual phosphorylation of SMAR1 and STAT1.

  12. RNA干扰技术阻断CD40/CD40L共刺激通路对小鼠移植心存活时间的影响%Effects of blocking CD40/CD40L costimulatory pathway by RNA interference on the survival of mouse cardiac allograft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱杰昌; 付蔚华; 朱理玮

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of blocking CD40/CD40L costimulatory pathway by the lentiviral vector-mediated RNA interference on the survival of mouse cardiac allograft. Methods Mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) were infected by CD40-RNAi lentiviral vector in vitro, and tolerogenic DCs (Tol-DCs) with decreased CD40 expression were prepared. Fluorescence real-time quantitative PCR and flow cytometry were used to analyze the expression of CD40 mRNA and DC surface antigens CD40, CD11c, MHC Ⅱ before and after infection. Mouse model of heterotropic abdominal heart transplantation was established. Seven days prior to heart transplantation, Tol-DCs with decreased CD40 expression were transfused into recipient mice intravenously (lentivirus infected DC group). Control group and non-infected DC group were assigned simultaneously. The survival of cardiac allograft was monitored and pathological grade of acute rejection 7 days after heterotropic abdominal heart transplantation was determined. Results The transcription of CD40 mRNA of DCs was down-regulated significantly at 48 h after CD40-RNAi lentiviral vector infection, and the inhibition rate was 80. 9%. The expression of CD40 protein was also significantly decreased as compared with control group (40. 07% ± 4. 03% ) ( P < 0. 05 ).Compared to control group (8 ± 2 days) and non-infected DC group (9 ± 1 days), the survival time of cardiac allograft in CD40-RNAi lentivirus infected DC group (14 ± 4 days) was significantly prolonged (P< 0. 05 ), and the pathological grade of acute rejection decreased significantly ( P < 0. 05 ).Conclusion Blocking CD40/CD40L costimulatory pathway could hamper the activation of allogeneic T lymphocyte, inhibit the acute rejection and prolong the survival of mouse cardiac allograft.%目的 探讨慢病毒介导RNA干扰(RNAi)技术阻断CD40/CD40L共刺激通路对小鼠移植心存活时间的影响.方法 以针对小鼠CD40基因的RNAi慢病毒载体在体外

  13. Earlier low-dose TBI or DST overcomes CD8+ T-cell-mediated alloresistance to allogeneic marrow in recipients of anti-CD40L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yasuo; Ito, Hiroshi; Kurtz, Josef; Wekerle, Thomas; Ho, Leon; Sykes, Megan

    2004-01-01

    Treatment with a single injection of anti-CD40L (CD154) monoclonal antibody (mAb) and fully mismatched allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) allows rapid tolerization of CD4+ T cells to the donor. The addition of in vivo CD8 T-cell depletion leads to permanent mixed hematopoietic chimerism and tolerance. We now describe two approaches that obviate the requirement for CD8 T-cell depletion by rapidly tolerizing recipient CD8 T cells in addition to CD4 cells. Administration of donor-specific transfusion (DST) to mice receiving 3 Gy total body irradiation (TBI), BMT and anti-CD40L mAb on day 0 uniformly led to permanent mixed chimerism and tolerance, compared with only 40% of mice receiving similar treatment without DST. In the absence of DST, moving the timing of 3 Gy TBI to day -1 or day -2 instead of day 0 led to rapid (by 2 weeks) induction of CD8+ cell tolerance, and also permitted uniform achievement of permanent mixed chimerism and donor-specific tolerance in recipients of anti-CD40L and BMT on day 0. These nontoxic regimens overcome CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell-mediated alloresistance without requiring host T-cell depletion, permitting the induction of permanent mixed chimerism and tolerance.

  14. B-cell activation with CD40L or CpG measures the function of B-cell subsets and identifies specific defects in immunodeficient patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, Emiliano; Farroni, Chiara; Cascioli, Simona; Marcellini, Valentina; Scarsella, Marco; Giorda, Ezio; Piano Mortari, Eva; Leonardi, Lucia; Scarselli, Alessia; Valentini, Diletta; Cancrini, Caterina; Duse, Marzia; Grimsholm, Ola; Carsetti, Rita

    2017-01-01

    Around 65% of primary immunodeficiencies are antibody deficiencies. Functional tests are useful tools to study B-cell functions in vitro. However, no accepted guidelines for performing and evaluating functional tests have been issued yet. Here, we report our experience on the study of B-cell functions in infancy and throughout childhood. We show that T-independent stimulation with CpG measures proliferation and differentiation potential of memory B cells. Switched memory B cells respond better than IgM memory B cells. On the other hand, CD40L, a T-dependent stimulus, does not induce plasma cell differentiation, but causes proliferation of naïve and memory B cells. During childhood, the production of plasmablasts in response to CpG increases with age mirroring the development of memory B cells. The response to CD40L does not change with age. In patients with selective IgA deficiency (SIgAD), we observed that switched memory B cells are reduced due to the absence of IgA memory B cells. In agreement, IgA plasma cells are not generated in response to CpG. Unexpectedly, B cells from SIgAD patients show a reduced proliferative response to CD40L. Our results demonstrate that functional tests are an important tool to assess the functions of the humoral immune system.

  15. An IgM-kappa rat monoclonal antibody specific for the type 1 sphingosine 1-phosphate G protein-coupled receptor with antagonist and agonist activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetzl, Edward J; Dembrow, Dale; Van Brocklyn, James R; Gráler, Markus; Huang, Mei-Chuan

    2004-04-30

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) type 1G protein-coupled receptors (S1P1 GPCRs) are specific high-affinity transducers for this lipid growth factor and cellular mediator. S1P1 GPCRs are widely-expressed and physiologically critical in the cardiovascular and immune systems. Functional rat monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) have been generated against human S1P1 GPCRs expressed in rat null-cell transductants to provide bioavailable agents capable of stimulating or suppressing the S1P-S1P1 GPCR axis. The rat IgM-kappa anti-S1P1 GPCR MoAb designated 4B5.2 binds specifically to native human or mouse S1P1 GPCRs in cell membranes, but not to solubilized and denatured S1P1 GPCRs. Specific binding of 32P-S1P to cellular S1P1 GPCRs is not blocked by 4B5.2. T cell chemotactic responses to S1P and S1P suppression of T cell chemotaxis to chemokines both are inhibited selectively by 4B5.2. In contrast, generation of gamma-interferon by stimulated T cells is diminished by 4B5.2 as by S1P. T cell S1P1 GPCR-selective antagonist and agonist effects of 4B5.2 in vivo may alter immune responses as distinctively as the available poly-S1P GPCR-directed pharmacological agents, without the undesirable side-effects attributable to actions of these agents on other S1P GPCRs.

  16. CD40 ligand and tdTomato-armed vaccinia virus for induction of antitumor immune response and tumor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parviainen, S; Ahonen, M; Diaconu, I; Hirvinen, M; Karttunen, Å; Vähä-Koskela, M; Hemminki, A; Cerullo, V

    2014-02-01

    Oncolytic vaccinia virus is an attractive platform for immunotherapy. Oncolysis releases tumor antigens and provides co-stimulatory danger signals. However, arming the virus can improve efficacy further. CD40 ligand (CD40L, CD154) can induce apoptosis of tumor cells and it also triggers several immune mechanisms. One of these is a T-helper type 1 (Th1) response that leads to activation of cytotoxic T-cells and reduction of immune suppression. Therefore, we constructed an oncolytic vaccinia virus expressing hCD40L (vvdd-hCD40L-tdTomato), which in addition features a cDNA expressing the tdTomato fluorochrome for detection of virus, potentially important for biosafety evaluation. We show effective expression of functional CD40L both in vitro and in vivo. In a xenograft model of bladder carcinoma sensitive to CD40L treatment, we show that growth of tumors was significantly inhibited by the oncolysis and apoptosis following both intravenous and intratumoral administration. In a CD40-negative model, CD40L expression did not add potency to vaccinia oncolysis. Tumors treated with vvdd-mCD40L-tdtomato showed enhanced efficacy in a syngenic mouse model and induced recruitment of antigen-presenting cells and lymphocytes at the tumor site. In summary, oncolytic vaccinia virus coding for CD40L mediates multiple antitumor effects including oncolysis, apoptosis and induction of Th1 type T-cell responses.

  17. Soluble CD40L in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes: relation to microvascular complications and glycemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Asrar, Mohamed A; Adly, Amira Am; Ismail, Eman A

    2012-12-01

    CD40-soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) interactions might constitute an important mediator for vascular inflammation that initiates diabetic microangiopathy. Little is known about the relation between sCD40L and glycemic control. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate sCD40L levels in patients with type 1 diabetes and its relation to microvascular complications and metabolic control. Sixty patients with type 1 diabetes were compared with 30 healthy control subjects. Detailed medical history, thorough clinical examination, and laboratory assessment of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, glycemic control, and the presence of microvascular complications were performed. Measurement of serum sCD40L levels was done using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of microvascular complications. Serum sCD40L levels were significantly elevated in patients with type 1 diabetes in both groups compared with healthy controls (p < 0.001). Patients with microvascular complications had higher serum sCD40L concentrations than non-complicated cases (median, 13 000 vs. 450 pg/mL; p < 0.001). Serum sCD40L cutoff value of 530 pg/mL was able to differentiate complicated from non-complicated cases (p < 0.001). Patients with microalbuminuria or peripheral neuropathy showed higher levels of sCD40L when compared with patients without these complications (p < 0.05). Serum sCD40L levels were positively correlated with hemoglobin A1c and urinary albumin excretion (p < 0.001). We suggest that serum sCD40L levels are elevated in type 1 diabetes, particularly in patients with microvascular complications and a significant correlation with glycemic control exists. Therefore, measurement of serum sCD40L levels in poorly controlled patients would help to identify those at high risk of developing microvascular complications.

  18. Red blood cell alloimmunization is influenced by the delay between Toll-like receptor agonist injection and transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elayeb, Rahma; Tamagne, Marie; Bierling, Philippe; Noizat-Pirenne, France; Vingert, Benoît

    2016-02-01

    Murine models of red blood cell transfusion show that inflammation associated with viruses or methylated DNA promotes red blood cell alloimmunization. In vaccination studies, the intensity of antigen-specific responses depends on the delay between antigen and adjuvant administration, with a short delay limiting immune responses. In mouse models of alloimmunization, the delay between the injection of Toll-like receptor agonists and transfusion is usually short. In this study, we hypothesized that the timing of Toll-like receptor 3 agonist administration affects red blood cell alloimmunization. Poly(I:C), a Toll-like receptor 3 agonist, was administered to B10BR mice at various time points before the transfusion of HEL-expressing red blood cells. For each time point, we measured the activation of splenic HEL-presenting dendritic cells, HEL-specific CD4(+) T cells and anti-HEL antibodies in serum. The phenotype of activated immune cells depended on the delay between transfusion and Toll-like receptor-dependent inflammation. The production of anti-HEL antibodies was highest when transfusion occurred 7 days after agonist injection. The proportion of HEL-presenting CD8α(+) dendritic cells producing interleukin-12 was highest in mice injected with poly(I:C) 3 days before transfusion. Although the number of early-induced HEL-specific CD4(+) T cells was similar between groups, a high proportion of these cells expressed CD134, CD40 and CD44 in mice injected with poly(I:C) 7 days before transfusion. This study clearly shows that the delay between transfusion and Toll-like receptor-induced inflammation influences the immune response to transfused red blood cells.

  19. APE/Ref-1 makes fine-tuning of CD40-induced B cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merluzzi, Sonia; Gri, Giorgia; Gattei, Valter; Pagano, Michele; Pucillo, Carlo

    2008-08-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease-1/Redox factor-1, a multifunctional DNA base excision repair and redox regulation enzyme, plays an important role in oxidative signalling, transcription factor regulation, and cell cycle control. Recently, we have demonstrated that following the triggering of CD40 on B cells, APE/Ref-1 translocates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and regulates the activity of B cell-specific transcription factors. In the present paper we investigate whether APE/Ref-1 plays a role in controlling CD40-mediated B cell proliferation too. We demonstrate a concurrent increase in proliferation and decrease in apoptosis of primary mouse B cells activated by CD40 cross-linking and transfected with functional APE/Ref-1 antisense oligonucleotide. Moreover, we provide evidence that a redox-mediated signalling mechanism is involved in this process and we propose that APE/Ref-1, controlling the intracellular redox state, may also affect the cell cycle by inducing nucleus-cytoplasm redistribution of p21. Together, these findings suggest that APE/Ref-1 could act as a negative regulator in an adaptive response to elevated ROS levels following CD40 cross-linking. Considering the important role of ROS and APE/Ref-1 in CD40-mediated B cell proliferation, our data will contribute to understand the mechanisms of tumor escape and suggest APE/Ref-1 as a novel target for tumor therapeutic approaches.

  20. IL-17A/F modulates fibrocyte functions in cooperation with CD40-mediated signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Hisako; Kawakita, Akiko; Okazaki, Shintaro; Yasutomi, Motoko; Murai, Hiroki; Ohshima, Yusei

    2013-08-01

    T helper 17 (Th17) cells that produce interleukin (IL)-17A and IL-17F have been found to participate in the development of bronchial asthma and bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. However, whether they play a causative role in the airway remodeling observed in these respiratory diseases remains unclear. Because fibrocytes are involved in tissue repair and fibrosis and are presumably precursors of lung fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, we examined the effects of IL-17A/F on fibrocyte functions. Both IL-17A and IL-17F enhanced fibrocytes' α-smooth muscle actin expression. Priming fibrocytes with IL-17A enhanced their CD40-mediated IL-6 production, whereas IL-17F-priming increased the CD40-mediated mRNA expression of collagen I, vascular endothelial growth factor, and angiogenin. CD4(+) T cells co-cultured with fibrocytes produced IL-17A, which was inhibited by blocking CD40 and CD40 ligand interactions. These findings suggest that cooperative interactions between fibrocytes and Th17 cells play an important role via CD40- and IL-17A/F-mediated signaling for collagen and proangiogenic factor production, which may lead to the extracellular matrix deposition and neovascularization seen in airway remodeling.

  1. The binding site for TRAF2 and TRAF3 but not for TRAF6 is essential for CD40-mediated immunoglobulin class switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabara, Haifa; Laouini, Dhafer; Tsitsikov, Erdyni; Mizoguchi, Emiko; Bhan, Atul; Castigli, Emanuela; Dedeoglu, Fatma; Pivniouk, Vadim; Brodeur, Scott; Geha, Raif

    2002-09-01

    To define the role of TRAF proteins in CD40-dependent isotype switching in B cells, we introduced wild-type (WT) and mutant CD40 transgenes that lacked the binding motifs for TRAF6 (CD40deltaTRAF6), TRAF2 and TRAF3 (CD40deltaTRAF2/3), or both (CD40deltaTRAFs) into B cells of CD40(-/-) mice. The in vivo isotype switch defect in CD40(-/-) mice was fully corrected by WT and CD40deltaTRAF6, partially by CD40deltaTRAF2/3, and not at all by CD40deltaTRAFs transgenes. CD40-mediated isotype switching, proliferation, and activation of p38, JNK, and NFkappaB in B cells were normal in WT and CD40deltaTRAF6 mice, severely impaired in CD40deltaTRAF2/3, and absent in CD40deltaTRAFs mice. These results suggest that binding to TRAF2 and/or TRAF3 but not TRAF6 is essential for CD40 isotype switching and activation in B cells.

  2. CD40-mediated apoptosis in murine B-lymphoma lines containing mutated p53

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollmann, Annette C; Gong, Qiaoke; Owens, Trevor

    2002-01-01

    Crosslinking CD40 induces normal B-cells to proliferate and differentiate but causes many tumor cell lines to undergo apoptosis. As p53 is required for many apoptotic pathways, we analyzed the effects of CD40 ligation and their correlation with p53 function in four murine B-lymphoma lines. A20...... to amino acid substitutions in DNA binding regions, but was unmutated in WEHI231 and WEHI 279. These results suggest that CD40-mediated apoptosis can occur in the absence of functional p53....... was normal. NFkappaB activity was quantitated by reporter and gel shift assays and found to be equivalent in all four cell lines. P53 reporter constructs were activated in WEHI231 but not A20 or M12 cells, suggesting that p53 in the latter two cell lines may be mutated. These data are supported by the lack...

  3. Interaction of calreticulin with CD40 ligand, TRAIL and Fas ligand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, K; Pagh, R T; Holmskov, U;

    2007-01-01

    found to bind calreticulin strongly. A low level or no binding was observed for adiponectin, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), CD30L, surfactant protein-A and -D and collagen VIII. The interaction with calreticulin required a conformational change in CD40L, TRAIL and FasL and showed the same...... is utilized by many other functionally diverse molecules and in this work the interaction of calreticulin with C1q and structurally similar molecules was investigated. In addition to C1q and MBL, CD40 ligand (CD40L), tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and Fas ligand (FasL) were...... characteristics as calreticulin's interaction with C1q and MBL: a time-dependent saturable binding to immobilized protein, which was initially sensitive to salt but gradually developed into a salt-insensitive interaction. Thus, the interaction requires a structural change in the interaction partner and leads...

  4. CD40-mediated NFκB activation in B cells is increased in multiple sclerosis and modulated by therapeutics1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ding; Ireland, Sara J.; Remington, Gina; Alvarez, Enrique; Racke, Michael K.; Greenberg, Benjamin; Frohman, Elliot M.; Monson, Nancy L.

    2017-01-01

    CD40 interacts with CD40 ligand and plays an essential role in immune regulation and homeostasis. Recent research findings, however, support a pathogenic role of CD40 in a number of autoimmune diseases. We previously showed that memory B cells from relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients exhibited enhanced proliferation with CD40 stimulation compared to healthy donors. In this study, we used a multi-parameter phosflow approach to analyze the phosphorylation status of NFκB and three major MAP kinases (P38, ERK and JNK), the essential components of signaling pathways downstream of CD40 engagement in B cells from MS patients. We found that memory and naïve B cells from RRMS and secondary progressive MS (SPMS) patients exhibited a significantly elevated level of phosphorylated NFκB (p-P65) following CD40 stimulation compared to healthy donor controls. Combination therapy with interferon beta-1a (Avonex) and mycophenolate mofetil (Cellcept) modulated the hyper-phosphorylation of P65 in B cells of RRMS patients at levels similar to healthy donor controls. Lower disease activity after the combination therapy correlated with the reduced phosphorylation of P65 following CD40 stimulation in treated patients. In addition, glatiramer acetate (GA) treatment also significantly reduced CD40-mediated P65 phosphorylation in RRMS patients, suggesting that reducing CD40-mediated p-P65 induction may be a general mechanism by which some current therapies modulate MS disease. PMID:27798157

  5. Small Molecule Inhibition of the TNF Family Cytokine CD40 Ligand Through a Subunit Fracture Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L Silvian; J Friedman; K Strauch; T Cachero; E Day; F Qian; B Cunningham; A Fung; L Sun; et al.

    2011-12-31

    BIO8898 is one of several synthetic organic molecules that have recently been reported to inhibit receptor binding and function of the constitutively trimeric tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family cytokine CD40 ligand (CD40L, aka CD154). Small molecule inhibitors of protein-protein interfaces are relatively rare, and their discovery is often very challenging. Therefore, to understand how BIO8898 achieves this feat, we characterized its mechanism of action using biochemical assays and X-ray crystallography. BIO8898 inhibited soluble CD40L binding to CD40-Ig with a potency of IC{sub 50} = 25 {mu}M and inhibited CD40L-dependent apoptosis in a cellular assay. A co-crystal structure of BIO8898 with CD40L revealed that one inhibitor molecule binds per protein trimer. Surprisingly, the compound binds not at the surface of the protein but by intercalating deeply between two subunits of the homotrimeric cytokine, disrupting a constitutive protein-protein interface and breaking the protein's 3-fold symmetry. The compound forms several hydrogen bonds with the protein, within an otherwise hydrophobic binding pocket. In addition to the translational splitting of the trimer, binding of BIO8898 was accompanied by additional local and longer-range conformational perturbations of the protein, both in the core and in a surface loop. Binding of BIO8898 is reversible, and the resulting complex is stable and does not lead to detectable dissociation of the protein trimer. Our results suggest that a set of core aromatic residues that are conserved across a subset of TNF family cytokines might represent a generic hot-spot for the induced-fit binding of trimer-disrupting small molecules.

  6. Increased T cell expression of CD154 (CD40-ligand) in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J; Krakauer, M; Sellebjerg, F

    2001-01-01

    CD154 (CD40-ligand, gp39), expressed on activated T cells, is crucial in T cell-dependent immune responses and may be involved in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). We studied cerebro-spinal fluid and peripheral blood T cell expression of CD154 in MS by flow cytometry. Patients with sec......CD154 (CD40-ligand, gp39), expressed on activated T cells, is crucial in T cell-dependent immune responses and may be involved in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). We studied cerebro-spinal fluid and peripheral blood T cell expression of CD154 in MS by flow cytometry. Patients...

  7. Effect of Simvastatin and Metformin on Aortic Configurational Changes and CD40/CD40L Expression in Atherosclerosis Rats%辛伐他汀和二甲双胍对动脉粥样硬化大鼠动脉构型及CD40/CD40L表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄皓章; 黄露霜; 尹明景; 朱继金

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨辛伐他汀和二甲双胍对动脉粥样硬化(AS)大鼠血脂、动脉病理及构型变化、血清及动脉组织CD40L水平的影响及可能机制.方法 成年SD雄性大鼠50只,随机分为N组(对照组)、SF组(高盐高脂组)、ST组(辛伐他汀组)、MT组(二甲双胍组)、ST+MT组(辛伐他汀+二甲双胍组),每组10只,N组用标准饲料饲养,其他组用高盐高脂饲料饲养.喂养16周后,检测各组血脂、动脉组织病理及构型、血清及动脉组织CD40L水平.结果 (1)血脂:SF组总胆固醇、三酰甘油明显高于N组(P<0.01),ST组与N组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);MT组、ST+MT组明显低于N组(P<0.01).(2)动脉组织病理:N组无异常;ST组、MT组、ST+MT组均有不同程度的中膜增厚,未形成典型AS斑块;SF组可见典型AS斑块.(3)主动脉构型变化:各组中膜层厚度均较N组增厚,增厚程度依次为SF>MT>ST>ST+MT.LA/TVA比值:SF组较N组、ST组、MT组及ST+MT组均减小(P<0.01),ST组与MT组、ST+MT组与N组均无差异(P均>0.05).(4)血清sCD40L水平:SF组浓度高于N组、ST组、MT组、ST+MT组(P<0.05),而N组、ST组、MT组、ST+MT组之间无明显差异(P>0.05).(5)动脉组织CD40L表达强度:SF组表达强度明显高于其他4组(P<0.05),ST组、MT组、ST+MT组与N组无差异(P>0.05).结论 动脉粥样硬化大鼠血清和动脉组织CD40L浓度增高.他汀类药物和双胍类药物均能通过降低血脂,抑制组织CD40/CD40L表达,减轻炎症反应而起到拮抗动脉粥样硬化的作用,其中双胍类药物的降血脂作用更加明显,他汀类药物则在保护血管,改善动脉粥样硬化方面占优.两药联用的效果明显优于单用任何一种.%Objective To investigate the effect of simvastatin and metformin on blood lipid, aortic pathological and configurational changes, serum sCD40L level and arterial tissue CD40L protein expression in atherosclerosis( AS ) rats, and to explore the potential

  8. Effect of B-cell receptor engagement on CD40-stimulated B cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilizzi, BM; Boonstra, R; The, TH; deLeij, LFMH

    1997-01-01

    Activation of human B cells in vitro either by cross-linking of surface immunoglobulins (sig) or by triggering CD40 antigen, in the presence of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and interleukin-2 (IL-2), may result in high levels of immunoglobulin secretion in vitro. We studied the combined effects of ligation

  9. Effects of Andrographitis Paniculata Extracts on the Expression of CD40 in Endothelial Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jie; LI Shusheng; WAN Lei

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the expression of CD40 in endothelial cells (ECs) in a variety of injured conditions and the interventional role of Andrographitis Paniculata isolate (API0134), the thoracic aorta ECs of guinea pigs were cultured in vitro until the third passage, incubated in the presence of media containing xanthine oxidase (XO) and xanthine (Xan) which produced oxygen free radical (OFR group); oxidized-LDL (ox-LDL group); XO, Xan and API0134 (OFR+API0134 group); or ox-LDL and API0134 (ox-LDL+API0134 group). The expression of CD40 in ECs was detected by immunofluorescence assay and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The results showed as compared with the control group, the expression of CD40 in ECs in OFR group and ox-LDL group was increased (P<0.01), but attenuated significantly in OFR+ API0134 group and ox-LDL+API0134 group (P<0.05). It was suggested that API0134 could protect atherosclerosis by inhibiting the expression of CD40 molecule in injured ECs.

  10. CD40 and OX40 ligand are differentially regulated on asthmatic airway smooth muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimmer, D I; Loseli, M; Hughes, J M; Oliver, B G G; Moir, L M; Hunt, N H; Black, J L; Burgess, J K

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: CD40 and OX40 Ligand (OX40L) are cell-surface molecules expressed on airway smooth muscle (ASM) that can enhance inflammatory cell activation and survival. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) on ASM

  11. Construction of recombinant eukaryotic expression plasmid containing murine CD40 ligand gene and its expression in H22 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Fang Jiang; Yan He; Guo-Zhong Gong; Jun Chen; Chun-Yan Yang; Yun Xu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To construct a recombinant murine CD40 ligand (mCD40L) eukaryotic expression vector for gene therapy and target therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).METHODS: mCD40L cDNA was synthesized by RT-PCR with the specific primers and directly cloned into T vector to generate middle recombinant. After digestion with restriction endonuclease, the target fragment was subcloned into the multi-clone sites of the eukaryotic vector. The constructed vector was verified by enzyme digestion and sequencing,and the product expressed was detected by RT-PCR and immunofluorescence methods.RESULTS: The full-length mCD40L-cDNA was successfully cloned into the eukaryotic vector through electrophoresis,and mCD40L gene was integrated into the genome of infected H22 cells by RT-PCR. Murine CD40L antigen molecule was observed in the plasma of mCD40L-H22 by indirect immuno-fluorescence staining.CONCLUSION: The recombined mCD40L eukaryotic expression vector can be expressed in H22 cell line. It providesexperimental data for gene therapy and target therapy ofhepatocellular carcinoma.

  12. Reproducibility over time and effect of low-dose aspirin on soluble P-selectin and soluble CD40 ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, Vanessa; Nardi, Michael A; Elbaum, Lindsay; Berger, Jeffrey S

    2015-07-01

    Platelet markers [soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) and soluble p selectin (sPselectin)] are associated with platelet activation and cardiovascular events. We sought to investigate the reproducibility of these markers over time and the effect of low-dose aspirin on sCD40L and sPselectin in plasma and serum. Following an overnight fast, 40 healthy volunteers had weekly phlebotomy and were administered aspirin 81 mg/day between weeks 3 and 4. Reproducibility over time was assessed by coefficient of variation (CV) and inter-class correlation coefficient. Correlation between markers was assessed using Pearson r statistic. Difference between levels pre- and post-aspirin was measured with Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Data are presented as median (interquartile range). sCD40L and sPselectin measurements were reproducible over time in plasma and serum (CV < 10 %). Measurement of sCD40L and sPselectin in plasma correlated with levels in serum before aspirin and after aspirin. There was no significant correlation between sCD40L and sPselectin. After 1-week of aspirin 81 mg/day, there was a reduction in sCD40L and sPselectin in serum and plasma, respectively. Soluble CD40L and sPselectin are independent markers that are reproducible over time in both plasma and sera and are reduced by 1-week of low-dose aspirin.

  13. Association of CD40 with rheumatoid arthritis confirmed in a large UK case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Gisela; Eyre, Steve; Hinks, Anne; Ke, Xiayi; Wilson, Anthony G; Bax, Deborah E; Morgan, Ann W; Emery, Paul; Steer, Sophia; Hocking, Lynne; Reid, David M; Wordsworth, Paul; Harrison, Pille; Thomson, Wendy; Barton, Anne; Worthington, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Objective A recent meta-analysis of published genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in populations of European descent reported novel associations of markers mapping to the CD40, CCL21 and CDK6 genes with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) susceptibility while a large-scale, case-control association study in a Japanese population identified association with multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CD244 gene. The aim of the current study was to validate these potential RA susceptibility markers in a UK population. Methods A total of 4 SNPs (rs4810485 in CD40, rs2812378 in CCL21, rs42041 in CDK6 and rs6682654 in CD244) were genotyped in a UK cohort comprising 3962 UK patients with RA and 3531 healthy controls using the Sequenom iPlex platform. Genotype counts in patients and controls were analysed with the χ2 test using Stata. Results Association to the CD40 gene was robustly replicated (p=2×10−4, OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.93) and modest evidence was found for association with the CCL21 locus (p=0.04, OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.16). However, there was no evidence for association of rs42041 (CDK6) and rs6682654 (CD244) with RA susceptibility in this UK population. Following a meta-analysis including the original data, association to CD40 was confirmed (p=7.8×10−8, OR 0.87 (95% CI 0.83 to 0.92). Conclusion In this large UK cohort, strong association of the CD40 gene with susceptibility to RA was found, and weaker evidence for association with RA in the CCL21 locus. PMID:19435719

  14. CD40突变体靶向MR分子成像探针制备及体外卵巢癌成像的实验研究%Preparation of MR molecular probes targeting CD40 mutant and the preliminary study of imaging ovarian cancer in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗先富; 王军; 吴晶涛; 胡晓华; 瞿秋霞; 叶靖; 陈明祥; 陈文新; 王守安; 董颖

    2012-01-01

    cells in vitro.Methods To prepare immunologically competent probe,the monoclonal antibody was conjugated with USPIO particles modified by DMSA based on chemical crosslinking method.The USPIO labeled anti-human CD40 mutant monoclonal antibody 5H6(5H6-USPIO)was the experimental probe,and the USPIO labeled anti-human CD40 monoclonal antibody 5C11(5C11-USPIO)and USPIO served as control agents.The flow cytometry,confocal microscopy and Prussian blue staining were employed to assess the magnetic performance and analyze its bioactivity of the probe.The probe's cell MR imaging in vitro was carried out using ovarian caner cells(HO8910)with high CD40 mutant expression.The analysis of signal data of different groups was conducted by using one-way ANOVA andLSD test.The probe's effect on ovarian caner cells' growth was measured by CCK-8 kit.Results The stable molecular probe carrying nanoparticles and CD40 mutant antibody was built and purified successfully.The probe had similar magnetic property compared with original USPIO.Immunofluorescence and Prussian blue staining confirmed that the molecular probe could recognize CD40 mutant on ovarian cancer cells(HO8910)with high specificity.The probe had no effect on the growth of HO8910 cells.MR cell imaging in vitro showed that the value of T2 and T2 * decreased significantly after the probe binding with HO8910 cells and T2WI became darker than control groups.The T2 and T2* relaxation time of 5H6-USPIO group was(40.05 ± 1.62)ms and(3.08 ± 0.11)ms,respectively.The T2 and T2 * relaxation time of 5H6-USPIO group was shorter than 5C11-USPIO [(85.38 ± 4.74)and(11.82 ± 1.00)ms,respectively]and USPIO[(91.62 ± 3.35)and(13.60 ± 1.92)ms,respectively]groups with statistical significance(F =196.29,60.73,P <0.01).The difference of T2 and T2* relaxation time between 5C11-USPIO and USPIO groups showed no statistical significance (P >0.05).Conclusions CD40 mutant antibody can conjugate with ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide particles to

  15. Interruption of CD40 Pathway Improves Efficacy of Transplanted Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Monocrotaline Induced Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YanYun Pan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Transplantation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs plays a therapeutic role in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. Meanwhile, recruitment of progenitors has potential inflammatory effects and exaggerates vascular injury. CD40 pathway is identified as a major player in vascular inflammatory events. In this study, we investigated the role of CD40 pathway in regulating early outgrowth EPC functions, and searched for improvements in PAH cell therapy. Methods: EPCs were isolated from rat bone marrow and cultured for 7 days. After treatment with soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L for 24 hours, EPC migration, adhesion, proliferation, paracrine and vasculogenesis functions were tested. Rat PAH model was founded by subcutaneous injection of monocrotaline (MCT. Control EPCs or lentivirus vectors (Lv-shRNA-CD40 EPCs were infused via tail vein at day 7, 14, and 21 after MCT injection. Therapeutic effects were evaluated at day 28. Results: sCD40L dose-dependently impaired EPC migration, adhesion, proliferation, and vasculogenesis functions. However, paracrine effects of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin-6 were dose-dependently improved by sCD40L. Control EPC-derived conditioned medium protected endothelial cell in vitro vasculogenesis, while sCD40L-pretreated ones showed detrimental effects. After MCT injection, sCD40L levels in rat serum increased gradually. Other than in vitro results, benefits of both two EPC treatments were obvious, even taken at day 21. Benefits of control EPCs wore off over time, but those of Lv-shRNA-CD40 EPCs were more effective and enduring, as characterized by both ameliorated rat hemodynamic and reversed vascular remodeling. Furthermore, Lv-shRNA-CD40 EPCs integrated into endothelium better, rather than into adventitia and media. Conclusion: sCD40L impaired protective effects of EPCs. Traditional EPC treatments were limited in PAH, while interruption of CD

  16. Soluble CD40 ligand is associated with angiographic severity of coronary artery disease in patients with acute coronary syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Wei; Zhang Fan; Li Zijian; Yu Haiyi; Li Zongshi; Gao Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently,studies have disclosed soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) during atherosclerosis development and plaque destabilization.The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that sCD40L levels are higher in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with a greater extent of angiographic coronary involvement.Methods This cross-sectional study examined ACS patients who underwent coronary angiography by measuring their sCD40L levels.In order to estimate the serum levels of sCD40L,10 ml of peripheral venous blood was drawn within 24 hours of admission.sCD40L levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA,RapidBio,West Hills,CA,USA).Demographic data,presence of concomitant diseases,ACS characteristics,and angiographic findings were evaluated.A review of medical records and patient interviews were conducted to assess coronary risk factors.And the severity of coronary artery disease was evaluated using the Gensini score index.Results Two hundred and eighty-nine patients were included in the study,of whom 186 were male,with an average age of 64.1±10.0 years.Median sCD40L levels were 1.7 ng/ml (0.3-7.3 ng/ml) and Gensini scores were 50 (0-228).After adjusting for demographic variables and cardiovascular risk factors,the Gensini score was associated with the natural logarithm of the sCD40L level (Coefficient b=0.002,95% CI 0.000-0.003,P=0.029).Conclusion sCD40L levels were independently associated with angiographic severity of coronary artery disease in patients with ACS.

  17. Immune response is an important aspect of the antitumor effect produced by a CD40L-encoding oncolytic adenovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconu, Iulia; Cerullo, Vincenzo; Hirvinen, Mari L M; Escutenaire, Sophie; Ugolini, Matteo; Pesonen, Saila K; Bramante, Simona; Parviainen, Suvi; Kanerva, Anna; Loskog, Angelica S I; Eliopoulos, Aristides G; Pesonen, Sari; Hemminki, Akseli

    2012-05-01

    Oncolytic adenovirus is an attractive platform for immunotherapy because virus replication is highly immunogenic and not subject to tolerance. Although oncolysis releases tumor epitopes and provides costimulatory danger signals, arming the virus with immunostimulatory molecules can further improve efficacy. CD40 ligand (CD40L, CD154) induces apoptosis of tumor cells and triggers several immune mechanisms, including a T-helper type 1 (T(H)1) response, which leads to activation of cytotoxic T cells and reduction of immunosuppression. In this study, we constructed a novel oncolytic adenovirus, Ad5/3-hTERT-E1A-hCD40L, which features a chimeric Ad5/3 capsid for enhanced tumor transduction, a human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter for tumor selectivity, and human CD40L for increased efficacy. Ad5/3-hTERT-E1A-hCD40L significantly inhibited tumor growth in vivo via oncolytic and apoptotic effects, and (Ad5/3-hTERT-E1A-hCD40L)-mediated oncolysis resulted in enhanced calreticulin exposure and HMGB1 and ATP release, which were suggestive of immunogenicity. In two syngeneic mouse models, murine CD40L induced recruitment and activation of antigen-presenting cells, leading to increased interleukin-12 production in splenocytes. This effect was associated with induction of the T(H)1 cytokines IFN-γ, RANTES, and TNF-α. Tumors treated with Ad5/3-CMV-mCD40L also displayed an enhanced presence of macrophages and cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells but not B cells. Together, our findings show that adenoviruses coding for CD40L mediate multiple antitumor effects including oncolysis, apoptosis, induction of T-cell responses, and upregulation of T(H)1 cytokines.

  18. Human genetics in rheumatoid arthritis guides a high-throughput drug screen of the CD40 signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Li

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Although genetic and non-genetic studies in mouse and human implicate the CD40 pathway in rheumatoid arthritis (RA, there are no approved drugs that inhibit CD40 signaling for clinical care in RA or any other disease. Here, we sought to understand the biological consequences of a CD40 risk variant in RA discovered by a previous genome-wide association study (GWAS and to perform a high-throughput drug screen for modulators of CD40 signaling based on human genetic findings. First, we fine-map the CD40 risk locus in 7,222 seropositive RA patients and 15,870 controls, together with deep sequencing of CD40 coding exons in 500 RA cases and 650 controls, to identify a single SNP that explains the entire signal of association (rs4810485, P = 1.4×10(-9. Second, we demonstrate that subjects homozygous for the RA risk allele have ∼33% more CD40 on the surface of primary human CD19+ B lymphocytes than subjects homozygous for the non-risk allele (P = 10(-9, a finding corroborated by expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL analysis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 1,469 healthy control individuals. Third, we use retroviral shRNA infection to perturb the amount of CD40 on the surface of a human B lymphocyte cell line (BL2 and observe a direct correlation between amount of CD40 protein and phosphorylation of RelA (p65, a subunit of the NF-κB transcription factor. Finally, we develop a high-throughput NF-κB luciferase reporter assay in BL2 cells activated with trimerized CD40 ligand (tCD40L and conduct an HTS of 1,982 chemical compounds and FDA-approved drugs. After a series of counter-screens and testing in primary human CD19+ B cells, we identify 2 novel chemical inhibitors not previously implicated in inflammation or CD40-mediated NF-κB signaling. Our study demonstrates proof-of-concept that human genetics can be used to guide the development of phenotype-based, high-throughput small-molecule screens to identify potential novel

  19. Human Genetics in Rheumatoid Arthritis Guides a High-Throughput Drug Screen of the CD40 Signaling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Diogo, Dorothée; Wu, Di; Spoonamore, Jim; Dancik, Vlado; Franke, Lude; Kurreeman, Fina; Rossin, Elizabeth J.; Duclos, Grant; Hartland, Cathy; Zhou, Xuezhong; Li, Kejie; Liu, Jun; De Jager, Philip L.; Siminovitch, Katherine A.; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Bowes, John; Eyre, Steve; Padyukov, Leonid; Gregersen, Peter K.; Worthington, Jane; Gupta, Namrata; Clemons, Paul A.; Stahl, Eli; Tolliday, Nicola; Plenge, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Although genetic and non-genetic studies in mouse and human implicate the CD40 pathway in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), there are no approved drugs that inhibit CD40 signaling for clinical care in RA or any other disease. Here, we sought to understand the biological consequences of a CD40 risk variant in RA discovered by a previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) and to perform a high-throughput drug screen for modulators of CD40 signaling based on human genetic findings. First, we fine-map the CD40 risk locus in 7,222 seropositive RA patients and 15,870 controls, together with deep sequencing of CD40 coding exons in 500 RA cases and 650 controls, to identify a single SNP that explains the entire signal of association (rs4810485, P = 1.4×10−9). Second, we demonstrate that subjects homozygous for the RA risk allele have ∼33% more CD40 on the surface of primary human CD19+ B lymphocytes than subjects homozygous for the non-risk allele (P = 10−9), a finding corroborated by expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 1,469 healthy control individuals. Third, we use retroviral shRNA infection to perturb the amount of CD40 on the surface of a human B lymphocyte cell line (BL2) and observe a direct correlation between amount of CD40 protein and phosphorylation of RelA (p65), a subunit of the NF-κB transcription factor. Finally, we develop a high-throughput NF-κB luciferase reporter assay in BL2 cells activated with trimerized CD40 ligand (tCD40L) and conduct an HTS of 1,982 chemical compounds and FDA–approved drugs. After a series of counter-screens and testing in primary human CD19+ B cells, we identify 2 novel chemical inhibitors not previously implicated in inflammation or CD40-mediated NF-κB signaling. Our study demonstrates proof-of-concept that human genetics can be used to guide the development of phenotype-based, high-throughput small-molecule screens to identify potential novel therapies in

  20. Human CD40L gene maps between DXS144E and DXS300 in Xq26

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilia, G.; Porta, G.; Schlessinger, D. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)] [and others

    1994-07-01

    PCR primers for the 3{prime} end of the CD40L gene, were used to screen the YACs in the Xq26 contig. The primers were 5{prime} ACA GTC TCA CCT TGC AGG CTG and 5{prime} CTC TCT GGA TGT CTG CAT CAG. PCR amplification was for 35 cycles at 95{degree}C for 30 s, 55{degree}C for 45 s, and 72{degree}C for 45 s.

  1. Successful Management of Neutropenia in a Patient with CD40 Ligand Deficiency by Immunoglobulin Replacement Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lida Atarod

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Hyper-IgM syndromes are characterized by profound reduction of serum IgG, IgA, and IgE levels with normal or increased concentrations of serum IgM. CD40 ligand deficiency is X-linked form of the disease, which results in a lack of immunoglobulin class switching from IgM to IgG in B cells. In addition to the recurrent infections, a number of patients suffer from neutropenia. There are some evidences indicating the effect of G-CSF in combination with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG in improvement of neutrophil counts, which has become the most common procedure to control neutropenia.In this report we present a 6 year-old patient of CD40 ligand deficiency, who suffered from chronic, severe neutropenia. Administration of IVIG was started for him when the diagnosis was made at the age of 1.5 years and he was on the regular IVIG therapy after that time untill now for a period of 4.5 years. IVIG and prophylactic antibiotic therapy, despite cessation of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, injection after one month, corrected the severe neutropenic state of this patient. It seems that regular administration of sufficient doses of IVIG can be useful in the management of neutropenia in CD40 ligand deficiency, which results in better quality of life with decreasing occurrence of infection.

  2. Dendritic cell based PSMA immunotherapy for prostate cancer using a CD40-targeted adenovirus vector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briana Jill Williams

    Full Text Available Human prostate tumor vaccine and gene therapy trials using ex vivo methods to prime dendritic cells (DCs with prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA have been somewhat successful, but to date the lengthy ex vivo manipulation of DCs has limited the widespread clinical utility of this approach. Our goal was to improve upon cancer vaccination with tumor antigens by delivering PSMA via a CD40-targeted adenovirus vector directly to DCs as an efficient means for activation and antigen presentation to T-cells. To test this approach, we developed a mouse model of prostate cancer by generating clonal derivatives of the mouse RM-1 prostate cancer cell line expressing human PSMA (RM-1-PSMA cells. To maximize antigen presentation in target cells, both MHC class I and TAP protein expression was induced in RM-1 cells by transduction with an Ad vector expressing interferon-gamma (Ad5-IFNγ. Administering DCs infected ex vivo with CD40-targeted Ad5-huPSMA, as well as direct intraperitoneal injection of the vector, resulted in high levels of tumor-specific CTL responses against RM-1-PSMA cells pretreated with Ad5-IFNγ as target cells. CD40 targeting significantly improved the therapeutic antitumor efficacy of Ad5-huPSMA encoding PSMA when combined with Ad5-IFNγ in the RM-1-PSMA model. These results suggest that a CD-targeted adenovirus delivering PSMA may be effective clinically for prostate cancer immunotherapy.

  3. Dendritic cell based PSMA immunotherapy for prostate cancer using a CD40-targeted adenovirus vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Briana Jill; Bhatia, Shilpa; Adams, Lisa K; Boling, Susan; Carroll, Jennifer L; Li, Xiao-Lin; Rogers, Donna L; Korokhov, Nikolay; Kovesdi, Imre; Pereboev, Alexander V; Curiel, David T; Mathis, J Michael

    2012-01-01

    Human prostate tumor vaccine and gene therapy trials using ex vivo methods to prime dendritic cells (DCs) with prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) have been somewhat successful, but to date the lengthy ex vivo manipulation of DCs has limited the widespread clinical utility of this approach. Our goal was to improve upon cancer vaccination with tumor antigens by delivering PSMA via a CD40-targeted adenovirus vector directly to DCs as an efficient means for activation and antigen presentation to T-cells. To test this approach, we developed a mouse model of prostate cancer by generating clonal derivatives of the mouse RM-1 prostate cancer cell line expressing human PSMA (RM-1-PSMA cells). To maximize antigen presentation in target cells, both MHC class I and TAP protein expression was induced in RM-1 cells by transduction with an Ad vector expressing interferon-gamma (Ad5-IFNγ). Administering DCs infected ex vivo with CD40-targeted Ad5-huPSMA, as well as direct intraperitoneal injection of the vector, resulted in high levels of tumor-specific CTL responses against RM-1-PSMA cells pretreated with Ad5-IFNγ as target cells. CD40 targeting significantly improved the therapeutic antitumor efficacy of Ad5-huPSMA encoding PSMA when combined with Ad5-IFNγ in the RM-1-PSMA model. These results suggest that a CD-targeted adenovirus delivering PSMA may be effective clinically for prostate cancer immunotherapy.

  4. New Steroidal Glycosides Isolated as CD40L Inhibitors of Activated Platelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Chen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Three new compounds were isolated from the dried bulbs of Allium macrostemon Bunge. Their structures were elucidated from their spectral data as (25R-26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5α-furostane-3β,12β,22,26-tetraol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranos-yl (1→2 [β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→3]-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→4-β-D-galactopyranoside (1, (25R-26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5α-furostane-3β,12α,22,26-tetraol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→2 [β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→3]-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→4-β-D-galacto- pyranoside (2 and (25R-26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5β-furostane-3β,12α,22,26-tetraol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→2-β-D-galactopyranoside (3, respectively. The inhibition effect of all compounds on CD40 ligand (CD40L expression on the membrane of activated platelets stimulated by ADP was tested. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited significant inhibitory activities in a dose dependent manner (P < 0.05, suggesting their potential application as CD40L inhibitors.

  5. Specific blockade by CD54 and MHC II of CD40-mediated signaling for B cell proliferation and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doyle, I S; Hollmann, C A; Crispe, I N;

    2001-01-01

    Regulation of B lymphocyte proliferation is critical to maintenance of self-tolerance, and intercellular interactions are likely to signal such regulation. Here, we show that coligation of either the adhesion molecule ICAM-1/CD54 or MHC II with CD40 inhibited cell cycle progression and promoted...... apoptosis of mouse splenic B cells. This resulted from specific blockade of NF-kappa B induction, which normally inhibits apoptosis. LPS- or B cell receptor (BCR)-induced proliferation was not inhibited by these treatments, and mAb-induced association of CD40 with other B cell surface molecules did not have...... these effects. Addition of BCR or IL-4 signals did not overcome the effect of ICAM-1 or MHC II on CD40-induced proliferation. FasL expression was not detected in B cell populations. These results show that MHC II and ICAM-1 specifically modulate CD40-mediated signaling, so inhibiting proliferation...

  6. Inhibition of rejection in murine islet xenografts by CTLA4Ig and CD40LIg gene transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian; LI Hua; JIANG Nan; WANG Guo-ying; FU Bin-sheng; WANG Gen-shu; YANG Yang; CHEN Gui-hua

    2010-01-01

    Background Costimulatory signals play a vital role in T cell activation. Blockade of costimulatory pathway by CTLA4Ig or CD40LIg have enhanced graft survival in experimental transplantation models yet mechanisms remain undetermined.We investigated the effects of CTLA4Ig and CD40LIg gene transfer on islet xenografts rejection in rats.Methods Human islets were infected with recombinant adenoviruses containing CTLA4Ig and CD40LIg genes and implanted beneath the kidney capsule of diabetic rats. Levels of blood sugar, morphological changes, and survival of grafts were recorded. Expressions of CTLA4Ig, CD40LIg and insulin were detected by immunohistochemical staining and cytokines levels were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Results Blood glucose levels in transplant rats decreased to normal level on the 2nd day post transplantation. The mean blood glucose in the control group, CTLA4Ig transfected group, CD40LIg transfected group and CTLA4Ig +CD40LIg cotransfected group increased on days 8, 24, 21, 68, post transplantation respectively. The grafts in control group, CTLA4Ig transfected group, CD40LIg transfected group and CTLA4Ig + CD40LIg cotransfected group survived for (8±1), (29±4), (27±3), and (74±10) days, respectively. Survival in CTLA4Ig + CD40LIg cotransfected group was significantly longer. Survivals of CTLA4Ig transfected group and CD40LIg transfected group were significantly longer than control group. In controJ animals, serum interleukin-2 and tumor necrosis factor a concentration significantly increased within seven days post transplantation. Haematoxylin eosin staining of grafts showed live islets in situ of transplant rats without inflammatory cell infiltration. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the expression of insulin at islets in all experimental groups.Conclusions Transfer of CTLA4Ig and CD40Llg genes, especially the cotransfer of both, inhibits rejection of murine islet xenografts. Downregulated expressions of Th1

  7. CD40 ligand induced cytotoxicity in carcinoma cells is enhanced by inhibition of metalloproteinase cleavage and delivery via a conditionally-replicating adenovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Lawrence S

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CD40 and its ligand (CD40L play a critical role in co-ordinating immune responses. CD40 is also expressed in lymphoid malignancies and a number of carcinomas. In carcinoma cells the physiological outcome of CD40 ligation depends on the level of receptor engagement with low levels promoting cell survival and high levels inducing cell death. The most profound induction of cell death in carcinoma cells is induced by membrane-bound rather than recombinant soluble CD40L, but like other TNF family ligands, it is cleaved from the membrane by matrix metalloproteinases. Results We have generated a replication-deficient adenovirus expressing a mutant CD40L that is resistant to metalloproteinase cleavage such that ligand expression is retained at the cell membrane. Here we show that the mutated, cleavage-resistant form of CD40L is a more potent inducer of apoptosis than wild-type ligand in CD40-positive carcinoma cell lines. Since transgene expression via replication-deficient adenovirus vectors in vivo is low, we have also engineered a conditionally replicating E1A-CR2 deleted adenovirus to express mutant CD40L, resulting in significant amplification of ligand expression and consequent enhancement of its therapeutic effect. Conclusions Combined with numerous studies demonstrating its immunotherapeutic potential, these data provide a strong rationale for the exploitation of the CD40-CD40L pathway for the treatment of solid tumours.

  8. Construction and Characterization of Lentiviral shRNA Expression Vector Targeting Rat CD40 Gene in Dendritic Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Mei; LI Jin-dong; JIANG Rui; JIN Cheng-yan; GAO Nan; LUO Shu-li; WANG Chun-guang; WANG Bin; WANG Rong-you; ZHANG Xing-yi

    2009-01-01

    To construct a lentiviral shRNA vector targeting rat CD40 gene and detect its effectiveness of gene silencing in dendritic cells(DCs), specific siRNA targets with short hairpin frame were designed and synthesized according to the mRNA sequence of rat CD40 gene. DNA oligo was cloned into lentiviral expression vector, and then PCR and sequencing analyses were conducted to verify the constructs. The verified plasmids were transfected into 293T cells that over-express recombinant CD40 in order to select the most effective siRNA targets. shRNA lentivi-ruses from the selected constructs were propagated and harvested with a virus packaging system, and the virus titers were determined. Western blot and Real-time PCR were performed to determine CD40 expression level in the virus-infected dendritic cells. PCR and sequencing analyses reveal that shRNA plasmids of four targets were successfully constructed. The optimal interfering target was selected, and the virus with a titer of 5×10~7 TU/mL was successfully packaged. CD40 expression in rat DCs was knockdown at both mRNA and protein levels by virus infection. In comparison to that of control groups, CD40 mRNA expression and protein expression were decreased by 60.9% and 61.2%, respectively. We have successfully constructed recombinant lentiviral shRNA expression vector targeting rat CD40 gene that can effectively down-regulate CD40 gene expression at mRNA and protein levels in rat DC.

  9. Genetic adjuvantation of recombinant MVA with CD40L potentiates CD8 T cell mediated immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning eLauterbach

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA is a safe and promising viral vaccine vector that is currently investigated in several clinical and pre-clinical trials. In contrast to inactivated or sub-unit vaccines, MVA is able to induce strong humoral as well as cellular immune responses. In order to further improve its CD8 T cell inducing capacity, we genetically adjuvanted MVA with the coding sequence of murine CD40L, a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF superfamily. Immunization of mice with this new vector led to strongly enhanced primary and memory CD8 T cell responses. Concordant with the enhanced CD8 T cell response, we could detect stronger activation of dendritic cells and higher systemic levels of innate cytokines (including IL-12p70 early after immunization. Interestingly, acquisition of memory characteristics (i.e., IL-7R expression was accelerated after immunization with MVA-CD40L in comparison to non-adjuvanted MVA. Furthermore, the generated CTLs also showed improved functionality as demonstrated by intracellular cytokine staining and in vivo killing activity. Importantly, the superior CTL response after a single MVA-CD40L immunization was able to protect B cell deficient mice against a fatal infection with ectromelia virus. Taken together, we show that genetic adjuvantation of MVA can change strength, quality and functionality of innate and adaptive immune responses. These data should facilitate a rational vaccine design with a focus on rapid induction of large numbers of CD8 T cells able to protect against specific diseases.

  10. Interaction of calreticulin with CD40 ligand, TRAIL and Fas ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duus, K; Pagh, R T; Holmskov, U; Højrup, P; Skov, S; Houen, G

    2007-11-01

    The molecular chaperone calreticulin has been shown to bind C1q and mannan-binding lectin (MBL), which are constituents of the innate immune defence system. C1q and MBL do not share a large sequence identity but have a similar overall molecular architecture: an N-terminal triple-helical collagen-like domain and a C-terminal globular domain with ligand-binding properties. C1q is a hetero-trimer, while MBL is a homo-trimer, but due to the presence of N-terminal cysteines they both form higher order oligomers of trimers, which are the mature functional molecules. The same molecular architecture is utilized by many other functionally diverse molecules and in this work the interaction of calreticulin with C1q and structurally similar molecules was investigated. In addition to C1q and MBL, CD40 ligand (CD40L), tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and Fas ligand (FasL) were found to bind calreticulin strongly. A low level or no binding was observed for adiponectin, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), CD30L, surfactant protein-A and -D and collagen VIII. The interaction with calreticulin required a conformational change in CD40L, TRAIL and FasL and showed the same characteristics as calreticulin's interaction with C1q and MBL: a time-dependent saturable binding to immobilized protein, which was initially sensitive to salt but gradually developed into a salt-insensitive interaction. Thus, the interaction requires a structural change in the interaction partner and leads to a conformational change in calreticulin itself. The implications of these results are that calreticulin may function as a general response modifier for a whole group of immunologically important proteins.

  11. Sustained Brown Fat Stimulation and Insulin Sensitization by a Humanized Bispecific Antibody Agonist for Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1/βKlotho Complex

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    Ganesh Kolumam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dissipating excess calories as heat through therapeutic stimulation of brown adipose tissues (BAT has been proposed as a potential treatment for obesity-linked disorders. Here, we describe the generation of a humanized effector-less bispecific antibody that activates fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR 1/βKlotho complex, a common receptor for FGF21 and FGF19. Using this molecule, we show that antibody-mediated activation of FGFR1/βKlotho complex in mice induces sustained energy expenditure in BAT, browning of white adipose tissue, weight loss, and improvements in obesity-associated metabolic derangements including insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and hepatosteatosis. In mice and cynomolgus monkeys, FGFR1/βKlotho activation increased serum high-molecular-weight adiponectin, which appears to contribute over time by enhancing the amplitude of the metabolic benefits. At the same time, insulin sensitization by FGFR1/βKlotho activation occurs even before the onset of weight loss in a manner that is independent of adiponectin. Together, selective activation of FGFR1/βKlotho complex with a long acting therapeutic antibody represents an attractive approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and other obesity-linked disorders through enhanced energy expenditure, insulin sensitization and induction of high-molecular-weight adiponectin.

  12. Excess soluble CD40L contributes to blood brain barrier permeability in vivo: implications for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna C Davidson

    Full Text Available Despite the use of anti-retroviral therapies, a majority of HIV-infected individuals still develop HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND, indicating that host inflammatory mediators, in addition to viral proteins, may be contributing to these disorders. Consistently, we have previously shown that levels of the inflammatory mediator soluble CD40L (sCD40L are elevated in the circulation of HIV-infected, cognitively impaired individuals as compared to their infected, non-impaired counterparts. Recent studies from our group suggest a role for the CD40/CD40L dyad in blood brain barrier (BBB permeability and interestingly, sCD40L is thought to regulate BBB permeability in other inflammatory disorders of the CNS. Using complementary multiphoton microscopy and quantitative analyses in wild-type and CD40L deficient mice, we now reveal that the HIV transactivator of transcription (Tat can induce BBB permeability in a CD40L-dependent manner. This permeability of the BBB was found to be the result of aberrant platelet activation induced by Tat, since depletion of platelets prior to treatment reversed Tat-induced BBB permeability. Furthermore, Tat treatment led to an increase in granulocyte antigen 1 (Gr1 positive monocytes, indicating an expansion of the inflammatory subset of cells in these mice, which were found to adhere more readily to the brain microvasculature in Tat treated animals. Exploring the mechanisms by which the BBB becomes compromised during HIV infection has the potential to reveal novel therapeutic targets, thereby aiding in the development of adjunct therapies for the management of HAND, which are currently lacking.

  13. Excess soluble CD40L contributes to blood brain barrier permeability in vivo: implications for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Donna C; Hirschman, Michael P; Sun, Anita; Singh, Meera V; Kasischke, Karl; Maggirwar, Sanjay B

    2012-01-01

    Despite the use of anti-retroviral therapies, a majority of HIV-infected individuals still develop HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND), indicating that host inflammatory mediators, in addition to viral proteins, may be contributing to these disorders. Consistently, we have previously shown that levels of the inflammatory mediator soluble CD40L (sCD40L) are elevated in the circulation of HIV-infected, cognitively impaired individuals as compared to their infected, non-impaired counterparts. Recent studies from our group suggest a role for the CD40/CD40L dyad in blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability and interestingly, sCD40L is thought to regulate BBB permeability in other inflammatory disorders of the CNS. Using complementary multiphoton microscopy and quantitative analyses in wild-type and CD40L deficient mice, we now reveal that the HIV transactivator of transcription (Tat) can induce BBB permeability in a CD40L-dependent manner. This permeability of the BBB was found to be the result of aberrant platelet activation induced by Tat, since depletion of platelets prior to treatment reversed Tat-induced BBB permeability. Furthermore, Tat treatment led to an increase in granulocyte antigen 1 (Gr1) positive monocytes, indicating an expansion of the inflammatory subset of cells in these mice, which were found to adhere more readily to the brain microvasculature in Tat treated animals. Exploring the mechanisms by which the BBB becomes compromised during HIV infection has the potential to reveal novel therapeutic targets, thereby aiding in the development of adjunct therapies for the management of HAND, which are currently lacking.

  14. Persistent Polyclonal B Cell Lymphocytosis B Cells Can Be Activated through CD40-CD154 Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Dugas-Bourdages

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent polyclonal B cell lymphocytosis (PPBL is a rare disorder, diagnosed primarily in adult female smokers and characterized by an expansion of CD19+CD27+IgM+ memory B cells, by the presence of binucleated lymphocytes, and by a moderate elevation of serum IgM. The clinical course is usually benign, but it is not known whether or not PPBL might be part of a process leading to the emergence of a malignant proliferative disorder. In this study we sought to investigate the functional response of B cells from patients with PPBL by use of an optimal memory B cell culture model based on the CD40-CD154 interaction. We found that the proliferation of PPBL B cells was almost as important as that of B cells from normal controls, resulting in high immunoglobulin secretion with in vitro isotypic switching. We conclude that the CD40-CD154 activation pathway is functional in the memory B cell population of PPBL patients, suggesting that the disorder may be due to either a dysfunction of other cells in the microenvironment or a possible defect in another B cell activation pathway.

  15. CD40 signaling synergizes with TLR-2 in the BCR independent activation of resting B cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Jain

    Full Text Available Conventionally, signaling through BCR initiates sequence of events necessary for activation and differentiation of B cells. We report an alternative approach, independent of BCR, for stimulating resting B (RB cells, by involving TLR-2 and CD40--molecules crucial for innate and adaptive immunity. CD40 triggering of TLR-2 stimulated RB cells significantly augments their activation, proliferation and differentiation. It also substantially ameliorates the calcium flux, antigen uptake capacity and ability of B cells to activate T cells. The survival of RB cells was improved and it increases the number of cells expressing activation induced deaminase (AID, signifying class switch recombination (CSR. Further, we also observed increased activation rate and decreased threshold period required for optimum stimulation of RB cells. These results corroborate well with microarray gene expression data. This study provides novel insights into coordination between the molecules of innate and adaptive immunity in activating B cells, in a BCR independent manner. This strategy can be exploited to design vaccines to bolster B cell activation and antigen presenting efficiency, leading to faster and better immune response.

  16. Testicular germ cell sensitivity to TRAIL-induced apoptosis is dependent upon p53 expression and is synergistically enhanced by DR5 agonistic antibody treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Chad M; Ye, Yang; Richburg, John H

    2006-12-01

    The ability of the TRAIL/DR5 signaling pathway to induce apoptosis has generally been limited to tumor cells. Here we report that in primary testis explants, addition of TRAIL (0.5 mug/ml) caused a three-fold increase in germ cell apoptosis. Furthermore, exposure of C57BL/6 mice to the testicular toxicant, mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), caused an increased p53 stability and elevated DR5 mRNA levels coincident with increases in the levels of apoptosis in spermatocytes. To further assess the mechanisms responsible for the sensitivity of germ cells to undergo TRAIL/DR5-mediated apoptosis, we used the germ cell lines GC-1spg and GC-2spd(ts) (a temperature sensitive spermatocyte-like cell line that allows for p53 nuclear localization at 32 degrees C but not 37 degrees C). Addition of TRAIL and the anti-DR5 monoclonal antibody, MD5-1, triggered a robust synergistic increase of apoptosis in p53 permissive GC-2 cells (32 degrees C) but not in GC-1 cells. In addition, DR5 levels on the plasma membrane of permissive cells were considerably enhanced concomitant with p53 expression and after MD5-1 treatment. These data represent the first indication that testicular germ cells, specifically spermatocytes, can undergo TRAIL-mediated apoptosis and the clinically relevant observation that pretreatment with a DR5 monoclonal antibody can greatly sensitize their apoptotic response to TRAIL.

  17. Effect of Clopidogrel on Platelet Membrane CD40 Ligand in Coronary Artery Disease Patients Undertaking Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the change and clinical significance of clopidogrel on platelet membrane CD40L in coronary artery disease patients before and after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods 30 cases who were diagnosis coronary artery diseases(CAD) by coronary angiography, mean age 56 ± 9 years old. All the patients who had no antiplatelet aggregation contraindication, were treated with standard anti angina pectoris drugs. Before PCI, all the patients took clopidogrel 75 mg per day. Activated platelet membrane CD40L express rate was measured by flow cytometry before and after PCI 6 hours. Results Activated platelet membrane CD40L express rate were 3.73 ± 2.15and 2.46 ± 0.90, respectively in 30 patients before and after PCI 6 hours. Activated platelet membrane CD40L express rate was significantly decrease after PCI 6 hours than that before PCI ( P < 0.01 ). Conclusions Clopidogrel has significance effect on platelet membrane CD40L in coronary artery disease patients undergoing PCI. Clopidogrel can suppression platelet activation and prevent thromboembolism event occurrence.

  18. CD40-signalling abrogates induction of RORγt+ Treg cells by intestinal CD103+ DCs and causes fatal colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthels, Christian; Ogrinc, Ana; Steyer, Verena; Meier, Stefanie; Simon, Ferdinand; Wimmer, Maria; Blutke, Andreas; Straub, Tobias; Zimber-Strobl, Ursula; Lutgens, Esther; Marconi, Peggy; Ohnmacht, Caspar; Garzetti, Debora; Stecher, Bärbel; Brocker, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Immune homeostasis in intestinal tissues depends on the generation of regulatory T (Treg) cells. CD103+ dendritic cells (DCs) acquire microbiota-derived material from the gut lumen for transport to draining lymph nodes and generation of receptor-related orphan γt+ (RORγt+) Helios−-induced Treg (iTreg) cells. Here we show CD40-signalling as a microbe-independent signal that can induce migration of CD103+ DCs from the lamina propria (LP) to the mesenteric lymph nodes. Transgenic mice with constitutive CD11c-specific CD40-signalling have reduced numbers of CD103+ DCs in LP and a low frequency of RORγt+Helios− iTreg cells, exacerbated inflammatory Th1/Th17 responses, high titres of microbiota-specific immunoglobulins, dysbiosis and fatal colitis, but no pathology is detected in other tissues. Our data demonstrate a CD40-dependent mechanism capable of abrogating iTreg cell induction by DCs, and suggest that the CD40L/CD40-signalling axis might be able to intervene in the generation of new iTreg cells in order to counter-regulate immune suppression to enhance immunity. PMID:28276457

  19. Inhibitory effects of ginkgolide B on CD40 Ligand expression in collagen-induced platelet activation%银杏内酯B抑制血小板CD40Ligand表达的分子机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫琰; 赵革新; 陈北冬; 鲍利; 吴伟; 齐若梅

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨银杏内酯B(ginkgolide B)对活化血小板CD40 Ligand(CD40L)的影响以及相关的分子机制.方法 取正常人血分离血小板,用不同浓度银杏内酯B孵育血小板5 min,然后用胶原(collagen)刺激血小板活化.用Western blot分析PI3K表达,Akt磷酸化,CD40L的变化.结果 ①用collagen刺激血小板聚集,银杏内酯B(0.2、0.4、0.6 g*L-1)预处理血小板5 min,血小板聚集率明显降低,聚集率分别为77%,60%和48%.②Western blot结果显示胶原刺激血小板活化后CD40L表达明显增加,银杏内酯B以剂量依赖方式抑制了CD40L表达.③银杏内酯B对胶原刺激的血小板PI3K表达无明显影响.④collagen刺激血小板活化后Akt的磷酸化增加,银杏内酯B抑制了Akt磷酸化.结论 银杏内酯B能够有效抑制collagen诱导的血小板聚集以及CD40L的表达,并明显抑制了Akt磷酸化,表明银杏内酯B能够通过PI3K/Akt信号传导通路抑制血小板活化.%Aim To investigate the effects of ginkgolide B on the CD40Ligand ( CD40L ) expression in collagen-induced platelet activation and the related mechanism. Methods Anti-coagulated blood was collected from health donor. Platelets were isolated through cen-trifugation. Platelets were pre-incubated by the various concentrations of ginkgolide B for 5 min, then platelets were stimulated by collagen. Protein expression was detected by Western blot. Results 1. 10 mg · L-1 of collagen induced platelet aggregation, and 0. 2 g · L-1,0. 4 g · L-1 and 0. 6 g · L-1 of ginkgolide B potently inhibited platelet aggregation in a dose-dependent manner. 2. The expression of CD40L was increased in collagen-induced platelet activation. Ginkgolide B significantly attenuated the increase of CD40L expression in activated platelets. 3. Ginkgolide B had no effect on PI3K expression in collagen-induced platelet activation. 4. Ginkgolide B obviously abolished Akt phospho-rylation in activated platelets. Conclusions Ginkgolide B can

  20. Development of Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Quantita-tive Determination of Agonistic DR5 Monoclonal Antibody%抗 DR5单克隆抗体 ELISA 检测新方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭聪; 陈知航; 许先兴; 刘运龙; 车津晶; 董俊兴; 程远国

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To develop a specific, sensitive and rapid ELISA method for the quantification of agonistic death receptor 5(DR5) monoclonal antibody. Methods: An quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay was devel⁃oped in using goat anti-human IgG for capturing as well as detecting. Following that, color was developed by the substrate solution and the reaction was stopped by stop solution. Finally the plate was read at a wavelength of 450 nm using a microplate reader. Results: An ELISA assay was developed with a wide dynamic range of con⁃centrations from 12.5 to 800 ng/mL. The lowest quantification of this assay was 12.5 ng/mL, both accuracy of the intra- and inter-assay were less than 15%. Conclusion: The assay is highly sensitive, accurate, specific, and re⁃producibility over a wide dynamic range of concentrations, which was proven to be a feasible quantitative method for agonistic DR5 monoclonal antibody analysis.%  目的:建立一种灵敏、特异、快速的 ELISA 方法,用猕猴血清中抗死亡受体5(DR5)单克隆抗体的检测.方法:采用双抗夹心 ELISA 法,用猴血清吸附的羊抗人 IgG 包被96孔酶标板,加入待测样品,用 HRP 标记的猴血清吸附的羊抗人 IgG 进行检测,加底物显色,读取 D450nm值.结果:建立了检测抗 DR5单克隆抗体的 ELISA 方法并进行了确证,方法的线性范围为12.5~800 ng/mL,定量下限为12.5 ng/mL,板内和板间精密度均小15%,准确度为±15%,冻融稳定性和稀释稳定性良好.结论:方法学确证结果表明,本研究建立的抗 DR5单克隆抗体检测方法符合新生物制品临床前药代动力学研究指导则要求,可用抗 DR5单克隆抗体的检测.

  1. TLR5 signaling enhances the proliferation of human allogeneic CD40-activated B cell induced CD4hiCD25+ regulatory T cells.

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    Ping-Lung Chan

    Full Text Available Although diverse functions of different toll-like receptors (TLR on human natural regulatory T cells have been demonstrated recently, the role of TLR-related signals on human induced regulatory T cells remain elusive. Previously our group developed an ex vivo high-efficient system in generating human alloantigen-specific CD4(hiCD25(+ regulatory T cells from naïve CD4(+CD25(- T cells using allogeneic CD40-activated B cells as stimulators. In this study, we investigated the role of TLR5-related signals on the generation and function of these novel CD4(hiCD25(+ regulatory T cells. It was found that induced CD4(hiCD25(+ regulatory T cells expressed an up-regulated level of TLR5 compared to their precursors. The blockade of TLR5 using anti-TLR5 antibodies during the co-culture decreased CD4(hiCD25(+ regulatory T cells proliferation by induction of S phase arrest. The S phase arrest was associated with reduced ERK1/2 phosphorylation. However, TLR5 blockade did not decrease the CTLA-4, GITR and FOXP3 expressions, and the suppressive function of CD4(hiCD25(+ regulatory T cells. In conclusion, we discovered a novel function of TLR5-related signaling in enhancing the proliferation of CD4(hiCD25(+ regulatory T cells by promoting S phase progress but not involved in the suppressive function of human CD40-activated B cell-induced CD4(hiCD25(+ regulatory T cells, suggesting a novel role of TLR5-related signals in the generation of induced regulatory T cells.

  2. Antithyroglobulin antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroglobulin antibody; Thyroiditis - thyroglobulin antibody; Hypothyroidism - thyroglobulin antibody; Thyroiditis - thyroglobulin antibody; Graves disease - thyroglobulin antibody; Underactive thyroid - thyroglobulin antibody

  3. Growing role of CD40 ligand gene transfer therapy in the management of systemic malignancies besides hepatocellular carcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shailendra KAPOOR

    2009-01-01

    @@ The article "Cationic liposome-mediated trans-fection of CD40 ligand gene inhibits hepatic tumor growth of hepatocellular carcinoma in mice" [doi:10. 1631/jzus.B0820178] by Jiang et a1.(2009) in a recent issue of the Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B was highly thought provoking. The authors have clearly demonstrated the efficacy of CD40 ligand gene therapy in inhibiting the growth of hepatocellu-lar carcinomas. The findings of Jiang et al.(2009) are highly important as they further support and cor-roborate the rapidly expanding role of CD40 ligand gene therapy in the management of systemic malig-nancies besides hepatocellular carcinomas.

  4. Soluble CD40 in plasma and malignant pleural effusion with non-small cell lung cancer:A potential marker of prognosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan-Yong Mu; Pang-Xue Qin; Qiu-Xia Qu; Cheng Chen; Jian-An Huang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Soluble CD40 (sCD40) is a potential modulator for both antitumor responses and CD40-based immunotherapy;however the levels and significance of sCD40 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with malignant pleural effusion are unknown. Methods: Forty-eight patients with lung cancer were treated in our institutions from January 2008 to January 2010. Peripheral blood and pleural effusion samples were collected from each subject. sCD40 levels in plasma and malignant pleural effusions supernatant were measured. The CD40L expression on CD3t T-cells was confirmed by flow cytometric direct immunofluorescence analysis. All patients were followed up after the study ended on January 1, 2010. Results: Patients with malignant pleural effusion of NSCLC had elevated circulating and pleural effusion levels of sCD40, and these elevated sCD40 levels were associated with advanced diseases and a poor prognosis. Conclusions: These findings indicate that elevated sCD40 may have a role in modulating antitumor responses and may also be a useful prognostic marker. Copyright © 2015, Chinese Medical Association Production. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of KeAi Communications Co., Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  5. CD40L induces multidrug resistance to apoptosis in breast carcinoma and lymphoma cells through caspase independent and dependent pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blay Jean-Yves

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CD40L was found to reduce doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in non Hodgkin's lymphoma cell lines through caspase-3 dependent mechanism. Whether this represents a general mechanism for other tumor types is unknown. Methods The resistance induced by CD40L against apoptosis induced by a panel of cytotoxic chemotherapeutic drugs in non Hodgkin's lymphoma and breast carcinoma cell lines was investigated. Results Doxorubicin, cisplatyl, etoposide, vinblastin and paclitaxel increased apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in breast carcinoma as well as in non Hodgkin's lymphoma cell lines. Co-culture with irradiated L cells expressing CD40L significantly reduced the percentage of apoptotic cells in breast carcinoma and non Hodgkin's lymphoma cell lines treated with these drugs. In breast carcinoma cell lines, these 5 drugs induced an inconsistent increase of caspase-3/7 activity, while in non Hodgkin's lymphoma cell lines all 5 drugs increased caspase-3/7 activity up to 28-fold above baseline. Co-culture with CD40L L cells reduced (-39% to -89% the activation of caspase-3/7 induced by these agents in all 5 non Hodgkin's lymphoma cell lines, but in none of the 2 breast carcinoma cell lines. Co culture with CD40L L cells also blocked the apoptosis induced by exogenous ceramides in breast carcinoma and non Hodgkin's lymphoma cell lines through a caspase-3-like, 8-like and 9-like dependent pathways. Conclusion These results indicate that CD40L expressed on adjacent non tumoral cells induces multidrug resistance to cytotoxic agents and ceramides in both breast carcinoma and non Hodgkin's lymphoma cell lines, albeit through a caspase independent and dependent pathway respectively.

  6. Expression of TLR4 and CD40 in activated macrophage surface after transfusion-related acute lung injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-Xiu Cai

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the expression of TLR4 and CD40 in activated macrophage surface after transfusion-related acute lung injury in rats. Methods:SD rats were selected as experimental animals, lipopolysaccharide and plasma were transfused in turn, animal models with transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) were established, lung tissue was collected to detect wet to dry weight ratio as well as mRNA expression levels of TLR4, NF-κB, CD40, TNF-α, IL-1β, MIP-2 and GRP78, serum was collected to detect TNF-α, IL-1βand MIP-2 contents, and macrophages in peripheral blood were collected to detect mRNA expression levels of TLR4, NF-κB and CD40. Results:Lung tissue wet to dry weight ratio of TRALI group was significantly higher than that of Sham group;mRNA expression levels of TLR4, NF-κB and CD40 in macrophages of TRALI group were significantly higher than those of Sham group;mRNA expression levels of TLR4, NF-κB, CD40, TNF-α, IL-1β, MIP-2 and GRP78 in lung tissue of TRALI group were significantly higher than those of Sham group;serum TNF-α, IL-1βand MIP-2 contents of TRALI group were significantly higher than those of Sham group;SOD and GSH contents in lung tissue of TRALI group were lower than those of Sham group, and contents of MDA and 8-OhdG were higher than those of Sham group. Conclusion:Expression levels of TLR4 and CD40 in activated macrophage surface significantly increase after transfusion-related acute lung injury in rats, which will cause lung injury through inflammatory response, oxidative stress response, endoplasmic reticulum stress and others aspects.

  7. Modulation of Cytokine Production by Drugs with Antiepileptic or Mood Stabilizer Properties in Anti-CD3- and Anti-CD40-Stimulated Blood In Vitro

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    Hubertus Himmerich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased cytokine production possibly due to oxidative stress has repeatedly been shown to play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. Recent in vitro and animal studies of valproic acid (VPA report antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties, and suppression of interleukin (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α. We tested the effect of drugs with antiepileptic or mood stabilizer properties, namely, primidone (PRM, carbamazepine (CBZ, levetiracetam (LEV, lamotrigine (LTG, VPA, oxcarbazepine (OXC, topiramate (TPM, phenobarbital (PB, and lithium on the production of the following cytokines in vitro: interleukin (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17, IL-22, and TNF-α. We performed a whole blood assay with stimulated blood of 14 healthy female subjects. Anti-human CD3 monoclonal antibody OKT3, combined with 5C3 antibody against CD40, was used as stimulant. We found a significant reduction of IL-1 and IL-2 levels with all tested drugs other than lithium in the CD3/5C3-stimulated blood; VPA led to a decrease in IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17, and TNF-α production, which substantiates and adds knowledge to current hypotheses on VPA’s anti-inflammatory properties.

  8. Common variants at CD40 and other loci confer risk of rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Remmers, Elaine F; Lee, Annette T; Hackett, Rachel; Guiducci, Candace; Burtt, Noël P; Gianniny, Lauren; Korman, Benjamin D; Padyukov, Leonid; Kurreeman, Fina A S; Chang, Monica; Catanese, Joseph J; Ding, Bo; Wong, Sandra; van der Helm-van Mil, Annette H M; Neale, Benjamin M; Coblyn, Jonathan; Cui, Jing; Tak, Paul P; Wolbink, Gert Jan; Crusius, J Bart A; van der Horst-Bruinsma, Irene E; Criswell, Lindsey A; Amos, Christopher I; Seldin, Michael F; Kastner, Daniel L; Ardlie, Kristin G; Alfredsson, Lars; Costenbader, Karen H; Altshuler, David; Huizinga, Tom W J; Shadick, Nancy A; Weinblatt, Michael E; de Vries, Niek; Worthington, Jane; Seielstad, Mark; Toes, Rene E M; Karlson, Elizabeth W; Begovich, Ann B; Klareskog, Lars; Gregersen, Peter K; Daly, Mark J; Plenge, Robert M

    2008-10-01

    To identify rheumatoid arthritis risk loci in European populations, we conducted a meta-analysis of two published genome-wide association (GWA) studies totaling 3,393 cases and 12,462 controls. We genotyped 31 top-ranked SNPs not previously associated with rheumatoid arthritis in an independent replication of 3,929 autoantibody-positive rheumatoid arthritis cases and 5,807 matched controls from eight separate collections. We identified a common variant at the CD40 gene locus (rs4810485, P = 0.0032 replication, P = 8.2 x 10(-9) overall, OR = 0.87). Along with other associations near TRAF1 (refs. 2,3) and TNFAIP3 (refs. 4,5), this implies a central role for the CD40 signaling pathway in rheumatoid arthritis pathogenesis. We also identified association at the CCL21 gene locus (rs2812378, P = 0.00097 replication, P = 2.8 x 10(-7) overall), a gene involved in lymphocyte trafficking. Finally, we identified evidence of association at four additional gene loci: MMEL1-TNFRSF14 (rs3890745, P = 0.0035 replication, P = 1.1 x 10(-7) overall), CDK6 (rs42041, P = 0.010 replication, P = 4.0 x 10(-6) overall), PRKCQ (rs4750316, P = 0.0078 replication, P = 4.4 x 10(-6) overall), and KIF5A-PIP4K2C (rs1678542, P = 0.0026 replication, P = 8.8 x 10(-8) overall).

  9. Constitutive CD40L expression on B cells prematurely terminates germinal center response and leads to augmented plasma cell production in T cell areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolduc, Anna; Long, Eugene; Stapler, Dale; Cascalho, Marilia; Tsubata, Takeshi; Koni, Pandelakis A; Shimoda, Michiko

    2010-07-01

    CD40/CD40L engagement is essential to T cell-dependent B cell proliferation and differentiation. However, the precise role of CD40 signaling through cognate T-B interaction in the generation of germinal center and memory B cells is still incompletely understood. To address this issue, a B cell-specific CD40L transgene (CD40LBTg) was introduced into mice with B cell-restricted MHC class II deficiency. Using this mouse model, we show that constitutive CD40L expression on B cells alone could not induce germinal center differentiation of MHC class II-deficient B cells after immunization with T cell-dependent Ag. Thus, some other MHC class II-dependent T cell-derived signals are essential for the generation of germinal center B cells in response to T cell-dependent Ag. In fact, CD40LBTg mice generated a complex Ag-specific IgG1 response, which was greatly enhanced in early, but reduced in late, primary response compared with control mice. We also found that the frequency of Ag-specific germinal center B cells in CD40LBTg mice was abruptly reduced 1 wk after immunization. As a result, the numbers of Ag-specific IgG1 long-lived plasma cells and memory B cells were reduced. By histology, large numbers of Ag-specific plasma cells were found in T cell areas adjacent to Ag-specific germinal centers of CD40LBTg mice, temporarily during the second week of primary response. These results indicate that CD40L expression on B cells prematurely terminated their ongoing germinal center response and produced plasma cells. Our results support the notion that CD40 signaling is an active termination signal for germinal center reaction.

  10. GLP-1 Receptor Agonists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Balance › GLP-1 Receptor Agonists Fact Sheet GLP-1 Receptor Agonists May, 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Silvio ... are too high or too low. What are GLP-1 receptor agonist medicines? GLP-1 receptor agonist medicines, also called ...

  11. Flipping the switches: CD40 and CD45 modulation of microglial activation states in HIV associated dementia (HAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Jingji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Microglial dysfunction is associated with the pathogenesis and progression of a number of neurodegenerative disorders including HIV associated dementia (HAD. HIV promotion of an M1 antigen presenting cell (APC - like microglial phenotype, through the promotion of CD40 activity, may impair endogenous mechanisms important for amyloid- beta (Aβ protein clearance. Further, a chronic pro-inflammatory cycle is established in this manner. CD45 is a protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor which negatively regulates CD40L-CD40-induced microglial M1 activation; an effect leading to the promotion of an M2 phenotype better suited to phagocytose and clear Aβ. Moreover, this CD45 mediated activation state appears to dampen harmful cytokine production. As such, this property of microglial CD45 as a regulatory "off switch" for a CD40-promoted M1, APC-type microglia activation phenotype may represent a critical therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of neurodegeneration, as well as microglial dysfunction, found in patients with HAD.

  12. PU.1 Expression in T Follicular Helper Cells Limits CD40L-Dependent Germinal Center B Cell Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awe, Olufolakemi; Hufford, Matthew M; Wu, Hao; Pham, Duy; Chang, Hua-Chen; Jabeen, Rukhsana; Dent, Alexander L; Kaplan, Mark H

    2015-10-15

    PU.1 is an ETS family transcription factor that is important for the development of multiple hematopoietic cell lineages. Previous work demonstrated a critical role for PU.1 in promoting Th9 development and in limiting Th2 cytokine production. Whether PU.1 has functions in other Th lineages is not clear. In this study, we examined the effects of ectopic expression of PU.1 in CD4(+) T cells and observed decreased expression of genes involved with the function of T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, including Il21 and Tnfsf5 (encoding CD40L). T cells from conditional mutant mice that lack expression of PU.1 in T cells (Sfpi1(lck-/-)) demonstrated increased production of CD40L and IL-21 in vitro. Following adjuvant-dependent or adjuvant-independent immunization, we observed that Sfpi1(lck-/-) mice had increased numbers of Tfh cells, increased germinal center B cells (GCB cells), and increased Ab production in vivo. This correlated with increased expression of IL-21 and CD40L in Tfh cells from Sfpi1(lck-/-) mice compared with control mice. Finally, although blockade of IL-21 did not affect GCB cells in Sfpi1(lck-/-) mice, anti-CD40L treatment of immunized Sfpi1(lck-/-) mice decreased GCB cell numbers and Ag-specific Ig concentrations. Together, these data indicate an inhibitory role for PU.1 in the function of Tfh cells, germinal centers, and Tfh-dependent humoral immunity.

  13. Incorporation of GM-CSF or CD40L Enhances the Immunogenicity of Hantaan Virus-Like Particles

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    Lin-Feng Cheng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A safe and effective Hantaan virus (HTNV vaccine is highly desirable because HTNV causes an acute and often fatal disease (hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, HFRS. Since the immunity of the inactivated vaccine is weak and the safety is poor, HTNV virus-like particles (VLPs offer an attractive and safe alternative. These particles lack the viral genome but are perceived by the immune system as virus particles. We hypothesized that adding immunostimulatory signals to VLPs would enhance their efficacy. To accomplish this enhancement, we generated chimeric HTNV VLPs containing glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI-anchored granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF or CD40 ligand (CD40L and investigated their biological activity in vitro. The immunization of mice with chimeric HTNV VLPs containing GM-CSF or CD40L induced stronger humoral immune responses and cellular immune responses compared to the HTNV VLPs and Chinese commercial inactivated hantavirus vaccine. Chimeric HTNV VLPs containing GM-CSF or CD40L also protected mice from an HTNV challenge. Altogether, our results suggest that anchoring immunostimulatory molecules into HTNV VLPs can be a potential approach for the control and prevention of HFRS.

  14. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SOLUBLE OF CD40 LIGAND LEVELS IN HEART RECIPIENTS TREATED WITH CYCLOSPORINE A AND TACROLIMUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Shevchenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Soluble form of CD40L is platelet activating factor, which is a marker of inflammation and thrombosis. Elevated levels of sCD40L before the heart transplantation are associated with the risk of early development of cardiova- scular complications. The study included 54 patients who had received heart transplants. All recipients received a triple heart immu- nosuppressive therapy, including methylprednisolone, mycophenolate mofetil and cyclosporine A (20 recipients or methylprednisolone, mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus (34 recipients. Patients were not differed by age, gender, etiology of heart failure before heart transplantation (p > 0,05. In the first group of transplant recipients, the relative risk of cardiovascular events with high sCD40L levels before transplantation was 3 2 (95% CI 1,4; 12,0. In the second group of recipients, respectively, 2.69 (95% CI 1,1; 8,5. SCD40L level after heart transplan- tation was significantly higher for patients receiving cyclosporine (P < 0.05. Increasing concentrations of sCD40L are associated with a higher incidence of cardiovascular complications. 

  15. Blockade of CD40-CD154 at the time of donor-specific blood transfusion does not lead to prolonged kidney allograft survival in nonhuman primates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ringers, J; Haanstra, KG; Kroczek, RA; Kliem, K; Kuhn, EM; Wubben, J; Ossevoort, MA; Volk, HD; Jonker, M

    2002-01-01

    Background. In rodents it has been demonstrated that blockade of the CD40-CD154 (CD40L) pathway at the time of donor-specific blood transfusion (DST) can result in indefinite graft survival. Because it has been reported in the past that DST in monkeys can have a favorable effect on graft outcome and

  16. IL-21 and CD40L synergistically promote plasma cell differentiation through upregulation of Blimp-1 in human B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, B Belinda; Bi, Enguang; Chen, Hongshan; Yu, J Jessica; Ye, B Hilda

    2013-02-15

    After undergoing Ig somatic hypermutation and Ag selection, germinal center (GC) B cells terminally differentiate into either memory or plasma cells (PCs). It is known that the CD40L and IL-21/STAT3 signaling pathways play critical roles in this process, yet it is unclear how the B cell transcription program interprets and integrates these two types of T cell-derived signals. In this study, we characterized the role of STAT3 in the GC-associated PC differentiation using purified human tonsillar GC B cells and a GC B cell-like cell line. When primary GC B cells were cultured under PC differentiation condition, STAT3 inhibition by AG490 prevented the transition from GC centrocytes to preplasmablast, suggesting that STAT3 is required for the initiation of PC development. In a GC B cell-like human B cell line, although IL-21 alone can induce low-level Blimp-1 expression, maximum Blimp-1 upregulation and optimal PC differentiation required both IL-21 and CD40L. CD40L, although having no effect on Blimp-1 as a single agent, greatly augmented the amplitude and duration of IL-21-triggered Jak-STAT3 signaling. In the human PRDM1 locus, CD40L treatment enhanced the ability of STAT3 to upregulate Blimp-1 by removing BCL6, a potent inhibitor of Blimp-1 expression, from a shared BCL6/STAT3 site in intron 3. Thus, IL-21 and CD40L collaborate through at least two distinct mechanisms to synergistically promote Blimp-1 activation and PC differentiation.

  17. CD40基因多态性及血清水平与系统性红斑狼疮发病机制的相关研究%Association of CD40 gene polymorphisms and serum CD40 levels with the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴成将; 袁秋然; 莫益姣; 梁丽群; 王春芳; 蒋远文; 蓝艳

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨CD40基因单核苷酸多态性(SNP)及其单倍型与SLE易感性的相关性,分析CD40基因型及血清水平与系统性红斑狼疮(SLE)的相关性.方法 单碱基延伸的PCR技术(PCR-SBE)和DNA测序法分析205例SLE患者和220例健康对照CD40基因rs1883832 C/T、rs 13040307 C/T、rs752118 C/T和rs3765459 G/A的多态性,同时用ELISA检测血清CD40水平.结果 与健康对照组相比,SLE组血清CD40水平显著增高(P<0.05).SLE组与健康对照组CD40基因rs1883832 C/T位点基因型和等位基因频率比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).等位基因频率的相对风险分析后发现,携带有rs1883832 T等位基因的受试者患有SLE的风险是rs1883832 C等位基因的1.517倍(OR=1.517,95%CI1.157~ 1.990,P=0.003);携带rs1883832 T等位基因的SLE患者血清CD40水平与不携带者相比,结果显著增高(P<0.01).通过联合基因型分析发现,SLE组中携带单倍型TCCA的患者较健康对照组显著增加了发病的风险(OR=2.322,95% CI.181 ~ 4.564,P=0.012).结论 CD40基因rs1883832 C/T多态性和TCCA单倍型与SLE的发病有相关性,其中rs1883832 T等位基因可能是SLE的遗传易感基因.%Objective To explore the association of CD40 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes with the susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE),as well as the association of serum levels and genotypes of CD40 with the occurrence of SLE.Methods A multiplex PCR single-base extension assay (PCR-SBE) and DNA sequencing were performed to analyze 4 SNPs of the CD40 gene,including rs1883832 C/T,rs13040307 C/T,rs752118 C/T and rs3765459 G/A,in 205 patients with SLE (SLE group) and 220 healthy human controls (control group).Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was conducted to measure serum levels of CD40 in these subjects.Results Compared with the control group,the SLE group showed significantly increased serum levels of CD40 (P < 0.05).There were significant differences

  18. Mechanisms of immunotherapeutic intervention by anti-CD40L (CD154) antibody in an animal model of multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard, L.M.; Miga, A.J.; Vanderlugt, C.L.; Dal Canto, M.C.; Laman, J.D.; Noelle, R.J.; Miller, S.D.

    1999-01-01

    Relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (R-EAE) in the SJL mouse is a Th1-mediated autoimmune demyelinating disease model for human multiple sclerosis and is characterized by infiltration of the central nervous system (CNS) by Th1 cells and macrophages. Disease relapses are mediated by T

  19. Human CD38hiCD138⁺ plasma cells can be generated in vitro from CD40-activated switched-memory B lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïga, Rayelle Itoua; Bonnaure, Guillaume; Rochette, Josiane Tremblay; Néron, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    B lymphocyte differentiation into long-lived plasma cells is the keystone event for the production of long-term protective antibodies. CD40-CD154 and CD27-CD70 interactions are involved in human B lymphocyte differentiation into CD38(hi)CD138(+) cells in vivo as well as in vitro. In this study, we have compared these interactions in their capacity to drive switched-memory B lymphocytes differentiation into CD38(hi)CD138(+) plasma cells. The targeted B lymphocytes were isolated from human peripheral blood, expanded for 19 days, and then submitted to CD70 or CD154 interactions for 14 days. The expanded B lymphocytes were constitutively expressing CD39, whereas CD31's expression was noticed only following the in vitro differentiation step (day 5) and was exclusively present on the CD38(hi) cell population. Furthermore, the generated CD38(hi)CD138(+) cells showed a higher proportion of CD31(+) cells than the CD38(hi)CD138(-) cells. Besides, analyses done with human blood and bone marrow plasma cells showed that in vivo and de novo generated CD38(hi)CD138(+) cells have a similar CD31 expression profile but are distinct according to their reduced CD39 expression level. Overall, we have evidences that in vitro generated plasma cells are heterogeneous and appear as CD39(+) precursors to the ones present in bone marrow niches.

  20. An autologous in situ tumor vaccination approach for hepatocellular carcinoma. 2. Tumor-specific immunity and cure after radio-inducible suicide gene therapy and systemic CD40-ligand and Flt3-ligand gene therapy in an orthotopic tumor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashita, Yujo; Deb, Niloy J; Garg, Madhur K; Kabarriti, Rafi; Fan, Zuoheng; Alfieri, Alan A; Roy-Chowdhury, Jayanta; Guha, Chandan

    2014-08-01

    natural killer cells. The addition of Adeno-CD40L further improved the median survival of animals to 80 ± 15 days and this effect was abolished only when using anti-CD8 antibodies. Chromium-51 (51Cr) release assay showed cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activation, suggesting efficient dendritic cell (DC) activation with CTL activation after the treatment. Furthermore, when surviving mice were rechallenged with BNL-ETK cells on the foot pad, RT + HSV-TK/GCV + Flt3L + CD40L-treated mice developed a small tumor on day 56 but the tumor eventually disappeared after 105 days. Mice treated with RT + HSV-TK/GCV + Flt3L showed a slowed tumor growth curve compared with untreated mice. Therefore, combination therapy using Flt3L to induce DC proliferation and CD40L to enhance DC maturation holds great promise for immunomodulation of radiation therapy to enhance HCC tumor control and prevent progression of disease in patients with diffuse HCC.

  1. Roles of the kinase TAK1 in TRAF6-dependent signaling by CD40 and its oncogenic viral mimic, LMP1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly M Arcipowski

    Full Text Available The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-encoded protein latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1 is essential for EBV-mediated B cell transformation and plays a critical role in the development of post-transplant B cell lymphomas. LMP1 also contributes to the exacerbation of autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. LMP1 is a functional mimic of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR superfamily member CD40, and relies on TNFR-associated factor (TRAF adaptor proteins to mediate signaling. However, LMP1 activation signals to the B cell are amplified and sustained compared to CD40 signals. We previously demonstrated that LMP1 and CD40 use TRAF molecules differently. Although associating with CD40 and LMP1 via separate mechanisms, TRAF6 plays a significant role in signal transduction by both. It is unknown whether TRAF6 mediates CD40 versus LMP1 functions via distinct or shared pathways. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that TRAF6 uses the kinase TAK1 to trigger important signaling pathways following both CD40 and LMP1 stimulation. We determined that TAK1 was required for JNK activation and interleukin-6 (IL-6 production mediated by CD40 and LMP1, in both mouse and human B cells. Additionally, TRAF3 negatively regulated TRAF6-dependent, CD40-mediated TAK1 activation by limiting TRAF6 recruitment. This mode of regulation was not observed for LMP1 and may contribute to the dysregulation of LMP1 compared to CD40 signals.

  2. Anergic cells induced by the blockade of CD40-CD154 and CD28-B7 costimulatory pathways act as potent immunoregulatory cells in vitro and vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡勇; 周佩军; 唐孝达

    2004-01-01

    Background This study was to evaluate whether anergic cells induced by the blockade of CD40-CD154 and CD28-B7 costimulatory pathways can act as potent immunoregulatory cells in vitro and prolong cardiac allograft survival after adoptive transfer.Methods Anergic cells were induced in vitro by the addition of anti-CD154 and anti-CD80 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to primary MLR (mixed lymphocyte reaction) consisting of BALB/c as responder and C3H as stimulator. Anergic cells were added to a newly formed MLR in assessing the regulatory capacity and antigen specificity of anergic cells. The ability of anergic cells to respond to antigen and/or exogenous recombinant mouse interleukin-2 (rmIL-2) was tested. For in vivo studies, anergic cells were intravenously injected into 3.0-Gy γ-irradiated BALB/c mice immediately after heterotopic abdominal cardiac transplantation. To prolong allograft survival, recipient mice injected with anergic cells received rapamycin therapy (1 mg·day-1·kg-1).Results Anergic cells strongly suppressed the proliferation of naǐve BALB/c splenocytes against the original (C3H) stimulator in a dose-dependent manner, but they failed to suppress the proliferation of naǐve BALB/c splenocytes against the third-party (C57BL/6J) stimulator. The anergic state was reversed by both original (C3H) stimulator and additional exogenous IL-2. In in vivo studies, untreated irradiated BALB/c mice rejected C3H cardiac allografts with a mean survival time of (8.6±1.1) days, whereas those injected with the anergic cells rejected the allografts with a mean survival time of (11.8±1.9) days, which was slightly longer than that of the untreated mice. The protocol based on anergic cells injection plus rapamycin therapy could prolong allograft survival significantly [(29.6±4.4) days]. Conclusions Anergic cells induced by the blockade of CD40-CD154 and CD28-B7 costimulatory pathways can act as potent immunoregulatory cells in vitro, and prolong cardiac allograft

  3. Requirement for CD40 ligand, CD4(+) T cells, and B cells in an infectious mononucleosis-like syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, J W; Hamilton-Easton, A M; Christensen, J P

    1999-01-01

    Respiratory challenge with the murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (gammaHV-68) results in productive infection of the lung, the establishment of latency in B lymphocytes and other cell types, transient splenomegaly, and prolonged clonal expansion of activated CD8(+) CD62L(lo) T cells, particularly a Vbeta4......(+) CD8(+) population that is found in mice with different major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotypes. Aspects of the CD8(+)-T-cell response are substantially modified in mice that lack B cells, CD4(+) T cells, or the CD40 ligand (CD40L). The B-cell-deficient mice show no increase in Vbeta4(+) CD8......(+) CD8(+) population remains unexpanded. Apparently B-cell-CD4(+)-T-cell interactions play a part in the gammaHV-68 induction of both splenomegaly and non-MHC-restricted Vbeta4(+) CD8(+)-T-cell expansion....

  4. Assessment of serum levels of soluble CD40L in Egyptian children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus: Relationship to microalbuminuria and glycemic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotb Abbass Metwalley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L is known to be elevated in different clinical situations including hypercholesterolemia, acute coronary syndromes, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, Data about the relationship between type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and sCD40L is limited. In addition, the potential role ofsCD40Lin the pathogenesis of vascular complications in children and adolescents with T1DM is to be clarified. Hence, the study aimed at assessment of sCD40L levels in children and adolescents with T1DM and correlation of these levels with glycemic control and microalbuminuria. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional controlled study. Materials and Methods: The study was performed in the Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes Unit, Assuit University Children Hospital, Assiut, Egypt. It included 70 children and adolescents with T1DM (mean age 14. 76 ± 2.21 years. Cases were further subdivided into 43 cases with normoalbuminuria and 27 cases with microalbuminuria according to presence or absence or microalbuminuria in fresh urine samples. Twentyfive healthy subjects, age- and sex-matched were included as control group (mean age = 13.62 ± 2.11 years. Studied cases were subjected to medical history, clinical examination, and laboratory assessment of fasting blood glucose (FBG, lipid profile, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, and sCD40L were performed. Results: Mean HbA1c and sCD40L were significantly higher in diabetic children (n = 70 compared to control (n = 25 (P < 0.001 for each. Mean HbA1c and sCD40L levels were significantly higher in microalbuminuric cases (n = 27 compared to normoalbuminuric cases (n = 43 (P < 0.05 and <0.01, respectively.We also observed a significant positive correlation between sCD40L levels and the age, diabetes duration, HbA1c, and urinary albumin creatinine ratio. Conclusions: The high serum sCD40L levels in children and adolescents with T1DM particularly in those with microalbminuria and its positive correlation with

  5. Silenciament gènic de CD40 en al•lo i autoimmunitat. Estudi de la resposta immuno inflamatòria en models animals

    OpenAIRE

    Ripoll Llagostera, Èlia

    2013-01-01

    Tots els estudis presentats en aquest treball tenen com a objectiu ampliar el coneixement del gen CD40 i el seu paper en l’activació del sistema immune. Per estudiar aquesta funció es va aplicar un silenciament gènic mitjançant la tecnologia RNAi en models experimentals, tant in vitro com in vivo; en un model de malaltia autoimmune, com la nefritis lúpica, i un de malaltia al•loimmune, com és el cas del trasplantament renal. El senyal de coestimulació de CD40-CD40L juga un paper molt impor...

  6. Platelet-Associated CD40/CD154 Mediates Remote Tissue Damage After Mesenteric Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    granules in resting platelets and when platelets are activated CD154 translocates to the membrane for up to 90 minutes prior to its being where it is...endothelial cells. Circulation 106: 2111 2117. 17. Rendu F, Brohard-Bohn B (2001) The platelet release reaction: granules ’ constituents, secretion and...01 FEB 2015 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Platelet -associated CD40/CD154 mediates remote tissue damage after

  7. Differential modulation of CXCR4 and CD40 protein levels by skin sensitizers and irritants in the FSDC cell line

    OpenAIRE

    Neves, Bruno Miguel; Cruz, Maria Teresa; Francisco, Vera; Gonçalo, Margarida; Figueiredo, Américo; Duarte, Carlos B.; Lopes, Maria Celeste

    2008-01-01

    The development of non-animal methods for skin sensitization testing is an urgent challenge. Some of the most promising in vitro approaches are based on the analysis of phenotypical and functional modifications induced by sensitizers in dendritic cell models. In this work, we evaluated, for the first time, a fetal skin-derived dendritic cell line (FSDC) as a model to discriminate between sensitizers and irritants, through analysis of their effects on CD40 and CXCR4 protein expression. The che...

  8. miR-503对辐射诱导U937细胞CD40表达的调控作用%Regulation of miR-503 on the expression of CD40 induced by irradiation in U937 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙世龙; 董娟聪; 金顺子

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study whether or not CD40 gene is a target of miR-503 in U937 cells,and to observe the regulatory effects of miR-503 on expression of CD40 induced by irradiation in U937cells.Methods The miR-503 sequence was inserted into pcDNA-DEST-47 plasmid to construct the eukaryotic expression vector (pcDNA-DEST-miR-503) and to construct the CD40 gene 3′-UTR luciferase reporter plasmid (psiCHECK2-CD40) at the same time.They were used to transfect U937 cells together for analysis of the regulatory effects of miR-503 on the expression of CD40.Meanwhile the miR-203 and miR-29b were used as controls to observe whether or not CD40 gene was a target of miR-503.The expression change of CD40 after irradiation,and the inhibitory effect of miR-503 on the expression of CD40 was confirmed by Western blot assay.The expression of miR-503 was detected by real-time RT-PCR (qPCR) after irradiation with doses of 5.0 Gy.Results The expression of luciferase in the group of transfected with pcDNA-DEST-miR-503 and psiCHECK2-CD40 plasmids was significantly lower than that in the group transfected with empty plasmid and CD40 gene (t =3.16,P < 0.05).And the miR-203 and miR-29b could not inhibit the activity of CD40 luciferase,but the miR-503 could significantly inhibit the activity of it (t =5.25,P < 0.01 ).The expression of CD40 protein in U937 cells was decreased after the cells were transfected with pcDNA-DEST-miR-503.After irradiation with dose of 5.0 Gy,the expression of miR-503 were increased (t =3.63 - 17.00,P <0.01 ) and the expression of CD40 protein decreased.Conclusions The CD40 gene might be the target of miR-503,and miR-503 could regulate the expression of CD40 gene.Irradiation could up-regulate the expression of miR-503 and inhibit the expression of CD40 protein in U937 cells.miR-503 might play a role in the process of regulation of irradiation on expression of CD40 protein in tumor cells.%目的 探讨miR-503在U937细胞中与CD40的靶向关系,

  9. High sCD40L levels Early After Trauma are Associated with Enhanced Shock, Sympathoadrenal Activation, Tissue and Endothelial Damage, Coagulopathy and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, P I; Sørensen, A M; Perner, A;

    2012-01-01

    was associated with enhanced tissue and endothelial damage (ISS, hcDNA, Annexin V, syndecan-1, sTM), shock (pH, SBE), sympathoadrenal activation (adrenaline) and coagulopathy evidenced by reduced thrombin generation (PF1.2), hyperfibrinolysis (D-dimer), increased APTT and inflammation (IL-6) (all p......Background: Severe injury activates the sympathoadrenal, hemostatic and inflammatory systems, but a maladapted response may contribute to poor outcome. Soluble CD40L is a platelet derived mediator that links inflammation, hemostasis and vascular dysfunction. Objectives: To investigate......-complex, antithrombin, protein C, activated Protein C, sEPCR, TFPI, vWF, fibrinogen, FXIII), fibrinolysis (D-dimer, tPA, PAI-1) and inflammation (IL-6, sC5b-9). We compared patients stratified by median sCD40L level and investigated predictive values of sCD40L for mortality. Results: High circulating sCD40L...

  10. Maturation of dendritic cells by recombinant human CD40L-trimer leads to a homogeneous cell population with enhanced surface marker expression and increased cytokine production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtzen, P A; Nissen, Mogens Holst; Claesson, M H

    2001-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) have been shown to be potent inducers of specific cytotoxic T-cell responses both in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, exposure to cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha or CD40 triggering changes DC phenotype and cytokine production and may enhance the T...... enhanced by exposure to huCD40LT even compared to TNF-alpha exposure. Only a moderate cytokine production was observed initially, while TNF-alpha addition or CD40 triggering, especially, induced enhanced production of IL-6 and IL-12 p40. Surprisingly, comparable induction of T-cell proliferation by a DC...... marker expression and high production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, the induction of responses to allo or recall antigens presented by huCD40LT maturated DC was comparable to the responses obtained with the DC maturated through TNF-alpha exposure....

  11. Expression of CD40 is a positive prognostic factor of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song G

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Guoqi Song,1 Huiyun Ni,1 Linqing Zou,2 Shukui Wang,3 Fuliang Tian,4 Hong Liu,1 William C Cho5 1Department of Hematology, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, 2Department of Human Anatomy, Nantong University, Nantong, 3Central Laboratory of Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 4Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Lianyungang, Lianyungang, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China; 5Department of Clinical Oncology, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Kowloon, Hong Kong Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the expression level of CD40 and its role in the prognosis of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL who were treated with rituximab-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone.Design and methods: The immunohistochemical expressions of CD40 in 186 well-characterized DLBCL patients were evaluated by tissue microarrays, thereby revealing the relationship of the molecule CD40 with known tumor, patient-related variables, and survival rates.Results: The results showed that CD40 expressions were not statistically different between the germinal center B-cell-like (GCB type and the non-GCB type. We also analyzed the relationships of CD40 expression with overall survival (OS and progression-free survival (PFS in DLBCL patients who were uniformly treated with R-CHOP. A low expression of CD40 compared to high expression is related to poor OS and PFS. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that the CD40 level at onset acts as an independent prognostic predictor of DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP. Keywords: CD40, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, R-CHOP, prognostic factor

  12. CD40 signaling drives B lymphocytes into an intermediate memory-like state, poised between naïve and plasma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Mala; Priya, G Krishna; Ramesh, P; Madhavi, M B; Rath, Satyajit; Bal, Vineeta; George, Anna; Vaidya, Tushar

    2014-10-01

    Immunological memory comprising of antigen-specific B and T cells contributes to the acquisition of long-term resistance to pathogens. Interactions between CD40 on B cells and CD40L on T cells are responsible for several aspects of acquired immune responses including generation of memory B cells. In order to gain insights into events leading to memory B cell formation, we analyzed the genome-wide expression profile of murine naive B cells stimulated in the presence of anti-CD40. We have identified over 8,000 genes whose expression is altered minimally 1.5-fold at least at one time point over a 3-day time course. The array analysis indicates that changes in expression level of maximum number of these genes occur within 24 h of anti-CD40 treatment. In parallel, we have studied the events following CD40 ligation by examining the expression of known regulators of naive B cell to plasma cell transition, including Pax5 and BLIMP1. The expression profile of these regulatory genes indicates firstly, that CD40 signaling activates naïve B cells to a phenotype that is intermediate between the naive and plasma cell stages of the B cell differentiation. Secondly, the major known regulator of plasma cell differentiation, BLIMP1, gets irreversibly downregulated upon anti-CD40 treatment. Additionally, our data reveal that CD40 signaling mediated BLIMP1 downregulation occurs by non-Pax5/non-Bcl6 dependent mechanisms, indicating novel mechanisms at work that add to the complexity of understanding of B cell master regulatory molecules like BLIMP1 and Pax5.

  13. Glutamate receptor agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogensen, Stine Byskov; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Bunch, Lennart;

    2011-01-01

    The neurotransmitter (S)-glutamate [(S)-Glu] is responsible for most of the excitatory neurotransmission in the central nervous system. The effect of (S)-Glu is mediated by both ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. Glutamate receptor agonists are generally a-amino acids with one or more...... stereogenic centers due to strict requirements in the agonist binding pocket of the activated state of the receptor. By contrast, there are many examples of achiral competitive antagonists. The present review addresses how stereochemistry affects the activity of glutamate receptor ligands. The review focuses...... mainly on agonists and discusses stereochemical and conformational considerations as well as biostructural knowledge of the agonist binding pockets, which is useful in the design of glutamate receptor agonists. Examples are chosen to demonstrate how stereochemistry not only determines how the agonist...

  14. Interleukin 21 Controls mRNA and MicroRNA Expression in CD40-Activated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cecco, Loris; Capaia, Matteo; Zupo, Simona; Cutrona, Giovanna; Matis, Serena; Brizzolara, Antonella; Orengo, Anna Maria; Croce, Michela; Marchesi, Edoardo; Ferrarini, Manlio; Canevari, Silvana; Ferrini, Silvano

    2015-01-01

    Several factors support CLL cell survival in the microenvironment. Under different experimental conditions, IL21 can either induce apoptosis or promote CLL cell survival. To investigate mechanisms involved in the effects of IL21, we studied the ability of IL21 to modulate gene and miRNA expressions in CD40-activated CLL cells. IL21 was a major regulator of chemokine production in CLL cells and it modulated the expression of genes involved in cell movement, metabolism, survival and apoptosis. In particular, IL21 down-regulated the expression of the chemokine genes CCL4, CCL3, CCL3L1, CCL17, and CCL2, while it up-regulated the Th1-related CXCL9 and CXCL10. In addition, IL21 down-regulated the expression of genes encoding signaling molecules, such as CD40, DDR1 and PIK3CD. IL21 modulated a similar set of genes in CLL and normal B-cells (e.g. chemokine genes), whereas other genes, including MYC, TNF, E2F1, EGR2 and GAS-6, were regulated only in CLL cells. An integrated analysis of the miRNome and gene expression indicated that several miRNAs were under IL21 control and these could, in turn, influence the expression of potential target genes. We focused on hsa-miR-663b predicted to down-regulate several relevant genes. Transfection of hsa-miR-663b or its specific antagonist showed that this miRNA regulated CCL17, DDR1, PIK3CD and CD40 gene expression. Our data indicated that IL21 modulates the expression of genes mediating the crosstalk between CLL cells and their microenvironment and miRNAs may take part in this process. PMID:26305332

  15. Interleukin 21 Controls mRNA and MicroRNA Expression in CD40-Activated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loris De Cecco

    Full Text Available Several factors support CLL cell survival in the microenvironment. Under different experimental conditions, IL21 can either induce apoptosis or promote CLL cell survival. To investigate mechanisms involved in the effects of IL21, we studied the ability of IL21 to modulate gene and miRNA expressions in CD40-activated CLL cells. IL21 was a major regulator of chemokine production in CLL cells and it modulated the expression of genes involved in cell movement, metabolism, survival and apoptosis. In particular, IL21 down-regulated the expression of the chemokine genes CCL4, CCL3, CCL3L1, CCL17, and CCL2, while it up-regulated the Th1-related CXCL9 and CXCL10. In addition, IL21 down-regulated the expression of genes encoding signaling molecules, such as CD40, DDR1 and PIK3CD. IL21 modulated a similar set of genes in CLL and normal B-cells (e.g. chemokine genes, whereas other genes, including MYC, TNF, E2F1, EGR2 and GAS-6, were regulated only in CLL cells. An integrated analysis of the miRNome and gene expression indicated that several miRNAs were under IL21 control and these could, in turn, influence the expression of potential target genes. We focused on hsa-miR-663b predicted to down-regulate several relevant genes. Transfection of hsa-miR-663b or its specific antagonist showed that this miRNA regulated CCL17, DDR1, PIK3CD and CD40 gene expression. Our data indicated that IL21 modulates the expression of genes mediating the crosstalk between CLL cells and their microenvironment and miRNAs may take part in this process.

  16. Induction of IL-12 Production in Human Peripheral Monocytes by Trypanosoma cruzi Is Mediated by Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Mucin-Like Glycoproteins and Potentiated by IFN-γ and CD40-CD40L Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Cristina Jamli Abel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi, is characterized by immunopathology driven by IFN-γ secreting Th1-like T cells. T. cruzi has a thick coat of mucin-like glycoproteins covering its surface, which plays an important role in parasite invasion and host immunomodulation. It has been extensively described that T. cruzi or its products—like GPI anchors isolated from GPI-anchored mucins from the trypomastigote life cycle stage (tGPI-mucins—are potent inducers of proinflammatory responses (i.e., cytokines and NO production by IFN-γ primed murine macrophages. However, little is known about whether T. cruzi or GPI-mucins exert a similar action in human cells. We therefore decided to further investigate the in vitro cytokine production profile from human mononuclear cells from uninfected donors exposed to T. cruzi as well as tGPI-mucins. We observed that both living T. cruzi trypomastigotes and tGPI-mucins are potent inducers of IL-12 by human peripheral blood monocytes and this effect depends on CD40-CD40L interaction and IFN-γ. Our findings suggest that the polarized T1-type cytokine profile seen in T. cruzi infected patients might be a long-term effect of IL-12 production induced by lifelong exposure to T. cruzi tGPI-mucins.

  17. Soluble CD40 ligand is elevated in type 1 diabetic nephropathy but not predictive of mortality, cardiovascular events or kidney function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajer, Maria; Tarnow, Inge; Michelson, Alan D; Jorsal, Anders; Frelinger, Andrew L; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Rossing, Peter; Tarnow, Lise

    2010-01-01

    Soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) derived from platelets mediates atherothrombosis, leading to proinflammatory and proatherosclerotic responses. We investigated the predictive value of plasma sCD40L for all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, progression towards end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and rate of decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and nephropathy. The study was a prospective, observational follow-up study of 443 T1DM patients with diabetic nephropathy (274 men; age 42.1 ± 10.5 years [mean ± SD], duration of diabetes 28.3 ± 8.9 years, GFR 76 ± 33 ml/min/1.73 m2) and a control group of 421 patients with longstanding type 1 diabetes and persistent normoalbuminuria (232 men; age 45.4 ± 11.5 years, duration of diabetes 27.7 ± 10.1 years) at baseline. sCD40L was measured by ELISA. Plasma sCD40L levels were higher in patients with diabetic nephropathy compared to normoalbuminuric patients (median (range) 1.54 (0.02-13.38) vs. 1.30 (0.04-20.65) µg/L, respectively p = 0.004). The patients were followed for 8.1 (0.0-12.9) years (median (range)). Among normoalbuminuric patients, sCD40L levels did not predict all-cause mortality (p = 0.33) or combined fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease (CVD) (p = 0.27). Similarly, among patients with diabetic nephropathy, the covariate adjusted sCD40L levels did not predict all-cause mortality (p = 0.86) or risk of fatal and non-fatal CVD (p = 0.08). Furthermore, high levels of sCD40L did not predict development of ESRD (p = 0.85) nor rate of decline in GFR (p = 0.69). Plasma sCD40L is elevated in T1DM nephropathy but is not a predictor of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality and morbidity or deterioration of kidney function

  18. Functional Specialty of CD40 and Dendritic Cell Surface Lectins for Exogenous Antigen Presentation to CD8(+) and CD4(+) T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wenjie; Gorvel, Laurent; Zurawski, Sandra; Li, Dapeng; Ni, Ling; Duluc, Dorothée; Upchurch, Katherine; Kim, JongRok; Gu, Chao; Ouedraogo, Richard; Wang, Zhiqing; Xue, Yaming; Joo, HyeMee; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre; Zurawski, Gerard; Oh, SangKon

    2016-03-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are major antigen-presenting cells that can efficiently prime and cross-prime antigen-specific T cells. Delivering antigen to DCs via surface receptors is thus an appealing strategy to evoke cellular immunity. Nonetheless, which DC surface receptor to target to yield the optimal CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cell responses remains elusive. Herein, we report the superiority of CD40 over 9 different lectins and scavenger receptors at evoking antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell responses. However, lectins (e.g., LOX-1 and Dectin-1) were more efficient than CD40 at eliciting CD4(+) T cell responses. Common and distinct patterns of subcellular and intracellular localization of receptor-bound αCD40, αLOX-1 and αDectin-1 further support their functional specialization at enhancing antigen presentation to either CD8(+) or CD4(+) T cells. Lastly, we demonstrate that antigen targeting to CD40 can evoke potent antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell responses in human CD40 transgenic mice. This study provides fundamental information for the rational design of vaccines against cancers and viral infections.

  19. Inhibitory Effect of Clopidogrel on Release of Soluble CD40 Ligand by ADP-activated Platelet in Patients With Non-ST-segment elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wei; Chufan Luo; Zhimin Du

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the inhibitory effect of clopidogrel on release of soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) by ADP-activated platelet in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes(NSTEACS).Methods Forty-two patients with NSTEACS were treated with clopidogrel for 6~8 days.In order to obtain platelet rich plasma (PRP) samples,the venous blood was drawn before and after treatment,respectively.The platelets were activated by adenosine diphosphate (ADP),thus releasing sCD4OL,sCD40L levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at different time of the reaction.Results Plasma sCD40L concentration before treatment was (0.199±0.155 ) ng/mL,and (0.190±0.176) ng/mL after treatment (P>0.05).Before treatment the PRP sCD40L level at 20-minute of platelet activation was (4.34±2.51 )ng/mL,and decreased to (2.79±1.93 ) ng/mL after treatment (P<0.001).The corresponding level at 40-minute of platelet activation was (5.29±3.13 ) ng/mL before treatment and (2.87±1.59 ) ng/mL after treatment(P<0.001 ).Conclusions Short-term clopidogrel administration might inhibit the release of sCD40L by ADP-activated platelet in patients with NSTEACS,suggesting that,in addition to its antiplatelet potency,clopidogrel may still have an anti-inflammatory effect.

  20. CD40-induced aggregation of MHC class II and CD80 on the cell surface leads to an early enhancement in antigen presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clatza, Abigail; Bonifaz, Laura C; Vignali, Dario A A; Moreno, José

    2003-12-15

    Ligation of CD40 on B cells increases their ability to present Ag and to activate MHC class II (MHC-II)-restricted T cells. How this occurs is not entirely clear. In this study we demonstrate that CD40 ligation on Ag-presenting B cells (APC) for a short period between 30 min and 3 h has a rapid, augmenting effect on the ability of a B cell line and normal B cells to activate T cells. This is not due to alterations in Ag processing or to an increase in surface expression of CD80, CD86, ICAM-1, or MHC-II. This effect is particularly evident with naive, resting T lymphocytes and appears to be more pronounced under limiting Ag concentrations. Shortly after CD40 ligation on a B cell line, MHC-II and CD80 progressively accumulated in cholesterol-enriched microdomains on the cell surface, which correlated with an initial enhancement in their Ag presentation ability. Moreover, CD40 ligation induced a second, late, more sustained enhancement of Ag presentation, which correlates with a significant increase in CD80 expression by APC. Thus, CD40 signaling enhances the efficiency with which APC activate T cells by at least two related, but distinct, mechanisms: an early stage characterized by aggregation of MHC-II and CD80 clusters, and a late stage in which a significant increase in CD80 expression is observed. These results raise the possibility that one important role of CD40 is to contribute to the formation of the immunological synapse on the APC side.

  1. Correlation between CD40 gene polymorphism and Graves disease%CD40基因多态性与格雷夫斯病的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄加忠; 李靖; 戴翠萍

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨CD40基因5 ′非翻译区_1位点核苷酸多态性与格雷夫斯病(GD)的相关性.方法 使用聚合酶链反应-限制性片段长度多态性(PCR-RFLP)技术测定128例GD患者(实验组)和150例健康人群(对照组)CD40基因5′非翻译区位点的基因型.结果 实验组CD40基因5 ′非翻译区域多态性CC、CT和TT基因型的频率分别为46.09%、28.91%和25%,对照组分别为28.67%、36.67%和34.66%,实验组和对照组3种基因型的分布频率之间的差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).实验组等位基因C和T频率分别为60.55%和39.45%,对照组等位基因C和T频率分别为47%和53%,实验组和对照组C、T等位基因分布频率之间比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).有突眼症状的GD患者的CD40基因5 ′非翻译区域的CC、CT和TT基因型的频率分别为64.1%、20.51%和15.38%,无突眼症状的GD患者3中基因型频率分别为38.02%、32.58%和29.2%;有突眼症状GD患者和无突眼症状的GD患者的3种基因型频率之间比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);有突眼症状GD患者的C和T的等位基因频率分别为74.36%和25.64%,无突眼症状GD患者的等位基因频率分别为54.49%和45.51%,有突眼症状GD患者和无突眼症状的GD患者C和T的等位基因频率之间比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).GD复发患者中CD40基因5′非翻译区域CC、CT和TT基因型的频率分别为60%、26.67%和13.33%,GD初发患者中3种基因型的频率分别为38.56%、30.12%和31.32%,复发GD患者的3种基因型频率和初发患者比较,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);复发GD患者的C和T等位基因频率分别为73.33%和26.67%,初发患者的等位基因频率为53.61%和46.38%,复发患者和初发患者的等位基因频率之间比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 CD40基因5′非翻译区域多态性与GD的发病、症状和预后相关.

  2. CD40L和基质金属蛋白酶在冠脉斑块形成中的作用机制临床研究%Effects of CD40L and matrix metalloproteins on atherosclerotic plaque in coronary artery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆成; 侯燕; 汪承炜

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨CD40L和基质金属蛋白酶在冠心病患者冠脉斑块形成中的作用机制.方法 根据冠状动脉造影证实有冠状动脉狭窄 ,根据冠状动脉狭窄评分(CSA)标准对86例冠心病患者按照冠脉病变支数分为Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ3 个组,男51例,女35例,平均年龄59.4岁.采用酶联法测定 CD40L、CRP、MMP-2、MMP-9 .结果 CD40L、CRP,MMP-2、MMP-9随病情加重而升高,多支病变高于单支病变,Ⅱ型病变高于Ⅰ、Ⅲ型病变.MMP-2、MMP-9与CD40L呈正相关性(r=0.69)( r=0.75).结论 CD40L和MMPs在冠脉斑块形成中有一定联系,CD 40 L可能通过MMPs对冠脉损伤,从而导致斑块形成.而CD40L和MMPs增高有助于研究易损性冠脉斑块.

  3. Expression and clinical significance of sCD40 in patients with B-cell malignancies%可溶性CD40在部分B细胞淋巴血液肿瘤患者中的表达及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘占云; 王艳煜; 俞娇; 陈秋生; 李军民; 赵维莅

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the serum sCD40 level and its significance in patients with B-cell malignancies. Methods Seventy-nine patients of B-cell malignancies were enrolled, including 23 cases of B-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia (B-ALL), 24 cases of multiple myeloma (MM), and 32 cases of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL). Flow cytometry was used to detect surface CD40 expression in tumor B-cells. Level of serum sCD40 expression was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) before and after chemotherapy, and compared with 30 cases of normal control. Results Mature B cells percentage, expression of CD40 in mature B cells, and fluorescence intensity of CD40 expression of mature B cells had no significant difference between these three groups of patients (P> 0.05), however, significant differences (P0.05), and was significantly higher than normal controls. Conclusions CD40 is expressed on surface of mature tumor B cells. CD40 expression could be detected on cell surface of naive B cells in B-ALL and MM. Serum sCD40 level could be the reference to reflect the treatment effect of B-ALL, B-NHL, MM.%目的:探讨B细胞淋巴血液肿瘤患者血清中可溶性CD40 (sCD40)水平及其临床意义.方法:79例B细胞恶性肿瘤患者,包括23例急性B淋巴细胞白血病(B-ALL)、24例多发性骨髓瘤(MM)、32例B细胞非霍奇金淋巴瘤(B-NHL),化疗前采用流式细胞仪检测B细胞肿瘤表面CD40的表达,化疗前后采用酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)检测血清sCD40表达水平,并与30例正常对照者进行对比分析.结果:3类肿瘤患者在成熟B细胞百分率、表达CD40的成熟B细胞百分率、表达CD40的成熟B细胞荧光强度间差异无统计学意义(P均>0.05).B-NHL中未检测出幼稚B细胞,故将B-ALL与MM比较后发现,MM的浆细胞百分率、表达CD40的浆细胞百分率及浆细胞表达CD40的荧光强度与B-ALL的幼稚B细胞相应指标均有统计学差异.治疗后完全缓解的B-ALL、MM、B-NHL患者,其血清sCD

  4. Tumor-induced CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells exacerbate immune-mediated hepatitis in mice in a CD40-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapanadze, Tamar; Medina-Echeverz, José; Gamrekelashvili, Jaba; Weiss, Jonathan M; Wiltrout, Robert H; Kapoor, Veena; Hawk, Nga; Terabe, Masaki; Berzofsky, Jay A; Manns, Michael P; Wang, Ena; Marincola, Francesco M; Korangy, Firouzeh; Greten, Tim F

    2015-04-01

    Immunosuppressive CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) accumulate in the livers of tumor-bearing (TB) mice. We studied hepatic MDSCs in two murine models of immune-mediated hepatitis. Unexpectedly, treatment of TB mice with Concanavalin A (Con A) or α-galactosylceramide resulted in increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) serum levels in comparison to tumor-free mice. Adoptive transfer of hepatic MDSCs into naïve mice exacerbated Con A induced liver damage. Hepatic CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) cells revealed a polarized proinflammatory gene signature after Con A treatment. An IFN-γ-dependent upregulation of CD40 on hepatic CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) cells along with an upregulation of CD80, CD86, and CD1d after Con A treatment was observed. Con A treatment resulted in a loss of suppressor function by tumor-induced CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) MDSCs as well as enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated hepatotoxicity. CD40 knockdown in hepatic MDSCs led to increased arginase activity upon Con A treatment and lower ALT/AST serum levels. Finally, blockade of arginase activity in Cd40(-/-) tumor-induced myeloid cells resulted in exacerbation of hepatitis and increased ROS production in vivo. Our findings indicate that in a setting of acute hepatitis, tumor-induced hepatic MDSCs act as proinflammatory immune effector cells capable of killing hepatocytes in a CD40-dependent manner.

  5. Generation of functionally mature dendritic cells from elutriated monocytes using polyinosinic : polycytidylic acid and soluble CD40 ligand for clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S; Kim, H O; Kim, H J; Lee, K; Kim, H-S

    2008-12-01

    Despite the increasing use of dendritic cell (DC) vaccination in clinical trials, optimal conditions for the generation of functionally mature DCs remain to be established. The current standard DC maturation protocol for clinical trials has been used as an inflammatory cytokine cocktail [tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6 and prostaglandin E(2)], but this cocktail induced insufficient maturation of DCs derived from elutriated monocytes when cultured in X-VIVO 15. The aim of this study was to define effective combinations of stimulators for generating functionally mature DCs from elutriated monocytes under current good manufacturing practice conditions. We compared the functional capacity of DCs in response to all possible pairwise combinations of four different classes of stimuli: TNF-alpha, peptidoglycan, polyinosinic : polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] and soluble CD40 ligand (CD40L). Maturation status of DCs stimulated with combination of four stimuli was similar to that of the cytokine cocktail as assessed by the cell surface phenotype. However, only the combination of poly(I:C) + CD40L induced complete functional activation of the whole DC population, assessing IL-12p70 production, allostimulatory activity, migratory response to CCL19 and T helper 1-polarizing capacity. Thus, the protocol based on the combination of poly(I:C) and CD40L is more effective for the induction of clinical-grade DCs from elutriated monocytes than the standard cytokine cocktail.

  6. High expression of CD40 on B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia blasts is an independent risk factor associated with improved survival and enhanced capacity to up-regulate the death receptor CD95

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Troeger (Anja); L. Glouchkova (Ludmila); B. Ackermann (Birgit); G. Escherich (Gabriele); R. Meisel (Roland); H. Hanenberg (Helmut); M.L. den Boer (Monique); R. Pieters (Rob); G.E. Janka-Schaub (Gritta); U. Goebel (Ulrich); H.J. Laws; D. Dilloo (Dagmar)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractCD40 and CD27, members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family, are critical regulators of lymphocyte growth and differentiation. In B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL), we prospectively assessed the impact of CD40 and CD27 on outcome in 121 children treat

  7. [Melatonin receptor agonist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Makoto

    2015-06-01

    Melatonin is a hormone secreted by the pineal gland and is involved in the regulation of human sleep-wake cycle and circadian rhythms. The melatonin MT1 and MT2 receptors located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the hypothalamus play a pivotal role in the sleep-wake regulation. Based on the fact that MT1 receptors are involved in human sleep onset process, melatonin receptor agonists have been developed to treat insomnia. In this article, we first reviewed functions of melatonin receptors with special reference to MT1 and MT2, and properties and clinical application of melatonin receptor agonists as hypnotics.

  8. 血清可溶性CD40L和C反应蛋白在慢性血透患者外周血管钙化的作用%Role of soluble CD40L and C-reactive protein in peripheral vascular calcification in patients undergoing of chronic hemodialysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍强; 孙艳; 杨铁城; 张海燕

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in peripheral vascular calcification in hemodialytic patients.Methods 40 hemodialytic patients with uremia underwent arteriovenous fistula reconstruction.The stumps of radial artery were removed for assessing vascular calcification.The patients were grouped according to the presence or absence of calcification and its degree.Serum levels of sCD40L and CRP were detected.The differences in levels of sCD40L and CRP were compared between calcification group and non-calcification group and between calcification groups at different degrees calcification.Results Radial artery calcification was detectable in 23 of the patients with calcium staining,9 of whom had severe calcification and the rest 14 had mild to moderate calcification.Levels of sCD40L and CRP were significantly higher in calcification group than in non-calcification group (P<0.01); they were also higher in severe calcification group than in mild to moderate calcification group (P<0.05).Levels of sCD40L were positively correlated with those of CRP.%目的 探讨血清可溶性白细胞分化抗原40配体(sCD40L)和C反应蛋白(CRP)在尿毒症血液透析患者外周血管钙化中的作用.方法 尿毒症血液透析患者40例因动静脉内瘘失功行内瘘重建术,术中取桡动脉残端行钙化染色观察血管钙化情况,依据血管钙化有无及程度分组,同时检测血清sCD40L和CRP水平,比较钙化组与非钙化组,不同程度钙化组间血清sCD40L和CRP水平的差异.结果 40例患者桡动脉钙化染色检出血管钙化23例,其中重度钙化9例,轻中度钙化14例,钙化组血清sCD40L和CRP水平高于非钙化组,有统计学差异(P<0.01).重度钙化组sCD40L和CRP水平高于轻中度钙化组.有统计学差异(P<0.05).血清sCD40L和CRP含量呈正相关.结论 sCD40L和炎症反应可能参与了尿毒症血液透析患者外周血管钙化的发生.

  9. Intervention effects of atorvastatin calcium tablets on soluble CD40 ligand and C-reactive protein in patients with cardiac angina%阿托伐他汀钙片对心绞痛患者血清可溶性CD40配体与C反应蛋白的干预研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆玲; 杨永全

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the intervention of level of atorvastatin calcium tablets (lipitor) on soluble CD40 (CD40L) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in patients with angina.Methods 65 patients with coronary heart disease were divided into stable angina (SA group,n= 30) and unstable angina (UA group,n= 35).The vein blood was collected in the hospitalized morning,2,4,6 weeks after treatment and serum levels of hs-CRP and CD40L were measured and compared between the two groups.Results The levels of soluable CD40L [(20.52± 2.91)μg/L] and CRP [(7.96±1.69) mg/L] in UA group were higher than SA group [(7.96±-1.35) tg/L and ( 1.58 ± 0.91 ) mg/L] (t = 21.705、18.493,both P< 0.05) before treatment,and after treatment,their levels in the two groups were significantly lower than pre-treatment (P<0.01).Conclusions CD40L and hs-CRP may involved in the pathophysiology of unstable angina process and can be used as an indicator reflecting vulnerable plaque.Lipitor might enhance stability of atherosclerotic plaque and prevent acute coronary events by reducing levels of CD40L and hs-CRP.%目的 探讨阿托伐他汀钙片对心绞痛患者血清可溶性CD40配体(CD40L)与高敏C反应蛋白(hs-CRP)的干预作用.方法 65例冠心病患者,其中稳定型心绞痛患者30例(SA组),不稳定型心绞痛患者35例(UA组),所有患者于入院当天清晨、治疗后2、4、6周静脉血,测定血清hsCRP、血清可溶性CD40L水平,并对两组结果进行比较.结果 治疗前UA组血清可溶性CD40L、hs-CRP浓度分别为(20.52±2.91)μg/L、(7.96±1.69) mg/L,明显高于SA组(7.96±1.35)μg/L、(1.58±0.91) mg/L(t=21.705、18.493,均P<0.05),而两组治疗后血清可溶性CD40L、hs-CRP浓度均较治疗前明显降低(均P<0.01).结论 血清可溶性CD40L、hs-CRP参与了不稳定型心绞痛的病理生理过程,可以作为反映易损斑块的指标,阿托伐他汀钙片可通过降低血清可溶性CD40L、hs-CRP而加强粥样硬化斑块的稳定性.

  10. 血清sCD40L、脂联素水平与2型糖尿病并发急性冠脉综合征的关系及其临床意义%Correlations of serum sCD40L,adiponectin level and type 2 diabetic acute coronary Syndrome complication and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭紫元; 张琼丽; 丘创华; 李卓成

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To explore the relation between serum sCD40L、adiponectin level and type2 diabetic acute coronary Syndrome complication and its clinical significance.Methods: Serum levels of sCD40L and adiponectin were measured with ELISA in 62 cases of type 2 diabetic patients with ACS complications, 61 cases of the absence of no complications in patients with type 2 diabetes and 60 healthy subjects as controls.Results: The levels of serum sCD40L and FPG in type 2 diabetic patients with ACS group and no complications group were higher than that of control group respectively ( all P< 0.01 ), while the adiponectin was significantly lower.The levels of serum sCD40L in type 2 diabetic patients with ACS group was higher than that of in no complications group, and the adiponectin was also lower.The levels of serum sCD40L in type 2 diabetic patients with UA group was higher than that of in type 2 diabetic patients with AMI group, while the adiponectin was converse.The serum level of sCD40L is significantly negative correlation with adiponectin ( r = - 0.765, P < 0.01 ), and there were no correlation between the serum level of FPG and sCD40L, adiponectin( r = 0.076, r = -0.11 6, all P > 0.05 ).Conclusion: Serum sCD40L and adiponectin may be involved in the pathogenesis of 2 diabetic patients with ACS,which may be a predictor of 2 diabetic patients with ACS complications.%目的:探讨血清可溶性细胞表面分化抗原CD40配体(sCD40L)、脂联素水平与2型糖尿病并发急性冠脉综合征的关系及其临床意义.方法:采用ELISA检测62例2型糖尿病并发急性冠脉综合征患者、61例无并发症的2型糖尿病患者血清sCD40L和脂联素浓度,并以60例健康人作为对照.结果:2型糖尿病并发ACS组的血清sCD40L和FPG水平高于无并发症组及正常对照组(均P0.05).结论:血清sCD40L、APN可能参与了2型糖尿病并发ACS的发病过程,可能成为ACS并发症的预测因子.

  11. Processing and MHC class II presentation of exogenous soluble antigen involving a proteasome-dependent cytosolic pathway in CD40-activated B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Hans Jiro; Kondo, Eisei; Shimabukuro-Vornhagen, Alexander; Theurich, Sebastian; von Bergwelt-Baildon, Michael S

    2016-08-01

    Activated B cells have the capacity to present antigen and induce immune responses as potent antigen-presenting cells (APCs). As in other APCs, antigen presentation by B cells involves antigen internalization, antigen processing, and peptide loading onto MHC molecules. However, while the mechanism of antigen processing has been studied extensively in other APCs, this pathway remains elusive in B cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the MHC class II processing pathway in CD40-activated B cells (CD40Bs), as a model for activated, antigen-presenting B cells. Using CMV pp65 as a model antigen, we evaluated processing and presentation of the CD4 + T-cell epitope 509-523 (K509) by human CD40Bs in ELISPOT assays. As expected, stimulation of specific CD4 + T-cell clones was attenuated after pretreatment of CD40Bs with inhibitors of classic class II pathway components. However, proteasome inhibitors such as epoxomicin limited antigen presentation as well. This suggests that the antigen is processed in a non-classical, cytosolic MHC class II pathway. Further experiments with truncated protein variants revealed involvement of the proteasome in processing of the N and C extensions of the epitope. Access to the cytosol was shown to be size dependent. Epoxomicin sensitivity exclusively in CD40B cells, but not in dendritic cells, suggests a novel processing mechanism unique to this APC. Our data suggest that B cells process antigen using a distinct, non-classical class II pathway.

  12. PARTIAL AGONISTS, FULL AGONISTS, ANTAGONISTS - DILEMMAS OF DEFINITION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOYER, D; BODDEKE, HWGM

    1993-01-01

    The absence of selective antagonists makes receptor characterization difficult, and largely dependent on the use of agonists. However, there has been considerable debate as to whether certain drugs acting at G protein-coupled receptors are better described as agonists, partial agonists or antagonist

  13. El potencial de la inmunomodulación con anticuerpos monoclonales anti-CD137 (4-1BB para terapia de enfermedades malignas e infecciones virales crónicas The immunotherapy potential of agonistic anti-CD137 (4-1BB monoclonal antibodies for malignancies and chronic viral diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Alfaro

    2006-04-01

    . Immunostimulating monoclonal antibodies are defined as a new family of drugs that augment cellular immune responses. They interact as artificial ligands with functional proteins of the immune system, either activating or inhibiting their functions. There are humanized monoclonal antibodies directed to the inhibitory receptor CD152 (CTLA-4 that are being tested in clinical trials with evidence of antitumoural activity. As a drawback, anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibodies induce severe autoimmunity reactions in a fraction of the patients. Anti-CD137 monoclonal antibodies have the ability to induce potent immune responses mainly mediated by cytotoxic lymphocytes with the result of frequent complete tumour eradications in mice. Comparative studies in experimental models indicate that the antitumour activity of anti-CD137 monoclonal antibodies is superior to that of anti-CD152. CD137 (4-1BB is a leukocyte differentiation antigen selectively expressed on the surface of activated T and NK lymphocytes, as well as on dendritic cells. Monoclonal antibodies acting as artificial stimulatory ligands of this receptor (anti-CD137 agonist antibodies enhance cellular antitumoural and antiviral immunity in a variety of mouse models. Paradoxically, anti-CD137 monoclonal antibodies are therapeutic or preventive in the course of model autoimmune diseases in mice. In light of these experimental results, a number of research groups have humanized antibodies against human CD137 and early clinical trials are about to start.

  14. A GM-CSF and CD40L bystander vaccine is effective in a murine breast cancer model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soliman H

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hatem Soliman,1 Melanie Mediavilla-Varela,2 Scott J Antonia,3 1Department of Women's Oncology and Experimental Therapeutics, 2Department of Immunology, 3Department of Thoracic Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, USA Background: There is increasing interest in using cancer vaccines to treat breast cancer patients in the adjuvant setting to prevent recurrence in high risk situations or in combination with other immunomodulators in the advanced setting. Current peptide vaccines are limited by immunologic compatibility issues, and engineered autologous cellular vaccines are difficult to produce on a large scale. Using standardized bystander cell lines modified to secrete immune stimulating adjuvant substances can greatly enhance the ability to produce immunogenic cellular vaccines using unmodified autologous cells or allogeneic medical grade tumor cell lines as targets. We investigated the efficacy of a cellular vaccine using B78H1 bystander cell lines engineered to secrete granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor and CD40 ligand (BCG in a murine model of breast cancer. Methods: Five-week-old female BALB/c mice were injected orthotopically in the mammary fat pad with 4T1 tumor cells. Treatment consisted of irradiated 4T1 ± BCG cells given subcutaneously every 4 days and was repeated three times per mouse when tumors became palpable. Tumors were measured two to three times per week for 25 days. The vaccine's activity was confirmed in a second experiment using Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC cells in C57BL/6 mice to exclude a model specific effect. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ and interleukin-2 (IL-2 enzyme-linked immunospots (ELISPOTS were performed on splenic lymphocytes incubated with 4T1 lysates along with immunohistochemistry for CD3 on tumor sections. Results: Tumor growth was significantly inhibited in the 4T1-BCG and LLC-BCG treatment groups when compared to 4T1 and LLC treatment groups. There were higher levels of IL-2 and IFN

  15. Critical role for CD8 T cells in allograft acceptance induced by DST and CD40/CD154 costimulatory blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Donghong; Lunsford, Keri E; Eiring, Anna M; Bumgardner, Ginny L

    2004-07-01

    Donor-specific transfusion (DST) and CD40/CD154 costimulation blockade is a powerful immunosuppressive strategy which prolongs survival of many allografts. The efficacy of DST and anti-CD154 mAb for prolongation of hepatocellular allograft survival was only realized in C57BL/6 mice that have both CD4- and CD8-dependent pathways available (median survival time, MST, 82 days). Hepatocyte rejection in CD8 KO mice which is CD4-dependent was not suppressed by DST and anti-CD154 mAb treatment (MST, 7 days); unexpectedly DST abrogated the beneficial effects of anti-CD154 mAb for suppression of hepatocyte rejection (MST, 42 days) and on donor-reactive alloantibody production. Hepatocyte rejection in CD4 KO mice which is CD8-dependent was suppressed by treatment with DST and anti-CD154 mAb therapy (MST, 35 days) but did not differ significantly from immunotherapy with anti-CD154 mAb alone (MST, 32 days). Induction of hepatocellular allograft acceptance by DST and anti-CD154 mAb immunotherapy was dependent on host CD8(+) T cells, as demonstrated by CD8 depletion studies in C57BL/6 mice (MST, 14 days) and CD8 reconstitution of CD8 KO mice (MST, 56 days). These studies demonstrate that both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell subsets contribute to induction of hepatocellular allograft acceptance by this immunotherapeutic strategy.

  16. Safety and biodistribution of a double-deleted oncolytic vaccinia virus encoding CD40 ligand in laboratory Beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autio, Karoliina; Knuuttila, Anna; Kipar, Anja; Pesonen, Sari; Guse, Kilian; Parviainen, Suvi; Rajamäki, Minna; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, Outi; Vähä-Koskela, Markus; Kanerva, Anna; Hemminki, Akseli

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated adverse events, biodistribution and shedding of oncolytic vaccinia virus encoding CD40 ligand in two Beagles, in preparation for a phase 1 trial in canine cancer patients. Dog 1 received one dose of vaccinia virus and was euthanized 24 hours afterwards, while dog 2 received virus four times once weekly and was euthanized 7 days after that. Dogs were monitored for adverse events and underwent a detailed postmortem examination. Blood, saliva, urine, feces, and organs were collected for virus detection. Dog 1 had mild fever and lethargy while dog 2 experienced a possible seizure 5.5 hours after first virus administration. Viral DNA declined quickly in the blood after virus administration in both dogs but was still detectable 1 week later by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Only samples taken directly after virus infusion contained infectious virus. Small amounts of viral DNA, but no infectious virus, were detected in a few saliva and urine samples. Necropsies did not reveal any relevant pathological changes and virus DNA was detected mainly in the spleen. The dogs in the study did not have cancer, and thus adverse events could be more common and viral load higher in dogs with tumors which allow viral amplification.

  17. HLA-DR+ Immature Cells Exhibit Reduced Antigen-Presenting Cell Function But Respond to CD40 Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Pinzon-Charry

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DC have been implicated in the defective function of the immune system during cancer progression. We have demonstrated that patients with cancer have fewer myeloid (CD11c+ and plasmacytoid (CD123hi DC and a concurrent accumulation of CD11c−CD123− immature cells expressing HLA-DR (DR+IC. Notably, DR+IC from cancer patients have a reduced capacity to stimulate allogeneic T-cells. DR+IC are also present in healthy donors, albeit in smaller numbers. In this study, we assessed whether DR+IC could have an impact on the immune response by comparing their function with DC counterparts. For this purpose, DR+IC and DC were purified and tested in the presentation of antigens through major histocompatibility complex (MHC II and MHC-I molecules. DR+IC were less efficient than DC at presenting antigens to T-cells. DR`IC induced a limited activation of T-cells, eliciting poor T-helper (Th 1 and preferentially inducing Th2-biased responses. Importantly, despite DR+IC's poor responsiveness to inflammatory factors, in samples from healthy volunteers and breast cancer patients, CD40 ligation induced phenotypic maturation and interleukin 12 secretion, in turn generating more efficient T-cell responses. These data underscore the importance of inefficient antigen presentation as a mechanism for tumor evasion and suggest an approach to improve the efficacy of DC-based immunotherapy for cancer.

  18. Melatonin agonists and insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Sally A; Rajaratnam, Shantha M W; Dawson, Drew

    2010-02-01

    The ability of melatonin to shift biological rhythms is well known. As a result, melatonin has been used in the treatment of various circadian rhythm sleep disorders, such as advanced and delayed sleep phase disorders, jet lag and shiftwork disorder. The current evidence for melatonin being efficacious in the treatment of primary insomnia is less compelling. The development of agents that are selective for melatonin receptors provides opportunity to further elucidate the actions of melatonin and its receptors and to develop novel treatments for specific types of sleep disorders. The agonists reviewed here - ramelteon, tasimelteon and agomelatine - all appear to be efficacious in the treatment of circadian rhythm sleep disorders and some types of insomnia. However, further studies are required to understand the mechanisms of action, particularly for insomnia. Clinical application of the agonists requires a good understanding of their phase-dependent properties. Long-term effects of melatonin should be evaluated in large-scale, independent randomized controlled trials.

  19. TTRAP, a novel protein that associates with CD40, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-75 and TNF receptor-associated factors (TRAFs), and that inhibits nuclear factor-kappa B activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pype, S; Declercq, W; Ibrahimi, A; Michiels, C; Van Rietschoten, J G; Dewulf, N; de Boer, M; Vandenabeele, P; Huylebroeck, D; Remacle, J E

    2000-06-16

    CD40 belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family. CD40 signaling involves the recruitment of TNF receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) to its cytoplasmic domain. We have identified a novel intracellular CD40-binding protein termed TRAF and TNF receptor-associated protein (TTRAP) that also interacts with TNF-R75 and CD30. The region of the CD40 cytoplasmic domain that is required for TTRAP association overlaps with the TRAF6 recognition motif. Association of TTRAP with CD40 increases profoundly in response to treatment of cells with CD40L. Interestingly, TTRAP also associates with TRAFs, with the highest affinity for TRAF6. In transfected cells, TTRAP inhibits in a dose-dependent manner the transcriptional activation of a nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)-dependent reporter mediated by CD40, TNF-R75 or Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and to a lesser extent by TRAF2, TRAF6, TNF-alpha, or interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). TTRAP does not affect stimulation of NF-kappaB induced by overexpression of the NF-kappaB-inducing kinase (NIK), the IkappaB kinase alpha (IKKalpha), or the NF-kappaB subunit P65/RelA, suggesting it acts upstream of the latter proteins. Our results indicate that we have isolated a novel regulatory factor that is involved in signal transduction by distinct members of the TNF receptor family.

  20. Cell enrichment-free massive ex-vivo expansion of peripheral CD20⁺ B cells via CD40-CD40L signals in non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Sik; Byun, Nari; Chung, Hyunwoo; Kim, Hyun-Je; Kim, Jong-Min; Chun, Taehoon; Lee, Won-Woo; Park, Chung-Gyu

    2016-04-22

    Non-human primates (NHPs) are valuable as preclinical resources that bridge the gap between basic science and clinical application. B cells from NHPs have been utilized for the development of B-cell targeted drugs and cell-based therapeutic modalities; however, few studies on the ex-vivo expansion of monkey B cells have been reported. In this study, we developed a highly efficient ex-vivo expansion protocol for monkey B cells resulting in 99% purity without the requirement for prior cell-enrichment procedures. To this end, monkey peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stimulated for 12 days with cells constitutively expressing monkey CD40L in expansion medium optimized for specific and massive expansion of B cells. The B cells expansion rates obtained were 2-5 times higher than those previously reported in humans, with rates ranging from 7.9 to 16.6 fold increase. Moreover, expanded B cells sustained high expression of co-stimulatory molecules including CD83 and CD86 until day 12 of culture, and the simple application of a brief centrifugation resulted in a CD20(+) B cell purity rate of greater than 99%. Furthermore, small amounts of CD3(+)CD20(+)BT-like cells were generated and CD16 was expressed at moderate levels on expanded B cells. Thus, the establishment of this protocol provides a method to produce quantities of homogeneous, mature B cells in numbers sufficient for the in vitro study of B cell immunity as well as for the development of B cell-diagnostic tools and cell-based therapeutic modalities.

  1. A20 Overexpression Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced NF-κB Activation, TRAF6 and CD40 Expression in Rat Peritoneal Mesothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun-Liang Zou

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Zinc finger protein A20 is a key negative regulator of inflammation. However, whether A20 may affect inflammation during peritoneal dialysis (PD-associated peritonitis is still unclear. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of A20 overexpression on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced inflammatory response in rat peritoneal mesothelial cells (RPMCs. Isolated and cultured RPMCs in vitro. Plasmid pGEM-T easy-A20 was transfected into RPMCs by Lipofectamine™2000. The protein expression of A20, phospho-IκBα, IκBα, TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF 6 and CD40 were analyzed by Western blot. The mRNA expression of TRAF6, CD40, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α were determined by real time-PCR. NF-κB p65 DNA binding activity, IL-6 and TNF-α levels in cells culture supernatant were determined by ELISA. Our results revealed that RPMCs overexpression of A20 lead to significant decrease of LPS-induced IκBα phosphorylation and NF-κB DNA binding activity (all p < 0.01. In addition, A20 also attenuated the expression of TRAF6, CD40, IL-6 and TNF-α as well as levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in cells culture supernatant (all p < 0.05. However, A20 only partly inhibited CD40 expression. Our study indicated that A20 overexpression may depress the inflammatory response induced by LPS in cultured RPMCs through negatively regulated the relevant function of adaptors in LPS signaling pathway.

  2. CD54/intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and major histocompatibility complex II signaling induces B cells to express interleukin 2 receptors and complements help provided through CD40 ligation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poudrier, J; Owens, T

    1994-01-01

    ) dependent to demonstrate the relative roles of CD54, MHC II, and CD40 signaling in the events leading to the induction of B cell proliferation and responsiveness to IL-2. Paraformaldehyde-fixed activated Th1-induced expression of IL-2R alpha, IL-2R beta, and B7, and upregulated MHC II and CD54 on B cells....... Anti-CD54 and MHC II mAbs as well as a CD8 alpha-CD40 ligand (L) soluble construct inhibited both the T-dependent induction of Ig secretion, and B cell phenotypic changes. We then compared the effects of activated Th1 cells with that of cross-linking these molecules. Cross-linking of CD54 and MHC II...... resulted in the upregulated expression of MHC II and of CD54 and B7, respectively, analogous to the effect of fixed activated Th1 cells. B7 expression was further enhanced by co-cross-linking CD54 and MHC II. Cross-linking of CD40 achieved comparable effects. Strikingly, cross-linking ligation of CD54...

  3. ERK1/2 has an essential role in B cell receptor- and CD40-induced signaling in an in vitro model of germinal center B cell selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adem, Jemal; Hämäläinen, Aleksi; Ropponen, Antti; Eeva, Jonna; Eray, Mine; Nuutinen, Ulla; Pelkonen, Jukka

    2015-10-01

    Germinal center (GC) B cells undergo apoptosis after B cell receptor (BCR) ligation, unless they receive CD40-mediated survival signal from helper T cells. In the present study, we used a human follicular lymphoma cell line HF1A3, as an in vitro model to study the selection process in germinal centers. We show here that BCR ligation led to immediate ERK1/2 activation and phosphorylations of its downstream targets, Bim EL/L and Bcl-2 (at Ser70) which resulted in short-term survival. On the other hand, during the late phase of BCR signaling, ERK1/2 phosphorylation was inhibited which resulted in apoptosis. In addition, CD40 signaling led to sustained ERK1/2 activation and up-regulation of Bcl-xL in BCR-primed HF1A3 GC B cells. In conclusion, MEK-ERK pathway and Bcl-2 family proteins are crucial players in BCR-mediated survival/apoptosis and CD40-mediated survival.

  4. Soluble CD40 ligand is elevated in type 1 diabetic nephropathy but not predictive of mortality, cardiovascular events or kidney function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lajer, Maria Stenkil; Tarnow, Inge; Michelson, Alan D

    2010-01-01

    disease (ESRD) and rate of decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and nephropathy. The study was a prospective, observational follow-up study of 443 T1DM patients with diabetic nephropathy (274 men; age 42.1 ± 10.5 years [mean ± SD], duration of diabetes 28.......3 ± 8.9 years, GFR 76 ± 33 ml/min/1.73 m2) and a control group of 421 patients with longstanding type 1 diabetes and persistent normoalbuminuria (232 men; age 45.4 ± 11.5 years, duration of diabetes 27.7 ± 10.1 years) at baseline. sCD40L was measured by ELISA. Plasma sCD40L levels were higher...... in patients with diabetic nephropathy compared to normoalbuminuric patients (median (range) 1.54 (0.02-13.38) vs. 1.30 (0.04-20.65) µg/L, respectively p = 0.004). The patients were followed for 8.1 (0.0-12.9) years (median (range)). Among normoalbuminuric patients, sCD40L levels did not predict all...

  5. A20 overexpression inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-κB activation, TRAF6 and CD40 expression in rat peritoneal mesothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xun-Liang; Pei, De-An; Yan, Ju-Zhen; Xu, Gang; Wu, Ping

    2014-04-17

    Zinc finger protein A20 is a key negative regulator of inflammation. However, whether A20 may affect inflammation during peritoneal dialysis (PD)-associated peritonitis is still unclear. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of A20 overexpression on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in rat peritoneal mesothelial cells (RPMCs). Isolated and cultured RPMCs in vitro. Plasmid pGEM-T easy-A20 was transfected into RPMCs by Lipofectamine™2000. The protein expression of A20, phospho-IκBα, IκBα, TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF) 6 and CD40 were analyzed by Western blot. The mRNA expression of TRAF6, CD40, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were determined by real time-PCR. NF-κB p65 DNA binding activity, IL-6 and TNF-α levels in cells culture supernatant were determined by ELISA. Our results revealed that RPMCs overexpression of A20 lead to significant decrease of LPS-induced IκBα phosphorylation and NF-κB DNA binding activity (all pTNF-α as well as levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in cells culture supernatant (all pinhibited CD40 expression. Our study indicated that A20 overexpression may depress the inflammatory response induced by LPS in cultured RPMCs through negatively regulated the relevant function of adaptors in LPS signaling pathway.

  6. In vivo targeted delivery of CD40 shRNA to mouse intestinal dendritic cells by oral administration of recombinant Sacchromyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Zhang, T; Wang, L; Shao, S; Chen, Z; Zhang, Z

    2014-07-01

    Short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated gene regulation is a commonly used technique for gene manipulation. An efficient and safe delivery system is indispensable when shRNA is delivered into living organisms for gene therapy. Previous studies have proved that DNA and protein can be delivered into dendritic cells (DCs) by non-pathogenic Saccharomyces cerevisiae without being degraded. CD40 is closely related to apoptosis of tumor cells and some immune mechanisms. In this study, we demonstrated that recombinant yeast S. cerevisiae efficiently delivered the shRNA of immune-associated gene (CD40) into mouse intestinal DCs via oral administration. Western blot analysis of isolated intestinal DCs indicated that the inhibition of CD40 gene expression reached up to 56-91%. The secretion of cytokines such as interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ in intestinal DCs had varying degrees of changes. In conclusion, we found that orally administered recombinant yeast can be used as an efficient shRNA delivery system for intestinal DC-specific gene silencing and immunomodulation in vivo.

  7. Combination of monoclonal antibodies with DST inhibits accelerated rejection mediated by memory T cells to induce long-lived heart allograft acceptance in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Wei; Chen, Jibing; Dai, Helong; Peng, Yuanzheng; Wang, Feng; Xia, Junjie; Thorlacius, Henrik; Zhu, Qi; Qi, Zhongquan

    2011-08-30

    Donor-reactive memory T cells mediated accelerated rejection is known as a barrier to the survival of transplanted organs. We investigated the combination of different monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and donor-specific transfusion (DST) in memory T cells-based adoptive mice model. In the presence of donor-reactive memory T cells, the mean survival time (MST) of grafts in the anti-CD40L/LFA-1/DST group was 49.8d. Adding anti-CD44/CD70 mAbs to anti-CD40L/LFA-1/DST treatment. The MST was more than 100 d (MST>100 d). Compared with anti-CD40L/LFA-1/DST group, anti-CD40L/LFA-1/CD44/CD70/DST group notably reduced the expansion of memory T cells, enhanced the proportion of CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) and suppressed donor-specific responses. Our data suggest that anti-CD40L/LFA-1/CD44/CD70mAbs and DST can synergistically inhibit accelerated rejection mediated by memory T cells to induce long-lived heart allograft acceptance in mice.

  8. Pharmacogenetics of β2-Agonists

    OpenAIRE

    Nobuyuki Hizawa

    2011-01-01

    Short-acting β2-agonists (SABAs) and long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs) are both important for treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) because of their bronchodilator and bronchoprotective effects. However, the use of these agonists, at least for asthma, has generated some controversy because of their association with increased mortality. Pharmacogenetics is the study of genetically determined variation in response to medications, which might prove useful for target ...

  9. A natural history of "agonist".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ruth

    2002-01-01

    This paper constructs a brief history of the biochemical term agonist by exploring the multiple meanings of the root agôn in ancient Greek literature and describing how agonist first appeared in the scientific literature of the 20th century in the context of neurophysiologists' debates about the existence and properties of cellular receptors. While the narrow scientific definition of agonist may appear colorless and dead when compared with the web of allusions spun by the ancient Greek agôn, the scientific power and creativity of agonist actually resides precisely in its exact, restricted meaning for biomedical researchers.

  10. Emerging GLP-1 receptor agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Asger; Knop, Filip K; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Recently, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists have become available for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. These agents exploit the physiological effects of GLP-1, which is able to address several of the pathophysiological features of type 2 diabetes. GLP-1R agonists...... presently available are administered once or twice daily, but several once-weekly GLP-1R agonists are in late clinical development. Areas covered: The present review aims to give an overview of the clinical data on the currently available GLP-1R agonists used for treatment of type 2 diabetes, exenatide...

  11. Antimitochondrial antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003529.htm Antimitochondrial antibody To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) are substances ( antibodies ) that form against mitochondria. ...

  12. Effcet of atorvastatin on the expression of MMP-8, CD40L and proliferation of intima in artery injured%阿托伐他汀对鼠颈总动脉血管损伤后CD40L和MMP-8表达影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘群威; 周胜华; 海志杰

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the expression of MMP-8 and CD40L in serum in rats and the effect of statin on their expression and vascular intima proliferation after angioplasty. Methods The models of rat were prepared and divided into three groups which were the operation group drug-intervention group and the control. The level of MMP-8 and CD40L in serum and proliferation of intima were detected in the three groups after angioplasty and intervention of atorvastatin. The methods of measurement included ELISA for the serum level of MMP-8 and CD40L Results Compared with the control group, the operation group showed increased in the expression of MMP-8 and CD40L (0. 97 ±0. 11 ng/ml vs. 2. 13 ±0. 27 ng/ml,9. 12 ± 1. 39 ng/ml vs. 23. 47 ±3. 95 ng/ml,P <0. 01 respectively), with the apparent proliferation of intima one week later [ (18. 90 ± 1. 36) x 103 μm2 vs. (69. 13 ±4. 38) x 103 μm2 ,P <0.01 ] , which were found to be reduced in the atorvastatin group after treatment [ (142. 65 + 5. 45) x 103 μm2 vs. ( 81. 76 ± 4. 35 ) x 103 uV,P<0.05]. The expression of MMP-8 and CD40L were inhibited [(2. 13 ±0.27) ng/ml vs. (1. 37 ± 0.19) ng/ml, (23.47 ±3.95) ng/ml us. (14.48 ±2.08) ng/ml, P < 0.05 ], respectively); and proliferation of intima were enhanced more in the operation group after two weeks [ (142. 65 ± 5. 45 ) x 103 μm2 vs. (81. 76 ±4. 35) x 103 μm2 , P <0. 01 ]. Conclusions The expression of MMP-8 and CD40L in rat models were increaced after angioplasty, which may be related to vascular intima proliferation and reconstruction. Atorvastatin can suppress expression of MMP-8 and CD40L and reduces vascular intima proliferation after angioplasty.%目的 观察在鼠颈总动脉血管损伤后血中CD40L、MMP-8水平和血管内膜增生情况以及他汀类药物干预后的影响.方法 在鼠颈总动脉血管损伤模型上观察血管损伤及阿托伐他汀干预后的内膜增生情况,并应用ELISA方法检测血管损伤及阿托伐他汀干预后CD40L

  13. 丹红注射液对急性脑梗死患者sCD40L及超敏C-反应蛋白的影响%Efficacy of Danhong injection for patients with acute stage of cerebral infarction and its effects on serum sCD40L and hs-CRP levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈壮虹; 宋水江

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate efficacy of Danhong injection for patients with acute stage of cerebral infarction and its effects on serum levels of soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein(hs-CRP). Methods Ninety two patients with acute ischemic cerebral infarction were randomly assigned to receive Danhong injection (30ml/d, i.v drip, for 14d) in addition to routine treatment (Danhong group) or routine treatment only(control group).Serum sCD40L and hs-CRP were mea-sured, and Barthel index (BI) and Chinese stroke Scale (CSS) were assessed before and after treatment in both groups. Results The levels of sCD40L and hs-CRP were deceased after treatment in both groups, however, the levels in Danhong group were significantly lower than those in control group (P<0.05). The scores of CSS and BI of two groups were improved after treatment, while scores in Danhong group were better than those in control group (P<0.05). Conclusion Danhong injection can decrease serum levels of sCD40L and hs-CRP and improve the recovery of neural function for patients with acute cerebral infarction.%  目的探讨步长丹红注射液对急性脑梗死患者血清可溶性白细胞分化抗原40配体(sCD40L)及超敏 C-反应蛋白(hs-CRP)的影响及临床疗效。方法92例急性脑梗死患者分为两组,即常规治疗组和丹红治疗组,丹红治疗组在常规治疗基础上给予步长丹红注射液30ml 溶于0.9%氯化钠注射液250ml,1次/d,静脉滴注,共14d。治疗前后测定血 sCD40L 及 hs-CRP 的变化,并用中国卒中量表(CSS)及巴氏指数(BI)评定。结果两组患者 sCD40L 及 hs-CRP 均下降,丹红治疗组均明显低于常规治疗组(均 P<0.05)。治疗后两组 CSS 及 BI 评分较治疗前均明显增加,丹红治疗组均高于常规治疗组(均 P<0.05)。结论步长丹红注射液可降低急性脑梗死患者 sCD40L 及 hs-CRP 的水平,有益于患者神经功能的恢复。

  14. 血清Hcy、sCD40L及LDL-C与冠状动脉支架内再狭窄的相关性研究%Postprocedural serum Hcy, sCD40L and LDL-C are associated with coronary in-stent restenosis in patients with drug-coated stent implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉映; 胡允兆; 陈盈文; 何宗云; 郑素琳; 吴焱贤

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨血清同型半胱氨酸(Hcy)、LDL-C、可溶性白细胞表面抗原40配体(sCD40L)等因素在冠状动脉支架内再狭窄发生过程中的临床意义.方法:收集冠状动脉药物涂层支架植入术后因胸痛再发/术后6个月常规行冠状动脉造影随访患者共120例,其中88例造影未出现支架内再狭窄(对照组),32例出现再狭窄(再狭窄组),回顾分析两组患者的年龄、性别、高血压病史、糖尿病史、心肌梗死病史及冠心痛家族史,收集患者支架植入术后1周以及胸痛再发/术后6个月冠状动脉造影检查这两个时间点的BMI、肾小球滤过率(GFP)、甘油三酯、总胆固醇、糖化血红蛋白( GHbA1c)、LDL-C、HDL-C、Hcy、sCD40L等指标.结果:两组患者在支架植入术后1周各指标比较差异无统计学意义,因胸痛再发/术后6个月行冠状动脉造影随访时发现再狭窄组的LDL-C、Hey、sCD40L和对照组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),二分类变量Logistic回归分析显示,LDL-C、sCD40L及Hcy的升高会增加再狭窄的风险,且Hcy与LDL-C(r=0.36,P=0.002)、sCD40L(r=0.27,P=0.001)呈正相关.结论:支架植入术后LDL-C、Hcy、sCD40L升高是支架内再狭窄的危险因子,并且Hcy与LDL-C、sCD40L呈正相关.%Objective: To evaluate the roles of serum homocysteine ( Hey), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and soluble leukocyte surface antigens 40 ligand (sCD40L) in in-stent restenosis (ISR) after successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods; Body mass index (BMI) , glomerular filtration rate (GFP) , total triglycerides (TG) , total cholesterol (TC) , glycosylated hemoglobin (GHbAlc) , LDL-C, high density lipoprotein ( HDL-C) , Hey and sCD40L levels were measured in 120 consecutive patients 1 week and 6 months ( or chest pain occurred) after PCI. These patients were grouped as ISR and non-ISR based on angiography during follow-up time. Besides, age, sex, hypertension, diabetes

  15. CD40-targeted adenoviral gene transfer to dendritic cells through the use of a novel bispecific single-chain Fv antibody enhances cytotoxic T cell activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandao, JG; Scheper, RJ; Lougheed, SM; Curiel, DT; Tillman, BW; Gerritsen, WR; van den Eertwegh, AJM; Pinedo, HM; Haisma, HJ; de Gruijl, TD

    2003-01-01

    Adenoviral (Ad) transduction of dendritic cells (DC) is a promising vaccination strategy. However, clinical applicability of Ad vectors is hampered by the necessity to use high titers of infectious Ad particles for efficient DC transduction. Here, we report on the production of a bacterially express

  16. Emerging GLP-1 receptor agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Asger; Knop, Filip K; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Recently, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists have become available for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. These agents exploit the physiological effects of GLP-1, which is able to address several of the pathophysiological features of type 2 diabetes. GLP-1R agonists...

  17. Pacientes chagásicos crônicos portadores de disfunção do nódulo sinusal: a presença de anticorpos IgG com ação agonista muscarínica independe da disfunção ventricular esquerda? Chronic Chagas disease patients with sinus node dysfunction: is the presence of IgG antibodies with muscarinic agonist action independent of left ventricular dysfunction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beatriz Corrêa de Mello Altschüller

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos mostram que anticorpos IgG agonistas muscarínicos, de pacientes chagásicos, alteram a atividade elétrica de células cardíacas in vitro. Outros consideram sua presença, e a da síndrome do nódulo sinusal, conseqüências da lesão cardíaca progressiva. Objetivou-se avaliar a relação entre os anticorpos e as disfunções nodal e ventricular esquerda, em 65 pacientes chagásicos crônicos divididos em grupo I, composto de 31 pacientes portadores da síndrome do nódulo sinusal, e grupo II, de não portadores. A análise dos dados, pelo modelo log linear, mostrou uma interdependência entre a disfunção do nódulo sinusal e os anticorpos (p=0,0021 e entre a disfunção nodal e a ventricular (p=0,0005, mas não houve relação entre esta última e os anticorpos. Idade e sexo não tiveram influência sobre as outras variáveis. Chagásicos crônicos com a síndrome do nódulo sinusal têm maior prevalência de anticorpos agonistas muscarínicos, independentemente da presença de disfunção miocárdica.Studies have shown that muscarinic agonist IgG antibodies from Chagas disease patients alter the electrical activity of cardiac cells in vitro. Others have considered their presence, along with sinus node dysfunction, to be consequences of progressive cardiac lesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between these antibodies and sinus node and left ventricular dysfunction in 65 chronic Chagas disease patients. These patients were divided into group I, composed of 31 patients with sinus node dysfunction, and group II, composed of the patients without this syndrome. Data analysis using the log linear model showed interdependence between sinus node dysfunction and the antibodies (p = 0.0021 and between nodal and ventricular dysfunction (p = 0.0005. However, no relationship was found between the antibodies and ventricular function. Age and sex did not influence any other variables. The chronic Chagas disease patients

  18. First Case of CD40LG Deficiency in Ecuador, Diagnosed after Whole Exome Sequencing in a Patient with Severe Cutaneous Histoplasmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroza, Luis Alberto; Guerrero, Nina; Stray-Pedersen, Asbjørg; Tafur, Cristina; Macias, Roque; Muñoz, Greta; Akdemir, Zeynep Coban; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Watkin, Levi B.; Chinn, Ivan K.; Lupski, James R.; Orange, Jordan S.

    2017-01-01

    Severe infections with Histoplasma capsulatum are commonly observed in patient with secondary immunodeficiency disorders. We report a two and a half years old boy previously healthy with disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis. Using whole exome sequencing, we found an indel mutation at the CD40LG gene, suggesting a diagnosis of hyper-IgM (HIGM) syndrome, even in the absence of the usual features for the disease. Interestingly, the patient lives in a region endemic for histoplasmosis. The unusual infections in our case suggest that in children with severe histoplasmosis and resident in endemic areas, HIGM syndrome should be considered as a diagnosis. PMID:28239602

  19. IL-21 and CD40L synergistically promote plasma cell differentiation through upregulation of Blimp-1 in human B cells1

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, B. Belinda; Bi, Enguang; Chen, Hongshan; Yu, J. Jessica; Ye, B. Hilda

    2013-01-01

    After undergoing Ig somatic hypermutation and antigen selection, germinal center (GC) B cells terminally differentiate into either memory or plasma cells (PCs). It is known that the CD40L and IL-21/STAT3 signaling pathways play critical roles in this process, yet it is unclear how the B cell transcription program interprets and integrates these two types of T cell derived signals. In this study, we characterized the role of STAT3 in the GC-associated PC differentiation using purified human to...

  20. Impaired NFAT and NFκB activation are involved in suppression of CD40 ligand expression by Δ{sup 9}-tetrahydrocannabinol in human CD4{sup +} T cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngaotepprutaram, Thitirat [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Michigan State University (United States); Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University (United States); Kaplan, Barbara L.F. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Michigan State University (United States); Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University (United States); Neuroscience Program, Michigan State University (United States); Kaminski, Norbert E., E-mail: kamins11@msu.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Michigan State University (United States); Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University (United States)

    2013-11-15

    We have previously reported that Δ{sup 9}-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ{sup 9}-THC), the main psychoactive cannabinoid in marijuana, suppresses CD40 ligand (CD40L) expression by activated mouse CD4{sup +} T cells. CD40L is involved in pathogenesis of many autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of Δ{sup 9}-THC-mediated suppression of CD40L expression using peripheral blood human T cells. Pretreatment with Δ{sup 9}-THC attenuated CD40L expression in human CD4{sup +} T cells activated by anti-CD3/CD28 at both the protein and mRNA level, as determined by flow cytometry and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that Δ{sup 9}-THC suppressed the DNA-binding activity of both NFAT and NFκB to their respective response elements within the CD40L promoter. An assessment of the effect of Δ{sup 9}-THC on proximal T cell-receptor (TCR) signaling induced by anti-CD3/CD28 showed significant impairment in the rise of intracellular calcium, but no significant effect on the phosphorylation of ZAP70, PLCγ1/2, Akt, and GSK3β. Collectively, these findings identify perturbation of the calcium-NFAT and NFκB signaling cascade as a key mechanistic event by which Δ{sup 9}-THC suppresses human T cell function. - Highlights: • Δ{sup 9}-THC attenuated CD40L expression in activated human CD4+ T cells. • Δ{sup 9}-THC suppressed DNA-binding activity of NFAT and NFκB. • Δ{sup 9}-THC impaired elevation of intracellular Ca2+. • Δ{sup 9}-THC did not affect phosphorylation of ZAP70, PLCγ1/2, Akt, and GSK3β.

  1. Association between Hepatic Injury of Graves' Disease and a C/T Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism of the CD40 Gene%Graves病甲亢肝损害与CD40基因C/T单核苷酸多态性相关性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗惠辛; 张鹏; 高志红; 邱明才

    2006-01-01

    目的:探讨CD40基因5'非翻译区域-1位点C/T多态性和中国天津地区汉族人Graves病(GD)甲亢肝损害发病的相关性.方法:采用序列特异性聚合酶链式反应-限制性内切酶酶切长度多态性(PCR-RFLP)方法分析60例GD甲亢患者,60例GD甲亢肝损害患者CD40基因5'非翻译区域-1位点C/T多态性,并和106例正常对照组比较.结果:天津地区汉族人CD40基因5'非翻译区域-1位点基因型、等位基因型在正常对照组、GD甲亢肝功正常患者、GD甲亢肝功异常患者差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),但在GD甲亢肝功正常患者与GD甲亢肝功异常患者差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:CD40基因可能是GD甲亢的一种易感基因,但并非GD甲亢肝损害的易感基因.

  2. Changes of levels of plasma sCD40L,MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in patients with acute coronary syndrome and their clinical significance%急性冠脉综合征患者血浆sCD40L与血清基质金属蛋白酶水平的变化及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓辉; 王皓娟; 李淑红; 牟春平

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate changes of levels of soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L), serum matrix metalloprotein-ase—9 (MMP—9) and serum tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases — 1 (TIMP— 1) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and their correlation. Methods: Enzyme—linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure levels of sCD40L, MMP—9 and TIMP—1 in 70 patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) [35 ACS cases, 35 cases with stable angina pectoris (SAP)] and 35 non— CHD patients (normal control group). Results: Compared with normal control group and SAP group, the levels of sCD40L [ (2. 73±0. 92) μg/ml vs. (3. 05±0. 98) μg/ml vs. (4. 72±1. 15) pig/ml] and MMP-9 [ (152. 38±54. 22) ng/ml vs. (341. 12±69. 96) ng/ml vs. (574. 2±139. 20) ng/ml] significantly increased, and level of TIMP-1 [ (415. 92±13. 96) ng/ml vs. (249. 32±36. 80) ng/ml vs. (172. 20±40. 10) ng/ml] significantly decreased in ACS group, P<0. 01 all; MMP—9 level was positively correlated with sCD40L level (r=0. 42, P<0. 05). Conclusion: Increased levels of sCD40L and serum MMP—9 and decreased serum TIMP—1 level in ACS patients may be related with instability of atheromatous plaque, and they could serve as serological indicators for instability of atheromatous plaque.%目的:观察急性冠脉综合征(ACS)患者可溶性CD40配体(sCD40L)及血清基质金属蛋白酶-9(MMP-9)、血清组织金属蛋白酶抑制物-1(TIMP-1)水平变化及其相关性.方法:采用酶联免疫吸附法测定70例冠心病患者[ACS患者35例、稳定型心绞痛(SAP)患者35例]、35例非冠心病患者(正常对照组)sCD40L、MMP-9,TIMP-1的水平.结果:与正常对照组及SAP组比较,ACS组sCD40L[(2.73±0.92)μg/ml比(3.05±0.98)μg/ml比(4.72±1.15)μg/ml]、MMP-9[(152.38±54.22)ng/ml比(341.12±69.96)ng/ml比(574.2±139.20)ng/ml]水平明显升高(P均<0.01),而TIMP-1[(415.92±13.96)ng/ml比(249.32±36.80)ng/ml比(172.20±40.10)ng/ml]水平明显降低(P<0.01);且MMP-9与sCD

  3. CD137 is induced by the CD40 signal on chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells and transduces the survival signal via NF-κB activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukana Nakaima

    Full Text Available CD137 is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family that is expressed on activated T cells. This molecule provides a co-stimulatory signal that enhances the survival, and differentiation of cells, and has a crucial role in the development of CD8 cytotoxic T cells and anti-tumor immunity. Here we report that CD137 expression is also induced on normal or malignant human B cells by CD40 ligation by its ligand CD154. This CD137 induction was more prominent in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL cells than in other types of B cells. CD137 stimulation on B cells by its ligand induced the nuclear translocation of p52 (a non-canonical NF-κB factor. In agreement with this finding, expression of the survival factor BCL-XL was upregulated. Consequently, the CD137 signal augmented the survival of CD154-stimulated CLL B cells in vitro. This unexpected induction of CD137 on B cells by CD40 signal may influence the clinical course of CLL.

  4. Off-the-shelf adenoviral-mediated immunotherapy via bicistronic expression of tumor antigen and iMyD88/CD40 adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemnade, Jan Ole; Seethammagari, Mamatha; Narayanan, Priya; Levitt, Jonathan M; McCormick, Alison A; Spencer, David M

    2012-07-01

    Recent modest successes in ex vivo dendritic cell (DC) immunotherapy have motivated continued innovation in the area of DC manipulation and activation. Although ex vivo vaccine approaches continue to be proving grounds for new DC manipulation techniques, the intrinsic limits of ex vivo therapy, including high cost, minimal standardization, cumbersome delivery, and poor accessibility, incentivizes the development of vaccines compatible with in vivo DC targeting. We describe here a method to co-deliver both tumor-specific antigen (TSA) and an iMyD88/CD40 adjuvant (iMC), to DCs that combines toll-like receptor (TLR) and CD40 signaling. In this study, we demonstrate that simple TSA delivery via adenoviral vectors results in strong antitumor immunity. Addition of iMC delivered in a separate vector is insufficient to enhance this effect. However, when delivered simultaneously with TSA in a single bicistronic vector (BV), iMC is able to significantly enhance antigen-specific cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) responses and inhibit established tumor growth. This study demonstrates the spatial-temporal importance of concurrent DC activation and TSA presentation. Further, it demonstrates the feasibility of in vivo molecular enhancement of DCs necessary for effective antitumor immune responses.

  5. Fine-Tuned Expression of Programmed Death 1 Ligands in Mature Dendritic Cells Stimulated by CD40 Ligand is Critical for the Induction of an Efficient Tumor Specific Immune Response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Gu; Yong Huang; Yuhua Qiu; Xueguang Zhang; Yibei Zhu; Cheng Chen; Min Li; Yongjing Chen; Gehua Yu; Yan Ge; Shiyong Zhou; Huan Zhou

    2008-01-01

    During maturation, murine myeloid dendritic cells(DCs)upregulated the expressions of CD11c, CD25, CD40, CD80, CD86.MHc II and programmed death 1 ligands 1 and 2(PD-L1 and PD-L2).Differential expression patterns of PD-L1 and PD. L2 were found when DCs were triggered by CD40 ligand and TNF-α.PD-L1 expression-was repressed and PD. L2 expression remained unchanged in mature CD40-ligated DCs, whereas TNF-αstimulted DCs kept high expression of PD. L1 and significantly enhanced PD-L2 expression on DCs. Proliferations of T lymphocytes stimulated by immature DCs were enhanced by blockade of the PD-1 and PD-1 ligand interaction. But inhibiitive effects were found in T lymphocytes stimulated by CD40-ligated DCs. With the tine-tuned expressions of the PD-L1 and PD-L2, CD40-ligated DCs could sustain a longer activation period and elicit a more efficient T lymphocyte activation. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2008;5(1):33-39.

  6. Effects of CD40 and IL6 on the stability of coronary athrosclerotic heart disease%CD40和IL-6在冠状动脉粥样硬化性心脏病稳定性中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董军亚; 魏亚; 张丽红

    2012-01-01

    [目的]从临床、造影和血清炎性介质方面综合评估冠状动脉粥样硬化斑块的稳定性.[方法]结合临床表现、心肌酶变化、冠脉造影结果,将2010年3月-2011年3月因胸痛胸闷住院的207例患者分为急性心肌梗死组(A组,30例)、不稳定心绞痛组(B组,90例)、稳定性心绞痛组(C组,36例)和正常对照组(D组,51例).采用酶联免疫吸附法测定血清白细胞介素6(IL6)和分化抗原40(CD40).[结果]A组肌红蛋白(MYO)较D组明显升高(183.5±17.1 )ng/1 vs(43.1±27.1)ng/1,肌钙蛋白(TNI)和肌酸激酶同工酶(CKMB)无明显升高.A组IL6和CD40较对照组明显升高,分别是(289.46±143.67)pg/ml vs(147.96±118.12)pg/ml和(8.67±7.29)ng/ml vs(5.37±1.57)ng/ml,具有统计学意义(P<0.05).线性相关分析显示MYO和IL6、CD40无明显相关,IL6和CD40呈正相关(r=0.53,P=0.042).[结论]急性心肌梗死组炎性介质水平升高,早期检验对预测斑块稳定性有一定意义.%[Objective] To evaluate the stability of coronary athrosclerotic plaque by clinical manifestation, coronary angiography (CAG) and the levels of serum inflammatory markers. [Methods] A total of 207 patients with chest pain were divided into 4 groups based on the clinical manifestation, ECC changes, myocardial markers and CAC: acute myocardial infarction (group A, n = 30), unstable angina (group B, n = 90), stable angina (group C, n = 36), normal(group D, n = 51). IL6 and CD40 serum level were measured in all the patients and the myocardial markers were recorded too. [ Results] There were no difference either in TNI or CKMB level, but the MYO level was significantly increased in group A than other groups. The serum level of IL6 in group A was higher only than normal group (289.46 ± 143.67) pg/ml vs (147.96 ± 118.12) pg/ml (P < 0.05), and the serum level of CD40 in group A was higher than group B, group C and group D respectively (8.67 ± 7.29) ng/ml vs (5.37 ± 1.57) ng/ml (P< 0.05). [Conclusion] Serum

  7. Romiplostim: a second-generation thrombopoietin agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Claudia S; Bussel, James B

    2009-03-01

    in bone marrow reticulin have been reported. Other TPO nonpeptide mimetics have been created by using a similar strategy with libraries of nonpeptide molecules that can stimulate TPO-dependent cell lines. Eltrombopag and AKR-501 are two drugs of this type that have shown positive results in clinical trials. In addition, antibodies that can stimulate the c-Mpl receptor are being engineered to act as potent TPO agonists. These and other drugs in preclinical development represent a new line of therapy for thrombocytopenic patients.

  8. Pharmacogenetics of β2-Agonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Hizawa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Short-acting β2-agonists (SABAs and long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs are both important for treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD because of their bronchodilator and bronchoprotective effects. However, the use of these agonists, at least for asthma, has generated some controversy because of their association with increased mortality. Pharmacogenetics is the study of genetically determined variation in response to medications, which might prove useful for target therapies in highly responsive patients, especially for more expensive therapies or those with increased risk of side effects. Variation in response to both SABAs and LABAs has been observed in patients with polymorphisms in the β2 adrenoceptor gene (ADRB2. This review summarizes results from various studies on the possible relationship between ADRB2 polymorphisms and the bronchodilator or bronchoprotective effects of inhaled β2-agonists. By assessing the ADRB2 genotype, the hope is that it will be possible to predict the responsiveness to chronic administration of β2-agonists. Genetic testing, however, is of limited usefulness at this stage for ADRB2 because the common variants identified thus far account for only a small proportion of the variation observed for given responses. Carefully performed and adequately powered clinical trials continue to be important for achieving the goal of pharmacogenetic approaches to therapy.

  9. 靶向CD40的shRNA干扰抗大鼠异体肢体移植急性排斥反应的实验研究%Resistance to acute rejection by shRNA interference from CD40 costimulatory molecule in limb allo-transplantation in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张震宇; 刘伟; 毕郑钢; 董清平

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨靶向CD40的RNA干扰对大鼠异体肢体移植急性排斥反应的影响. 方法以纯系SD大鼠为供体,纯系Wistar大鼠为受体,行同种异体右后肢移植.27只大鼠肢体移植后随机分为三组,A组:注射入梭华.Sofast.siCD40-2/pSilencer载体复合物600 μL;B组:注射Sofast-pSilencer4.1-CMV neo空载体复合物600 μL;C组:注射生理盐水600μL,以上均通过阴茎背静脉注射.观察移植物排斥反应征象及存活情况,并于第7天对产生免疫耐受大鼠进行混合淋巴细胞反应,同时进行组织学检查. 结果与B、C组相比,A组移植物发生排斥反应的时间及存活时间均显著延长,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)(>13 d),未见排斥反应征象;B、C组均于术后近期发牛排斥反应.A组大鼠对供体的淋巴细胞呈现低反应性,移植的供体同系大鼠的肢体得以存活. 结论术后不应用免疫抑制剂的情况下,靶向CD40的shRNA干扰可以抗大鼠异体肢体移植急性排斥反应.%Objective To study the resistance to acute reaction in composite tissue allotransplan-tation by shRNA interference from CD40 costimulatory molecule in rat lymphocytes. Methods The in-bred SD rats were chosen as donors and inbred Wistar rats as recipients. Twenty-seven recipients were divided into 3 groups randomly after allogeneic leg transplantation. On the day after transplantation, rats in group A were injected with 600 μL of Sofast-siCD40-2/pSilencer, rats in group B received 600 μL of Sofast-pSilencer 4.1-CMV neo, and rats in group C received injection of 600 μL of sodium chloride. The survival and rejection to grafts were observed. The rats which survived 7 days after operation were given the test of mixed lymphocyte reaction (MIR). Results The mean survival time of limb allografts in group A was obviously longer than that in the other two groups( P < 0.01 ) . Rejection to grafts was not observed in group A, but rejection e-merged shortly after

  10. The relationship between CD40 gene 5'untranslated region position_1 site C/T polymorphism and the relapse of Grave's disease after antithyroid withdrawal%CD40基因5'非翻译区_1位点C/T多态性与Graves病药物治疗停药后复发的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马利丹; 阎胜利; 李鹏; 王娈; 綦玉琴

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨CD40基因5'非翻译区(5'untranslated region,5'UTR)_1位点C/T单核苷酸多态性与山东青岛地区汉族人群Graves病(Grayes disease,GD)及药物治疗停药后复发的相关性.方法 应用聚合酶链反应-限制性片段长度多态性(PCR-RFLP)技术测定198例GD患者(其中GD初发组80例,GD早期复发组84例,GD晚期复发组34例)和110例正常对照者CD40基因533TR_1位点的基因型,并计算其基因型及等位基因频率.结果 ①CD40基因5'UTR_1位点的基因型及等位基因频率在GD组和正常对照组中的分布有显著性差异(χ2=23.133,P=0.000;χ2=13.372,P=0.000),GD组CC基因型频率明显高于正常对照组(23.7%vs 11.8%),TT基因型频率明显低于正常对照组(7.6%vs 26.4%),GD组C等位基因频率明显高于正常对照组(58.1%vs 42.7%;②CD40基因5'UTR_1位点的基因型频率在GD初发组与GD复发组的分布有显著性差异(χ2=7.926,P=0.019);GD复发组TT基因型频率明显低于GD初发组(3.4%vs13.8%),但C等位基因频率在两组间的分布无显著性差异(χ2=0.665,P=0.415);③CD40基因5'UTR_1位点的基因型频率在GD早期复发组与晚期复发组的分布有显著性差异(χ2=11.278,P=0.004),早期复发组CC基因型频率明显高于晚期复发组(26.2%vs 14.7%),但C等位基因频率在两组间的分布无显著性差异(χ2=2.272,P=0.099).结论 CD40基因5'UTR_1位点的C等位基因多态性可能与山东青岛地区汉族人群GD的发病及药物治疗停药后的复发相关.

  11. Th40 cells (CD4+CD40+ Tcells) drive a more severe form of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis than conventional CD4 T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitaitis, Gisela M.; Yussman, Martin G.; Waid, Dan M.; Wagner, David H.

    2017-01-01

    CD40-CD154 interaction is critically involved in autoimmune diseases, and CD4 T cells play a dominant role in the Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). CD4 T cells expressing CD40 (Th40) are pathogenic in type I diabetes but have not been evaluated in EAE. We demonstrate here that Th40 cells drive a rapid, more severe EAE disease course than conventional CD4 T cells. Adoptively transferred Th40 cells are present in lesions in the CNS and are associated with wide spread demyelination. Primary Th40 cells from EAE-induced donors adoptively transfer EAE without further in-vitro expansion and without requiring the administration of the EAE induction regimen to the recipient animals. This has not been accomplished with primary, non-TCR-transgenic donor cells previously. If co-injection of Th40 donor cells with Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) in the recipient animals is done, the disease course is more severe. The CFA component of the EAE induction regimen causes generalized inflammation, promoting expansion of Th40 cells and infiltration of the CNS, while MOG-antigen shapes the antigen-specific TCR repertoire. Those events are both necessary to precipitate disease. In MS, viral infections or trauma may induce generalized inflammation in susceptible individuals with subsequent disease onset. It will be important to further understand the events leading up to disease onset and to elucidate the contributions of the Th40 T cell subset. Also, evaluating Th40 levels as predictors of disease onset would be highly useful because if either the generalized inflammation event or the TCR-honing can be interrupted, disease onset may be prevented. PMID:28192476

  12. GLP-1 receptor agonist-induced polyarthritis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosio, Maria Luisa; Monami, Matteo; Sati, Lavinia; Marchionni, Niccolò; Di Bari, Mauro; Mannucci, Edoardo

    2014-08-01

    Occasional cases of bilateral, symmetrical, seronegative polyarthritis have been reported in patients treated with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (Crickx et al. in Rheumatol Int, 2013). We report here a similar case observed during treatment with a GLP-1 receptor agonist. A 42-year-old man with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin 1,500 mg/day and liraglutide 1.8 mg/day. After 6 months from the beginning of treatment, the patient complained of bilateral arthralgia (hands, feet, ankles, knees, and hips). Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and leukocytes were increased. Rheumatoid factor, anticyclic citrullinated protein antibody, antinuclear antibodies, anti-Borrelia, and burgdorferi antibodies were all negative, and myoglobin and calcitonin were normal. Liraglutide was withdrawn, and the symptoms completely disappeared within 1 week, with normalization of ESR, CRP, fibrinogen, and leukocytes. Previously described cases of polyarthritis associated with DPP4 inhibitors had been attributed to a direct effect of the drugs on inflammatory cells expressing the enzyme. The present case, occurred during treatment with a GLP-1 receptor agonists, suggests a possibly different mechanism, mediated by GLP-1 receptor stimulation, which deserved further investigation.

  13. Changes of plasma soluble CD40 ligand, tumor necrosis factor alpha and C reactive protein in patients with coronary heart disease and the intervention of losartan%冠心病患者血浆可溶性CD40配体、肿瘤坏死因子α及C反应蛋白变化与氯沙坦的干预

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢志雄; 曾山

    2005-01-01

    目的:观察氯沙坦对不同类型冠心病患者与动脉粥样硬化的发生相关联的血浆可溶性CD40配体、肿瘤坏死因子α及C反应蛋白的影响.方法:选择2003-06/2004-06大沥医院住院患者和健康体检者共82例.其中冠心病患者57例(急性冠状动脉综合征患者32例,稳定性冠心病25例),正常对照者25例.测定冠心病患者和正常对照者可溶性CD40配体、肿瘤坏死因子α、C反应蛋白浓度.然后将冠心病患者随机分为常规组和氯沙坦组,常规组27例(急性冠状动脉综合征16例,稳定性冠心病11例),给予常规用药如硝酸脂类,β-受体阻滞剂,钙离子拮抗剂等.氯沙坦组30例(急性冠状动脉综合征患者16例,稳定性冠心病14例)在常规用药基础上加用氯沙坦(默沙东公司生产),50 mg/d,服用4周.观察4周后血浆可溶性CD 40配体、肿瘤坏死因子α、C反应蛋白浓度.结果:82例患者均完成全部实验过程,无中途退出者.①急性冠状动脉综合征患者可溶性CD 40配体、肿瘤坏死因子α、C反应蛋白水平明显高于正常对照者和稳定性冠心病患者.②两种治疗都可降低急性冠状动脉综合征组患者血浆可溶性CD 40配体、肿瘤坏死因子α、C反应蛋白水平.氯沙坦组治疗后急性冠状动脉综合征患者可溶性CD 40配体、肿瘤坏死因子α浓度较常规组降低明显[(3.36±0.91),(0.31±0.11)μg/L;(4.95±1.74),(0.41±0.15)μg/L,P<0.05],而两种治疗后C反应蛋白水平无明显差别(P>0.05).③可溶性CD40配体与肿瘤坏死因子α之间存在正相关(r=0.546,P<0.01);可溶性CD40配体与C反应蛋白之间相关性较弱(r=0.411,P=0.01).结论:急性冠状动脉综合征患者血浆可溶性CD40配体、肿瘤坏死因子α、C反应蛋白明显高于正常和稳定性冠心病患者.氯沙坦治疗可以明显降低血浆炎症因子水平,有利于动脉粥样硬化斑块稳定.

  14. Angiotensin receptor agonistic autoantibodies and hypertension: preeclampsia and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yang; Kellems, Rodney E

    2013-06-21

    Hypertensive disorders are life-threatening diseases with high morbidity and mortality, affecting billions of individuals worldwide. A multitude of underlying conditions may contribute to hypertension, thus the need for a plethora of treatment options to identify the approach that best meets the needs of individual patients. A growing body of evidence indicates that (1) autoantibodies that bind to and activate the major angiotensin II type I (AT₁) receptor exist in the circulation of patients with hypertensive disorders, (2) these autoantibodies contribute to disease pathophysiology, (3) antibody titers correlate to the severity of the disease, and (4) efforts to block or remove these pathogenic autoantibodies have therapeutic potential. These autoantibodies, termed AT₁ agonistic autoantibodies have been extensively characterized in preeclampsia, a life-threatening hypertensive condition of pregnancy. As reviewed here, these autoantibodies cause symptoms of preeclampsia when injected into pregnant mice. Somewhat surprisingly, these auto antibodies also appear in 3 animal models of preeclampsia. However, the occurrence of AT₁ agonistic autoantibodies is not restricted to pregnancy. These autoantibodies are prevalent among kidney transplant recipients who develop severe transplant rejection and malignant hypertension during the first week after transplantation. AT₁ agonistic autoantibodies are also highly abundant among a group of patients with essential hypertension that are refractory to standard therapy. More recently these autoantibodies have been seen in patients with the autoimmune disease, systemic sclerosis. These 3 examples extend the clinical impact of AT₁ agonistic autoantibodies beyond pregnancy. Research reviewed here raises the intriguing possibility that preeclampsia and other hypertensive conditions are autoimmune diseases characterized by the presence of pathogenic autoantibodies that activate the major angiotensin receptor, AT₁. These

  15. Rosiglitazone, a Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR)-γ Agonist, Attenuates Inflammation Via NF-κB Inhibition in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun-Fang; Zou, Xun-Liang; Wu, Jun; Yu, Xue-Qing; Yang, Xiao

    2015-12-01

    We assessed the anti-inflammatory effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ agonist, rosiglitazone, in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced peritonitis rat model. LPS was intraperitoneally injected into rats to establish peritonitis model. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were assigned to normal saline (the solvent of LPS), LPS, rosiglitazone plus LPS, and rosiglitazone alone. A simple peritoneal equilibrium test was performed with 20 ml 4.25 % peritoneal dialysis fluid. We measured the leukocyte count in dialysate and ultrafiltration volume. Peritoneal membrane histochemical staining was performed, and peritoneal thickness was assessed. CD40 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 messenger RNA (ICAM-1 mRNA) levels in rat visceral peritoneum were detected by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. IL-6 in rat peritoneal dialysis effluent was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The phosphorylation of NF-κB-p65 and IκBα was analyzed by Western blot. LPS administration resulted in increased peritoneal thickness and decreased ultrafiltration volume. Rosiglitazone pretreatment significantly decreased peritoneal thickness. In addition to CD40 and ICAM-1 mRNA expression, the IL-6, p-p65, and p-IκBα protein expressions were enhanced in LPS-administered animals. Rosiglitazone pretreatment significantly decreased ICAM-1 mRNA upregulation, secretion of IL-6 protein, and phosphorylation of NF-κB-p65 and IκBα without decreasing CD40 mRNA expression. Rosiglitazone has a protective effect in peritonitis, simultaneously decreasing NF-κB phosphorylation, suggesting that NF-κB signaling pathway mediated peritoneal inflammation induced by LPS. PPAR-γ might be considered a potential therapeutic target against peritonitis.

  16. GnRH agonist triggering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kol, Shahar; Humaidan, Peter; Al Humaidan, Peter Samir Heskjær

    2013-01-01

    The concept that a bolus of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) can replace human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) as a trigger of final oocyte maturation was introduced several years ago. Recent developments in the area strengthen this premise. GnRHa trigger offers important advantages...... triggering concept should be challenged and that the GnRHa trigger is the way to move forward with thoughtful consideration of the needs, safety and comfort of our patients. Routinely, human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) is used to induce ovulation in fertility treatments. This approach deviates...... significantly from physiology and often results in insufficient hormonal support in early pregnancy and in ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). An alternative approach is to use a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist which allows a more physiological trigger of ovulation and, most importantly...

  17. Thyroid Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g., at regular intervals after thyroid cancer treatment) Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibody, Thyroid Stimulating Immunoglobulin TRAb, TSHR Ab, TSI Graves disease When a person has symptoms of hyperthyroidism If a pregnant woman has a known autoimmune ...

  18. Regulation of membrane cholecystokinin-2 receptor by agonists enables classification of partial agonists as biased agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnan, Rémi; Masri, Bernard; Escrieut, Chantal; Foucaud, Magali; Cordelier, Pierre; Fourmy, Daniel

    2011-02-25

    Given the importance of G-protein-coupled receptors as pharmacological targets in medicine, efforts directed at understanding the molecular mechanism by which pharmacological compounds regulate their presence at the cell surface is of paramount importance. In this context, using confocal microscopy and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer, we have investigated internalization and intracellular trafficking of the cholecystokinin-2 receptor (CCK2R) in response to both natural and synthetic ligands with different pharmacological features. We found that CCK and gastrin, which are full agonists on CCK2R-induced inositol phosphate production, rapidly and abundantly stimulate internalization. Internalized CCK2R did not rapidly recycle to plasma membrane but instead was directed to late endosomes/lysosomes. CCK2R endocytosis involves clathrin-coated pits and dynamin and high affinity and prolonged binding of β-arrestin1 or -2. Partial agonists and antagonists on CCK2R-induced inositol phosphate formation and ERK1/2 phosphorylation did not stimulate CCK2R internalization or β-arrestin recruitment to the CCK2R but blocked full agonist-induced internalization and β-arrestin recruitment. The extreme C-terminal region of the CCK2R (and more precisely phosphorylatable residues Ser(437)-Xaa(438)-Thr(439)-Thr(440)-Xaa(441)-Ser(442)-Thr(443)) were critical for β-arrestin recruitment. However, this region and β-arrestins were dispensable for CCK2R internalization. In conclusion, this study allowed us to classify the human CCK2R as a member of class B G-protein-coupled receptors with regard to its endocytosis features and identified biased agonists of the CCK2R. These new important insights will allow us to investigate the role of internalized CCK2R·β-arrestin complexes in cancers expressing this receptor and to develop new diagnosis and therapeutic strategies targeting this receptor.

  19. Polymorphisms in B Cell Co-Stimulatory Genes Are Associated with IgG Antibody Responses against Blood-Stage Proteins of Plasmodium vivax.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo C Cassiano

    Full Text Available The development of an effective immune response can help decrease mortality from malaria and its clinical symptoms. However, this mechanism is complex and has significant inter-individual variation, most likely owing to the genetic contribution of the human host. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the influence of polymorphisms in genes involved in the costimulation of B-lymphocytes in the naturally acquired humoral immune response against proteins of the asexual stage of Plasmodium vivax. A total of 319 individuals living in an area of malaria transmission in the Brazilian Amazon were genotyped for four SNPs in the genes CD40, CD40L, BLYS and CD86. In addition, IgG antibodies against P. vivax apical membrane antigen 1 (PvAMA-1, Duffy binding protein (PvDBP and merozoite surface protein 1 (PvMSP-119 were detected by ELISA. The SNP BLYS -871C>T was associated with the frequency of IgG responders to PvAMA-1 and PvMSP-119. The SNP CD40 -1C>T was associated with the IgG response against PvDBP, whereas IgG antibody titers against PvMSP-119 were influenced by the polymorphism CD86 +1057G>A. These data may help to elucidate the immunological aspects of vivax malaria and consequently assist in the design of malaria vaccines.

  20. Muscarinic Receptor Agonists and Antagonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Kelly

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive review of pharmacological and medical aspects of the muscarinic class of acetylcholine agonists and antagonists is presented. The therapeutic benefits of achieving receptor subtype selectivity are outlined and applications in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease are discussed. A selection of chemical routes are described, which illustrate contemporary methodology for the synthesis of chiral medicinal compounds (asymmetric synthesis, chiral pool, enzymes. Routes to bicyclic intrannular amines and intramolecular Diels-Alder reactions are highlighted.

  1. AGONISTIC BEHAVIOR OF LABORATORY MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Cinghiţă

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we study agonistic behavior of laboratory white mice when they are kept in captivity. For all this experimental work we used direct observation of mice, in small lists, because we need a reduced space to emphasize characteristics of agonistic behavior. Relations between members of the same species that live in organized groups are based in most cases on hierarchical structure. Relations between leader and subservient, decided by fighting, involve a thorough observation between individuals. Each member of a group has its own place on the ierarchical scale depending on resultes of fhights – it can be leader or it can be subsurvient, depending on if it wines or looses the fight. Once hierarchical scale made, every animal will adjust its behavior. After analyzing the obtained data we have enough reasons to believe that after fights the winner, usually, is the massive mouse, but it is also very important the sexual ripeness, so the immature male will be beaten. The leader male had a big exploring area and it checks up all territory.The females can be more aggressive, its fights are more brutal, than male fights are, when they fight for supremacy, but in this case fights are not as frequent as in the case of males. Always the superior female, on hierarchical scale, shows males its own statute, so the strongest genes will be perpetuated.

  2. Datasets for the validation of the "in vivo" siRNA-silencing of CD40 and for the detection of new markers of atherosclerosis progression in ApoE-deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Hueso

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Data presented in this Data in Brief article correspond to the article "in vivo" silencing of CD40 reduces progression of experimental atherogenesis through a NFκB/miR-125b axis and reveals new potential mediators in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis" (M. Hueso, L. De Ramon, E. Navarro, E. Ripoll, J.M. Cruzado, J.M. Grinyo, J. Torras, 2016 [1]. Here, we describe the validation of the silencing of CD40 expression with a specific siRNA in ApoE−/− mouse aortas, and its systemic effects on splenic lymphocytic subpopulations as well as on the infiltration of aortic intima by F4/80+, galectin-3+ macrophages or by NF-κB+ cells. We also show the output of a Gene Ontology and TLDA analysis which allowed the detection of potential mediators of atherosclerosis progression. We provide the scientific community with a set of genes whose expression is increased during atherosclerosis progression but downregulated upon CD40 silencing.

  3. Beta-agonists and animal welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of beta-agonists in animal feed is a high profile topic within the U.S. as consumers and activist groups continue to question its safety. The only beta-agonist currently available for use in swine is ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC). This is available as Paylean™ (Elanco Animal Health – FDA a...

  4. Antiparietal cell antibody test

    Science.gov (United States)

    APCA; Anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; Atrophic gastritis - anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; Gastric ulcer - anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; Pernicious anemia - anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; ...

  5. Relation of CD40 Ligand, Pregnancy-Associated Plasma ProteinA and Malondialdehyde-Modified Low Density Lipoprotein to Angiographic Morphology of Coronary Lesions in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease%CD40配体、妊娠相关血浆蛋白A和丙二醛化低密度脂蛋白的变化与冠状动脉斑块破裂相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志辉; 李旭平; 周胜华; 祁述善

    2007-01-01

    目的 观察CD40配体、妊娠相关血浆蛋白A和丙二醛化低密度脂蛋白在冠状动脉造影显示为Ⅱ型斑块的冠心病患者血浆中的变化与相关性.方法 收集冠状动脉造影为冠心病患者85例,根据斑块形态,将冠心病患者分为三组,即Ⅰ型病变(表面光滑)组(n=31),Ⅱ型病变(表面不规则)组(n=35)及Ⅲ型病变(长段不规则)组(n=19),冠状动脉造影正常的25例为对照组.检测各组血浆CD40配体、妊娠相关血浆蛋白A 、丙二醛化低密度脂蛋白、低密度脂蛋白和高密度脂蛋白.结果 Ⅱ型病变组血浆CD40配体、妊娠相关血浆蛋白A和丙二醛化低密度脂蛋白显著高于对照组、Ⅰ型病变组和Ⅲ型病变组(P均<0.01).Ⅱ型病变组血浆CD40配体与妊娠相关血浆蛋白A呈正相关(r=0.446, P<0.01);丙二醛化低密度脂蛋白与低密度脂蛋白和高密度脂蛋白无明显相关性(P均>0.05),但与妊娠相关血浆蛋白A呈正相关(r=0.630, P<0.01).结论 冠状动脉造影显示斑块破裂的冠心病患者血浆CD40配体、妊娠相关血浆蛋白A和丙二醛化低密度脂蛋白水平明显升高;CD40配体与妊娠相关血浆蛋白A呈显著正相关,提示CD40配体可能通过上调妊娠相关血浆蛋白A的表达促进斑块破裂;丙二醛化低密度脂蛋白与妊娠相关血浆蛋白A呈正相关,提示氧化应激和炎症反应加强均是导致斑块破裂的原因,且氧化应激可能通过诱导、加剧炎症反应或与炎症因子交互作用发挥其致斑块破裂作用.

  6. Dopamine Agonists and Pathologic Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan J. Kelley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The dopamine agonists ropinirole and pramipexole exhibit highly specific affinity for the cerebral dopamine D3 receptor. Use of these medications in Parkinson’s disease has been complicated by the emergence of pathologic behavioral patterns such as hypersexuality, pathologic gambling, excessive hobbying, and other circumscribed obsessive-compulsive disorders of impulse control in people having no history of such disorders. These behavioral changes typically remit following discontinuation of the medication, further demonstrating a causal relationship. Expression of the D3 receptor is particularly rich within the limbic system, where it plays an important role in modulating the physiologic and emotional experience of novelty, reward, and risk assessment. Converging neuroanatomical, physiological, and behavioral science data suggest the high D3 affinity of these medications as the basis for these behavioral changes. These observations suggest the D3 receptor as a therapeutic target for obsessive-compulsive disorder and substance abuse, and improved understanding of D3 receptor function may aid drug design of future atypical antipsychotics.

  7. Endogenous Receptor Agonists: Resolving Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Bannenberg

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled resolution or the physiologic resolution of a well-orchestrated inflammatory response at the tissue level is essential to return to homeostasis. A comprehensive understanding of the cellular and molecular events that control the termination of acute inflammation is needed in molecular terms given the widely held view that aberrant inflammation underlies many common diseases. This review focuses on recent advances in the understanding of the role of arachidonic acid and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA–derived lipid mediators in regulating the resolution of inflammation. Using a functional lipidomic approach employing LC-MS-MS–based informatics, recent studies, reviewed herein, uncovered new families of local-acting chemical mediators actively biosynthesized during the resolution phase from the essential fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. These new families of local chemical mediators are generated endogenously in exudates collected during the resolution phase, and were coined resolvins and protectins because specific members of these novel chemical families control both the duration and magnitude of inflammation in animal models of complex diseases. Recent advances on the biosynthesis, receptors, and actions of these novel anti-inflammatory and proresolving lipid mediators are reviewed with the aim to bring to attention the important role of specific lipid mediators as endogenous agonists in inflammation resolution.

  8. Neuroprotective effect of salvianolic acid B against cerebral ischemic injury in rats via the CD40/NF-κB pathway associated with suppression of platelets activation and neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shixin; Zhong, Aiqin; Ma, Huining; Li, Dan; Hu, Yue; Xu, Yingzhi; Zhang, Junping

    2017-04-15

    Neuroinflammation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Activated platelets are increasingly regarded as initiators and/or amplifiers of inflammatory processes in cerebral I/R injury. Salvianolic acid B (SAB) is the most abundant bioactive compound of Salviae miltiorrhizae, a well-known Chinese herb used to promote blood circulation and eliminating blood stasis. S. miltiorrhizae has been used clinically in Asia for the treatment of ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. In the present study, a rat model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) was established to investigate the neuroprotective effects and mechanisms of SAB treatment against focal cerebral I/R insult. The results showed that SAB treatment (3mg/kg, 6mg/kg and 12mg/kg, i.p.) dose-dependently decreased I/R-induced neurological deficits at 24, 48, and 72h after reperfusion and decreased plasma-soluble P-selectin and soluble CD40 ligand as early as 6h after onset of I/R insult. At 24h after reperfusion, SAB treatment significantly reduced neuronal and DNA damage in the hippocampal CA1 region and decreased neural cell loss in the ischemic core. The I/R-induced pro-inflammatory mediator mRNA and protein overexpression in the penumbra cortex, including ICAM-1, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1, were significantly inhibited by SAB in a dose-dependent manner. Further studies suggested SAB treatment attenuated CD40 expression and NF-κB activation, which involved NF-κB/p65 phosphorylation and IκBα phosphorylation and degradation. In conclusion, our findings indicated that the neuroprotective effects of SAB post cerebral I/R injury are associated with the inhibition of both platelets activation and production of pro-inflammatory mediators and the downregulation of the CD40/NF-κB pathway.

  9. Dendritic cells combined with anti-GITR antibody produce antitumor effects in osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Masanori; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Itonaga, Ichiro; Iwasaki, Tatsuya; Miyazaki, Masashi; Ikeda, Shinichi; Tsumura, Hiroshi

    2015-10-01

    We attempted to enhance the antitumor effects of tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cells by eliminating regulatory T cells. The combinatorial effects of dendritic cells and agonist anti-glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (anti-GITR) antibodies were investigated with respect to enhancement of the systemic immune response, elimination of regulatory T cells, and inhibition of tumor growth. To determine whether the combination of dendritic cells and anti‑GITR antibodies could enhance systemic immune responses and inhibit primary tumor growth in a murine osteosarcoma (LM8) model. We established the following 4 groups of C3H mice (20 mice in total): i), control IgG-treated mice; ii), tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cell‑treated mice; iii), agonist anti-GITR antibody-treated mice; and iv), agonist anti-GITR antibody- and tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cell‑treated mice.The mice that received the agonist anti-GITR antibodies and tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cells displayed inhibited primary growth, prolonged life time, reduced numbers of regulatory T lymphocytes in the spleen, elevated serum interferon-γ levels, increased number of CD8+ T lymphocytes. The mice that received combined therapy had reduced level of immunosuppressive cytokines in tumor tissue and serum. Combining agonist anti-GITR antibodies with tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cells enhanced the systemic immune response. These findings provide further support for the continued development of agonist anti-GITR antibodies as an immunotherapeutic strategy for osteosarcoma. We suggest that our proposed immunotherapy could be developed further to improve osteosarcoma treatment.

  10. PPAR Agonists and Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C. Calkin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferators activated receptors (PPARs are ligand-activated nuclear transcription factors that play important roles in lipid and glucose homeostasis. To the extent that PPAR agonists improve diabetic dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance, these agents have been considered to reduce cardiovascular risk. However, data from murine models suggests that PPAR agonists also have independent anti-atherosclerotic actions, including the suppression of vascular inflammation, oxidative stress, and activation of the renin angiotensin system. Many of these potentially anti-atherosclerotic effects are thought to be mediated by transrepression of nuclear factor-kB, STAT, and activator protein-1 dependent pathways. In recent clinical trials, PPAR agonists have been shown to be effective in the primary prevention of cardiovascular events, while their cardiovascular benefit in patients with established cardiovascular disease remains equivocal. However, the use of PPAR agonists, and more recently dual PPAR/ coagonists, has been associated with an excess in cardiovascular events, possibly reflecting unrecognised fluid retention with potent agonists of the PPAR receptor. Newer pan agonists, which retain their anti-atherosclerotic activity without weight gain, may provide one solution to this problem. However, the complex biologic effects of the PPARs may mean that only vascular targeted agents or pure transrepressors will realise the goal of preventing atherosclerotic vascular disease.

  11. PPAR Agonists and Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkin, Anna C.; Thomas, Merlin C.

    2008-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferators activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated nuclear transcription factors that play important roles in lipid and glucose homeostasis. To the extent that PPAR agonists improve diabetic dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance, these agents have been considered to reduce cardiovascular risk. However, data from murine models suggests that PPAR agonists also have independent anti-atherosclerotic actions, including the suppression of vascular inflammation, oxidative stress, and activation of the renin angiotensin system. Many of these potentially anti-atherosclerotic effects are thought to be mediated by transrepression of nuclear factor-kB, STAT, and activator protein-1 dependent pathways. In recent clinical trials, PPARα agonists have been shown to be effective in the primary prevention of cardiovascular events, while their cardiovascular benefit in patients with established cardiovascular disease remains equivocal. However, the use of PPARγ agonists, and more recently dual PPARα/γ coagonists, has been associated with an excess in cardiovascular events, possibly reflecting unrecognised fluid retention with potent agonists of the PPARγ receptor. Newer pan agonists, which retain their anti-atherosclerotic activity without weight gain, may provide one solution to this problem. However, the complex biologic effects of the PPARs may mean that only vascular targeted agents or pure transrepressors will realise the goal of preventing atherosclerotic vascular disease. PMID:18288280

  12. PPAR Agonists and Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkin, Anna C; Thomas, Merlin C

    2008-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferators activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated nuclear transcription factors that play important roles in lipid and glucose homeostasis. To the extent that PPAR agonists improve diabetic dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance, these agents have been considered to reduce cardiovascular risk. However, data from murine models suggests that PPAR agonists also have independent anti-atherosclerotic actions, including the suppression of vascular inflammation, oxidative stress, and activation of the renin angiotensin system. Many of these potentially anti-atherosclerotic effects are thought to be mediated by transrepression of nuclear factor-kB, STAT, and activator protein-1 dependent pathways. In recent clinical trials, PPARalpha agonists have been shown to be effective in the primary prevention of cardiovascular events, while their cardiovascular benefit in patients with established cardiovascular disease remains equivocal. However, the use of PPARgamma agonists, and more recently dual PPARalpha/gamma coagonists, has been associated with an excess in cardiovascular events, possibly reflecting unrecognised fluid retention with potent agonists of the PPARgamma receptor. Newer pan agonists, which retain their anti-atherosclerotic activity without weight gain, may provide one solution to this problem. However, the complex biologic effects of the PPARs may mean that only vascular targeted agents or pure transrepressors will realise the goal of preventing atherosclerotic vascular disease.

  13. Dihydrocodeine / Agonists for Alcohol Dependents

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    Albrecht eUlmer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Alcohol addiction too often remains insufficiently treated. It shows the same profile as severe chronic diseases, but no comparable, effective basic treatment has been established up to now. Especially patients with repeated relapses, despite all therapeutic approaches, and patients who are not able to attain an essential abstinence to alcohol, need a basic medication. It seems necessary to acknowledge that parts of them need any agonistic substance, for years, possibly lifelong. For >14 years, we have prescribed such substances with own addictive character for these patients.Methods: We present a documented best possible practice, no designed study. Since 1997, we prescribed Dihydrocodeine (DHC to 102 heavily alcohol addict-ed patients, later, also Buprenorphine, Clomethiazole (>6 weeks, Baclofen and in one case Amphetamine, each on individual indication. This paper focuses on the data with DH, especially. The Clomethiazole-data has been submitted to a German journal. The number of treatments with the other substances is still low. Results: The 102 patients with the DHC-treatment had 1367 medically assisted detoxifications and specialized therapies before! The 4 years-retention rate was 26.4%, including 2.8% successfully terminated treatments. In our 12-step scale on clinical impression, we noticed a significant improvement from mean 3.7 to 8.4 after 2 years. The demand for medically assisted detoxifications in the 2 years remaining patients was reduced by 65.5%. Mean GGT improved from 206.6 U/l at baseline to 66.8 U/l after 2 years. Experiences with the other substances are similar but different in details.Conclusions: Similar to the Italian studies with GHB and Baclofen, we present a new approach, not only with new substances, but also with a new setting and much more trusting attitude. We observe a huge improvement, reaching an almost optimal, stable, long term status in around ¼ of the patients already. Many further

  14. Ligand-based receptor tyrosine kinase partial agonists: New paradigm for cancer drug discovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riese, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are validated targets for oncology drug discovery and several RTK antagonists have been approved for the treatment of human malignancies. Nonetheless, the discovery and development of RTK antagonists has lagged behind the discovery and development of agents that target G-protein coupled receptors. In part, this is because it has been difficult to discover analogs of naturally-occurring RTK agonists that function as antagonists. Areas covered Here we describe ligands of ErbB receptors that function as partial agonists for these receptors, thereby enabling these ligands to antagonize the activity of full agonists for these receptors. We provide insights into the mechanisms by which these ligands function as antagonists. We discuss how information concerning these mechanisms can be translated into screens for novel small molecule- and antibody-based antagonists of ErbB receptors and how such antagonists hold great potential as targeted cancer chemotherapeutics. Expert opinion While there have been a number of important key findings into this field, the identification of the structural basis of ligand functional specificity is still of the greatest importance. While it is true that, with some notable exceptions, peptide hormones and growth factors have not proven to be good platforms for oncology drug discovery; addressing the fundamental issues of antagonistic partial agonists for receptor tyrosine kinases has the potential to steer oncology drug discovery in new directions. Mechanism based approaches are now emerging to enable the discovery of RTK partial agonists that may antagonize both agonist-dependent and –independent RTK signaling and may hold tremendous promise as targeted cancer chemotherapeutics. PMID:21532939

  15. Headache, Raynaud's syndrome and serotonin receptor agonists in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernatsky, S; Pineau, C A; Lee, J L; Clarke, A E

    2006-01-01

    There are potential concerns regarding serotonin receptor agonists in SLE patients with migraine, particularly patients with concomitant Raynaud's syndrome. We estimated the prevalence of lupus-related headache and Raynaud's syndrome in the Montreal General Hospital SLE clinic cohort and evaluated the relationship between these two variables in multivariable logistic regression models, controlling for age, sex, race, SLE duration and the presence of lupus anticoagulant and antibodies to cardiolipin and beta2 glycoprotein I. We also assessed, through chart review in those individuals with both Raynaud's syndrome and migraine, a history of serotonin receptor agonist use, and any associated worsening vasospasm. Based on Systemic Lupus Activity Measure (SLAM) scores, the cumulative incidence of lupus-related headache in our sample (n = 391) was 46.1%; the prevalence of Raynaud's syndrome was 49.4%. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for lupus-related headache and Raynaud's syndrome was 1.7 (95% CI 1.1, 2.5). In addition, there was a strong independent relationship between headache and anti-beta2 glycoprotein I antibodies (adjusted OR 5.6 [95% CI 1.8, 17.0]). The data from our chart review suggest that careful use of serotonin receptor agonists in patients with both Raynaud's syndrome and migraines may be undertaken, although caution would necessitate that these agents not be used in individuals with very severe Raynaud's (eg, digital ulcerations, and so on).

  16. [Antinuclear antibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabiedes, Javier; Núñez-Álvarez, Carlos A

    2010-01-01

    Anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) are immunoglobulin directed against autologous cell nuclear and cytoplasmic components. Besides the autoimmune ANA there are other ANA that can be detected in circulation, like natural and infectious ANA. Because of its high sensibility, detection of the ANA must be done by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) as screening test and all of those positive samples are convenient to confirm its specificity by ELISA, western blot or other techniques. Positive ANA detected by IIF must be evaluated taking in to account the pattern and titer. The following recommended step is the specificity characterization (reactivity against extractable nuclear antigens [ENA], dsDNA, etc.) which is useful for the diagnosis and follow up of patients with autoimmune diseases, and by such reasoning, its detection must be performed in an orderly and reasonable way using guides or strategies focused to the good use and interpretation of the autoantibodies. The objective of this review is to present a compilation of the literature and our experience in the detection and study of the ANA.

  17. Selection of antibodies from synthetic antibody libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel Inbar, Noa; Benhar, Itai

    2012-10-15

    More than 2 dozen years had passed since the field of antibody engineering was established, with the first reports of bacterial [1-3] and mammalian cells [4] expression of recombinant antibody fragments, and in that time a lot of effort was dedicated to the development of efficient technological means, intended to assist in the creation of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Research focus was given to two intertwined technological aspects: the selection platform and the recombinant antibody repertoires. In accordance with these areas of interest, it is the goal of this chapter to describe the various selection tools and antibody libraries existing, with emphasis on the later, and their applications. This chapter gives a far from exhaustive, subjective "historic account" of the field, describing the selection platforms, the different formats of antibody repertoires and the applications of both for selecting recombinant antibodies. Several excellent books provide detailed protocols for constructing antibody libraries and selecting antibodies from those libraries [5-13]. Such books may guide a newcomer to the field in the fine details of antibody engineering. We would like to offer advice to the novice: although seemingly simple, effective library construction and antibody isolation provide best benefits in the hands of professionals. It is an art as much as it is science.

  18. Muscimol as an ionotropic GABA receptor agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Graham A R

    2014-10-01

    Muscimol, a psychoactive isoxazole from Amanita muscaria and related mushrooms, has proved to be a remarkably selective agonist at ionotropic receptors for the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. This historic overview highlights the discovery and development of muscimol and related compounds as a GABA agonist by Danish and Australian neurochemists. Muscimol is widely used as a ligand to probe GABA receptors and was the lead compound in the development of a range of GABAergic agents including nipecotic acid, tiagabine, 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo(5,4-c)pyridin-3-ol, (Gaboxadol(®)) and 4-PIOL.

  19. Identification of Selective ERRγ Inverse Agonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jina Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available GSK5182 (4 is currently one of the lead compounds for the development of estrogen-related receptor gamma (ERRγ inverse agonists. Here, we report the design, synthesis, pharmacological and in vitro absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, toxicity (ADMET properties of a series of compounds related to 4. Starting from 4, a series of analogs were structurally modified and their ERRγ inverse agonist activity was measured. A key pharmacophore feature of this novel class of ligands is the introduction of a heterocyclic group for A-ring substitution in the core scaffold. Among the tested compounds, several of them are potent ERRγ inverse agonists as determined by binding and functional assays. The most promising compound, 15g, had excellent binding selectivity over related subtypes (IC50 = 0.44, >10, >10, and 10 μM at the ERRγ, ERRα, ERRβ, and ERα subtypes, respectively. Compound 15g also resulted in 95% transcriptional repression at a concentration of 10 μM, while still maintaining an acceptable in vitro ADMET profile. This novel class of ERRγ inverse agonists shows promise in the development of drugs targeting ERRγ-related diseases.

  20. Gonadotropin releasing hormone agonists: Expanding vistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Magon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH agonists are derived from native GnRH by amino acid substitution which yields the agonist resistant to degradation and increases its half-life. The hypogonadotropic hypogonadal state produced by GnRH agonists has been often dubbed as "pseudomenopause" or "medical oophorectomy," which are both misnomers. GnRH analogues (GnRH-a work by temporarily "switching off" the ovaries. Ovaries can be "switched off" for the therapy and therapeutic trial of many conditions which include but are not limited to subfertility, endometriosis, adenomyosis, uterine leiomyomas, precocious puberty, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, chronic pelvic pain, or the prevention of menstrual bleeding in special clinical situations. Rapidly expanding vistas of usage of GnRH agonists encompass use in sex reassignment of male to female transsexuals, management of final height in cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and preserving ovarian function in women undergoing cytotoxic chemotherapy. Hypogonadic side effects caused by the use of GnRH agonists can be tackled with use of "add-back" therapy. Goserelin, leuprolide, and nafarelin are commonly used in clinical practice. GnRH-a have provided us a powerful therapeutic approach to the treatment of numerous conditions in reproductive medicine. Recent synthesis of GnRH antagonists with a better tolerability profile may open new avenues for both research and clinical applications. All stakeholders who are partners in women′s healthcare need to join hands to spread awareness so that these drugs can be used to realize their full potential.

  1. Exploring prospects of β3-adrenoceptor agonists and inverse agonists for colon mobility control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grazia Perrone

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Inverse agonists are useful active ingredient of drugs clinically used to treat diseases mainly involving receptors endowed with non-endogenous agonist induced activity (constitutive or basal activity. SP-1e and SP-1g are the first two potent and highly selective β3-adrenoceptor inverse agonists [EC50=181 nM (IA=- 64% and 136 nM (IA=-73%, respectively], which their peculiar activity seems due to the absolute configurations of the two stereogenic centres present in each molecule. Rat proximal colon motility measurements allowed their further pharmacological characterization and pA2 values determination by Schild analysis (7.89 and 8.16, respectively. The purpose of our work is a further characterization of our novel β3-adrenoceptor agonists (SP-1a-d, SP-1f,1h and inverse agonists (SP-1e and SP-1g on rat proximal colon motility and a confirmation of their inverse agonist nature in a more complex system like the functional test on rat proximal colon. Male Wistar rats segment of the proximal colon were placed in organ baths containing Krebs solution. Muscle tension was recorded isotonically. Cumulative β3-AR agonists doses experiments were performed for each test compound: isoprenaline, BRL37344, SP-1a-d, SP-1f and SP-1h were dissolved in Krebs. The EC50 values of each agonists and pA2 of inverse agonists were determined. SP- 1a-d, SP-1f and SP-1h in rat colon have a muscle relaxing effect thus confirming their partial agonist activity found in CHO-K1 cell line. SP-1e and SP-1g behaved as antagonists with pA2 values of 7.89 and 8.16, respectively. In conclusion, experiments carried out by using isolated rat proximal colon allowed us to determine the pA2 values of the two β3-AR inverse agonists and add knowledge on the behavior of a novel set of compounds and their possible value as agents useful whenever is necessary to also control the colon motility.

  2. Identification of anti-CD98 antibody mimotopes for inducing antibodies with antitumor activity by mimotope immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Misa; Kondo, Masahiro; Ohshima, Motohiro; Deguchi, Kazuki; Hayashi, Hideki; Inoue, Kazuyuki; Tsuji, Daiki; Masuko, Takashi; Itoh, Kunihiko

    2014-04-01

    A mimotope is an antibody-epitope-mimicking peptide retrieved from a phage display random peptide library. Immunization with antitumor antibody-derived mimotopes is promising for inducing antitumor immunity in hosts. In this study, we isolated linear and constrained mimotopes from HBJ127, a tumor-suppressing anti-CD98 heavy chain mAb, and determined their abilities for induction of antitumor activity equal to that of the parent antibody. We detected elevated levels of antipeptide responses, but failed to detect reactivity against native CD98-expressing HeLa cells in sera of immunized mice. Phage display panning and selection of mimotope-immunized mouse spleen-derived antibody Fab library showed that HeLa cell-reactive Fabs were successfully retrieved from the library. This finding indicates that native antigen-reactive Fab clones represented an undetectable minor population in mimotope-induced antibody repertoire. Functional and structural analysis of retrieved Fab clones revealed that they were almost identical to the parent antibody. From these results, we confirmed that mimotope immunization was promising for retrieving antitumor antibodies equivalent to the parent antibody, although the co-administration of adjuvant compounds such as T-cell epitope peptides and Toll-like receptor 4 agonist peptides is likely to be necessary for inducing stronger antitumor immunity than mimotope injection alone.

  3. 孕妇血中可溶性细胞分化抗原40L、肿瘤坏死因子α水平变化与早发型子痫前期的关系%Relation of plasma level of sCD40L and serum level TNF-α with early onset preeclampsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹洁; 史丽; 赵喜娃; 李青梅; 董晓静; 王娟; 姜秉芬

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study changes of plasma level of sCD40L and serum level of tumor necrosis factor-a(TNF-α) in patients with early onset preeclampsia,To investigate the relationship of sCD40L、TNF-α and clinical data in early onset preeclampsia.Methods The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay between June 2011 and September 2012 at The Fourth Clinical Medical College of Hebei Medical University in patients with early-onset preeclampsia 64cases,(mild preeclampsia 30 cases and severe preeclampsia patients 34 cases),and randomly selected 20 cases of normal late pregnancy in plasma levels of sCD40L and serum level of TNF-α.At the same time,blood biochemical in dexes (BBI) were measured.Results The level of sCD40L and TNF-α in women with mild and severe early onset preeclampsia were significantly higher than that in normal controls; The level of sCD40L and TNF-α in women with severe early onset preeclampsia were significantly higher than that in mild early onset preeclampsia,P < 0.01.The plasma levels of sCD40L were obviously positively correlated with the serum level of TNF-α in patients with early onset preeclampsia,r =0.967,P < 0.001.The level of sCD40L、TNF-α in early onset preeclampsia were obviously positively correlated with the levels of 24-hurineprotein,SBP,DBP,MAP,BUN,and negatively correlated with serum albumin; whereas that had no significant correlation with UA,34 cases severe preeclampsia happen eclampsia postpartum,the average plasma sCD40L level of 4 cases were 9.65μg/L.Conclusion Expression of sCD40L,TNF-α in early-onset preeclampsia is high and associates with the severity of the disease,they could be used in detecting and monitoring for early onset preeclampsia.%目的 探讨孕妇血中可溶性细胞分化抗原40L(sCD40L)、肿瘤坏死因子α(TNF-α)水平变化与早发型子痫前期的发病及临床指标的相关性.方法 选择2011年6月至2012年9月在河北医科大学第四医院分娩的早发型子痫前期患者64

  4. Acetylcholine receptor antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003576.htm Acetylcholine receptor antibody To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acetylcholine receptor antibody is a protein found in the blood ...

  5. Antinuclear antibody panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003535.htm Antinuclear antibody panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The antinuclear antibody panel is a blood test that looks at ...

  6. Lyme disease antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JavaScript. The Lyme disease blood test looks for antibodies in the blood to the bacteria that causes ... needed. A laboratory specialist looks for Lyme disease antibodies in the blood sample using the ELISA test . ...

  7. Recent advances in the discovery of alpha1-adrenoceptor agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    The alpha(1) adrenoceptors are three of nine well-characterized receptors that are activated by epinephrine and norepinephrine. Agonists acting at the alpha(1) adrenoceptors produce numerous physiological effects, and are used therapeutically for several indications. Many known alpha(1) adrenoceptor agonists are alpha(1A) selective, but the discovery of highly selective alpha(1B) and alpha(1D) adrenoceptor agonists has proven to be an extremely difficult goal to achieve. This review will focus on recent advances in the discovery, development and clinical utility of subtype-specific alpha(1) agonists as well as contributions to our understanding of agonist-receptor interactions.

  8. The antibody mining toolbox

    OpenAIRE

    D'Angelo, Sara; Glanville, Jacob; Ferrara, Fortunato; Naranjo, Leslie; Gleasner, Cheryl D.; Shen, Xiaohong; Bradbury, Andrew RM; Kiss, Csaba

    2013-01-01

    In vitro selection has been an essential tool in the development of recombinant antibodies against various antigen targets. Deep sequencing has recently been gaining ground as an alternative and valuable method to analyze such antibody selections. The analysis provides a novel and extremely detailed view of selected antibody populations, and allows the identification of specific antibodies using only sequencing data, potentially eliminating the need for expensive and laborious low-throughput ...

  9. Subtype selective kainic acid receptor agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunch, Lennart; Krogsgaard-Larsen, Povl

    2009-01-01

    (S)-Glutamic acid (Glu) is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, activating the plethora of glutamate receptors (GluRs). In broad lines, the GluRs are divided into two major classes: the ionotropic Glu receptors (iGluRs) and the metabotropic Glu receptors (m......GluRs). Within the iGluRs, five subtypes (KA1, KA2, iGluR5-7) show high affinity and express full agonist activity upon binding of the naturally occurring amino acid kainic acid (KA). Thus these receptors have been named the KA receptors. This review describes all-to our knowledge-published KA receptor agonists...

  10. Agonistic and reproductive interactions in Betta splendens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstein, P M

    1984-12-01

    Reproductive and agonistic behaviors in Siamese fighting fish were investigated in eight experiments, and some consequences and determinants of these sequences were isolated. First, fights and the formation of dominance-subordinancy relations were studied. Second, it was determined that large body size as well as males' prior residency in a tank produced an agonistic advantage; the magnitude of this advantage was positively related to the duration of residency. Third, the prior-residency effect in Bettas was determined by males' familiarity with visual and/or tactile cues in their home tanks. Fourth, dominant males had greater access to living space and were more likely to display at a mirror, build nests, and approach females than were subordinates. Finally, it was discovered that chemical cues associated with presumedly inert plastic tank dividers influence Bettas' social behavior.

  11. [Towards an industrial control of the cloning of lymphocytes B human for the manufacturing of monoclonal antibodies stemming from the human repertoire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillot-Chene, P; Lebecque, S; Rigal, D

    2009-05-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are efficient drugs for treating infectious, inflammatory and cancer diseases. Antibodies secreted by human lymphocytes that have been isolated from either peripheral blood or tissues present the definite interest of being part of the physiological or disease-related response to antigens present in the human body. However, attempts to generate hybridomas with human B cells have been largely unsuccessful, and cloning of human B cells has been achieved only via their inefficient immortalization with Epstein Barr Virus (EBV). However, recent progress in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of polyclonal B cell activation has dramatically increased the capacity to clone human B cells. In particular, activation of human naïve and memory B cells through CD40 or memory B cells only through TLR9 was shown to greatly facilitate their immortalization by EBV. Industrial development based on these observations will soon provide large collections of high affinity human mAbs of every isotype directly selected by the human immune system directed to recognize epitopes relevant for individual patients. Moreover, after CD40 activation, these mAbs will cover the full human repertoire, including the natural auto-immune repertoire. Full characterization of the biological activity of these mAbs will in turn bring useful information for selecting vaccine epitopes. This breakthrough in human B cell cloning opens the way into new areas for therapeutic use of mAbs.

  12. Signal Use by Octopuses in Agonistic Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, David; Godfrey-Smith, Peter; Lawrence, Matthew

    2016-02-08

    Cephalopods show behavioral parallels to birds and mammals despite considerable evolutionary distance [1, 2]. Many cephalopods produce complex body patterns and visual signals, documented especially in cuttlefish and squid, where they are used both in camouflage and a range of interspecific interactions [1, 3-5]. Octopuses, in contrast, are usually seen as solitary and asocial [6, 7]; their body patterns and color changes have primarily been interpreted as camouflage and anti-predator tactics [8-12], though the familiar view of the solitary octopus faces a growing list of exceptions. Here, we show by field observation that in a shallow-water octopus, Octopus tetricus, a range of visible displays are produced during agonistic interactions, and these displays correlate with the outcome of those interactions. Interactions in which dark body color by an approaching octopus was matched by similar color in the reacting octopus were more likely to escalate to grappling. Darkness in an approaching octopus met by paler color in the reacting octopus accompanied retreat of the paler octopus. Octopuses also displayed on high ground and stood with spread web and elevated mantle, often producing these behaviors in combinations. This study is the first to document the systematic use of signals during agonistic interactions among octopuses. We show prima facie conformity of our results to an influential model of agonistic signaling [13]. These results suggest that interactions have a greater influence on octopus evolution than has been recognized and show the importance of convergent evolution in behavioral traits.

  13. 白细胞分化抗原-40基因SNP及其血清水平与缺血性脑卒中的相关性%Association of SNP of leukocyte differentiation antigen-CD40 gene and its serum level with ischemic stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈健明; 黄华佗; 袁秋然; 罗宏成; 向阳; 王春芳; 蒙兰青; 韦叶生

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究白细胞分化抗原-40(CD40)基因SNP及其血清水平与缺血性脑卒中(IS)易感性之间的关系。方法选择2013年5月至2014年11月就诊于百色市某医院的缺血性脑卒中患者作为病例组,共202例。以同一时期在该医院门诊部进行体检的109名健康人群作为对照组。所有调查对象均来自广西壮族自治区,且相互间无血缘关系。经知情同意,每名调查对象均采集空腹静脉血3 ml,用单碱基延伸的PCR技术对CD40基因rs1883832 C/T、rs13040307 C/T、rs752118 C/T和rs3765459 G/A多态性进行基因分型,同时采用ELISA检测血清CD40水平。采用t检验比较CD40血清水平在病例组与对照组间的差异及病例组中各位点不同基因型间的差异;采用χ2检验比较CD40基因不同位点基因型及等位基因在病例组和对照组中的分布差异,并以OR(95%CI)值表示相对风险。结果病例组CD40基因rs1883832 C/T位点CC、CT、TT基因型频率分别为21.78%(44/202)、49.51%(100/202)、28.71%(58/202),对照组分别为33.17%(66/199)、48.74%(97/199)和18.09%(36/199),两组差异有统计学意义(χ2=9.57,P=0.008)。病例组CD40血清水平为(62.7±24.5) pg/ml,高于对照组[(45.3±17.2) pg/ml](t=8.97,P<0.001);病例组中rs1883832 C/T位点TT、CT基因型CD40血清水平分别为(65.9±26.3)、(64.3±25.9)pg/ml,均高于CC基因型CD40血清水平[(55.1±23.7)pg/ml](t值分别为5.34和5.03,P值均<0.001)。与rs1883832 C/T位点C等位基因携带者相比,T等位基因携带者患缺血性脑卒中的风险增加(OR=1.56,95%CI:1.18~2.06)。联合基因型分析后发现,与对照组比较,病例组TCCA单倍型的携带者增加了缺血性脑卒中的发病风险(OR=2.49,95%CI:1.13~5.48)。结论 CD40基因rs1883832 C/T位点和TCCA单倍型与缺血性脑卒中的发病可能存在相关性,其中缺血性脑卒中的遗传易感基

  14. [VGKC-complex antibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Osamu

    2013-04-01

    Various antibodies are associated with voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs). Representative antibodies to VGKCs were first identified by radioimmunoassays using radioisotope-labeled alpha-dendrotoxin-VGKCs solubilized from rabbit brain. These antibodies were detected only in a proportion of patients with acquired neuromyotonia (Isaacs' syndrome). VGKC antibodies were also detected in patients with Morvan's syndrome and in those with a form of autoimmune limbic encephalitis. Recent studies indicated that the "VGKC" antibodies are mainly directed toward associated proteins (for example LGI-1 and CASPR-2) that complex with the VGKCs themselves. The "VGKC" antibodies are now commonly known as VGKC-complex antibodies. In general, LGI-1 antibodies are most commonly detected in patients with limbic encephalitis with syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. CASPR-2 antibodies are present in the majority of patients with Morvan's syndrome. These patients develop combinations of CNS symptoms, autonomic dysfunction, and peripheral nerve hyperexcitability. Furthermore, VGKC-complex antibodies are tightly associated with chronic idiopathic pain. Hyperexcitability of nociceptive pathways has also been implicated. These antibodies may be detected in sera of some patients with neurodegenerative diseases (for example, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease).

  15. Agonist trigger: what is the best approach? Agonist trigger and low dose hCG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humaidan, Peter; Al Humaidan, Peter Samir Heskjær

    2012-01-01

    Low-dose hCG supplementation after GnRH agonist trigger may normalize reproductive outcome while minimizing the occurrence of OHSS in high risk IVF patients. (Fertil Steril (R) 2012;97:529-30. (C) 2012 by American Society for Reproductive Medicine.)......Low-dose hCG supplementation after GnRH agonist trigger may normalize reproductive outcome while minimizing the occurrence of OHSS in high risk IVF patients. (Fertil Steril (R) 2012;97:529-30. (C) 2012 by American Society for Reproductive Medicine.)...

  16. Quantitative Phosphoproteomics Unravels Biased Phosphorylation of Serotonin 2A Receptor at Ser280 by Hallucinogenic versus Nonhallucinogenic Agonists*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaki, Samah; Becamel, Carine; Murat, Samy; Mannoury la Cour, Clotilde; Millan, Mark J.; Prézeau, Laurent; Bockaert, Joël; Marin, Philippe; Vandermoere, Franck

    2014-01-01

    The serotonin 5-HT2A receptor is a primary target of psychedelic hallucinogens such as lysergic acid diethylamine, mescaline, and psilocybin, which reproduce some of the core symptoms of schizophrenia. An incompletely resolved paradox is that only some 5-HT2A receptor agonists exhibit hallucinogenic activity, whereas structurally related agonists with comparable affinity and activity lack such a psychoactive activity. Using a strategy combining stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture with enrichment in phosphorylated peptides by means of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography followed by immobilized metal affinity chromatography, we compared the phosphoproteome in HEK-293 cells transiently expressing the 5-HT2A receptor and exposed to either vehicle or the synthetic hallucinogen 1-[2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl]-2-aminopropane (DOI) or the nonhallucinogenic 5-HT2A agonist lisuride. Among the 5995 identified phosphorylated peptides, 16 sites were differentially phosphorylated upon exposure of cells to DOI versus lisuride. These include a serine (Ser280) located in the third intracellular loop of the 5-HT2A receptor, a region important for its desensitization. The specific phosphorylation of Ser280 by hallucinogens was further validated by quantitative mass spectrometry analysis of immunopurified receptor digests and by Western blotting using a phosphosite specific antibody. The administration of DOI, but not of lisuride, to mice, enhanced the phosphorylation of 5-HT2A receptors at Ser280 in the prefrontal cortex. Moreover, hallucinogens induced a less pronounced desensitization of receptor-operated signaling in HEK-293 cells and neurons than did nonhallucinogenic agonists. The mutation of Ser280 to aspartic acid (to mimic phosphorylation) reduced receptor desensitization by nonhallucinogenic agonists, whereas its mutation to alanine increased the ability of hallucinogens to desensitize the receptor. This study reveals a biased phosphorylation of

  17. TLR3 and TLR9 agonists improve postexposure vaccination efficacy of live smallpox vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israely, Tomer; Melamed, Sharon; Achdout, Hagit; Erez, Noam; Politi, Boaz; Waner, Trevor; Lustig, Shlomo; Paran, Nir

    2014-01-01

    Eradication of smallpox and discontinuation of the vaccination campaign resulted in an increase in the percentage of unvaccinated individuals, highlighting the need for postexposure efficient countermeasures in case of accidental or deliberate viral release. Intranasal infection of mice with ectromelia virus (ECTV), a model for human smallpox, is curable by vaccination with a high vaccine dose given up to 3 days postexposure. To further extend this protective window and to reduce morbidity, mice were vaccinated postexposure with Vaccinia-Lister, the conventional smallpox vaccine or Modified Vaccinia Ankara, a highly attenuated vaccine in conjunction with TLR3 or TLR9 agonists. We show that co-administration of the TLR3 agonist poly(I:C) even 5 days postexposure conferred protection, avoiding the need to increase the vaccination dose. Efficacious treatments prevented death, ameliorated disease symptoms, reduced viral load and maintained tissue integrity of target organs. Protection was associated with significant elevation of serum IFNα and anti-vaccinia IgM antibodies, modulation of IFNγ response, and balanced activation of NK and T cells. TLR9 agonists (CpG ODNs) were less protective than the TLR3 agonist poly(I:C). We show that activation of type 1 IFN by poly(I:C) and protection is achievable even without co-vaccination, requiring sufficient amount of the viral antigens of the infective agent or the vaccine. This study demonstrated the therapeutic potential of postexposure immune modulation by TLR activation, allowing to alleviate the disease symptoms and to further extend the protective window of postexposure vaccination.

  18. TLR3 and TLR9 agonists improve postexposure vaccination efficacy of live smallpox vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomer Israely

    Full Text Available Eradication of smallpox and discontinuation of the vaccination campaign resulted in an increase in the percentage of unvaccinated individuals, highlighting the need for postexposure efficient countermeasures in case of accidental or deliberate viral release. Intranasal infection of mice with ectromelia virus (ECTV, a model for human smallpox, is curable by vaccination with a high vaccine dose given up to 3 days postexposure. To further extend this protective window and to reduce morbidity, mice were vaccinated postexposure with Vaccinia-Lister, the conventional smallpox vaccine or Modified Vaccinia Ankara, a highly attenuated vaccine in conjunction with TLR3 or TLR9 agonists. We show that co-administration of the TLR3 agonist poly(I:C even 5 days postexposure conferred protection, avoiding the need to increase the vaccination dose. Efficacious treatments prevented death, ameliorated disease symptoms, reduced viral load and maintained tissue integrity of target organs. Protection was associated with significant elevation of serum IFNα and anti-vaccinia IgM antibodies, modulation of IFNγ response, and balanced activation of NK and T cells. TLR9 agonists (CpG ODNs were less protective than the TLR3 agonist poly(I:C. We show that activation of type 1 IFN by poly(I:C and protection is achievable even without co-vaccination, requiring sufficient amount of the viral antigens of the infective agent or the vaccine. This study demonstrated the therapeutic potential of postexposure immune modulation by TLR activation, allowing to alleviate the disease symptoms and to further extend the protective window of postexposure vaccination.

  19. 调节性T细胞对输注树突状细胞后小鼠移植心脏的保护作用%The protective effects of CD4+ CD25+ Treg cell on the allograft after infusion of dendritic cells with low expression of CD40 from donor in mouse heart transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱杰昌; 付蔚华; 许翼麟; 朱理玮

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of CD4+CD25+Treg cell on the allograft after infusion of dendritic cells (DCs) with low expression of CD40 from donor in mouse heart transplantation.Methods In vitro,mouse bone marrow-derived DCs were infected by CD40-RNAi lentiviral vector,and tolerogenic DCs (Tol-DCs) with low expression of CD40 were prepared.A heterotopic abdominal heart transplantation model was established in mice,and the other three groups that were control group,noninfected DC group and lentivirus infected DC group were designed correspondingly.Cardiac allograft survival time was recorded and pathological grading for acute rejection was assessed on the 7 d after heterotopic abdominal heart transplantation.Concentrations of CD4+CD25+Treg cells in peripheral blood were analyzed before and after transplantation by flow cytometry.Results After 48 h infection of DCs by CD40-RNAi lentiviral vector in vitro,the expression of CD40 mRNA was down-regulated significantly,whose inhibition rate was 80.9%.The expression of CD40 was decreased from 74.37% ±4.08% to 40.07% ± 4.03% (P<0.05) after 48 h infection.Compared with the control group and the noninfected DC group,the cardiac allograft survival time was significantly prolonged in the CD40-RNAi lentivirus infected DC group,which was (14 ± 4) d(P<0.01) ; concentrations of CD4+CD25+Treg cells in peripheral blood were increased both on the 3 d and the 7 d after transplantation (P<0.05) ; the pathological grading for acute rejection was decreased on the 7 d after transplantation (P<0.05).Conclusion The CD4+CD25+Treg cell in peripheral blood was protective to cardiac allograft in prolonging its survival time in mouse heart transplantation.%目的 探讨在输注供者低表达CD40的树突状细胞(dendritic cells,DC)后,调节性T细胞(regulatory T cell,Treg)对小鼠移植心脏的保护作用.方法 以针对小鼠CD40基因的RNA干扰(RNA interference,RNAi)慢病毒载体在体外感染供者骨髓来源的DC,制备低表达CD

  20. Dopamine agonist: pathological gambling and hypersexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    (1) Pathological gambling and increased sexual activity can occur in patients taking dopaminergic drugs. Detailed case reports and small case series mention serious familial and social consequences. The frequency is poorly documented; (2) Most affected patients are being treated for Parkinson's disease, but cases have been reported among patients prescribed a dopamine agonist for restless legs syndrome or pituitary adenoma; (3) Patients treated with this type of drug, and their relatives, should be informed of these risks so that they can watch for changes in behaviour. If such disorders occur, it may be necessary to reduce the dose or to withdraw the drug or replace it with another medication.

  1. Combining GLP-1 receptor agonists with insulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul; Vilsbøll, T

    2013-01-01

    physicians and patients regarding the initiation and intensification of insulin therapy, in part due to concerns about the associated weight gain and increased risk of hypoglycaemia. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) increase insulin release and suppress glucagon secretion in a glucose...... potential of GLP-1RA-insulin combination therapy, typically showing beneficial effects on glycaemic control and body weight, with a low incidence of hypoglycaemia and, in established insulin therapy, facilitating reductions in insulin dose. In this review, the physiological and pharmacological rationale...

  2. SNC 80 and related delta opioid agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, S N; Coop, A

    2004-01-01

    The discovery of the selective delta (delta) opioid agonists SNC 80 and BW373U86, which possess a diarylmethylpiperazine structure unique among opioids, was a major advance in the field of delta-opioid ligands. Much research has been performed to uncover the structure-activity relationships (SAR) of this class of ligands and also to compare the diarylmethylpiperazines with the traditional morphinan-based delta opioids. This review focuses on the development of the SAR of this unique series of ligands, and discusses questions which remain unanswered.

  3. Sports doping: emerging designer and therapeutic β2-agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkaki, A G; Georgakopoulos, C; Sterk, S; Nielen, M W F

    2013-10-21

    Beta2-adrenergic agonists, or β2-agonists, are considered essential bronchodilator drugs in the treatment of bronchial asthma, both as symptom-relievers and, in combination with inhaled corticosteroids, as disease-controllers. The use of β2-agonists is prohibited in sports by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) due to claimed anabolic effects, and also, is prohibited as growth promoters in cattle fattening in the European Union. This paper reviews the last seven-year (2006-2012) literature concerning the development of novel β2-agonists molecules either by modifying the molecule of known β2-agonists or by introducing moieties producing indole-, adamantyl- or phenyl urea derivatives. New emerging β2-agonists molecules for future therapeutic use are also presented, intending to emphasize their potential use for doping purposes or as growth promoters in the near future.

  4. Toll-like receptor 2 agonists inhibit human fibrocyte differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Maharjan Anu S; Pilling Darrell; Gomer Richard H

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background In healing wounds, some monocytes enter the wound and differentiate into fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes. Since Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are present on monocytes, and pathogens that can infect a wound have and/or release TLR agonists, we examined whether TLR agonists affect fibrocyte differentiation. Results When human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were cultured with TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR7, TLR8 or TLR9 agonists, there was no significant effect on fi...

  5. Quantum dot-based screening system for discovery of g protein-coupled receptor agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junghan; Kwon, Yong-Jun; Choi, Youngseon; Kim, Hi Chul; Kim, Keumhyun; Kim, JinYeop; Park, Sun; Song, Rita

    2012-07-09

    Cellular imaging has emerged as an important tool to unravel biological complexity and to accelerate the drug-discovery process, including cell-based screening, target identification, and mechanism of action studies. Recently, semiconductor nanoparticles known as quantum dots (QDs) have attracted great interest in cellular imaging applications due to their unique photophysical properties such as size, tunable optical property, multiplexing capability, and photostability. Herein, we show that QDs can also be applied to assay development and eventually to high-throughput/content screening (HTS/HCS) for drug discovery. We have synthesized QDs modified with PEG and primary antibodies to be used as fluorescent probes for a cell-based HTS system. The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family is known to be involved in most major diseases. We therefore constructed human osteosarcoma (U2OS) cells that specifically overexpress two types of differently tagged GPCRs: influenza hemagglutinin (HA) peptide-tagged κ-opioid receptors (κ-ORs) and GFP-tagged A3 adenosine receptors (A3AR). In this study, we have demonstrated that 1) anti-HA antibody-conjugated QDs could specifically label HA-tagged κ-ORs, 2) subsequent treatment of QD-tagged GPCR agonists allowed agonist-induced translocation to be monitored in real time, 3) excellent emission spectral properties of QD permitted the simultaneous detection of two GPCRs in one cell, and 4) the robust imaging capabilities of the QD-antibody conjugates could lead to reproducible quantitative data from high-content cellular images. These results suggest that the present QD-based GPCR inhibitor screening system can be a promising platform for further drug screening applications.

  6. Antibodies against human BLyS and APRIL attenuate EAE development in marmoset monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagessar, S Anwar; Heijmans, Nicole; Oh, Luke; Bauer, Jan; Blezer, Erwin L A; Laman, Jon D; Migone, Thi-Sau; Devalaraja, Matt N; 't Hart, Bert A

    2012-09-01

    B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS, also indicated as BAFF (B-cell activating factor) and CD257), and A Proliferation Inducing Ligand (APRIL, CD256) are two members of the TNF superfamily with a central role in B cell survival. Antibodies against these factors have potential therapeutic relevance in autoimmune inflammatory disorders with a proven pathogenic contribution of B cells, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). In the current study we performed a multi-parameter efficacy comparison of monoclonal antibodies against human anti-BLyS and anti-APRIL in a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). A MS-like disease was induced by immunization with recombinant human myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (rhMOG) in complete Freund's adjuvant. The results show that the anti-BLyS and anti-APRIL antibody cause significant depletion of circulating CD20+ B cells, but a small subset of CD20 + CD40(high) B cells was not depleted. Induction of CD20+ B cell depletion from lymph nodes was only observed in the anti-BLyS treated monkeys. Both antibodies had a significant inhibitory effect on disease development, but all monkeys developed clinically evident EAE. Anti-BLyS treated monkeys were sacrificed with the same clinical signs as saline-treated monkeys, but nevertheless displayed significantly reduced spinal cord demyelination. This effect was not observed in the anti-APRIL treated monkeys. The two antibodies had a different effect on T cell subset activation and the profiles of ex vivo released cytokines. In conclusion, treatment with anti-BLyS and anti-APRIL delays the development of neurological disease in a relevant preclinical model of MS. The two mAbs achieve this effect via different mechanisms.

  7. Expression of recombinant antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, André; Hust, Michael; Schirrmann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant antibodies are highly specific detection probes in research, diagnostics, and have emerged over the last two decades as the fastest growing class of therapeutic proteins. Antibody generation has been dramatically accelerated by in vitro selection systems, particularly phage display. An increasing variety of recombinant production systems have been developed, ranging from Gram-negative and positive bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi, insect cell lines, mammalian cells to transgenic plants and animals. Currently, almost all therapeutic antibodies are still produced in mammalian cell lines in order to reduce the risk of immunogenicity due to altered, non-human glycosylation patterns. However, recent developments of glycosylation-engineered yeast, insect cell lines, and transgenic plants are promising to obtain antibodies with "human-like" post-translational modifications. Furthermore, smaller antibody fragments including bispecific antibodies without any glycosylation are successfully produced in bacteria and have advanced to clinical testing. The first therapeutic antibody products from a non-mammalian source can be expected in coming next years. In this review, we focus on current antibody production systems including their usability for different applications.

  8. Therapeutic Recombinant Monoclonal Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiar, Ray

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades, the rapid growth of biotechnology-derived techniques has led to a myriad of therapeutic recombinant monoclonal antibodies with significant clinical benefits. Recombinant monoclonal antibodies can be obtained from a number of natural sources such as animal cell cultures using recombinant DNA engineering. In contrast to…

  9. Recombinant renewable polyclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Fortunato; D'Angelo, Sara; Gaiotto, Tiziano; Naranjo, Leslie; Tian, Hongzhao; Gräslund, Susanne; Dobrovetsky, Elena; Hraber, Peter; Lund-Johansen, Fridtjof; Saragozza, Silvia; Sblattero, Daniele; Kiss, Csaba; Bradbury, Andrew R M

    2015-01-01

    Only a small fraction of the antibodies in a traditional polyclonal antibody mixture recognize the target of interest, frequently resulting in undesirable polyreactivity. Here, we show that high-quality recombinant polyclonals, in which hundreds of different antibodies are all directed toward a target of interest, can be easily generated in vitro by combining phage and yeast display. We show that, unlike traditional polyclonals, which are limited resources, recombinant polyclonal antibodies can be amplified over one hundred million-fold without losing representation or functionality. Our protocol was tested on 9 different targets to demonstrate how the strategy allows the selective amplification of antibodies directed toward desirable target specific epitopes, such as those found in one protein but not a closely related one, and the elimination of antibodies recognizing common epitopes, without significant loss of diversity. These recombinant renewable polyclonal antibodies are usable in different assays, and can be generated in high throughput. This approach could potentially be used to develop highly specific recombinant renewable antibodies against all human gene products.

  10. The importance of β2-agonists in myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørth, Rasmus; Fosbøl, Emil L; Mogensen, Ulrik M;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: β2-Agonists are widely used for relief of respiratory symptoms. Studies so far have reported conflicting results regarding use of β2-agonists and risk of myocardial infarction (MI). Yet, coronary angiographical data and longitudinal outcomes data are sparse and could help explain...

  11. Anti-insulin antibody test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insulin antibodies - serum; Insulin Ab test; Insulin resistance - insulin antibodies; Diabetes - insulin antibodies ... You appear to have an allergic response to insulin Insulin no longer seems to control your diabetes

  12. Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulate matrix metalloproteinase 1-dependent invasion of human colon cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raufman, Jean-Pierre, E-mail: jraufman@medicine.umaryland.edu [Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Cheng, Kunrong; Saxena, Neeraj; Chahdi, Ahmed; Belo, Angelica; Khurana, Sandeep; Xie, Guofeng [Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulated robust human colon cancer cell invasion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anti-matrix metalloproteinase1 antibody pre-treatment blocks cell invasion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bile acids stimulate MMP1 expression, cell migration and MMP1-dependent invasion. -- Abstract: Mammalian matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which degrade extracellular matrix facilitate colon cancer cell invasion into the bloodstream and extra-colonic tissues; in particular, MMP1 expression correlates strongly with advanced colon cancer stage, hematogenous metastasis and poor prognosis. Likewise, muscarinic receptor signaling plays an important role in colon cancer; muscarinic receptors are over-expressed in colon cancer compared to normal colon epithelial cells. Muscarinic receptor activation stimulates proliferation, migration and invasion of human colon cancer cells. In mouse intestinal neoplasia models genetic ablation of muscarinic receptors attenuates carcinogenesis. In the present work, we sought to link these observations by showing that MMP1 expression and activation plays a mechanistic role in muscarinic receptor agonist-induced colon cancer cell invasion. We show that acetylcholine, which robustly increases MMP1 expression, stimulates invasion of HT29 and H508 human colon cancer cells into human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers - this was abolished by pre-incubation with atropine, a non-selective muscarinic receptor inhibitor, and by pre-incubation with anti-MMP1 neutralizing antibody. Similar results were obtained using a Matrigel chamber assay and deoxycholyltaurine (DCT), an amidated dihydroxy bile acid associated with colon neoplasia in animal models and humans, and previously shown to interact functionally with muscarinic receptors. DCT treatment of human colon cancer cells resulted in time-dependent, 10-fold increased MMP1 expression, and DCT-induced cell invasion was also blocked by pre

  13. Estrogen receptor beta agonists in neurobehavioral investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choleris, Elena; Clipperton, Amy E; Phan, Anna; Kavaliers, Martin

    2008-07-01

    Neurobehavioral investigations into the functions of estrogen receptor (ER)alpha and ERbeta have utilized 'knockout' mice, phytoestrogens and, more recently, ER-specific agonists. Feeding, sexual, aggressive and social behavior, anxiety, depression, drug abuse, pain perception, and learning (and associated synaptic plasticity) are affected by ERalpha and ERbeta in a manner that is dependent upon the specific behavior studied, gender and developmental stage. Overall, ERalpha and ERbeta appear to function together to foster sociosexual behavior while inhibiting behaviors that, if occurring at the time of behavioral estrous, may compete with reproduction (eg, feeding). Recently developed pharmacological tools have limited selectivity and availability to the research community at large, as they are not commercially available. The development of highly selective, commercially available ERbeta-specific antagonists would greatly benefit preclinical and applied research.

  14. TLR9 agonist acts by different mechanisms synergizing with bevacizumab in sensitive and cetuximab-resistant colon cancer xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, Vincenzo; Caputo, Rosa; Garofalo, Sonia; Bianco, Roberto; Rosa, Roberta; Merola, Gerardina; Gelardi, Teresa; Racioppi, Luigi; Fontanini, Gabriella; De Placido, Sabino; Kandimalla, Ekambar R; Agrawal, Sudhir; Ciardiello, Fortunato; Tortora, Giampaolo

    2007-07-24

    Synthetic agonists of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), a class of agents that induce specific immune response, exhibit antitumor activity and are currently being investigated in cancer patients. Intriguingly, their mechanisms of action on tumor growth and angiogenesis are still incompletely understood. We recently discovered that a synthetic agonist of TLR9, immune modulatory oligonucleotide (IMO), acts by impairing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling and potently synergizes with anti-EGFR antibody cetuximab in GEO human colon cancer xenografts, whereas it is ineffective in VEGF-overexpressing cetuximab-resistant GEO cetuximab-resistant (GEO-CR) tumors. VEGF is activated by EGFR, and its overexpression causes resistance to EGFR inhibitors. Therefore, we used IMO and the anti-VEGF antibody bevacizumab as tools to study IMO's role on EGFR and angiogenesis and to explore its therapeutic potential in GEO, LS174T, and GEO-CR cancer xenografts. We found that IMO enhances the antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity of cetuximab, that bevacizumab has no ADCC, and IMO is unable to enhance it. Nevertheless, the IMO-plus-bevacizumab combination synergistically inhibits the growth of GEO and LS174T as well as of GEO-CR tumors, preceded by inhibition of signaling protein expression, microvessel formation, and human, but not murine, VEGF secretion. Moreover, IMO inhibited the growth, adhesion, migration, and capillary formation of VEGF-stimulated endothelial cells. The antitumor activity was irrespective of the TLR9 expression on tumor cells. These studies demonstrate that synthetic agonists of TLR9 interfere with growth and angiogenesis also by EGFR- and ADCC-independent mechanisms affecting endothelial cell functions and provide a strong rationale to combine IMO with bevacizumab and EGFR inhibitory drugs in colon cancer patients.

  15. Studies on the immune response and preparation of antibodies against a large panel of conjugated neurotransmitters and biogenic amines: specific polyclonal antibody response and tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, Han; Wynveen, Paul; Setter, Peter W

    2010-02-01

    We described the production and characterization of antibodies against three important groups of neuro-active haptens, e.g., neurotransmitters and biogenic amines. First, from the tryptophane metabolic pathway: tryptamine, serotonin, 5-hydroxy-indole acetic acid, and melatonin. Secondly, the tyrosine metabolic pathway: tyramine, dopamine, dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid, and norepinephrine. Thirdly, antibodies against excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters: glycine, glutamate, glutamine, and GABA. Immunogenic conjugates were prepared after linking haptens to carrier proteins. Most antibodies displayed high specificity against corresponding neuro-active haptens conjugated in vitro and in situ in biological specimens, but not to closely related conjugated metabolites, precursors, pharmaceuticals, agonists, antagonists, or free neuro-active haptens. Conjugated norepinephrine was highly tolerant in different animal species and produced incidentally a short specific antibody response.

  16. Monoclonal antibody "gold rush".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggon, Krishan

    2007-01-01

    The market, sales and regulatory approval of new human medicines, during the past few years, indicates increasing number and share of new biologics and emergence of new multibillion dollar molecules. The global sale of monoclonal antibodies in 2006 were $20.6 billion. Remicade had annual sales gain of $1 billion during the past 3 years and five brands had similar increase in 2006. Rituxan with 2006 sales of $4.7 billion was the best selling monoclonal antibody and biological product and the 6th among the top selling medicinal brand. It may be the first biologic and monoclonal antibody to reach $10 billion annual sales in the near future. The strong demand from cancer and arthritis patients has surpassed almost all commercial market research reports and sales forecast. Seven monoclonal antibody brands in 2006 had sales exceeding $1 billion. Humanized or fully human monoclonal antibodies with low immunogenicity, enhanced antigen binding and reduced cellular toxicity provide better clinical efficacy. The higher technical and clinical success rate, overcoming of technical hurdles in large scale manufacturing, low cost of market entry and IND filing, use of fully human and humanized monoclonal antibodies has attracted funds and resources towards R&D. Review of industry research pipeline and sales data during the past 3 years indicate a real paradigm shift in industrial R&D from pharmaceutical to biologics and monoclonal antibodies. The antibody bandwagon has been joined by 200 companies with hundreds of new projects and targets and has attracted billions of dollars in R&D investment, acquisitions and licensing deals leading to the current Monoclonal Antibody Gold Rush.

  17. Th cells promote CTL survival and memory via acquired pMHC-I and endogenous IL-2 and CD40L signaling and by modulating apoptosis-controlling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Channakeshava Sokke Umeshappa

    Full Text Available Involvement of CD4(+ helper T (Th cells is crucial for CD8(+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL-mediated immunity. However, CD4(+ Th's signals that govern CTL survival and functional memory are still not completely understood. In this study, we assessed the role of CD4(+ Th cells with acquired antigen-presenting machineries in determining CTL fates. We utilized an adoptive co-transfer into CD4(+ T cell-sufficient or -deficient mice of OTI CTLs and OTII Th cells or Th cells with various gene deficiencies pre-stimulated in vitro by ovalbumin (OVA-pulsed dendritic cell (DCova. CTL survival was kinetically assessed in these mice using FITC-anti-CD8 and PE-H-2K(b/OVA257-264 tetramer staining by flow cytometry. We show that by acting via endogenous CD40L and IL-2, and acquired peptide-MHC-I (pMHC-I complex signaling, CD4(+ Th cells enhance survival of transferred effector CTLs and their differentiation into the functional memory CTLs capable of protecting against highly-metastasizing tumor challenge. Moreover, RT-PCR, flow cytometry and Western blot analysis demonstrate that increased survival of CD4(+ Th cell-helped CTLs is matched with enhanced Akt1/NF-κB activation, down-regulation of TRAIL, and altered expression profiles with up-regulation of prosurvival (Bcl-2 and down-regulation of proapoptotic (Bcl-10, Casp-3, Casp-4, Casp-7 molecules. Taken together, our results reveal a previously unexplored mechanistic role for CD4(+ Th cells in programming CTL survival and memory recall responses. This knowledge could also aid in the development of efficient adoptive CTL cancer therapy.

  18. Inhibition of the function of the FcgammaRIIB by a monoclonal antibody to thymic shared antigen-1, a Ly-6 family antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, L; Shevach, E M

    2001-09-01

    Thymic shared antigen-1 (TSA-1) is a member of the Ly-6 family of glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked proteins. While it has been proposed that TSA-1 may play a role in thymic development, a physiological ligand for this antigen has not been identified. Here we report that a monoclonal antibody (mAb) to TSA-1, generated by immunizing a hamster with CD40 ligand (CD40L)-activated B cells, interferes with the function of FcgammaRIIB on splenic B cells and the B-cell lymphoma cell line, M12, by binding to TSA on the same cells. The interaction of anti-TSA with FcgammaRIIB resulted in an inhibition of the ability of the FcgammaRIIB to cross-link and/or aggregate soluble anti-CD3 or soluble anti-Cbeta T-cell receptor (TCR), leading to an inhibition of induction of expression of CD25 and CD69, interleukin (IL)-2 production and proliferation of naive T cells. Cross-blocking studies with mAbs strongly suggested that a physical association exists between TSA-1 and the FcgammaRIIB on the surface of activated B cells and favour the view that a functional intermolecular association exists between these two distinct membrane antigens.

  19. Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutteh, William H; Hinote, Candace D

    2014-03-01

    Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) are acquired antibodies directed against negatively charged phospholipids. Obstetric antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) is diagnosed in the presence of certain clinical features in conjunction with positive laboratory findings. Obstetric APS is one of the most commonly identified causes of recurrent pregnancy loss. Thus, obstetric APS is distinguished from APS in other organ systems where the most common manifestation is thrombosis. Several pathophysiologic mechanisms of action of aPLs have been described. This article discusses the diagnostic and obstetric challenges of obstetric APS, proposed pathophysiologic mechanisms of APS during pregnancy, and the management of women during and after pregnancy.

  20. A TNFR2-Agonist Facilitates High Purity Expansion of Human Low Purity Treg Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuehui He

    Full Text Available Regulatory T cells (Treg are important for immune homeostasis and are considered of great interest for immunotherapy. The paucity of Treg numbers requires the need for ex vivo expansion. Although therapeutic Treg flow-sorting is feasible, most centers aiming at Treg-based therapy focus on magnetic bead isolation of CD4+CD25+ Treg using a good manufacturing practice compliant closed system that achieves lower levels of cell purity. Polyclonal Treg expansion protocols commonly use anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28 monoclonal antibody (mAb stimulation in the presence of rhIL-2, with or without rapamycin. However, the resultant Treg population is often heterogeneous and pro-inflammatory cytokines like IFNγ and IL-17A can be produced. Hence, it is crucial to search for expansion protocols that not only maximize ex vivo Treg proliferative rates, but also maintain Treg stability and preserve their suppressive function. Here, we show that ex vivo expansion of low purity magnetic bead isolated Treg in the presence of a TNFR2 agonist mAb (TNFR2-agonist together with rapamycin, results in a homogenous stable suppressive Treg population that expresses FOXP3 and Helios, shows low expression of CD127 and hypo-methylation of the FOXP3 gene. These cells reveal a low IL-17A and IFNγ producing potential and hardly express the chemokine receptors CCR6, CCR7 and CXCR3. Restimulation of cells in a pro-inflammatory environment did not break the stability of this Treg population. In a preclinical humanized mouse model, the TNFR2-agonist plus rapamycin expanded Treg suppressed inflammation in vivo. Importantly, this Treg expansion protocol enables the use of less pure, but more easily obtainable cell fractions, as similar outcomes were observed using either FACS-sorted or MACS-isolated Treg. Therefore, this protocol is of great interest for the ex vivo expansion of Treg for clinical immunotherapy.

  1. A TNFR2-Agonist Facilitates High Purity Expansion of Human Low Purity Treg Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuehui; Landman, Sija; Bauland, Stijn C G; van den Dolder, Juliette; Koenen, Hans J P M; Joosten, Irma

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Treg) are important for immune homeostasis and are considered of great interest for immunotherapy. The paucity of Treg numbers requires the need for ex vivo expansion. Although therapeutic Treg flow-sorting is feasible, most centers aiming at Treg-based therapy focus on magnetic bead isolation of CD4+CD25+ Treg using a good manufacturing practice compliant closed system that achieves lower levels of cell purity. Polyclonal Treg expansion protocols commonly use anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28 monoclonal antibody (mAb) stimulation in the presence of rhIL-2, with or without rapamycin. However, the resultant Treg population is often heterogeneous and pro-inflammatory cytokines like IFNγ and IL-17A can be produced. Hence, it is crucial to search for expansion protocols that not only maximize ex vivo Treg proliferative rates, but also maintain Treg stability and preserve their suppressive function. Here, we show that ex vivo expansion of low purity magnetic bead isolated Treg in the presence of a TNFR2 agonist mAb (TNFR2-agonist) together with rapamycin, results in a homogenous stable suppressive Treg population that expresses FOXP3 and Helios, shows low expression of CD127 and hypo-methylation of the FOXP3 gene. These cells reveal a low IL-17A and IFNγ producing potential and hardly express the chemokine receptors CCR6, CCR7 and CXCR3. Restimulation of cells in a pro-inflammatory environment did not break the stability of this Treg population. In a preclinical humanized mouse model, the TNFR2-agonist plus rapamycin expanded Treg suppressed inflammation in vivo. Importantly, this Treg expansion protocol enables the use of less pure, but more easily obtainable cell fractions, as similar outcomes were observed using either FACS-sorted or MACS-isolated Treg. Therefore, this protocol is of great interest for the ex vivo expansion of Treg for clinical immunotherapy.

  2. Anti-cartilage antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbury, C L; Skingle, J

    1979-08-01

    Antibody to cartilage has been demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence on rat trachea in the serum of about 3% of 1126 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Titres ranged from 1:20 to 1:640. The antibody was not found in 284 patients with primary or secondary osteoarthritis or in 1825 blood donors, nor, with the exception of two weak reactors, in 1314 paraplegic patients. In most cases the antibody appears to be specific for native type II collagen. Using this as an antigen in a haemagglutination test 94% of anti-cartilage sera were positive, whereas among 100 rheumatoid control sera there were only three weak positives. More than 80% of patients with antibody had some erosion of articular cartilage, but there was no correlation with age, sex, duration of disease, nor any recognisable clinical event or change.

  3. Antithyroid microsomal antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to confirm the cause of thyroid problems, including Hashimoto thyroiditis . The test is also used to find ... positive test may be due to: Granulomatous thyroiditis Hashimoto thyroiditis High levels of these antibodies have also ...

  4. Serum herpes simplex antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2. HSV-1 most often causes cold sores (oral herpes). HSV-2 causes genital herpes. How the Test ... whether a person has ever been infected with oral or genital herpes . It looks for antibodies to herpes simplex virus ...

  5. C-C chemokine receptor-7 mediated endocytosis of antibody cargoes into intact cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier eCharest-Morin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The C-C chemokine receptor-7 (CCR7 is a G protein coupled receptor that has a role in leukocyte homing, but that is also expressed in aggressive tumor cells. Preclinical research supports that CCR7 is a valid target in oncology. In view of the increasing availability of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies that carry cytotoxic cargoes, we studied the feasibility of forcing intact cells to internalize known monoclonal antibodies by exploiting the cycle of endocytosis and recycling triggered by the CCR7 agonist CCL19. Firstly, an anti-CCR7 antibody (CD197; clone 150503 labeled surface recombinant CCR7 expressed in intact HEK 293a cells and the fluorescent antibody was internalized following CCL19 treatment. Secondly, a recombinant myc-tagged CCL19 construction was exploited along the anti-myc monoclonal antibody 4A6. The myc-tagged ligand was produced as a conditioned medium of transfected HEK 293a cells that contained the equivalent of 430 ng/ml of immunoreactive CCL19 (average value, ELISA determination. CCL19-myc, but not authentic CCL19, carried the fluorophore-labeled antibody 4A6 into other recipient cells that expressed recombinant CCR7 (microscopy, cytofluorometry. The immune complexes were apparent in endosomal structures, colocalized well with the small GTPase Rab5 and progressed toward Rab7-positive endosomes. A dominant negative form of Rab5 (GDP-locked inhibited this endocytosis. Further, endosomes in CCL19-myc- or CCL19-stimulated cells were positive for β-arrestin2, but rarely for β-arrestin1. Following treatment with CCL19-myc and the 4A6 antibody, the melanoma cell line A375 that expresses endogenous CCR7 was specifically stained using a secondary peroxidase-conjugated antibody. Agonist-stimulated CCR7 can transport antibody-based cargoes, with possible therapeutic applications in oncology.

  6. The cardiovascular effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedland, Sayuri N; Leong, Aaron; Filion, Kristian B; Genest, Jacques; Lega, Iliana C; Mottillo, Salvatore; Poirier, Paul; Reoch, Jennifer; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2012-02-01

    Although peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists are prescribed to improve cardiovascular risk factors, their cardiovascular safety is controversial. We therefore reviewed the literature to identify landmark randomized controlled trials evaluating the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists (pioglitazone and rosiglitazone), alpha agonists (fenofibrate and gemfibrozil), and pan agonists (bezafibrate, muraglitazar, ragaglitazar, tesaglitazar, and aleglitazar) on cardiovascular outcomes. Pioglitazone may modestly reduce cardiovascular events but also may increase the risk of bladder cancer. Rosiglitazone increases the risk of myocardial infarction and has been withdrawn in European and restricted in the United States. Fibrates improve cardiovascular outcomes only in select subgroups: fenofibrate in diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome, gemfibrozil in patients with dyslipidemia, and bezafibrate in patients with diabetes or metabolic syndrome. The cardiovascular safety of the new pan agonist aleglitazar, currently in phase II trials, remains to be determined. The heterogenous effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists to date highlight the importance of postmarketing surveillance. The critical question of why peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists seem to improve cardiovascular risk factors without significantly improving cardiovascular outcomes requires further investigation.

  7. Toll-like receptor 2 agonists inhibit human fibrocyte differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maharjan Anu S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In healing wounds, some monocytes enter the wound and differentiate into fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes. Since Toll-like receptors (TLRs are present on monocytes, and pathogens that can infect a wound have and/or release TLR agonists, we examined whether TLR agonists affect fibrocyte differentiation. Results When human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were cultured with TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR7, TLR8 or TLR9 agonists, there was no significant effect on fibrocyte differentiation, even though enhanced extracellular tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α accumulation and/or increased cell surface CD86 or major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II levels were observed. However, all TLR2 agonists tested inhibited fibrocyte differentiation without any significant effect on cell survival. Adding TLR2 agonists to purified monocytes had no effect on fibrocyte differentiation. However, some TLR2 agonists caused PBMCs to secrete a factor that inhibits the differentiation of purified monocytes into fibrocytes. This factor is not interferon (IFN-α, IFN-γ, interleukin (IL-12, aggregated immunoglobulin G (IgG or serum amyloid P (SAP, factors known to inhibit fibrocyte differentiation. TLR2 agonist-treated PBMCs secrete low levels of IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and tumor growth factor β1, but combinations of these factors had no effect on fibrocyte differentiation from purified monocytes. Conclusions Our results indicate that TLR2 agonists indirectly inhibit fibrocyte differentiation and that, for some TLR2 agonists, this inhibition involves other cell types in the PBMC population secreting an unknown factor that inhibits fibrocyte differentiation. Together, these data suggest that the presence of some bacterial signals can inhibit fibrocyte differentiation and may thus slow wound closure.

  8. Unique interaction pattern for a functionally biased ghrelin receptor agonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivertsen, Bjørn Behrens; Lang, Manja; Frimurer, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    /13) pathway. The recognition pattern of wFw-Isn-NH(2) with the ghrelin receptor also differed significantly from that of all previously characterized unbiased agonists. Most importantly, wFw-Isn-NH(2) was not dependent on GluIII:09 (Glu3.33), which otherwise is an obligatory TM III anchor point residue...... orientation as compared with, for example, the wFw peptide agonists. It is concluded that the novel peptide-mimetic ligand wFw-Isn-NH(2) is a biased ghrelin receptor agonist and that the selective signaling pattern presumably is due to its unique receptor recognition pattern lacking interaction with key...

  9. Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia Antibody Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Sites Search Help? Heparin-induced Thrombocytopenia PF4 Antibody Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Heparin-PF4 Antibody; HIT Antibody; HIT PF4 Antibody; Heparin Induced Antibody; ...

  10. [New antibodies in cancer treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestalozzi, B C; Knuth, A

    2004-09-22

    Since the development of hybridoma technology in 1975 monoclonal antibodies with pre-defined specificity can be produced. Only twenty years later did it become possible to make therapeutic use of monoclonal antibodies in oncology. To this end it was necessary to attach the antigen-binding site of a mouse antibody onto the scaffold of a human antibody molecule. Such chimeric or "humanized" antibodies may be used in passive immunotherapy without eliciting an immune response. Rituximab and trastuzumab are such humanized antibodies. They are used today routinely in the treatment of malignant lymphoma and breast cancer, respectively. These antibodies are usually used in combination with conventional cytostatic anticancer drugs.

  11. Engineering antibodies for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boder, Eric T; Jiang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    The advent of modern antibody engineering has led to numerous successes in the application of these proteins for cancer therapy in the 13 years since the first Food and Drug Administration approval, which has stimulated active interest in developing more and better drugs based on these molecules. A wide range of tools for discovering and engineering antibodies has been brought to bear on this challenge in the past two decades. Here, we summarize mechanisms of monoclonal antibody therapeutic activity, challenges to effective antibody-based treatment, existing technologies for antibody engineering, and current concepts for engineering new antibody formats and antibody alternatives as next generation biopharmaceuticals for cancer treatment.

  12. Nicotine receptor partial agonists for smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Cahill

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nicotine receptor partial agonists may help people to stop smoking by a combination of maintaining moderate levels of dopamine to counteract withdrawal symptoms (acting as an agonist and reducing smoking satisfaction (acting as an antagonist. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this review is to assess the efficacy and tolerability of nicotine receptor partial agonists, including cytisine, dianicline and varenicline for smoking cessation. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's specialised register for trials, using the terms ('cytisine' or 'Tabex' or 'dianicline' or 'varenicline' or 'nicotine receptor partial agonist' in the title or abstract, or as keywords. The register is compiled from searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Web of Science using MeSH terms and free text to identify controlled trials of interventions for smoking cessation and prevention. We contacted authors of trial reports for additional information where necessary. The latest update of the specialized register was in December 2011. We also searched online clinical trials registers. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials which compared the treatment drug with placebo. We also included comparisons with bupropion and nicotine patches where available. We excluded trials which did not report a minimum follow-up period of six months from start of treatment. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We extracted data on the type of participants, the dose and duration of treatment, the outcome measures, the randomization procedure, concealment of allocation, and completeness of follow-up. The main outcome measured was abstinence from smoking at longest follow-up. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence, and preferred biochemically validated rates where they were reported. Where appropriate we pooled risk ratios (RRs, using the Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect model. MAIN RESULTS: Two recent cytisine trials (937 people

  13. Natural and Man-made Antibody Repertories for Antibody Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C eAlmagro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies are the fastest-growing segment of the biologics market. The success of antibody-based drugs resides in their exquisite specificity, high potency, stability, solubility, safety and relatively inexpensive manufacturing process in comparison with other biologics. We outline here the structural studies and fundamental principles that define how antibodies interact with diverse targets. We also describe the antibody repertoires and affinity maturation mechanisms of human, mice and chickens, plus the use of novel single-domain antibodies in camelids and sharks. These species all utilize diverse evolutionary solutions to generate specific and high affinity antibodies and illustrate the plasticity of natural antibody repertoires. In addition, we discuss the multiple variations of man-made antibody repertoires designed and validated in the last two decades, which have served as tools to explore how the size, diversity and composition of a repertoire impact the antibody discovery process.

  14. MELATONIN DAN MELATONIN RECEPTOR AGONIST SEBAGAI PENANGANAN INSOMNIA PRIMER KRONIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Putu Ayu Maha Iswari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin is a hormone that has an important role in the mechanism of sleep. Hypnotic effects of melatonin and melatonin receptor agonist are mediated via MT1 and MT2 receptors, especially in circadian rhythm pacemaker, suprachiasmatic nucleus, which is worked on the hypothalamic sleep switch. This mechanism is quite different with the GABAergic drugs such as benzodiazepine. Agonist melatonin triggers the initiation of sleep and normalize circadian rhythms so that makes it easier to maintain sleep. The main disadvantage of melatonin in helping sleep maintenance on primary insomnia is that the half life is very short. The solution to this problem is the use of prolonged-release melatonin and melatonin receptor agonist agents such as ramelteon. Melatoninergic agonist does not cause withdrawal effects, dependence, as well as cognitive and psychomotor disorders as often happens on the use of benzodiazepine.  

  15. Dectin-1 agonist selectively induces IgG1 class switching by LPS-activated mouse B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Beom-Seok; Park, Ha-Yan; Yoon, Hee-Kyung; Yoo, Yung-Choon; Lee, Junglim; Park, Seok-Rae

    2016-10-01

    Heat-killed Saccharomyces cerevisiae (HKSC) is an agonist for Dectin-1, a major fungal cell wall β-glucan receptor. We previously reported that HKSC selectively enhances IgG1 production by LPS-activated mouse B cells. To determine if this IgG1 selectivity is caused by selective IgG1 class switching, we performed RT-PCRs for measuring germline transcripts (GLTs), flow cytometric analyses for detecting Ig-expressing cells, and ELISPOT assays for measuring the number of Ig-secreting cells in HKSC/LPS-stimulated mouse B cell cultures. HKSC selectively enhanced expression of GLTγ1, the number of IgG1-expressing cells, and the number of IgG1-secreting B cells in the presence of LPS stimulation. In addition, HKSC induced the expression of CD69, an activation marker for B lymphocytes, and the expression of surface Dectin-1. Two Dectin-1 antagonists, laminarin and a neutralizing Dectin-1 antibody, selectively diminished HKSC-reinforced IgG1 production by LPS-stimulated B cells. Furthermore, depleted zymosan (dzn), a Dectin-1 agonist with increased selectivity, also selectively enhanced GLTγ1 transcription. The Dectin-1 antagonists blocked dzn-induced IgG1 production by LPS-activated B cells. Collectively, these results suggest that Dectin-1 agonists selectively induce IgG1 class switching by direct stimulation of Dectin-1 on LPS-activated B cells resulting in selective production of IgG1.

  16. [Effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists on carbohydrate metabolism control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-García, José Carlos; Colomo, Natalia; Tinahones, Francisco José

    2014-09-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are a new group of drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). In the present article, we review the available evidence on the efficacy of GLP-1 receptor agonists as glucose-lowering agents, their place in therapeutic algorithms, and the clinical factors associated with a favorable treatment response. Finally, we describe the clinical characteristics of patients who may benefit from these drugs.

  17. Toll-like receptor agonists in cancer therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Sylvia

    2009-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern-recognition receptors related to the Drosophila Toll protein. TLR activation alerts the immune system to microbial products and initiates innate and adaptive immune responses. The naturally powerful immunostimulatory property of TLR agonists can be exploited for active immunotherapy against cancer. Antitumor activity has been demonstrated in several cancers, and TLR agonists are now undergoing extensive clinical investigation. This review discusses recen...

  18. Short-Acting Beta-Agonist Research: A Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm R Sears

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma mortality increased sharply in New Zealand in 1977, prompting a national investigation into circumstances of asthma deaths. Subsequent observations of improved asthma control in subjects withdrawn from regular beta2-agonist treatment raised the question of whether asthma severity and, therefore, mortality could relate to frequent beta-agonist use. A randomized controlled trial of regular inhaled fenoterol versus as-needed bronchodilator use showed worsened asthma control during regular treatment despite concomitant use of inhaled corticosteroids. Assessment of these findings led to delay in the publishing of the American Asthma Guidelines, which were modified to suggest caution in using beta2-agonist treatments. Simultaneously, case control studies in New Zealand suggested that prescription of fenoterol was a substantial risk factor for asthma mortality. The causal association was hotly debated, but increasing evidence pointed to an adverse effect of fenoterol on asthma severity and, hence, mortality. This was supported by dramatic decreases in both morbidity and mortality when fenoterol was effectively withdrawn from use in New Zealand. The link between worsening asthma morbidity and mortality, and the use of potent short-acting beta2-agonists fulfills the Bradford Hill criteria for attributing causality. Application of evidence from randomized, controlled trials of short-acting beta-agonist use has led to a major shift in therapy in asthma to the recommendation of as-needed use only of short-acting beta-agonists and decreased patient reliance on regular bronchodilator therapy.

  19. Histamine H3-receptor inverse agonists as novel antipsychotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Chihiro

    2009-06-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) that is resistant to treatment with dopamine (DA) D2 antagonists may involve changes other than those in the dopaminergic system. Recently, histamine (HA), which regulates arousal and cognitive functions, has been suggested to act as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Four HA receptors-H1, H2, H3, and H4-have been identified. Our recent basic and clinical studies revealed that brain HA improved the symptoms of SZ. The H3 receptor is primarily localized in the central nervous system, and it acts not only as a presynaptic autoreceptor that modulates the HA release but also as a presynaptic heteroreceptor that regulates the release of other neurotransmitters such as monoamines and amino acids. H3-receptor inverse agonists have been considered to improve cognitive functions. Many atypical antipsychotics are H3-receptor antagonists. Imidazole-containing H3-receptor inverse agonists inhibit not only cytochrome P450 but also hERG potassium channels (encoded by the human ether-a-go-go-related gene). Several imidazole H3-receptor inverse agonists also have high affinity for H4 receptors, which are expressed at high levels in mast cells and leukocytes. Clozapine is an H4-receptor agonist; this agonist activity may be related to the serious side effect of agranulocytosis caused by clozapine. Therefore, selective non-imidazole H3-receptor inverse agonists can be considered as novel antipsychotics that may improve refractory SZ.

  20. Antibody affinity maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Mette Louise

    surface expression of various antibody formats in the generated knockout strain. Functional scFv and scFab fragments were efficiently displayed on yeast whereas impaired chain assembly and heavy chain degradation was observed for display of full-length IgG molecules. To identify the optimal polypeptide...... linker for yeast surface display of scFv and scFab fragments, we compared a series of different Gly-Ser-based linkers in display and antigen binding proficiency. We show that these formats of the model antibody can accommodate linkers of different lengths and that introduction of alanine or glutamate...... fragments by in vivo homologous recombination large combinatorial antibody libraries can easily be generated. We have optimized ordered assembly of three CDR fragments into a gapped vector and observed increased transformation efficiency in a yeast strain carrying a deletion of the SGS1 helicase...

  1. Antibody informatics for drug discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shirai, Hiroki; Prades, Catherine; Vita, Randi;

    2014-01-01

    to the antibody science in every project in antibody drug discovery. Recent experimental technologies allow for the rapid generation of large-scale data on antibody sequences, affinity, potency, structures, and biological functions; this should accelerate drug discovery research. Therefore, a robust bioinformatic...... infrastructure for these large data sets has become necessary. In this article, we first identify and discuss the typical obstacles faced during the antibody drug discovery process. We then summarize the current status of three sub-fields of antibody informatics as follows: (i) recent progress in technologies...... for antibody rational design using computational approaches to affinity and stability improvement, as well as ab-initio and homology-based antibody modeling; (ii) resources for antibody sequences, structures, and immune epitopes and open drug discovery resources for development of antibody drugs; and (iii...

  2. Skin scarification with Plasmodium falciparum peptide vaccine using synthetic TLR agonists as adjuvants elicits malaria sporozoite neutralizing immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Robert A.; Altszuler, Rita; Frevert, Ute; Nardin, Elizabeth H.

    2016-01-01

    Malaria eradication will require a combination of vector control, chemotherapy and an easily administered vaccine. Sterile immunity can be elicited in humans by immunization with sporozoites, the infective stage injected by bite of the mosquito vector, however, whole parasite vaccines present formidable logistical challenges for production, storage and administration. The “gold standard” for infectious disease eradiation, the Smallpox Eradication Programme, utilized mass immunization using the skin scarification (SS) route. SS may more closely mimic the natural route of malaria infection initiated by sporozoites injected by mosquito bite which elicits both neutralizing antibodies and protective cell mediated immunity. We investigated the potential of SS immunization using a malaria repeat peptide containing a protective B cell epitope of Plasmodium falciparum, the most lethal human species, and delivery vehicles containing TLR agonists as adjuvants. In a murine model, SS immunization with peptide in combination with TLR-7/8 and -9 agonists elicited high levels of systemic sporozoite neutralizing antibody, Th1- type CD4+ T cells and resistance to challenge by bites of infected mosquitoes. SS provides the potential to elicit humoral immunity to target Plasmodium at multiple stages of its complex life cycle. PMID:27624667

  3. Antithyroglobulin Antibodies and Antimicrosomal Antibodies in Various Thyroid Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gwon Jun; Hong, Key Sak; Choi, Kang Won; Lee, Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho; Park, Sung Hoe; Chi, Je Geun; Lee, Sang Kook [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-03-15

    The authors investigated the incidence of antithyroglobulin antibodies and antibodies and antimicrosomal antibodies measured by tanned red cell hemagglutination method in subjects suffering from various thyroid disorders. 1) In 15 normal patients, neither suffering from any thyroid diseases nor from any other autoimmune disorders, the antithyroglobulin antibodies were all negative, but the antimicrosomal antibody was positive only in one patient (6.7%). 2) The antithyroglobulin antibodies were positive in 31.5% (34 patients) of 108 patients with various thyroid diseases, and the antimicrosomal antibodies were positive in 37.0% (40 patients). 3) of the 25 patients with Graves' diseases, 7 patients (28.0%) showed positive for the antithyroglobulin antibodies, and 9 (36.0%) for the antimicrosomal antibodies. There was no definite differences in clinical and thyroid functions between the groups with positive and negative results. 4) Both antibodies were positive in 16 (88.9%) and 17 (94.4%) patients respectively among 18 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, all of them were diagnosed histologically. 5) Three out of 33 patients with thyroid adenoma showed positive antibodies, and 3 of 16 patients with thyroid carcinoma revealed positive antibodies. 6) TRCH antibodies demonstrated negative results in 2 patients with subacute thyroiditis, but positive in one patient with idiopathic primary myxedema. 7) The number of patients with high titers(>l:802) was 16 for antithyroglobulin antibody, and 62.5% (10 patients) of which was Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Thirteen (65.0) of 20 patients with high titers (>l:802) for antimicrosomal antibody was Hashimoto's thyroiditis. TRCH test is a simple, sensitive method, and has high reliability and reproducibility. The incidences and titers of antithyroglobulin antibody and antimicrosomal antibody are especially high in Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

  4. Prediction of Antibody Epitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Marcatili, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Antibodies recognize their cognate antigens in a precise and effective way. In order to do so, they target regions of the antigenic molecules that have specific features such as large exposed areas, presence of charged or polar atoms, specific secondary structure elements, and lack of similarity...... to self-proteins. Given the sequence or the structure of a protein of interest, several methods exploit such features to predict the residues that are more likely to be recognized by an immunoglobulin.Here, we present two methods (BepiPred and DiscoTope) to predict linear and discontinuous antibody...

  5. Administration of a Toll-like receptor 9 agonist decreases the proviral reservoir in virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anni A Winckelmann

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptor (TLR agonists can reactivate HIV from latently infected cells in vitro. We aimed to investigate the TLR-9 agonist, CPG 7909's in vivo effect on the proviral HIV reservoir and HIV-specific immunity. This was a post-hoc analysis of a double-blind randomized controlled vaccine trial. HIV-infected adults were randomized 1:1 to receive pneumococcal vaccines with or without 1 mg CPG 7909 as adjuvant at 0, 3 and 9 months. In patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy we quantified proviral DNA at 0, 3, 4, 9, and 10 months (31 subjects in the CPG group and 37 in the placebo-adjuvant group. Furthermore, we measured HIV-specific antibodies, characterized T cell phenotypes and HIV-specific T cell immunity. We observed a mean reduction in proviral DNA in the CPG group of 12.6% (95% CI: -23.6-0.0 following each immunization whereas proviral DNA in the placebo-adjuvant group remained largely unchanged (6.7% increase; 95% CI: -4.2-19.0 after each immunization, p = 0.02. Among participants with additional cryo-preserved PBMCs, HIV-specific CD8+ T cell immunity as indicated by increased expression of degranulation marker CD107a and macrophage inflammatory protein 1β (MIP1β tended to be up-regulated following immunization with CPG 7909 compared with placebo as adjuvant. Further, increasing proportion of HIV-specific CD107a and MIP1β-expressing CD8+ T cells were strongly correlated with decreasing proviral load. No changes were observed in T cell phenotype distribution, HIV-specific CD4+ T cell immunity, or HIV-specific antibodies. TLR9-adjuvanted pneumococcal vaccination decreased proviral load. Reductions in proviral load correlated with increasing levels of HIV specific CD8+ T cells. Further investigation into the potential effect of TLR9 agonists on HIV latency is warranted.

  6. Administration of a Toll-like receptor 9 agonist decreases the proviral reservoir in virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winckelmann, Anni A; Munk-Petersen, Lærke V; Rasmussen, Thomas A; Melchjorsen, Jesper; Hjelholt, Thomas J; Montefiori, David; Østergaard, Lars; Søgaard, Ole S; Tolstrup, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists can reactivate HIV from latently infected cells in vitro. We aimed to investigate the TLR-9 agonist, CPG 7909's in vivo effect on the proviral HIV reservoir and HIV-specific immunity. This was a post-hoc analysis of a double-blind randomized controlled vaccine trial. HIV-infected adults were randomized 1:1 to receive pneumococcal vaccines with or without 1 mg CPG 7909 as adjuvant at 0, 3 and 9 months. In patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy we quantified proviral DNA at 0, 3, 4, 9, and 10 months (31 subjects in the CPG group and 37 in the placebo-adjuvant group). Furthermore, we measured HIV-specific antibodies, characterized T cell phenotypes and HIV-specific T cell immunity. We observed a mean reduction in proviral DNA in the CPG group of 12.6% (95% CI: -23.6-0.0) following each immunization whereas proviral DNA in the placebo-adjuvant group remained largely unchanged (6.7% increase; 95% CI: -4.2-19.0 after each immunization, p = 0.02). Among participants with additional cryo-preserved PBMCs, HIV-specific CD8+ T cell immunity as indicated by increased expression of degranulation marker CD107a and macrophage inflammatory protein 1β (MIP1β) tended to be up-regulated following immunization with CPG 7909 compared with placebo as adjuvant. Further, increasing proportion of HIV-specific CD107a and MIP1β-expressing CD8+ T cells were strongly correlated with decreasing proviral load. No changes were observed in T cell phenotype distribution, HIV-specific CD4+ T cell immunity, or HIV-specific antibodies. TLR9-adjuvanted pneumococcal vaccination decreased proviral load. Reductions in proviral load correlated with increasing levels of HIV specific CD8+ T cells. Further investigation into the potential effect of TLR9 agonists on HIV latency is warranted.

  7. The Role of TLR4 on B Cell Activation and Anti-β2GPI Antibody Production in the Antiphospholipid Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    High titer of anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies (anti-β2GPI Ab) plays a pathogenic role in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Numerous studies have focused on the pathological mechanism in APS; however, little attention is paid to the immune mechanism of production of anti-β2GPI antibodies in APS. Our previous study demonstrated that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays a vital role in the maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) from the mice immunized with human β2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI). TLR4 is required for the activation of B cells and the production of autoantibody in mice treated with β2GPI. However, TLR4 provides a third signal for B cell activation and then promotes B cells better receiving signals from both B cell antigen receptor (BCR) and CD40, thus promoting B cell activation, surface molecules expression, anti-β2GPI Ab production, and cytokines secretion and making B cell functioning like an antigen presenting cell (APC). At the same time, TLR4 also promotes B cells producing antibodies by upregulating the expression of B-cell activating factor (BAFF). In this paper, we aim to review the functions of TLR4 in B cell immune response and antibody production in autoimmune disease APS and try to find a new way for the prevention and treatment of APS. PMID:27868072

  8. Compositions, antibodies, asthma diagnosis methods, and methods for preparing antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Hongjun; Zangar, Richard C.

    2017-01-17

    Methods for preparing an antibody are provided with the method including incorporating 3-bromo-4-hydroxy-benzoic acid into a protein to form an antigen, immunizing a mammalian host with the antigen, and recovering an antibody having an affinity for the antigen from the host. Antibodies having a binding affinity for a monohalotyrosine are provided as well as composition comprising an antibody bound with monohalotyrosine. Compositions comprising a protein having a 3-bromo-4-hydroxy-benzoic acid moiety are also provided. Methods for evaluating the severity of asthma are provide with the methods including analyzing sputum of a patient using an antibody having a binding affinity for monohalotyrosine, and measuring the amount of antibody bound to protein. Methods for determining eosinophil activity in bodily fluid are also provided with the methods including exposing bodily fluid to an antibody having a binding affinity for monohalotyrosine, and measuring the amount of bound antibody to determine the eosinophil activity.

  9. Human germline antibody gene segments encode polyspecific antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Jordan R; Briney, Bryan S; DeLuca, Samuel L; Crowe, James E; Meiler, Jens

    2013-04-01

    Structural flexibility in germline gene-encoded antibodies allows promiscuous binding to diverse antigens. The binding affinity and specificity for a particular epitope typically increase as antibody genes acquire somatic mutations in antigen-stimulated B cells. In this work, we investigated whether germline gene-encoded antibodies are optimal for polyspecificity by determining the basis for recognition of diverse antigens by antibodies encoded by three VH gene segments. Panels of somatically mutated antibodies encoded by a common VH gene, but each binding to a different antigen, were computationally redesigned to predict antibodies that could engage multiple antigens at once. The Rosetta multi-state design process predicted antibody sequences for the entire heavy chain variable region, including framework, CDR1, and CDR2 mutations. The predicted sequences matched the germline gene sequences to a remarkable degree, revealing by computational design the residues that are predicted to enable polyspecificity, i.e., binding of many unrelated antigens with a common sequence. The process thereby reverses antibody maturation in silico. In contrast, when designing antibodies to bind a single antigen, a sequence similar to that of the mature antibody sequence was returned, mimicking natural antibody maturation in silico. We demonstrated that the Rosetta computational design algorithm captures important aspects of antibody/antigen recognition. While the hypervariable region CDR3 often mediates much of the specificity of mature antibodies, we identified key positions in the VH gene encoding CDR1, CDR2, and the immunoglobulin framework that are critical contributors for polyspecificity in germline antibodies. Computational design of antibodies capable of binding multiple antigens may allow the rational design of antibodies that retain polyspecificity for diverse epitope binding.

  10. Prediction of antibody persistency from antibody titres to natalizumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Poul Erik H; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Sellebjerg, Finn Thorup;

    2012-01-01

    In a subgroup of patients with multiple sclerosis natalizumab therapy causes generation of anti-natalizumab antibodies that may be transient or persistent. It is recommended to discontinue natalizumab therapy in persistently antibody-positive patients.......In a subgroup of patients with multiple sclerosis natalizumab therapy causes generation of anti-natalizumab antibodies that may be transient or persistent. It is recommended to discontinue natalizumab therapy in persistently antibody-positive patients....

  11. Monoclonal antibodies in myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sondergeld, P.; van de Donk, N. W. C. J.; Richardson, P. G.;

    2015-01-01

    The development of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for the treatment of disease goes back to the vision of Paul Ehrlich in the late 19th century; however, the first successful treatment with a mAb was not until 1982, in a lymphoma patient. In multiple myeloma, mAbs are a very recent and exciting add...

  12. Antibody Blood Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What do I do if I have a negative blood test (or panel) but I’m still having symptoms? While it is rare, it is possible for patients to have a negative antibody test results and still have celiac disease. ...

  13. RBC Antibody Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... test also may be used to help diagnose autoimmune-related hemolytic anemia in conjunction with a DAT. This condition may be caused when a person produces antibodies against his or her own RBC antigens. This can happen with some autoimmune disorders , such as lupus , with diseases such as ...

  14. Cytisine-based nicotinic partial agonists as novel antidepressant compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineur, Yann S; Eibl, Christoph; Young, Grace; Kochevar, Christopher; Papke, Roger L; Gündisch, Daniela; Picciotto, Marina R

    2009-04-01

    Nicotine and other nicotinic agents are thought to regulate mood in human subjects and have antidepressant-like properties in animal models. Recent studies have demonstrated that blockade of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) including those containing the beta2 subunit (beta2(*)), results in antidepressant-like effects. Previous studies have shown that cytisine, a partial agonist at alpha4/beta2(*) nAChRs, and a full agonist at alpha3/beta4(*) and alpha7 nAChRs, has antidepressant-like properties in several rodent models of antidepressant efficacy; however, it is not clear whether more selective partial agonists will also be effective in these models. We tested cytisine and two derivatives, 5-bromo-cytisine (5-Br-Cyt) and 3-(pyridin-3'-yl)-cytisine (3-pyr-Cyt) for their ability to act as a partial agonist of different nAChR subtypes and to show antidepressant-like activity in C57/BL6 mice in the tail suspension, the forced-swim, and the novelty-suppressed feeding tests. 3-pyr-Cyt was a partial agonist with very low efficacy at alpha4/beta2(*) nAChRS but had no agonist effects at other nAChRs normally targeted by cytisine, and it was effective in mouse models of antidepressant efficacy. Animals showed dose-dependent antidepressant-like effects in all three behavioral paradigms. 5-Br-Cyt was not effective in behavioral tests when administered peripherally, probably because of its inability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier, because it efficiently reduced immobility in the tail suspension test when administered intraventricularly. These results suggest that novel nicotinic partial agonists may provide new possibilities for development of drugs to treat mood disorders.

  15. Are Dopamine Agonists Neuroprotective in Parkinson‘s disease?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乐卫东; Jank.J

    2002-01-01

    Dopamine(DA) agonists are playing increasingly important role in the treatment of not only advanced Parkinson's disease(PD) and in PD patient with levodopa(L-DO-PA)-induced motor fluctuations,but also in early treatment of the disease.This shift has been largely due to the demonstrated L-DOPA-sparing effect of DA agonists and their putative neuroprotective effect,based largely on experimental in vitro and in vivo studies.In this article we review the evidence of neuroprotection by DA agonists pramipexole,ropinirole,pergolide,bromocriptine and apomorphine in cell cultures and animal models of nigral injury.Most of the studies suggest that DA agonists exert their neuroprotection via directly scavenging free radicals or increasing the activities of radical-scavenging enzymes,and enhancing neurotrophic activity.The finding that pramipexole can normalize mitochondrial membrane potential and inhibit activity of caspase-3 in cytoylasmic hybrid cells made from mitochondrial DNA of nonfamilial Alzheimer's disease patients,however,suggests even a broader implication for the neuroprotective role of DA agonists.Although the clinical evidence for neuroprotection by DA agonists is still limited,the preliminary results from several on-going clinal trials are promising.Several longitudinal studies are currently in progress designed to demonstrate a delay or slowing of progresion of PD using various surrogate markers of neuronal degeneration such as18F-L-DOPA PET and123I β-CIT SPECT.The results of these experimental and clinical studies will improve our understanding of the action of DA agonists and provide critical information needed for planning future therapeutic strategies in PD and related neurodegenerative disorders.

  16. Are Dopamine Agonists Neuroprotective in Parkinson′s Disease?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) agonists are playing increasingly important role in the treatment of not only advanced Parkinson′s disease (PD) and in PD patient with levodopa (L-DOPA)-induced motor fluctuations,but also in early treatment of the disease.This shift has been largely due to the demonstrated L-DOPA-sparing effect of DA agonists and their putative neuroprotective effect,based largely on experimental in vitro and in vivo studies.In this article we review the evidence of neuroprotection by DA agonists pramipexole,ropinirole,pergolide,bromocriptine and apomorphine in cell cultures and animal models of nigral injury.Most of the studies suggest that DA agonists exert their neuroprotection via directly scavenging free radicals or increasing the activities of radical-scavenging enzymes,and enhancing neurotrophic activity.The finding that pramipexole can normalize mitochondrial membrane potential and inhibit activity of caspase-3 in cytoplasmic hybrid cells made from mitochondrial DNA of nonfamilial Alzheimer′s disease patients,however,suggests even a broader implication for the neuroprotective role of DA agonists.Although the clinical evidence for neuroprotection by DA agonists is still limited,the preliminary results from several on-going clinical trials are promising.Several longitudinal studies are currently in progress designed to demonstrate a delay or slowing of progresion of PD using various surrogate markers of neuronal degeneration such as 18 F-L-DOPA PET and 123 I β-CIT SPECT.The results of these experimental and clinical studies will improve our understanding of the action of DA agonists and provide critical information needed for planning future therapeutic strategies in PD and related neurodegenerative disorders.``

  17. Complexes between nuclear factor-κB p65 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 are key actors in inducing activation-induced cytidine deaminase expression and immunoglobulin A production in CD40L plus interleukin-10-treated human blood B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafarge, S; Hamzeh-Cognasse, H; Richard, Y; Pozzetto, B; Cogné, M; Cognasse, F; Garraud, O

    2011-11-01

    The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) transcription factor pathway plays an important role in many biological phenomena. STAT3 transcription is triggered by cytokine-associated signals. Here, we use isolated human B cells to analyse the role of STAT3 in interleukin (IL)-10 induced terminal B cell differentiation and in immunoglobulin (Ig)A production as a characteristic readout of IL-10 signalling. We identified optimal conditions for inducing in-vitro IgA production by purified blood naive B cells using IL-10 and soluble CD40L. We show that soluble CD40L consistently induces the phosphorylation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 but not of STAT3, while IL-10 induces the phosphorylation of STAT3 but not of NF-κB p65. Interestingly, while soluble CD40L and IL-10 were synergistic in driving the terminal maturation of B cells into IgA-producing plasma cells, they did not co-operate earlier in the pathway with regard to the transcription factors NF-κB p65 or STAT3. Blocking either NF-κB p65 or STAT3 profoundly altered the production of IgA and mRNA for activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), an enzyme strictly necessary for Ig heavy chain recombination. Finally, the STAT3 pathway was directly activated by IL-10, while IL-6, the main cytokine otherwise known for activating the STAT3 pathway, did not appear to be involved in IL-10-induced-STAT3 activation. Our results suggest that STAT3 and NF-κB pathways co-operate in IgA production, with soluble CD40L rapidly activating the NF-κB pathway, probably rendering STAT3 probably more reactive to IL-10 signalling. This novel role for STAT3 in B cell development reveals a potential therapeutic or vaccine target for eliciting IgA humoral responses at mucosal interfaces.

  18. What Is Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome? Antiphospholipid (AN-te-fos-fo-LIP-id) antibody ... weeks or months. This condition is called catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS). People who have APS also are at ...

  19. Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ID, RBC; RBC Ab ID Formal name: Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification Related tests: Direct Antiglobulin Test ; RBC ... I should know? How is it used? Red blood cell (RBC) antibody identification is used as a follow- ...

  20. Lupus anticoagulants and antiphospholipid antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000547.htm Lupus anticoagulants and antiphospholipid antibodies To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lupus anticoagulants are antibodies against substances in the lining ...

  1. Anti-smooth muscle antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/003531.htm Anti-smooth muscle antibody To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Anti-smooth muscle antibody is a blood test that detects the presence ...

  2. Antibody Engineering and Therapeutics Conference

    OpenAIRE

    Larrick, James W; Parren, Paul WHI; Huston, James S; Plückthun, Andreas; Bradbury, Andrew; Tomlinson, Ian M; Chester, Kerry A.; Burton, Dennis R.; Adams, Gregory P.; Weiner, Louis M.; Scott, Jamie K.; Alfenito, Mark R; Veldman, Trudi; Reichert, Janice M.

    2013-01-01

    The Antibody Engineering and Therapeutics conference, which serves as the annual meeting of The Antibody Society, will be held in Huntington Beach, CA from Sunday December 8 through Thursday December 12, 2013. The scientific program will cover the full spectrum of challenges in antibody research and development, and provide updates on recent progress in areas from basic science through approval of antibody therapeutics. Keynote presentations will be given by Leroy Hood (Institute of System Bi...

  3. Structural Characterization of Peptide Antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chailyan, Anna; Marcatili, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The role of proteins as very effective immunogens for the generation of antibodies is indisputable. Nevertheless, cases in which protein usage for antibody production is not feasible or convenient compelled the creation of a powerful alternative consisting of synthetic peptides. Synthetic peptides...... can be modified to obtain desired properties or conformation, tagged for purification, isotopically labeled for protein quantitation or conjugated to immunogens for antibody production. The antibodies that bind to these peptides represent an invaluable tool for biological research and discovery...

  4. Role of dopamine agonists in Parkinson's disease: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Pavese, Nicola

    2007-10-01

    At present, dopamine agonists play an important role in antiparkinsonian therapy since they were proved effective in the management of both advanced- and early-stage Parkinson's disease. In the latter, they are often regarded as first-choice medication to delay the introduction of levodopa therapy. Despite sharing the capacity to directly stimulate dopamine receptors, dopamine agonists show different pharmacological properties as they act on different subsets of dopamine receptors. This, in theory, provides the advantage of obtaining a different antiparkinsonian activity or safety profile with each agent. However, there is very little evidence that any of the marketed dopamine agonists should be consistently preferred in the management of patients with Parkinson's disease. Pergolide and cabergoline are now considered a second-line choice after the proven association with valvular fibrosis. Transdermal administration (rotigotine) and subcutaneous infusion (apomorphine) of dopamine receptor agonists are now available alternatives to oral administration and provide continuous dopaminergic stimulation. Continuous subcutaneous apomorphine infusion during waking hours leads to a large reduction in daily 'off' time, dyskinesias and levodopa daily dose. Almost all currently used dopamine agonists are able to provide neuroprotective effects towards dopaminergic neurons during in vitro and in vivo experiments. This neuroprotection may be the result of different mechanisms including antioxidation, scavenging of free radicals, suppression of lipid peroxidation and inhibition of apoptosis. However, the disease-modifying effect of these agents in Parkinson's disease remains to be ascertained.

  5. Intracerebroventricular administration of kappa-agonists induces convulsions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansinath, M; Ramabadran, K; Turndorf, H; Shukla, V K

    1991-07-01

    Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of kappa-agonists (PD 117302, U-50488H and U-69593) induced convulsions in a dose-related manner in mice. The dose at which 50% of animals convulsed (CD50) was in nmol ranges for all opioids. Among the opioids used, PD 117302 was the most potent convulsant. ICV administration of either vehicle alone or U-53445E, a non-kappa-opioid (+) enantiomer of U-50488H did not induce convulsions. The convulsive response of kappa-agonists was differentially susceptible for antagonism by naloxone and/or MR 2266. Collectively, these findings support the view that convulsions induced by kappa-agonists in mice involve stereospecific opioid receptor mechanisms. Furthermore, the convulsant effect of kappa-agonists could not be modified by pretreatment with MK-801, ketamine, muscimol or baclofen. It is concluded that kappa-opioid but not NMDA or GABA receptor mechanisms are involved in convulsions induced by kappa-agonists. These results are the first experimental evidence implicating stereospecific kappa-receptor mechanisms in opioid-induced convulsions in mice.

  6. Synthetic peptides for antibody production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zegers, N.D.

    1995-01-01

    Synthetic peptides are useful tools for the generation of antibodies. The use of antibodies as specific reagents in inununochemical assays is widely applied. In this chapter, the application of synthetic peptides for the generation of antibodies is described. The different steps that lead to the uni

  7. Efficient Methods To Isolate Human Monoclonal Antibodies from Memory B Cells and Plasma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Davide; Lanzavecchia, Antonio

    2014-10-01

    In this article, we highlight the advantages of isolating human monoclonal antibodies from the human memory B cells and plasma cell repertoires by using high-throughput cellular screens. Memory B cells are immortalized with high efficiency using Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the presence of a toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist, while plasma cells are maintained in single-cell cultures by using interleukin 6 (IL-6) or stromal cells. In both cases, multiple parallel assays, including functional assays, can be used to identify rare cells that produce antibodies with unique properties. Using these methods, we have isolated potent and broadly neutralizing antibodies against a variety of viruses, in particular, a pan-influenza-A-neutralizing antibody and an antibody that neutralizes four different paramyxoviruses. Given the high throughput and the possibility of directly screening for function (rather than just binding), these methods are instrumental to implement a target-agnostic approach to identify the most effective antibodies and, consequently, the most promising targets for vaccine design. This approach is exemplified by the identification of unusually potent cytomegalovirus-neutralizing antibodies that led to the identification of the target, a pentameric complex that we are developing as a candidate vaccine.

  8. In silico discovery of novel Retinoic Acid Receptor agonist structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuels Herbert H

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several Retinoic Acid Receptors (RAR agonists have therapeutic activity against a variety of cancer types; however, unacceptable toxicity profiles have hindered the development of drugs. RAR agonists presenting novel structural and chemical features could therefore open new avenues for the discovery of leads against breast, lung and prostate cancer or leukemia. Results We have analysed the induced fit of the active site residues upon binding of a known ligand. The derived binding site models were used to dock over 150,000 molecules in silico (or virtually to the structure of the receptor with the Internal Coordinates Mechanics (ICM program. Thirty ligand candidates were tested in vitro. Conclusions Two novel agonists resulting from the predicted receptor model were active at 50 nM. One of them displays novel structural features which may translate into the development of new ligands for cancer therapy.

  9. Compulsive eating and weight gain related to dopamine agonist use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirenberg, Melissa J; Waters, Cheryl

    2006-04-01

    Dopamine agonists have been implicated in causing compulsive behaviors in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). These have included gambling, hypersexuality, hobbyism, and other repetitive, purposeless behaviors ("punding"). In this report, we describe 7 patients in whom compulsive eating developed in the context of pramipexole use. All of the affected patients had significant, undesired weight gain; 4 had other comorbid compulsive behaviors. In the 5 patients who lowered the dose of pramipexole or discontinued dopamine agonist treatment, the behavior remitted and no further weight gain occurred. Physicians should be aware that compulsive eating resulting in significant weight gain may occur in PD as a side-effect of dopamine agonist medications such as pramipexole. Given the known risks of the associated weight gain and obesity, further investigation is warranted.

  10. Principles of agonist recognition in Cys-loop receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy eLynagh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cys-loop receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that are activated by a structurally diverse array of neurotransmitters, including acetylcholine, serotonin, glycine and GABA. After the term chemoreceptor emerged over 100 years ago, there was some wait until affinity labeling, molecular cloning, functional studies and X-ray crystallography experiments identified the extracellular interface of adjacent subunits as the principal site of agonist binding. The question of how subtle differences at and around agonist-binding sites of different Cys-loop receptors can accommodate transmitters as chemically diverse as glycine and serotonin has been subject to intense research over the last three decades. This review outlines the functional diversity and current structural understanding of agonist-binding sites, including those of invertebrate Cys-loop receptors. Together, this provides a framework to understand the atomic determinants involved in how these valuable therapeutic targets recognize and bind their ligands.

  11. High Production of IL-18 by Dendritic Cells Induced by Sera from Patients with Primary Antibody Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Nourizadeh

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Predominantly antibody deficiencies are a category of primary immunodeficiency diseases, whichconsist of several rare disorders such as common variable immunodeficiency (CVID and X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA. We evaluated the effects of CVID and XLA patients’ sera as a source of microenviromental factors on maturation and function of monocyte-derived DCs.Blood was collected from 10 CVID and 5 XLA patients before immunoglobulin replacementtherapy and also from 8 healthy volunteers in order to obtain necessary sera for this study. Monocyte derived DCs were generated from blood cells obtained from healthy volunteers in the presence of GM-CSF, IL-4 and 10% serum concentrations from cases and controls. Immature DCs were incubated with monocyte conditioned medium (MCM and TNF-α in order to generate mature DCs. Interleukin 18 (IL-18 production by CD40L-activated mature DCs was measured after 24 hours of culture in vitro.IL-18 production by DCs generated in the presence of CVID and XLA patients’ sera were6.75±2.59 and 7.08±1.75 ng/ml, respectively, which were significantly higher than normal serumconditioned DCs (3.55±0.68 ng/ml.These results suggest that the sera of patients with predominantly antibody deficiencies maycontain soluble factor(s that can induce a significant increase in IL-18 production by DCs.

  12. Antiphospholipid Antibody and Antiphospholipid Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴竞生

    2008-01-01

    @@ Antiphospholipid antibodies (APA) APA is a big category for all kinds of negative charge phospholipid or lecithin - a protein complex autoantibodies or the same antibody, through its recognition of antigen (target protein) different, and phospholipids or lecithin - protein complex combination of various rely on the interference Phospholipid clotting and anti-coagulation factor, and promote endothelial cells, platelets, complement activation and play a role. APA including lupus anticoagulant(LA) and anticardiolipin antibody (ACA), In addition, there are anti-β2 glycoprotein-I (β2-GPI) antibody, anti-prothrombin (a- PT) antibody, anti-lysophosphatidic acid antibody and anti-phosphatidylserine antibody, and so on. APA as the main target of phospholipid-binding protein, including β2-GPI, prothrombin, annexin, protein C (PC) and protein S (PS), plasminogen, and so on.

  13. Engineering antibodies by yeast display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boder, Eric T; Raeeszadeh-Sarmazdeh, Maryam; Price, J Vincent

    2012-10-15

    Since its first application to antibody engineering 15 years ago, yeast display technology has been developed into a highly potent tool for both affinity maturing lead molecules and isolating novel antibodies and antibody-like species. Robust approaches to the creation of diversity, construction of yeast libraries, and library screening or selection have been elaborated, improving the quality of engineered molecules and certainty of success in an antibody engineering campaign and positioning yeast display as one of the premier antibody engineering technologies currently in use. Here, we summarize the history of antibody engineering by yeast surface display, approaches used in its application, and a number of examples highlighting the utility of this method for antibody engineering.

  14. Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Scholten, Bernt Johan; Hansen, Tine Willum; Goetze, Jens Peter;

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: In a short-term study including 31 patients with type 2 diabetes, glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) treatment was associated with a significant reversible decline in GFR. Twenty-three patients re-initiated GLP-1 RA treatment after the primary study, and the aim was to inve......AIMS: In a short-term study including 31 patients with type 2 diabetes, glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) treatment was associated with a significant reversible decline in GFR. Twenty-three patients re-initiated GLP-1 RA treatment after the primary study, and the aim...

  15. Partial agonistic action of endomorphins in the mouse spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoguchi, H; Wu, H E; Narita, M

    2001-09-07

    The partial agonistic properties of endogenous mu-opioid peptides endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2 for G-protein activation were determined in the mouse spinal cord, monitoring the increases in guanosine-5'-o-(3-[35S]thio)triphosphate binding. The G-protein activation induced by endogenous opioid peptide beta-endorphin in the spinal cord was significantly, but partially, attenuated by co-incubation with endomorphin-1 or endomorphin-2. The data indicates that endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2 are endogenous partial agonists for mu-opioid receptor in the mouse spinal cord.

  16. OX40 agonists and combination immunotherapy: putting the pedal to the metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie N Linch

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have highlighted the therapeutic efficacy of immunotherapy, a class of cancer treatments that utilize the patient’s own immune system to destroy cancerous cells. Within a tumor the presence of a family of negative regulatory molecules, collectively known as checkpoint inhibitors, can inhibit T cell function to suppress anti-tumor immunity. Checkpoint inhibitors, such as CTLA-4 and PD-1, attenuate T cell proliferation and cytokine production. Targeted blockade of CTLA-4 or PD-1 with antagonist monoclonal antibodies (mAb releases the brakes on T cells to boost anti-tumor immunity. Generating optimal killer CD8 T cell responses also requires T cell receptor activation plus co-stimulation, which can be provided through ligation of tumor necrosis factor receptor family members, including OX40 (CD134 and 4-1BB (CD137. OX40 is of particular interest as treatment with an activating (agonist anti-OX40 mAb augments T cell differentiation and cytolytic function leading to enhanced anti-tumor immunity against a variety of tumors. When used as single agents, these drugs can induce potent clinical and immunologic responses in patients with metastatic disease. However, each of these agents only benefits a subset of patients, highlighting the critical need for more effective combinatorial therapeutic strategies. In this review, we will discuss our current understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which OX40 agonists synergize with checkpoint inhibitor blockade to augment T cell-mediated anti-tumor immunity and the potential opportunities for clinical translation of combinatorial immunotherapeutic strategies.

  17. BIASED AGONISM OF THREE DIFFERENT CANNABINOID RECEPTOR AGONISTS IN MOUSE BRAIN CORTEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Diez-Alarcia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cannabinoid receptors are able to couple to different families of G-proteins when activated by an agonist drug. It has been suggested that different intracellular responses may be activated depending on the ligand. The goal of the present study was to characterize the pattern of G protein subunit stimulation triggered by three different cannabinoid ligands, THC, WIN55212-2 and ACEA in mouse brain cortex.Stimulation of the [35S]GTPS binding coupled to specific immunoprecipitation with antibodies against different subtypes of G proteins (Gαi1, Gαi2, Gαi3, Gαo, Gαz, Gαs, Gαq/11, and Gα12/13, in the presence of Δ9-THC, WIN55212-2 and ACEA (submaximal concentration 10 µM was determined by Scintillation Proximity Assay (SPA technique in mouse cortex of wild type, CB1 knock-out, CB2 knock-out and CB1/CB2 double knock-out mice. Results show that, in mouse brain cortex, cannabinoid agonists are able to significantly stimulate not only the classical inhibitory Gαi/o subunits but also other G subunits like Gαz, Gαq/11, and Gα12/13. Moreover, the specific pattern of G protein subunit activation is different depending on the ligand. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that, in mice brain native tissue, different exogenous cannabinoid ligands are able to selectively activate different inhibitory and non-inhibitory Gα protein subtypes, through the activation of CB1 and/or CB2 receptors. Results of the present study may help to understand the specific molecular pathways involved in the pharmacological effects of cannabinoid-derived drugs.

  18. Biased Agonism of Three Different Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists in Mouse Brain Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez-Alarcia, Rebeca; Ibarra-Lecue, Inés; Lopez-Cardona, Ángela P.; Meana, Javier; Gutierrez-Adán, Alfonso; Callado, Luis F.; Agirregoitia, Ekaitz; Urigüen, Leyre

    2016-01-01

    Cannabinoid receptors are able to couple to different families of G proteins when activated by an agonist drug. It has been suggested that different intracellular responses may be activated depending on the ligand. The goal of the present study was to characterize the pattern of G protein subunit stimulation triggered by three different cannabinoid ligands, Δ9-THC, WIN55212-2, and ACEA in mouse brain cortex. Stimulation of the [35S]GTPγS binding coupled to specific immunoprecipitation with antibodies against different subtypes of G proteins (Gαi1, Gαi2, Gαi3, Gαo, Gαz, Gαs, Gαq/11, and Gα12/13), in the presence of Δ9-THC, WIN55212-2 and ACEA (submaximal concentration 10 μM) was determined by scintillation proximity assay (SPA) technique in mouse cortex of wild type, CB1 knock-out, CB2 knock-out and CB1/CB2 double knock-out mice. Results show that, in mouse brain cortex, cannabinoid agonists are able to significantly stimulate not only the classical inhibitory Gαi/o subunits but also other G subunits like Gαz, Gαq/11, and Gα12/13. Moreover, the specific pattern of G protein subunit activation is different depending on the ligand. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that, in mice brain native tissue, different exogenous cannabinoid ligands are able to selectively activate different inhibitory and non-inhibitory Gα protein subtypes, through the activation of CB1 and/or CB2 receptors. Results of the present study may help to understand the specific molecular pathways involved in the pharmacological effects of cannabinoid-derived drugs. PMID:27867358

  19. Pyrrolo- and pyridomorphinans: non-selective opioid antagonists and delta opioid agonists/mu opioid partial agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V; Clark, M J; Traynor, J R; Lewis, J W; Husbands, S M

    2014-08-01

    Opioid ligands have found use in a number of therapeutic areas, including for the treatment of pain and opiate addiction (using agonists) and alcohol addiction (using antagonists such as naltrexone and nalmefene). The reaction of imines, derived from the opioid ligands oxymorphone and naltrexone, with Michael acceptors leads to pyridomorphinans with structures similar to known pyrrolo- and indolomorphinans. One of the synthesized compounds, 5e, derived from oxymorphone had substantial agonist activity at delta opioid receptors but not at mu and/or kappa opioid receptors and in that sense profiled as a selective delta opioid receptor agonist. The pyridomorphinans derived from naltrexone and naloxone were all found to be non-selective potent antagonists and as such could have utility as treatments for alcohol abuse.

  20. CD27− B-Cells Produce Class Switched and Somatically Hyper-Mutated Antibodies during Chronic HIV-1 Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagigi, Alberto; Du, Likun; Dang, Linh Vu Phuong; Grutzmeier, Sven; Atlas, Ann; Chiodi, Francesca

    2009-01-01

    Class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation occur in mature B-cells in response to antigen stimulation. These processes are crucial for the generation of functional antibodies. During HIV-1 infection, loss of memory B-cells, together with an altered differentiation of naïve B-cells result in production of low quality antibodies, which may be due to impaired immunoglobulin affinity maturation. In the current study, we evaluated the effect of HIV-1 infection on class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation by studying the expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) in peripheral B-cells from a cohort of chronically HIV-1 infected patients as compared to a group of healthy controls. In parallel, we also characterized the phenotype of B-cells and their ability to produce immunoglobulins in vitro. Cells from HIV-1 infected patients showed higher baseline levels of AID expression and increased IgA production measured ex-vivo and upon CD40 and TLR9 stimulation in vitro. Moreover, the percentage of CD27−IgA+ and CD27−IgG+ B-cells in blood was significantly increased in HIV-1 infected patients as compared to controls. Interestingly, our results showed a significantly increased number of somatic hypermutations in the VH genes in CD27− cells from patients. Taken together, these results show that during HIV-1 infection, CD27− B-cells can also produce class switched and somatically hypermutated antibodies. Our data add important information for the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the loss of specific antibody production observed during HIV-1 infection. PMID:19412542

  1. CD27(- B-cells produce class switched and somatically hyper-mutated antibodies during chronic HIV-1 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Cagigi

    Full Text Available Class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation occur in mature B-cells in response to antigen stimulation. These processes are crucial for the generation of functional antibodies. During HIV-1 infection, loss of memory B-cells, together with an altered differentiation of naïve B-cells result in production of low quality antibodies, which may be due to impaired immunoglobulin affinity maturation. In the current study, we evaluated the effect of HIV-1 infection on class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation by studying the expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID in peripheral B-cells from a cohort of chronically HIV-1 infected patients as compared to a group of healthy controls. In parallel, we also characterized the phenotype of B-cells and their ability to produce immunoglobulins in vitro. Cells from HIV-1 infected patients showed higher baseline levels of AID expression and increased IgA production measured ex-vivo and upon CD40 and TLR9 stimulation in vitro. Moreover, the percentage of CD27(-IgA+ and CD27(-IgG+ B-cells in blood was significantly increased in HIV-1 infected patients as compared to controls. Interestingly, our results showed a significantly increased number of somatic hypermutations in the VH genes in CD27(- cells from patients. Taken together, these results show that during HIV-1 infection, CD27(- B-cells can also produce class switched and somatically hypermutated antibodies. Our data add important information for the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the loss of specific antibody production observed during HIV-1 infection.

  2. Specific Antibody Production by Blood B Cells is Retained in Late Stage Drug-naïve HIV-infected Africans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydie Béniguel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Unseparated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs obtained from drug-naïve African individuals living in a context of multi-infections and presenting with high viral load (VL, were cultured in vitro and tested for their ability to produce antibodies (Abs reacting with HIV-1 antigens. Within these PBMCs, circulating B cells were differentiated in vitro and produced IgG Abs against not only ENV, but also GAG and POL proteins. Under similar experimental conditions, HAART treated patients produced Abs to ENV proteins only. The in vitro antibody production by drug-naïve individuals' PBMCs depended on exogenous cytokines (IL-2 and IL-10 but neither on the re-stimulation of reactive cells in cultures by purified HIV-1-gp 160 antigen nor on the re-engagement of CD40 surface molecules. Further, it was not abrogated by the addition of various monoclonal Abs (mAbs to co-stimulatory molecules. This suggests that the in vitro antibody production by drug-naïve individuals' PBMCs resulted from the maturation of already envelope and core antigen-primed, differentiated B cells, presumably pre-plasma cells, which are not known to circulate at homeostasy. As in vitro produced Abs retained the capacity of binding antigen and forming complexes, this study provides pre-clinical support for functional humoral responses despite major HIV- and other tropical pathogen-induced B cell perturbations.

  3. Melatonin agonists for treatment of sleep and depressive disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seithikurippu R. Pandi-Perumal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin the hormone secreted by the pineal gland has been effective in improving sleep both in normal sleepers and insomniacs and has been used successfully in treating sleep and circadian rhythm sleep disorders. The lack of consistency in the reports published by the authors is attributed to the differential bioavailabilty and short half-life of melatonin. Sleep disturbances are also prominent features of depressive disorders. To overcome this problem, melatonergic agonists with sleep promoting properties have been introduced in clinical practice. Ramelteon, the MT1/ MT2 melatonergic agonist, has been used in a large number of clinical trials involving chronic insomniacs and has been found effective in improving the total sleep time and sleep efficiency of insomniacs and has not manifested serious adverse effects. The development of another MT1/MT2 melatonergic agonist agomelatine with antagonsim to 5-HT2c serotonin receptors has been found useful not only in treating sleep problems of patients but also as a first line antidepressant with earlier onset of actions in patients with major depressive disorder. An agonist for MT3 melatonin receptor has also been found effective in animal models of depression. [J Exp Integr Med 2011; 1(3.000: 149-158

  4. [Alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists for the treatment of chronic pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulka, P J

    1996-04-25

    The antinociceptive effect of alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists is mediated by activation of descending inhibiting noradrenergic systems, which modulates 'wide-dynamic-range' neurones. Furthermore, they inhibit the liberation of substance P and endorphines and activate serotoninergic neurones. Despite this variety of antinociceptive actions, there is still little experience with alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists as therapeutic agents for use in chronic pain syndromes. Studies in animals and patients have shown that the transdermal, epidural and intravenous administration of the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist clonidine reduces pain intensity in neuropathic pain syndromes for periods varying from some hours up to 1 month. Patients suffering from lancinating or sharp pain respond best to this therapy. Topically applied clonidine (200-300 microg) relieves hyperalgesia in sympathetically maintained pain. Epidural administration of 300 microg clonidine dissolved in 5 ml NaCl 0.9 % has also been shown to be effective. In patients suffering from cancer pain tolerant to opioids, pain control has proved possible again with combinations of opioids and clonidine. In isolated cases clonidine has been administered epidurally at a dose of 1500 microg/day for almost 5 months without evidence for any histotoxic property of clonidine. Side effects often observed during administration of alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists are dry mouth, sedation, hypotension and bradycardia. Therapeutic interventions are usually not required.

  5. Pharmacophore-driven identification of PPARγ agonists from natural sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, R. K.; Christensen, Kathrine Bisgaard; Assimopoulou, A. N.;

    2011-01-01

    In a search for more effective and safe anti-diabetic compounds, we developed a pharmacophore model based on partial agonists of PPARγ. The model was used for the virtual screening of the Chinese Natural Product Database (CNPD), a library of plant-derived natural products primarily used in folk...

  6. Use of ß-adrenergic agonists in hybrid catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ractopamine hydrochloride (RH) is a potent ß-adrenergic agonist that has been used in some species of fish to improve growth performance and dress out characteristics. While this metabolic modifier has been shown to have positive effects on growth of fish, little research has focused on the mechani...

  7. Free Fatty Acid Receptor 1 (FFA1/GPR40) Agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Elisabeth; Due-Hansen, Maria E; Urban, Christian;

    2012-01-01

    FFA1 (GPR40) is a new target for treatment of type 2 diabetes. We recently identified the potent FFA1 agonist TUG-469 (5). Inspired by the structurally related TAK-875, we explored the effects of a mesylpropoxy appendage on 5. The appendage significantly lowers lipophilicity and improves metaboli...

  8. Partial Agonists Activate PPARgamma Using a Helix 12 Independent Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruning, J.B.; Chalmers, M.J.; Prasad, S.; Bushby, S.A.; Kamenecka, T.A.; He, Y.; Nettles, K.W.; Griffin, P.R.

    2009-05-28

    Binding to helix 12 of the ligand-binding domain of PPAR{gamma} is required for full agonist activity. Previously, the degree of stabilization of the activation function 2 (AF-2) surface was thought to correlate with the degree of agonism and transactivation. To examine this mechanism, we probed structural dynamics of PPAR{gamma} with agonists that induced graded transcriptional responses. Here we present crystal structures and amide H/D exchange (HDX) kinetics for six of these complexes. Amide HDX revealed each ligand induced unique changes to the dynamics of the ligand-binding domain (LBD). Full agonists stabilized helix 12, whereas intermediate and partial agonists did not at all, and rather differentially stabilized other regions of the binding pocket. The gradient of PPAR{gamma} transactivation cannot be accounted for solely through changes to the dynamics of AF-2. Thus, our understanding of allosteric signaling must be extended beyond the idea of a dynamic helix 12 acting as a molecular switch.

  9. Principles of agonist recognition in Cys-loop receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynagh, Timothy Peter; Pless, Stephan Alexander

    2014-01-01

    diverse as glycine and serotonin has been subject to intense research over the last three decades. This review outlines the functional diversity and current structural understanding of agonist-binding sites, including those of invertebrate Cys-loop receptors. Together, this provides a framework...

  10. How antibodies use complement to regulate antibody responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörman, Anna; Zhang, Lu; Ding, Zhoujie; Heyman, Birgitta

    2014-10-01

    Antibodies, forming immune complexes with their specific antigen, can cause complete suppression or several 100-fold enhancement of the antibody response. Immune complexes containing IgG and IgM may activate complement and in such situations also complement components will be part of the immune complex. Here, we review experimental data on how antibodies via the complement system upregulate specific antibody responses. Current data suggest that murine IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b upregulate antibody responses primarily via Fc-receptors and not via complement. In contrast, IgM and IgG3 act via complement and require the presence of complement receptors 1 and 2 (CR1/2) expressed on both B cells and follicular dendritic cells. Complement plays a crucial role for antibody responses not only to antigen complexed to antibodies, but also to antigen administered alone. Lack of C1q, but not of Factor B or MBL, severely impairs antibody responses suggesting involvement of the classical pathway. In spite of this, normal antibody responses are found in mice lacking several activators of the classical pathway (complement activating natural IgM, serum amyloid P component (SAP), specific intracellular adhesion molecule-grabbing non-integrin R1 (SIGN-R1) or C-reactive protein. Possible explanations to these observations will be discussed.

  11. The antibody Hijikata Tatsumi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éden Peretta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Considered one of the most influential modern dance representatives in Japan, Tatsumi Hijikata’s work was a milestone in the Japanese post-war experimental artistic scene. Heretic son of his time, he staged a fertile mix of artistic and cultural influences, overlapping subversive elements of European arts and philosophy with radical references from pre-modern Japanese culture. In this way he built the foundations of its unstable antibody, its political-artistic project of dissolution of a organism, both physical and social.

  12. Cancer imaging with radiolabeled antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldenberg, D.M. (Center for Molecular Medicine and Immunology, Newark, NJ (US))

    1990-01-01

    This book presents a perspective of the use of antibodies to target diagnostic isotopes to tumors. Antibodies with reasonable specificity can be developed against almost any substance. If selective targeting to cancer cells can be achieved, the prospects for a selective therapy are equally intriguing. But the development of cancer detection, or imaging, with radiolabeled antibodies has depended upon advances in a number of different areas, including cancer immunology and immunochemistry for identifying suitable antigen targets and antibodies to these targets, tumor biology for model systems, radiochemistry for he attachment of radionuclides to antibodies, molecular biology for reengineering the antibodies for safer and more effective use in humans, and nuclear medicine for providing the best imaging protocols and instrumentation to detect minute amounts of elevated radioactivity against a background of considerable noise. Accordingly, this book has been organized to address the advances that are being made in many of these areas.

  13. VIRAL ANTIBODIES IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saidi

    1974-08-01

    Full Text Available One hundred sera from children 1 - 6 years of age, representative of a large serum collection, were tested for the prevalence of antibodies against different viruses. Hemagglutination-inhibition (HI antibodies were found in 68% for measles; 61 % for rubella; 75'% for influenza A2/Hong Kong/68, 16% for influenza B/Md./59, 0% for group A arboviruses, 10% for group B arboviruses, 3% for phlebotomus fever group and 4% for Congo-Crimean hemorrhagic fever (C-CHF group of arboviruses Poliomyelitis-neutralizing antibodies for type 1, 2 and 3 were 90%; 85% and 84%~ respectively. Antibody to EH virus was detected in 84% of the sera by immuno-fluorescence. None of the sera were positive for hepatitis-B antigen or antibody by immuno-precipitation test. The prevalence of some viral antibodies found in this survey are compared with results obtained from surveys in other parts of the country.

  14. Melatonin receptor agonists: new options for insomnia and depression treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadoni, Gilberto; Bedini, Annalida; Rivara, Silvia; Mor, Marco

    2011-12-01

    The circadian nature of melatonin (MLT) secretion, coupled with the localization of MLT receptors to the suprachiasmatic nucleus, has led to numerous studies of the role of MLT in modulation of the sleep-wake cycle and circadian rhythms in humans. Although much more needs to be understood about the various functions exerted by MLT and its mechanisms of action, three therapeutic agents (ramelteon, prolonged-release MLT, and agomelatine) are already in use, and MLT receptor agonists are now appearing as new promising treatment options for sleep and circadian-rhythm related disorders. In this review, emphasis has been placed on medicinal chemistry strategies leading to MLT receptor agonists, and on the evidence supporting therapeutic efficacy of compounds undergoing clinical evaluation. A wide range of clinical trials demonstrated that ramelteon, prolonged-release MLT and tasimelteon have sleep-promoting effects, providing an important treatment option for insomnia and transient insomnia, even if the improvements of sleep maintenance appear moderate. Well-documented effects of agomelatine suggest that this MLT agonist offers an attractive alternative for the treatment of depression, combining efficacy with a favorable side effect profile. Despite a large number of high affinity nonselective MLT receptor agonists, only limited data on MT₁ or MT₂ subtype-selective compounds are available up to now. Administration of the MT₂-selective agonist IIK7 to rats has proved to decrease NREM sleep onset latency, suggesting that MT₂ receptor subtype is involved in the acute sleep-promoting action of MLT; rigorous clinical studies are needed to demonstrate this hypothesis. Further clinical candidates based on selective activation of MT₁ or MT₂ receptors are expected in coming years.

  15. Structural Basis for Antibody Discrimination between Two Hormones That Recognize the Parathyroid Hormone Receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinstry, William J.; Polekhina, Galina; Diefenbach-Jagger, Hannelore; Ho, Patricia W.M.; Sato, Koh; Onuma, Etsuro; Gillespie, Matthew T.; Martin, T. John; Parker, Michael W.; (SVIMR-A); (Chugai); (Melbourne)

    2009-08-18

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) plays a vital role in the embryonic development of the skeleton and other tissues. When it is produced in excess by cancers it can cause hypercalcemia, and its local production by breast cancer cells has been implicated in the pathogenesis of bone metastasis formation in that disease. Antibodies have been developed that neutralize the action of PTHrP through its receptor, parathyroid hormone receptor 1, without influencing parathyroid hormone action through the same receptor. Such neutralizing antibodies against PTHrP are therapeutically effective in animal models of the humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy and of bone metastasis formation. We have determined the crystal structure of the complex between PTHrP (residues 1-108) and a neutralizing monoclonal anti-PTHrP antibody that reveals the only point of contact is an {alpha}-helical structure extending from residues 14-29. Another striking feature is that the same residues that interact with the antibody also interact with parathyroid hormone receptor 1, showing that the antibody and the receptor binding site on the hormone closely overlap. The structure explains how the antibody discriminates between the two hormones and provides information that could be used in the development of novel agonists and antagonists of their common receptor.

  16. Structural determinants of agonist-specific kinetics at the ionotropic glutamate receptor 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Mai Marie; Lunn, Marie-Louise; Traynelis, Stephen F;

    2005-01-01

    Glutamate receptors (GluRs) are the most abundant mediators of the fast excitatory neurotransmission in the human brain. Agonists will, after activation of the receptors, induce different degrees of desensitization. The efficacy of agonists strongly correlates with the agonist-induced closure of ...

  17. Agonist signalling properties of radiotracers used for imaging of dopamine D-2/3 receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wieringen, Jan-Peter; Michel, Martin C.; Janssen, Henk M.; Janssen, Anton G.; Elsinga, Philip H.; Booij, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dopamine D-2/3 receptor (D2/3R) agonist radiopharmaceuticals are considered superior to antagonists to detect dopamine release, e.g. induced by amphetamines. Agonists bind preferentially to the high-affinity state of the dopamine D2R, which has been proposed as the reason why agonists ar

  18. Combination therapy of established cancer using a histone deacetylase inhibitor and a TRAIL receptor agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, Ailsa J; Lindemann, Ralph K; Martin, Ben P; Clarke, Christopher J P; Sharkey, Janelle; Anthony, Desiree A; Banks, Kellie-Marie; Haynes, Nicole M; Gangatirkar, Pradnya; Stanley, Kym; Bolden, Jessica E; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Yagita, Hideo; Secrist, J Paul; Smyth, Mark J; Johnstone, Ricky W

    2008-08-12

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) and agents such as recombinant tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and agonistic anti-TRAIL receptor (TRAIL-R) antibodies are anticancer agents that have shown promise in preclinical settings and in early phase clinical trials as monotherapies. Although HDACi and activators of the TRAIL pathway have different molecular targets and mechanisms of action, they share the ability to induce tumor cell-selective apoptosis. The ability of HDACi to induce expression of TRAIL-R death receptors 4 and 5 (DR4/DR5), and induce tumor cell death via the intrinsic apoptotic pathway provides a molecular rationale to combine these agents with activators of the TRAIL pathway that activate the alternative (death receptor) apoptotic pathway. Herein, we demonstrate that the HDACi vorinostat synergizes with the mouse DR5-specific monoclonal antibody MD5-1 to induce rapid and robust tumor cell apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, using a preclinical mouse breast cancer model, we show that the combination of vorinostat and MD5-1 is safe and induces regression of established tumors, whereas single agent treatment had little or no effect. Functional analyses revealed that rather than mediating enhanced tumor cell apoptosis via the simultaneous activation of the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways, vorinostat augmented MD5-1-induced apoptosis concomitant with down-regulation of the intracellular apoptosis inhibitor cellular-FLIP (c-FLIP). These data demonstrate that combination therapies involving HDACi and activators of the TRAIL pathway can be efficacious for the treatment of cancer in experimental mouse models.

  19. Antibodies against antibodies: immunogenicity of adalimumab as a model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schouwenburg, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    Upon repeated adalimumab exposure part of the patients start to produce ADA. The antibody response is polyclonal and consists mainly of antibodies of IgG1 and IgG4 isotype. In the majority of ADA positive patients ADA are already produced within the first 28 weeks of treatment and in part of the pat

  20. Targeting malignant B cells as antigen-presenting cells: TLR-9 agonist induces systemic regression of lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein-González, Nela; Holtick, Udo; Fairfax, Kirsten; Weihrauch, Martin R; von Bergwelt-Baildon, Michael S

    2011-03-01

    Evaluation of: Brody JD, Ai WZ, Czerwinski DK et al. In situ vaccination with a TLR9 agonist induces systemic lymphoma regression: a Phase I/II study. J. Clin. Oncol. 28(28), 4324-4332 (2010). Despite high response rates of the follicular B-cell lymphoma to monoclonal antibodies, the clinical course of lymphoma is still characterized by a continuous pattern of relapse. Brody and colleagues treated 15 patients with relapsed, low-grade lymphoma using low-dose radiotherapy applied to one of the tumor sites with combined injection of a TLR-9 agonist at the same site. This strategy induced specific immunity and tumor regression in several patients with an objective response rate of 27%. The results indicate an involvement of the tumor TLR-9-expressing B cells acting as antigen-presenting cells. TLR-9 in situ vaccination combined with local radiotherapy clearly warrants further in-depth analysis and investigation in a Phase III randomized trial, and may provide a new opportunity for the treatment of B-cell malignancies.

  1. D-cycloserin, a NMDA-agonist may be a treatment option for anti-NMDAR encephalitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Zhi Guan; Tie-Kuan Du; Jin Xu; Xia Lv; Hua-Dong Zhu; Yi-Cheng Zhu; Bin Peng; Li-Ying Cui

    2016-01-01

    Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is caused by reversible neuron dysfunction associated an autoantibody-mediated decrease of NMDAR in the entire brain. A N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) -agonist treatment for anti-NMDAR encephalitis might have a role considering its speciifc mechanism. The authors used D-cycloserine, a partial NMDA-agonist in a refractory case with prolonged intensive care unit duration. A 13-year-old female presented with headache, cognitive deterioration, generalized seizures, coma and hypoventilation with required mechanical ventilation. Anti-NMDAR antibodies were identiifed in cerebrospinal lfuid and serum conifrming anti-NMDAR encephalitis. The patient was refractory to ifrst-line and second-line immunotherapy and removal of ovary teratoma. D-cycloserine was then administered and her symptoms improved gradually and signiifcantly. This is the ifrst reported case in which D-cycloserine was applied to this disease. D-cycloserine might be a potential option as speciifc treatment in anti-NMDAR encephalitis.

  2. Pathogenic role of antiphospholipid antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, J. E.; de Groot, P. G.

    2008-01-01

    The antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) is characterized by recurrent arterial and venous thrombosis and/or pregnancy in association with antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies. The pathogenic mechanisms in APS that lead to in vivo injury are incompletely understood. Recent evidence suggests that AP

  3. Educational paper: Primary antibody deficiencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J.A. Driessen (Gertjan); M. van der Burg (Mirjam)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPrimary antibody deficiencies (PADs) are the most common primary immunodeficiencies and are characterized by a defect in the production of normal amounts of antigen-specific antibodies. PADs represent a heterogeneous spectrum of conditions, ranging from often asymptomatic selective IgA a

  4. Targeting of Antibodies using Aptamers

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The chapter presents a methodology for the rapid selection of aptamers against antibody targets. It is a detailed account of the various methodological steps that describe the selection of aptamers, including PCR steps, buffers to be used, target immobilisation, partitioning and amplification of aptamers, clonning and sequencing, to results in high affinity and specificity ligands for the chosen target antibody.

  5. New engineered antibodies against prions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škrlj, Nives; Dolinar, Marko

    2014-01-01

    A number of recently developed and approved therapeutic agents based on highly specific and potent antibodies have shown the potential of antibody therapy. As the next step, antibody-based therapeutics will be bioengineered in a way that they not only bind pathogenic targets but also address other issues, including drug targeting and delivery. For antibodies that are expected to act within brain tissue, like those that are directed against the pathogenic prion protein isoform, one of the major obstacles is the blood-brain barrier which prevents efficient transfer of the antibody, even of the engineered single-chain variants. We recently demonstrated that a specific prion-specific antibody construct which was injected into the murine tail vein can be efficiently transported into brain tissue. The novelty of the work was in that the cell penetrating peptide was used as a linker connecting both specificity-determining domains of the antibody peptide, thus eliminating the need for the standard flexible linker, composed of an arrangement of three consecutive (Gly4Ser) repeats. This paves the road toward improved bioengineered antibody variants that target brain antigens. PMID:23941991

  6. Metrics for antibody therapeutics development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Janice M

    2010-01-01

    A wide variety of full-size monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and therapeutics derived from alternative antibody formats can be produced through genetic and biological engineering techniques. These molecules are now filling the preclinical and clinical pipelines of every major pharmaceutical company and many biotechnology firms. Metrics for the development of antibody therapeutics, including averages for the number of candidates entering clinical study and development phase lengths for mAbs approved in the United States, were derived from analysis of a dataset of over 600 therapeutic mAbs that entered clinical study sponsored, at least in part, by commercial firms. The results presented provide an overview of the field and context for the evaluation of on-going and prospective mAb development programs. The expansion of therapeutic antibody use through supplemental marketing approvals and the increase in the study of therapeutics derived from alternative antibody formats are discussed.

  7. PPAR GAMMA AGONISTS: AN EFFECTIVE STRATEGY FOR CANCER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya G.S

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available PPAR-γ regulates cellular differentiation, development and metabolism. They play these essential roles by functioning as transcription factors regulating the expression of genes. The PPARs mainly are of three types α, β and γ. The PPAR-γ expressed in three forms γ1, γ2 and γ3 present in different tissues. When PPAR binds its ligand, transcription of target gene is increased or decreased. Tzds were able to induce cell differentiation and apoptosis or inhibit cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. However, widespread use of thiazolidinediones (TZDs, the clinically used synthetic PPAR gamma agonists, has been limited by adverse effects. So in this review we are suggesting some new molecules other than thiazolidine diones which can act as potential anticancer agents, after explaining the mechanism of action of PPAR-γ agonists as anticancer agents especially thiazolidinediones.

  8. Grooming, rank, and agonistic support in tufted capuchin monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schino, Gabriele; Di Giuseppe, Francesca; Visalberghi, Elisabetta

    2009-02-01

    Studies investigating the relation between allogrooming and social rank in capuchin monkeys (genus Cebus) have yielded inconsistent results. In this study, we investigated the relation between grooming, agonistic support, aggression and social rank in a captive group of tufted capuchin monkeys (C. apella). Differently from most previous studies, we based our analyses on a relatively large database and studied a group with known genealogical relationships. Tufted capuchin females did not exchange grooming for rank-related benefits such as agonistic support or reduced aggression. Coherently with this picture, they did not groom up the hierarchy and did not compete for accessing high-ranking grooming partners. It is suggested that a small group size, coupled with a strong kin bias, may make the exchange of grooming for rank-related benefits impossible or unprofitable, thus eliminating the advantages of grooming up the hierarchy. We provide several possible explanations for the heterogeneity of results across capuchin studies that have addressed similar questions.

  9. Improving the developability profile of pyrrolidine progesterone receptor partial agonists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallander, Lara S.; Washburn, David G.; Hoang, Tram H.; Frazee, James S.; Stoy, Patrick; Johnson, Latisha; Lu, Qing; Hammond, Marlys; Barton, Linda S.; Patterson, Jaclyn R.; Azzarano, Leonard M.; Nagilla, Rakesh; Madauss, Kevin P.; Williams, Shawn P.; Stewart, Eugene L.; Duraiswami, Chaya; Grygielko, Eugene T.; Xu, Xiaoping; Laping, Nicholas J.; Bray, Jeffrey D.; Thompson, Scott K. (GSKPA)

    2010-09-17

    The previously reported pyrrolidine class of progesterone receptor partial agonists demonstrated excellent potency but suffered from serious liabilities including hERG blockade and high volume of distribution in the rat. The basic pyrrolidine amine was intentionally converted to a sulfonamide, carbamate, or amide to address these liabilities. The evaluation of the degree of partial agonism for these non-basic pyrrolidine derivatives and demonstration of their efficacy in an in vivo model of endometriosis is disclosed herein.

  10. Agonistic Vocalisations in Domestic Cats : A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Schötz, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Introducing a new cat to a home with resident cats may lead to stress, aggression and even fights. In this case study 468 agonistic cat vocalisations were recorded as one cat was introduced to three resident cats in her new home. Six vocalisation types were identified: growl, howl, howl-growl, hiss, spit and snarl. Numerous other intermediate and complex vocalisations were also observed. An acoustic analysis showed differences within and between all types. Future studies include further acous...

  11. Biological Rationale for the Use of PPARγ Agonists in Glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayley Patricia Ellis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM is the most common primary intrinsic CNS tumour and has an extremely poor overall survival, despite advances in neurosurgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. There has been interesting preliminary evidence suggesting that patients receiving the group of anti-diabetic drugs known as PPARγ (Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists have a lower incidence of glioma. The nuclear hormone receptor PPARγ has been found to be expressed in high grade gliomas, and its activation has been shown to have several antineoplastic effects on human and rat glioma cell lines, and in some instances an additional protective increase in antioxidant enzymes has been observed in normal astrocytes. At present, no clinical trials are underway with regards to treating glioma patients using PPARγ agonists, as Pioglitazone and Rosiglitazone are only FDA-approved for use in treatment of type-2 diabetes. This review presents the case for evaluating the potential of PPARγ agonists as novel adjuvants in the treatment of high grade glioma. We introduce the PPARγ pathway, PPARγ gene and its products and examine recent research in glioblastoma.

  12. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist-induced pituitary apoplexy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fergus Keane

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary apoplexy represents an uncommon endocrine emergency with potentially life-threatening consequences. Drug-induced pituitary apoplexy is a rare but important consideration when evaluating patients with this presentation. We describe an unusual case of a patient with a known pituitary macroadenoma presenting with acute-onset third nerve palsy and headache secondary to tumour enlargement and apoplexy. This followed gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRH agonist therapy used to treat metastatic prostate carcinoma. Following acute management, the patient underwent transphenoidal debulking of his pituitary gland with resolution of his third nerve palsy. Subsequent retrospective data interpretation revealed that this had been a secretory gonadotropinoma and GNRH agonist therapy resulted in raised gonadotropins and testosterone. Hence, further management of his prostate carcinoma required GNRH antagonist therapy and external beam radiotherapy. This case demonstrates an uncommon complication of GNRH agonist therapy in the setting of a pituitary macroadenoma. It also highlights the importance of careful, serial data interpretation in patients with pituitary adenomas. Finally, this case presents a unique insight into the challenges of managing a hormonal-dependent prostate cancer in a patient with a secretory pituitary tumour.

  13. Suppression of atherosclerosis by synthetic REV-ERB agonist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitaula, Sadichha [Department of Molecular Therapeutics, The Scripps Research Institute, Jupiter, FL 33458 (United States); Billon, Cyrielle [Department of Pharmacological & Physiological Science, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63104 (United States); Kamenecka, Theodore M.; Solt, Laura A. [Department of Molecular Therapeutics, The Scripps Research Institute, Jupiter, FL 33458 (United States); Burris, Thomas P., E-mail: burristp@slu.edu [Department of Pharmacological & Physiological Science, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63104 (United States)

    2015-05-08

    The nuclear receptors for heme, REV-ERBα and REV-ERBβ, play important roles in the regulation of metabolism and inflammation. Recently it was demonstrated that reduced REV-ERBα expression in hematopoetic cells in LDL receptor null mice led to increased atherosclerosis. We sought to determine if synthetic REV-ERB agonists that we have developed might have the ability to suppress atherosclerosis in this model. A previously characterized synthetic REV-ERB agonist, SR9009, was used to determine if activation of REV-ERB activity would affect atherosclerosis in LDL receptor deficient mice. Atherosclerotic plaque size was significantly reduced (p < 0.05) in mice administered SR9009 (100 mg/kg) for seven weeks compared to control mice (n = 10 per group). SR9009 treatment of bone marrow-derived mouse macrophages (BMDM) reduced the polarization of BMDMs to proinflammatory M1 macrophage while increasing the polarization of BMDMs to anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. Our results suggest that pharmacological targeting of REV-ERBs may be a viable therapeutic option for treatment of atherosclerosis. - Highlights: • Synthetic REV-ERB agonist treatment reduced atherosclerosis in a mouse model. • Pharmacological activation of REV-ERB decreased M1 macrophage polarization. • Pharmacological activation of REV-ERB increased M2 macrophage polarization.

  14. LHRH Agonists for the Treatment of Prostate Cancer: 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepor, Herbert; Shore, Neal D

    2012-01-01

    The most recent guidelines on prostate cancer screening from the American Urological Association (2009), the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (2011), and the European Association of Urology (2011), as well as treatment and advances in disease monitoring, have increased the androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) population and the duration of ADT usage as the first-line treatment for metastatic prostate cancer. According to the European Association of Urology, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists have become the leading therapeutic option for ADT because they avoid the physical and psychological discomforts associated with orchiectomy. However, GnRH agonists display several shortcomings, including testosterone (T) surge ("clinical flare") and microsurges. T surge delays the intended serologic endpoint of T suppression and may exacerbate clinical symptoms. Furthermore, ADT manifests an adverse-event spectrum that can impact quality of life with its attendant well-documented morbidities. Strategies to improve ADT tolerability include a holistic management approach, improved diet and exercise, and more specific monitoring to detect and prevent T depletion toxicities. Intermittent ADT, which allows hormonal recovery between treatment periods, has become increasingly utilized as a methodology for improving quality of life while not diminishing chronic ADT efficacy, and may also provide healthcare cost savings. This review assesses the present and potential future role of GnRH agonists in prostate cancer and explores strategies to minimize the adverse-event profile for patients receiving ADT.

  15. Pharmacophore-driven identification of PPARγ agonists from natural sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Rasmus K.; Christensen, Kathrine B.; Assimopoulou, Andreana N.; Fretté, Xavier; Papageorgiou, Vassilios P.; Kristiansen, Karsten; Kouskoumvekaki, Irene

    2011-02-01

    In a search for more effective and safe anti-diabetic compounds, we developed a pharmacophore model based on partial agonists of PPARγ. The model was used for the virtual screening of the Chinese Natural Product Database (CNPD), a library of plant-derived natural products primarily used in folk medicine. From the resulting hits, we selected methyl oleanonate, a compound found, among others, in Pistacia lentiscus var. Chia oleoresin (Chios mastic gum). The acid of methyl oleanonate, oleanonic acid, was identified as a PPARγ agonist through bioassay-guided chromatographic fractionations of Chios mastic gum fractions, whereas some other sub-fractions exhibited also biological activity towards PPARγ. The results from the present work are two-fold: on the one hand we demonstrate that the pharmacophore model we developed is able to select novel ligand scaffolds that act as PPARγ agonists; while at the same time it manifests that natural products are highly relevant for use in virtual screening-based drug discovery.

  16. Pemphigus vulgaris antibodies target the mitochondrial nicotinic acetylcholine receptors that protect keratinocytes from apoptolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyavsky, Alex; Chen, Yumay; Wang, Ping H; Grando, Sergei A

    2015-11-01

    The mechanism of detachment and death of keratinocytes in pemphigus vulgaris (PV) involves pro-apoptotic action of constellations of autoantibodies determining disease severity and response to treatment. The presence of antibodies to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and the therapeutic efficacy of cholinomimetics in PV is well-established. Recently, adsorption of anti-mitochondrial antibodies abolished the ability of PVIgGs to cause acantholysis, demonstrating their pathophysiological significance. Since, in addition to cell membrane, nAChRs are also present on the mitochondrial outer membrane, wherein they act to prevent activation of intrinsic (mitochondrial apoptosis), we hypothesized that mitochondrial (mt)-nAChRs might be targeted by PVIgGs. To test this hypothesis, we employed the immunoprecipitation-western blot assay of keratinocyte mitochondrial proteins that visualized the α3, α5, α7, α9, α10, β2 and β4 mt-nAChR subunits precipitated by PV IgGs, suggesting that functions of mt-nAChRs are compromised in PV. To pharmacologically counteract the pro-apoptotic action of anti-mitochondrial antibodies in PV, we exposed naked keratinocyte mitochondria to PVIgGs in the presence of the nicotinic agonist nicotine ± antagonists, and measured cytochrome c (CytC) release. Nicotine abolished PVIgG-dependent CytC release, showing a dose-dependent effect, suggesting that protection of mitochondria can be a novel mechanism of therapeutic action of nicotinic agonists in PV. The obtained results indicated that the mt-nAChRs targeted by anti-mitochondrial antibodies produced by PV patients are coupled to inhibition of CytC release, and that nicotinergic stimulation can abolish PVIgG-dependent activation of intrinsic apoptosis in KCs. Future studies should determine if and how the distinct anti-mt-nAChR antibodies penetrate KCs and correlate with disease severity.

  17. Antibodies to Phospholipids and Liposomes: Binding of Antibodies to Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    LIPOSOMES: BINDING OF ANTIBODIES TO CELLS 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) W.E. FOGLER , G. M. SWARTZ, AND C.R. ALVING 13a TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE...Elsevier BBA 73693 Antibodies to phospholipids and liposomes: binding of antibodies to cells William E. Fogler *, Glenn M. Swartz, Jr. and Carl R. Alving...Immunol. 21. Research Associateship from the U.S. National 12863-86812Hall. T. and Esser, K. (1984) 3. Immunol. 132. 2059-2063 Research Council. 13 Fogler

  18. Simultaneous expression of displayed and secreted antibodies for antibody screen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanping Zhou

    Full Text Available The display of full-length antibody on the cell surface was achieved by fusing a transmembrane domain of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR to the C-terminus of the heavy chain constant region. We also incorporated a furin cleavage site between the constant region and PDGFR transmembrane domain to obtain secreted antibodies. As a result, antibodies can be expressed simultaneously on the cell surface in a membrane-anchored version for screening and selecting through fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS analysis, as well as in conditioned medium in a secreted version for function analysis.

  19. Agonists and inverse agonists for the herpesvirus 8-encoded constitutively active seven-transmembrane oncogene product, ORF-74

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, M M; Kledal, T N; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    1999-01-01

    A number of CXC chemokines competed with similar, nanomolar affinity against 125I-interleukin-8 (IL-8) binding to ORF-74, a constitutively active seven-transmembrane receptor encoded by human herpesvirus 8. However, in competition against 125I-labeled growth-related oncogene (GRO)-alpha, the ORF-74...... receptor was highly selective for GRO peptides, with IL-8 being 10,000-fold less potent. The constitutive stimulating activity of ORF-74 on phosphatidylinositol turnover was not influenced by, for example, IL-8 binding. In contrast, GRO peptides acted as potent agonists in stimulating ORF-74 signaling......, whereas IP-10 and stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha surprisingly acted as inverse agonists. These peptides had similar pharmacological properties with regard to enhancing or inhibiting, respectively, the stimulatory effect of ORF-74 on NIH-3T3 cell proliferation. Construction of a high affinity zinc...

  20. The treatment of Parkinson's disease with dopamine agonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank, Wilhelm

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease is a chronic degenerative organic disease with unknown causes. A disappearance of cells with melanin in the substantia nigra is considered as biological artefact of the disease, which causes a degenerative loss of neurons in the corpus striatum of mesencephalon. This structure produces also the transmitter substance dopamine. Due to this disappearance of cells dopamine is not produced in a sufficient quantity which is needed for movement of the body. The questions of this report are concerned the efficiency and safety of a treatment with dopamine agonists. Furthermore the cost-effectiveness is investigated as well as ethic questions. The goal is to give recommendation for the use of dopamine agonists to the German health system. A systematic literature search was done. The identified studies have different methodological quality and investigate different hypothesis and different outcome criteria. Therefore a qualitative method of information synthesis was chosen. Since the introduction of L-Dopa in the 1960´s it is considered as the most effective substance to reduce all the cardinal symptoms of Parkinson disease. This substance was improved in the course of time. Firstly some additional substances were given (decarbonxylase inhibitors, catechol-o-transferase inhibitors (COMT-inhibitors, monoaminoxydase-inhibitors (MAO-inhibitors and NMDA-antagonists (N-Methyl-d-aspartat-antagonists. In the practical therapy of Parkinson dopamine agonists play an important role, because they directly use the dopamine receptors. The monotherapy of Parkinson disease is basically possible and is used in early stages of the disease. Clinical practise has shown, that an add on therapy with dopamine agonists can led to a reduction of the dose of L-dopa and a reduction of following dyskinesia. The studies for effectiveness include studies for the initial therapy, monotherapy and add-on-therapy. Basically there is a good effectiveness of dopamine

  1. NOD2 Agonist Promotes the Production of Inflammatory Cytokines in VSMC in Synergy with TLR2 and TLR4 Agonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghua Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the expression of NOD2 in human VSMCs, its role in the production of inflammatory cytokines in VSMC and the possible interaction of NOD2-mediated signaling pathway with those mediated by TLR2 and TLR4. Methods. Human coronary artery smooth muscle cells were stimulated with NOD2 agonist MDP alone or in combination with either TLR2 agonist PAM3 or TLR4 agonist LPSs. The mRNA expression of NOD2 and FGF-2 were measured by RT-PCR. The concentration of IL-8 and TNF-α in the culture supernatants was determined by ELISA. VSMC proliferation ability was analyzed by MTT assay. Results. MDP up regulated the expression of NOD2 mRNA in VSMC in a time-dependent manner, up regulated the expression of FGF-2 mRNA in VSMC, induced the production of IL-8 and TNF-α, and promoted the proliferation of VSMC. Additionally, MDP synergied with LPS and PAM3 to promote the proliferation of VSMC and induce the production of IL-8 and TNF-α. Conclusion. The activation of NOD2-mediated innate immune signaling pathway can increase the proliferation ability of VSMC and induce the production of inflammatory cytokines in VSMC. It is also shown a synergistic effect with TLR2- and TLR4-mediated signaling pathways in this process.

  2. Tabhu: tools for antibody humanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olimpieri, Pier Paolo; Marcatili, Paolo; Tramontano, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Antibodies are rapidly becoming essential tools in the clinical practice, given their ability to recognize their cognate antigens with high specificity and affinity, and a high yield at reasonable costs in model animals. Unfortunately, when administered to human patients, xenogeneic antibodies can...... elicit unwanted and dangerous immunogenic responses. Antibody humanization methods are designed to produce molecules with a better safety profile still maintaining their ability to bind the antigen. This can be accomplished by grafting the non-human regions determining the antigen specificity...

  3. Antitumor activities and on-target toxicities mediated by a TRAIL receptor agonist following cotreatment with panobinostat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ben P; Frew, Ailsa J; Bots, Michael; Fox, Stephen; Long, Fenella; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Yagita, Hideo; Atadja, Peter; Smyth, Mark J; Johnstone, Ricky W

    2011-06-01

    The recent development of novel targeted anticancer therapeutics such as histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) and activators of the TRAIL pathway provide opportunities for the introduction of new treatment regimens in oncology. HDACi and recombinant TRAIL or agonistic anti-TRAIL receptor antibodies have been shown to induce synergistic tumor cell apoptosis and some therapeutic activity in vivo. Herein, we have used syngeneic preclinical models of human solid cancers to demonstrate that the HDACi panobinostat can sensitize tumor cells to apoptosis mediated by the anti-mouse TRAIL receptor antibody MD5-1. We demonstrate that the combination of panobinostat and MD5-1 can eradicate tumors grown subcutaneously and orthotopically in immunocompetent mice, while single agent treatment has minimal effect. However, escalation of the dose of panobinostat to enhance antitumor activity resulted in on-target MD5-1-mediated gastrointestinal toxicities that were fatal to the treated mice. Studies performed in mice with knockout of the TRAIL receptor showed that these mice could tolerate doses of the panobinostat/MD5-1 combination that were lethal in wild type mice resulting in superior tumor clearance. Given that clinical studies using HDACi and activators of the TRAIL pathway have been initiated, our preclinical data highlight the potential toxicities that could limit the use of such a treatment regimen. Our studies also demonstrate the power of using syngeneic in vivo tumor models as physiologically relevant preclinical systems to test the antitumor effects and identify potential side effects of novel anticancer regimens.

  4. Small cationic DDA:TDB liposomes as protein vaccine adjuvants obviate the need for TLR agonists in inducing cellular and humoral responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milicic, Anita; Kaur, Randip; Reyes-Sandoval, Arturo; Tang, Choon-Kit; Honeycutt, Jared; Perrie, Yvonne; Hill, Adrian V S

    2012-01-01

    Most subunit vaccines require adjuvants in order to induce protective immune responses to the targeted pathogen. However, many of the potent immunogenic adjuvants display unacceptable local or systemic reactogenicity. Liposomes are spherical vesicles consisting of single (unilamellar) or multiple (multilamellar) phospholipid bi-layers. The lipid membranes are interleaved with an aqueous buffer, which can be utilised to deliver hydrophilic vaccine components, such as protein antigens or ligands for immune receptors. Liposomes, in particular cationic DDA:TDB vesicles, have been shown in animal models to induce strong humoral responses to the associated antigen without increased reactogenicity, and are currently being tested in Phase I human clinical trials. We explored several modifications of DDA:TDB liposomes--including size, antigen association and addition of TLR agonists--to assess their immunogenic capacity as vaccine adjuvants, using Ovalbumin (OVA) protein as a model protein vaccine. Following triple homologous immunisation, small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) with no TLR agonists showed a significantly higher capacity for inducing spleen CD8 IFNγ responses against OVA in comparison with the larger multilamellar vesicles (MLVs). Antigen-specific antibody reponses were also higher with SUVs. Addition of the TLR3 and TLR9 agonists significantly increased the adjuvanting capacity of MLVs and OVA-encapsulating dehydration-rehydration vesicles (DRVs), but not of SUVs. Our findings lend further support to the use of liposomes as protein vaccine adjuvants. Importantly, the ability of DDA:TDB SUVs to induce potent CD8 T cell responses without the need for adding immunostimulators would avoid the potential safety risks associated with the clinical use of TLR agonists in vaccines adjuvanted with liposomes.

  5. DARPA Antibody Technology Program Standardized Test Bed for Antibody Characterization: Characterization of an MS2 ScFv Antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    ECBC-TR-1356 DARPA ANTIBODY TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM STANDARDIZED TEST BED FOR ANTIBODY CHARACTERIZATION...From - To) Oct 2010 – Sep 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DARPA Antibody Technology Program Standardized Test Bed for Antibody Characterization...Arlington, VA 22203-2114 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) DARPA 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT

  6. Evolution of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baviskar, Rutuja R; Amonkar, Gayathri P; Chaudhary, Vinod A; Balasubramanian, Meenakshi; Mohite, Shailesh C; Puranik, Gururaj V

    2012-12-01

    Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is a very important cause of cerebral infarction, myocardial infarction, and repeated pregnancy losses in women. We present an extremely rare case of a 44-year-old man with antiphospholipid syndrome who collapsed and died suddenly. At autopsy, he was found to have both cerebral and myocardial infarction. In all young patients with cerebral infarction, myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism, recurrent miscarriages, and unexplained low platelet count, one must consider the strong possibility of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.

  7. Antibodies to watch in 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Reichert, Janice M

    2015-01-01

    The number of novel antibody therapeutics that received first marketing approvals in 2015 met expectations, with 6 (alirocumab (Praluent®), evolocumab (Repatha®), daratumumab (Darzalex®), dinutuximab (Unituxin®), idarucizumab (Praxbind®), mepolizumab (Nucala®)) granted first approvals as of mid-November*. Seven novel antibody therapeutics (begelomab, brodalumab, elotuzumab, ixekizumab, necitumumab, obiltoxaximab, reslizumab) are in regulatory review, and thus a similar number, if not more, ar...

  8. Tabhu: tools for antibody humanization.

    KAUST Repository

    Olimpieri, Pier Paolo

    2014-10-09

    SUMMARY: Antibodies are rapidly becoming essential tools in the clinical practice, given their ability to recognize their cognate antigens with high specificity and affinity, and a high yield at reasonable costs in model animals. Unfortunately, when administered to human patients, xenogeneic antibodies can elicit unwanted and dangerous immunogenic responses. Antibody humanization methods are designed to produce molecules with a better safety profile still maintaining their ability to bind the antigen. This can be accomplished by grafting the non-human regions determining the antigen specificity into a suitable human template. Unfortunately, this procedure may results in a partial or complete loss of affinity of the grafted molecule that can be restored by back-mutating some of the residues of human origin to the corresponding murine ones. This trial-and-error procedure is hard and involves expensive and time-consuming experiments. Here we present tools for antibody humanization (Tabhu) a web server for antibody humanization. Tabhu includes tools for human template selection, grafting, back-mutation evaluation, antibody modelling and structural analysis, helping the user in all the critical steps of the humanization experiment protocol. AVAILABILITY: http://www.biocomputing.it/tabhu CONTACT: anna.tramontano@uniroma1.it, pierpaolo.olimpieri@uniroma1.it SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  9. Avian Diagnostic and Therapeutic Antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, David Sherman [UND SMHS

    2012-12-31

    A number of infectious agents have the potential of causing significant clinical symptomology and even death, but dispite this, the number of incidence remain below the level that supports producing a vaccine. Therapeutic antibodies provide a viable treatment option for many of these diseases. We proposed that antibodies derived from West Nile Virus (WNV) immunized geese would be able to treat WNV infection in mammals and potential humans. We demonstrated that WNV specific goose antibodies are indeed successful in treating WNV infection both prophylactically and therapeutically in a golden hamster model. We demonstrated that the goose derived antibodies are non-reactogenic, i.e. do not cause an inflammatory response with multiple exposures in mammals. We also developed both a specific pathogen free facility to house the geese during the antibody production phase and a patent-pending purification process to purify the antibodies to greater than 99% purity. Therefore, the success of these study will allow a cost effective rapidly producible therapeutic toward clinical testing with the necessary infrastructure and processes developed and in place.

  10. Identification of human dopamine receptors agonists from Chinese herbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-lin ZHANG; Hai-qing ZHANG; Xiao-yu LIU; Shi-neng HUA; Lu-bing ZHOU; Jun YU; Xue-hai TAN

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To find human dopamine receptors, especially D1-like receptor specific ago-nists from Chinese herbs as potential antihypertension drug leads. Methods: Two D1-like receptor cell lines carrying a β-lactamase reporter gene, and a D2 receptor cell line coexpressing a promiscuous G protein G15 were constructed using HEK293 cells. A natural compound library made from fractionated samples of herbal ex-tracts was used for high-throughput screening (HTS) against one of the cell lines,HEK/D5R/CRE-blax. The interested hits were evaluated for their activities against various dopamine receptors. Results: Fourteen hits were identified from primary screening, of which 2 of the better hit samples, HD0522 and HD0059, were selected for further material and activity analysis, and to obtain 2 compounds that ap-peared as 2 single peaks in HPLC, HD0522H01 and HD0059H01. HD0059H01 could activate D1, D2, and D5 receptors, with EC50 values of 2.28 μg/mL, 0.85 μg/mL, and 1.41 μg/mL, respectively. HD0522H01 could only activate D1R and D5R with EC50 values of 2.95 μg/mL and 8.38 μg/mL. Conclusion: We established cell-based assays for 3 different human dopamine receptors and identified specific agonists HD0522H01 and HD0059H01 through HTS. The specific agonist to D1-like receptors, HD0522H01, may become a new natural product-based drug lead for antihypertension treatment.

  11. Melatonin and Melatonin Agonists as Adjunctive Treatments in Bipolar Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffroy, Pierre Alexis; Etain, Bruno; Franchi, Jean-Arthur Micoulaud; Bellivier, Frank; Ritter, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar disorders (BD) present with abnormalities of circadian rhythmicity and sleep homeostasis, even during phases of remission. These abnormalities are linked to the underlying neurobiology of genetic susceptibility to BD. Melatonin is a pineal gland secreted neurohormone that induces circadian-related and sleep-related responses. Exogenous melatonin has demonstrated efficacy in treating primary insomnia, delayed sleep phase disorder, improving sleep parameters and overall sleep quality, and some psychiatric disorders like autistic spectrum disorders. In order to evaluate the efficacy of melatonin among patients with BD, this comprehensive review emphasizes the abnormal melatonin function in BD, the rationale of melatonin action in BD, the available data about the exogenous administration of melatonin, and melatonin agonists (ramelteon and tasimelteon), and recommendations of use in patients with BD. There is a scientific rationale to propose melatonin-agonists as an adjunctive treatment of mood stabilizers in treating sleep disorders in BD and thus to possibly prevent relapses when administered during remission phases. We emphasized the need to treat insomnia, sleep delayed latencies and sleep abnormalities in BD that are prodromal markers of an emerging mood episode and possible targets to prevent future relapses. An additional interesting adjunctive therapeutic effect might be on preventing metabolic syndrome, particularly in patients treated with antipsychotics. Finally, melatonin is well tolerated and has little dependence potential in contrast to most available sleep medications. Further studies are expected to be able to produce stronger evidence-based therapeutic guidelines to confirm and delineate the routine use of melatonin-agonists in the treatment of BD.

  12. Comparative endpoint sensitivity of in vitro estrogen agonist assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreier, David A; Connors, Kristin A; Brooks, Bryan W

    2015-07-01

    Environmental and human health implications of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), particularly xenoestrogens, have received extensive study. In vitro assays are increasingly employed as diagnostic tools to comparatively evaluate chemicals, whole effluent toxicity and surface water quality, and to identify causative EDCs during toxicity identification evaluations. Recently, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) initiated ToxCast under the Tox21 program to generate novel bioactivity data through high throughput screening. This information is useful for prioritizing chemicals requiring additional hazard information, including endocrine active chemicals. Though multiple in vitro and in vivo techniques have been developed to assess estrogen agonist activity, the relative endpoint sensitivity of these approaches and agreement of their conclusions remain unclear during environmental diagnostic applications. Probabilistic hazard assessment (PHA) approaches, including chemical toxicity distributions (CTD), are useful for understanding the relative sensitivity of endpoints associated with in vitro and in vivo toxicity assays by predicting the likelihood of chemicals eliciting undesirable outcomes at or above environmentally relevant concentrations. In the present study, PHAs were employed to examine the comparative endpoint sensitivity of 16 in vitro assays for estrogen agonist activity using a diverse group of compounds from the USEPA ToxCast dataset. Reporter gene assays were generally observed to possess greater endpoint sensitivity than other assay types, and the Tox21 ERa LUC BG1 Agonist assay was identified as the most sensitive in vitro endpoint for detecting an estrogenic response. When the sensitivity of this most sensitive ToxCast in vitro endpoint was compared to the human MCF-7 cell proliferation assay, a common in vitro model for biomedical and environmental monitoring applications, the ERa LUC BG1 assay was several orders of magnitude less

  13. Biased signaling by peptide agonists of protease activated receptor 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuhong; Yau, Mei-Kwan; Kok, W Mei; Lim, Junxian; Wu, Kai-Chen; Liu, Ligong; Hill, Timothy A; Suen, Jacky Y; Fairlie, David P

    2017-02-07

    Protease activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is associated with metabolism, obesity, inflammatory, respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders, pain, cancer and other diseases. The extracellular N-terminus of PAR2 is a common target for multiple proteases, which cleave it at different sites to generate different N-termini that activate different PAR2-mediated intracellular signaling pathways. There are no synthetic PAR2 ligands that reproduce the same signaling profiles and potencies as proteases. Structure-activity relationships here for 26 compounds spanned a signaling bias over 3 log units, culminating in three small ligands as biased agonist tools for interrogating PAR2 functions. DF253 (2f-LAAAAI-NH2) triggered PAR2-mediated calcium release (EC50 2 μM) but not ERK1/2 phosphorylation (EC50 > 100 μM) in CHO cells transfected with hPAR2. AY77 (Isox-Cha-Chg-NH2) was a more potent calcium-biased agonist (EC50 40 nM, Ca2+; EC50 2 μM, ERK1/2), while its analogue AY254 (Isox-Cha-Chg-A-R-NH2) was an ERK-biased agonist (EC50 2 nM, ERK1/2; EC50 80 nM, Ca2+). Signaling bias led to different functional responses in human colorectal carcinoma cells (HT29). AY254, but not AY77 or DF253, attenuated cytokine-induced caspase 3/8 activation, promoted scratch-wound healing and induced IL-8 secretion, all via PAR2-ERK1/2 signaling. Different ligand components were responsible for different PAR2 signaling and functions, clues that can potentially lead to drugs that modulate different pathway-selective cellular and physiological responses.

  14. Ramelteon: A melatonin receptor agonist for the treatment of insomnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi V

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ramelteon is a novel MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptor selective agonist recently approved for the treatment of insomnia characterized by difficulty in sleep onset. It is a nonscheduled drug since it lacks the potential for abuse and does not interact with neurotransmitter receptors most associated with these phenomena. Although the effects of ramelteon use> 5 weeks are unknown, the available data confirms its safety and efficacy for short-term use. Clinical use and future research should uncover more information about ramelteon′s properties.

  15. Discovery of a potent and selective GPR120 agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimpukade, Bharat; Hudson, Brian D; Hovgaard, Christine Kiel; Milligan, Graeme; Ulven, Trond

    2012-05-10

    GPR120 is a receptor of unsaturated long-chain fatty acids reported to mediate GLP-1 secretion, insulin sensitization, anti-inflammatory, and anti-obesity effects and is therefore emerging as a new potential target for treatment of type 2 diabetes and metabolic diseases. Further investigation is however hindered by the lack of suitable receptor modulators. Screening of FFA1 ligands provided a lead with moderate activity on GPR120 and moderate selectivity over FFA1. Optimization led to the discovery of the first potent and selective GPR120 agonist.

  16. Induction of depersonalization by the serotonin agonist meta-chlorophenylpiperazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeon, D; Hollander, E; Stein, D J; DeCaria, C; Cohen, L J; Saoud, J B; Islam, N; Hwang, M

    1995-09-29

    Sixty-seven subjects, including normal volunteers and patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder, social phobia, and borderline personality disorder, received ratings of depersonalization after double-blind, placebo-controlled challenges with the partial serotonin agonist meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP). Challenge with m-CPP induced depersonalization significantly more than did placebo. Subjects who became depersonalized did not differ in age, sex, or diagnosis from those who did not experience depersonalization. There was a significant correlation between the induction of depersonalization and increase in panic, but not nervousness, anxiety, sadness, depression, or drowsiness. This report suggests that serotonergic dysregulation may in part underlie depersonalization.

  17. Estrogen Receptor Agonists and Antagonists in the Yeast Estrogen Bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Si; Bovee, Toine F H

    2016-01-01

    Cell-based bioassays can be used to predict the eventual biological activity of a substance on a living organism. In vitro reporter gene bioassays are based on recombinant vertebrate cell lines or yeast strains and especially the latter are easy-to-handle, cheap, and fast. Moreover, yeast cells do not express estrogen, androgen, progesterone or glucocorticoid receptors, and are thus powerful tools in the development of specific reporter gene systems that are devoid of crosstalk from other hormone pathways. This chapter describes our experience with an in-house developed RIKILT yeast estrogen bioassay for testing estrogen receptor agonists and antagonists, focusing on the applicability of the latter.

  18. A novel llama antibody targeting Fn14 exhibits anti-metastatic activity in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebing, Johannes; Lang, Isabell; Chopra, Martin; Salzmann, Steffen; Moshir, Mahan; Silence, Karen; Riedel, Simone S; Siegmund, Daniela; Beilhack, Andreas; Otto, Christoph; Wajant, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Expression of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-inducible 14 (Fn14), a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, is typically low in healthy adult organisms, but strong Fn14 expression is induced in tissue injury and tissue remodeling. High Fn14 expression is also observed in solid tumors, which is why this receptor is under consideration as a therapeutic target in oncology. Here, we describe various novel mouse-human cross-reactive llama-derived recombinant Fn14-specific antibodies (5B6, 18D1, 4G5) harboring the human IgG1 Fc domain. In contrast to recombinant variants of the established Fn14-specific antibodies PDL192 and P4A8, all three llama-derived antibodies efficiently bound to the W42A and R56P mutants of human Fn14. 18D1 and 4G5, but not 5B6, efficiently blocked TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis(TWEA K) binding at low concentrations (0.2–2 μg/ml). Oligomerization and Fcγ receptor (FcγR) binding converted all antibodies into strong Fn14 agonists. Variants of 18D1 with enhanced and reduced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity were further analyzed in vivo with respect to their effect on metastasis. In a xenogeneic model using human colon carcinoma cancer cells, both antibody variants were effective in reducing metastasis to the liver. In contrast, only the 18D1 variant with enhanced ADCC activity, but not its ADCC-defective counterpart, suppressed lung metastasis in the RE NCA model. In sum, this suggests that Fn14 targeting might primarily act by triggering of antibody effector functions, but also by blockade of TWEA K-Fn14 interaction in some cases

  19. In vitro and in vivo efficacy of a potent opioid receptor agonist, biphalin, compared to subtype-selective opioid receptor agonists for stroke treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Islam, Mohammad R; Karamyan, Vardan T; Abbruscato, Thomas J

    2015-06-03

    To meet the challenge of identification of new treatments for stroke, this study was designed to evaluate a potent, nonselective opioid receptor (OR) agonist, biphalin, in comparison to subtype selective OR agonists, as a potential neuroprotective drug candidate using in vitro and in vivo models of ischemic stroke. Our in vitro approach included mouse primary neuronal cells that were challenged with glutamate and hypoxic/aglycemic (H/A) conditions. We observed that 10nM biphalin, exerted a statistically significant neuroprotective effect after glutamate challenge, compared to all selective opioid agonists, according to lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays. Moreover, 10nM biphalin provided superior neuroprotection after H/A-reoxygenation compared to selective opioid agonists in all cases. Our in vitro investigations were supported by in vivo studies which indicate that the nonselective opioid agonist, biphalin, achieves enhanced neuroprotective potency compared to any of the selective opioid agonists, evidenced by reduced edema and infarct ratios. Reduction of edema and infarction was accompanied by neurological improvement of the animals in two independent behavioral tests. Collectively these data strongly suggest that concurrent agonist stimulation of mu, kappa and delta ORs with biphalin is neuroprotective and superior to neuroprotection by activation of any single OR subtype.

  20. Validating Antibodies to the Cannabinoid CB2 Receptor: Antibody Sensitivity Is Not Evidence of Antibody Specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchalant, Yannick; Brownjohn, Philip W; Bonnet, Amandine; Kleffmann, Torsten; Ashton, John C

    2014-06-01

    Antibody-based methods for the detection and quantification of membrane integral proteins, in particular, the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), have been plagued with issues of primary antibody specificity. In this report, we investigate one of the most commonly utilized commercial antibodies for the cannabinoid CB2 receptor, a GPCR, using immunoblotting in combination with mass spectrometry. In this way, we were able to develop powerful negative and novel positive controls. By doing this, we are able to demonstrate that it is possible for an antibody to be sensitive for a protein of interest-in this case CB2-but still cross-react with other proteins and therefore lack specificity. Specifically, we were able to use western blotting combined with mass spectrometry to unequivocally identify CB2 protein in over-expressing cell lines. This shows that a common practice of validating antibodies with positive controls only is insufficient to ensure antibody reliability. In addition, our work is the first to develop a label-free method of protein detection using mass spectrometry that, with further refinement, could provide unequivocal identification of CB2 receptor protein in native tissues.

  1. Production and Purification of Polyclonal Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Masami; Mukumoto, Mari; Miyatake, Kazutaka

    2016-01-01

    Polyclonal antibodies consist of a mixture of antibodies produced by multiple B-cell clones that have differentiated into antibody-producing plasma cells in response to an immunogen. Polyclonal antibodies raised against an antigen recognize multiple epitopes on a target molecule, which results in a signal amplification in indirect immunoassays including immune-electron microscopy. In this chapter, we present a basic procedure to generate polyclonal antibodies in rabbits.

  2. EP4 agonist alleviates indomethacin-induced gastric lesions and promotes chronic gastric ulcer healing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-Liang Jiang; Wha Bin Im; Yariv Donde; Larry A Wheeler

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate EP4-selective agonist effect on indomethacin-induced gastric lesions and on the spontaneous healing of chronic gastric ulcers. METHODS: In a mouse model of gastric bleeding with high dose of indomethacin (20 mg/kg), an EP4-selective agonist was administered orally. Stomach lesions and gastric mucous regeneration were monitored. In a mouse model of chronic gastric ulcer induced by acetic acid, EP4 agonist effect on the healing of chronic gastric ulcer was evaluated in the presence or absence of low dose indomethacin (3 mg/kg). In cultured human gastric mucous cells, EP4 agonist effect on indomethacininduced apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: The EP4-selective agonist reduced high dose indomethacin-induced acute hemorrhagic damage and promoted mucous epithelial regeneration. Low-dose indomethacin aggravated ulcer bleeding and inflammation, and delayed the healing of the established chronic gastric ulcer. The EP4 agonist, when applied locally, not only offset indomethacin-induced gastric bleeding and inflammation, but also accelerated ulcer healing. In the absence of indomethacin, the EP4 agonist even accelerated chronic gastric ulcer healing and suppressed inflammatory cell infiltration in the granulation tissue. In vitro , the EP4 agonist protected human gastric mucous cells from indomethacin-induced apoptosis. CONCLUSION: EP4-selective agonist may prevent indomethacin-induced gastric lesions and promote healing of existing and indomethacin-aggravated gastric ulcers, via promoting proliferation and survival of mucous epithelial cells.

  3. Pathological hypersexuality predominantly linked to adjuvant dopamine agonist therapy in Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klos, Kevin J; Bower, James H; Josephs, Keith A; Matsumoto, Joseph Y; Ahlskog, J Eric

    2005-09-01

    Pathological hypersexuality developed in 13 patients with PD and two patients ultimately diagnosed clinically with MSA. Hypersexuality began within 8 months after starting dopamine agonist therapy in 14 of 15 cases, including four on agonist monotherapy. It resolved in the four cases where the agonist was stopped, despite continued levodopa therapy. This was not an isolated behavioral problem in most, with additional compulsive or addictive behaviors coinciding in nine patients (60%). A systematic literature review of pathological hypersexuality in PD revealed similar medication histories; combining these cases with our series, 26 of 29 patients (90%) were on adjuvant dopamine agonists.

  4. Long-acting beta(2)-agonists in management of childhood asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H

    2000-01-01

    This review assesses the evidence regarding the use of long-acting beta(2)-agonists in the management of pediatric asthma. Thirty double-blind, randomized, controlled trials on the effects of formoterol and salmeterol on lung function in asthmatic children were identified. Single doses of inhaled......, long-acting beta(2)-agonists provide effective bronchodilatation and bronchoprotection when used as intermittent, single-dose treatment of asthma in children, but not when used as regular treatment. Future studies should examine the positioning of long-acting beta(2)-agonists as an "as needed" rescue...... medication instead of short-acting beta(2)-agonists for pediatric asthma management....

  5. A TLR7 agonist enhances the antitumor efficacy of obinutuzumab in murine lymphoma models via NK cells and CD4 T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheadle, E J; Lipowska-Bhalla, G; Dovedi, S J; Fagnano, E; Klein, C; Honeychurch, J; Illidge, T M

    2017-01-03

    Anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) such as rituximab have been proven to be highly effective at improving outcome in B-cell malignancies. However, many patients ultimately relapse and become refractory to treatment. The glycoengineered anti-CD20 mAb obinutuzumab was developed to induce enhanced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, antibody-dependent phagocytosis and direct cell death and was shown to lead to improved outcomes in a randomized study in B-CLL. We hypothesized that immune stimulation through Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) agonism in combination with obinutuzumab would further enhance lymphoma clearance and the generation of long-term antitumor immune responses. Here we demonstrate, in syngeneic human CD20 (hCD20)-expressing models of lymphoma, that systemic administration of a TLR7 agonist (R848) increases responses when administered in combination with obinutuzumab and protects against disease recurrence. Depletion studies demonstrate that primary antitumor activity is dependent on both NK cells and CD4(+) T cells but not on CD8(+) T cells. However, both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells appear necessary for the generation of protective immunological memory. Importantly, increased tumor-free survival post obinutuzumab and R848 combination therapy was seen in hCD20 transgenic mice, which express hCD20 on normal B cells. These findings provide a rationale for clinical testing of obinutuzumab in combination with systemically administered TLR7 agonists to further improve outcome.Leukemia advance online publication, 3 January 2017; doi:10.1038/leu.2016.352.

  6. Structural complexes of the agonist, inverse agonist and antagonist bound C5a receptor: insights into pharmacology and signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Soumendra; Sahoo, Amita Rani; Majhi, Bharat Kumar

    2016-04-26

    The C5a receptor (C5aR) is a pharmacologically important G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) that interacts with (h)C5a, by recruiting both the "orthosteric" sites (site1 at the N-terminus and site2 at the ECS, extra cellular surface) on C5aR in a two site-binding model. However, the complex pharmacological landscape and the distinguishing chemistry operating either at the "orthosteric" site1 or at the functionally important "orthosteric" site2 of C5aR are still not clear, which greatly limits the understanding of C5aR pharmacology. One of the major bottlenecks is the lack of an experimental structure or a refined model structure of C5aR with appropriately defined active sites. The study attempts to understand the pharmacology at the "orthosteric" site2 of C5aR rationally by generating a highly refined full-blown model structure of C5aR through advanced molecular modeling techniques, and further subjecting it to automated docking and molecular dynamics (MD) studies in the POPC bilayer. The first series of structural complexes of C5aR respectively bound to a linear native peptide agonist ((h)C5a-CT), a small molecule inverse agonist (NDT) and a cyclic peptide antagonist (PMX53) are reported, apparently establishing the unique pharmacological landscape of the "orthosteric" site2, which also illustrates an energetically distinct but coherent competitive chemistry ("cation-π" vs. "π-π" interactions) involved in distinguishing the established ligands known for targeting the "orthosteric" site2 of C5aR. Over a total of 1 μs molecular dynamics (MD) simulation in the POPC bilayer, it is evidenced that while the agonist prefers a "cation-π" interaction, the inverse agonist prefers a "cogwheel/L-shaped" interaction in contrast to the "edge-to-face/T-shaped" type π-π interactions demonstrated by the antagonist by engaging the F275(7.28) of the C5aR. In the absence of a NMR or crystallographically guided model structure of C5aR, the computational model complexes not only

  7. How does agonistic behaviour differ in albino and pigmented fish?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Slavík

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In addition to hypopigmentation of the skin and red iris colouration, albino animals also display distinct physiological and behavioural alterations. However, information on the social interactions of albino animals is rare and has mostly been limited to specially bred strains of albino rodents and animals from unique environments in caves. Differentiating between the effects of albinism and domestication on behaviour in rodents can be difficult, and social behaviour in cave fish changes according to species-specific adaptations to conditions of permanent darkness. The agonistic behaviours of albino offspring of pigmented parents have yet to be described. In this study, we observed agonistic behaviour in albino and pigmented juvenile Silurus glanis catfish. We found that the total number of aggressive interactions was lower in albinos than in pigmented catfish. The distance between conspecifics was also analysed, and albinos showed a tendency towards greater separation from their same-coloured conspecifics compared with pigmented catfish. These results demonstrate that albinism can be associated with lower aggressiveness and with reduced shoaling behaviour preference, as demonstrated by a tendency towards greater separation of albinos from conspecifics.

  8. The evolution of histamine H₃ antagonists/inverse agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebois, Evan P; Jones, Carrie K; Lindsley, Craig W

    2011-01-01

    This article describes our efforts along with recent advances in the development, biological evaluation and clinical proof of concept of small molecule histamine H₃ antagonists/inverse agonists. The H3 receptor is a presynaptic autoreceptor within the Class A GPCR family, but also functions as a heteroreceptor modulating levels of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, acetylcholine, norepinephrine, serotonin, GABA and glutamate. Thus, H₃R has garnered a great deal of interest from the pharmaceutical industry for the possible treatment of obesity, epilepsy, sleep/wake, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, neuropathic pain and ADHD. Within the two main classes of H₃ ligands, both imidazole and non-imidazole derived, have shown sufficient potency and specificity which culminated with efficacy in preclinical models for various CNS disorders. Importantly, conserved elements have been identified within the small molecule H₃ ligand scaffolds that resulted in a highly predictive pharmacophore model. Understanding of the pharmacophore model has allowed several groups to dial H₃R activity into scaffolds designed for other CNS targets, and engender directed polypharmacology. Moreover, Abbott, GSK, Pfizer and several others have reported positive Phase I and/or Phase II data with structurally diverse H₃R antagonists/inverse agonists.

  9. How does agonistic behaviour differ in albino and pigmented fish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavík, Ondřej; Horký, Pavel; Wackermannová, Marie

    2016-01-01

    In addition to hypopigmentation of the skin and red iris colouration, albino animals also display distinct physiological and behavioural alterations. However, information on the social interactions of albino animals is rare and has mostly been limited to specially bred strains of albino rodents and animals from unique environments in caves. Differentiating between the effects of albinism and domestication on behaviour in rodents can be difficult, and social behaviour in cave fish changes according to species-specific adaptations to conditions of permanent darkness. The agonistic behaviours of albino offspring of pigmented parents have yet to be described. In this study, we observed agonistic behaviour in albino and pigmented juvenile Silurus glanis catfish. We found that the total number of aggressive interactions was lower in albinos than in pigmented catfish. The distance between conspecifics was also analysed, and albinos showed a tendency towards greater separation from their same-coloured conspecifics compared with pigmented catfish. These results demonstrate that albinism can be associated with lower aggressiveness and with reduced shoaling behaviour preference, as demonstrated by a tendency towards greater separation of albinos from conspecifics.

  10. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist attenuates ILC2-dependent airway hyperreactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galle-Treger, Lauriane; Suzuki, Yuzo; Patel, Nisheel; Sankaranarayanan, Ishwarya; Aron, Jennifer L.; Maazi, Hadi; Chen, Lin; Akbari, Omid

    2016-01-01

    Allergic asthma is a complex and chronic inflammatory disorder that is associated with airway hyperreactivity (AHR) and driven by Th2 cytokine secretion. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) produce large amounts of Th2 cytokines and contribute to the development of AHR. Here, we show that ILC2s express the α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR), which is thought to have an anti-inflammatory role in several inflammatory diseases. We show that engagement of a specific agonist with α7nAChR on ILC2s reduces ILC2 effector function and represses ILC2-dependent AHR, while decreasing expression of ILC2 key transcription factor GATA-3 and critical inflammatory modulator NF-κB, and reducing phosphorylation of upstream kinase IKKα/β. Additionally, the specific α7nAChR agonist reduces cytokine production and AHR in a humanized ILC2 mouse model. Collectively, our data suggest that α7nAChR expressed by ILC2s is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of ILC2-mediated asthma. PMID:27752043

  11. Receptor discrimination and control of agonist-antagonist binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallarida, R J

    1995-08-01

    The law of mass action is the common model for the interaction of agonist and antagonist compounds with cellular receptors. Parameters of the interaction, obtained from functional and radioligand-binding studies, allow discrimination and subtyping of receptors and aid in understanding specific mechanisms. This article reviews the theory and associated mathematical models and graphical transformations of data that underlie the determination of receptor parameters. The main theory assumes that agonist and antagonist compounds bind to cells that have a fixed number of receptors and provides the framework for obtaining drug-receptor parameters from data and their graphical transformations. Conditions that produce a change in receptor number, a newer concept in pharmacology, can have an important effect on the parameter values derived in the usual way. This review concludes with a discussion of the quantitative study of receptor-mediated feedback control of endogenous ligands, a very new topic with potentially important implications for understanding antagonist effectiveness, loss of control, and chaos in regulated mass action binding.

  12. Identification of agonists for a group of human odorant receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela eGonzalez-Kristeller

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Olfaction plays a critical role in several aspects of the human life. Odorants are detected by hundreds of odorant receptors (ORs which belong to the superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors. These receptors are expressed in the olfactory sensory neurons of the nose. The information provided by the activation of different combinations of ORs in the nose is transmitted to the brain, leading to odorant perception and emotional and behavioral responses. There are ~400 intact human ORs, and to date only a small percentage of these receptors (~10% have known agonists. The determination of the specificity of the human ORs will contribute to a better understanding of how odorants are discriminated by the olfactory system. In this work, we aimed to identify human specific ORs, that is, ORs that are present in humans but absent from other species, and their corresponding agonists. To do this, we first selected 22 OR gene sequences from the human genome with no counterparts in the mouse, rat or dog genomes. Then we used a heterologous expression system to screen a subset of these human ORs against a panel of odorants of biological relevance, including foodborne aroma volatiles. We found that different types of odorants are able to activate some of these previously uncharacterized human ORs.

  13. Toll-Like Receptor 9 Agonists for Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Melisi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The immune system has acquired increasing importance as a key player in cancer maintenance and growth. Thus, modulating anti-tumor immune mediators has become an attractive strategy for cancer treatment. Toll-like receptors (TLRs have gradually emerged as potential targets of newer immunotherapies. TLR-9 is preferentially expressed on endosome membranes of B-cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC and is known for its ability to stimulate specific immune reactions through the activation of inflammation-like innate responses. Several synthetic CpG oligonucleotides (ODNs have been developed as TLR-9 agonists with the aim of enhancing cancer immune surveillance. In many preclinical models, CpG ODNs were found to suppress tumor growth and proliferation both in monotherapy and in addition to chemotherapies or target therapies. TLR-9 agonists have been also tested in several clinical trials in patients with solid tumors. These agents showed good tolerability and usually met activity endpoints in early phase trials. However, they have not yet been demonstrated to significantly impact survival, neither as single agent treatments, nor in combination with chemotherapies or cancer vaccines. Further investigations in larger prospective studies are required.

  14. AMP is an adenosine A1 receptor agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittiner, Joseph E; Korboukh, Ilia; Hull-Ryde, Emily A; Jin, Jian; Janzen, William P; Frye, Stephen V; Zylka, Mark J

    2012-02-17

    Numerous receptors for ATP, ADP, and adenosine exist; however, it is currently unknown whether a receptor for the related nucleotide adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) exists. Using a novel cell-based assay to visualize adenosine receptor activation in real time, we found that AMP and a non-hydrolyzable AMP analog (deoxyadenosine 5'-monophosphonate, ACP) directly activated the adenosine A(1) receptor (A(1)R). In contrast, AMP only activated the adenosine A(2B) receptor (A(2B)R) after hydrolysis to adenosine by ecto-5'-nucleotidase (NT5E, CD73) or prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP, ACPP). Adenosine and AMP were equipotent human A(1)R agonists in our real-time assay and in a cAMP accumulation assay. ACP also depressed cAMP levels in mouse cortical neurons through activation of endogenous A(1)R. Non-selective purinergic receptor antagonists (pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid and suramin) did not block adenosine- or AMP-evoked activation. Moreover, mutation of His-251 in the human A(1)R ligand binding pocket reduced AMP potency without affecting adenosine potency. In contrast, mutation of a different binding pocket residue (His-278) eliminated responses to AMP and to adenosine. Taken together, our study indicates that the physiologically relevant nucleotide AMP is a full agonist of A(1)R. In addition, our study suggests that some of the physiological effects of AMP may be direct, and not indirect through ectonucleotidases that hydrolyze this nucleotide to adenosine.

  15. Melatonin and melatonin agonist for delirium in the elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborti, Dwaipayan; Tampi, Deena J; Tampi, Rajesh R

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this review is to summarize the available data on the use of melatonin and melatonin agonist for the prevention and management of delirium in the elderly patients from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). A systematic search of 5 major databases PubMed, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, Embase, and Cochrane Library was conducted. This search yielded a total of 2 RCTs for melatonin. One study compared melatonin to midazolam, clonidine, and control groups for the prevention and management of delirium in individuals who were pre- and posthip post-hip arthroplasty. The other study compared melatonin to placebo for the prevention of delirium in older adults admitted to an inpatient internal medicine service. Data from these 2 studies indicate that melatonin may have some benefit in the prevention and management of delirium in older adults. However, there is no evidence that melatonin reduces the severity of delirium or has any effect on behaviors or functions in these individuals. Melatonin was well tolerated in these 2 studies. The search for a melatonin agonist for delirium in the elderly patients yielded 1 study of ramelteon. In this study, ramelteon was found to be beneficial in preventing delirium in medically ill individuals when compared to placebo. Ramelteon was well tolerated in this study.

  16. Cold suppresses agonist-induced activation of TRPV1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, M-K; Wang, S

    2011-09-01

    Cold therapy is frequently used to reduce pain and edema following acute injury or surgery such as tooth extraction. However, the neurobiological mechanisms of cold therapy are not completely understood. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a capsaicin- and heat-gated nociceptive ion channel implicated in thermosensation and pathological pain under conditions of inflammation or injury. Although capsaicin-induced nociception, neuropeptide release, and ionic currents are suppressed by cold, it is not known if cold suppresses agonist-induced activation of recombinant TRPV1. We demonstrate that cold strongly suppressed the activation of recombinant TRPV1 by multiple agonists and capsaicin-evoked currents in trigeminal ganglia neurons under normal and phosphorylated conditions. Cold-induced suppression was partially impaired in a TRPV1 mutant that lacked heat-mediated activation and potentiation. These results suggest that cold-induced suppression of TRPV1 may share a common molecular basis with heat-induced potentiation, and that allosteric inhibition may contribute, in part, to the cold-induced suppression. We also show that combination of cold and a specific antagonist of TRPV1 can produce an additive suppression. Our results provide a mechanistic basis for cold therapy and may enhance anti-nociceptive approaches that target TRPV1 for managing pain under inflammation and tissue injury, including that from tooth extraction.

  17. Antibodies to watch in 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Janice M

    2016-01-01

    The number of novel antibody therapeutics that received first marketing approvals in 2015 met expectations, with 6 (alirocumab (Praluent®), evolocumab (Repatha®), daratumumab (Darzalex®), dinutuximab (Unituxin®), idarucizumab (Praxbind®), mepolizumab (Nucala®)) granted first approvals as of mid-November*. Seven novel antibody therapeutics (begelomab, brodalumab, elotuzumab, ixekizumab, necitumumab, obiltoxaximab, reslizumab) are in regulatory review, and thus a similar number, if not more, are projected to gain first approvals in 2016. Commercial late-stage antibody therapeutics development exceeded expectations by increasing from 39 candidates in Phase 3 studies as of late 2014 to 53 as of late 2015. Of the 53 candidates, transitions to regulatory review by the end of 2016 are projected for 8 (atezolizumab, benralizumab, bimagrumab, durvalumab, inotuzumab ozogamicin, lebrikizumab, ocrelizumab, tremelimumab). Other "antibodies to watch" include 15 candidates (bavituximab, bococizumab, dupilumab, fasinumab, fulranumab, gevokizumab, guselkumab, ibalizumab, LY2951742, onartuzumab, REGN2222, roledumab, romosozumab, sirukumab, Xilonix) undergoing evaluation in Phase 3 studies that have estimated primary completion dates in 2016. As evidenced by the antibody therapeutics discussed in this perspective, the biopharmaceutical industry has a highly active late-stage clinical pipeline that may deliver numerous new products to the global market in the near future. *See Note added in proof for updates through December 31, 2015.

  18. Inhibition of tumorigenesis driven by different Wnt proteins requires blockade of distinct ligand-binding regions by LRP6 antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettenberg, Seth A.; Charlat, Olga; Daley, Michael P.; Liu, Shanming; Vincent, Karen J.; Stuart, Darrin D.; Schuller, Alwin G.; Yuan, Jing; Ospina, Beatriz; Green, John; Yu, Qunyan; Walsh, Renee; Schmitz, Rita; Heine, Holger; Bilic, Sanela; Ostrom, Lance; Mosher, Rebecca; Hartlepp, K. Felix; Zhu, Zhenping; Fawell, Stephen; Yao, Yung-Mae; Stover, David; Finan, Peter M.; Porter, Jeffery A.; Sellers, William R.; Klagge, Ingo M.; Cong, Feng

    2010-01-01

    Disregulated Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been linked to various human diseases, including cancers. Inhibitors of oncogenic Wnt signaling are likely to have a therapeutic effect in cancers. LRP5 and LRP6 are closely related membrane coreceptors for Wnt proteins. Using a phage-display library, we identified anti-LRP6 antibodies that either inhibit or enhance Wnt signaling. Two classes of LRP6 antagonistic antibodies were discovered: one class specifically inhibits Wnt proteins represented by Wnt1, whereas the second class specifically inhibits Wnt proteins represented by Wnt3a. Epitope-mapping experiments indicated that Wnt1 class-specific antibodies bind to the first propeller and Wnt3a class-specific antibodies bind to the third propeller of LRP6, suggesting that Wnt1- and Wnt3a-class proteins interact with distinct LRP6 propeller domains. This conclusion is further supported by the structural functional analysis of LRP5/6 and the finding that the Wnt antagonist Sclerostin interacts with the first propeller of LRP5/6 and preferentially inhibits the Wnt1-class proteins. We also show that Wnt1 or Wnt3a class-specific anti-LRP6 antibodies specifically block growth of MMTV-Wnt1 or MMTV-Wnt3 xenografts in vivo. Therapeutic application of these antibodies could be limited without knowing the type of Wnt proteins expressed in cancers. This is further complicated by our finding that bivalent LRP6 antibodies sensitize cells to the nonblocked class of Wnt proteins. The generation of a biparatopic LRP6 antibody blocks both Wnt1- and Wnt3a-mediated signaling without showing agonistic activity. Our studies provide insights into Wnt-induced LRP5/6 activation and show the potential utility of LRP6 antibodies in Wnt-driven cancer. PMID:20713706

  19. Generation of human antigen-specific monoclonal IgM antibodies using vaccinated "human immune system" mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo D Becker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Passive transfer of antibodies not only provides immediate short-term protection against disease, but also can be exploited as a therapeutic tool. However, the 'humanization' of murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs is a time-consuming and expensive process that has the inherent drawback of potentially altering antigenic specificity and/or affinity. The immortalization of human B cells represents an alternative for obtaining human mAbs, but relies on the availability of biological samples from vaccinated individuals or convalescent patients. In this work we describe a novel approach to generate fully human mAbs by combining a humanized mouse model with a new B cell immortalization technique. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: After transplantation with CD34+CD38⁻ human hematopoietic progenitor cells, BALB/c Rag2⁻/⁻IL-2Rγc⁻/⁻ mice acquire a human immune system and harbor B cells with a diverse IgM repertoire. "Human Immune System" mice were then immunized with two commercial vaccine antigens, tetanus toxoid and hepatitis B surface antigen. Sorted human CD19+CD27+ B cells were retrovirally transduced with the human B cell lymphoma (BCL-6 and BCL-XL genes, and subsequently cultured in the presence of CD40-ligand and IL-21. This procedure allows generating stable B cell receptor-positive B cells that secrete immunoglobulins. We recovered stable B cell clones that produced IgM specific for tetanus toxoid and the hepatitis B surface antigen, respectively. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This work provides the proof-of-concept for the usefulness of this novel method based on the immunization of humanized mice for the rapid generation of human mAbs against a wide range of antigens.

  20. Antibodies to watch in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Janice M

    2013-01-01

    The transitions of antibody therapeutics to late-stage clinical development, regulatory review and the market are proceeding at a rapid pace in 2013. Since late 2012, two monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapeutics (itolizumab, trastuzumab emtansine) received their first approvals, first marketing applications for three mAbs (vedolizumab, ramucirumab, obinutuzumab) were submitted to regulatory agencies, and five mAbs (brodalumab, MABp1, moxetumomab pasudotox, tildrakizumab, rilotumumab) entered their first Phase 3 studies. The current total of commercially-sponsored antibody therapeutics undergoing evaluation in late-stage studies is 30. Recently announced study results for farletuzumab, naptumomab estafenatox, and tabalumab indicate that clinical endpoints were not met in some Phase 3 studies of these product candidates. PMID:23727858

  1. Epigenetics of the antibody response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guideng; Zan, Hong; Xu, Zhenming; Casali, Paolo

    2013-09-01

    Epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation, histone post-translational modifications and miRNAs, are induced in B cells by the same stimuli that drive the antibody response. They play major roles in regulating somatic hypermutation (SHM), class switch DNA recombination (CSR), and differentiation to plasma cells or long-lived memory B cells. Histone modifications target the CSR and, possibly, SHM machinery to the immunoglobulin locus; they together with DNA methylation and miRNAs modulate the expression of critical elements of that machinery, such as activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), as well as factors central to plasma cell differentiation, such as B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1). These inducible B cell-intrinsic epigenetic marks instruct the maturation of antibody responses. Their dysregulation plays an important role in aberrant antibody responses to foreign antigens, such as those of microbial pathogens, and self-antigens, such as those targeted in autoimmunity, and B cell neoplasia.

  2. Structural insight into antibody-mediated antagonism of the Glucagon-like peptide-1 Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennen, Stephanie; Kodra, János T; Soroka, Vladyslav; Krogh, Berit O; Wu, Xiaoai; Kaastrup, Peter; Ørskov, Cathrine; Rønn, Sif G; Schluckebier, Gerd; Barbateskovic, Silvia; Gandhi, Prafull S; Reedtz-Runge, Steffen

    2016-05-19

    The Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is a member of the class B G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family and a well-established target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The N-terminal extracellular domain (ECD) of GLP-1R is important for GLP-1 binding and the crystal structure of the GLP-1/ECD complex was reported previously. The first structure of a class B GPCR transmembrane (TM) domain was solved recently, but the full length receptor structure is still not well understood. Here we describe the molecular details of antibody-mediated antagonism of the GLP-1R using both in vitro pharmacology and x-ray crystallography. We showed that the antibody Fab fragment (Fab 3F52) blocked the GLP-1 binding site of the ECD directly and thereby acts as a competitive antagonist of native GLP-1. Interestingly, Fab 3F52 also blocked a short peptide agonist believed to engage primarily the transmembrane and extracellular loop region of GLP-1R, whereas functionality of an allosteric small-molecule agonist was not inhibited. This study has implications for the structural understanding of the GLP-1R and related class B GPCRs, which is important for the development of new and improved therapeutics targeting these receptors.

  3. Autologous antibodies that bind neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yujing; Sholler, Giselle S; Shukla, Girja S; Pero, Stephanie C; Carman, Chelsea L; Zhao, Ping; Krag, David N

    2015-11-01

    Antibody therapy of neuroblastoma is promising and our goal is to derive antibodies from patients with neuroblastoma for developing new therapeutic antibodies. The feasibility of using residual bone marrow obtained for clinical indications as a source of tumor cells and a source of antibodies was assessed. From marrow samples, neuroblastoma cells were recovered, grown in cell culture and also implanted into mice to create xenografts. Mononuclear cells from the marrow were used as a source to generate phage display antibody libraries and also hybridomas. Growth of neuroblastoma patient cells was possible both in vitro and as xenografts. Antibodies from the phage libraries and from the monoclonal hybridomas bound autologous neuroblastoma cells with some selectivity. It appears feasible to recover neuroblastoma cells from residual marrow specimens and to generate human antibodies that bind autologous neuroblastoma cells. Expansion of this approach is underway to collect more specimens, optimize methods to generate antibodies, and to evaluate the bioactivity of neuroblastoma-binding antibodies.

  4. Uses of monoclonal antibody 8H9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Nai-Kong V.

    2013-04-09

    This invention provides a composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a suitable carrier. This invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. This invention also provides an antibody other than the monoclonal antibody 8H9 comprising the complementary determining regions of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof, capable of binding to the same antigen as the monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention provides a substance capable of competitively inhibiting the binding of monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention also provides an isolated scFv of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof. This invention also provides the 8H9 antigen. This invention also provides different uses of the monoclonal antibody 8H9 or its derivative.

  5. CD16 is indispensable for antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity by human monocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeap, Wei Hseun; Wong, Kok Loon; Shimasaki, Noriko; Teo, Esmeralda Chi Yuan; Quek, Jeffrey Kim Siang; Yong, Hao Xiang; Diong, Colin Phipps; Bertoletti, Antonio; Linn, Yeh Ching; Wong, Siew Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is exerted by immune cells expressing surface Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) against cells coated with antibody, such as virus-infected or transformed cells. CD16, the FcγRIIIA, is essential for ADCC by NK cells, and is also expressed by a subset of human blood monocytes. We found that human CD16− expressing monocytes have a broad spectrum of ADCC capacities and can kill cancer cell lines, primary leukemic cells and hepatitis B virus-infected cells in the presence of specific antibodies. Engagement of CD16 on monocytes by antibody bound to target cells activated β2-integrins and induced TNFα secretion. In turn, this induced TNFR expression on the target cells, making them susceptible to TNFα-mediated cell death. Treatment with TLR agonists, DAMPs or cytokines, such as IFNγ, further enhanced ADCC. Monocytes lacking CD16 did not exert ADCC but acquired this property after CD16 expression was induced by either cytokine stimulation or transient transfection. Notably, CD16+ monocytes from patients with leukemia also exerted potent ADCC. Hence, CD16+ monocytes are important effectors of ADCC, suggesting further developments of this property in the context of cellular therapies for cancer and infectious diseases. PMID:27670158

  6. Antibody profiling sensitivity through increased reporter antibody layering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S.

    2013-02-26

    A method for analyzing a biological sample by antibody profiling for identifying forensic samples or for detecting the presence of an analyte. In an embodiment of the invention, the analyte is a drug, such as marijuana, Cocaine (crystalline tropane alkaloid), methamphetamine, methyltestosterone, or mesterolone. The method comprises attaching antigens to a surface of a solid support in a preselected pattern to form an array wherein locations of the antigens are known; contacting the array with the biological sample such that a portion of antibodies in the sample reacts with and binds to the antigens in the array to form immune complexes; washing away antibodies that do form immune complexes; and detecting the immune complexes, to form an antibody profile. Forensic samples are identified by comparing a sample from an unknown source with a sample from a known source. Further, an assay, such as a test for illegal drug use, can be coupled to a test for identity such that the results of the assay can be positively correlated to the subject's identity.

  7. Antibody profiling sensitivity through increased reporter antibody layering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, William A; Thompson, Vicki S

    2013-02-26

    A method for analyzing a biological sample by antibody profiling for identifying forensic samples or for detecting the presence of an analyte. In an embodiment of the invention, the analyte is a drug, such as marijuana, Cocaine (crystalline tropane alkaloid), methamphetamine, methyltestosterone, or mesterolone. The method comprises attaching antigens to a surface of a solid support in a preselected pattern to form an array wherein locations of the antigens are known; contacting the array with the biological sample such that a portion of antibodies in the sample reacts with and binds to the antigens in the array to form immune complexes; washing away antibodies that do form immune complexes; and detecting the immune complexes, to form an antibody profile. Forensic samples are identified by comparing a sample from an unknown source with a sample from a known source. Further, an assay, such as a test for illegal drug use, can be coupled to a test for identity such that the results of the assay can be positively correlated to the subject's identity.

  8. Antibody profiling sensitivity through increased reporter antibody layering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S.

    2017-03-28

    A method for analyzing a biological sample by antibody profiling for identifying forensic samples or for detecting the presence of an analyte. In an embodiment of the invention, the analyte is a drug, such as marijuana, Cocaine (crystalline tropane alkaloid), methamphetamine, methyltestosterone, or mesterolone. The method comprises attaching antigens to a surface of a solid support in a preselected pattern to form an array wherein locations of the antigens are known; contacting the array with the biological sample such that a portion of antibodies in the sample reacts with and binds to the antigens in the array to form immune complexes; washing away antibodies that do form immune complexes; and detecting the immune complexes, to form an antibody profile. Forensic samples are identified by comparing a sample from an unknown source with a sample from a known source. Further, an assay, such as a test for illegal drug use, can be coupled to a test for identity such that the results of the assay can be positively correlated to the subject's identity.

  9. Antibody profiling sensitivity through increased reporter antibody layering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S

    2010-04-13

    A method for analyzing a biological sample by antibody profiling for identifying forensic samples or for detecting the presence of an analyte. In an embodiment of the invention, the analyte is a drug, such as marijuana, Cocaine (crystalline tropane alkaloid), methamphetamine, methyltestosterone, or mesterolone. The method comprises attaching antigens to a surface of a solid support in a preselected pattern to form an array wherein locations of the antigens are known; contacting the array with the biological sample such that a portion of antibodies in the sample reacts with and binds to the antigens in the array to form immune complexes; washing away antibodies that do form immune complexes; and detecting the immune complexes, to form an antibody profile. Forensic samples are identified by comparing a sample from an unknown source with a sample from a known source. Further, an assay, such as a test for illegal drug use, can be coupled to a test for identity such that the results of the assay can be positively correlated to the subject's identity.

  10. PPAR-alpha agonists as novel antiepileptic drugs: preclinical findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Puligheddu

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs are involved in seizure mechanisms. Hence, nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy was the first idiopathic epilepsy linked with specific mutations in α4 or β2 nAChR subunit genes. These mutations confer gain of function to nAChRs by increasing sensitivity toward acetylcholine. Consistently, nicotine elicits seizures through nAChRs and mimics the excessive nAChR activation observed in animal models of the disease. Treatments aimed at reducing nicotinic inputs are sought as therapies for epilepsies where these receptors contribute to neuronal excitation and synchronization. Previous studies demonstrated that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-α (PPARα, nuclear receptor transcription factors, suppress nicotine-induced behavioral and electrophysiological effects by modulating nAChRs containing β2 subunits. On these bases, we tested whether PPARα agonists were protective against nicotine-induced seizures. To this aim we utilized behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG experiments in C57BL/J6 mice and in vitro patch clamp recordings from mice and rats. Convulsive doses of nicotine evoked severe seizures and bursts of spike-waves discharges in ∼100% of mice. A single dose of the synthetic PPARα agonist WY14643 (WY, 80 mg/kg, i.p. or chronic administration of fenofibrate, clinically available for lipid metabolism disorders, in the diet (0.2% for 14 days significantly reduced or abolished behavioral and EEG expressions of nicotine-induced seizures. Acute WY effects were reverted by the PPARα antagonist MK886 (3 mg/kg, i.p.. Since neocortical networks are crucial in the generation of ictal activity and synchrony, we performed patch clamp recordings of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs from frontal cortex layer II/III pyramidal neurons. We found that both acute and chronic treatment with PPARα agonists abolished nicotine-induced sIPSC increases. PPARα within the CNS are key

  11. Impact of efficacy at the μ-opioid receptor on antinociceptive effects of combinations of μ-opioid receptor agonists and cannabinoid receptor agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, David R; France, Charles P

    2014-11-01

    Cannabinoid receptor agonists, such as Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), enhance the antinociceptive effects of μ-opioid receptor agonists, which suggests that combining cannabinoids with opioids would improve pain treatment. Combinations with lower efficacy agonists might be preferred and could avoid adverse effects associated with large doses; however, it is unclear whether interactions between opioids and cannabinoids vary across drugs with different efficacy. The antinociceptive effects of μ-opioid receptor agonists alone and in combination with cannabinoid receptor agonists were studied in rhesus monkeys (n = 4) using a warm water tail withdrawal procedure. Etorphine, fentanyl, morphine, buprenorphine, nalbuphine, Δ(9)-THC, and CP 55,940 (2-[(1R,2R,5R)-5-hydroxy-2-(3-hydroxypropyl) cyclohexyl]-5-(2-methyloctan-2-yl)phenol) each increased tail withdrawal latency. Pretreatment with doses of Δ(9)-THC (1.0 mg/kg) or CP 55,940 (0.032 mg/kg) that were ineffective alone shifted the fentanyl dose-effect curve leftward 20.6- and 52.9-fold, respectively, and the etorphine dose-effect curve leftward 12.4- and 19.6-fold, respectively. Δ(9)-THC and CP 55,940 shifted the morphine dose-effect curve leftward only 3.4- and 7.9-fold, respectively, and the buprenorphine curve only 5.4- and 4.1-fold, respectively. Neither Δ(9)-THC nor CP 55,940 significantly altered the effects of nalbuphine. Cannabinoid receptor agonists increase the antinociceptive potency of higher efficacy opioid receptor agonists more than lower efficacy agonists; however, because much smaller doses of each drug can be administered in combinations while achieving adequate pain relief and that other (e.g., abuse-related) effects of opioids do not appear to be enhanced by cannabinoids, these results provide additional support for combining opioids with cannabinoids to treat pain.

  12. Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome and autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Rochella A; Robinson, John A

    2008-02-01

    The arbitrary division between antiphospholipid antibody syndrome and secondary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome has not proven useful. Antiphospholipid antibodies in the absence of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome often occur as epiphenomena in many autoimmune diseases. They are very common in systemic lupus erythematosus. Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is a significant comorbidity in lupus but is uncommon in Sjögren's syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, and systemic vasculitis. Evidence is growing that antiphospholipid antibodies may have a pathogenic role in pulmonary hypertension and accelerated atherosclerosis of autoimmune diseases.

  13. Antinociceptive interactions between Mu-opioid receptor agonists and the serotonin uptake inhibitor clomipramine in rhesus monkeys: role of Mu agonist efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Matthew L; Rice, Kenner C; Negus, S Stevens

    2010-11-01

    Mu-opioid agonists are effective analgesics but have undesirable effects such as sedation and abuse liability that limit their clinical effectiveness. Serotonergic systems also modulate nociception, and serotonin uptake inhibitors may be useful as adjuncts to enhance analgesic effects and/or attenuate undesirable effects of mu agonists. This study examined the effects of the serotonin uptake inhibitor clomipramine on behavioral effects produced in rhesus monkeys by mu agonists with varying efficacy at mu receptors (nalbuphine morphine > methadone. In the assay of capsaicin-induced allodynia, nalbuphine produced dose-dependent antiallodynia. Clomipramine alone was inactive, but as in the assay of thermal nociception, it produced a proportion-dependent enhancement in the effects of nalbuphine. These findings suggest that serotonin uptake inhibitors can selectively enhance the antinociceptive effects of mu agonists in nonhuman primates. These effects of serotonin uptake inhibitors may depend on the proportion of the serotonin uptake inhibitor and the efficacy of the mu agonist. The greatest enhancement was observed with intermediate proportions of clomipramine in combination with the low-efficacy mu agonist nalbuphine.

  14. Bitter Taste Receptor Agonists Mitigate Features of Allergic Asthma in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pawan; Yi, Roslyn; Nayak, Ajay P.; Wang, Nadan; Tang, Francesca; Knight, Morgan J.; Pan, Shi; Oliver, Brian; Deshpande, Deepak A.

    2017-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by airway inflammation, mucus secretion, remodeling and hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Recent research has established the bronchodilatory effect of bitter taste receptor (TAS2R) agonists in various models. Comprehensive pre-clinical studies aimed at establishing effectiveness of TAS2R agonists in disease models are lacking. Here we aimed to determine the effect of TAS2R agonists on features of asthma. Further, we elucidated a mechanism by which TAS2R agonists mitigate features of asthma. Asthma was induced in mice using intranasal house dust mite or aerosol ova-albumin challenge, and chloroquine or quinine were tested in both prophylactic and treatment models. Allergen challenge resulted in airway inflammation as evidenced by increased immune cells infiltration and release of cytokines and chemokines in the lungs, which were significantly attenuated in TAS2R agonists treated mice. TAS2R agonists attenuated features of airway remodeling including smooth muscle mass, extracellular matrix deposition and pro-fibrotic signaling, and also prevented mucus accumulation and development of AHR in mice. Mechanistic studies using human neutrophils demonstrated that inhibition of immune cell chemotaxis is a key mechanism by which TAS2R agonists blocked allergic airway inflammation and exerted anti-asthma effects. Our comprehensive studies establish the effectiveness of TAS2R agonists in mitigating multiple features of allergic asthma.

  15. Trialkyltin rexinoid-X receptor agonists selectively potentiate thyroid hormone induced programs of xenopus laevis metamorphosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengeling, Brenda J.; Murk, Albertinka J.; Furlow, J.D.

    2016-01-01

    The trialkyltins tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) can function as rexinoid-X receptor (RXR) agonists. We recently showed that RXR agonists can alter thyroid hormone (TH) signaling in a mammalian pituitary TH-responsive reporter cell line, GH3.TRE-Luc. The prevalence of TBT and TPT in the

  16. Marketed New Drug Delivery Systems for Opioid Agonists/Antagonists Administration: A Rapid Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Hoda; Pardakhty, Abbas

    2016-04-01

    Novel drug delivery systems for controlled-release of opioid agonists as a long time painkillers or opioid antagonists for opium, heroin, and alcohol addiction are under development or in clinical use today. In this article, the field of "new drug delivery systems" is momentarily reviewed from the viewpoint of the marketed opioid agonists/antagonists dosage forms today.

  17. Synthesis of urea acetates as potential PPARα/γ,dual agonists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Yan Zhao; Chang Qing Shi; Yuan Wei Chen

    2008-01-01

    In the quest for novel PPARα/γ dual agonists as putative drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia,we designed and synthesized a series of urea acetates as potential PPARα/γ dual agonists.The structure of the target compounds,intermediates were characterized by 1H NMR,HRMS.

  18. Marketed New Drug Delivery Systems for Opioid Agonists/Antagonists Administration: A Rapid Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Soltani, Hoda; Pardakhty, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Novel drug delivery systems for controlled-release of opioid agonists as a long time painkillers or opioid antagonists for opium, heroin, and alcohol addiction are under development or in clinical use today. In this article, the field of “new drug delivery systems” is momentarily reviewed from the viewpoint of the marketed opioid agonists/antagonists dosage forms today.

  19. Sumatriptan (5-HT1D receptor agonist) does not exacerbate symptoms in obsessive compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pian, KLH; Westerberg, HGM; van Megen, HJGM; den Boer, JA

    1998-01-01

    The non-selective serotonin (5-HT) receptor agonist meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) has been reported to elicit symptoms in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). MK-212, another nonselective 5-HT receptor agonist, does not seem to induce obsessive compulsive symptoms in OCD patients.

  20. Recurrence of hyperprolactinemia after withdrawal of dopamine agonists: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, O.M.; Lagro, J.; Burman, P.; Jorgensen, J.O.; Romijn, J.A.; Pereira, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    CONTEXT: Dopamine agonists are the treatment of choice for prolactinomas and symptomatic idiopathic hyperprolactinemia. However, the optimal treatment strategy and treatment duration is not clear in all details. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of dopamine agonist withdrawal

  1. The 5-HT(1F) receptor agonist lasmiditan as a potential treatment of migraine attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, Peer C; Olesen, Jes

    2012-01-01

    Lasmiditan is a novel selective 5-HT(1F) receptor agonist. It is both scientifically and clinically relevant to review whether a 5-HT(1F) receptor agonist is effective in the acute treatment of migraine. Two RCTs in the phase II development of lasmiditan was reviewed. In the intravenous placebo...

  2. Efficacy and safety of the PPARγ partial agonist balaglitazone compared with pioglitazone and placebo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Kim; Byrjalsen, Inger; Qvist, Per;

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of patients with perioxisome proliferator-activated receptor-¿ full agonists are associated with weight gain, heart failure, peripheral oedema, and bone loss. However, the safety of partial perioxisome proliferator-activated receptor-¿ agonists has not been established in a clinical tri...

  3. Drug-induced Hypothermia by 5HT1A Agonists Provide Neuroprotection in Experimental Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Flemming Fryd; Hasseldam, Henrik; Nybro Smith, Matthias;

    2014-01-01

    with .55°C ranging between .1-1.4°C. CONCLUSIONS: 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1A (5HT1A) agonists significantly reduce infarct volumes in MCAO rats primarily because of the hypothermic drug effect. 5HT1A agonists may be introduced to reduce body temperatures rapidly and prepare patients for further...

  4. Metabolic effects of beta2-agonists in relation to exercise performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Beta2-agonists are frequently used in the treatment of asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in elite athletes. However, aside from a bronchodilatory effect, beta2-agonists have also been shown to improve exercise performance, which makes these substances subjected to misuse by elite...

  5. Identification of diarylsulfonamides as agonists of the free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFA4/GPR120).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Steven M; Chen, Grace; Collins, Jon L; Danger, Dana; Dock, Steven T; Jayawickreme, Channa; Jenkinson, Stephen; Laudeman, Christopher; Leesnitzer, M Anthony; Liang, Xi; Maloney, Patrick; McCoy, Da