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Sample records for agn luminosity function

  1. A mixture evolution scenario of AGN radio luminosity function

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Zunli; Zhou, Ming; Mao, Jirong

    2016-01-01

    We propose a mixture evolution scenario to model the evolution of the steep spectrum AGN (active galactic nuclear) radio luminosity function (RLF) based on a Bayesian method. In this scenario, the shape of RLF is determined together by the density and luminosity evolution. Our models indicate that the density evolution is positive until a redshift of $\\thicksim 0.9$ and then turns to be negative, while the luminosity evolution is positive to a higher redshift ($z \\thicksim 5$ for model B and $z \\thicksim 3.5$ for model C) and then turns to be negative. Our mixture evolution model works well, and the modeled RLFs are in good agreement with previous determinations. The mixture evolution scenario can naturally explain the luminosity dependent evolution of the RLFs.

  2. The radio luminosity function and redshift evolution of radio-mode and quasar-mode AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pracy, Mike

    2016-08-01

    The properties of the AGN population indicate that there are two fundamentally different accretion modes operating. In the quasar-mode, material is accreted onto the supermassive black hole via a small, thin, optically luminous accretion disc. Accretion in this mode is recognisable by emission lines in the optical spectrum. However, there is a population of AGN observable only by their radio emission and without optical emission lines. These radio-mode AGN are likely powered by radiatively inefficient accretion from a hot gas halo. I will describe the cosmic evolution of these two populations via radio luminosity functions. The radio luminosity functions are constructed from a new survey of over 4000 radio galaxies out to z=1, all with confirmed redshifts and their accretion mode classified from their optical spectra. This is 20 times larger than the only other survey used to make such a measurement. The radio-mode AGN population displays no statistically significant evolution in space density out to redshift z=1. In contrast the quasar mode AGN exhibits rapid evolution in space density, increasing by a factor of 8 over the same redshift range. The characteristic break in the radio luminosity function occurs at a significantly higher power for the quasar-mode AGN in comparison to the radio-mode AGN and we demonstrate this is consistent with the two populations representing fundamentally different accretion modes. The radio luminosity function is used to estimate the total amount of mechanical energy available for radio mode feedback as a function of redshift, and is found to be in good agreement with cosmological models and previous measurements. Again, by separating by accretion mode, the previously estimated increase in available mechanical energy per unit volume out to z=1 (approximately a factor of 2) can be attributed to the rapid evolution of the quasar-mode AGN, while for the classical radio-mode AGN the total mechanical energy output remains roughly

  3. On the faint end of the high redshift AGN luminosity function

    CERN Document Server

    Shankar, F; Shankar, Francesco; Mathur, Smita; Shankar, Francesco; Mathur, Smita

    2007-01-01

    Using the results of recent optical surveys we conclude that the {\\it non}-detection of quasars down to faint magnitudes implies a significant flattening of the high redshift (z~6) optical active galactic nuclei (AGN) luminosity function for M_{1450}>-26.7. We find that all the data are consistent with a faint-end slope for the optical AGN luminosity function of \\beta=-2.2 and \\beta=-2.8, at the 90% and 99% confidence level respectively, flatter than the bright-end slope of \\beta'~ -3.2. We also show that X-ray deep surveys have probed even fainter magnitudes than the optical ones yielding more significant constraints on the shallow faint-end slope of the optical luminosity function. The inclusion of Type II AGN candidates, detected in the Chandra deep fields, hints towards an higher normalization for the total AGN luminosity function, if these sources lie at 5AGN formation and evolution in the context of cold dark matter cosmology. The comparison wi...

  4. On the faint end of the high redshift AGN luminosity function

    OpenAIRE

    Shankar, Francesco; Mathur, Smita

    2007-01-01

    Using the results of recent optical surveys we conclude that the {\\it non}-detection of quasars down to faint magnitudes implies a significant flattening of the high redshift (z~6) optical active galactic nuclei (AGN) luminosity function for M_{1450}>-24.7. We find that all the data are consistent with a faint-end slope for the optical AGN luminosity function of \\beta=-2.2 and \\beta=-2.8, at the 90% and 99% confidence level respectively, flatter than the bright-end slope of \\beta'~ -3.2. We a...

  5. The VVDS type-1 AGN sample: The faint end of the luminosity function

    CERN Document Server

    Bongiorno, A; Gavignaud, I; Marano, B; Paltani, S; Mathez, G; Picat, J P; Cirasuolo, M; Lamareille, F; Bottini, D; Garilli, B; Le Brun, V; Le Fèvre, O; MacCagni, D; Scaramella, R; Scodeggio, M; Tresse, L; Vettolani, G; Zanichelli, A; Adami, C; Arnouts, S; Bardelli, S; Bolzonella, M; Cappi, A; Charlot, S; Ciliegi, P; Contini, T; Foucaud, S; Franzetti, P; Guzzo, L; Ilbert, O; Iovino, A; McCracken, H J; Marinon, C; Mazure, A; Meneux, B; Merighi, R; Pellò, R; Pollo, A; Pozzetti, L; Radovich, M; Zucca, E; Hatziminaoglou, E; Polletta, M; Bondi, M; Brinchmann, J; Cucciati, O; De la Torre, S; Gregorini, L; Mellier, Y; Merluzzi, P; Temporin, S; Vergani, D; Walcher, C J

    2007-01-01

    In a previous paper (Gavignaud et al. 2006), we presented the type-1 Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) sample obtained from the first epoch data of the VIMOS-VLT Deep Survey (VVDS). The sample consists of 130 faint, broad-line AGN with redshift up to z=5 and 17.5< I <24.0, selected on the basis of their spectra. In this paper we present the measurement of the Optical Luminosity Function up to z=3.6 derived from this sample, we compare our results with previous results from brighter samples both at low and at high redshift. Our data, more than one magnitude fainter than previous optical surveys, allow us to constrain the faint part of the luminosity function up to high redshift. By combining our faint VVDS sample with the large sample of bright AGN extracted from the SDSS DR3 (Richards et al., 2006b) and testing a number of different evolutionary models, we find that the model which better represents the combined luminosity functions, over a wide range of redshift and luminosity, is a luminosity dependent den...

  6. Complete Hard X-Ray Surveys, AGN Luminosity Functions and the X-Ray Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tueller, Jack

    2011-01-01

    AGN are believed to make up most of the Cosmic X-Ray Background (CXB) above a few keV, but this background cannot be fully resolved at energies less than 10 keV due to absorption. The Swift/BAT and INTEGRAL missions are performing the first complete hard x-ray surveys with minimal bias due to absorption. The most recent results for both missions will be presented. Although the fraction of the CXB resolved by these surveys is small, it is possible to derive unbiased number counts and luminosity functions for AGN in the local universe. The survey energy range from 15-150 keV contains the important reflection and cutoff spectral features dominate the shape of the AGN contribution to the CXB. Average spectral characteristics of survey detected AGN will be presented and compared with model distributions. The numbers of hard x-ray blazars detected in these surveys are finally sufficient to estimate this important component's contribution the cosmic background. Constraints on CXB models and their significance will be discussed.

  7. The Hard X-ray 20-40 keV AGN Luminosity Function

    CERN Document Server

    Beckmann, V; Shrader, C R; Gehrels, N; Produit, N

    2006-01-01

    We have compiled a complete extragalactic sample based on 25,000 deg^2 to a limiting flux of 3E-11 ergs/cm**2/sec (7,000 deg^2 to a flux limit of 1E-11 ergs/cm**2/sec) in the 20 - 40 keV band with INTEGRAL. We have constructed a detailed exposure map to compensate for effects of non-uniform exposure. The flux-number relation is best described by a power-law with a slope of alpha = 1.66+-0.11. The integration of the cumulative flux per unit area leads to f = 2.6E-10 ergs/cm**2/sec/sr, which is about 1% of the known 20 - 40 keV X-ray background. We present the first luminosity function of AGNs in the 20-40 keV energy range, based on 38 extragalactic objects detected by the imager IBIS/ISGRI on-board INTEGRAL. The luminosity function shows a smoothly connected two power-law form, with an index of gamma_1 = 0.8 below, and gamma_2 = 2.1 above the turn-over luminosity of L* = 2.4E43 ergs/sec. The emissivity of all INTEGRAL AGNs per unit volume is W(> 1E41 ergs/sec) = 2.8E38 ergs/sec/Mpc**3. These results are consis...

  8. The 5-10 keV AGN luminosity function at 0.01 < z < 4.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotopoulou, S.; Buchner, J.; Georgantopoulos, I.; Hasinger, G.; Salvato, M.; Georgakakis, A.; Cappelluti, N.; Ranalli, P.; Hsu, L. T.; Brusa, M.; Comastri, A.; Miyaji, T.; Nandra, K.; Aird, J.; Paltani, S.

    2016-03-01

    The active galactic nuclei (AGN) X-ray luminosity function traces actively accreting supermassive black holes and is essential for the study of the properties of the AGN population, black hole evolution, and galaxy-black hole coevolution. Up to now, the AGN luminosity function has been estimated several times in soft (0.5-2 keV) and hard X-rays (2-10 keV). AGN selection in these energy ranges often suffers from identification and redshift incompleteness and, at the same time, photoelectric absorption can obscure a significant amount of the X-ray radiation. We estimate the evolution of the luminosity function in the 5-10 keV band, where we effectively avoid the absorbed part of the spectrum, rendering absorption corrections unnecessary up to NH ~ 1023 cm-2. Our dataset is a compilation of six wide, and deep fields: MAXI, HBSS, XMM-COSMOS, Lockman Hole, XMM-CDFS, AEGIS-XD, Chandra-COSMOS, and Chandra-CDFS. This extensive sample of ~1110 AGN (0.01 separately for each survey and for the combined sample. We show that, according to Bayesian model selection, the preferred model for our dataset is the LDDE. Our estimation of the AGN luminosity function does not require any assumption on the AGN absorption and is in good agreement with previous works in the 2-10 keV energy band based on X-ray hardness ratios to model the absorption in AGN up to redshift three. Our sample does not show evidence of a rapid decline of the AGN luminosity function up to redshift four.

  9. The Hard X-ray 20-40 keV AGN Luminosity Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, V.; Soldi, S.; Shrader, C. R.; Gehrels, N.; Produit, N.

    2006-01-01

    We have compiled a complete, significance limited extragalactic sample based on approximately 25,000 deg(sup 2) to a limiting flux of 3 x 10(exp -11) ergs per square centimeter per second. (approximately 7,000 deg(sup 2)) to a flux limit of 10(exp -11) ergs per square centimeter per second)) in the 20 - 40 keV band with INTEGRAL. We have constructed a detailed exposure map to compensate for effects of non-uniform exposure. The flux-number relation is best described by a power-law with a slope of alpha = 1.66 plus or minus 0.11. The integration of the cumulative flux per unit area leads to f(sub 20-40 keV) = 2.6 x 10(exp -10) ergs per square centimeter per second per sr(sup -1) which is about 1% of the known 20-40 keV X-ray background. We present the first luminosity function of AGN in the 20-40 keV energy range, based on 68 extragalactic objects detected by the imager IBIS/ISGRI on-board INTEGRAL. The luminosity function shows a smoothly connected two power-law form, with an index of gamma (sub 1) = 0.9 below, and gamma (sub 2) = 2.2 above the turn-over luminosity of L(sub *), = 4.6 x 10(sup 43) ergs per second. The emissivity of all INTEGRAL AGNs per unit volume is W(sub 20-40keV)(greater than 10(sup 41) ergs per second) = 2.8 x 10(sup 38) ergs per second h(sup 3)(sub 70) Mpc(sup -3). These results are consistent with those derived in the 2-20keV energy band and do not show a significant contribution by Compton-thick objects. Because the sample used in this study is truly local (z(raised bar) = 0.022)), only limited conclusions can be drawn for the evolution of AGNs in this energy band. But the objects explaining the peak in the cosmic X-ray background are likely to be either low luminosity AGN (L(sub x) less than 10(sup 41) ergs per second) or of other type, such as intermediate mass black holes, clusters, and star forming regions.

  10. Effect of spectral index distribution on estimating the AGN radio luminosity function

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Zunli; Zhou, Ming; Mao, Jirong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we scrutinize the effect of spectral index distribution on estimating the AGN (active galactic nucleus) radio luminosity function (RLF) by a Monte Carlo method. We find that the traditional bivariate RLF estimators can cause bias in varying degree. The bias is especially pronounced for the flat-spectrum radio sources whose spectral index distribution is more scattered. We believe that the bias is caused because the $K$-corrections complicate the truncation boundary on the $L-z$ plane of the sample, but the traditional bivariate RLF estimators have difficulty in dealing with this boundary condition properly. We suggest that the spectral index distribution should be incorporated into the RLF analysis process to obtain a robust estimation. This drives the need for a trivariate function of the form $\\Phi(\\alpha,z,L)$ which we show provides an accurate basis for measuring the RLF.

  11. The 5 - 10 keV AGN luminosity function at 0.01

    CERN Document Server

    Fotopoulou, S; Georgantopoulos, I; Hasinger, G; Salvato, M; Georgakakis, A; Cappelluti, N; Ranalli, P; Hsu, L T; Brusa, M; Comastri, A; Miyaji, T; Nandra, K; Aird, J; Paltani, S

    2016-01-01

    The active galactic nuclei X-ray luminosity function traces actively accreting supermassive black holes and is essential for the study of the properties of the active galactic nuclei (AGN) population, black hole evolution, and galaxy-black hole coevolution. Up to now, the AGN luminosity function has been estimated several times in soft (0.5-2 keV) and hard X-rays (2-10 keV). AGN selection in these energy ranges often suffers from identification and redshift incompleteness and, at the same time, photoelectric absorption can obscure a significant amount of the X-ray radiation. We estimate the evolution of the luminosity function in the 5-10 keV band, where we effectively avoid the absorbed part of the spectrum, rendering absorption corrections unnecessary up to NH=10^23 cm^-2. Our dataset is a compilation of six wide, and deep fields: MAXI, HBSS, XMM-COSMOS, Lockman Hole, XMM-CDFS, AEGIS-XD, Chandra-COSMOS, and Chandra-CDFS. This extensive sample of ~1110 AGN (0.01

  12. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): The 325 MHz Radio Luminosity Function of AGN and Star Forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Prescott, Matthew; Jarvis, M J; McAlpine, K; Smith, D J B; Fine, S; Johnston, R; Hardcastle, M J; Baldry, I K; Brough, S; Brown, M J I; Bremer, M N; Driver, S P; Hopkins, A M; Kelvin, L S; Loveday, J; Norberg, P; Obreschkow, D; Sadler, E M

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of the evolution of both active galactic nuclei (AGN) and star-formation in galaxies underpins our understanding of galaxy evolution over cosmic time. Radio continuum observations can provide key information on these two processes, in particular via the mechanical feedback produced by radio jets in AGN, and via an unbiased dust-independent measurement of star-formation rates. In this paper we determine radio luminosity functions at 325 MHz for a sample of AGN and star-forming galaxies by matching a 138 deg sq. radio survey conducted with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT), with optical imaging and redshifts from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. We find that the radio luminosity function at 325 MHz for star-forming galaxies closely follows that measured at 1.4 GHz. By fitting the AGN radio luminosity function out to $z = 0.5$ as a double power law, and parametrizing the evolution as ${\\Phi} \\propto (1 + z)^{k}$ , we find evolution parameters of $k = 0.92 \\pm 0.95$ assuming pure d...

  13. The evolution of the X-ray luminosity functions of unabsorbed and absorbed AGNs out to z~5

    CERN Document Server

    Aird, James; Georgakakis, Antonis; Nandra, Kirpal; Barro, Guillermo; Perez-Gonzalez, Pablo G

    2015-01-01

    We present new measurements of the evolution of the X-ray luminosity functions (XLFs) of unabsorbed and absorbed Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) out to z~5. We construct samples containing 2957 sources detected at hard (2-7 keV) X-ray energies and 4351 sources detected at soft (0.5-2 keV) energies from a compilation of Chandra surveys supplemented by wide-area surveys from ASCA and ROSAT. We consider the hard and soft X-ray samples separately and find that the XLF based on either (initially neglecting absorption effects) is best described by a new flexible model parametrization where the break luminosity, normalization and faint-end slope all evolve with redshift. We then incorporate absorption effects, separately modeling the evolution of the XLFs of unabsorbed ($20<\\log N_H<22$) and absorbed ($22<\\log N_H<24$) AGNs, seeking a model that can reconcile both the hard- and soft-band samples. We find that the absorbed AGN XLF generally has a lower break luminosity, a higher normalization, and a steeper...

  14. Gamma-ray luminosity function of gamma-ray bright AGNs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Debbijoy Bhattacharya; P. Sreekumar; R. Mukherjee

    2009-01-01

    Detection of γ-ray emissions from a class of active galactic nuclei (viz blazars),has been one of the important findings from the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO). However, their-γ-ray luminosity function has not been well determined. Few at-tempts have been made in earlier works, where BL Lacs and Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars (FSRQs) have been considered as a single source class. In this paper, we investigated the evolution and γ-ray luminosity function of FSRQs and BL Lacs separately. Our investi-gation indicates no evolution for BL Lacs, however FSRQs show significant evolution. Pure luminosity evolution is assumed for FSRQs and exponential and power law evolu-tion models are examined. Due to the small number of sources, the low luminosity end index of the luminosity function for FSRQs is constrained with an upper limit. BL Lac lu-minosity function shows no signature of break. As a consistency check, the model source distributions derived from these luminosity functions show no significant departure from the observed source distributions.

  15. The 2-10 keV unabsorbed luminosity function of AGN from the LSS, CDFS, and COSMOS surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranalli, P.; Koulouridis, E.; Georgantopoulos, I.; Fotopoulou, S.; Hsu, L.-T.; Salvato, M.; Comastri, A.; Pierre, M.; Cappelluti, N.; Carrera, F. J.; Chiappetti, L.; Clerc, N.; Gilli, R.; Iwasawa, K.; Pacaud, F.; Paltani, S.; Plionis, E.; Vignali, C.

    2016-05-01

    The XMM-Large scale structure (XMM-LSS), XMM-Cosmological evolution survey (XMM-COSMOS), and XMM-Chandra deep field south (XMM-CDFS) surveys are complementary in terms of sky coverage and depth. Together, they form a clean sample with the least possible variance in instrument effective areas and point spread function. Therefore this is one of the best samples available to determine the 2-10 keV luminosity function of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and their evolution. The samples and the relevant corrections for incompleteness are described. A total of 2887 AGN is used to build the LF in the luminosity interval 1042-1046 erg s-1 and in the redshift interval 0.001-4. A new method to correct for absorption by considering the probability distribution for the column density conditioned on the hardness ratio is presented. The binned luminosity function and its evolution is determined with a variant of the Page-Carrera method, which is improved to include corrections for absorption and to account for the full probability distribution of photometric redshifts. Parametric models, namely a double power law with luminosity and density evolution (LADE) or luminosity-dependent density evolution (LDDE), are explored using Bayesian inference. We introduce the Watanabe-Akaike information criterion (WAIC) to compare the models and estimate their predictive power. Our data are best described by the LADE model, as hinted by the WAIC indicator. We also explore the recently proposed 15-parameter extended LDDE model and find that this extension is not supported by our data. The strength of our method is that it provides unabsorbed, non-parametric estimates, credible intervals for luminosity function parameters, and a model choice based on predictive power for future data. Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA member states and NASA.Tables with the samples of the posterior probability distributions

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 2-10keV luminosity function of AGN (Ranalli+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranalli, P.; Koulouridis, E.; Georgantopoulos, I.; Fotopoulou, S.; Hsu, L.-T.; Salvato, M.; Comastri, A.; Pierre, M.; Cappelluti, N.; Carrera, F. J.; Chiappetti, L.; Clerc, N.; Gilli, R.; Iwasawa, K.; Pacaud, F.; Paltani, S.; Plionis, E.; Vignali, C.

    2016-02-01

    The XMM-LSS, XMM-CDFS, and XMM-COSMOS are three surveys with complementary properties in terms of luminosity and redshift coverage. We used these three surveys to derive Bayesian estimates of the unabsorbed luminosity function (LF) of AGN in the 2-10keV band. The LF estimates are presented as a set of samples from the posterior probability distribution of the LF parameters. The LF is parameterised as a double power-law, with either the luminosity and density evolution (LADE) model, or the luminosity-dependent density evolution (LDDE) model. The double power-law is described by Eq.(10) in the paper. The LADE and LDDE models are described by Eqs.(11-14) and Eqs.(15-17), respectively. A Fortran 2008 implementation of these models can be found in file src2/lumf_funcs.f90 of the LFTools package, in the classes doublepowerlaw, ladevol, and lddevol (see the paper). (8 data files).

  17. Cosmological Evolution of the Hard X-ray AGN Luminosity Function and the Origin of the Hard X-ray Background

    OpenAIRE

    Ueda, Yoshihiro; Akiyama, Masayuki; Ohta, Kouji; Miyaji, Takamitsu

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the cosmological evolution of the hard X-ray luminosity function (HXLF) of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) in the 2-10 keV luminosity range of 10^{41.5} - 10^{46.5} erg s^-1 as a function of redshift up to 3. From a combination of surveys conducted at photon energies above 2 keV with HEAO1, ASCA, and Chandra, we construct a highly complete (>96%) sample consisting of 247 AGNs over the wide flux range of 10^{-10} - 3.8*10^{-15} erg cm^-2 s^-1 (2-10 keV). For our purpose, we develop...

  18. AGN Broad Line Regions Scale with Bolometric Luminosity

    CERN Document Server

    Trippe, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    The masses of supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei (AGN) can be derived spectroscopically via virial mass estimators based on selected broad optical/ultraviolet emission lines. These estimates commonly use the line width as a proxy for the gas speed and the monochromatic continuum luminosity as a proxy for the radius of the broad line region. However, if the size of the broad line region scales with bolometric rather than monochromatic AGN luminosity, mass estimates based on different emission lines will show a systematic discrepancy which is a function of the color of the AGN continuum. This has actually been observed in mass estimates based on H-alpha / H-beta and C IV lines, indicating that AGN broad line regions indeed scale with bolometric luminosity. Given that this effect seems to have been overlooked as yet, currently used single-epoch mass estimates are likely to be biased.

  19. Effect of Spectral Index Distribution on Estimating the AGN Radio Luminosity Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zunli; Wang, Jiancheng; Zhou, Ming; Mao, Jirong

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we scrutinize the effect of spectral index distribution on estimating the active galactic nucleus radio luminosity function (RLF) by a Monte Carlo method. We find that the traditional bivariate RLF estimators can cause bias in varying degrees. The bias is especially pronounced for the flat-spectrum radio sources whose spectral index distribution is more scattered. We believe that the bias is caused because the K-corrections complicate the truncation boundary on the L-z plane of the sample, but the traditional bivariate RLF estimators have difficulty dealing with this boundary condition properly. We suggest that the spectral index distribution should be incorporated into the RLF analysis process to obtain a robust estimation. This drives the need for a trivariate function of the form Φ(α, z, L), which we show provides an accurate basis for measuring the RLF.

  20. Low luminosity AGNs in the local universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikiz, Tuba; Peletier, Reynier F.; Yesilyaprak, Cahit

    2016-04-01

    Galaxies are known to contain black holes (e.g. Ferrarese & Merritt 2000), whose mass correlates with the mass of their bulge. A fraction of them also has an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN), showing excess emission thought to be due to accretion of mass by the supermassive black hole at the center of the galaxy. It is thought that AGNs play a very important role during the formation of galaxies by creating large outflows that stop star formation in the galaxy (see e.g. Kormendy & Ho 2013). The aim is to detect the fraction of Low Luminosity Active Galactic Nucleus (LLAGN) in the nearby Universe. At present, they are typically found using optical spectroscopy (e.g. Kauffmann, Heckman et al. 2003), who discuss the influence of the AGN on the host galaxy and vice versa. However, optical spectra are seriously affected by extinction in these generally very dusty objects, and therefore can only give us partial information about the AGN. I used a newly-found method, and apply it to the S4G sample, a large, complete, sample of nearby galaxies, which I am studying in detail with a large collaboration, to detect the fraction of low luminosity AGNs, and to better understand the relation between AGNs and their host galaxy which is thought to be crucial for their formation.

  1. The Dark Matter Halos of Moderate Luminosity AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leauthaud, Alexie; Benson, Andrew; Civano, Francesca M.; Coil, Alison L.; Bundy, Kevin; Massey, Richard; Schramm, Malte; Schulze, Andreas; Capak, Peter L.; Elvis, Martin; Kulier, Andrea; Rhodes, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between galaxies hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) and the dark matter halos in which they reside is key to constraining how black-hole fueling is triggered and regulated. Previous efforts have relied on simple halo mass estimates inferred from clustering, weak gravitational lensing, or halo occupation distribution modeling. In practice, these approaches remain uncertain because AGN, no matter how they are identified, potentially live a wide range of halo masses with an occupation function whose general shape and normalization are poorly known. Instead, in this work, we use host mass as a prior to derive halo masses for moderate luminosity AGN. Using 382 moderate luminosity X-ray AGN at zlive in group-scale dark matter halos---nearly half reside in halos with Mhalo ~ 10^12.5 Msun. By highlighting the relatively ``normal'' way in which moderate luminosity X-ray AGN hosts occupy halos, our results suggest that the environmental signature of distinct fueling modes for luminous QSOs compared to moderate luminosity X-ray AGN is less obvious than previously claimed.

  2. Bolometric Luminosity Correction of H2O Maser AGNs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Q. Guo; J. S. Zhang; J. Wang

    2014-09-01

    For the H2O maser host AGN sample, we derived their bolometric luminosity corrections, based on their X-ray data and [O III] emission line luminosities. Our results for maser AGNs is comparable to that of non-maser AGNs.

  3. Morphologies of z~0.7 AGN Host Galaxies in CANDELS: No trend of merger incidence with AGN luminosity

    CERN Document Server

    Villforth, C; Rosario, D J; Santini, P; McGrath, E J; van der Wel, A; Chang, Y -Y; Guo, Yicheng; Dahlen, T; Bell, E F; Conselice, C J; Croton, D; Dekel, A; Faber, S M; Grogin, N; Hamilton, T; Hopkins, P F; Juneau, S; Kartaltepe, J; Kocevski, D; Koekemoer, A; Koo, D C; Lotz, J; McIntosh, D; Mozena, M; Somerville, R; Wild, V

    2014-01-01

    The processes that trigger Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) remain poorly understood. While lower luminosity AGN may be triggered by minor disturbances to the host galaxy, stronger disturbances are likely required to trigger luminous AGN. Major wet mergers of galaxies are ideal environments for AGN triggering since they provide large gas supplies and galaxy scale torques. There is however little observational evidence for a strong connection between AGN and major mergers. We analyse the morphological properties of AGN host galaxies as a function of AGN and host galaxy luminosity and compare them to a carefully matched sample of control galaxies. AGN are X-ray selected in the redshift range 0.5 < z < 0.8 and have luminosities 41 < log(L_X [erg/s]) < 44.5. 'Fake AGN' are simulated in the control galaxies by adding point sources with the magnitude of the matched AGN. We find that AGN host and control galaxies have comparable assymetries, Sersic indices and ellipticities at restframe ~950nm. AGN host gala...

  4. A remarkably flat relationship between the average star formation rate and AGN luminosity for distant X-ray AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Stanley, F; Alexander, D M; Swinbank, A M; Aird, J A; Del Moro, A; Hickox, R C; Mullaney, J R

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigate the relationship between the star formation rate, SFR, and AGN luminosity, L(AGN), for ~2000 X-ray detected AGN. The AGN span over three orders of magnitude in X-ray luminosity (10^(42) < L(2-8keV) < 10^(45.5) erg/s) and are in the redshift range z = 0.2 - 2.5. Using infrared (IR) photometry (8 - 500um), including deblended Spitzer and Herschel images and taking into account photometric upper limits, we decompose the IR spectral energy distributions into AGN and star formation components. Using the IR luminosities due to star formation, we investigate the average SFRs as a function of redshift and AGN luminosity. In agreement with previous studies, we find a strong evolution of the average SFR with redshift, tracking the observed evolution of the overall star forming galaxy population. However, we find that the relationship between the average SFR and AGN luminosity is flat at all redshifts and across all the AGN luminosities investigated. By comparing to empirical models, w...

  5. Challenges in Finding AGNs in the Low Luminosity Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyapal, Shobita; Abel, Nick; Secrest, Nathan; Singh, Amrit; Ellison, Sara

    2016-08-01

    Low luminosity AGNs are an important component of the AGN population. They are often found in the lowest mass galaxies or galaxies that lack classical bulges, a demographic that places important constraints to models of supermassive black hole seed formation and merger-free models of AGN fueling. The detection of AGNs in this low luminosity regime is challenging both because star formation in the host galaxy can dominate the optical spectrum and gas and dust can obscure the central engine at both optical and X-ray wavelengths. Thus while mid-infrared color selection and X-ray observations at energies <10 keV are often powerful tools in uncovering optically unidentified AGNs at higher luminosities, this is not the case in the low luminosity regime. In this talk, I will review the effectiveness of uncovering AGNs in the low luminosity regime using multiwavength investigations, with a focus on infrared spectroscopic signatures.

  6. The 2-10 keV unabsorbed luminosity function of AGN from the XMM-Newton LSS, CDFS and COSMOS surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Ranalli, P; Georgantopoulos, I; Fotopoulou, S; Hsu, L -T; Salvato, M; Comastri, A; Pierre, M; Cappelluti, N; Carrera, F J; Chiappetti, L; Clerc, N; Gilli, R; Iwasawa, K; Pacaud, F; Paltani, S; Plionis, E; Vignali, C

    2015-01-01

    The XMM-LSS, XMM-COSMOS, and XMM-CDFS surveys are complementary in terms of sky coverage and depth. Together, they form a clean sample with the least possible variance in instrument effective areas and PSF. Therefore this is one of the best samples available to determine the 2-10 keV luminosity function of AGN and its evolution. The samples and the relevant corrections for incompleteness are described. A total of 2887 AGN is used to build the LF in the luminosity interval 10^42-10^46 erg/s, and in the redshift interval 0.001-4. A new method to correct for absorption by considering the probability distribution for the column density conditioned on the hardness ratio is presented. The binned luminosity function and its evolution is determined with a variant of the Page-Carrera method, improved to include corrections for absorption and to account for the full probability distribution of photometric redshifts. Parametric models, namely a double power-law with LADE or LDDE evolution, are explored using Bayesian in...

  7. Modeling the cosmological co-evolution of supermassive black holes and galaxies: I. BH scaling relations and the AGN luminosity function

    CERN Document Server

    Marulli, Federico; Branchini, Enzo; Moscardini, Lauro; Springel, Volker

    2007-01-01

    We model the cosmological co-evolution of galaxies and their central supermassive black holes (BHs) within a semi-analytical framework developed on the outputs of the Millennium Simulation. This model, described in detail in Croton et al. (2006) and De Lucia & Blaizot (2007), introduces a `radio mode' feedback from Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) at the centre of X-ray emitting atmospheres in galaxy groups and clusters. Thanks to this mechanism, the model can simultaneously explain: (i) the low observed mass drop-out rate in cooling flows; (ii) the exponential cut-off in the bright end of the galaxy luminosity function; and (iii) the bulge-dominated morphologies and old stellar ages of the most massive galaxies in clusters. This paper is the first of a series in which we investigate how well this model can also reproduce the physical properties of BHs and AGN. Here we analyze the scaling relations, the fundamental plane and the mass function of BHs, and compare them with the most recent observational data. M...

  8. Mini Survey of SDSS [OIII] AGN with Swift: Testing the Hypothesis that L(sub [OIII]) Traces AGN Luminosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The number of AGN and their luminosity distribution are crucial parameters for our understanding of the AGN phenomenon. Recent work strongly suggests every massive galaxy has a central black hole. However most of these objects either are not radiating or have been very difficult to detect We are now in the era of large surveys, and the luminosity function (LF] of AGN has been estimated in various ways. In the X-ray band. Chandra and XMM surveys have revealed that the LF of hard X-ray selected AGN shows a strong luminosity-dependent evolution with a dramatic break towards low L(sub x) (at all z). This is seen for all types of AGN, but is stronger for the broad-line objects. In sharp contrast, the local LF of optically-selected samples shows no such break and no differences between narrow and broad-line objects. If as been suggested, hard X ray and optical emission line can both can be fair indicators of AGN activity, it is important to first understand how reliable these characteristics are if we hope to understand the apparent discrepancy in the LFs.

  9. LOW LUMINOSITY AGN CANDIDATES IN SDSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Torres-Papaqui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En una muestra de 476931 galaxias con l neas de emisi n agostas del Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5, identificamos y estudiamos galaxias de las cuales algunas importantes l neas de emisi n usadas para determinar la naturaleza de su actividad ([OIII]h5007 A, H , o ambas no est an presentes. Este fen meno afecta al 22% de las galaxias con l neas de emisi n y no esta relacionado con una baja raz n de se al a ruido. En el diagrama comparando el ancho equivalente EW([NII]h6584 con la raz n de l nea [NII]h6584/H , la mayor a de estas galaxias se clasifica como AGN. El FWHM de la l nea H es del orden de 400 km s-1 y la luminosidad mediana es 5.6 1039 erg s-1, lo cual justifica la clasificaci n de estas galaxias como AGN de baja luminosidad. Un estudio en sus historias de formaci n estelar usando starlight revela que no existe formaci n estelar en el ltimo Giga a o. Las galaxias anfitrionas de las LLAGNs son de tipo morfol gico temprano con bulbos m s masivos que los de AGN luminosas.

  10. Radio sources in the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey - II. Local radio luminosity functions for AGN and star-forming galaxies at 1.4 GHz

    CERN Document Server

    Sadler, E M; Cannon, R D; McIntyre, V J; Murphy, T; Baugh, C M; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Bridges, T J; Cole, S; Colless, M; Collins, C; Couch, W J; Dalton, G B; De Propris, R; Driver, S P; Efstathiou, G P; Ellis, Richard S; Frenk, C S; Glazebrook, K; Lahav, O; Lewis, I; Lumsden, S; Maddox, S; Madgwick, D; Norberg, P; Peacock, J A; Peterson, B A; Sutherland, W; Taylor, K; Sadler, Elaine M.; Jackson, Carole A.; Cannon, Russell D.; Intyre, Vincent J. Mc; Murphy, Tara; Baugh, Carlton M.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Bridges, Terry; Cole, Shaun; Colless, Matthew; Collins, Chris; Couch, Warrick; Dalton, Gavin; Propris, Roberto De; Driver, Simon P.; Efstathiou, George; Ellis, Richard S.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Glazebrook, Karl; Lahav, Ofer; Lewis, Ian; Lumsden, Stuart; Maddox, Steve; Madgwick, Darren; Norberg, Peder; Peacock, John A.; Peterson, Bruce A.; Sutherland, Will; Taylor, Keith

    2002-01-01

    We have cross-matched the 1.4 GHz NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) with the first 210 fields observed in the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS), covering an effective area of 325 square degrees (about 20% of the final 2dFGRS area). This yields a set of optical spectra of 912 candidate NVSS counterparts, of which we identify 757 as genuine radio IDs - the largest and most homogeneous set of radio-source spectra ever obtained. The 2dFGRS radio sources span the redshift range z=0.005 to 0.438, and are a mixture of active galaxies (60%) and star-forming galaxies (40%). About 25% of the 2dFGRS radio sources are spatially resolved by NVSS, and the sample includes three giant radio galaxies with projected linear size greater than 1 Mpc. The high quality of the 2dF spectra means we can usually distinguish unambiguously between AGN and star-forming galaxies. We have made a new determination of the local radio luminosity function at 1.4 GHz for both active and star-forming galaxies, and derive a local star-formation density...

  11. The Star Formation and AGN luminosity relation: Predictions from a semi-analytical model

    CERN Document Server

    Gutcke, Thales A; Maccio`, Andrea V; Lacey, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    In a Universe where AGN feedback regulates star formation in massive galaxies, a strong correlation between these two quantities is expected. If the gas causing star formation is also responsible for feeding the central black hole, then a positive correlation is expected. If powerful AGNs are responsible for the star formation quenching, then a negative correlation is expected. Observations so far have mainly found a mild correlation or no correlation at all (i.e. a flat relation between star formation rate (SFR) and AGN luminosity), raising questions about the whole paradigm of "AGN feedback". In this paper, we report the predictions of the GALFORM semi-analytical model, which has a very strong coupling between AGN activity and quenching of star formation. The predicted SFR-AGN luminosity correlation appears negative in the low AGN luminosity regime, where AGN feedback acts, but becomes strongly positive in the regime of the brightest AGN. Our predictions reproduce reasonably well recent observations by Rosa...

  12. Bright and Faint Ends of Ly$\\alpha$ Luminosity Functions at $\\textit{z} = 2$ Determined by the Subaru Survey: Implications for AGN, Magnification Bias, and ISM HI Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Konno, Akira; Nakajima, Kimihiko; Duval, Florent; Kusakabe, Haruka; Ono, Yoshiaki; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    We present the Lya luminosity functions (LFs) derived by our deep Subaru narrowband survey that identifies a total of 3,137 Lya emitters (LAEs) at $z = 2.2$ in five independent blank fields. The sample of these LAEs is the largest, to date, and covers a very wide Lya luminosity range of $\\log L_{Ly\\alpha} = 41.7-44.4$ erg s$^{-1}$. We determine the Lya LF at $z = 2.2$ with unprecedented accuracies, and obtain the best-fit Schechter parameters of $L^{*}_{Ly\\alpha} = 5.29^{+1.67}_{-1.13} \\times 10^{42}$ erg s$^{-1}$, $\\phi^{*}_{Ly\\alpha} = 6.32^{+3.08}_{-2.31} \\times 10^{-4}$ Mpc$^{-3}$, and $\\alpha = -1.75^{+0.10}_{-0.09}$ showing a steep faint-end slope. We identify a significant hump at the LF bright end ($\\log L_{Ly\\alpha} > 43.4$ erg s$^{-1}$). Because all of the LAEs in the bright-end hump have (a) bright counterpart(s) either in the X-ray, UV, or radio data, this bright-end hump is not made by gravitational lensing magnification bias but AGNs. These AGNs allow us to derive the AGN UV LF at $z \\sim 2$ dow...

  13. Do Moderate-Luminosity AGN Suppress Star Formation?

    CERN Document Server

    Schawinski, Kevin; Simmons, Brooke; Urry, C Megan; Treister, Ezequiel; Kaviraj, Sugata; Kushkuley, Bronika

    2009-01-01

    The growth of supermassive black holes and their host galaxies are thought to be linked, but the precise nature of this symbiotic relationship is still poorly understood. Both observations and simulations of galaxy formation suggest that the energy input from active galactic nuclei (AGN), as the central supermassive black hole accretes material and grows, heats the interstellar material and suppresses star formation. In this Letter, we show that most host galaxies of moderate-luminosity supermassive black holes in the local universe have intermediate optical colors that imply the host galaxies are transitioning from star formation to quiescence, the first time this has been shown to be true for all AGN independent of obscuration. The intermediate colors suggest that star formation in the host galaxies ceased roughly 100 Myr ago. This result indicates that either the AGN are very long-lived, accreting for more than 1 Gyr beyond the end of star formation, or there is a ~100 Myr time delay between the shutdown o...

  14. properties and luminosity functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hektor Monteiro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present an investigation of a sample of 1072 stars extracted from the Villanova Catalog of Spectroscopically Identified White Dwarfs (2005 on-line version, studying their distribution in the Galaxy, their physical properties and their luminosity functions. The distances and physical properties of the white dwarfs are determined through interpolation of their (B-V or (b-y colors in model grids. The solar position relative to the Galactic plane, luminosity function, as well as separate functions for each white dwarf spectral type are derived and discussed. We show that the binary fraction does not vary significantly as a function of distance from the Galactic disk out to 100 pc. We propose that the formation rates of DA and non-DAs have changed over time and/or that DAs evolve into non-DA types. The luminosity functions for DAs and DBs have peaks possibly related to a star burst event.

  15. Redshift and luminosity evolution of the intrinsic alignments of galaxies in Horizon-AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Chisari, Nora Elisa; Codis, Sandrine; Dubois, Yohan; Devriendt, Julien; Miller, Lance; Benabed, Karim; Slyz, Adrianne; Gavazzi, Raphael; Pichon, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Intrinsic galaxy shape and angular momentum alignments can arise in cosmological large-scale structure due to tidal interactions or galaxy formation processes. Cosmological hydrodynamical simulations have recently come of age as a tool to study these alignments and their contamination to weak gravitational lensing. We probe the redshift and luminosity evolution of intrinsic alignments in Horizon-AGN between $z=0$ and $z=3$ for galaxies with an $r$-band absolute magnitude of $M_r\\leq-20$. Alignments transition from being radial at low redshifts and high luminosities, dominated by the contribution of ellipticals, to being tangential at high redshift and low luminosities, where discs dominate the signal. This cannot be explained by the evolution of the fraction of ellipticals and discs alone: intrinsic evolution in the amplitude of alignments is necessary. We constrain the evolution of the alignment amplitude as a function of luminosity for elliptical galaxies alone and find it to be in good agreement with curre...

  16. Optical Variability Properties of High Luminosity AGN Classes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C. S. Stalin; Gopal-Krishna; Ram Sagar; Paul J. Wiita

    2004-03-01

    We present the results of a comparative study of the intra-night optical variability (INOV) characteristics of radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars, which involves a systematic intra-night optical monitoring of seven sets of high luminosity AGNs covering the redshift range ≃ 0.2 to ≃ 2.2. The sample, matched in the optical luminosity – redshift (-) plane, consists of seven radio-quiet quasars (RQQs), eight radio lobe-dominated quasars (LDQs), five radio core-dominated quasars (CDQs) and six BL Lac objects (BLs). Systematic CCD observations, aided by a careful data analysis procedure, have allowed us to detect INOV with amplitudes as low as about 1%. Present observations cover a total of 113 nights (720 hours) with only a single qusar monitored as continuously as possible on a given night. Considering the cases of only unambiguous detections of INOV we have estimated duty cycles (DCs) of 17%, 12%, 20% and 61% for RQQs, LDQs, CDQs, and BLs, respectively. The much lower amplitude and DC of INOV shown by RQQs compared to BLs may be understood in terms of their having optical synchrotron jets which are modestly misdirected from us. From our fairly extensive dataset, no general trend of a correlation between the INOVamplitude and the apparent optical brightness of the quasar is noticed. This suggests that the physical mechanisms of INOV and long term optical variability (LTOV) do not have a one-to-one relationship and different factors are involved. Also, the absence of a clear negative correlation between the INOV and LTOV characteristics of blazars of our sample points toward an inconspicuous contribution of accretion disk fluctuations to the observed INOV. The INOV duty cycle of the AGNs observed in this program suggests that INOV is associated predominantly with the highly polarized optical emission components. We also report new VLA imaging of two RQQs (1029 + 329 & 1252 + 020) in our sample which has yielded a 5 GHz detection in one of them (1252 + 020; 5GHz

  17. Modeling the cosmological co-evolution of supermassive black holes and galaxies: I. BH scaling relations and the AGN luminosity function

    OpenAIRE

    Marulli, Federico; Bonoli, Silvia; Branchini, Enzo; Moscardini, Lauro; Springel, Volker

    2007-01-01

    We model the cosmological co-evolution of galaxies and their central supermassive black holes (BHs) within a semi-analytical framework developed on the outputs of the Millennium Simulation. This model, described in detail in Croton et al. (2006) and De Lucia & Blaizot (2007), introduces a `radio mode' feedback from Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) at the centre of X-ray emitting atmospheres in galaxy groups and clusters. Thanks to this mechanism, the model can simultaneously explain: (i) the low ...

  18. Clustering, Cosmology and a New Era of Black Hole Demographics -- I. The Conditional Luminosity Function of Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Ballantyne, D R

    2016-01-01

    Deep X-ray surveys have provided a comprehensive and largely unbiased view of active galactic nuclei (AGN) evolution stretching back to $z \\sim 5$. However, it has been challenging to use the survey results to connect this evolution to the cosmological environment that AGNs inhabit. Exploring this connection will be crucial to understanding the triggering mechanisms of AGNs and how these processes manifest in observations at all wavelengths. In anticipation of upcoming wide-field X-ray surveys that will allow quantitative analysis of AGN environments, this paper presents a method to observationally constrain the Conditional Luminosity Function (CLF) of AGNs at a specific $z$. Once measured, the CLF allows the calculation of the AGN bias, mean dark matter halo mass, AGN lifetime, halo occupation number, and AGN correlation function -- all as a function of luminosity. The CLF can be constrained using a measurement of the X-ray luminosity function and the correlation length at different luminosities. The method ...

  19. Obscuration in AGNs: near-infrared luminosity relations and dust colors

    CERN Document Server

    Burtscher, L; Davies, R I; Janssen, A; Lutz, D; Rosario, D; Contursi, A; Genzel, R; Gracia-Carpio, J; Lin, M -Y; Schnorr-Mueller, A; Sternberg, A; Sturm, E; Tacconi, L

    2015-01-01

    We combine two approaches to isolate the AGN luminosity at near-infrared wavelengths and relate the near-IR pure AGN luminosity to other tracers of the AGN. Using integral-field spectroscopic data of an archival sample of 51 local AGNs, we estimate the fraction of non-stellar light by comparing the nuclear equivalent width of the stellar 2.3 micron CO absorption feature with the intrinsic value for each galaxy. We compare this fraction to that derived from a spectral decomposition of the integrated light in the central arc second and find them to be consistent with each other. Using our estimates of the near-IR AGN light, we find a strong correlation with presumably isotropic AGN tracers. We show that a significant offset exists between type 1 and type 2 sources in the sense that type 1 sources are 7 (10) times brighter in the near-IR at log L_MIR = 42.5 (log L_X = 42.5). These offsets only becomes clear when treating infrared type 1 sources as type 1 AGNs. All AGNs have very red near-to-mid-IR dust colors. T...

  20. From Nearby Low Luminosity AGN to High Redshift Radio Galaxies: Science Interests with SKA

    CERN Document Server

    Kharb, P; Singh, V; Bagchi, J; Chandra, C H Ishwara; Hota, A; Konar, C; Wadadekar, Y; Shastri, P; Das, M; Baliyan, K; Nath, B B; Pandey-Pommier, M

    2016-01-01

    We present detailed science cases that a large fraction of the Indian AGN community is interested in pursuing with the upcoming Square Kilometre Array (SKA). These interests range from understanding low luminosity active galactic nuclei in the nearby Universe to powerful radio galaxies at high redshifts. Important unresolved science questions in AGN physics are discussed. Ongoing low-frequency surveys with the SKA pathfinder telescope GMRT, are highlighted.

  1. Deriving Kinetic Luminosity Functions from the Low-Frequency Radio Luminosity Functions of FRII Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapinska, Anna D.; Uttley, P.; Kaiser, C. R.

    2010-03-01

    FRII radio galaxies are relatively simple systems which can be used to determine the influence of jets on their environments. Even simple analytical models of FRII evolution can link the observed lobe luminosities and sizes to fundamental properties such as jet power and density of the ambient medium; these are crucial for understanding AGN feedback. However, due to strong flux selection effects interpreting FRII samples is not straightforward. To overcome this problem we construct Monte Carlo simulations to create artificial samples of radio galaxies. We explore jet power and external density distributions by using them as the simulation input parameters. Further, we compute radio luminosity functions (RLF) and fit them to the observed low-frequency radio data that cover redshifts up to z 2, which gives us the most plausible distributions of FRIIs' fundamental properties. Moreover, based on these RLFs, we obtain the kinetic luminosity functions of these powerful sources.

  2. Do Radio Jets Contribute to Driving Ionized Gas Outflows in Moderate Luminosity Type 2 AGN?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Julia; Sajina, Anna; Lacy, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This poster examines the role of AGN-driven feedback in low to intermediate power radio galaxies. We begin with [OIII] measurements of ionized gas outflows in 29 moderate AGN-luminosity z~0.3-0.7 dust-obscured Type 2 AGN. We aim to examine the relative role of the AGN itself, of star-formation and of nascent radio jets in driving these outflows. The strength of the AGN and star formation are based on the [OIII] luminosities, and the far-IR luminosities respectively. For the radio jets, we present multi-frequency radio (X, S, and L-bands) JVLA imaging of our sample, which allows us both to constrain the overall radio power, but also look for signatures of young radio sources, including Giga-hertz Peaked Spectrum (GPS) sources, as well as small-scale jets. While radio jet-driven outflows are well known for powerful radio-loud galaxies, this study allows us to constrain the degree to which this mechanism is significant at more modest radio luminosities of L5GHz~10^22-25 W/Hz.

  3. The OH Megamaser Luminosity Function

    OpenAIRE

    Darling, Jeremy; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2002-01-01

    We present the 1667 MHz OH megamaser luminosity function derived from a single flux-limited survey. The Arecibo Observatory OH megamaser (OHM) survey has doubled the number of known OH megamasers, and we list the complete catalog of OHMs detected by the survey here, including three redetections of known OHMs. OHMs are produced in major galaxy mergers which are (ultra)luminous in the far-infrared. The OH luminosity function follows a power law in integrated line luminosity, $\\Phi \\propto L_{OH...

  4. THE DETECTION OF EXTREME LOW-LUMINOSITY AGNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Neri-Larios

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Exploramos el diagrama de diagn stico que utiliza la raz n de l neas de emisi n ([NII]h6584 A/H frente al ancho equivalente de [NII]h6584 A, propuesto por Coziol et al. (1998 a una muestra obtenida del SDSS DR5 para separar las galaxias dominadas por formaci n estelar y galaxias con n cleo activo (AGNs de baja luminosidad. Este diagrama de diagn stico no necesita las l neas clasicas de emisi n como [OIII]h5007 A, o H para clasificar el tipo de actividad. Se demuestra emp ricamente que esta combinaci n de l neas de emisi n se puede utilizar para buscar en los llamados AGN de baja luminosidad.

  5. The dark matter haloes of moderate luminosity X-ray AGN as determined from weak gravitational lensing and host stellar masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leauthaud, Alexie; J. Benson, Andrew; Civano, Francesca; L. Coil, Alison; Bundy, Kevin; Massey, Richard; Schramm, Malte; Schulze, Andreas; Capak, Peter; Elvis, Martin; Kulier, Andrea; Rhodes, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between galaxies hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) and the dark matter haloes in which they reside is key to constraining how black hole fuelling is triggered and regulated. Previous efforts have relied on simple halo mass estimates inferred from clustering, weak gravitational lensing, or halo occupation distribution modelling. In practice, these approaches remain uncertain because AGN, no matter how they are identified, potentially live a wide range of halo masses with an occupation function whose general shape and normalization are poorly known. In this work, we show that better constraints can be achieved through a rigorous comparison of the clustering, lensing, and cross-correlation signals of AGN hosts to the fiducial stellar-to-halo mass relation (SHMR) derived for all galaxies, irrespective of nuclear activity. Our technique exploits the fact that the global SHMR can be measured with much higher accuracy than any statistic derived from AGN samples alone. Using 382 moderate luminosity X-ray AGN at z live in medium size groups - nearly half reside in relatively low mass haloes with M200b ˜ 1012.5 M⊙. The AGN occupation function is well described by the same form derived for all galaxies but with a lower normalization - the fraction of haloes with AGN in our sample is a few per cent. The number of AGN satellite galaxies scales as a power law with host halo mass with a power-law index α = 1. By highlighting the relatively `normal' way in which moderate luminosity X-ray AGN hosts occupy haloes, our results suggest that the environmental signature of distinct fuelling modes for luminous quasars compared to moderate luminosity X-ray AGN is less obvious than previously claimed.

  6. The jet of the Low Luminosity AGN of M81

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberdi A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution, we summarize our main results of a big campaign of global VLBI observations of the AGN in M81 (M81* phase-referenced to the radio supernova SN 1993J. Thanks to the precise multi-epoch and multi-frequency astrometry, we have determined the normalized core-shift of the relativistic jet of M81* and estimated both the magnetic field and the particle density at the jet base. We have also found evidence of jet precession in M81* coming from the systematic time evolution of the jet orientation correlated with changes in the overall flux density.

  7. The clustering amplitude of X-ray-selected AGN at z ˜ 0.8: evidence for a negative dependence on accretion luminosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountrichas, G.; Georgakakis, A.; Menzel, M.-L.; Fanidakis, N.; Merloni, A.; Liu, Z.; Salvato, M.; Nandra, K.

    2016-04-01

    The northern tile of the wide-area and shallow XMM-XXL X-ray survey field is used to estimate the average dark matter halo mass of relatively luminous X-ray-selected active galactic nucleus (AGN) [log {L}_X (2-10 keV)= 43.6^{+0.4}_{-0.4} erg s^{-1}] in the redshift interval z = 0.5-1.2. Spectroscopic follow-up observations of X-ray sources in the XMM-XXL field by the Sloan telescope are combined with the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey spectroscopic galaxy survey to determine the cross-correlation signal between X-ray-selected AGN (total of 318) and galaxies (about 20 000). We model the large scales (2-25 Mpc) of the correlation function to infer a mean dark matter halo mass of log M / (M_{{⊙}} h^{-1}) = 12.50 ^{+0.22} _{-0.30} for the X-ray-selected AGN sample. This measurement is about 0.5 dex lower compared to estimates in the literature of the mean dark matter halo masses of moderate-luminosity X-ray AGN [LX(2-10 keV) ≈ 1042-1043 erg s- 1] at similar redshifts. Our analysis also links the mean clustering properties of moderate-luminosity AGN with those of powerful ultraviolet/optically selected QSOs, which are typically found in haloes with masses few times 1012 M⊙. There is therefore evidence for a negative luminosity dependence of the AGN clustering. This is consistent with suggestions that AGN have a broad dark matter halo mass distribution with a high mass tail that becomes subdominant at high accretion luminosities. We further show that our results are in qualitative agreement with semi-analytic models of galaxy and AGN evolution, which attribute the wide range of dark matter halo masses among the AGN population to different triggering mechanisms and/or black hole fuelling modes.

  8. Cold Dust Emission from X-ray AGN in the SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey: Dependence on Luminosity, Obscuration & AGN Activity

    CERN Document Server

    Banerji, Manda; Willott, C J; Geach, J E; Harrison, C M; Alaghband-Zadeh, S; Alexander, D M; Bourne, N; Coppin, K E K; Dunlop, J S; Farrah, D; Jarvis, M; Michalowski, M J; Page, M; Smith, D J B; Swinbank, A M; Symeonidis, M; Van der Werf, P P

    2015-01-01

    We study the 850um emission in X-ray selected AGN in the 2 sq-deg COSMOS field using new data from the SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey. We find 19 850um bright X-ray AGN in a high-sensitivity region covering 0.89 sq-deg with flux densities of S850=4-10 mJy. The 19 AGN span the full range in redshift and hard X-ray luminosity covered by the sample - 0.71 X-ray AGN - S850=0.71+/-0.08mJy. We explore trends in the stacked 850um flux densities with redshift, finding no evolution in the average cold dust emission over the redshift range probed. For Type 1 AGN, there is no significant correlation between the stacked 850um flux and hard X-ray luminosity. However, in Type 2 AGN the stacked submm flux is a factor of 2 higher at high luminosities. When averaging over all X-ray luminosities, no significant differences are found in the stacked submm fluxes of Type 1 and Type 2 AGN as well as AGN separated on the basis of X-ray hardness ratios and optical-to-infrared colours. However, at log10(LX) >44.4, dependences in ave...

  9. The Dark Matter Halos of Moderate Luminosity X-ray AGN as Determined from Weak Gravitational Lensing and Host Stellar Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Leauthaud, A; Civano, F; Coil, A L; Bundy, K; Massey, R; Schramm, M; Schulze, A; Capak, P; Elvis, M; Kulier, A; Rhodes, J

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between galaxies hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) and the dark matter halos in which they reside is key to constraining how black-hole fueling is triggered and regulated. Previous efforts have relied on simple halo mass estimates inferred from clustering, weak gravitational lensing, or halo occupation distribution modeling. In practice, these approaches remain uncertain because AGN, no matter how they are identified, potentially live a wide range of halo masses with an occupation function whose general shape and normalization are poorly known. In this work, we show that better constraints can be achieved through a rigorous comparison of the clustering, lensing, and cross-correlation signals of AGN hosts to a fiducial stellar-to-halo mass relation (SHMR) derived for all galaxies. Our technique exploits the fact that the global SHMR can be measured with much higher accuracy than any statistic derived from AGN samples alone. Using 382 moderate luminosity X-ray AGN at z<1 fro...

  10. The X-Ray to Mid-Infrared Relation of AGN at High Luminosity

    CERN Document Server

    Stern, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The X-ray and mid-IR emission from active galactic nuclei (AGN) are strongly correlated. However, while various published parameterizations of this correlation are consistent with the low-redshift, local Seyfert galaxy population, extrapolations of these relations to high luminosity differ by an order of magnitude at nuL(nu)(6um) = 1e47 erg/s. Using data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, we determine the mid-IR luminosities of the most luminous quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and present a revised formulation of the X-ray to mid-IR relation of AGN which is appropriate from the Seyfert regime to the powerful quasar regime.

  11. The Radius-Luminosity Relationship for Active Galactic Nuclei: The Effect of Host-Galaxy Starlight on Luminosity Measurements. II. The Full Sample of Reverberation-Mapped AGNs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Netzer, Hagai;

    2009-01-01

    We present high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope images of all 35 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with optical reverberation-mapping results, which we have modeled to create a nucleus-free image of each AGN host galaxy. From the nucleus-free images, we determine the host-galaxy contribution...... to ground-based spectroscopic luminosity measurements at 5100 Å. After correcting the luminosities of the AGNs for the contribution from starlight, we re-examine the Hß R BLR-L relationship. Our best fit for the relationship gives a power-law slope of 0.52 with a range of 0.45-0.59 allowed...... by the uncertainties. This is consistent with our previous findings, and thus still consistent with the naive assumption that all AGNs are simply luminosity-scaled versions of each other. We discuss various consistency checks relating to the galaxy modeling and starlight contributions, as well as possible systematic...

  12. The white dwarf luminosity function

    CERN Document Server

    García-Berro, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    White dwarfs are the final remnants of low- and intermediate-mass stars. Their evolution is essentially a cooling process that lasts for $\\sim 10$ Gyr. Their observed properties provide information about the history of the Galaxy, its dark matter content and a host of other interesting astrophysical problems. Examples of these include an independent determination of the past history of the local star formation rate, identification of the objects responsible for the reported microlensing events, constraints on the rate of change of the gravitational constant, and upper limits to the mass of weakly interacting massive particles. To carry on these tasks the essential observational tools are the luminosity and mass functions of white dwarfs, whereas the theoretical tools are the evolutionary sequences of white dwarf progenitors, and the corresponding white dwarf cooling sequences. In particular, the observed white dwarf luminosity function is the key manifestation of the white dwarf cooling theory, although other...

  13. The Mid-Infrared Luminosity Evolution and Luminosity Function of Quasars with SDSS and WISE

    CERN Document Server

    Singal, J; Gerber, A

    2016-01-01

    We determine the 22$\\mu$m luminosity evolution and luminosity function for quasars from a data set of over 20,000 objects obtained by combining flux-limited Sloan Digital Sky Survey optical and Wide field Infrared Survey Explorer mid-infrared data. We apply methods developed in previous works to access the intrinsic population distributions non-parametrically, taking into account the truncations and correlations inherent in the data. We find that the population of quasars exhibits positive luminosity evolution with redshift in the mid-infrared, but with considerably less mid-infrared evolution than in the optical or radio bands. With the luminosity evolutions accounted for, we determine the density evolution and local mid-infrared luminosity function. The latter displays a sharp flattening at local luminosities below $\\sim 10^{31}$ erg sec$^{-1}$ Hz$^{-1}$, which has been reported previously at 15 $\\mu$m for AGN classified as both type-1 and type-2. We calculate the integrated total emission from quasars at 2...

  14. Revisiting the relationship between 6 {\\mu}m and 2-10 keV continuum luminosities of AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Mateos, S; Alonso-Herrero, A; Rovilos, E; Hernán-Caballero, A; Barcons, X; Blain, A; Caccianiga, A; Della Ceca, R; Severgnini, P

    2015-01-01

    We have determined the relation between the AGN luminosities at rest-frame 6 {\\mu}m associated to the dusty torus emission and at 2-10 keV energies using a complete, X-ray flux limited sample of 232 AGN drawn from the Bright Ultra-hard XMM-Newton Survey. The objects have X-ray luminosities corrected for intrinsic absorption between 10^42 and 10^46 erg/s and redshifts from 0.05 to 2.8. The rest-frame 6 {\\mu}m luminosities were computed using data from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer and are based on a spectral energy distribution decomposition into AGN and galaxy emission. The best-fit relationship for the full sample is consistent with being linear, L_6 {\\mu}m $\\propto$ L_2-10 keV^0.99$\\pm$0.032, but has significant intrinsic scatter, ~0.35 dex in log L_6 {\\mu}m. Assuming a constant X-ray bolometric correction, the fraction of AGN bolometric luminosity reprocessed in the mid-IR decreases weakly, if at all, with the AGN luminosity, a finding at odds with simple receding torus models. Type 2 AGN have re...

  15. Revisiting the relationship between 6 {\\mu}m and 2-10 keV continuum luminosities of AGN

    OpenAIRE

    Mateos, S; Carrera, F. J.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Rovilos, E.; Hernán-Caballero, A.; Barcons, X.; Blain, A.; Caccianiga, A.; R. Della Ceca(INAF, Oss. di Brera); Severgnini, P.

    2015-01-01

    We have determined the relation between the AGN luminosities at rest-frame 6 {\\mu}m associated to the dusty torus emission and at 2-10 keV energies using a complete, X-ray flux limited sample of 232 AGN drawn from the Bright Ultra-hard XMM-Newton Survey. The objects have intrinsic X-ray luminosities between 10^42 and 10^46 erg/s and redshifts from 0.05 to 2.8. The rest-frame 6 {\\mu}m luminosities were computed using data from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer and are based on a spectral...

  16. Clustering, Cosmology and a New Era of Black Hole Demographics - I. The Conditional Luminosity Function of Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, D. R.

    2016-09-01

    Deep X-ray surveys have provided a comprehensive and largely unbiased view of active galactic nuclei (AGN) evolution stretching back to z ˜ 5. However, it has been challenging to use the survey results to connect this evolution to the cosmological environment that AGNs inhabit. Exploring this connection will be crucial to understanding the triggering mechanisms of AGNs and how these processes manifest in observations at all wavelengths. In anticipation of upcoming wide-field X-ray surveys that will allow quantitative analysis of AGN environments, this paper presents a method to observationally constrain the Conditional Luminosity Function (CLF) of AGNs at a specific z. Once measured, the CLF allows the calculation of the AGN bias, mean dark matter halo mass, AGN lifetime, halo occupation number, and AGN correlation function - all as a function of luminosity. The CLF can be constrained using a measurement of the X-ray luminosity function and the correlation length at different luminosities. The method is illustrated at z ≈ 0 and 0.9 using the limited data that is currently available, and a clear luminosity dependence in the AGN bias and mean halo mass is predicted at both z, supporting the idea that there are at least two different modes of AGN triggering. In addition, the CLF predicts that z ≈ 0.9 quasars may be commonly hosted by haloes with Mh ˜ 1014 M⊙. These `young cluster' environments may provide the necessary interactions between gas-rich galaxies to fuel luminous accretion. The results derived from this method will be useful to populate AGNs of different luminosities in cosmological simulations.

  17. Molecular gas around low-luminosity AGN in late-type spirals

    CERN Document Server

    Boeker, Torsten; Lisenfeld, Ute

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the molecular gas in the vicinity of low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in three bulge-less spiral galaxies: NGC 1042, NGC 4178, and NGC 4395. The (1-0) and (2-1) transitions of gaseous carbon monoxide (CO) are clearly detected within the central kpc of all three galaxies. In the case of NGC 4395, this constitutes the first reported detection of CO. In general, the CO emission is faint, as may be expected from their less-than-spectacular star formation activity. Interestingly, however, both face-on galaxies in our sample (which allow an unimpeded view of their nucleus) show an elevated intensity ratio CO(2-1)/CO(1-0) when compared to similar late-type spirals without an AGN. We discuss that this is unlikely due to a very compact CO source. Instead, we speculate that even energetically weak AGN can impact the physical state of the surrounding gas. We do not detect any tracers of dense molecular gas such as HCN or HCO+, but the sensitivity of our observations allows us to establish upp...

  18. Unveiling the physics of low luminosity AGN through X-ray variability: LINER versus Seyfert 2

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez-Garcia, Lorena; Gonzalez-Martin, Omaira; Marquez, Isabel; Perea, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    X-ray variability is very common in active galactic nuclei (AGN), but these variations may not occur similarly in different families of AGN. We aim to disentangle the structure of low ionization nuclear emission line regions (LINERs) compared to Seyfert 2s by the study of their spectral properties and X-ray variations. We assembled the X-ray spectral parameters and variability patterns, which were obtained from simultaneous spectral fittings. Major differences are observed in the X-ray luminosities, and the Eddington ratios, which are higher in Seyfert 2s. Short-term X-ray variations were not detected, while long-term changes are common in LINERs and Seyfert 2s. Compton-thick sources generally do not show variations, most probably because the AGN is not accesible in the 0.5--10 keV energy band. The changes are mostly related with variations in the nuclear continuum, but other patterns of variability show that variations in the absorbers and at soft energies can be present in a few cases. We conclude that the ...

  19. AGN BLR structure, luminosity and mass from combined Reverberation Mapping and Optical Interferometry observations

    CERN Document Server

    Rakshit, Suvendu

    2014-01-01

    Unveiling the structure of the Broad Line Region (BLR) of AGN is critical to understand the quasar phenomenon. Detail study of the geometry and kinematic of these objects can answer the basic questions about the central BH mass, accretion mechanism and rate, growth and evolution history. Observing the response of the BLR clouds to continuum variations, Reverberation Mapping (RM) provides size vs luminosity and mass vs luminosity relations for QSOs and Sy1 AGNs with the goal to use these objects as standard candles and mass tags. However, the RM size can receive different interpretations depending on the assumed geometry and the corresponding mass depends on an unknown geometrical factor as well on the possible confusion between local and global velocity dispersion. From RM alone, the scatter around the mean mass is as large as a factor 3. Though BLRs are expected to be much smaller than the current spatial resolution of large optical interferometers (OI), we show that differential interferometry with AMBER, G...

  20. The HST view of the broad line region in low luminosity AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Balmaverde, B; di Torino, INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the properties of the broad line region (BLR) in low luminosity AGN by using HST/STIS spectra. We consider a sample of 24 nearby galaxies in which the presence of a BLR has been reported from their Palomar ground-based spectra. Following a widely used strategy, we used the [SII] doublet to subtract the contribution of the narrow emission lines to the H-alpha+[NII] complex and to isolate the BLR emission. Significant residuals that suggest a BLR, are present. However, the results change substantially when the [OI] doublet is used. Furthermore, the spectra are also reproduced well by just including a wing in the narrow H-alpha and [NII] lines, thus not requiring the presence of a BLR. We conclude that complex structure of the narrow line region (NLR) is not captured with this approach and that it does not lead to general robust constraints on the properties of the BLR in these low luminosity AGN. Nonetheless, the existence of a BLR is firmly established in 5 Seyferts, and 5 LINERs. However, the measu...

  1. Redshift and luminosity evolution of the intrinsic alignments of galaxies in Horizon-AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisari, N.; Laigle, C.; Codis, S.; Dubois, Y.; Devriendt, J.; Miller, L.; Benabed, K.; Slyz, A.; Gavazzi, R.; Pichon, C.

    2016-09-01

    Intrinsic galaxy shape and angular momentum alignments can arise in cosmological large-scale structure due to tidal interactions or galaxy formation processes. Cosmological hydrodynamical simulations have recently come of age as a tool to study these alignments and their contamination to weak gravitational lensing. We probe the redshift and luminosity evolution of intrinsic alignments in Horizon-AGN between z = 0 and 3 for galaxies with an r-band absolute magnitude of Mr ≤ -20. Alignments transition from being radial at low redshifts and high luminosities, dominated by the contribution of ellipticals, to being tangential at high redshift and low luminosities, where discs dominate the signal. This cannot be explained by the evolution of the fraction of ellipticals and discs alone: intrinsic evolution in the amplitude of alignments is necessary. The alignment amplitude of elliptical galaxies alone is smaller in amplitude by a factor of ≃2, but has similar luminosity and redshift evolution as in current observations and in the non-linear tidal alignment model at projected separations of ≳1 Mpc. Alignments of discs are null in projection and consistent with current low-redshift observations. The combination of the two populations yields an overall amplitude a factor of ≃4 lower than observed alignments of luminous red galaxies with a steeper luminosity dependence. The restriction on accurate galaxy shapes implies that the galaxy population in the simulation is complete only to Mr ≤ -20. Higher resolution simulations will be necessary to avoid extrapolation of the intrinsic alignment predictions to the range of luminosities probed by future surveys.

  2. Clustering of moderate luminosity X-ray-selected type 1 and type 2 AGNs at z ∼ 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allevato, V.; Finoguenov, A. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2a, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Civano, F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Cappelluti, N. [University of Maryland, Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Shankar, F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Miyaji, T. [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ensenada (Mexico); Hasinger, G. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Gilli, R.; Zamorani, G.; Comastri, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Lanzuisi, G. [National Observatory of Athens I. Metaxa and Vas. Pavlou St. GR-15236 Penteli (Greece); Salvato, M. [Max-Planck-Institute für Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Elvis, M. [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Silverman, J. [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwashi, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)

    2014-11-20

    We investigate, for the first time at z ∼ 3, the clustering properties of 189 Type 1 and 157 Type 2 X-ray active galactic nuclei (AGNs) of moderate luminosity ((L {sub bol}) = 10{sup 45.3} erg s{sup –1}), with photometric or spectroscopic redshifts in the range 2.2 < z < 6.8. These samples are based on Chandra and XMM-Newton data in COSMOS. We find that Type 1 and Type 2 COSMOS AGNs at z ∼ 3 inhabit DMHs with typical mass of log M{sub h} = 12.84{sub −0.11}{sup +0.10} and 11.73{sub −0.45}{sup +0.39} h {sup –1} M {sub ☉}, respectively. This result requires a drop in the halo masses of Type 1 and 2 COSMOS AGNs at z ∼ 3 compared to z ≲ 2 XMM-COSMOS AGNs with similar luminosities. Additionally, we infer that unobscured COSMOS AGNs at z ∼ 3 reside in 10 times more massive halos compared to obscured COSMOS AGNs, at the 2.6σ level. This result extends to z ∼ 3 the results found in COSMOS at z ≲ 2, and rules out the picture in which obscuration is purely an orientation effect. A model which assumes that the AGNs activity is triggered by major mergers is quite successful in predicting both the low halo mass of COSMOS AGNs and the typical mass of luminous SDSS quasars at z ∼ 3, with the latter inhabiting more massive halos respect to moderate luminosity AGNs. Alternatively we can argue, at least for Type 1 COSMOS AGNs, that they are possibly representative of an early phase of fast (i.e., Eddington limited) BH growth induced by cosmic cold flows or disk instabilities. Given the moderate luminosity, these new fast growing BHs have masses of ∼10{sup 7-8} M {sub ☉} at z ∼ 3 which might evolve into ∼10{sup 8.5-9} M {sub ☉} mass BHs at z = 0. Following our clustering measurements, we argue that this fast BH growth at z ∼ 3 in AGNs with moderate luminosity occurs in DMHs with typical mass of ∼ 6× 10{sup 12} h {sup –1} M {sub ☉}.

  3. Clustering properties of moderate luminosity X-ray selected Type 1 and Type 2 AGN at z~3

    CERN Document Server

    Allevato, V; Civano, F; Cappelluti, N; Shankar, F; Miyaji, T; Hasinger, G; Gilli, R; Zamorani, G; Lanzuisi, G; Salvato, M; Elvis, M; Comastri, A; Silverman, J

    2014-01-01

    We investigate, for the first time at z~3, the clustering properties of 189 Type 1 and 157 Type 2 X-ray active galactic nuclei (AGN) of moderate luminosity (log = 45.3 erg/s), with photometric or spectroscopic redshifts in the range 2.2AGN at z=3 inhabit DMHs with typical mass of logMh = 12.84+0.10/-0.11 and 11.73+0.39/-0.45 Msun/h, respectively. This result requires a drop in the halo masses of Type 1 and 2 COSMOS AGN at z~3 compared to z<2 XMM COSMOS AGN with similar luminosities. Additionally, we infer that unobscured COSMOS AGN at z~3 reside in 10 times more massive halos compared to obscured COSMOS AGN, at 2.6sigma level. This result extends to z~3 that found in COSMOS at z<2, and rules out the picture in which obscuration is purely an orientation effect. A model which assumes that the AGN activity is triggered by major mergers is quite successful in predicting both the low halo mas...

  4. AGN host galaxy mass function in COSMOS: is AGN feedback responsible for the mass-quenching of galaxies?

    CERN Document Server

    Bongiorno, A; Merloni, A; Zamorani, G; Ilbert, O; La Franca, F; Peng, Y; Piconcelli, E; Mainieri, V; Silverman, J D; Brusa, M; Fiore, F; Salvato, M; Scoville, N

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the role of supermassive black holes in the global context of galaxy evolution by measuring the host galaxy stellar mass function (HGMF) and the specific accretion rate i.e., lambda_SAR, distribution function (SARDF) up to z~2.5 with ~1000 X-ray selected AGN from XMM-COSMOS. Using a maximum likelihood approach, we jointly fit the stellar mass function and specific accretion rate distribution function, with the X-ray luminosity function as an additional constraint. Our best fit model characterizes the SARDF as a double power-law with mass dependent but redshift independent break whose low lambda_SAR slope flattens with increasing redshift while the normalization increases. This implies that, for a given stellar mass, higher lambda_SAR objects have a peak in their space density at earlier epoch compared to the lower lambda_SAR ones, following and mimicking the well known AGN cosmic downsizing as observed in the AGN luminosity function. The mass function of active galaxies is described by a Schech...

  5. THE RADIUS-LUMINOSITY RELATIONSHIP FOR ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: THE EFFECT OF HOST-GALAXY STARLIGHT ON LUMINOSITY MEASUREMENTS. II. THE FULL SAMPLE OF REVERBERATION-MAPPED AGNs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope images of all 35 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with optical reverberation-mapping results, which we have modeled to create a nucleus-free image of each AGN host galaxy. From the nucleus-free images, we determine the host-galaxy contribution to ground-based spectroscopic luminosity measurements at 5100 A. After correcting the luminosities of the AGNs for the contribution from starlight, we re-examine the Hβ R BLR-L relationship. Our best fit for the relationship gives a power-law slope of 0.52 with a range of 0.45-0.59 allowed by the uncertainties. This is consistent with our previous findings, and thus still consistent with the naive assumption that all AGNs are simply luminosity-scaled versions of each other. We discuss various consistency checks relating to the galaxy modeling and starlight contributions, as well as possible systematic errors in the current set of reverberation measurements from which we determine the form of the R BLR-L relationship.

  6. Revisiting Stochastic Variability of AGNs with Structure Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Kozłowski, Szymon

    2016-01-01

    Discrepancies between reported structure function (SF) slopes and their overall flatness as compared to expectations from the damped random walk (DRW) model, generally well-describing the variability of active galactic nuclei (AGN), has triggered us to study this problem in detail. We review common AGN variability observables and identify their most common problems. Equipped with this knowledge, we study ~9000 r-band AGN light curves from Stripe 82 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, using SFs described by stochastic processes with the power exponential covariance matrix of the signal. We model the "sub-ensemble" SFs in the redshift-absolute magnitude bins with the full SF equation (including the turnover and the noise part) and a single power-law (SPL; in the "red noise regime" after subtracting the noise term). The distribution of full-equation SF (SPL) slopes peaks at gamma=0.55+/-0.08 (0.52+/-0.06) and is consistent with DRW. There is a hint of a weak correlation of gamma with the luminosity and a lack of co...

  7. Revisiting Stochastic Variability of AGNs with Structure Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowski, Szymon

    2016-08-01

    Discrepancies between reported structure function (SF) slopes and their overall flatness as compared to the expectations from the damped random walk (DRW) model, which generally well describes the variability of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), have triggered us to study this problem in detail. We review common AGN variability observables and identify their most common problems. Equipped with this knowledge, we study ˜9000 r-band AGN light curves from Stripe 82 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, using SFs described by stochastic processes with the power exponential covariance matrix of the signal. We model the “subensemble” SFs in the redshift-absolute magnitude bins with the full SF equation (including the turnover and the noise part) and a single power law (SPL; in the “red noise regime” after subtracting the noise term). The distribution of full-equation SF (SPL) slopes peaks at γ =0.55+/- 0.08 (0.52 ± 0.06) and is consistent with the DRW model. There is a hint of a weak correlation of γ with the luminosity and a lack of correlation with the black hole mass. The typical decorrelation timescale in the optical is τ =0.97+/- 0.46 year. The SF amplitude at one year obtained from the SPL fitting is {{SF}}0=0.22+/- 0.06 mag and is overestimated because the SF is already at the turnover part, so the true value is {{SF}}0=0.20+/- 0.06 mag. The asymptotic variability is {{SF}}∞ =0.25+/- 0.06 mag. It is strongly anticorrelated with both the luminosity and the Eddington ratio and is correlated with the black hole mass. The reliability of these results is fortified with Monte Carlo simulations.

  8. Clustering, Cosmology and a New Era of Black Hole Demographics - II. The Conditional Luminosity Functions of Type 2 and Type 1 Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, D. R.

    2016-09-01

    The orientation-based unification model of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) posits that the principle difference between obscured (Type 2) and unobscured (Type 1) AGNs is the line-of-sight into the central engine. If this model is correct than there should be no difference in many of the properties of AGN host galaxies (e.g., the mass of the surrounding dark matter haloes). However, recent clustering analyses of Type 1 and Type 2 AGNs have provided some evidence for a difference in the halo mass, in conflict with the orientation-based unified model. In this work, a method to compute the Conditional Luminosity Function (CLF) of Type 2 and Type 1 AGNs is presented. The CLF allows many fundamental halo properties to be computed as a function of AGN luminosity, which we apply to the question of the host halo masses of Type 1 and 2 AGNs. By making use of the total AGN CLF, the Type 1 X-ray luminosity function, and the luminosity-dependent Type 2 AGN fraction, the CLFs of Type 1 and 2 AGNs are calculated at z ≈ 0 and 0.9. At both z, there is no statistically significant difference in the mean halo mass of Type 2 and 1 AGNs at any luminosity. There is marginal evidence that Type 1 AGNs may have larger halo masses than Type 2s, which would be consistent with an evolutionary picture where quasars are initially obscured and then subsequently reveal themselves as Type 1s. As the Type 1 lifetime is longer, the host halo will increase somewhat in mass during the Type 1 phase. The CLF technique will be a powerful way to study the properties of many AGNs subsets (e.g., radio-loud, Compton-thick) as future wide-area X-ray and optical surveys substantially increase our ability to place AGNs in their cosmological context.

  9. Clustering, Cosmology and a New Era of Black Hole Demographics -- II. The Conditional Luminosity Functions of Type 2 and Type 1 Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Ballantyne, D R

    2016-01-01

    The orientation-based unification model of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) posits that the principle difference between obscured (Type 2) and unobscured (Type 1) AGNs is the line-of-sight into the central engine. If this model is correct than there should be no difference in many of the properties of AGN host galaxies (e.g., the mass of the surrounding dark matter haloes). However, recent clustering analyses of Type 1 and Type 2 AGNs have provided some evidence for a difference in the halo mass, in conflict with the orientation-based unified model. In this work, a method to compute the Conditional Luminosity Function (CLF) of Type 2 and Type 1 AGNs is presented. The CLF allows many fundamental halo properties to be computed as a function of AGN luminosity, which we apply to the question of the host halo masses of Type 1 and 2 AGNs. By making use of the total AGN CLF, the Type 1 X-ray luminosity function, and the luminosity-dependent Type 2 AGN fraction, the CLFs of Type 1 and 2 AGNs are calculated at $z\\approx ...

  10. X-ray View of Four High-Luminosity Swift-BAT AGN: Unveiling Obscuration and Reflection with Suzaku

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorettil, V.; Angelini, L.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Koss, M.; Malaguti, G.

    2013-01-01

    Aims. A complete census of obscured Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) is necessary to reveal the history of the super massive black hole (SMBH) growth and galaxy evolution in the Universe given the complex feedback processes and the fact that much of this growth occurs in an obscured phase. In this context, hard X-ray surveys and dedicated follow-up observations represent a unique tool for selecting highly absorbed AGN and for characterizing the obscuring matter surrounding the SMBH. Here we focus on the absorption and reflection occurring in highly luminous, quasar-like AGN, to study the relation between the geometry of the absorbing matter and the AGN nature (e.g. X-ray, optical, and radio properties), and to help to determine the column density dependency on the AGN luminosity. Methods. The Swift/BAT nine-month survey observed 153 AGN, all with ultra-hard X-ray BAT fluxes in excess of 10(exp -11) erg per square centimeter and an average redshift of 0.03. Among them, four of the most luminous BAT AGN (44.73 less than LogLBAT less than 45.31) were selected as targets of Suzaku follow-up observations: J2246.0+3941 (3C 452), J0407.4+0339 (3C 105), J0318.7+6828, and J0918.5+0425. The column density, scattered/reflected emission, the properties of the Fe K line, and a possible variability are fully analyzed. For the latter, the spectral properties from Chandra, XMM-Newton and Swift/XRT public observations were compared with the present Suzaku analysis, adding an original spectral analysis when non was available from the literature. Results. Of our sample, 3C 452 is the only certain Compton-thick AGN candidate because of i) the high absorption (N(sub H) approximately 4 × 10(exp 23) per square centimeter) and strong Compton reflection; ii) the lack of variability; iii) the "buried" nature, i.e. the low scattering fraction (less than 0.5%) and the extremely low relative [OIII] luminosity. In contrast 3C 105 is not reflection-dominated, despite the comparable column density

  11. Iron K Line Variability in the Low-Luminosity AGN NGC 4579

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashima, Yuichi; Ho, Luis C.; Ptak, Andrew F.; Yaqoob, Tahir; Kunieda, Hideyo; Misaki, Kazutami; Serlemitsos, Peter J.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We present results of new ASCA observations of the low-luminosity AGN (LLAGN) NGC 4579 obtained in 1998 December 18 and 28, and we report on detection of variability of an iron K emission line. The X-ray luminosities in the 2-10 keV band for the two observations are nearly identical, L(sub X) approximately = 2 x 10(exp 4l) ergs/s, but they are approximately 35% larger than that measured in 1995 July by Terashima et al. (1998). An Fe K emission line is detected at 6.39 +/- 0.09 keV (source rest frame) which is lower than the line energy 6.73(sup +0.13, sub -0.12) keV in the 1995 observation. If we fit the Fe lines with a blend of two Gaussians centered at 6.4 keV and 6.73 KeV, the intensity of the 6.7 keV line decreased, while the intensity of the 6.4 keV line increased, within an interval of 3.5 years. This variability rules out thermal plasmas in the host galaxy as the origin of the ionized Fe line in this LLAGN. The detection and variability of the 6.4 keV line suggest that an optically thick standard accretion disk is present and subtends a large solid angle viewed from the nucleus at the Eddington ratio of L(sub Bol)/L(sub Eddington) approximately 2 x 10(exp -3) (Ho 1999). A broad disk-line profile is not clearly seen and the structure of the innermost part of accretion disk remains unclear.

  12. Infrared Classification and Luminosities For Dusty AGN and the Most Luminous Quasars

    OpenAIRE

    Weedman, Daniel; Sargsyan, Lusine; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Houck, James; Barry, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Mid-infrared spectroscopic measurements from the Infrared Spectrometer on Spitzer (IRS) are given for 125 hard X-ray AGN (14-195 keV) from the Swift Burst Alert Telescope sample and for 32 AGN with black hole masses from reverberation mapping. The 9.7 um silicate feature in emission or absorption defines an infrared AGN classification describing whether AGN are observed through dust clouds, indicating that 55% of the BAT AGN are observed through dust. The mid-infrared dust continuum luminosit...

  13. The clustering amplitude of X-ray selected AGN at z=0.8: Evidence for a negative dependence on accretion luminosity

    CERN Document Server

    Mountrichas, G; Menzel, M L; Fanidakis, N; Merloni, A; Liu, Z; Salvato, M; Nandra, K

    2016-01-01

    The northern tile of the wide-area and shallow XMM-XXL X-ray survey field is used to estimate the average dark matter halo mass of relatively luminous X-ray selected AGN [$\\rm log\\, L_X (\\rm 2-10\\,keV)= 43.6^{+0.4}_{-0.4}\\,erg/s$] in the redshift interval $z=0.5-1.2$. Spectroscopic follow-up observations of X-ray sources in the XMM-XXL field by the Sloan telescope are combined with the VIPERS spectroscopic galaxy survey to determine the cross-correlation signal between X-ray selected AGN (total of 318) and galaxies (about 20,\\,000). We model the large scales (2-25\\,Mpc) of the correlation function to infer a mean dark matter halo mass of $\\log M / (M_{\\odot} \\, h^{-1}) = 12.50 ^{+0.22} _{-0.30}$ for the X-ray selected AGN sample. This measurement is about 0.5\\,dex lower compared to estimates in the literature of the mean dark matter halo masses of moderate luminosity X-ray AGN [$L_X (\\rm 2-10\\,keV)\\approx 10^{42} - 10^{43}\\,erg/s$] at similar redshifts. Our analysis also links the mean clustering properties o...

  14. Low-Luminosity AGN as analogues of Galactic Black Holes in the low/hard state: Evidence from X-ray timing of NGC 4258

    CERN Document Server

    Markowitz, A

    2005-01-01

    We present a broadband power spectral density function (PSD) measured from extensive RXTE monitoring data of the low-luminosity AGN NGC 4258, which has an accurate, maser-determined black hole mass of 3.9+/-0.1 * 10^7 solar masses. We constrain the PSD break timescale to be greater than 4.5 d at >90% confidence, which appears to rule out the possibility that NGC 4258 is an analogue of black hole X-ray binaries (BHXRBs) in the high/soft state. In this sense, the PSD of NGC 4258 is different to those of some more-luminous Seyferts, which appear similar to the PSDs of high/soft state X-ray binaries. This result supports previous analogies between LLAGN and X-ray binaries in the low/hard state based on spectral energy distributions, indicating that the AGN/BHXRB analogy is valid across a broad range of accretion rates.

  15. Detailed Shape and Evolutionary Behavior of the X-ray Luminosity Function of Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Miyaji, T; Salvato, M; Brusa, M; Cappelluti, N; Civano, F; Puccetti, S; Elvis, M; Brunner, H; Fotopoulou, S; Ueda, Y; Griffiths, R E; Koekemoer, A M; Akiyama, M; Comastri, A; Gilli, R; Lanzuisi, G; Merloni, A; Vignali, C

    2015-01-01

    We construct the rest-frame 2--10 keV intrinsic X-ray luminosity function of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) from a combination of X-ray surveys from the all-sky Swift BAT survey to the Chandra Deep Field-South. We use ~3200 AGNs in our analysis, which covers six orders of magnitude in flux. The inclusion of the XMM and Chandra COSMOS data has allowed us to investigate the detailed behavior of the XLF and evolution. In deriving our XLF, we take into account realistic AGN spectrum templates, absorption corrections, and probability density distributions in photometric redshift. We present an analytical expression for the overall behavior of the XLF in terms of the luminosity-dependent density evolution, smoothed two power-law expressions in 11 redshift shells, three-segment power-law expression of the number density evolution in four luminosity classes, and binned XLF. We observe a sudden flattening of the low luminosity end slope of the XLF slope at z>~0.6. Detailed structures of the AGN downsizing have been als...

  16. Multi-faceted AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Glennys R.; Chen, Yanping; Dai, Yuxiao; Zaw, Ingyin

    2016-08-01

    An interesting question is how frequently an object is an AGN by multiple different criteria — e.g., is simultaneously a narrow-line optical AGN and an X-ray or radio AGN, possibly as a function of luminosities in the various wavebands and perhaps host galaxy type. Answering such questions quantitatively has been difficult up to now because of the lack of a complete, uniformly selected optical AGN catalog. Here we report first results of such an analysis, using the new, all-sky catalog of uniformly selected optical AGNs from Zaw, Chen and Farrar (2016), the Swift-BAT 70-month catalog of X-ray AGN (Baumgartner et al., 2013), and the van Velzen et al. (2012) catalog of radio AGN.

  17. Stellar Velocity Dispersion Measurements in High-Luminosity Quasar Hosts and Implications for the AGN Black Hole Mass Scale

    CERN Document Server

    Grier, C J; Watson, L C; Peterson, B M; Bentz, M C; Dasyra, K M; Dietrich, M; Ferrarese, L; Pogge, R W; Zu, Y

    2013-01-01

    We present new stellar velocity dispersion measurements for four luminous quasars with the NIFS instrument and the ALTAIR laser guide star adaptive optics system on the Gemini North 8-m telescope. Stellar velocity dispersion measurements and measurements of the supermassive black hole masses in luminous quasars are necessary to investigate the coevolution of black holes and galaxies, trace the details of accretion, and probe the nature of feedback. We find that higher-luminosity quasars with higher-mass black holes are not offset with respect to the MBH-sigma relation exhibited by lower-luminosity AGNs with lower-mass black holes, nor do we see correlations with galaxy morphology. As part of this analysis, we have recalculated the virial products for the entire sample of reverberation-mapped AGNs and used these data to redetermine the mean virial factor hfi that places the reverberation data on the quiescent M_BH-sigma relation. With our updated measurements and new additions to the AGN sample, we obtain = 4...

  18. STELLAR VELOCITY DISPERSION MEASUREMENTS IN HIGH-LUMINOSITY QUASAR HOSTS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE AGN BLACK HOLE MASS SCALE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grier, C. J.; Martini, P.; Peterson, B. M.; Pogge, R. W.; Zu, Y. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 W 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Watson, L. C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bentz, M. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Dasyra, K. M. [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA (CNRS:UMR8112), 61 Avenue de l' Observatoire, F-75014, Paris (France); Dietrich, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45601 (United States); Ferrarese, L. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria BV V9E 2E7 (Canada)

    2013-08-20

    We present new stellar velocity dispersion measurements for four luminous quasars with the Near-Infrared Integral Field Spectrometer instrument and the ALTAIR laser guide star adaptive optics system on the Gemini North 8 m telescope. Stellar velocity dispersion measurements and measurements of the supermassive black hole (BH) masses in luminous quasars are necessary to investigate the coevolution of BHs and galaxies, trace the details of accretion, and probe the nature of feedback. We find that higher-luminosity quasars with higher-mass BHs are not offset with respect to the M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relation exhibited by lower-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with lower-mass BHs, nor do we see correlations with galaxy morphology. As part of this analysis, we have recalculated the virial products for the entire sample of reverberation-mapped AGNs and used these data to redetermine the mean virial factor (f) that places the reverberation data on the quiescent M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relation. With our updated measurements and new additions to the AGN sample, we obtain (f) = 4.31 {+-} 1.05, which is slightly lower than, but consistent with, most previous determinations.

  19. Correlations of the IR Luminosity and Eddington Ratio with a Hard X-ray Selected Sample of AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushotzy, Richard F.; Winter, Lisa M.; McIntosh, Daniel H.; Tueller, Jack

    2008-01-01

    We use the SWIFT Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) sample of hard x-ray selected active galactic nuclei (AGN) with a median redshift of 0.03 and the 2MASS J and K band photometry to examine the correlation of hard x-ray emission to Eddington ratio as well as the relationship of the J and K band nuclear luminosity to the hard x-ray luminosity. The BAT sample is almost unbiased by the effects of obscuration and thus offers the first large unbiased sample for the examination of correlations between different wavelength bands. We find that the near-IR nuclear J and K band luminosity is related to the BAT (14 - 195 keV) luminosity over a factor of 10(exp 3) in luminosity (L(sub IR) approx.equals L(sub BAT)(sup 1.25) and thus is unlikely to be due to dust. We also find that the Eddington ratio is proportional to the x-ray luminosity. This new result should be a strong constraint on models of the formation of the broad band continuum.

  20. How covariant is the galaxy luminosity function?

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the error properties of certain galaxy luminosity function (GLF) estimators. Using a cluster expansion of the density field, we show how, for both volume and flux limited samples, the GLF estimates are covariant. The covariance matrix can be decomposed into three pieces: a diagonal term arising from Poisson noise; a sample variance term arising from large-scale structure in the survey volume; an occupancy covariance term arising due to galaxies of different luminosities inhabiting the same cluster. To evaluate the theory one needs: the mass function and bias of clusters, and the conditional luminosity function (CLF). We use a semi-analytic model (SAM) galaxy catalogue from the Millennium run N-body simulation and the CLF of Yang et al. (2003) to explore these effects. The GLF estimates from the SAM and the CLF qualitatively reproduce results from the 2dFGRS. We also measure the luminosity dependence of clustering in the SAM and find reasonable agreement with 2dFGRS results for bright galaxies. ...

  1. Axions and the white dwarf luminosity function

    CERN Document Server

    Isern, J; García-Berro, E; Torres, S

    2008-01-01

    The evolution of white dwarfs can be described as a simple cooling process. Recently, it has been possible to determine with an unprecedented precision their luminosity function, that is, the number of stars per unit volume and luminosity interval. Since the shape of the bright branch of this function is only sensitive to the average cooling rate, we use this property to check the possible existence of axions, a proposed but not yet detected weakly interacting particle. We show here that the inclusion of the axion emissivity in the evolutionary models of white dwarfs noticeably improves the agreement between the theoretical calculations and the observational white dwarf luminosity function, thus providing the first positive indication that axions could exist. Our results indicate that the best fit is obtained for m_a cos^2beta ~ 2-6 meV, where m_a is the mass of the axion and cos^2beta is a free parameter, and that values larger than 10 meV are clearly excluded.

  2. Rest-frame UV single-epoch black hole mass estimates of low-luminosity AGN at intermediate redshifts

    CERN Document Server

    Karouzos, Marios; Matsuoka, Kenta; Kochanek, Christopher S; Onken, Christopher A; Kollmeier, Juna A; Park, Dawoo; Nagao, Tohru; Kim, Sang Chul

    2015-01-01

    The ability to accurately derive black hole (BH) masses at progressively higher redshifts and over a wide range of continuum luminosities has become indispensable in the era of large-area extragalactic spectroscopic surveys. In this paper we present an extension of existing comparisons between rest-frame UV and optical virial BH mass estimators to intermediate redshifts and luminosities comparable to the local H$\\beta$ reverberation mapped active galactic nuclei (AGN). We focus on the MgII, CIV, and CIII] broad emission lines and compare them to both H$\\alpha$ and H$\\beta$. We use newly acquired near-infrared spectra from the FMOS instrument on the Subaru telescope for 89 broad-lined AGN at redshifts between 0.3 and 3.5, complemented by data from the AGES survey. We employ two different prescriptions for measuring the emission line widths and compare the results. We confirm that MgII shows a tight correlation with H$\\alpha$ and H$\\beta$, with a scatter of ~0.25 dex. The CIV and CIII] estimators, while showing...

  3. X-ray Variability as a Probe of Advection-Dominated Accretion in Low-Luminosity AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Ptak, A; Mushotzky, R F; Serlemitsos, P J; Griffiths, R

    1998-01-01

    As a class, LINERs and Low-Luminosity AGN tend to show little or no significant short-term variability (i.e., with time-scales less than a day). This is a marked break for the trend of increased variability in Seyfert 1 galaxies with decreased luminosity. We propose that this difference is due to the lower accretion rate in LINERs and LLAGN which is probably causing the accretion flow to be advection-dominated. This results in a larger characteristic size for the X-ray producing region than is the case in ``normal'' AGN. Short-term variability may be caused by a localized instability or occultation events, but we note that such events would likely be accompanied by broad-band spectral changes. Since the ADAF is more compact in a Kerr metric, it is possible that the X-ray emission from ADAFs around rotating blackholes would be more variable than X-ray emission from ADAFs in a Schwarzchild metric. Similar variability arguments also apply to other wavelengths, and accordingly multiwavelength monitoring of LLAGN ...

  4. The XMM-Newton Serendipitous Survey. VI. The X-ray Luminosity Function

    CERN Document Server

    Ebrero, J; Page, M J; Silverman, J D; Barcons, X; Ceballos, M T; Corral, A; Della Ceca, R; Watson, M G

    2008-01-01

    We present the X-ray luminosity function of AGN in three energy bands (Soft: 0.5-2 keV, Hard: 2-10 keV and Ultrahard: 4.5-7.5 keV). We have used the XMS survey along with other highly complete flux-limited deeper and shallower surveys for a total of 1009, 435 and 119 sources in the Soft, Hard and Ultrahard bands, respectively. We have modeled the intrinsic absorption of the Hard and Ultrahard sources (NH function) and computed the intrinsic X-ray luminosity function in all bands using a Maximum Likelihood fit technique to an analytical model. We find that the X-ray luminosity function (XLF) is best described by a Luminosity-Dependent Density Evolution (LDDE) model. Our results show a good overall agreement with previous results in the Hard band, although with slightly weaker evolution. Our model in the Soft band present slight discrepancies with other works in this band, the shape of our present day XLF being significantly flatter. We find faster evolution in the AGN detected in the Ultrahard band than those ...

  5. Galaxy Luminosity Functions in WINGS clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Moretti, A; Poggianti, B M; Fasano, G; Varela, J; D'Onofrio, M; Vulcani, B; Cava, A; Fritz, J; Couch, W J; Moles, M; Kjærgaard, P

    2015-01-01

    Using V band photometry of the WINGS survey, we derive galaxy luminosity functions (LF) in nearby clusters. This sample is complete down to Mv=-15.15, and it is homogeneous, thus allowing the study of an unbiased sample of clusters with different characteristics. We constructed the photometric LF for 72 out of the original 76 WINGS clusters, excluding only those without a velocity dispersion estimate. For each cluster we obtained the LF for galaxies in a region of radius=0.5 x r200, and fitted them with single and double Schechter's functions. We also derive the composite LF for the entire sample, and those pertaining to different morphological classes. Finally we derive the spectroscopic cumulative LF for 2009 galaxies that are cluster members. The double Schechter fit parameters are neither correlated with the cluster velocity dispersion, nor with the X-ray luminosity. Our median values of the Schechter's fit slope are, on average, in agreement with measurements of nearby clusters, but are less steep that t...

  6. NLC Luminosity as a Function of Beam Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Nosochkov, Yu M; Raubenheimer, T O; Seryi, Andrei

    2002-01-01

    Realistic calculation of NLC luminosity has been performed using particle tracking in DIMAD and beam-beam simulations in GUINEA-PIG code for various values of beam emittance, energy and beta functions at the Interaction Point (IP). Results of the simulations are compared with analytic luminosity calculations. The optimum range of IP beta functions for high luminosity was identified.

  7. The Evolving Luminosity Function of Red Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, M J I; Jannuzi, B T; Brand, K; Benson, A J; Brodwin, M; Croton, D J; Eisenhardt, P R M; Brown, Michael J. I.; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Brand, Kate; Benson, Andrew J.; Brodwin, Mark; Croton, Darren J.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.

    2006-01-01

    We trace the assembly history of red galaxies since z=1, by measuring their evolving space density with the B-band luminosity function. Our sample of 39599 red galaxies, selected from 6.96 square degrees of imaging from the NOAO Deep Wide-Field and Spitzer IRAC Shallow surveys, is an order of magnitude larger, in size and volume, than comparable samples in the literature. We measure a higher space density of z=0.9 red galaxies than some of the recent literature, in part because we account for the faint yet significant galaxy flux which falls outside of our photometric aperture. The B-band luminosity density of red galaxies, which effectively measures the evolution of ~L* galaxies, increases by only 36 percent from z=0 to z=1. If red galaxy stellar populations have faded by 1.24 B-band magnitudes since z=1, the stellar mass contained within the red galaxy population has roughly doubled over the past 8 Gyr. This is consistent with star-forming galaxies being transformed into ~L* red galaxies after a decline in ...

  8. Unveiling the Physics of Low-luminosity AGNs through X-Ray Variability: LINER versus Seyfert 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-García, L.; Masegosa, J.; González-Martín, O.; Márquez, I.; Perea, J.

    2016-06-01

    X-ray variability is very common in active galactic nuclei (AGNs), but these variations may not occur similarly in different families of AGNs. We aim to disentangle the structure of low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs) compared to Seyfert 2s by the study of their spectral properties and X-ray variations. We assembled the X-ray spectral parameters and variability patterns, which were obtained from simultaneous spectral fittings. Major differences are observed in the X-ray luminosities and the Eddington ratios, which are higher in Seyfert 2s. Short-term X-ray variations were not detected, while long-term changes are common in LINERs and Seyfert 2s. Compton-thick sources generally do not show variations, most probably because the AGN is not accesible in the 0.5–10 keV energy band. The changes are mostly related to variations in the nuclear continuum, but other patterns of variability show that variations in the absorbers and at soft energies can be present in a few cases. We conclude that the X-ray variations may occur similarly in LINERs and Seyfert 2s, i.e., they are related to the nuclear continuum, although they might have different accretion mechanisms. Variations at UV frequencies are detected in LINER nuclei but not in Seyfert 2s. This is suggestive of at least some LINERs having an unobstructed view of the inner disk where the UV emission might take place, with UV variations being common in them. This result might be compatible with the disappeareance of the torus and/or the broad-line region in at least some LINERs.

  9. The Suzaku view of highly-ionised outflows in AGN: II -- Location, energetics and scalings with Bolometric Luminosity

    CERN Document Server

    Gofford, J; McLaughlin, D E; Braito, V; Turner, T J; Tombesi, F; Cappi, M

    2015-01-01

    Ongoing studies with XMM-Newton have shown that powerful accretion disc winds, as revealed through highly-ionised Fe\\,K-shell absorption at E>=6.7 keV, are present in a significant fraction of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) in the local Universe (Tombesi et al. 2010). In Gofford et al. (2013) we analysed a sample of 51 Suzaku-observed AGN and independently detected Fe K absorption in ~40% of the sample, and we measured the properties of the absorbing gas. In this work we build upon these results to consider the properties of the associated wind. On average, the fast winds (v_out>0.01c) are located ~10^{15-18} cm (typically ~10^{2-4} r_s) from their black hole, their mass outflow rates are of the order ~0.01-1 Msun/yr or ~(0.01-1) M_edd and kinetic power is constrained to ~10^{43-45} erg/s, equivalent to ~(0.1-10%) L_edd. We find a fundamental correlation between the source bolometric luminosity and the wind velocity, with v_out \\propto L_bol^{\\alpha} and \\alpha=0.4^{+0.3}_{-0.2}$ (90% confidence), which indica...

  10. Sleeping Giants? - X-ray search for low-luminosity AGN candidates in nearby optically bright galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kalcheva, Ivayla E

    2014-01-01

    In this Master's project, the X-ray nuclear properties of a sample of bright nearby galaxies are explored. This is done by matching their comprehensive optical spectroscopic classification to the latest available XMM-Newton catalogue - 3XMM-DR4. The good coverage (approx. 38 per cent) ensures that a statistically representative sample is investigated. All nuclear and morphological subsets found within the original sample of 486 galaxies are encompassed, but early-type galaxies and galaxies with optical features characteristic for active galactic nuclei (AGN) are favoured. The results from the investigation of the properties of our cross-matched sample are overall consistent with the presence of a large fraction of X-ray - detected low-luminosity AGN (LLAGN). The X-ray - detected galaxies within our HII and transition-LINER subsets are of particular interest, as they could harbour LLAGN missed by optical spectroscopic selection. The properties of these nuclei are explored by X-ray spectral fitting of available...

  11. Low-Luminosity AGN As Analogues of Galactic Black Holes in the Low/Hard State: Evidence from X-Ray Timing of NGC 4258

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, A.; Uttley, P.

    2005-01-01

    We present a broadband power spectral density function (PSD) measured from extensive RXTE monitoring data of the low-luminosity AGN NGC 4258, which has an accurate, maser-determined black hole mass of (3.9 plus or minus 0.1) x 10(exp 7) solar mass. We constrain the PSD break time scale to be greater than 4.5 d at greater than 90% confidence, which appears to rule out the possibility that NGC 4258 is an analogue of black hole X-ray binaries (BHXRBs) in the high/soft state. In this sense, the PSD of NGC 4258 is different to that of some more-luminous Seyferts, which appear similar to the PSDs of high/soft state X-ray binaries. This result supports previous analogies between LLAGN and X-ray binaries in the low/hard state based on spectral energy distributions, indicating that the AGN/BHXRB analogy is valid across a broad range of accretion rates.

  12. Extending Virial Black Hole Mass Estimates to Low-Luminosity or Obscured AGN: the cases of NGC 4395 and MCG -01-24-012

    CERN Document Server

    La Franca, F; Ricci, F; Sani, E; Brusa, M; Maiolino, R; Fiore, F; Marconi, A; Vignali, C

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, using single epoch (SE) virial based spectroscopic optical observations, it has been possible to measure the black hole (BH) mass on large type 1 Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) samples. However this kind of measurements can not be applied on those obscured type 2 and/or low luminosity AGN where the nuclear component does not dominate in the optical. We have derived new SE relationships, based on the FWHM and luminosity of the broad line region component of the Pabeta emission line and/or the hard X-ray luminosity in the 14-195 keV band, which have the prospect of better working with low luminosity or obscured AGN. The SE relationships have been calibrated in the 10^5-10^9 M_sol mass range, using a sample of AGN whose BH masses have been previously measured using reverberation mapping techniques. Our tightest relationship between the reverberation-based BH mass and the SE virial product has an intrinsic spread of 0.20 dex. Thanks to these SE relations, in agreement with previous estimates, we...

  13. The jet of the Low Luminosity AGN of M81. Evidence of Precession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberdi, A.; Martí-Vidal, I.; Marcaide, J. M.; Guirado, J. C.; Pérez-Torres, M. A.; Ros, E.; Brunthaler, A.

    2013-12-01

    In this contribution, we summarize our main results of a big campaign of global VLBI observations of the AGN in M81 (M81*) phase-referenced to the radio supernova SN 1993J. Thanks to the precise multi-epoch and multi-frequency astrometry, we have determined the normalized core-shift of the relativistic jet of M81* and estimated both the magnetic field and the particle density at the jet base. We have also found evidence of jet precession in M81* coming from the systematic time evolution of the jet orientation correlated with changes in the overall flux density.

  14. Far Infrared Luminosity Function of Local Star-forming Galaxies in the AKARI Deep Field South

    CERN Document Server

    Sedgwick, Chris; Pearson, Chris; Matsuura, Shuji; Shirahata, Mai; Oyabu, Shinki; Goto, Tomotsugu; Matsuhara, Hideo; Clements, D L; Negrello, Mattia; White, Glenn J

    2011-01-01

    We present a far-infrared galaxy luminosity function for the local universe. We have obtained 389 spectroscopic redshifts for galaxies observed at 90 microns in the AKARI Deep Field South, using the AAOmega fibre spectrograph via optical identifications in the digitized sky survey and 4m-class optical imaging. For the luminosity function presented in this paper, we have used those galaxies which have redshifts 0functions were estimated using earlier Spitzer data and APM B-band optical data respectively, and the luminosity function has been prepared using the 1/Vmax method. We also separate the luminosity function between galaxies which show evidence of predominantly star-forming activity and predominantly active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity in their optical spectra. Our luminosity function is in good agreement with the previous 90 micron lumino...

  15. The Luminosity and Stellar Mass Functions of Red W1-W2 Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    O'Connor, Jessica A; Satyapal, Shobita; Secrest, Nathan J

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of nearby galaxies as a function of their [3.4]-[4.6] colour. Galaxies that are red in their [3.4]-[4.6] colour contain heated dust and the reddest systems ([3.4]-[4.6] > 0.5) are classified as AGN by some selection criteria. The sample discussed here includes nearby galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) that are also in the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) catalogue. We calculate the number density of galaxies, in the form of the luminosity and mass functions, using the V/Vmax method and a Stepwise Maximum Likelihood method that has been modified to account for the additional colour selection. The reddest galaxies which have [3.4]-[4.6] > 0.8 and are sometimes classified as AGN by their colour, make up 0.2% of nearby galaxies. However, the reddest galaxies are a rising fraction of the low mass galaxy population. Identifying the lowest mass (M 0.8) galaxies as AGN is surprising given that none are optical AGN or composites, in contrast with their more massive...

  16. THE SDSS-III BARYON OSCILLATION SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY: THE QUASAR LUMINOSITY FUNCTION FROM DATA RELEASE NINE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a new measurement of the optical quasar luminosity function (QLF), using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III: Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (SDSS-III: BOSS). From the SDSS-III Data Release Nine, a uniform sample of 22,301 i ∼2, with confirmed spectroscopic redshifts between 2.2 i (z = 2.2) ≈ –24.5 and see a clear break in the QLF at all redshifts up to z = 3.5. A log-linear relation (in log Φ* – M*) for a luminosity evolution and density evolution model is found to adequately describe our data within the range 2.2 < z < 3.5; across this interval the break luminosity increases by a factor of ∼2.6 while Φ* declines by a factor of ∼8. At z ∼< 2.2 our data are reasonably well fit by a pure luminosity evolution model, and only a weak signature of ''AGN downsizing'' is seen, in line with recent studies of the hard X-ray luminosity function. We compare our measured QLF to a number of theoretical models and find that models making a variety of assumptions about quasar triggering and halo occupation can fit our data over a wide range of redshifts and luminosities

  17. Galaxy evolution as a function of environment and luminosity

    CERN Document Server

    Mercurio, A; Gargiulo, A; La Barbera, F; Merluzzi, P; Busarello, G

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of star formation and nuclear activity of about 28000 galaxies in a volume-limited sample taken from SDSS DR4 low-redshift catalogue (LRC) taken from the New York University Value Added Galaxy Catalogue (NYU-VAGC) of Blanton et al. 2005, with 0.005~ L*) galaxies. Moreover the fraction of galaxies with the optical signatures of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) decreases steadily from ~50\\% at Mr~-21 to ~0 per cent by Mr~-18 closely mirroring the luminosity dependence of the passive galaxy fraction in low-density environments (see fig. 1 continuous lines). This result reflects the increasing importance of AGN feedback with galaxy mass for their evolution, such that the star formation histories of massive galaxies are primarily determined by their past merger history.

  18. Variability-selected low luminosity AGNs in the SA57 and in the CDFS

    CERN Document Server

    Vagnetti, F; Trevese, D

    2009-01-01

    Low Luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei (LLAGNs) are contaminated by the light of their host galaxies, thus they cannot be detected by the usual colour techniques. For this reason their evolution in cosmic time is poorly known. Variability is a property shared by virtually all active galactic nuclei, and it was adopted as a criterion to select them using multi epoch surveys. Here we report on two variability surveys in different sky areas, the Selected Area 57 and the Chandra Deep Field South.

  19. The Radio Luminosity Function and Galaxy Evolution in the Coma Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Neal A; Mobasher, Bahram; Bridges, Terry J; Hudson, Michael J; Marzke, Ronald O; Smith, Russell J

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the radio luminosity function (RLF) and radio source population for two fields within the Coma cluster of galaxies. Our VLA data reach down to log(L) = 20.23 W/Hz for Coma, and we associate 249 sources with optical counterparts from the SDSS. Comprehensive optical spectroscopy identifies 38 of these as members of the Coma cluster, evenly split between AGN and star-forming galaxies (SFG). The radio-detected SFG are the dominant population only for ~21 ~ 22.48 W/Hz) and low (log(L) <~ 21 W/Hz) ends. Through a stacking analysis of these optically-bright ellipticals we find that they continue to harbor radio sources down to log(L) = 19.48. However, contrary to published results for the Virgo cluster we find no evidence for the existence of a population of optically faint (Mr ~ -14) dw arf ellipticals hosting strong radio AGN.

  20. The HerMES SPIRE submillimeter local luminosity function

    OpenAIRE

    Vaccari, M.; Marchetti, L.; Franceschini, A.; Altieri, B.; Amblard, A.; Arumugam, V.; Auld, R.; Aussel, H.; Babbedge, T.; Blain, A.; Bock, J.; Boselli, A.; Buat, V.; Burgarella, D.; Castro-Rodriguez, N.

    2010-01-01

    Local luminosity functions are fundamental benchmarks for high-redshift galaxy formation and evolution studies as well as for models describing these processes. Determining the local luminosity function in the submillimeter range can help to better constrain in particular the bolometric luminosity density in the local Universe, and Herschel offers the first opportunity to do so in an unbiased way by imaging large sky areas at several submillimeter wavelengths. We present the first Herschel m...

  1. Obscured AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptak, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Many obscured AGN show evidence of significant starburst emission dominating below 2 keV. Therefore wide-field X-ray surveys sensitive enough to luminosities below approximately 10^42 ergs per second will result in detections of galaxies with contributions of both obscured AGN and starburst emission. We will discuss Bayesian approaches to assessing the relative contribution of each component, minimizing survey biases and using the resultant posterior probabilities for the AGN and starburst components to determine their evolution.

  2. THE SDSS-III BARYON OSCILLATION SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY: THE QUASAR LUMINOSITY FUNCTION FROM DATA RELEASE NINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Nicholas P.; White, Martin; Bailey, Stephen [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 92420 (United States); McGreer, Ian D. [Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Richards, Gordon T. [Department of Physics, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Myers, Adam D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Yeche, Christophe [CEA, Centre de Saclay, IRFU, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Strauss, Michael A. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Anderson, Scott F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Shen, Yue; Swanson, Molly E. C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Brandt, W. N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Aubourg, Eric [APC, University of Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite (France); Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Brinkmann, J. [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349-0059 (United States); Bovy, Jo [Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); DeGraf, Colin; Di Matteo, Tiziana, E-mail: npross@lbl.gov [McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); and others

    2013-08-10

    We present a new measurement of the optical quasar luminosity function (QLF), using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III: Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (SDSS-III: BOSS). From the SDSS-III Data Release Nine, a uniform sample of 22,301 i {approx}< 21.8 quasars are selected over an area of 2236 deg{sup 2}, with confirmed spectroscopic redshifts between 2.2 < z < 3.5, filling in a key part of the luminosity-redshift plane for optical quasar studies. The completeness of the survey is derived through simulated quasar photometry, and this completeness estimate is checked using a sample of quasars selected by their photometric variability within the BOSS footprint. We investigate the level of systematics associated with our quasar sample using the simulations, in the process generating color-redshift relations and a new quasar K-correction. We probe the faint end of the QLF to M{sub i} (z = 2.2) Almost-Equal-To -24.5 and see a clear break in the QLF at all redshifts up to z = 3.5. A log-linear relation (in log {Phi}* - M*) for a luminosity evolution and density evolution model is found to adequately describe our data within the range 2.2 < z < 3.5; across this interval the break luminosity increases by a factor of {approx}2.6 while {Phi}* declines by a factor of {approx}8. At z {approx}< 2.2 our data are reasonably well fit by a pure luminosity evolution model, and only a weak signature of ''AGN downsizing'' is seen, in line with recent studies of the hard X-ray luminosity function. We compare our measured QLF to a number of theoretical models and find that models making a variety of assumptions about quasar triggering and halo occupation can fit our data over a wide range of redshifts and luminosities.

  3. Evolution of the cluster X-ray luminosity function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullis, C.R.; Vikhlinin, A.; Henry, J.P.;

    2004-01-01

    We report measurements of the cluster X-ray luminosity function out to z = 0.8 based on the final sample of 201 galaxy systems from the 160 Square Degree ROSAT Cluster Survey. There is little evidence for any measurable change in cluster abundance out to z similar to 0.6 at luminosities of less t...

  4. Impact of the short-term luminosity evolution on luminosity function of star-forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Parnovsky, S L

    2015-01-01

    An evolution of luminosity of galaxies in emission lines or wavelength ranges in which they are sensitive to the star formation process is caused by burning out of the most massive O-class stars during a few million years after a starburst. We study the impact of this effect on the luminosity function (LF) of a sample of star-forming galaxies. We introduce several types of LFs: an initial LF after a starburst, current, time-averaged and sample ones. We find the relations between them in general and specify them in the case of the luminosity evolution law proposed for the luminous compact galaxies. We obtain the sample LF for the cases the initial one is described by the pure Schechter function or the log-normal distribution and analyze the properties of these LFs. As a result we get two new types of LFs to fit the LF of a sample of star-forming galaxies.

  5. The UVX quasar optical luminosity function and its evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Goldschmidt, P; Goldschmidt, Pippa; Miller, Lance

    1997-01-01

    The recently-finished Edinburgh UVX quasar survey at B < 18 is used together with other complete samples to estimate the shape and evolution of the optical luminosity function in the redshift range 0.3 < z < 2.2. There is a significantly higher space density of quasars at high luminosity and low redshift than previously found in the PG sample of Schmidt \\& Green (1983), with the result that the shape of the luminosity function at low redshifts (z < 1) is seen to be consistent with a single power-law. At higher redshifts the slope of the power-law at high luminosities appears to steepen significantly. There does not appear to be any consistent break feature which could be used as a tracer of luminosity evolution in the population.

  6. THE RADIO LUMINOSITY FUNCTION AND GALAXY EVOLUTION IN THE COMA CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the radio luminosity function and radio source population for two fields within the Coma cluster of galaxies, with the fields centered on the cluster core and southwest infall region and each covering about half a square degree. Using VLA data with a typical rms sensitivity of 28 μJy per 4.''4 beam, we identify 249 radio sources with optical counterparts brighter than r = 22. For cluster galaxies, these correspond to L 1.4 = 1.7 x 1020 W Hz-1(for a 5σ source) and Mr = -13. Comprehensive optical spectroscopy identifies 38 of these as members of the Coma cluster, evenly split between sources powered by an active nucleus and sources powered by active star formation. The radio-detected star-forming galaxies are the dominant population only at radio luminosities between about 1021 and 1022 W Hz-1, an interesting result given star formation dominates field radio luminosity functions for all luminosities lower than about 1023 W Hz-1. The majority of the radio-detected star-forming galaxies have characteristics of starbursts, including high specific star formation rates and optical spectra with strong emission lines. In conjunction with prior studies on post-starburst galaxies within the Coma cluster, this is consistent with a picture in which late-type galaxies entering Coma undergo a starburst prior to a rapid cessation of star formation. Optically bright elliptical galaxies (Mr ≤ -20.5) make the largest contribution to the radio luminosity function at both the high (∼>3x1022 W Hz-1) and low (∼21 W Hz-1) ends. Through a stacking analysis of these optically bright ellipticals we find that they continue to harbor radio sources down to luminosities as faint as 3 x 1019 W Hz-1. However, contrary to published results for the Virgo cluster we find no evidence for the existence of a population of optically faint (Mr ∼ -14) dwarf ellipticals hosting strong radio AGNs.

  7. The width of the gamma-ray burst luminosity function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, Andrew; Wijers, Ralph A. M. J.

    1995-01-01

    We examine the width of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) luminosity function through the distribution of GRB peak count rates, C(sub peak), as detected by Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) (1993). In the context of Galactic corona spatial distribution models, we attempt to place constaints on the characteristic width of the luminosity function by comparing the observed intensity distribution with those produced by a range of density and luminosity functions. We find that the intrinsic width of the luminosity function cannot be very well restricted. However, the distribution of intrinsic luminosities of detected bursts can be limited: we find that most observed bursts have luminosities that are in a range of one to two decades, but a significant population of undetected less luminous bursts cannot be excluded. These findings demonstrate that the assumption that GRB are standard candles is sufficient but not necessary to explain the observed intensity distribution. We show that the main reason for the relatively poor constraints is the fact that the bright-end part of the GRB flux distribution is not yet sampled by BATSE, and better sampling in the future may lead to significantly stronger constraints on the width of the luminosity function.

  8. Revisiting the Completeness and the Luminosity Function in High-Redshift Low-Luminosity Quasar Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Niida, Mana; Ikeda, Hiroyuki; Matsuoka, Kenta; Kobayashi, Masakazu A R; Toba, Yoshiki; Taniguchi, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have derived quasar luminosity functions (QLFs) at various redshifts. However, the faint side of the QLF at high redshifts is still too uncertain. An accurate estimate of the survey completeness is essential to derive an accurate QLF for use in studying the luminosity-dependent density evolution of the quasar population. Here we investigate how the luminosity dependence of quasar spectra (the Baldwin effect) and the attenuation model for the inter-galactic medium (IGM) affect the completeness estimates. For this purpose, we revisit the completeness of quasar surveys specifically at $z\\sim4-5$, using the COSMOS images observed with Subaru/Suprime-Cam. As the result, we find that the completeness estimates are sensitive to the luminosity dependence of the quasar spectrum and difference in the IGM attenuation models. At $z\\sim4$, the number density of quasars when we adopt the latest IGM model and take the luminosity dependence of spectra into account are $(3.49\\pm1.62)\\times10^{-7}$ Mpc$^{-3}$ ma...

  9. The Intrinsic Quasar Luminosity Function: Accounting for Accretion Disk Anisotropy

    CERN Document Server

    DiPompeo, M A; Brotherton, M S; Runnoe, J C; Green, R F

    2014-01-01

    Quasar luminosity functions are a fundamental probe of the growth and evolution of supermassive black holes. Measuring the intrinsic luminosity function is difficult in practice, due to a multitude of observational and systematic effects. As sample sizes increase and measurement errors drop, characterizing the systematic effects is becoming more important. It is well known that the continuum emission from the accretion disk of quasars is anisotropic --- in part due to its disk-like structure --- but current luminosity function calculations effectively assume isotropy over the range of unobscured lines of sight. Here, we provide the first steps in characterizing the effect of random quasar orientations and simple models of anisotropy on observed luminosity functions. We find that the effect of orientation is not insignificant and exceeds other potential corrections such as those from gravitational lensing of foreground structures. We argue that current observational constraints may overestimate the intrinsic l...

  10. The Luminosity Function of Fermi-detected Flat-Spectrum Radio Quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajello, M.; Shaw, M.S.; Romani, R.W.; Dermer, C.D.; Costamante, L.; King, O.G.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Readhead, A.; Reimer, A.; Richards, J.L.; Stevenson, M.

    2012-04-16

    Fermi has provided the largest sample of {gamma}-ray selected blazars to date. In this work we use a complete sample of FSRQs detected during the first year of operation to determine the luminosity function (LF) and its evolution with cosmic time. The number density of FSRQs grows dramatically up to redshift {approx}0.5-2.0 and declines thereafter. The redshift of the peak in the density is luminosity dependent, with more luminous sources peaking at earlier times; thus the LF of {gamma}-ray FSRQs follows a luminosity-dependent density evolution similarly to that of radio-quiet AGN. Also using data from the Swift Burst Alert Telescope we derive the average spectral energy distribution of FSRQs in the 10 keV-100GeV band and show that there is no correlation of the peak {gamma}-ray luminosity with {gamma}-ray peak frequency. The coupling of the SED and LF allows us to predict that the contribution of FSRQs to the Fermi isotropic {gamma}-ray background is 9.3{sub -1.0}{sup +1.6}% ({+-}3% systematic uncertainty) in the 0.1-100GeV band. Finally we determine the LF of unbeamed FSRQs, finding that FSRQs have an average Lorentz factor of {gamma} = 11.7{sub -2.2}{sup +3.3}, that most are seen within 5{sup o} of the jet axis, and that they represent only {approx}0.1% of the parent population.

  11. The galaxy cluster mid-infrared luminosity function at 1.3 < z < 3.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wylezalek, Dominika; Vernet, Joël; De Breuck, Carlos [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschildstr.2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Brodwin, Mark [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Galametz, Audrey [INAF-Osservatorio di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040, Monteporzio (Italy); Gonzalez, Anthony H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Jarvis, Matt [Astrophysics, Department of Physics, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Hatch, Nina [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Seymour, Nick [CASS, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW, 1710 (Australia); Stanford, Spencer A. [Physics Department, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    We present 4.5 μm luminosity functions for galaxies identified in 178 candidate galaxy clusters at 1.3 < z < 3.2. The clusters were identified as Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) color-selected overdensities in the Clusters Around Radio-Loud AGN project, which imaged 420 powerful radio-loud active galactic nuclei (RLAGNs) at z > 1.3. The luminosity functions are derived for different redshift and richness bins, and the IRAC imaging reaches depths of m* + 2, allowing us to measure the faint end slopes of the luminosity functions. We find that α = –1 describes the luminosity function very well in all redshift bins and does not evolve significantly. This provides evidence that the rate at which the low mass galaxy population grows through star formation gets quenched and is replenished by in-falling field galaxies does not have a major net effect on the shape of the luminosity function. Our measurements for m* are consistent with passive evolution models and high formation redshifts (z{sub f} ∼ 3). We find a slight trend toward fainter m* for the richest clusters, implying that the most massive clusters in our sample could contain older stellar populations, yet another example of cosmic downsizing. Modeling shows that a contribution of a star-forming population of up to 40% cannot be ruled out. This value, found from our targeted survey, is significantly lower than the values found for slightly lower redshift, z ∼ 1, clusters found in wide-field surveys. The results are consistent with cosmic downsizing, as the clusters studied here were all found in the vicinity of RLAGNs—which have proven to be preferentially located in massive dark matter halos in the richest environments at high redshift—and they may therefore be older and more evolved systems than the general protocluster population.

  12. A bimodal model for the galaxy luminosity function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, R.; Silk, J.

    1988-01-01

    The galaxy luminosity function in the Virgo cluster has been recently found to show a clear separation between bright galaxies and dwarf galaxies. Here, consideration is given to the effect on the luminosity function of galaxy binding energy which allows gas to be retained and star formation to proceed over about 1 Gyr in massive galaxies, but implies wind-driven mass loss and inefficient star formation in dwarf galaxies.

  13. The 1Luminosity Function of Type I Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, M J I; Dey, A; Jannuzi, B T; Cool, R; Le Floc'h, E; Kochanek, C S; Armus, L; Bian, C; Higdon, J; Higdon, S; Papovich, C; Rieke, G; Rieke, M; Smith, J D; Soifer, B T; Weedman, D; Brown, Michael J. I.; Brand, Kate; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Cool, Richard; Floc'h, Emeric Le; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Armus, Lee; Bian, Chao; Higdon, Jim; Higdon, Sarah; Papovich, Casey; Rieke, George; Rieke, Marcia; Weedman, Dan

    2006-01-01

    We determine the rest-frame 8 micron luminosity function of type I quasars over the redshift range 1AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey (AGES) has measured redshifts for 270 of the R<21.7 sources and we estimate that the contamination of the remaining 22 sources by stars and galaxies is low. We are able to select quasars missed by ultra-violet excess quasar surveys, including reddened type I quasars and 2.2luminosity function is comparable to that of quasars selected from optical surveys. The 8 micron luminosity function of type I quasars is well approximated by a power-law with i...

  14. The Radio Luminosity Function and Galaxy Evolution in the Coma Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Neal A.; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Mabasher, Bahram; Brudgesm Terrry J.; Hudson, Michael J.; Marzke, Ronald O.; Smith, Russell J.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the radio luminosity function and radio source population for two fields within the Coma cluster of galaxies, with the fields centered on the cluster core and southwest infall region and each covering about half a square degree. Using VLA data with a typical rms sensitivity of 28 (mu)Jy per 4.4" beam, we identify 249 radio sources with optical counterparts brighter than r = 22 (equivalent to M(sub r) = -13 for cluster member galaxies). Comprehensive optical spectroscopy identifies 38 of these as members of the Coma cluster, evenly split between sources powered by an active nucleus and sources powered by active star formation. The radio-detected star-forming galaxies are restricted to radio luminosities between about 10(exp 21) and 10(exp 22) W/Hz, an interesting result given that star formation dominates field radio luminosity functions below about 10(exp 23) W/Hz. The majority of the radio-detected star-forming galaxies have characteristics of starbursts, including high specific star formation rates and optical spectra with strong emission lines. In conjunction with prior studies on post-starburst galaxies within the Coma cluster, this is consistent with a picture in which late-type galaxies entering Coma undergo a starburst prior to a rapid cessation of star formation. Optically bright elliptical galaxies (Mr less than or equals -20.5) make the largest contribution to the radio luminosity function at both the high (> approx. 3x10(exp 22) W/Hz) and low (< approx. 10(exp 21) W/Hz) ends. Through a stacking analysis of these optically-bright ellipticals we find that they continue to harbor radio sources down to luminosities as faint as 3x10(exp 19) W/Hz. However, contrary to published results for the Virgo cluster we find no evidence for the existence of a population of optically faint (M(sub r) approx. equals -14) dwarf ellipticals hosting strong radio AGN.

  15. The luminosity function of Swift long gamma-ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Xiao-Feng; Cheng, K S; Zheng, Xiao-Ping

    2011-01-01

    The formation rate of long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) could follow the cosmic star formation rate (SFR) incorporating with cosmic metallicity evolution. Therefore, the luminosity function (LF) of GRBs can in principle be explored by modeling the redshift-luminosity distributions of {\\it Swift} observed GRBs. For an assumed LF form as $\\Phi_z(L)\\propto e^{-L_p/L}\\left({L/L_p}\\right)^{-\

  16. The galaxy luminosity function and the Local Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Whitbourn, J R

    2016-01-01

    Whitbourn & Shanks (2014) have reported evidence for a local void underdense by ~15% extending to 150-300h-1Mpc around our position in the Southern Galactic Cap (SGC). Assuming a local luminosity function they modelled K- and r-limited number counts and redshift distributions in the 6dFGS/2MASS and SDSS redshift surveys and derived normalised n(z) ratios relative to the standard homogeneous cosmological model. Here we test further these results using maximum likelihood techniques that solve for the galaxy density distributions and the galaxy luminosity function simultaneously. We confirm the results from the previous analysis in terms of the number density distributions, indicating that our detection of the 'Local Hole' in the SGC is robust to the assumption of either our previous, or newly estimated, luminosity functions. However, there are discrepancies with previously published K and r band luminosity functions. In particular the r-band luminosity function has a steeper faint end slope than the r0.1 re...

  17. Luminosity functions for very low mass stars and brown dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Gregory; Bodenheimer, Peter

    1993-01-01

    A theoretical investigation of the luminosity function for low-mass objects to constrain the stellar initial mass function at the low-mass end is reported. The ways in which luminosity functions for low-mass stars are affected by star formation histories, brown dwarf and premain-sequence cooling rates and main-sequence mass luminosity relations, and the IMF are examined. Cooling rates and the mass-luminosity relation are determined through a new series of evolutionary calculations for very low mass stars and brown dwarfs in the range 0.05-0.50 solar mass. Model luminosity functions are constructed for specific comparison with the results of four recent observational surveys. The likelihood that the stellar mass function in the solar neighborhood is increasing at masses near the bottom of the main sequence and perhaps at lower masses is confirmed. In the most optimistic case, brown dwarfs contribute half of the local missing disk mass. The actual contribution is likely to be considerably less.

  18. The intrinsic quasar luminosity function: Accounting for accretion disk anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPompeo, M. A.; Myers, A. D.; Brotherton, M. S. [University of Wyoming, Department of Physics and Astronomy 3905, 1000 East University, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Runnoe, J. C. [Penn State University, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 413 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Green, R. F. [Large Binocular Telescope Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2014-05-20

    Quasar luminosity functions are a fundamental probe of the growth and evolution of supermassive black holes. Measuring the intrinsic luminosity function is difficult in practice, due to a multitude of observational and systematic effects. As sample sizes increase and measurement errors drop, characterizing the systematic effects is becoming more important. It is well known that the continuum emission from the accretion disk of quasars is anisotropic—in part due to its disk-like structure—but current luminosity function calculations effectively assume isotropy over the range of unobscured lines of sight. Here, we provide the first steps in characterizing the effect of random quasar orientations and simple models of anisotropy on observed luminosity functions. We find that the effect of orientation is not insignificant and exceeds other potential corrections such as those from gravitational lensing of foreground structures. We argue that current observational constraints may overestimate the intrinsic luminosity function by as much as a factor of ∼2 on the bright end. This has implications for models of quasars and their role in the universe, such as quasars' contribution to cosmological backgrounds.

  19. Toward the Standard Population Synthesis Model of the X-Ray Background: Evolution of X-Ray Luminosity and Absorption Functions of Active Galactic Nuclei Including Compton-thick Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Yoshihiro; Akiyama, Masayuki; Hasinger, Günther; Miyaji, Takamitsu; Watson, Michael G.

    2014-05-01

    We present the most up to date X-ray luminosity function (XLF) and absorption function of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) over the redshift range from 0 to 5, utilizing the largest, highly complete sample ever available obtained from surveys performed with Swift/BAT, MAXI, ASCA, XMM-Newton, Chandra, and ROSAT. The combined sample, including that of the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey, consists of 4039 detections in the soft (0.5-2 keV) and/or hard (>2 keV) band. We utilize a maximum likelihood method to reproduce the count rate versus redshift distribution for each survey, by taking into account the evolution of the absorbed fraction, the contribution from Compton-thick (CTK) AGNs, and broadband spectra of AGNs, including reflection components from tori based on the luminosity- and redshift-dependent unified scheme. We find that the shape of the XLF at z ~ 1-3 is significantly different from that in the local universe, for which the luminosity-dependent density evolution model gives much better description than the luminosity and density evolution model. These results establish the standard population synthesis model of the X-ray background (XRB), which well reproduces the source counts, the observed fractions of CTK AGNs, and the spectrum of the hard XRB. The number ratio of CTK AGNs to the absorbed Compton-thin (CTN) AGNs is constrained to be ≈0.5-1.6 to produce the 20-50 keV XRB intensity within present uncertainties, by assuming that they follow the same evolution as CTN AGNs. The growth history of supermassive black holes is discussed based on the new AGN bolometric luminosity function.

  20. The Ultraviolet Luminosity Function of the Earliest Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    O'Shea, Brian W; Xu, Hao; Norman, Michael L

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present the first results from the Renaissance Simulations, a suite of extremely high-resolution and physics-rich AMR calculations of high redshift galaxy formation performed on the Blue Waters supercomputer. These simulations contain hundreds of well-resolved galaxies at $z \\sim 25-8$, and make several novel, testable predictions. Most critically, we show that the ultraviolet luminosity function of our simulated galaxies is consistent with observations of high-z galaxy populations at the bright end of the luminosity function (M$_{1600} \\leq -17$), but at lower luminosities is essentially flat rather than rising steeply, as has been inferred by Schechter function fits to high-z observations. This flattening of the luminosity function is due to two factors: (i) the strong dependence of the stellar fraction on halo virial mass in our simulated galaxy population, with lower-mass halos having systematically lower stellar fractions and thus lower luminosities at a given halo virial mass; and (ii)...

  1. The Spitzer mid-infrared AGN survey. II-the demographics and cosmic evolution of the AGN population

    CERN Document Server

    Lacy, Mark; Sajina, Anna; Petric, Andreea O; Gates, Elinor L; Urrutia, Tanya; Storrie-Lombardi, Lisa J

    2015-01-01

    We present luminosity functions derived from a spectroscopic survey of AGN selected from Spitzer Space Telescope imaging surveys. Selection in the mid-infrared is significantly less affected by dust obscuration. We can thus compare the luminosity functions of the obscured and unobscured AGN in a more reliable fashion than by using optical or X-ray data alone. We find that the AGN luminosity function can be well described by a broken power-law model in which the break luminosity decreases with redshift. At high redshifts ($z>1.6$), we find significantly more AGN at a given bolometric luminosity than found by either optical quasar surveys or hard X-ray surveys. The fraction of obscured AGN decreases rapidly with increasing AGN luminosity, but, at least at high redshifts, appears to remain at $\\approx 50$\\% even at bolometric luminosities $\\sim 10^{14}L_{\\odot}$. The data support a picture in which the obscured and unobscured populations evolve differently, with some evidence that high luminosity obscured quasar...

  2. Radial U-band Coma galaxy luminosity functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijersbergen, M; Hoekstra, H; van Dokkum, PG; van der Hulst, JM; Hibbard, JE; Rupen, MP; VanGorkom, JH

    2001-01-01

    We have mapped 1.3 degree(2) of the Coma cluster from the core to beyond the NGC4839 group. Here, we present radial U-band Coma galaxy luminosity functions (LF). The central LF can be represented by a Schechter function, but the radial LFs have very different shapes. We speculate that the derived st

  3. The HerMES SPIRE submillimeter local luminosity function

    CERN Document Server

    Vaccari, M; Franceschini, A; Altieri, B; Amblard, A; Arumugam, V; Auld, R; Aussel, H; Babbedge, T; Blain, A; Bock, J; Boselli, A; Buat, V; Burgarella, D; Castro-Rodriguez, N; Cava, A; Chanial, P; Clements, D L; Conley, A; Conversi, L; Cooray, A; Dowell, C D; Dwek, E; Dye, S; Eales, S; Elbaz, D; Farrah, D; Fox, M; Gear, W; Glenn, J; Solares, E A Gonzalez; Griffin, M; Halpern, M; Hatziminaoglou, E; Huang, J; Ibar, E; Isaak, K; Ivison, R J; Lagache, G; Levenson, L; Lu, N; Madden, S; Maffei, B; Mainetti, G; Mortier, A M J; Nguyen, H T; O'Halloran, B; Oliver, S J; Omont, A; Page, M J; Panuzzo, P; Papageorgiou, A; Pearson, C P; Perez-Fournon, I; Pohlen, M; Rawlings, J I; Raymond, G; Rigopoulou, D; Rizzo, D; Rodighiero, G; Roseboom, I G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Portal, M Sanchez; Schulz, B; Scott, Douglas; Seymour, N; Shupe, D L; Smith, A J; Stevens, J A; Symeonidis, M; Trichas, M; Tugwell, K E; Valiante, E; Valtchanov, I; Vigroux, L; Wang, L; Ward, R; Wright, G; Xu, C K; Zemcov, M

    2010-01-01

    Local luminosity functions are fundamental benchmarks for high-redshift galaxy formation and evolution studies as well as for models describing these processes. Determining the local luminosity function in the submillimeter range can help to better constrain in particular the bolometric luminosity density in the local Universe, and Herschel offers the first opportunity to do so in an unbiased way by imaging large sky areas at several submillimeter wavelengths. We present the first Herschel measurement of the submillimeter 0luminosity function and infrared bolometric (8-1000 $\\mu$m) local luminosity density based on SPIRE data from the HerMES Herschel Key Program over 14.7 deg^2. Flux measurements in the three SPIRE channels at 250, 350 and 500 \\mum are combined with Spitzer photometry and archival data. We fit the observed optical-to-submillimeter spectral energy distribution of SPIRE sources and use the 1/V_{max} estimator to provide the first constraints on the monochromatic 250, 350 and ...

  4. Luminosity Function of Faint Globular Clusters in M87

    CERN Document Server

    Waters, C Z; Lauer, T R; Baltz, E A; Silk, J; Waters, Christopher Z.; Zepf, Stephen E.; Lauer, Tod R.; Baltz, Edward A.; Silk, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    We present the luminosity function to very faint magnitudes for the globular clusters in M87, based on a 30 orbit \\textit{Hubble Space Telescope (HST)} WFPC2 imaging program. The very deep images and corresponding improved false source rejection allow us to probe the mass function further beyond the turnover than has been done before. We compare our luminosity function to those that have been observed in the past, and confirm the similarity of the turnover luminosity between M87 and the Milky Way. We also find with high statistical significance that the M87 luminosity function is broader than that of the Milky Way. We discuss how determining the mass function of the cluster system to low masses can constrain theoretical models of the dynamical evolution of globular cluster systems. Our mass function is consistent with the dependence of mass loss on the initial cluster mass given by classical evaporation, and somewhat inconsistent with newer proposals that have a shallower mass dependence. In addition, the rat...

  5. Erratum - The many lives of AGN: cooling flows, black holes and the luminosities and colours of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Croton, D J; White, S D M; De Lucia, G; Frenk, C S; Gao, L; Jenkins, A; Kauffmann, G; Navarro, J F; Yoshida, N; Croton, Darren J.; Springel, Volker; White, Simon D. M.

    2006-01-01

    In Figure 6 we inadvertently labeled the proxy circular velocity as the virial velocity of the dark matter halo instead of what is actually plotted, the maximum circular velocity of the dark matter halo. The maximum halo circular velocity is a much better estimate of the disk V_c than is V_vir. This confusion influenced the discussion of the Tully-Fisher relation in our paper. In fact, Figure 6 demonstrates that it is possible to simultaneously reproduce both the local Tully-Fisher relation and luminosity function using semi-analytic techniques applied to the standard LCDM cosmology, thus contradicting previous studies of this issue and our own discussion in Section 3.6.

  6. The faint end of the galaxy luminosity function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treyer, Marie A.; Silk, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    The evolution of the B- and K-band luminosity functions of galaxies is inferred in a relatively model-independent way from deep spectroscopic and photometric surveys. We confirm earlier evidence by Eales for an increase in the amplitude of the B-band galaxy luminosity function at modest redshift (z less than or approx. 0.2). We find in addition that the slope of the faint end of the luminosity function must systematically steepen and progress toward more luminous galaxies with increasing lookback time, assuming that the galaxy redshift distribution may be smoothly extrapolated 2 mag fainter than observed, as suggested by recent gravitational lensing studies. This evolution is shown to be color-dependent, and we predict the near-infrared color distribution of faint galaxies. The luminosity function of blue (B - K less than or approx. 4) galaxies in the range 0.2 less than or approx. z less than or approx. 1 can be represented by a Schechter function with characteristic light density phi(sup *) L(sup *) comparable to that of present-day late-type galaxies, but with a steeper faint end slope alpha approx. 1.4.

  7. The width of the gamma-ray burst luminosity function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Ulmer; R.A.M.J. Wijers

    1995-01-01

    We examine the width of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) luminosity function through the distribution of GRB peak count rates, Cpeak, as detected by Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) (1993). In the context of Galactic corona spatial distribution models, we attempt to place constaints on the cha

  8. The Gamma-Ray Luminosity Function of Radio Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfand, David J.

    1998-01-01

    This final report is a study of gamma-ray luminosity function of radio pulsars. The goal is to constrain certain parameters in order to address such diverse issues as the high energy emission mechanism in pulsars and the fraction of the Galaxy's gamma ray emission attributable to these objects.

  9. Low-Luminosity Seyfert Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, L C; Sargent, W L W; Ho, Luis C.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Sargent, Wallace L. W.

    1996-01-01

    We describe a new sample of Seyfert nuclei discovered during the course of an optical spectroscopic survey of nearby galaxies. The majority of the objects, many recognized for the first time, have luminosities much lower than those of classical Seyferts and populate the faint end of the AGN luminosity function. A significant fraction of the nuclei emit broad H-alpha emission qualitatively similar to the broad lines seen in classical Seyfert 1 nuclei and QSOs.

  10. The OPTX Project II: Hard X-ray Luminosity Functions of Active Galactic Nuclei for z<5

    OpenAIRE

    Yencho, B.; Barger, A. J.; Trouille, L.; Winter, L. M.

    2009-01-01

    We use the largest, most uniform, and most spectroscopically complete to faint X-ray flux limits Chandra sample to date to construct hard 2-8 keV rest-frame X-ray luminosity functions (HXLFs) of spectroscopically identified active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to z~5. In addition, we use a new 2-8 keV local sample selected by the very hard (14-195 keV) SWIFT 9-month Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) survey to construct the local 2-8 keV HXLF. We do maximum likelihood fits of the combined distant plus loca...

  11. The Luminosity Function of PNe with different morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Magrini, L.; R. L. M. Corradi; Leisy, P.; Scatarzi, A.; L. Morbidelli; Perinotto, M.

    2003-01-01

    We have analyzed the behaviour of various parameters of PNe in the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) and the Galaxy as a function of their morphology. The luminosity function of different morphological types has been built, finding that elliptical and round PNe dominate the bright cutoff both in the MCs and in the Galaxy. The dependence of the [OIII] absolute magnitude on chemical abundances has been investigated.

  12. THE z = 5 QUASAR LUMINOSITY FUNCTION FROM SDSS STRIPE 82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGreer, Ian D.; Fan Xiaohui [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Jiang Linhua [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Richards, Gordon T. [Department of Physics, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Strauss, Michael A. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Ross, Nicholas P.; White, Martin [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 92420 (United States); Shen Yue [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Schneider, Donald P.; Brandt, W. Niel [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Myers, Adam D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); DeGraf, Colin [McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Glikman, Eilat [Department of Physics and Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208121, New Haven, CT 06520-8121 (United States); Ge Jian [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Streblyanska, Alina, E-mail: imcgreer@as.arizona.edu [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2013-05-10

    We present a measurement of the Type I quasar luminosity function at z = 5 using a large sample of spectroscopically confirmed quasars selected from optical imaging data. We measure the bright end (M{sub 1450} < -26) with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data covering {approx}6000 deg{sup 2}, then extend to lower luminosities (M{sub 1450} < -24) with newly discovered, faint z {approx} 5 quasars selected from 235 deg{sup 2} of deep, coadded imaging in the SDSS Stripe 82 region (the celestial equator in the Southern Galactic Cap). The faint sample includes 14 quasars with spectra obtained as ancillary science targets in the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey, and 59 quasars observed at the MMT and Magellan telescopes. We construct a well-defined sample of 4.7 < z < 5.1 quasars that is highly complete, with 73 spectroscopic identifications out of 92 candidates. Our color selection method is also highly efficient: of the 73 spectra obtained, 71 are high-redshift quasars. These observations reach below the break in the luminosity function (M{sub 1450}{sup *}{approx}-27). The bright-end slope is steep ({beta} {approx}< -4), with a constraint of {beta} < -3.1 at 95% confidence. The break luminosity appears to evolve strongly at high redshift, providing an explanation for the flattening of the bright-end slope reported previously. We find a factor of {approx}2 greater decrease in the number density of luminous quasars (M{sub 1450} < -26) from z = 5 to z = 6 than from z = 4 to z = 5, suggesting a more rapid decline in quasar activity at high redshift than found in previous surveys. Our model for the quasar luminosity function predicts that quasars generate {approx}30% of the ionizing photons required to keep hydrogen in the universe ionized at z = 5.

  13. The Relation Between the Globular Cluster Mass and Luminosity Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Kruijssen, J M Diederik

    2009-01-01

    The relation between the globular cluster luminosity function (GCLF, dN/dlogL) and globular cluster mass function (GCMF, dN/dlogM) is considered. Due to low-mass star depletion, dissolving GCs have mass-to-light (M/L) ratios that are lower than expected from their metallicities. This has been shown to lead to an M/L ratio that increases with GC mass and luminosity. We model the GCLF and GCMF and show that the power law slopes inherently differ (1.0 versus 0.7, respectively) when accounting for the variability of M/L. The observed GCLF is found to be consistent with a Schechter-type initial cluster mass function and a mass-dependent mass-loss rate.

  14. Cosmological tests with the FSRQ gamma-ray luminosity function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Houdun; Melia, Fulvio; Zhang, Li

    2016-11-01

    The extensive catalogue of gamma-ray selected flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) produced by Fermi during a four-year survey has generated considerable interest in determining their gamma-ray luminosity function (GLF) and its evolution with cosmic time. In this paper, we introduce the novel idea of using this extensive database to test the differential volume expansion rate predicted by two specific models, the concordance Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) and Rh = ct cosmologies. For this purpose, we use two well-studied formulations of the GLF, one based on pure luminosity evolution (PLE) and the other on a luminosity-dependent density evolution (LDDE). Using a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test on one-parameter cumulative distributions (in luminosity, redshift, photon index and source count), we confirm the results of earlier works showing that these data somewhat favour LDDE over PLE; we show that this is the case for both ΛCDM and Rh = ct. Regardless of which GLF one chooses, however, we also show that model selection tools very strongly favour Rh = ct over ΛCDM. We suggest that such population studies, though featuring a strong evolution in redshift, may none the less be used as a valuable independent check of other model comparisons based solely on geometric considerations.

  15. Cosmological Tests with the FSRQ Gamma-ray Luminosity Function

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Houdun; Zhang, Li

    2016-01-01

    The extensive catalog of $\\gamma$-ray selected flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) produced by \\emph{Fermi} during a four-year survey has generated considerable interest in determining their $\\gamma$-ray luminosity function (GLF) and its evolution with cosmic time. In this paper, we introduce the novel idea of using this extensive database to test the differential volume expansion rate predicted by two specific models, the concordance $\\Lambda$CDM and $R_{\\rm h}=ct$ cosmologies. For this purpose, we use two well-studied formulations of the GLF, one based on pure luminosity evolution (PLE) and the other on a luminosity-dependent density evolution (LDDE). Using a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test on one-parameter cumulative distributions (in luminosity, redshift, photon index and source count), we confirm the results of earlier works showing that these data somewhat favour LDDE over PLE; we show that this is the case for both $\\Lambda$CDM and $R_{\\rm h}=ct$. Regardless of which GLF one chooses, however, we also show that...

  16. The 60-month all-sky BAT Survey of AGN and the Anisotropy of Nearby AGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajello, M.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Alexander, D.M.; /Durham U.; Greiner, J.; /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE; Madejski, G.M.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Gehrels, N.; /NASA, Goddard; Burlon, D.; /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE

    2012-04-02

    Surveys above 10 keV represent one of the the best resources to provide an unbiased census of the population of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). We present the results of 60 months of observation of the hard X-ray sky with Swift/BAT. In this timeframe, BAT detected (in the 15-55 keV band) 720 sources in an all-sky survey of which 428 are associated with AGN, most of which are nearby. Our sample has negligible incompleteness and statistics a factor of {approx}2 larger over similarly complete sets of AGN. Our sample contains (at least) 15 bona-fide Compton-thick AGN and 3 likely candidates. Compton-thick AGN represent a {approx}5% of AGN samples detected above 15 keV. We use the BAT dataset to refine the determination of the LogN-LogS of AGN which is extremely important, now that NuSTAR prepares for launch, towards assessing the AGN contribution to the cosmic X-ray background. We show that the LogN-LogS of AGN selected above 10 keV is now established to a {approx}10% precision. We derive the luminosity function of Compton-thick AGN and measure a space density of 7.9{sub -2.9}{sup +4.1} x 10{sup -5} Mpc{sup -3} for objects with a de-absorbed luminosity larger than 2 x 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}. As the BAT AGN are all mostly local, they allow us to investigate the spatial distribution of AGN in the nearby Universe regardless of absorption. We find concentrations of AGN that coincide spatially with the largest congregations of matter in the local ({le} 85 Mpc) Universe. There is some evidence that the fraction of Seyfert 2 objects is larger than average in the direction of these dense regions.

  17. The role of fast magnetic reconnection on the radio and gamma-ray emission from the nuclear regions of microquasars and low luminosity AGNs

    CERN Document Server

    Kadowaki, L H S; Singh, Chandra B

    2014-01-01

    Fast magnetic reconnection events can be a very powerful mechanism operating in the core region, near the jet launching area, of microquasars and AGNs. In earlier work, it has been suggested that the power released by fast reconnection events between the magnetic field lines lifting from the inner accretion disk region and the lines anchored into the central black hole could accelerate relativistic particles and produce the observed radio emission from microquasars and low luminosity AGNs (LLAGNs). Moreover, it has been proposed that the observed correlation between the radio emission and the mass of these sources, spanning $10^{10}$ orders of magnitude in mass, might be related to this process. In the present work, we revisit this model comparing different fast magnetic reconnection mechanisms, and apply the scenario above to a much larger sample of sources (including also blazars, and gamma-ray bursts - GRBs). We find that LLAGNs and microquasars confirm the trend above, i.e., their radio emission could be ...

  18. On the accuracy of the high redshift cluster luminosity function

    CERN Document Server

    Muñoz, Roberto P; Barrientos, Luis F

    2008-01-01

    We study the reliability of the statistical background subtraction method for computing the Ks-band luminosity function of cluster galaxies at z~1 using mock Red-sequence Cluster Survey cluster catalogues constructed from GALFORM semi-analytic galaxies. The underlying cluster luminosity function in the mocks are compatible with recent estimates at z~1 by several authors. We simulate different samples where the number of clusters with Ks-band photometry goes from 5 to a maximum of 50, in order to find the most suitable observational sample to carry out this study; the current observational status in the nIR wavelength range has been reached using 5 real clusters at z~1. We compute the composite luminosity function for several samples of galaxy clusters with masses 1.5x10^14 M_sun assuming a flux limited, complete sample of galaxies down to Ks=21.0 magnitudes. We find that the Schechter fit parameters Ks* and alpha for a sample of galaxies with no redshift information are rather poorly constrained if both param...

  19. The ISO 170um Luminosity Function of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Takeuchi, T T; Dole, H; Dennefeld, M; Lagache, G; Puget, J L; Takeuchi, Tsutomu T.; Ishii, Takako T.; Dole, Herve; Dennefeld, Michel; Lagache, Guilaine; Puget, Jean-Loup

    2005-01-01

    We constructed a local luminosity function (LF) of galaxies using a flux-limited sample (S_170 > 0.195Jy) of 55 galaxies at z < 0.3 taken from the ISO FIRBACK survey at 170um. The overall shape of the 170-um LF is found to be different from that of the total 60-um LF (Takeuchi et al. 2003): the bright end of the LF declines more steeply than that of the 60-um LF. This behavior is quantitatively similar to the LF of the cool subsample of the IRAS PSCz galaxies. We also estimated the strength of the evolution of the LF by assuming the pure luminosity evolution (PLE): L(z) \\propto (1+z)^Q. We obtained Q=5.0^{+2.5}_{-0.5} which is similar to the value obtained by recent Spitzer observations, in spite of the limited sample size. Then, integrating over the 170-um LF, we obtained the local luminosity density at 170um, \\rho_L(170um). A direct integration of the LF gives \\rho_L(170um) = 1.1 \\times 10^8 h Lsun Mpc^{-3}, whilst if we assume a strong PLE with Q=5, the value is 5.2 \\times 10^7 h Lsun Mpc^{-3}. This is ...

  20. Applying the luminosity function statistics in the fireshell model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel Lemos, L. J.; Bianco, C. L.; Ruffini, R.

    2015-12-01

    The luminosity function (LF) statistics applied to the data of BATSE, GBM/Fermi and BAT/Swift is the theme approached in this work. The LF is a strong statistical tool to extract useful information from astrophysical samples, and the key point of this statistical analysis is in the detector sensitivity, where we have performed careful analysis. We applied the tool of the LF statistics to three GRB classes predicted by the Fireshell model. We produced, by LF statistics, predicted distributions of: peak ux N(Fph pk), redshift N(z) and peak luminosity N(Lpk) for the three GRB classes predicted by Fireshell model; we also used three GRB rates. We looked for differences among the distributions, and in fact we found. We performed a comparison between the distributions predicted and observed (with and without redshifts), where we had to build a list with 217 GRBs with known redshifts. Our goal is transform the GRBs in a standard candle, where a alternative is find a correlation between the isotropic luminosity and the Band peak spectral energy (Liso - Epk).

  1. The NuSTAR Extragalactic Survey: First Direct Measurements of the Greater Than Or Similar To 10 Kev X-Ray Luminosity Function For Active Galactic Nuclei At z > 0.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aird, J.; Alexander, D. M.; Ballantyne, D. R.;

    2015-01-01

    We present the first direct measurements of the rest-frame 10-40 keV X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) based on a sample of 94 sources at 0.1

  2. AGN contribution to the total IR luminosity in Herschel selected galaxies out to z~1.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronchelli, Ivano; Scarlata, Claudia; Rodighiero, Giulia; Berta, Stefano; Sedgwick, Christopher; Vaccari, Mattia; Franceschini, Alberto; Urrutia, Tanya; Malkan, Matthew Arnold; Salvato, Mara; Bonato, Matteo; Serjeant, Stephen; Pearson, Chris; Marchetti, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, a growing amount of evidence suggests a tight link between the growth of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and that of their host galaxies. X-ray studies on the Super Massive Black Holes (SMBHs) activity indicate the existence of a Black Hole Accretion Rate (BHAR) "main sequence", similar to the "main sequence" observed in star-forming galaxies, between the star-formation rate (SFR) and stellar mass (M*). We use the multi wavelength data from the SIMES survey to study the optical to sub-mm spectral energy distribution (SED) of galaxies identified at 250 μm by the Herschel Space Observatory. In particular, for galaxies in the 0.2-1.5 redshift range, we explore the relations among galaxy's stellar mass, SFR, and SMBH accretion rate. The deep Spitzer-IRAC/MIPS (3.6, 4.5 and 24 μm) together with the deep AKARI-IRC observations (7, 11 and 15 μm) allow us to constrain the critical spectral region where the dusty torus emission of AGNs is more prominent. Thanks to the Herschel-SPIRE observations, we can also precisely measure the SFR from the bolometric (i.e. 8-1000 μm) far-IR emission. Using this multi-wavelength approach we confirm the existence, at zmain sequence". The measured average ratio between BHAR and SFR is close to the value required to maintain the SMBH-to-M* ratio of ˜103 and decreases at higher specific SFRs (SSFR=SFR/M*). Finally, combining our observations with literature results, we show that the slope of the BHAR main sequence is evolving with redshift between z~0 and z~2.

  3. Revisiting the luminosity function of single halo white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Cojocaru, R; Althaus, L G; Isern, J; García-Berro, E

    2015-01-01

    White dwarfs are the fossils left by the evolution of low-and intermediate-mass stars, and have very long evolutionary timescales. This allows us to use them to explore the properties of old populations, like the Galactic halo. We present a population synthesis study of the luminosity function of halo white dwarfs, aimed at investigating which information can be derived from the currently available observed data. We employ an up-to-date population synthesis code based on Monte Carlo techniques, that incorporates the most recent and reliable cooling sequences for metal poor progenitors as well as an accurate modeling of the observational biases. We find that because the observed sample of halo white dwarfs is restricted to the brightest stars only the hot branch of the white dwarf luminosity function can be used for such purposes, and that its shape function is almost insensitive to the most relevant inputs, like the adopted cooling sequences, the initial mass function, the density profile of the stellar spher...

  4. Relativistic Cosmology Number Densities and the Luminosity Function

    CERN Document Server

    Iribarrem, Alvaro S; Ribeiro, Marcelo B; Stoeger, William R

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the connection between the relativistic number density of galaxies down the past light cone in a Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker spacetime with non-vanishing cosmological constant and the galaxy luminosity function (LF) data. It extends the redshift range of previous results presented in Albani et al. (2007, arXiv:astro-ph/0611032) where the galaxy distribution was studied out to z=1. Observational inhomogeneities were detected at this range. This research also searches for LF evolution in the context of the framework advanced by Ribeiro and Stoeger (2003, arXiv:astro-ph/0304094), further developing the theory linking relativistic cosmology theory and LF data. Selection functions are obtained using the Schechter parameters and redshift parametrization of the galaxy luminosity functions obtained from an I-band selected dataset of the FORS Deep Field galaxy survey in the redshift range 0.5

  5. Luminosity Function of the Cluster of Galaxies Abell 566

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the Luminosity Function (LF) of the cluster of galaxies Abell 566. The photometric data of 15 intermediate-bands are obtained from the Beijing- Arizona-Taiwan-Connecticut (BATC) photometric sky survey. For each of the 15 wavebands, the LF of cluster galaxies is well modelled by the Schechter function, with characteristic luminosities from -18.0 to -21.9 magnitude, from the a- to the p-band. Morphological dependence of the LF is investigated by separating the cluster members into 'red' and 'blue' subsamples. It is clear that late type galaxies have a steeper shape of LF than the early type galaxies. We also divided the sample galaxies by their local environment. It was found that galaxies in the sparser region have steeper shape of LF than galaxies in the denser region. Combining the results of morphological and environmental dependence of LFs, we show that Abell 566 is a well relaxed cluster with positive evidence of galaxy interaction and merger, and excess number of bright early type galaxies located in its denser region.

  6. The Luminosity Function of the Milky Way Satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Koposov, S; Evans, N W; Hewett, P C; Irwin, M J; Gilmore, G; Zucker, D B; Rix, H -W; Fellhauer, M; Bell, E F; Glushkova, E V

    2007-01-01

    We quantify the algorithmic detectability of stellar Milky Way satellites in data release 5 (DR5) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), and use this to estimate the luminosity function of faint satellite galaxies in our halo. We develop a satellite detection algorithm based on the convolution of the DR5 star catalog with a kernel of zero net flux that is the difference of a narrow positive Gaussian and a much wider negative Gaussian, which removes the background star-count level. This permits us to assess the significance of any (positive) detection in terms of deviations of this map. The efficiency of this algorithm is tested by computing the recovery rate of a large set of mock objects added to SDSS DR5 as a function of their luminosity, size and distance from the Sun. Most of the recent Milky Way satellite discoveries, made by SDSS, are shown to lie very close to the survey's detection limits. Calculating the maximum accessible volume $V_{max}$ for all faint detected objects makes it possible for the fir...

  7. Physics as a function of energy and luminosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a new physics in the range of mass up to TeV region is discussed. Most of the discussion concern hadron-hadron (hh) colliders, and also electron-positron colliders are discussed. The cross-sections for new particle production in hh colliders have the general Drell-Yan form, in which the differential luminosity for the collision of partons is included. The formulas with the parton distribution scaled up from present energy using the Altarelli-Parisi equations may be approximately correct within a factor of 2 for the production of particles. Some typical parton-parton luminosity functions for proton-proton and proton-antiproton collisions are presented. From the consideration of luminosity, it can be said that the pp colliders are to be preferred. The case studies of some of the possible new physics discussed by Zakharov, mainly on Higgs bosons and supersymmetric particles, but also a few remarks about technicolor are presented. It seems possible to detect technicolor at a large hh collider. The physics reaches of different possible hh colliders are summarized in tables. In the tables, the observable production of Higgses up to 1 TeV in mass, the observable masses for gluinos (squarks) and the technicolor observability are shown. The cleanliness of electron-positron colliders compared to hadron-hadron colliders is pled, a guess is given as to the appropriate conversion factors between the energy in the electron-positron and hh collisions, the complementarity of electron-positron and hh colliders is urged, and it is argued that a rational mix of world accelerators would include both. (Kato, T.)

  8. The low luminosity AGN in the LINER galaxy M81 BeppoSAX discovery of highly ionized gas

    CERN Document Server

    Pellegrini, S; Bassani, L; Malaguti, G; Palumbo, G G C; Persic, M

    2000-01-01

    The LINER nucleus of the nearby spiral galaxy M81 was pointed by BeppoSAX, which caught it at the highest (2-10) keV flux level observed so far. The LECS, MECS and PDS data, extending over (0.1-100) keV, are used to investigate the physical similarities and differences between LINERs and AGNs. The continuum is well fitted by a power law of photon index \\sim 1.84, modified by little absorption due to cold material. Superimposed on the continuum BeppoSAX detects a 6.7 keV emission line (confirming an ASCA result) and an absorption edge at 8.6 keV. Both spectral features are consistent with being produced by iron at the same high ionization level, and probably also with the same column density. So, we suggest that they originate from transmission through highly ionized thin material. Concerning the origin of the continuum emission, we do not observe signs of reflection from the optically thick material of an accretion disk, as usually found in Seyfert 1's (a 6.4 keV emission line and a broad bump peaking at 10-2...

  9. On the universal X-ray luminosity function of binary X-ray sources in galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Postnov, K. A.

    2002-01-01

    The empirically determined universal power-law shape of X-ray luminosity function of high mass X-ray binaries in galaxies is explained by fundamental mass-luminosity and mass-radius relations for massive stars.

  10. Differential Density Statistics of Galaxy Distribution and the Luminosity Function

    CERN Document Server

    Albani, V V L; Ribeiro, M B; Stöger, W R; Albani, Vinicius V. L.; Iribarrem, Alvaro S.; Ribeiro, Marcelo B.; Stoeger, William R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses data obtained from the galaxy luminosity function (LF) to calculate two types of radial number densities statistics of the galaxy distribution as discussed in Ribeiro (2005), namely the differential density $\\gamma$ and the integral differential density $\\gamma^\\ast$. By applying the theory advanced by Ribeiro and Stoeger (2003), which connects the relativistic cosmology number counts with the astronomically derived LF, the differential number counts $dN/dz$ are extracted from the LF and used to calculate both $\\gamma$ and $\\gamma^\\ast$ with various cosmological distance definitions, namely the area distance, luminosity distance, galaxy area distance and redshift distance. LF data are taken from the CNOC2 galaxy redshift survey and $\\gamma$ and $\\gamma^\\ast$ are calculated for two cosmological models: Einstein-de Sitter and an $\\Omega_{m_0}=0.3$, $\\Omega_{\\Lambda_0}=0.7$ standard cosmology. The results confirm the strong dependency of both statistics on the distance definition, as predicted in...

  11. The 60-month all-sky BAT Survey of AGN and the Anisotropy of Nearby AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Ajello, M; Greiner, J; Madejski, G M; Gehrels, N; Burlon, D

    2012-01-01

    Surveys above 10 keV represent one of the the best resources to provide an unbiased census of the population of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). We present the results of 60 months of observation of the hard X-ray sky with Swift/BAT. In this timeframe, BAT detected (in the 15--55 keV band) 720 sources in an all-sky survey of which 428 are associated with AGN, most of which are nearby. Our sample has negligible incompleteness and statistics a factor of \\sim2 larger over similarly complete sets of AGN. Our sample contains (at least) 15 bona-fide Compton-thick AGN and 3 likely candidates. Compton-thick AGN represent a ~5% of AGN samples detected above 15 keV. We use the BAT dataset to refine the determination of the LogN--LogS of AGN which is extremely important, now that NuSTAR prepares for launch, towards assessing the AGN contribution to the cosmic X-ray background. We show that the LogN--LogS of AGN selected above 10 keV is now established to a ~10% precision. We derive the luminosity function of Compton-thick ...

  12. The Connection Between Galaxy Environment and the Luminosity Function Slopes of Star-Forming Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, David O; Lee, Janice C; Thilker, David; Calzetti, Daniela; Kennicutt, Robert C

    2016-01-01

    We present the first study of GALEX far ultra-violet (FUV) luminosity functions of individual star-forming regions within a sample of 258 nearby galaxies spanning a large range in total stellar mass and star formation properties. We identify ~65,000 star-forming regions (i.e., FUV sources), measure each galaxy's luminosity function, and characterize the relationships between the luminosity function slope (alpha) and several global galaxy properties. A final sample of 82 galaxies with reliable luminosity functions are used to define these relationships and represent the largest sample of galaxies with the largest range of galaxy properties used to study the connection between luminosity function properties and galaxy environment. We find that alpha correlates with global star formation properties, where galaxies with higher star formation rates and star formation rate densities (Sigma_SFR) tend to have flatter luminosity function slopes. In addition, we find that neither stochastic sampling of the luminosity f...

  13. Three years of Swift/BAT Survey of AGN: Reconciling Theory and Observations?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burlon, D.; /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE; Ajello, M.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Greiner, J.; /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE; Comastri, A.; /Muenchen, Tech. U. Universe; Merloni, A.; /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE /Muenchen, Tech. U. Universe; Gehrels, N.; /NASA, Goddard

    2011-02-07

    It is well accepted that unabsorbed as well as absorbed AGN are needed to explain the nature and the shape of the Cosmic X-ray background, even if the fraction of highly absorbed objects (dubbed Compton-thick sources) substantially still escapes detection. We derive and analyze the absorption distribution using a complete sample of AGN detected by Swift-BAT in the first three years of the survey. The fraction of Compton-thick AGN represents only 4.6% of the total AGN population detected by Swift-BAT. However, we show that once corrected for the bias against the detection of very absorbed sources the real intrinsic fraction of Compton-thick AGN is 20{sub -6}{sup +9}%. We proved for the first time (also in the BAT band) that the anti-correlation of the fraction of absorbed AGN and luminosity it tightly connected to the different behavior of the luminosity functions (XLFs) of absorbed and unabsorbed AGN. This points towards a difference between the two subsamples of objects with absorbed AGN being, on average, intrinsically less luminous than unobscured ones. Moreover the XLFs show that the fraction of obscured AGN might also decrease at very low luminosity. This can be successfully interpreted in the framework of a disk cloud outflow scenario as the disappearance of the obscuring region below a critical luminosity. Our results are discussed in the framework of population synthesis models and the origin of the Cosmic X-ray Background.

  14. The Luminosity Function of Low-Redshift Abell Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Barkhouse, Wayne A; López-Cruz, Omar

    2007-01-01

    We present the results from a survey of 57 low-redshift Abell galaxy clusters to study the radial dependence of the luminosity function (LF). The dynamical radius of each cluster, r200, was estimated from the photometric measurement of cluster richness, Bgc. The shape of the LFs are found to correlate with radius such that the faint-end slope, alpha, is generally steeper on the cluster outskirts. The sum of two Schechter functions provides a more adequate fit to the composite LFs than a single Schechter function. LFs based on the selection of red and blue galaxies are bimodal in appearance. The red LFs are generally flat for -22 -18. The blue LFs contain a larger contribution from faint galaxies than the red LFs. The blue LFs have a rising faint-end component (alpha ~ -1.7) for M_Rc > -21, with a weaker dependence on radius than the red LFs. The dispersion of M* was determined to be 0.31 mag, which is comparable to the median measurement uncertainty of 0.38 mag. This suggests that the bright-end of the LF is...

  15. The galaxy luminosity function in groups and clusters: the faint-end upturn and the connection to the field luminosity function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ting-Wen; Ménard, Brice; Mo, Houjun

    2016-07-01

    We characterize the luminosity functions of galaxies residing in z ˜ 0 groups and clusters over the broadest ranges of luminosity and mass reachable by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Our measurements cover four orders of magnitude in luminosity, down to about Mr = -12 mag or L = 107 L⊙, and three orders of magnitude in halo mass, from 1012 to 1015 M⊙. We find a characteristic scale, Mr ˜ -18 mag or L ˜ 109 L⊙, below which the slope of the luminosity function becomes systematically steeper. This trend is present for all halo masses and originates mostly from red satellites. This ubiquitous faint-end upturn suggests that it is formation, rather than halo-specific environmental effect, that plays a major role in regulating the stellar masses of faint satellites. We show that the satellite luminosity functions can be described in a simple manner by a double Schechter function with amplitudes scaling with halo mass over the entire range of observables. Combining these conditional luminosity functions with the dark matter halo mass function, we accurately recover the entire field luminosity function over 10 visual magnitudes and reveal that satellite galaxies dominate the field luminosity function at magnitudes fainter than -17. We find that the luminosity functions of blue and red satellite galaxies show distinct shapes and we present estimates of the stellar mass fraction as a function of halo mass and galaxy type. Finally, using a simple model, we demonstrate that the abundances and the faint-end slopes of blue and red satellite galaxies can be interpreted in terms of their formation history, with two distinct modes separated by some characteristic time.

  16. Isochrones and Luminosity Functions for Old White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Richer, H B; Limongi, M; Chieffi, A; Straniero, O; Fahlman, G G; Richer, Harvey B.; Hansen, Brad; Limongi, Marco; Chieffi, Alessandro; Straniero, Oscar; Fahlman, Gregory G.

    1999-01-01

    Using a new grid of models of cooling white dwarfs, we calculate isochrones and luminosity functions in the Johnson-Kron/Cousins and HST filter sets for systems containing old white dwarfs. These new models incorporate a non-grey atmosphere which is necessary to properly describe the effects of molecular opacity at the cool temperatures of old white dwarfs. The various functions calculated and extensively tabulated and plotted are meant to be as utilitarian as possible for observers so all results are listed in quantities that observers will obtain. The tables and plots developed should eventually prove critical in interpreting the results of HST's Advanced Camera observations of the oldest white dwarfs in nearby globular clusters, in understanding the results of searches for old white dwarfs in the Galactic halo, and in determining ages for star clusters of all ages using white dwarfs. As a practical application we demonstrate the use of these results by deriving the white dwarf cooling age of the old Galact...

  17. The Role of Star Formation and an AGN in Dust Heating of z = 0.3-2.8 Galaxies. I. Evolution with Redshift and Luminosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Allison; Pope, Alexandra; Sajina, Anna; Roebuck, Eric; Yan, Lin; Armus, Lee; Díaz-Santos, Tanio; Stierwalt, Sabrina

    2015-11-01

    We characterize infrared spectral energy distributions of 343 (ultra)luminous infrared galaxies from z = 0.3-2.8. We diagnose the presence of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) by decomposing individual Spitzer mid-IR spectroscopy into emission from star formation and an AGN-powered continuum; we classify sources as star-forming galaxies (SFGs), AGNs, or composites. Composites comprise 30% of our sample and are prevalent at faint and bright S24, making them an important source of IR AGN emission. We combine spectroscopy with multiwavelength photometry, including Herschel imaging, to create three libraries of publicly available templates (2-1000 μm). We fit the far-IR emission using a two-temperature modified blackbody to measure cold and warm dust temperatures (Tc and Tw). We find that Tc does not depend on mid-IR classification, while Tw shows a notable increase as the AGN grows more luminous. We measure a quadratic relationship between mid-IR AGN emission and total AGN contribution to LIR. AGNs, composites, and SFGs separate in S8/S3.6 and S250/S24, providing a useful diagnostic for estimating relative amounts of these sources. We estimate that >40% of IR-selected samples host an AGN, even at faint selection thresholds (S24 > 100 μJy). Our decomposition technique and color diagnostics are relevant given upcoming observations with the James Webb Space Telescope.

  18. Self-Consistent Models of the AGN and Black Hole Populations: Duty Cycles, Accretion Rates, and the Mean Radiative Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Shankar, Francesco; Weinberg, David H.; Miralda-Escude, Jordi

    2007-01-01

    We construct evolutionary models of the populations of AGN and supermassive black holes, in which the black hole mass function grows at the rate implied by the observed luminosity function, given assumptions about the radiative efficiency and the Eddington ratio. We draw on a variety of recent X-ray and optical measurements to estimate the bolometric AGN luminosity function and compare to X-ray background data and the independent estimate of Hopkins et al. (2007) to assess remaining systemati...

  19. Mini-Survey on SDSS OIII AGN with Swift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Lorella

    2008-01-01

    The number of AGN and their luminosity distribution are crucial parameters for our understanding of the AGN phenomenon. There is a common wisdom that every massive galaxy has a massive black hole. However, most of these objects either are not radiating or until recently have been very difficult to detect. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data, based on the [OIII] line indicate that perhaps up to 20% of all galaxies may be classified as AGN a surprising result that must be checked with independent data. X-ray surveys have revealed that hard X-ray selected AGN show a strong luminosity dependent evolution and their luminosity function (LF) shows a dramatic break towards low $L_X$ (at all $z$). This is seen for all types of AGN, but is stronger for the broad-line objects. In sharp contrast, the local LF of {it optically-selected samples} shows no such break and no differences between narrow and broad-line objects. Assuming both hard X-ray and [O{\\sc iii}] emission are fair indicators of AGN activity, it is important to understand this discrepancy. We present here the results of a min-survey done with Swift on a selected sample of SDSS selected AGN. The objects have been sampled at different L([O{\\sc iii}]) to check the relation with the $L_X$ observed with Swift.

  20. Evolution of Galaxy Luminosity Function Using Photometric Redshifts

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, B H F; Benoist, C; da Costa, L N; Maia, M A G; Makler, M; Ogando, R L C; de Simoni, F; Mesquita, A A

    2011-01-01

    We examine the impact of using photometric redshifts for studying the evolution of both the global galaxy luminosity function (LF) and that for different galaxy types. To this end we compare LFs obtained using photometric redshifts from the CFHT Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) D1 field with those from the spectroscopic survey VIMOS VLT Deep Survey (VVDS) comprising ~4800 galaxies. We find that for z<2, in the interval of magnitudes considered by this survey, the LFs obtained using photometric and spectroscopic redshifts show a remarkable agreement. This good agreement led us to use all four Deep fields of CFHTLS comprising ~386000 galaxies to compute the LF of the combined fields and estimate directly the error in the parameters based on field-to-field variation. We find that the characteristic absolute magnitude M* of Schechter fits fades by ~0.7mag from z~1.8 to z~0.3, while the characteristic density phi* increases by a factor of ~4 in the same redshift bin. We use the galaxy classification provided by the templ...

  1. BLACK HOLE MASS AND EDDINGTON RATIO DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS OF X-RAY-SELECTED BROAD-LINE AGNs AT z {approx} 1.4 IN THE SUBARU XMM-NEWTON DEEP FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobuta, K.; Akiyama, M. [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Ueda, Y.; Hiroi, K.; Ohta, K.; Iwamuro, F.; Yabe, K.; Moritani, Y.; Sumiyoshi, M.; Maihara, T. [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Watson, M. G. [XROA Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Silverman, J.; Tamura, N.; Kimura, M. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Takato, N. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Dalton, G.; Lewis, I.; Bonfield, D.; Lee, H.; Curtis-Lake, E., E-mail: akiyama@astr.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); and others

    2012-12-20

    In order to investigate the growth of supermassive black holes (SMBHs), we construct the black hole mass function (BHMF) and Eddington ratio distribution function (ERDF) of X-ray-selected broad-line active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at z {approx} 1.4 in the Subaru XMM-Newton Deep Survey (SXDS) field. A significant part of the accretion growth of SMBHs is thought to take place in this redshift range. Black hole masses of X-ray-selected broad-line AGNs are estimated using the width of the broad Mg II line and 3000 A monochromatic luminosity. We supplement the Mg II FWHM values with the H{alpha} FWHM obtained from our NIR spectroscopic survey. Using the black hole masses of broad-line AGNs at redshifts between 1.18 and 1.68, the binned broad-line AGN BHMFs and ERDFs are calculated using the V{sub max} method. To properly account for selection effects that impact the binned estimates, we derive the corrected broad-line AGN BHMFs and ERDFs by applying the maximum likelihood method, assuming that the ERDF is constant regardless of the black hole mass. We do not correct for the non-negligible uncertainties in virial BH mass estimates. If we compare the corrected broad-line AGN BHMF with that in the local universe, then the corrected BHMF at z = 1.4 has a higher number density above 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun} but a lower number density below that mass range. The evolution may be indicative of a downsizing trend of accretion activity among the SMBH population. The evolution of broad-line AGN ERDFs from z = 1.4 to 0 indicates that the fraction of broad-line AGNs with accretion rates close to the Eddington limit is higher at higher redshifts.

  2. The role of star-formation and AGN in dust heating of z = 0.3-2.8 galaxies - I. Evolution with redshift and luminosity

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkpatrick, Allison; Sajina, Anna; Roebuck, Eric; Yan, Lin; Armus, Lee; Diaz-Santos, Tanio; Stierwalt, Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    We characterize infrared spectral energy distributions of 343 (Ultra) Luminous Infrared Galaxies from $z=0.3-2.8$. We diagnose the presence of an AGN by decomposing individual Spitzer mid-IR spectroscopy into emission from star-formation and an AGN-powered continuum; we classify sources as star-forming galaxies (SFGs), AGN, or composites. Composites comprise 30% of our sample and are prevalent at faint and bright $S_{24}$, making them an important source of IR AGN emission. We combine spectroscopy with multiwavelength photometry, including Herschel imaging, to create three libraries of publicly available templates (2-1000 $\\mu$m). We fit the far-IR emission using a two temperature modified blackbody to measure cold and warm dust temperatures ($T_c$ and $T_w$). We find that $T_c$ does not depend on mid-IR classification, while $T_w$ shows a notable increase as the AGN grows more luminous. We measure a quadratic relationship between mid-IR AGN emission and total AGN contribution to $L_{\\rm IR}$. AGN, composites...

  3. The Herschel PEP/HerMES luminosity function - I. Probing the evolution of PACS selected Galaxies to z ≃ 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruppioni, C.; Pozzi, F.; Rodighiero, G.; Delvecchio, I.; Berta, S.; Pozzetti, L.; Zamorani, G.; Andreani, P.; Cimatti, A.; Ilbert, O.; Le Floc'h, E.; Lutz, D.; Magnelli, B.; Marchetti, L.; Monaco, P.; Nordon, R.; Oliver, S.; Popesso, P.; Riguccini, L.; Roseboom, I.; Rosario, D. J.; Sargent, M.; Vaccari, M.; Altieri, B.; Aussel, H.; Bongiovanni, A.; Cepa, J.; Daddi, E.; Domínguez-Sánchez, H.; Elbaz, D.; Förster Schreiber, N.; Genzel, R.; Iribarrem, A.; Magliocchetti, M.; Maiolino, R.; Poglitsch, A.; Pérez García, A.; Sanchez-Portal, M.; Sturm, E.; Tacconi, L.; Valtchanov, I.; Amblard, A.; Arumugam, V.; Bethermin, M.; Bock, J.; Boselli, A.; Buat, V.; Burgarella, D.; Castro-Rodríguez, N.; Cava, A.; Chanial, P.; Clements, D. L.; Conley, A.; Cooray, A.; Dowell, C. D.; Dwek, E.; Eales, S.; Franceschini, A.; Glenn, J.; Griffin, M.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Ibar, E.; Isaak, K.; Ivison, R. J.; Lagache, G.; Levenson, L.; Lu, N.; Madden, S.; Maffei, B.; Mainetti, G.; Nguyen, H. T.; O'Halloran, B.; Page, M. J.; Panuzzo, P.; Papageorgiou, A.; Pearson, C. P.; Pérez-Fournon, I.; Pohlen, M.; Rigopoulou, D.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Schulz, B.; Scott, D.; Seymour, N.; Shupe, D. L.; Smith, A. J.; Stevens, J. A.; Symeonidis, M.; Trichas, M.; Tugwell, K. E.; Vigroux, L.; Wang, L.; Wright, G.; Xu, C. K.; Zemcov, M.; Bardelli, S.; Carollo, M.; Contini, T.; Le Févre, O.; Lilly, S.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Zucca, E.

    2013-06-01

    We exploit the deep and extended far-IR data sets (at 70, 100 and 160 μm) of the Herschel Guaranteed Time Observation (GTO) PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP) Survey, in combination with the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey data at 250, 350 and 500 μm, to derive the evolution of the rest-frame 35-, 60-, 90- and total infrared (IR) luminosity functions (LFs) up to z ˜ 4. We detect very strong luminosity evolution for the total IR LF (LIR ∝ (1 + z)3.55 ± 0.10 up to z ˜ 2, and ∝ (1 + z)1.62 ± 0.51 at 2 < z ≲ 4) combined with a density evolution (∝(1 + z)-0.57 ± 0.22 up to z ˜ 1 and ∝ (1 + z)-3.92 ± 0.34 at 1 < z ≲ 4). In agreement with previous findings, the IR luminosity density (ρIR) increases steeply to z ˜ 1, then flattens between z ˜ 1 and z ˜ 3 to decrease at z ≳ 3. Galaxies with different spectral energy distributions, masses and specific star formation rates (SFRs) evolve in very different ways and this large and deep statistical sample is the first one allowing us to separately study the different evolutionary behaviours of the individual IR populations contributing to ρIR. Galaxies occupying the well-established SFR-stellar mass main sequence (MS) are found to dominate both the total IR LF and ρIR at all redshifts, with the contribution from off-MS sources (≥0.6 dex above MS) being nearly constant (˜20 per cent of the total ρIR) and showing no significant signs of increase with increasing z over the whole 0.8 < z < 2.2 range. Sources with mass in the range 10 ≤ log(M/M⊙) ≤ 11 are found to dominate the total IR LF, with more massive galaxies prevailing at the bright end of the high-z (≳2) LF. A two-fold evolutionary scheme for IR galaxies is envisaged: on the one hand, a starburst-dominated phase in which the Super Massive Black Holes (SMBH) grows and is obscured by dust (possibly triggered by a major merging event), is followed by an AGN-dominated phase, then evolving towards a local elliptical. On the other hand

  4. Modeling the Near-Infrared Luminosity Function of Young Stellar Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muench, A. A.; Lada, E. A.; Lada, C. J.

    1999-12-01

    We present the results of numerical experiments designed to evaluate the usefulness of near-infrared luminosity functions for constraining the Initial Mass Function (IMF) of young (0-10 Myr) stellar populations. Using Monte Carlo techniques, we create a suite of model luminosity functions systematically varying each of these basic underlying relations: the underlying IMF, cluster star forming history, and theoretical pre-main sequence mass-to-luminosity relations. Our modeling techniques also allow us to explore the effects of unresolved binaries, infrared excess emission from circumstellar disks, and interstellar extinction on the cluster luminosity function. From this numerical modeling, we find that the luminosity function of a young stellar population is considerably more sensitive to variations in the underlying initial mass function than to either variations in the star forming history or assumed pre-main-sequence (PMS) mass-to-luminosity relation. To illustrate the potential effectiveness of using the KLF of a young cluster to constrain its IMF, we model the observed K band luminosity function of the nearby Trapezium cluster. Our derived mass function for the Trapezium spans two orders of magnitude in stellar mass (5>Msun>0.02) and has a peak near the hydrogen burning limit. Below the hydrogen burning limit, the mass function steadily decreases with decreasing mass throughout the brown dwarf regime. We also test the hypothesis of a space varying IMF by performing model fits to the K band luminosity functions of several other young clusters.

  5. Type 1 AGN at low z. III. The optical narrow line ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Stern, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    We present the optical narrow line ratios in an SDSS based sample of 3,175 broad Ha selected type 1 AGN, and explore their positions in the BPT diagrams as a function of the AGN and the host properties. We find the following: 1. The luminosities of all measured narrow lines (Ha, Hb, [OIII], [NII], [SII], [OI]) show a Baldwin relation relative to the broad Ha luminosity L_bHa, with slopes in the range of 0.53-0.72. 2. About 20% of the type 1 AGN reside within the `Composite' and `SF' regions of the BPT diagrams. These objects also show excess narrow Ha and UV luminosities, for their L_bHa, consistent with contribution from star formation which dominates the narrow lines emission, as expected from their positions in the BPT diagrams. 3. The type 1 which reside within the AGN region in the BPT diagrams, are offset to lower [SII]/Ha and [NII]/Ha luminosity ratios, compared to type 2 AGN. This offset is a selection effect, related to the lower AGN/host luminosity selection of the type 2 AGN selected from the SDSS ...

  6. The European Large Area ISO Survey - IV. The preliminary 90-mu m luminosity function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serjeant, S.; Efstathiou, A.; Oliver, S.;

    2001-01-01

    that (i) our spectroscopic subset is an unbiased sparse sample, and (ii) there are no galaxies that would not be represented in our spectroscopic sample at any redshift. We argue that we can be confident of both assumptions. We find that the luminosity function is well described by the local 100-mum...... luminosity function of Rowan-Robinson, Helou & Walker. Assuming this local normalization, we derive luminosity evolution of (1 + z)(2.45 + .0.85) (95 per cent confidence). We argue that star formation dominates the bolometric luminosities of these galaxies, and we derive comoving star formation rates...

  7. LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS OF SPITZER-IDENTIFIED PROTOSTARS IN NINE NEARBY MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryukova, E.; Megeath, S. T.; Allen, T. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Gutermuth, R. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Pipher, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Allen, L. E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ (United States); Myers, P. C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Muzerolle, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2012-08-15

    We identify protostars in Spitzer surveys of nine star-forming (SF) molecular clouds within 1 kpc: Serpens, Perseus, Ophiuchus, Chamaeleon, Lupus, Taurus, Orion, Cep OB3, and Mon R2, which combined host over 700 protostar candidates. These clouds encompass a variety of SF environments, including both low-mass and high-mass SF regions, as well as dense clusters and regions of sparsely distributed star formation. Our diverse cloud sample allows us to compare protostar luminosity functions in these varied environments. We combine near- and mid-infrared photometry from the Two Micron All Sky Survey and Spitzer to create 1-24 {mu}m spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Using protostars from the c2d survey with well-determined bolometric luminosities, we derive a relationship between bolometric luminosity, mid-IR luminosity (integrated from 1-24 {mu}m), and SED slope. Estimations of the bolometric luminosities for protostar candidates are combined to create luminosity functions for each cloud. Contamination due to edge-on disks, reddened Class II sources, and galaxies is estimated and removed from the luminosity functions. We find that luminosity functions for high-mass SF clouds (Orion, Mon R2, and Cep OB3) peak near 1 L{sub Sun} and show a tail extending toward luminosities above 100 L{sub Sun }. The luminosity functions of the low-mass SF clouds (Serpens, Perseus, Ophiuchus, Taurus, Lupus, and Chamaeleon) do not exhibit a common peak, however the combined luminosity function of these regions peaks below 1 L{sub Sun }. Finally, we examine the luminosity functions as a function of the local surface density of young stellar objects. In the Orion molecular clouds, we find a significant difference between the luminosity functions of protostars in regions of high and low stellar density, the former of which is biased toward more luminous sources. This may be the result of primordial mass segregation, although this interpretation is not unique. We compare our luminosity

  8. THE ROLE OF STAR FORMATION AND AN AGN IN DUST HEATING OF z = 0.3–2.8 GALAXIES. I. EVOLUTION WITH REDSHIFT AND LUMINOSITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, Allison; Pope, Alexandra [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01002 (United States); Sajina, Anna; Roebuck, Eric [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Yan, Lin [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Armus, Lee [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Díaz-Santos, Tanio [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Stierwalt, Sabrina, E-mail: kirkpatr@astro.umass.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

    2015-11-20

    We characterize infrared spectral energy distributions of 343 (ultra)luminous infrared galaxies from z = 0.3–2.8. We diagnose the presence of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) by decomposing individual Spitzer mid-IR spectroscopy into emission from star formation and an AGN-powered continuum; we classify sources as star-forming galaxies (SFGs), AGNs, or composites. Composites comprise 30% of our sample and are prevalent at faint and bright S{sub 24}, making them an important source of IR AGN emission. We combine spectroscopy with multiwavelength photometry, including Herschel imaging, to create three libraries of publicly available templates (2–1000 μm). We fit the far-IR emission using a two-temperature modified blackbody to measure cold and warm dust temperatures (T{sub c} and T{sub w}). We find that T{sub c} does not depend on mid-IR classification, while T{sub w} shows a notable increase as the AGN grows more luminous. We measure a quadratic relationship between mid-IR AGN emission and total AGN contribution to L{sub IR}. AGNs, composites, and SFGs separate in S{sub 8}/S{sub 3.6} and S{sub 250}/S{sub 24}, providing a useful diagnostic for estimating relative amounts of these sources. We estimate that >40% of IR-selected samples host an AGN, even at faint selection thresholds (S{sub 24} > 100 μJy). Our decomposition technique and color diagnostics are relevant given upcoming observations with the James Webb Space Telescope.

  9. The faint end of the 250 micron luminosity function at z < 0.5

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, L; Bethermin, M; Bourne, N; Cooray, A; Cowley, W; Dunne, L; Dye, S; Eales, S; Farrah, D; Lacey, C; Loveday, J; Maddox, S; Oliver, S; Viero, M

    2016-01-01

    Aims. We aim to study the 250 micron luminosity function (LF) down to much fainter luminosities than achieved by previous efforts. Methods. We developed a modified stacking method to reconstruct the 250 micron LF using optically selected galaxies from the SDSS survey and Herschel maps of the GAMA equatorial fields and Stripe 82. Our stacking method not only recovers the mean 250 micron luminosities of galaxies that are too faint to be individually detected, but also their underlying distribution functions. Results. We find very good agreement with previous measurements in the overlapping luminosity range. More importantly, we are able to derive the LF down to much fainter luminosities (around 25 times fainter) than achieved by previous studies. We find strong positive luminosity evolution \\propto (1 + z)^4.89\\pm1.07 and moderate negative density evolution \\propto (1 + z)^-1.02\\pm0.54 over the redshift range z=[0.02, 0.5].

  10. GAMA/WiggleZ: The 1.4GHz radio luminosity functions of high- and low-excitation radio galaxies and their redshift evolution to z=0.75

    CERN Document Server

    Pracy, Michael; Sadler, Elaine; Croom, Scott; Baldry, Ivan; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Brough, Sarah; Brown, Michael; Couch, Warrick; Davis, Tamara; Drinkwater, Michael; Hopkins, Andrew; Jarvis, Matt; Jelliffe, Ben; Jurek, Russell; Loveday, Jon; Pimbblet, Kevin; Prescott, Matt; Wisniosk, Emily; Woods, David

    2016-01-01

    We present radio Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) luminosity functions over the redshift range 0.005 < z < 0.75. The sample from which the luminosity functions are constructed is an optical spectroscopic survey of radio galaxies, identified from matched Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-cm survey (FIRST) sources and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) images.The radio AGN are separated into Low Excitation Radio Galaxies (LERGs) and High Excitation Radio Galaxies (HERGs) using the optical spectra. We derive radio luminosity functions for LERGs and HERGs separately in the three redshift bins (0.005 < z < 0.3, 0.3 < z < 0.5 and 0.5 < z <0.75). The radio luminosity functions can be well described by a double power-law. Assuming this double power-law shape the LERG population displays little or no evolution over this redshift range evolving as ~$(1+z)^{0.06}$ assuming pure density evolution or ~ $(1+z)^{0.46}$ assuming pure luminosity evolution. In contrast, the HERG population evolves more r...

  11. Environmental effects on galaxies and AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Padilla, Nelson; Gonzalez, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    We study the properties of SDSS galaxies with and without AGN detection as a function of the local and global environment. For the full SDSS sample, we find indications that the local galaxy density is the most efficient parameter to separate galaxy populations, but we also find that galaxies at fixed local density show some remaining variation of their properties as a function of the distance to the nearest cluster of galaxies (in a range of 0 to 10 cluster virial radii). These differences seem to become less significant if the galaxy samples are additionally constrained to be hosted by groups of similar total luminosity. In AGN host galaxies, the morphology-density relation is much less noticeable when compared to the behaviour of the full SDSS sample, indicating a lack of sensitivity to the host group mass during the AGN phase probably due to the higher typical luminosities of the AGN hosts. In order to interpret this result we analyse control AGN samples with matching distributions of redshifts, r-band lu...

  12. The Luminosity Function of OB Associations in the Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Christopher F.; Williams, Jonathan P.

    1997-02-01

    OB associations ionize the interstellar medium, producing both localized H II regions and diffuse ionized gas. The supernovae resulting from these associations pressurize and stir the interstellar medium. Using Smith, Biermann, & Mezger's compilation of radio H II regions in the Galaxy, and Kennicutt, Edgar, & Hodge's optical study of H II regions in nearby galaxies, we show that the luminosity distribution of giant OB associations in the Galaxy can be fit by a truncated power law of the form \\Nscra(>S)=\\Nscrau[(Su/S)-1], where S is the ionizing photon luminosity, \\Nscra(>S) is the number of associations with a luminosity of at least S, and Su is the upper limit to the distribution. The coefficient \\Nscrau is the number of the most luminous associations, with a luminosity between 0.5Su and Su. For the Galaxy, \\Nscrau=6.1 the fact that the number of the most luminous associations is significantly larger than unity indicates that there is a physical limit to the maximum size of H II regions in the Galaxy. To extend the luminosity distribution to small H II regions, we assume that the birthrate of associations, \\Nscr\\dota(>\\Nscr*), is also a truncated power law, \\Nscr\\dota(>\\Nscr*)~[(\\Nscr*u/\\Nscr*)-1], where \\Nscr* is the number of stars in the association. For large associations, the ionizing luminosity is proportional to the number of stars, S~\\Nscr* for smaller associations, we use both an analytic and a Monte Carlo approach to find the resulting luminosity distribution \\Nscra(>S). H II regions are generally centrally concentrated, with only the dense central regions being bright enough to appear in radio catalogs. Anantharamaiah postulated that radio H II regions have extended envelopes in order to account for diffuse radio recombination line emission in the Galaxy. Some of these envelopes are visible as the ionized ``worms'' discussed by Heiles and coworkers. We estimate that on the average the envelopes of radio H II regions absorb about twice

  13. An enhanced fraction of starbursting galaxies among high Eddington ratio AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, E.; Mullaney, J. R.; Daddi, E.; Ciesla, L.; Schreiber, C.

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the star-forming properties of 1620 X-ray selected active galactic nuclei (AGN) host galaxies as a function of their specific X-ray luminosity (i.e. X-ray luminosity per unit host stellar mass) - a proxy of the Eddington ratio. Our motivation is to determine whether there is any evidence of a suppression of star formation at high Eddington ratios, which may hint towards `AGN feedback' effects. Star formation rates (SFRs) are derived from fits to Herschel-measured far-infrared spectral energy distributions, taking into account any contamination from the AGN. Herschel-undetected AGNs are included via stacking analyses to provide average SFRs in bins of redshift and specific X-ray luminosity (spanning 0.01 lesssim L_X/M_{ast } lesssim 100 L_{{⊙}} M_{{⊙}}^{-1}). After normalizing for the effects of mass and redshift arising from the evolving galaxy main sequence, we find that the SFRs of high specific luminosity AGNs are slightly enhanced compared to their lower specific luminosity counterparts. This suggests that the SFR distribution of AGN hosts changes with specific X-ray luminosity, a result reinforced by our finding of a significantly higher fraction of starbursting hosts among high specific luminosity AGNs compared to that of the general star-forming galaxy population (i.e. 8-10 per cent versus 3 per cent). Contrary to our original motivation, our findings suggest that high specific luminosity AGNs are more likely to reside in galaxies with enhanced levels of star formation.

  14. GAMA/WiggleZ: the 1.4 GHz radio luminosity functions of high- and low-excitation radio galaxies and their redshift evolution to z = 0.75

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pracy, Michael B.; Ching, John H. Y.; Sadler, Elaine M.; Croom, Scott M.; Baldry, I. K.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Brough, S.; Brown, M. J. I.; Couch, Warrick J.; Davis, Tamara M.; Drinkwater, Michael J.; Hopkins, A. M.; Jarvis, M. J.; Jelliffe, Ben; Jurek, Russell J.; Loveday, J.; Pimbblet, K. A.; Prescott, M.; Wisnioski, Emily; Woods, David

    2016-07-01

    We present radio active galactic nuclei (AGN) luminosity functions over the redshift range 0.005 law. Assuming this double power-law shape the LERG population displays little or no evolution over this redshift range evolving as {˜ } (1+z)^{0.06^{+0.17}_{-0.18}} assuming pure density evolution or {˜ } (1+z)^{0.46^{+0.22}_{-0.24}} assuming pure luminosity evolution. In contrast, the HERG population evolves more rapidly, best fitted by {˜ } (1+z)^{2.93^{+0.46}_{-0.47}} assuming a double power-law shape and pure density evolution. If a pure luminosity model is assumed, the best-fitting HERG evolution is parametrized by {˜ } (1+z)^{7.41^{+0.79}_{-1.33}}. The characteristic break in the radio luminosity function occurs at a significantly higher power (≳1 dex) for the HERG population in comparison to the LERGs. This is consistent with the two populations representing fundamentally different accretion modes.

  15. Radio faint AGN: a tale of two populations

    CERN Document Server

    Padovani, P; Kellermann, K I; Miller, N; Mainieri, V; Tozzi, P

    2015-01-01

    We study the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (E-CDFS) Very Large Array sample, which reaches a flux density limit at 1.4 GHz of 32.5 microJy at the field centre and redshift ~ 4, and covers ~ 0.3 deg^2. Number counts are presented for the whole sample while the evolutionary properties and luminosity functions are derived for active galactic nuclei (AGN). The faint radio sky contains two totally distinct AGN populations, characterised by very different evolutions, luminosity functions, and Eddington ratios: radio-quiet (RQ)/radiative-mode, and radio-loud/jet-mode AGN. The radio power of RQ AGN evolves ~ (1+z)^2.5, similarly to star-forming galaxies, while the number density of radio-loud ones has a peak at ~ 0.5 and then declines at higher redshifts. The number density of radio-selected RQ AGN is consistent with that of X-ray selected AGN, which shows that we are sampling the same population. The unbiased fraction of radiative-mode RL AGN, derived from our own and previously published data, is a strong funct...

  16. The Connection Between Galaxy Environment and the Luminosity Function Slopes of Star-Forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David O.; Dale, Daniel A.; Lee, Janice C.; Thilker, David; Calzetti, Daniela; Kennicutt, Robert C.

    2016-08-01

    We present the first study of GALEX far ultra-violet (FUV) luminosity functions of individual star-forming regions within a sample of 258 nearby galaxies spanning a large range in total stellar mass and star formation properties. We identify ˜65,000 star-forming regions (i.e., FUV sources), measure each galaxy's luminosity function, and characterize the relationships between the luminosity function slope (α) and several global galaxy properties. A final sample of 82 galaxies with reliable luminosity functions are used to define these relationships and represent the largest sample of galaxies with the largest range of galaxy properties used to study the connection between luminosity function properties and galaxy environment. We find that α correlates with global star formation properties, where galaxies with higher star formation rates and star formation rate densities (ΣSFR) tend to have flatter luminosity function slopes. In addition, we find that neither stochastic sampling of the luminosity function in galaxies with low-number statistics nor the effects of blending due to distance can fully account for these trends. We hypothesize that the flatter slopes in high ΣSFR galaxies is due to higher gas densities and higher star formation efficiencies which result in proportionally greater numbers of bright star-forming regions. Finally, we create a composite luminosity function composed of star-forming regions from many galaxies and find a break in the luminosity function at brighter luminosities. However, we find that this break is an artifact of varying detection limits for galaxies at different distances.

  17. The connection between galaxy environment and the luminosity function slopes of star-forming regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David O.; Dale, Daniel A.; Lee, Janice C.; Thilker, David; Calzetti, Daniela; Kennicutt, Robert C.

    2016-11-01

    We present the first study of GALEX far-ultraviolet (FUV) luminosity functions of individual star-forming regions within a sample of 258 nearby galaxies spanning a large range in total stellar mass and star formation properties. We identify ˜65 000 star-forming regions (i.e. FUV sources), measure each galaxy's luminosity function, and characterize the relationships between the luminosity function slope (α) and several global galaxy properties. A final sample of 82 galaxies with reliable luminosity functions are used to define these relationships and represent the largest sample of galaxies with the largest range of galaxy properties used to study the connection between luminosity function properties and galaxy environment. We find that α correlates with global star formation properties, where galaxies with higher star formation rates and star formation rate densities (ΣSFR) tend to have flatter luminosity function slopes. In addition, we find that neither stochastic sampling of the luminosity function in galaxies with low-number statistics nor the effects of blending due to distance can fully account for these trends. We hypothesize that the flatter slopes in high ΣSFR galaxies is due to higher gas densities and higher star formation efficiencies which result in proportionally greater numbers of bright star-forming regions. Finally, we create a composite luminosity function composed of star-forming regions from many galaxies and find a break in the luminosity function at brighter luminosities. However, we find that this break is an artefact of varying detection limits for galaxies at different distances.

  18. The galaxy luminosity function in groups and clusters: the faint-end upturn and the connection to the field luminosity function

    CERN Document Server

    Lan, Ting-Wen; Mo, Houjun

    2015-01-01

    We characterize the luminosity functions of galaxies residing in $z\\sim0$ groups and clusters over the broadest ranges of luminosity and mass reachable by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Our measurements cover four orders of magnitude in luminosity, down to about $M_r=-12$ mag or $L=10^7\\,L_\\odot$, and three orders of magnitude in halo mass, from $10^{12}$ to $10^{15} \\, {\\rm M}_\\odot$. We find a characteristic scale, $M_r\\sim-18$ mag or $L\\sim10^9\\, L_\\odot$, below which the slope of the luminosity function becomes systematically steeper. This trend is present for all halo masses and originates mostly from red satellite galaxies. The ubiquitous presence of this faint-end upturn suggests that it is formation, rather than halo-specific environmental effect, that plays a major role in regulating the stellar masses of faint satellites. We show that the observed luminosity functions of satellite galaxies can be described in a simple manner by a double Schechter function with amplitudes scaling with halo mass over t...

  19. Constraints on the luminosity function of gamma-ray bursts detected by BATSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horack, J. M.; Emslie, A. G.; Meegan, C. A.

    1994-01-01

    We have utilized the integral moment analysis technique of Horack & Emslie to extract information on the allowable form of the luminosity function for gamma-ray bursts observed by Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE). Using the general properties of moments, we are able to derive constraints on the range of luminosity from which the gamma-ray bursts must be sampled. These constraints are independent of the form of the radial distribution of the gamma-ray bursts, and depend only on the assumptions that space is Euclidean and that the luminosity function phi(L) is distance independent. For power-law luminosity functions of the form phi(L) = A(sub 0)L(exp -alpha), we find that the range of luminosity from which 80% of the gamma-ray bursts must be sampled cannot exceed approximately 6.5, with a 3 sigma upper limit of 12-15, regardless of the value of alpha.

  20. The Cluster and Field Galaxy AGN Fraction at z = 1 to 1.5: Evidence for a Reversal of the Local Anticorrelation Between Environment and AGN Fraction

    CERN Document Server

    Martini, Paul; Brodwin, M; Stanford, S A; Gonzalez, Anthony H; Bautz, M; Hickox, R C; Stern, D; Eisenhardt, P R; Galametz, A; Norman, D; Jannuzi, B T; Dey, A; Murray, S; Jones, C; Brown, M J I

    2013-01-01

    The fraction of cluster galaxies that host luminous AGN is an important probe of AGN fueling processes, the cold ISM at the centers of galaxies, and how tightly black holes and galaxies co-evolve. We present a new measurement of the AGN fraction in a sample of 13 clusters of galaxies (M >= 10^{14} Msun) at 1= 10^{44} erg/s. This fraction is measured relative to all cluster galaxies more luminous than M*_{3.6}(z)+1, where M*_{3.6}(z) is the absolute magnitude of the break in the galaxy luminosity function at the cluster redshift in the IRAC 3.6um bandpass. The cluster AGN fraction is 30 times greater than the 3sigma upper limit on the value for AGN of similar luminosity at z~0.25, as well as more than an order of magnitude greater than the AGN fraction at z~0.75. AGN with L_{X,H} >= 10^{43} erg/s exhibit similarly pronounced evolution with redshift. In contrast with the local universe, where the luminous AGN fraction is higher in the field than in clusters, the X-ray and MIR-selected AGN fractions in the field...

  1. Mini-Survey Of SDSS of [OIII] AGN With Swift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, L.; George, I. M.; Hill, J.; Padgett, C. A.; Mushotzky, R. F.

    2008-01-01

    The number of AGN and their luminosity distribution are crucial parameters for our understanding of the AGN phenomenon. Recent work (e.g. Ferrarese and Merritt 2000) strongly suggests every massive galaxy has a central black hole. However, most of these objects either are not radiating or have been very difficult to detect. We are now in the era of large surveys, and the luminosity function (LF) of AGN has been estimated in various ways. In the X-ray band, Chandra and XMM surveys (e.g., Barger et al. 2005; Hasinger, et al. 2005) have revealed that the LF of Hard X-ray selected AGN shows a strong luminosity-dependent evolution with a dramatic break towards low L(x) (at al z). This is seen for all types of AGN, but is stronger for the broad-line objects (e.g., Steffen et al. 2004). In sharp contrast, the local LF of optically-selected samples shows no such break and no differences between narrow and broad-line objects (Hao et al. 2005). If, as been suggested, hard X-ray and optical emission line can both be fair indicators of AGN activity, it is important to first understand how reliable these characteristics are if we hope to understand the apparent discrepancy in the LFs.

  2. The ensemble optical variability of type-1 AGN in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallastegui-Aizpun, Unai; Sarajedini, Vicki L.

    2014-11-01

    We use a sample of over 5000 active galactic nuclei (AGN) with extended morphologies at z function of rest-frame time lag and AGN luminosity with the aim of investigating these parameter relationships at lower luminosities than previously studied. We compare photometry from imaging data with spectrophotometry obtained weeks to years later in the Sloan g, r, and i bands. We employ quasar and galaxy eigenspectra fitting to separate the AGN and host galaxy components. A strong correlation between the variability amplitude and rest-frame time lag is observed, in agreement with quasar structure functions but extending to AGN several magnitudes fainter than previously studied. The structure function slopes for our fainter AGN sample are slightly shallower than those found in quasars studies. An anticorrelation with luminosity is clearly detected, with lower luminosity AGN displaying greater variability amplitudes. We demonstrate for the first time that this anticorrelation extends to AGN as faint as MAGNi ˜ -18.5, with a slight trend towards shallower slopes at luminosities fainter than MAGNi ˜ -20.2.

  3. SWIFT BAT Survey of AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tueller, J.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Barthelmy, S.; Cannizzo, J. K.; Gehrels, N.; Markwardt, C. B.; Skinner, G. K.; Winter, L. M.

    2008-01-01

    We present the results1 of the analysis of the first 9 months of data of the Swift BAT survey of AGN in the 14-195 keV band. Using archival X-ray data or follow-up Swift XRT observations, we have identified 129 (103 AGN) of 130 objects detected at [b] > 15deg and with significance > 4.8-delta. One source remains unidentified. These same X-ray data have allowed measurement of the X-ray properties of the objects. We fit a power law to the logN - log S distribution, and find the slope to be 1.42+/-0.14. Characterizing the differential luminosity function data as a broken power law, we find a break luminosity logL*(ergs/s)= 43.85+/-0.26. We obtain a mean photon index 1.98 in the 14-195 keV band, with an rms spread of 0.27. Integration of our luminosity function gives a local volume density of AGN above 10(exp 41) erg/s of 2.4x10(exp -3) Mpc(sup -3), which is about 10% of the total luminous local galaxy density above M* = -19.75. We have obtained X-ray spectra from the literature and from Swift XRT follow-up observations. These show that the distribution of log nH is essentially flat from nH = 10(exp 20)/sq cm to 10(exp 24)/sq cm, with 50% of the objects having column densities of less than 10(exp 22)/sq cm. BAT Seyfert galaxies have a median redshift of 0.03, a maximum log luminosity of 45.1, and approximately half have log nH > 22.

  4. The PEP Survey: Infrared Properties of Radio-Selected AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Magliocchetti, M; Rosario, D; Berta, S; Floc'h, E Le; Magnelli, B; Pozzi, F; Riguccini, L; Santini, P

    2014-01-01

    By exploiting the VLA-COSMOS and the Herschel-PEP surveys, we investigate the Far Infrared (FIR) properties of radio-selected AGN. To this purpose, from VLA-COSMOS we considered the 1537, F[1.4 GHz]>0.06 mJy sources with a reliable redshift estimate, and sub-divided them into star-forming galaxies and AGN solely on the basis of their radio luminosity. The AGN sample is complete with respect to radio selection at all z<~3.5. 832 radio sources have a counterpart in the PEP catalogue. 175 are AGN. Their redshift distribution closely resembles that of the total radio-selected AGN population, and exhibits two marked peaks at z~0.9 and z~2.5. We find that the probability for a radio-selected AGN to be detected at FIR wavelengths is both a function of radio power and redshift, whereby powerful sources are more likely to be FIR emitters at earlier epochs. This is due to two distinct effects: 1) at all radio luminosities, FIR activity monotonically increases with look-back time and 2) radio activity of AGN origin i...

  5. The Environmental Dependence of the Galaxy Luminosity Function in the ECO Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Hayley; Andreas A. Berlind, Victor Calderon, Kathleen D. Eckert, Sheila J. Kannappan, Amanda J. Moffett, David V. Stark

    2016-01-01

    We study the environmental dependence of the galaxy luminosity function in the ECO survey and compare it with models that associate galaxies with dark matter halos. Specifically, we quantify the environment of each galaxy in the ECO survey using an Nth nearest neighbor distance metric, and we measure how the galaxy luminosity distribution varies from low density to high density environments. As expected, we find that luminous galaxies preferentially populate high density regions, while low luminosity galaxies preferentially populate lower density environments. We investigate whether this trend can be explained simply by the correlation of galaxy luminosity and dark matter halo mass combined with the environmental dependence of the halo mass function. In other words, we test the hypothesis that the luminosity of a galaxy depends solely on the mass of its dark matter halo and does not exhibit a residual dependence on the halo's larger environment. To test this hypothesis, we first construct mock ECO catalogs by populating dark matter halos in an N-body simulation with galaxies using a model that preserves the overall clustering strength of the galaxy population. We then assign luminosities to the mock galaxies using physically motivated models that connect luminosity to halo mass and are constrained to match the global ECO luminosity function. Finally, we impose the radial and angular selection functions of the ECO survey and repeat our environmental analysis on the mock catalogs. Though our mock catalog luminosity functions display similar qualitative trends as those from the ECO data, the trends are not in agreement quantitatively. Our results thus suggest that the simple models used to build the mocks are incomplete and that galaxy luminosity is possibly correlated with the larger scale density field.

  6. Modeling the Near-Infrared Luminosity Functions of Young Stellar Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Münch, A; Lada, C J; Muench, August A.; Lada, Elizabeth A.; Lada, Charles J.

    1999-01-01

    We present the results of numerical experiments designed to evaluate the usefulness of near-infrared luminosity functions for constraining the Initial Mass Function (IMF) of young stellar populations. From this numerical modeling, we find that the luminosity function of a young stellar population is considerably more sensitive to variations in the underlying initial mass function than to either variations in the star forming history or assumed pre-main-sequence (PMS) mass-to-luminosity relation. To illustrate the potential effectiveness of using the KLF of a young cluster to constrain its IMF, we model the observed K band luminosity function of the nearby Trapezium cluster. Our derived mass function for the Trapezium spans two orders of magnitude in stellar mass (5 Msun to 0.02 Msun), has a peak near the hydrogen burning limit, and has an IMF for Brown Dwarfs which steadily decreases with decreasing mass.

  7. A Close Examination of the Measurement and Parametrization of Luminosity Functions in an Expanding Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Lake, S E; Tsai, C -W; Lam, A

    2016-01-01

    The astronomy community has at its disposal a large back catalog of public spectroscopic galaxy redshift surveys that can be used for the measurement of luminosity functions. Utilizing the back catalog with new photometric surveys to maximum efficiency requires modeling the color selection bias imposed on selection of target galaxies by flux limits at multiple wavelengths. The likelihood derived herein can address, in principle, all possible color selection biases through the use of a generalization of the luminosity function, $\\Phi(L)$, over the space of all spectra: the spectro-luminosity functional, $\\Psi[L_\

  8. Toward the Standard Population Synthesis Model of the X-Ray Background: Evolution of X-Ray Luminosity and Absorption Functions of Active Galactic Nuclei Including Compton-Thick Populations

    CERN Document Server

    Ueda, Yoshihiro; Hasinger, Guenther; Miyaji, Takamitsu; Watson, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    We present the most up-to-date X-ray luminosity function (XLF) and absorption function of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) over the redshift range from 0 to 5, utilizing the largest, highly complete sample ever available obtained from surveys performed with Swift/BAT, MAXI, ASCA, XMM-Newton, Chandra, and ROSAT. The combined sample, including that of the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey, consists of 4039 detections in the soft (0.5--2 keV) and/or hard ($>2$ keV) band. We utilize a maximum likelihood method to reproduce the count-rate versus redshift distribution for each survey, by taking into account the evolution of the absorbed fraction, the contribution from Compton-thick (CTK) AGNs, and broad band spectra of AGNs including reflection components from tori based on the luminosity and redshift dependent unified scheme. We find that the shape of the XLF at $z \\sim 1-3$ is significantly different from that in the local universe, for which the luminosity dependent density evolution model gives much better description...

  9. The European Large Area ISO Survey IV the preliminary 90 micron luminosity function

    CERN Document Server

    Serjeant, S; Oliver, S; Surace, C; Heraudeau, P; Linden-Voernle, M J D; Gruppioni, C; La Franca, F; Rigopoulou, D; Morel, T; Crockett, H; Sumner, T J; Rowan-Robinson, M; Graham, M

    2000-01-01

    We present the luminosity function of 90um selected galaxies from the European Large Area ISO Survey (ELAIS), extending to z=0.3. Their luminosities are in the range 10^9 = 100mJy database, we found optical, 15um or 1.4GHz identifications for 24 (65%). We have obtained 2dF and UK Schmidt FLAIR spectroscopy of 89% of IDs to rigid multivariate flux limits. We construct a luminosity function assuming (a) our spectroscopic subset is an unbiased sparse sample, and (b) there are no galaxies which would not be represented in our spectroscopic sample at {\\it any} redshift. We argue that we can be confident of both assumptions. We find the luminosity function is well-described by the local 100um luminosity function of Rowan-Robinson, Helou & Walker (1987). {\\it Assuming} this local normalisation, we derive luminosity evolution of (1+z)^{2.45\\pm0.85} (95% confidence). We argue that star formation dominates the bolometric luminosities of these galaxies and we derive comoving star formation rates in broad agreement w...

  10. Constraints on the gamma-ray burst luminosity function from Pioneer Venus Orbiter and BATSE observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, Andrew; Wijers, Ralph A. M. J.; Fenimore, Edward E.

    1995-01-01

    We examine the width of the gamma ray burst luminosity function through the distribution of Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) peak fluxes as detected by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) and the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE). The strength of the analysis is greatly enhanced by using a merged catalog of peak fluxes from both instruments with good cross-calibration of their sensitivities. The range of peak fluxes is increased by approximately a factor of 20 relative to the BATSE catalog. Thus, more sensitive investigations of the log N - log P distribution are possible. We place constraints on the width of the luminosity function of gamma-ray bursts brighter than the BATSE completeness limit by comparing the intensity distribution in the merged catalog with those produced by a variety of spatial density and luminosity functions. For the models examined, 90% of the detectable bursts have peak luminosities within a range of 10, indicating that the peak luminosities of gamma-ray bursts span a markedly less wide range of values than many other of their measurable properties. We also discuss for which slopes of a power-law luminosity function the observed width is at the upper end of the constrained range. This is essential in determining the power-law slopes for which luminosity-duration correlations could be important.

  11. Monte Carlo simulations of the luminosity function of hot white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, S; Krzesinski, J; Kleinman, S J

    2012-01-01

    We present a detailed Monte Carlo simulation of the population of the hot branch of the white dwarf luminosity function. We used the most up-to-date stellar evolutionary models and we implemented a full description of the observational selection biases. Our theoretical results are compared with the luminosity function of hot white dwarfs obtained from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), for both DA and non-DA white dwarfs. For non-DA white dwarfs we find an excellent agreement with the observational data, while for DA white dwarfs our simulations show some discrepancies with the observations for the brightest luminosity bins, those corresponding to L>= 10 L_sun.

  12. The Faint Optical Stellar Luminosity Function in the Ursa Minor Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Feltzing, S; Wyse, R F G; Feltzing, Sofia; Gilmore, Gerard; Wyse, Rosemary F.G.

    1999-01-01

    Analyses of their internal stellar kinematics imply that the dwarf spheroidal (dSph) companion galaxies to the Milky Way are among the most dark-matter dominated systems known. Should there be significant dark matter in the form of faint stars in these systems, the stellar luminosity function must be very different from that of a similar metallicity globular cluster, for which there is no evidence for dark matter. We present the faint stellar luminosity function in the Ursa Minor dSph, down to a luminosity corresponding to roughly 0.45 M_sun, derived from new deep HST/WFPC2 data. We find a remarkable similarity between this luminosity function, and inferred initial mass function, and that of the globular cluster M92, a cluster of similar age and metallicity to the Ursa Minor dSph.

  13. Probing the Ultraviolet Luminosity Function of the Earliest Galaxies with the Renaissance Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Brian W.; Wise, John H.; Xu, Hao; Norman, Michael L.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we present the first results from the Renaissance Simulations, a suite of extremely high-resolution and physics-rich AMR calculations of high-redshift galaxy formation performed on the Blue Waters supercomputer. These simulations contain hundreds of well-resolved galaxies at z˜ 25-8, and make several novel, testable predictions. Most critically, we show that the ultraviolet luminosity function of our simulated galaxies is consistent with observations of high-z galaxy populations at the bright end of the luminosity function ({M}1600≤slant -17), but at lower luminosities is essentially flat rather than rising steeply, as has been inferred by Schechter function fits to high-z observations, and has a clearly defined lower limit in UV luminosity. This behavior of the luminosity function is due to two factors: (i) the strong dependence of the star formation rate (SFR) on halo virial mass in our simulated galaxy population, with lower-mass halos having systematically lower SFRs and thus lower UV luminosities; and (ii) the fact that halos with virial masses below ≃ 2× {10}8 {M}⊙ do not universally contain stars, with the fraction of halos containing stars dropping to zero at ≃ 7× {10}6 {M}⊙ . Finally, we show that the brightest of our simulated galaxies may be visible to current and future ultra-deep space-based surveys, particularly if lensed regions are chosen for observation.

  14. The Spatial Clustering of ROSAT All-Sky Survey AGNs II. Halo Occupation Distribution Modeling of the Cross Correlation Function

    CERN Document Server

    Miyaji, Takamitsu; Coil, Alison L; Aceves, Hector

    2010-01-01

    This is the second paper of a series that reports on our investigation of the clustering properties of AGNs in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS) through cross-correlation functions (CCFs) with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies. In this paper, we apply the Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD) model to the CCFs between the RASS Broad-line AGNs with SDSS Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs) in the redshift range 0.16AGNs by a model fit to the CCF. For the first time, we are able to go beyond quoting merely a `typical' AGN host halo mass, M_h, and model the full distribution function of AGN host dark matter halos. In addition, we are able to determine the large-scale bias and the mean M_h more accurately. We explore the behavior of three simple HOD models. Our first model (Model A) is a truncated power-law HOD model in which all AGNs are satellites. With this model, we find an upper lim...

  15. Modeling the Near-Infrared Luminosity Functions of Young Stellar Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muench, August A.; Lada, Elizabeth A.; Lada, Charles J.

    2000-04-01

    We present the results of numerical experiments designed to evaluate the usefulness of near-infrared (NIR) luminosity functions for constraining the initial mass function (IMF) of young stellar populations. We test the sensitivity of the NIR K-band luminosity function (KLF) of a young stellar cluster to variations in the underlying IMF, star-forming history, and pre-main-sequence mass-to-luminosity relations. Using Monte Carlo techniques, we create a suite of model luminosity functions systematically varying each of these basic underlying relations. From this numerical modeling, we find that the luminosity function of a young stellar population is considerably more sensitive to variations in the underlying initial mass function than to either variations in the star-forming history or assumed pre-main-sequence (PMS) mass-to-luminosity relation. Variations in a cluster's star-forming history are also found to produce significant changes in the KLF. In particular, we find that the KLFs of young clusters evolve in a systematic manner with increasing mean age. Our experiments indicate that variations in the PMS mass-to-luminosity relation, resulting from differences in adopted PMS tracks, produce only small effects on the form of the model luminosity functions and that these effects are mostly likely not detectable observationally. To illustrate the potential effectiveness of using the KLF of a young cluster to constrain its IMF, we model the observed KLF of the nearby Trapezium cluster. With knowledge of the star-forming history of this cluster obtained from optical spectroscopic studies, we derive the simplest underlying IMF whose model luminosity function matches the observations. Our derived mass function for the Trapezium spans 2 orders of magnitude in stellar mass (5>Msolar>0.02) and has a peak near the hydrogen-burning limit. Below the hydrogen-burning limit, the mass function steadily decreases with decreasing mass throughout the brown dwarf regime. Comparison

  16. Cosmic Reionization On Computers: The Faint End of the Galaxy Luminosity Function

    CERN Document Server

    Gnedin, Nickolay Y

    2016-01-01

    Using numerical cosmological simulations completed under the "Cosmic Reionization On Computers" (CROC) project, I explore theoretical predictions for the faint end of the galaxy UV luminosity functions at $z\\geq 6$. A commonly used Schechter function approximation with the magnitude cut at $M_{\\rm CUT}\\sim-13$ provides a reasonable fit to the actual luminosity function of simulated galaxies. When the Schechter functional form is forced on the luminosity functions from the simulations, the magnitude cut $M_{\\rm CUT}$ is found to vary between $-12$ and $-14$ with a mild redshift dependence. An analytical model of reionization from Madau, Haardt & Rees (1997), as used by Robertson et al. (2015), provides a good description of the simulated results, but only if the redshift dependence of the effective escape fraction (induced by physical processes not captured by the Madau, Haardt & Rees model) is accounted for.

  17. Cosmic Reionization On Computers: The Faint End of the Galaxy Luminosity Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnedin, Nickolay Y. [Fermilab

    2016-07-01

    Using numerical cosmological simulations completed under the "Cosmic Reionization On Computers" (CROC) project, I explore theoretical predictions for the faint end of the galaxy UV luminosity functions at $z\\geq 6$. A commonly used Schechter function approximation with the magnitude cut at $M_{\\rm CUT}\\sim-13$ provides a reasonable fit to the actual luminosity function of simulated galaxies. When the Schechter functional form is forced on the luminosity functions from the simulations, the magnitude cut $M_{\\rm CUT}$ is found to vary between $-12$ and $-14$ with a mild redshift dependence. An analytical model of reionization from Madau, Haardt & Rees (1997), as used by Robertson et al. (2015), provides a good description of the simulated results, but only if the redshift dependence of the effective escape fraction (induced by physical processes not captured by the Madau, Haardt & Rees model) is accounted for.

  18. SWIFT Observations AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushotzky, Richard

    2008-01-01

    I will present results from the x-ray and optical follow-up observations of the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) survey. I will discuss the nature of obscuration in these objects, the relationship to optical properties and the change of properties with luminosity and galaxy type.

  19. A search for X-ray reprocessing echoes in the power spectral density functions of AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Emmanoulopoulos, D; Epitropakis, A; Pecháček, T; Dovčiak, M; McHardy, I M

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a detailed study of the X-ray power spectra density (PSD) functions of twelve X-ray bright AGN, using almost all the archival XMM-Newton data. The total net exposure of the EPIC-pn light curves is larger than 350 ks in all cases (and exceeds 1 Ms in the case of 1H 0707-497). In a physical scenario in which X-ray reflection occurs in the inner part of the accretion disc of AGN, the X-ray reflection component should be a filtered echo of the X-ray continuum signal and should be equal to the convolution of the primary emission with the response function of the disc. Our primary objective is to search for these reflection features in the 5-7 keV (iron line) and 0.5-1 keV (soft) bands, where the X-ray reflection fraction is expected to be dominant. We fit to the observed periodograms two models: a simple bending power law model (BPL) and a BPL model convolved with the transfer function of the accretion disc assuming the lamp-post geometry and X-ray reflection from a homogeneous disc. We d...

  20. Luminosity Functions of Spitzer Identified Protostars in Nine Nearby Molecular Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Kryukova, E; Gutermuth, R A; Pipher, J; Allen, T S; Allen, L E; Myers, P C; Muzerolle, J

    2012-01-01

    We identify protostars in Spitzer surveys of nine star-forming molecular clouds within 1 kpc: Serpens, Perseus, Ophiuchus, Chamaeleon, Lupus, Taurus, Orion, Cep OB3, and Mon R2, which combined host over 700 protostar candidates. Our diverse cloud sample allows us to compare protostar luminosity functions in these varied environments. We combine photometry from 2MASS J, H, and Ks bands and Spitzer IRAC and MIPS 24 micron bands to create 1 - 24 micron spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Using protostars from the c2d survey with well-determined bolometric luminosities (Lbol), we derive a relationship between Lbol, L_MIR (integrated from 1 - 24 microns), and SED slope. Estimations of Lbol for protostar candidates are combined to create luminosity functions for each cloud. Contamination due to edge-on disks, reddened Class II sources, and galaxies is estimated and removed from the luminosity functions. We find that luminosity functions for high mass star forming clouds peak near 1 Lsun and show a tail extending ...

  1. Three years Swift-BAT Survey of AGN: reconciling theory and observations?

    CERN Document Server

    Burlon, D; Greiner, J; Comastri, A; Merloni, A; Gehrels, N; .,

    2010-01-01

    It is well accepted that unabsorbed as well as absorbed AGN are needed to explain the nature and the shape of the Cosmic X-ray background, even if the fraction of highly absorbed objects (dubbed Compton-thick sources) substantially still escapes detection. We derive and analyze the absorption distribution using a complete sample of AGN detected by Swift-BAT in the first three years of the survey. The fraction of Compton-thick AGN represents only 4.6% of the total AGN population detected by Swift-BAT. However, we show that once corrected for the bias against the detection of very absorbed sources the real intrinsic fraction of Compton-thick AGN is 20$^{+9}_{-6}$%. We proved for the first time (also in the BAT band) that the anti-correlation of the fraction of absorbed AGN and luminosity it tightly connected to the different behavior of the luminosity functions (XLFs) of absorbed and unabsorbed AGN. This points towards a difference between the two subsamples of objects with absorbed AGN being, on average, intri...

  2. Re-analysis of the Radio Luminosity Function of Galactic H II Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paladini, R.; De Zotti, G.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Carey, S. J.

    2009-09-01

    We have re-analyzed continuum and recombination lines radio data available in the literature in order to derive the luminosity function (LF) of Galactic H II regions. The study is performed by considering the first and fourth Galactic quadrants independently. We estimate the completeness level of the sample in the fourth quadrant at 5 Jy, and the one in the first quadrant at 2 Jy. We show that the two samples (fourth or first quadrant) include, as well as giant and supergiant H II regions, a significant number of subgiant sources. The LF is obtained, in each Galactic quadrant, with a generalized Schmidt's estimator using an effective volume derived from the observed spatial distribution of the considered H II regions. The re-analysis also takes advantage of recently published ancillary absorption data allowing to solve the distance ambiguity for several objects. A single power-law fit to the LFs retrieves a slope equal to -2.23 ± 0.07 (fourth quadrant) and to -1.85 ± 0.11 (first quadrant). We also find marginal evidence of a luminosity break at L knee = 1023.45 erg s-1 Hz-1 for the LF in the fourth quadrant. We convert radio luminosities into equivalent Hα and Lyman continuum luminosities to facilitate comparisons with extragalactic studies. We obtain an average total H II regions Lyman continuum luminosity of 0.89 ± 0.23 × 1053 s-1, corresponding to 30% of the total ionizing luminosity of the Galaxy.

  3. Density functional study of Agn-1Y (n =2-10) clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiao-Yong; Zhu Zheng-He; Sheng Yong

    2011-01-01

    properties of Agn-1Y (n =2-10) clusters in this paper.The structural optimization and the frequency analysis are performed at the B3LYP/LANL2DZ level.Meanwhile,the differences in geometry,stability and electronic properties between Agn and Agn-1Y (n =2-10) clusters are also studied.The results show that for the doping of the yttrium atoms,the structures and the average binding lengths of the Agn clusters are greatly changed. In addition,the thermodynamic stabilities of the Agn clusters are enhanced generally with the doping of the Y atoms.In addition,the chemical stabilities of the Agn- 1 Y clusters are still improved compared with that of the three-dimensional Agn clusters.

  4. The GRB luminosity function in the internal shock model confronted to observations

    CERN Document Server

    Zitouni, H; Mochkovitch, R; Zerguini, T H

    2010-01-01

    We compute the expected luminosity function of GRBs in the context of the internal shock model. We assume that GRB central engines generate relativistic outflows characterized by the respective distributions of injected kinetic power Edot and contrast in Lorentz factor Kappa = Gamma_max/Gamma_min. We find that if the distribution of contrast extends down to values close to unity (i.e. if both highly variable and smooth outflows can exist) the luminosity function has two branches. At high luminosity it follows the distribution of Edot while at low luminosity it is close to a power law of slope -0.5. We then examine if existing data can constrain the luminosity function. Using the log N - log P curve, the Ep distribution of bright BATSE bursts and the XRF/GRB ratio obtained by HETE2 we show that single and broken power-laws can provide equally good fits of these data. Present observations are therefore unable to favor one form of the other. However when a broken power-law is adopted they clearly indicate a low ...

  5. Dark-ages reionization & galaxy formation simulation IV: UV luminosity functions of high-redshift galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Chuanwu; Angel, P W; Duffy, Alan R; Geil, Paul M; Poole, Gregory B; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, J Stuart B

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present calculations of the UV luminosity function predictions from the Dark-ages Reionization And Galaxy-formation Observables from Numerical Simulations (DRAGONS) project, which combines N-body, semi-analytic and semi-numerical modeling designed to study galaxy formation during the Epoch of Reionization. Using galaxy formation physics including supernova feedback, the model naturally reproduces the UV LFs for high-redshift star-forming galaxies from $z{\\sim}5$ through to $z{\\sim}10$. We investigate the predicted luminosity-star formation rate (SFR) relation, finding that variable SFR histories of galaxies result in a scatter around the mean relation of $0.1$-$0.3$ dex depending on UV luminosity. We find close agreement between the model and observationally derived SFR functions. We use our predicted luminosities to investigate the luminosity function below current detection limits, and the ionizing photon budget for reionization. We predict that the slope of the UV LF remains steep below cu...

  6. The HerMES sub-millimetre local and low-redshift luminosity functions

    CERN Document Server

    Marchetti, L; Franceschini, A; Arumugam, V; Aussel, H; Bethermin, M; Bock, J; Boselli, A; Buat, V; Burgarella, D; Clements, D L; Conley, A; Conversi, L; Cooray, A; Dowell, C D; Farrah, D; Feltre, A; Glenn, J; Griffin, M; Hatziminaoglou, E; Heinis, S; Ibar, E; Ivison, R J; Nguyen, H T; O'Halloran, B; Oliver, S J; Omont, A; Page, M J; Papageorgiou, A; Pearson, C P; Perez-Fournon, I; Pohlen, M; Rigopoulou, D; Roseboom, I G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Schulz, B; Scott, Douglas; Seymour, N; Shupe, D L; Smith, A J; Symeonidis, M; Valtchanov, I; Viero, M; Wang, L; Wardlow, J; Xu, C K; Zemcov, M

    2015-01-01

    We used wide area surveys over 39 deg$^2$ by the HerMES collaboration, performed with the Herschel Observatory SPIRE multi-wavelength camera, to estimate the low-redshift, $0.02luminosity functions (LFs) of galaxies at 250, 350 and 500$\\,\\mu$m. SPIRE flux densities were also combined with Spitzer photometry and multi-wavelength archival data to perform a complete SED fitting analysis of SPIRE detected sources to calculate precise k-corrections, as well as the bolometric infrared (8-1000$\\,\\mu$m) luminosity functions and their low-$z$ evolution from a combination of statistical estimators. Integration of the latter prompted us to also compute the local luminosity density (LLD) and the comoving star formation rate density (SFRD) for our sources, and to compare them with theoretical predictions of galaxy formation models. The luminosity functions show significant and rapid luminosity evolution already at low redshifts, $0.02

  7. The ESO Slice Project (ESP) galaxy redshift survey. II. The luminosity function and mean galaxy density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucca, E.; Zamorani, G.; Vettolani, G.; Cappi, A.; Merighi, R.; Mignoli, M.; Stirpe, G. M.; MacGillivray, H.; Collins, C.; Balkowski, C.; Cayatte, V.; Maurogordato, S.; Proust, D.; Chincarini, G.; Guzzo, L.; Maccagni, D.; Scaramella, R.; Blanchard, A.; Ramella, M.

    1997-10-01

    The ESO Slice Project (ESP) is a galaxy redshift survey we have recently completed as an ESO Key-Project over about 23 square degrees, in a region near the South Galactic Pole. The survey is nearly complete to the limiting magnitude b_J_=19.4 and consists of 3342 galaxies with reliable redshift determination. The ESP survey is intermediate between shallow, wide angle samples and very deep, one-dimensional pencil beams: spanning a volume of ~5x10^4^h^-3^Mpc^3^ at the sensitivity peak (z~0.1), it provides an accurate determination of the "local" luminosity function and the mean galaxy density. We find that, although a Schechter function (with α=-1.22, M^*^_bJ_=-19.61+5logh and φ^*^=0.020h^3^/Mpc^3^) is an acceptable representation of the luminosity function over the entire range of magnitudes (M_bJ_=-17+5logh. Such a steepening at the faint end of the luminosity function, well fitted by a power law with slope β~-1.6, is almost completely due to galaxies with emission lines: in fact, dividing our galaxies into two samples, i.e. galaxies with and without emission lines, we find significant differences in their luminosity functions. In particular, galaxies with emission lines show a significantly steeper slope and a fainter M^*^. The amplitude and the α and M^*^ parameters of our luminosity function are in good agreement with those of the AUTOFIB redshift survey (Ellis et al. 1996). Vice-versa, our amplitude is significantly higher, by a factor ~1.6 at M~M^*^, than that found for both the Stromlo-APM (Loveday et al. 1992) and the Las Campanas (Lin et al. 1996) redshift surveys. Also the faint end slope of our luminosity function is significantly steeper than that found in these two surveys. The galaxy number density for M_bJ_blue luminosity densities in these three cases are ρ_LUM_=(2.0, 2.2, 2.3)x10^8^hLsun_/Mpc^3^, respectively. Large over- and under- densities are clearly seen in our data. In particular, we find evidence for a "local" under-density (n~0.5n

  8. The 60 Month All-Sky Burst Alert Telescope Survey of Active Galactic Nucleus and the Anisotropy of Nearby AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajello, M.; Alexander, D. M.; Greiner, J.; Madejeski, G. M.; Gehrels, N.; Burlon, D.

    2014-01-01

    Surveys above 10 keV represent one of the best resources to provide an unbiased census of the population of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We present the results of 60 months of observation of the hard X-ray sky with Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT). In this time frame, BAT-detected (in the 15-55 keV band) 720 sources in an all-sky survey of which 428 are associated with AGNs, most of which are nearby. Our sample has negligible incompleteness and statistics a factor of approx. 2 larger over similarly complete sets of AGNs. Our sample contains (at least) 15 bona fide Compton-thick AGNs and 3 likely candidates. Compton-thick AGNs represent approx. 5% of AGN samples detected above 15 keV. We use the BAT data set to refine the determination of the log N-log S of AGNs which is extremely important, now that NuSTAR prepares for launch, toward assessing the AGN contribution to the cosmic X-ray background. We show that the log N-log S of AGNs selected above 10 keV is now established to approx. 10% precision. We derive the luminosity function of Compton-thick AGNs and measure a space density of 7.9(+4.1/-2.9)× 10(exp -5)/cubic Mpc for objects with a de-absorbed luminosity larger than 2 × 10(exp 42) erg / s. As the BAT AGNs are all mostly local, they allow us to investigate the spatial distribution of AGNs in the nearby universe regardless of absorption. We find concentrations of AGNs that coincide spatially with the largest congregations of matter in the local (much < 85 Mpc) universe. There is some evidence that the fraction of Seyfert 2 objects is larger than average in the direction of these dense regions..

  9. An enhanced fraction of starbursting galaxies among high Eddington ratio AGNs

    CERN Document Server

    Bernhard, E; Daddi, E; Ciesla, L; Schreiber, C

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the star-forming properties of 1620 X-ray selected AGN host galaxies as a function of their specific X-ray luminosity (i.e., X-ray luminosity per unit host stellar mass) -- a proxy of the Eddington ratio. Our motivation is to determine whether there is any evidence of a suppression of star-formation at high Eddington ratios, which may hint toward "AGN feedback" effects. Star-formation rates (SFRs) are derived from fits to Herschel-measured far-infrared spectral energy distributions, taking into account any contamination from the AGN. Herschel-undetected AGNs are included via stacking analyses to provide average SFRs in bins of redshift and specific X-ray luminosity (spanning $0.01 \\lesssim L_{\\rm X}/M_{\\ast} \\lesssim 100~L_{\\odot} ~M_{\\odot}^{-1}$). After normalising for the effects of mass and redshift arising from the evolving galaxy main sequence, we find that the SFRs of high specific luminosity AGNs are slightly enhanced compared to their lower specific luminosity counterparts. This sugges...

  10. The average 0.5-200 keV spectrum of local active galactic nuclei and a new determination of the 2-10 keV luminosity function at z \\approx 0

    CERN Document Server

    Ballantyne, D R

    2013-01-01

    The broadband X-ray spectra of AGNs contains information about the nuclear environment from Schwarzschild radii scales to distances of ~1 pc. In addition, the average shape of the X-ray spectrum is an important input into X-ray background synthesis models. Here, local (z \\approx 0) AGN luminosity functions (LFs) in five energy bands are used as a low-resolution, luminosity-dependent X-ray spectrometer in order to constrain the average AGN X-ray spectrum between 0.5 and 200 keV. The 15-55 keV LF measured by Swift-BAT is assumed to be the best determination of the local LF, and then a spectral model is varied to determine the best fit to the 0.5-2 keV, 2-10 keV, 3-20 keV and 14-195 keV LFs. The spectral model consists of a Gaussian distribution of power-laws with a mean photon-index and cutoff energy E_cut, as well as contributions from distant and disc reflection. The reflection strength is parameterised by varying the Fe abundance relative to solar, A_Fe, and requiring a specific Fe K equivalent width (EW). ...

  11. The bivariate K-band-submillimetre luminosity functions of the local HRS galaxy sample

    CERN Document Server

    Andreani, P; Boselli, A; Ciesla, L; Cortese, L; Vio, R; Baes, M; Bendo, G J; De Looze, I

    2014-01-01

    We study the relationship between the K-band and the sub-millimetre (submm) emissions of nearby galaxies by computing the bivariate K-band-submm luminosity function (BLF) of the Herschel Reference Survey (HRS), a volume-limited sample observed in submm with Hersche/SPIRE. We derive the BLF from the K-band and submm cumulative distributions using a copula method. Using the BLF allows us to derive the relationship between the luminosities on more solid statistical ground. The analysis shows that over the whole HRS sample, no statistically meaningful conclusion can be derived for any relationship between the K-band and the submm luminosity. However, a very tight relationship between these luminosities is highlighted, by restricting our analysis to late-type galaxies. The luminosity function of late-type galaxies computed in the K-band and in the submm are dependent and the dependence is caused by the link, between the stellar mass and the cold dust mass, which has been already observed

  12. Near-Infrared Properties of Moderate-Redshift Galaxy Clusters: Luminosity Functions and Density Profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muzzin, Adam; Yee, H.K.C.; /Toronto U., Astron. Dept.; Hall, Patrick B.; /York U., Canada; Ellingson, E.; /Colorado U., CASA; Lin, Huan; /Fermilab

    2006-12-01

    We present K-band imaging for 15 of the Canadian Network for Observational Cosmology (CNOC1) clusters. The extensive spectroscopic dataset available for these clusters allows us to determine the cluster K-band luminosity function and density profile without the need for statistical background subtraction. The luminosity density and number density profiles can be described by NFW models with concentration parameters of c{sub l} = 4.28 {+-} 0.70 and c{sub g} = 4.13 {+-} 0.57 respectively. Comparing these to the dynamical mass analysis of the same clusters shows that the galaxy luminosity and number density profiles are similar to the dark matter profile, and are not less concentrated like in local clusters. The luminosity functions show that the evolution of K. over the redshift range 0.2 < z < 0.5 is consistent with a scenario where the majority of stars in cluster galaxies form at high-redshift (z{sub f} > 1.5) and evolve passively thereafter. The best-fit for the faint-end slope of the luminosity function is {alpha} = -0.84 {+-} 0.08, which indicates that it does not evolve between z = 0 and z = 0.3. Using Principal Component Analysis of the spectra we classify cluster galaxies as either star-forming/recently-star-forming (EM+BAL) or non-star forming (ELL) and compute their respective luminosity functions. The faint-end slope of the ELL luminosity function is much shallower than for the EM+BAL galaxies at z = 0.3, and suggests the number of faint ELL galaxies in clusters decreases by a factor of {approx} 3 from z = 0 to z = 0.3. The redshift evolution of K* for both EM+BAL and ELL types is consistent with a passively evolving stellar population formed at high-redshift. Passive evolution in both classes, as well as the total cluster luminosity function, demonstrates that the bulk of the stellar population in all bright cluster galaxies is formed at high-redshift and subsequent transformations in morphology/color/spectral-type have little effect on the total stellar

  13. Results from the First INTEGRAL AGN Catalogue

    CERN Document Server

    Beckmann, V; Shrader, C R; Gehrels, N

    2005-01-01

    We present results based on the first INTEGRAL AGN catalogue. The catalogue includes 42 AGN, of which 10 are Seyfert 1, 17 are Seyfert 2, and 9 are intermediate Seyfert 1.5. The fraction of blazars is rather small with 5 detected objects, and only one galaxy cluster and no star-burst galaxies have been detected so far. The sample consists of bright (fx > 5e-12 erg/cm**2/s), low luminosity (L = 2e43 erg/s), local (z = 0.020) AGN. Although the sample is not flux limited, we find a ratio of obscured to unobscured AGN of 1.5 - 2.0, consistent with luminosity dependent unified models for AGN. Only four Compton-thick AGN are found in the sample. This implies that the missing Compton-thick AGN needed to explain the cosmic hard X-ray background would have to have lower fluxes than discovered by INTEGRAL so far.

  14. Constructing a bivariate distribution function with given marginals and correlation: application to the galaxy luminosity function

    CERN Document Server

    Takeuchi, Tsutomu T

    2010-01-01

    We show an analytic method to construct a bivariate distribution function (DF) with given marginal distributions and correlation coefficient. We introduce a convenient mathematical tool, called a copula, to connect two DFs with any prescribed dependence structure. If the correlation of two variables is weak (Pearson's correlation coefficient $|\\rho| <1/3 $), the Farlie-Gumbel-Morgenstern (FGM) copula provides an intuitive and natural way for constructing such a bivariate DF. When the linear correlation is stronger, the FGM copula cannot work anymore. In this case, we propose to use a Gaussian copula, which connects two given marginals and directly related to the linear correlation coefficient between two variables. Using the copulas, we constructed the BLFs and discuss its statistical properties. Especially, we focused on the FUV--FIR BLF, since these two luminosities are related to the star formation (SF) activity. Though both the FUV and FIR are related to the SF activity, the univariate LFs have a very ...

  15. Galaxy UV-luminosity Function and Reionisation Constraints on Axion Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Bozek, Brandon; Silk, Joseph; Wyse, Rosemary F G

    2014-01-01

    If the dark matter (DM) were composed of axions, then structure formation in the Universe would be suppressed below the axion Jeans scale. Using an analytic model for the halo mass function of a mixed dark matter model with axions and CDM, combined with the abundance-matching technique, we construct the UV luminosity function. Axions suppress high-$z$ galaxy formation and the UV-luminosity function is truncated at a faintest limiting magnitude. From the UV-luminosity function, we predict the reionisation history of the universe and find that axion dark matter causes reionisation to occur at lower redshift. We search for evidence of axions using the Hubble ultra-deep field UV-luminosity function in the redshift range $z=6$ to $10$, and the optical depth to reionisation, $\\tau$, as measured from CMB polarisation. All probes we consider consistently exclude $m_a\\lesssim 10^{-23}\\text{ eV}$ from contributing more than half of the DM, with our strongest constraint ruling this model out at more than $8\\sigma$ signi...

  16. The blazar gamma-ray luminosity function and the diffuse extragalactic gamma-ray background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamon, M. H.; Stecker, F. W.

    1994-01-01

    We have used the data from the new EGRET catalog on 'grazars' (blazers which are observed to be high-energy gamma-ray sources), together with radio data, to construct a new relation between radio and gamma-ray luminosity for these sources. Using this relation to construct a grazar gamma-ray luminosity function, we then calculate the contribution of unresolved grazars to the cosmic gamma-ray background radiation. We derive the energy spectrum of this background component above 100 MeV and the angular fluctuations in this background implied by our model.

  17. 2MASS/SDSS Close Major-Merger Galaxy Pairs: Luminosity Functions and Merger Mass Dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Domingue, Donovan L; Jarrett, T H; Cheng, Y

    2009-01-01

    We select a close "major-merger candidate" galaxy pair sample in order to calculate the K_{s} luminosity function (LF) and pair fraction representative of the merger/interaction component of galaxy evolution in the local universe. The pair sample (projected separation 5 h$^{-1}$ kpc $\\leq$ r $\\leq$ 20 h$^{-1}$ kpc, $K_{s}$-band magnitude difference $\\Delta

  18. The luminosity function and surface brightness distribution of HI selected galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaan, MA; Briggs, FH; Sprayberry, D

    2001-01-01

    We measure the z = 0 B-band optical luminosity function (LF) for galaxies selected in a blind Hi survey. The total LF of the Hi selected sample is flat, with Schechter parameters M*= -19.38+(+1.02)(-0.62) + 5 log h(100) mag and alpha = -1.03(-0.15)(+0.25), in good agreement with LFs of optically sel

  19. The Luminosity Functions and Timescales of MYSOs and Compact HII regions

    CERN Document Server

    Mottram, Joseph C; Davies, Ben; Lumsden, Stuart L; Oudmaijer, Rene D; Urquhart, James S; Moore, Toby J T; Cooper, Heather D B; Stead, Joseph J

    2011-01-01

    We present a determination of the luminosity functions of massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) and compact (C)HII regions within the Milky Way Galaxy using the large, well-selected sample of these sources identified by the Red MSX Source (RMS) survey. The MYSO luminosity function decreases monotonically such that there are few with $L\\gtrsim 10^{5}$Lsol, whilst the CHII regions are detected up to ~10$^{6}Lsol. The lifetimes of these phases are also calculated as a function of luminosity by comparison with the luminosity function for local main-sequence OB stars. These indicate that the MYSO phase has a duration ranging from 4x10$^{5}$ yrs for 10$^{4}$Lsol to ~7x10$^{4}$ yrs at 10$^{5}$Lsol, whilst the CHII region phase lasts of order 3x10$^{5}$ yrs or ~3-10% of the exciting star's main-sequence lifetime. MYSOs between 10$^{4} Lsol and ~10$^{5}$ Lsol are massive but do not display the radio continuum or near-IR \\HI{} recombination line emission indicative of an HII region, consistent with being swollen due to...

  20. Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA): maximum likelihood determination of the luminosity function and its evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Loveday, J; Baldry, I K; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Brough, S; Brown, M J I; Driver, S P; Kelvin, L S; Phillipps, S

    2015-01-01

    We describe modifications to the joint stepwise maximum likelihood method of Cole (2011) in order to simultaneously fit the GAMA-II galaxy luminosity function (LF), corrected for radial density variations, and its evolution with redshift. The whole sample is reasonably well-fit with luminosity (Qe) and density (Pe) evolution parameters Qe, Pe = 1.0, 1.0 but with significant degeneracies characterized by Qe = 1.4 - 0.4Pe. Blue galaxies exhibit larger luminosity density evolution than red galaxies, as expected. We present the evolution-corrected r-band LF for the whole sample and for blue and red sub-samples, using both Petrosian and Sersic magnitudes. Petrosian magnitudes miss a substantial fraction of the flux of de Vaucouleurs profile galaxies: the Sersic LF is substantially higher than the Petrosian LF at the bright end.

  1. The Abundance of Distant and Extremely Red Galaxies: The Role of AGN Feedback in Hierarchical Models

    CERN Document Server

    Menci, N; Giallongo, E; Grazian, A; Salimbeni, S

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the effect of AGN feedback associated to the bright QSO phase onto the color distribution of galaxies from z=0 up to z=4. To this aim, we insert a blast-wave model of AGN feedback in our semi-analytic model of galaxy formation, which includes the growth of supermassive black holes and the AGN activity triggered by interactions of the host galaxies. The AGN feedback is directly related to the impulsive, luminous quasar phase. We test our model by checking the consistency of its results against i) the QSO luminosity functions from z=0 to z=4; ii) the observed local relation between the black hole mass m_{BH} and the mass of the host galaxy. At low redshift the inclusion of AGN feedback enhances the number of red bright galaxies, so that the color distribution of M_r1.5) galaxies; at 0.52.5.

  2. The Seven Sisters DANCe. I. Empirical isochrones, Luminosity and Mass Functions of the Pleiades cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Bouy, H; Sarro, L M; Barrado, D; Moraux, E; Bouvier, J; Cuillandre, J -C; Berihuete, A; Olivares, J; Beletsky, Y

    2015-01-01

    The DANCe survey provides photometric and astrometric (position and proper motion) measurements for approximately 2 millions unique sources in a region encompassing $\\approx$80deg$^{2}$ centered around the Pleiades cluster. We aim at deriving a complete census of the Pleiades, and measure the mass and luminosity function of the cluster. Using the probabilistic selection method described in Sarro+2014, we identify high probability members in the DANCe ($i\\ge$14mag) and Tycho-2 ($V\\lesssim$12mag) catalogues, and study the properties of the cluster over the corresponding luminosity range. We find a total of 2109 high probability members, of which 812 are new, making it the most extensive and complete census of the cluster to date. The luminosity and mass functions of the cluster are computed from the most massive members down to $\\approx$0.025M$_{\\odot}$. The size, sensitivity and quality of the sample result in the most precise luminosity and mass functions observed to date for a cluster. Our census supersedes ...

  3. Sub-mm Emission Line Deep Fields: CO and [CII] Luminosity Functions out to z = 6

    CERN Document Server

    Popping, Gergö; Decarli, Roberto; Spaans, Marco; Somerville, Rachel S; Trager, Scott C

    2016-01-01

    Now that ALMA is reaching its full capabilities, observations of sub-mm emission line deep fields become feasible. Deep fields are ideal to study the luminosity function of sub-mm emission lines, ultimately tracing the atomic and molecular gas properties of galaxies. We couple a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation with a radiative transfer code to make predictions for the luminosity function of CO J=1-0 up to CO J=6-5 and [CII] at redshifts z=0-6. We find that: 1) our model correctly reproduces the CO and [CII] emission of low- and high-redshift galaxies and reproduces the available constraints on the CO luminosity function at z1.5 and the CO luminosity of individual galaxies at intermediate redshifts. We argue that this is driven by a lack of cold gas in galaxies at intermediate redshifts as predicted by cosmological simulations of galaxy formation. This may lay at the root of other problems theoretical models face at the same redshifts.

  4. Basic Tools for Studies on the Formation and Disruption of Star Clusters: the Luminosity Function

    CERN Document Server

    Gieles, M

    2009-01-01

    The luminosity function (LF) of young star clusters is often approximated by a power law function. For clusters in a wide range of galactic environments this has resulted in fit indices near -2, but on average slightly steeper. A fundamental property of the -2 power law function is that the luminosity of the brightest object (L_max) scales linearly with the total number of clusters, which is close to what is observed. This suggests that the formation of Young Massive Clusters (YMCs) is a result of the size of the sample, i.e. when the SFR is high it is statistically more likely to form YMCs, but no particular physical conditions are required. In this contribution we provide evidence that the LF of young clusters is not a -2 power law, but instead is curved, showing a systematic decrease of the (logarithmic) slope from roughly -1.8 at low luminosities to roughly -2.8 at high luminosities. The empirical LFs can be reproduced by model LFs using an underlying cluster IMF with a Schechter type truncation around M*...

  5. Measuring the Dark Matter Halo Mass of X-ray AGN at z~1 using photometric redshifts

    OpenAIRE

    Mountrichas, G.; Georgakakis, A.; Finoguenov, A.; Erfanianfar, G.; Cooper, M. C.; Coil, A. L.; Laird, E. S.; Nandra, K.; Newman, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Data from the AEGIS, COSMOS and ECDFS surveys are combined to infer the bias and dark matter halo mass of moderate luminosity [LX(2-10 keV) = 42.9 erg s-1] X-ray AGN at z~1 via their cross-correlation function with galaxies. In contrast to standard cross-correlation function estimators, we present a method that requires spectroscopy only for the AGN and uses photometric redshift probability distribution functions for galaxies to determine the projected real-space AGN/galaxy cross-correlation ...

  6. The Herschel* PEP-HERMES Luminosity Function- I. Probing the Evolution of PACS Selected Galaxies to z approx. equal to 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruppioni, Carlotta; Pozzi, F.; Rodighiero, G.; Delvecchio, I.; Berta, S.; Pozzetti, L.; Zamorani, G.; Andreani, P.; Cimatti, A.; Ilbert, O.; LeFloc'h, E.; Lutz, D.; Magnelli, B.; Marchetti, L.; Monaco, P.; Nordon, R.; Oliver, S.; Popesso, P.; Riguccini, L.; Roseboom, I.; Rosario, D. J.; Sargent, M.; Vaccari, M.; Altieri, B.; Amblard, A.; Bock, J.; Dowell, C. D.; Dwek, E.; Levenson, L.; Lu, N.; Nguyen, H. T.; Schulz, B.; Shupe, D. L.; Xu, C. K.

    2013-01-01

    We exploit the deep and extended far-IR data sets (at 70, 100 and 160 µm) of the Herschel Guaranteed Time Observation (GTO) PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP) Survey, in combination with the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey data at 250, 350 and 500 µm, to derive the evolution of the rest-frame 35-, 60-, 90- and total infrared (IR) luminosity functions (LFs) up to z 4.We detect very strong luminosity evolution for the total IR LF (LIR ? (1 + z)(sup 3.55 +/- 0.10) up to z 2, and ? (1 + z)(sup 1.62 +/- 0.51) at 2 less than z less than approximately 4) combined with a density evolution (? (1 + z)(sup -0.57 +/- 0.22) up to z 1 and ? (1 + z)(sup -3.92 +/- 0.34) at 1 less than z less than approximately 4). In agreement with previous findings, the IR luminosity density (?IR) increases steeply to z 1, then flattens between z 1 and z 3 to decrease at z greater than approximately 3. Galaxies with different spectral energy distributions, masses and specific star formation rates (SFRs) evolve in very different ways and this large and deep statistical sample is the first one allowing us to separately study the different evolutionary behaviours of the individual IR populations contributing to ?IR. Galaxies occupying the well-established SFR-stellar mass main sequence (MS) are found to dominate both the total IR LF and ?IR at all redshifts, with the contribution from off-MS sources (=0.6 dex above MS) being nearly constant (20 per cent of the total ?IR) and showing no significant signs of increase with increasing z over the whole 0.8 < z <2.2 range. Sources with mass in the range 10 = log(M/solar mass) = 11 are found to dominate the total IR LF, with more massive galaxies prevailing at the bright end of the high-z (greater than approximately 2) LF. A two-fold evolutionary scheme for IR galaxies is envisaged: on the one hand, a starburst-dominated phase in which the Super Massive Black Holes (SMBH) grows and is obscured by dust (possibly triggered by a major merging event

  7. Mini-Survey of SDSS OIII AGN with Swift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelina, Lorella; George, Ian

    2007-01-01

    There is a common wisdom that every massive galaxy has a massive block hole. However, most of these objects either are not radiating or until recently have been very difficult to detect. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data, based on the [OIII] line indicate that perhaps up to 20% of all galaxies may be classified as AGN a surprising result that must be checked with independent data. X-ray surveys have revealed that hard X-ray selected AGN show a strong luminosity dependent evolution and their luminosity function (LF) shows a dramatic break towards low Lx (at all z). This is seen for all types of AGN, but is stronger for the broad-line objects. In sharp contrast, the local LF of (optically-selected samples) shows no such break and no differences between narrow and broad-line objects. Assuming both hard X-ray and [OIII] emission are fair indicators of AGN activity, it is important to understand this discrepancy. We present here the results of a mini-survey done with Swift on a selected sample of SDSS selected AGN. The objects have been sampled at different L([OIII]) to check the relation with the Lx observed with Swift.

  8. Predicting the Redshift 2 H-Alpha Luminosity Function Using [OIII] Emission Line Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Vihang; Scarlata, Claudia; Colbert, James W.; Dai, Y. S.; Dressler, Alan; Henry, Alaina; Malkan, Matt; Rafelski, Marc; Siana, Brian; Teplitz, Harry I.; Bagley, Micaela; Beck, Melanie; Ross, Nathaniel R.; Rutkowski, Michael; Wang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Upcoming space-based surveys such as Euclid and WFIRST-AFTA plan to measure Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations (BAOs) in order to study dark energy. These surveys will use IR slitless grism spectroscopy to measure redshifts of a large number of galaxies over a significant redshift range. In this paper, we use the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallel Survey (WISP) to estimate the expected number of H-alpha emitters observable by these future surveys. WISP is an ongoing Hubble Space Telescope slitless spectroscopic survey, covering the 0.8 - 1.65 micrometers wavelength range and allowing the detection of H-alpha emitters up to z approximately equal to 1.5 and [OIII] emitters to z approximately equal to 2.3. We derive the H-alpha-[OIII] bivariate line luminosity function for WISP galaxies at z approximately equal to 1 using a maximum likelihood estimator that properly accounts for uncertainties in line luminosity measurement, and demonstrate how it can be used to derive the H-alpha luminosity function from exclusively fitting [OIII] data. Using the z approximately equal to 2 [OIII] line luminosity function, and assuming that the relation between H-alpha and [OIII] luminosity does not change significantly over the redshift range, we predict the H-alpha number counts at z approximately equal to 2 - the upper end of the redshift range of interest for the future surveys. For the redshift range 0.7 less than z less than 2, we expect approximately 3000 galaxies per sq deg for a flux limit of 3 x 10(exp -16) ergs per sec per sq cm (the proposed depth of Euclid galaxy redshift survey) and approximately 20,000 galaxies per sq deg for a flux limit of approximately 10(exp -16) ergs per sec per sq cm (the baseline depth of WFIRST galaxy redshift survey).

  9. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): The galaxy luminosity function within the cosmic web

    CERN Document Server

    Eardley, E; McNaught-Roberts, T; Heymans, C; Norberg, P; Alpaslan, M; Baldry, I; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Brough, S; Cluver, M E; Driver, S P; Farrow, D J; Liske, J; Loveday, J; Robotham, A S G

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the dependence of the galaxy luminosity function on geometric environment within the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. The tidal tensor prescription, based on the Hessian of the pseudo-gravitational potential, is used to classify the cosmic web and define the geometric environments: for a given smoothing scale, we classify every position of the surveyed region, $0.04<{z}<0.26$, as either a void, a sheet, a filament or a knot. We consider how to choose appropriate thresholds in the eigenvalues of the Hessian in order to partition the galaxies approximately evenly between environments. We find a significant variation in the luminosity function of galaxies between different geometric environments; the normalisation, characterised by $\\phi^{*}$ in a Schechter function fit, increases by an order of magnitude from voids to knots. The turnover magnitude, characterised by $M^*$, brightens by approximately $0.5$ mag from voids to knots. However, we show that the observed modulation can be en...

  10. The Evolution of the Luminosity Function in Deep Fields A Comparison with CDM Models

    CERN Document Server

    Poli, F; Giallongo, E; Fontana, A; Cristiani, S; D'Odorico, S

    2001-01-01

    The galaxy Luminosity Function (LF) has been estimated in the rest frame B luminosity at 0luminosity of the low luminosity objects. The implications of our resul...

  11. The Mid-IR luminosity function of galaxies in the ELAIS Southern fields

    CERN Document Server

    Pozzi, F; Oliver, S; Matute, I; La Franca, F; Lari, C; Zamorani, G; Franceschini, A; Rowan-Robinson, M

    2004-01-01

    We present the first determination of the 15micron luminosity functio galaxies from the European Large Area ISO survey (ELAIS) southern fields. We have adopted a new criterion to separate the quiescent, non-evolving and the starburst, evolving populations based on the ratio of mid-infrared to optical luminosities. Strong evolution is suggested by our data for the starburst galaxy population, while normal spiral galaxies are consistent with no evolution. The starburst population must evolve both in luminosity and in density with rates of the order L(z) (1+z)^(3.5) and rho(z) (1+z)^3.8 up to z~1. The evolutionary parameters of our model have been tested by comparing the model predictions with other observables, like source counts at all flux density levels (from 0.1 to 300 mJy) and redshift distributions and luminosity functions at high-z (0.7 < z < 1.0 from HDF-N data). The agreement between our model predictions and the observed data is remarkably good. We use our data to estimate the star-formation den...

  12. The Bright End of the Luminosity Function of Red Sequence Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Loh, Y S; Loh, Yeong-Shang; Strauss, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    We study the bright end of the luminosity distribution of galaxies in fields with Luminous Red Galaxies (LRG) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Using 2099 square degree of SDSS imaging data, we search for luminous (> L*) early-type galaxies within 1.0 Mpc/h of a volume-limited sample of 12,608 spectroscopic LRG in the redshift range 0.12 < z < 0.38. Most of these objects lie in rich environments, with the LRG being the brightest object within 1.0 Mpc/h. The luminosity gap, M12, between the first and second-rank galaxies within 1.0 Mpc/h is large (~0.8 mag), substantially larger than can be explained with an exponentially decaying luminosity function of galaxies. The brightest member is less luminous (by 0.1 to 0.2 mag), and shows a larger gap in LRG selected groups than in cluster-like environments. The large luminosity gap shows little evolution with redshift to z = 0.4, ruling out the scenario that these LRG selected brightest cluster or group galaxies grow by recent cannibalism of cluster mem...

  13. How are AGN Found?

    CERN Document Server

    Mushotzky, R

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the very different methods in each wavelength band for selecting and finding Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). We briefly review the history of the different techniques for finding AGN and compare and contrast the advantages and difficulties of selection in different wavelength bands. We stress the strong selection effects in each wavelength band and the difficulty of defining complete samples. Of all the techniques presently used, we conclude that selection in the hard X-ray band via imaging and spectroscopy is the most complete and allows the best estimate of the number and evolution of active galaxies. However, all of the techniques have difficulties at low luminosities where emission due to stellar processes can have similar sizes and luminosities.

  14. Correcting the z~8 Galaxy Luminosity Function for Gravitational Lensing Magnification Bias

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, Charlotte A; Schmidt, Kasper B; Collett, Thomas E; Trenti, Michele; Marshall, Philip J; Barone-Nugent, Robert; Bradley, Larry D; Stiavelli, Massimo; Wyithe, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    We present a Bayesian framework to account for the magnification bias from both strong and weak gravitational lensing in estimates of high-redshift galaxy luminosity functions. We illustrate our method by estimating the $z\\sim8$ UV luminosity function using a sample of 97 Y-band dropouts (Lyman break galaxies) found in the Brightest of Reionizing Galaxies (BoRG) survey and from the literature. We find the luminosity function is well described by a Schechter function with characteristic magnitude of $M^\\star = -19.85^{+0.30}_{-0.35}$, faint-end slope of $\\alpha = -1.72^{+0.30}_{-0.29}$, and number density of $\\log_{10} \\Psi^\\star [\\textrm{Mpc}^{-3}] = -3.00^{+0.23}_{-0.31}$. These parameters are consistent within the uncertainties with those inferred from the same sample without accounting for the magnification bias, demonstrating that the effect is small for current surveys at $z\\sim8$, and cannot account for the apparent overdensity of bright galaxies found recently by Bowler et al. (2014a,b) and Finkelstein...

  15. A Halo Model of Local IRAS Galaxies Selected at 60 Micron Using Conditional Luminosity Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lingyu; Oliver, Seb

    2010-01-01

    Using conditional luminosity functions (CLFs) which encode the luminosity distribution of galaxies as a function of halo mass, we construct a halo model of IRAS galaxies selected at 60 micron. An abundance matching technique is used to link galaxy luminosity to the host halo mass. The shape of the mass - light relation at 60 micron is different from those derived at r-, K- and B-band. This is because the 60 micron LF can not be fitted by a Schechter function with a sharp exponential cutoff. We then seek the parameters in the CLFs that best fit the LF and power spectrum. We find that the predicted galaxy bias as a function of L60 from the best-fit model agrees well with the clustering measurements. At the faint end of the LF where quiescent star-forming galaxies dominate, most IRAS galaxies are central galaxies in halos of M >~ 10^{10} h^{-1} M_sun but a non-negligible fraction are satellites typically hosted in more massive halos. The majority of IRAS galaxies with L60 >~ 10^{10} h^{-2} L_sun are M82 type sta...

  16. Toward a Unified AGN Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanas, Demosthenes; Fukumura, Keigo; Shrader, Chris; Behar, Ehud; Contopoulosa, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    We present a unified model for the structure and appearance of accretion powered sources across their entire luminosity range from galactic X-ray binaries (XRB) to luminous quasars, with emphasis on AG N and their phenomenology. Central to this model is the notion of MHD winds launched by the accretion disks that power these objects. These winds provide the matter that manifests as blueshifted absorption features in the UV and X-ray spectra of a large fraction of these sources; furthermore, their density distribution in the poloidal plane determines their "appearance" (i.e. the column and velocity structure of these absorption features and the obscuration of the continuum source) as a function of the observer inclination angle (a feature to which INTEGRAL has made significant contributions). This work focuses on just the broadest characteristics of these objects; nonetheless, it provides scaling laws that allow one to reproduce within this model the properties of objects extending in luminosity from luminous quasars to XRBs. Our general conclusion is that the AGN phenomenology can be accounted for in terms of three parameters: The wind maSS flux in units of the Eddington value, m(dot), the observers' inclination angle Theta and the logarithmic slope between the 0/UV and X-ray fluxes alpha(sub ox); however because of a correlation between alpha(sub ox) and UV luminosity the number of significant parameters is two. The AGN correlations implied by this model appear to extend to and consistent with the XRB phenomenology, suggesting the presence of a truly unified underlying structure for accretion powered sources.

  17. Hard X-ray Variability of AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Beckmann, V; Courvoisier, T J -L; Gehrels, N; Soldi, S; Tüller, J; Wendt, G

    2007-01-01

    Aims: Active Galactic Nuclei are known to be variable throughout the electromagnetic spectrum. An energy domain poorly studied in this respect is the hard X-ray range above 20 keV. Methods: The first 9 months of the Swift/BAT all-sky survey are used to study the 14 - 195 keV variability of the 44 brightest AGN. The sources have been selected due to their detection significance of >10 sigma. We tested the variability using a maximum likelihood estimator and by analysing the structure function. Results: Probing different time scales, it appears that the absorbed AGN are more variable than the unabsorbed ones. The same applies for the comparison of Seyfert 2 and Seyfert 1 objects. As expected the blazars show stronger variability. 15% of the non-blazar AGN show variability of >20% compared to the average flux on time scales of 20 days, and 30% show at least 10% flux variation. All the non-blazar AGN which show strong variability are low-luminosity objects with L(14-195 keV) < 1E44 erg/sec. Conclusions: Concer...

  18. Radial Density Statistics of the Galaxy Distribution and the Luminosity Function

    CERN Document Server

    Iribarrem, Alvaro S; Stoeger, William R

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a connection between the relativistic number counts of cosmological sources and the observed galaxy luminosity function (LF). Observational differential number densities are defined and obtained from published LF data using such connection. We observe a distortion in the observational quantities that increases with higher redshift values as compared to the theoretical predictions. The use of different cosmological distance measures plays a role in such a distortion

  19. Measuring the Dark Matter Halo Mass of X-ray AGN at z~1 using photometric redshifts

    CERN Document Server

    Mountrichas, G; Finoguenov, A; Erfanianfar, G; Cooper, M C; Coil, A L; Laird, E S; Nandra, K; Newman, J A

    2012-01-01

    Data from the AEGIS, COSMOS and ECDFS surveys are combined to infer the bias and dark matter halo mass of moderate luminosity [LX(2-10 keV) = 42.9 erg s-1] X-ray AGN at z~1 via their cross-correlation function with galaxies. In contrast to standard cross-correlation function estimators, we present a method that requires spectroscopy only for the AGN and uses photometric redshift probability distribution functions for galaxies to determine the projected real-space AGN/galaxy cross-correlation function. The estimated dark matter halo mass of X-ray AGN in the combined AEGIS, COSMOS and ECDFS fields is ~13h-1M_solar, in agreement with previous studies at similar redshift and luminosity ranges. Removing from the sample the 5 per cent of the AGN associated with X-ray selected groups results in a reduction by about 0.5 dex in the inferred AGN dark matter halo mass. The distribution of AGN in dark matter halo mass is therefore skewed and the bulk of the population lives in moderate mass haloes. This result favour col...

  20. Luminosity and redshift dependence of the covering factor of active galactic nuclei viewed with WISE and Sloan digital sky survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toba, Y.; Matsuhara, H. [Department of Space and Astronautical Science, the Graduate University for Advanced Studies (Sokendai), 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Oyabu, S. [Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan); Malkan, M. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Gandhi, P. [Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1-3LE (United Kingdom); Nakagawa, T.; Isobe, N.; Shirahata, M.; Oi, N.; Takita, S.; Yano, K. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Ohyama, Y. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617 Taiwan (China); Yamauchi, C., E-mail: toba@ir.isas.jaxa.jp [Misato Observatory, 180 Matsugamine, Misato-cho, Kaiso-gun, Wakayama 640-1366 (Japan)

    2014-06-10

    In this work, we investigate the dependence of the covering factor (CF) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) on the mid-infrared (MIR) luminosity and the redshift. We constructed 12 and 22 μm luminosity functions (LFs) at 0.006 ≤z ≤ 0.3 using Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) data. Combining the WISE catalog with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopic data, we selected 223,982 galaxies at 12 μm and 25,721 galaxies at 22 μm for spectroscopic classification. We then identified 16,355 AGNs at 12 μm and 4683 AGNs at 22 μm by their optical emission lines and cataloged classifications in the SDSS. Following that, we estimated the CF as the fraction of Type 2 AGN in all AGNs whose MIR emissions are dominated by the active nucleus (not their host galaxies) based on their MIR colors. We found that the CF decreased with increasing MIR luminosity, regardless of the choice of Type 2 AGN classification criteria, and the CF did not change significantly with redshift for z ≤ 0.2. Furthermore, we carried out various tests to determine the influence of selection bias and confirmed that similar dependences exist, even when taking these uncertainties into account. The luminosity dependence of the CF can be explained by the receding torus model, but the 'modified' receding torus model gives a slightly better fit, as suggested by Simpson.

  1. The luminosity function of galactic ultra-compact HII regions and the IMF for massive stars

    CERN Document Server

    Casassus, S; May, J; Nyman, L A A

    2000-01-01

    The population of newly formed massive stars, while still embedded in their parent molecular clouds, is studied on the galactic disk scale. We analyse the luminosity function of IRAS point-like sources, with far-infrared (FIR) colours of ultra-compact HII regions, that have been detected in the CS(2-1) line - a tracer of high density molecular gas. The FIR luminosities of 555 massive star forming regions (MSFRs), 413 of which lie within the solar circle, are inferred from their fluxes in the four IRAS bands and from their kinematic distances, derived using the CS(2-1) velocity profiles. The luminosity function (LF) for the UCHII region candidates shows a peak well above the completeness limit, and is different within and outside the solar circle (96% confidence level). While within the solar circle the LF has a maximum for 2E5 Lo, outside the solar circle the maximum is at 5E4 Lo. We model the LF using three free parameters: -alpha, the exponent for the initial mass function (IMF) expressed in log(M/Mo); -bet...

  2. A Deep Optical Luminosity Function of NGC 6712 with the VLT Evidence for Severe Tidal Disruption

    CERN Document Server

    De Marchi, G; Paresce, F; Pulonen, L E; Marchi, Guido De; Leibundgut, Bruno; Paresce, Francesco; Pulone, Luigi

    1999-01-01

    The VLT on Cerro Paranal was used to observe four fields located at 2.3' from the center of the Galactic globular cluster NGC 6712 in the V and R bands. The resulting color-magnitude diagram shows a well defined main sequence reaching down to the 5 sigma detection limit at V~25, R~23.5 or approximately 4 mag below the main sequence turn-off, the deepest obtained so far on this cluster. This yields a main sequence luminosity function that peaks at M_R~4.5 and drops down to the 50% completeness limit at M_R~8.5. Transformation to a mass function via the latest mass-luminosity relation appropriate to this object indicates that the peak of the luminosity function corresponds to ~0.75 Msolar, a value significantly higher than the ~0.25 Msolar measured for most other clusters observed so far. Since this object, in its Galactic orbit, penetrates very deeply into the Galactic bulge with perigalactic distance of ~0.3 kpc, this result is the first strong evidence that tidal forces have stripped this cluster of a substa...

  3. Constraining the rate and luminosity function of Swift gamma-ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, E J; Stratta, G; Gendre, B; Zhou, H

    2014-01-01

    We compute the intrinsic isotropic peak luminosity function (LF) and formation rate of long gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) using a novel approach. We complement a standard log\\,$N$\\,--\\,log\\,$P$ brightness distribution and $V_{\\mathrm{max}}$ estimations with two observation-time relations: a redshift--observation-time relation (log\\,$z$\\,--\\,log\\,$T$) and a new luminosity--observation-time relation (log\\,$L$\\,--\\,log\\,$T$). We show that this approach reduces degeneracies that exist between the rate and LF of a brightness distribution. To account for the complex triggering algorithm employed by \\emph{Swift} we use recent results of \\citet{Lien_2014ApJ} to produce a suite of efficiency functions. Using these functions with the above methods, we show that a log\\,$L$\\,--\\,log\\,$T$ method can provide good constraints on the form of the LF, particularly the high end. Using a sample of 175 peak luminosities determined from redshifts with well defined selection criteria our results suggest that LGRBs occur at a local rate ...

  4. Limits on the luminosity function of Ly-alpha emitters at z = 7.7

    CERN Document Server

    Hibon, P; Willis, J; Clément, B; Lidman, C; Arnouts, S; Kneib, J -P; Willott, C J; Marmo, C; McCracken, H

    2009-01-01

    The Ly-alpha luminosity function (LF) of high-redshift Ly-alpha emitters (LAEs) is one of the few observables of the re-ionization epoch accessible to date with 8-10 m class telescopes. The evolution with redshift allows one to constrain the evolution of LAEs and their role in re-ionizing the Universe at the end of the Dark Ages. We have performed a narrow-band imaging program at 1.06 microns at the CFHT, targeting Ly-alpha emitters at redshift z ~ 7.7 in the CFHT-LS D1 field. From these observations we have derived a photometric sample of 7 LAE candidates at z ~ 7.7. We derive luminosity functions for the full sample of seven objects and for sub-samples of four objects. If the brightest objects in our sample are real, we infer a luminosity function which would be difficult to reconcile with previous work at lower redshift. More definitive conclusions will require spectroscopic confirmation.

  5. A near infrared test for two recent luminosity functions for galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Zaninetti, L

    2014-01-01

    Two recent luminosity function (LF) for galaxies are reviewed and the parameters which characterize the near infrared are fixed. A first LF is a modified Schechter LF with four parameters. The second LF is derived from the generalized gamma and has four parameters. The formulas which give the number of galaxies as function of the redshift are reviewed and a special attention is given to the position of the photometric maximum which is expressed as function of a critical parameter or the flux of radiation or the apparent magnitude. A simulation of the 2MASS Redshift Survey is given in the framework of the non Poissonian Voronoi Tessellation.

  6. The Seven Sisters DANCe. I. Empirical isochrones, luminosity, and mass functions of the Pleiades cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouy, H.; Bertin, E.; Sarro, L. M.; Barrado, D.; Moraux, E.; Bouvier, J.; Cuillandre, J.-C.; Berihuete, A.; Olivares, J.; Beletsky, Y.

    2015-05-01

    Context. The DANCe survey provides photometric and astrometric (position and proper motion) measurements for approximately 2 million unique sources in a region encompassing ~80 deg2 centered on the Pleiades cluster. Aims: We aim at deriving a complete census of the Pleiades and measure the mass and luminosity functions of the cluster. Methods: Using the probabilistic selection method previously described, we identified high probability members in the DANCe (i ≥ 14 mag) and Tycho-2 (V ≲ 12 mag) catalogues and studied the properties of the cluster over the corresponding luminosity range. Results: We find a total of 2109 high-probability members, of which 812 are new, making it the most extensive and complete census of the cluster to date. The luminosity and mass functions of the cluster are computed from the most massive members down to ~0.025 M⊙. The size, sensitivity, and quality of the sample result in the most precise luminosity and mass functions observed to date for a cluster. Conclusions: Our census supersedes previous studies of the Pleiades cluster populations, in terms of both sensitivity and accuracy. Based on service observations made with the William Herschel Telescope operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.Table 1 and Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgDANCe catalogs (Tables 6 and 7) and full Tables 2-5 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/577/A148

  7. AGNs as main contributors to the UV ionizing emissivity at high redshifts: predictions from a Lambda-CDM model with linked AGN/galaxy evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Giallongo, E; Fiore, F; Castellano, M; Fontana, A; Grazian, A; Pentericci, L

    2012-01-01

    We have evaluated the contribution of the AGN population to the ionization history of the Universe based on a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation and evolution in the CDM cosmological scenario. The model connects the growth of black holes and of the ensuing AGN activity to galaxy interactions. In the model we have included a self consistent physical description of the escape of ionizing UV photons; this is based on the blast-wave model for the AGN feedback we developed in a previous paper to explain the distribution of hydrogen column densities in AGNs of various redshifts and luminosities, due to absorption by the host galaxy gas. The model predicts UV luminosity functions for AGNs which are in good agreement with those derived from the observations especially at low and intermediate redshifts (z=3). At higher redshifts (z>5) the model tends to overestimate the data at faint luminosities. Critical biases both in the data and in the model are discussed to explain such apparent discrepancies. The predicted...

  8. A search for X-ray reprocessing echoes in the power spectral density functions of AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanoulopoulos, D.; Papadakis, I. E.; Epitropakis, A.; Pecháček, T.; Dovčiak, M.; McHardy, I. M.

    2016-09-01

    We present the results of a detailed study of the X-ray power spectral density (PSD) functions of 12 X-ray bright AGN, using almost all the archival XMM-Newton data. The total net exposure of the EPIC-pn light curves is larger than 350 ks in all cases (and exceeds 1 Ms in the case of 1H 0707-497). In a physical scenario in which X-ray reflection occurs in the inner part of the accretion disc of AGN, the X-ray reflection component should be a filtered echo of the X-ray continuum signal and should be equal to the convolution of the primary emission with the response function of the disc. Our primary objective is to search for these reflection features in the 5-7 keV (iron line) and 0.5-1 keV (soft) bands, where the X-ray reflection fraction is expected to be dominant. We fit to the observed periodograms two models: a simple bending power-law model (BPL) and a BPL model convolved with the transfer function of the accretion disc assuming the lamp-post geometry and X-ray reflection from a homogeneous disc. We do not find any significant features in the best-fitting BPL model residuals either in individual PSDs in the iron band, soft and full band (0.3-10 keV) or in the average PSD residuals of the brightest and more variable sources (with similar black hole mass estimates). The typical amplitude of the soft and full-band residuals is around 3-5 per cent. It is possible that the expected general relativistic effects are not detected because they are intrinsically lower than the uncertainty of the current PSDs, even in the strong relativistic case in which X-ray reflection occurs on a disc around a fast rotating black hole having an X-ray source very close above it. However, we could place strong constrains to the X-ray reflection geometry with the current data sets if we knew in advance the intrinsic shape of the X-ray PSDs, particularly its high-frequency slope.

  9. A search for X-ray reprocessing echoes in the power spectral density functions of AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanoulopoulos, D.; Papadakis, I. E.; Epitropakis, A.; Pecháček, T.; Dovčiak, M.; McHardy, I. M.

    2016-06-01

    We present the results of a detailed study of the X-ray power spectra density (PSD) functions of twelve X-ray bright AGN, using almost all the archival XMM-Newton data. The total net exposure of the EPIC-pn light curves is larger than 350 ks in all cases (and exceeds 1 Ms in the case of 1H 0707-497). In a physical scenario in which X-ray reflection occurs in the inner part of the accretion disc of AGN, the X-ray reflection component should be a filtered echo of the X-ray continuum signal and should be equal to the convolution of the primary emission with the response function of the disc. Our primary objective is to search for these reflection features in the 5 - 7 keV (iron line) and 0.5 - 1 keV (soft) bands, where the X-ray reflection fraction is expected to be dominant. We fit to the observed periodograms two models: a simple bending power law model (BPL) and a BPL model convolved with the transfer function of the accretion disc assuming the lamp-post geometry and X-ray reflection from a homogeneous disc. We do not find any significant features in the best-fitting BPL model residuals either in individual PSDs in the iron band, soft and full band (0.3 - 10 keV) or in the average PSD residuals of the brightest and more variable sources (with similar black hole mass estimates). The typical amplitude of the soft and full-band residuals is around 3 - 5 per cent. It is possible that the expected general relativistic effects are not detected because they are intrinsically lower than the uncertainty of the current PSDs, even in the strong relativistic case in which X-ray reflection occurs on a disc around a fast rotating black hole having an X-ray source very close above it. However, we could place strong constrains to the X-ray reflection geometry with the current data sets if we knew in advance the intrinsic shape of the X-ray PSDs, particularly its high frequency slope.

  10. THE NEAR-ULTRAVIOLET LUMINOSITY FUNCTION OF YOUNG, EARLY M-TYPE DWARF STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansdell, Megan; Baranec, Christoph [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Gaidos, Eric [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Mann, Andrew W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Lépine, Sebastien [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30302 (United States); James, David [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Casilla 603 La Serena (Chile); Buccino, Andrea; Mauas, Pablo; Petrucci, Romina [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio, C1428EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Law, Nicholas M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Riddle, Reed [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Planets orbiting within the close-in habitable zones of M dwarf stars will be exposed to elevated high-energy radiation driven by strong magnetohydrodynamic dynamos during stellar youth. Near-ultraviolet (NUV) irradiation can erode and alter the chemistry of planetary atmospheres, and a quantitative description of the evolution of NUV emission from M dwarfs is needed when modeling these effects. We investigated the NUV luminosity evolution of early M-type dwarfs by cross-correlating the Lépine and Gaidos catalog of bright M dwarfs with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) catalog of NUV (1771-2831 Å) sources. Of the 4805 sources with GALEX counterparts, 797 have NUV emission significantly (>2.5σ) in excess of an empirical basal level. We inspected these candidate active stars using visible-wavelength spectra, high-resolution adaptive optics imaging, time-series photometry, and literature searches to identify cases where the elevated NUV emission is due to unresolved background sources or stellar companions; we estimated the overall occurrence of these ''false positives'' (FPs) as ∼16%. We constructed an NUV luminosity function that accounted for FPs, detection biases of the source catalogs, and GALEX upper limits. We found the NUV luminosity function to be inconsistent with predictions from a constant star-formation rate and simplified age-activity relation defined by a two-parameter power law.

  11. The local stellar luminosity function and mass-to-light ratio in the NIR

    CERN Document Server

    Just, A; Jahreiss, H; Flynn, C; Dettbarn, C; Rybizki, J

    2015-01-01

    A new sample of stars, representative of the solar neighbourhood luminosity function, is constructed from the Hipparcos catalogue and the Fifth Catalogue of Nearby Stars. We have cross-matched to sources in the 2MASS catalogue so that for all stars individually determined Near Infrared photometry (NIR) is available on a homogeneous system (typically K_s). The spatial completeness of the sample has been carefully determined by statistical methods, and the NIR luminosity function of the stars has been derived by direct star counts. We find a local volume luminosity of 0.121 +/- 0.004 L_K_sun/(pc**3), corresponding to a volumetric mass-to-light ratio of M/L_K = 0.31 +/- 0.02 M_sun/L_K_sun, where giants contribute 80 per cent to the light but less than 2 per cent to the stellar mass. We derive the surface brightness of the solar cylinder with the help of a vertical disc model. We find a surface brightness of 99 L_K_sun/(pc**2) with an uncertainty of approximately 10 %. This corresponds to a mass-to-light ratio fo...

  12. The Impact of Dust in Host Galaxies on Quasar Luminosity Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Shirakata, H; Enoki, M; Nagashima, M; Kobayashi, M A R; Ishiyama, T; Makiya, R

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated effects of dust attenuation on quasar luminosity functions using a semi-analytic galaxy formation model combined with a large cosmological N-body simulation. We estimate the dust attenuation of quasars self-consistently with that of galaxies by considering the dust in their host bulges.We find that the luminosity of the bright quasars is strongly dimmed by the dust attenuation, about 2 mag in the B-band, and that the faint end slope of the luminosity function is steepened. We also study for the first time the case in which gas fueling to a central black hole starts some time after the beginning of the starburst induced by a major merger. In this case, nuclei are less attenuated by the dust since the cold gas in the bulges is consumed by the starbursts and expelled by the stellar feedback. In order to make the dust attenuation of the quasars negligible, the accretion has to be delayed at least five times the dynamical timescale of their host bulges.

  13. Galaxy luminosity functions, M/L ratios, and closure of the Universe - Numbers and problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felten, J. E.

    1985-01-01

    Data on the luminosity function (LF) of galaxies are reviewed and compared, and the result of Kirshner et al. (1983) giving a 'standard LF' is chosen as a best guess. Departures from the 'standard LF' for specific galaxy types and environments (clusters, groups, field) are discussed briefly. A luminosity density of about 1.4 x 10 to the -2nd h 'galaxies' per cubic megaparsec is obtained. The mean M/L ratio needed to give critical cosmological density (Omega sub 0 = 1) is then 920 h in solar units on the face-on magnitude system. Comparison with measured M/L ratios for galaxies and clusters, and with constraints imposed by inflation and nucleosynthesis, poses two problems of 'invisible mass'.

  14. Modeling the Redshift Evolution of the Normal Galaxy X-Ray Luminosity Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremmel, M.; Fragos, T.; Lehmer, B. D.; Tzanavaris, P.; Belczynski, K.; Kalogera, V.; Basu-Zych, A. R.; Farr, W. M.; Hornschemeier, A.; Jenkins, L.; Ptak, A.; Zezas, A.

    2013-01-01

    Emission from X-ray binaries (XRBs) is a major component of the total X-ray luminosity of normal galaxies, so X-ray studies of high-redshift galaxies allow us to probe the formation and evolution of XRBs on very long timescales (approximately 10 Gyr). In this paper, we present results from large-scale population synthesis models of binary populations in galaxies from z = 0 to approximately 20. We use as input into our modeling the Millennium II Cosmological Simulation and the updated semi-analytic galaxy catalog by Guo et al. to self-consistently account for the star formation history (SFH) and metallicity evolution of each galaxy. We run a grid of 192 models, varying all the parameters known from previous studies to affect the evolution of XRBs. We use our models and observationally derived prescriptions for hot gas emission to create theoretical galaxy X-ray luminosity functions (XLFs) for several redshift bins. Models with low common envelope efficiencies, a 50% twins mass ratio distribution, a steeper initial mass function exponent, and high stellar wind mass-loss rates best match observational results from Tzanavaris & Georgantopoulos, though they significantly underproduce bright early-type and very bright (L(sub x) greater than 10(exp 41)) late-type galaxies. These discrepancies are likely caused by uncertainties in hot gas emission and SFHs, active galactic nucleus contamination, and a lack of dynamically formed low-mass XRBs. In our highest likelihood models, we find that hot gas emission dominates the emission for most bright galaxies. We also find that the evolution of the normal galaxy X-ray luminosity density out to z = 4 is driven largely by XRBs in galaxies with X-ray luminosities between 10(exp 40) and 10(exp 41) erg s(exp -1).

  15. What Shapes the Galaxy Mass Function? Exploring the Roles of Supernova-Driven Winds and AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Bower, R G; Crain, R A

    2011-01-01

    The observed stellar mass function (SMF) is very different to the halo mass function predicted by Lambda-CDM, and it is widely accepted that this is due to energy feedback from supernovae and black holes. However, the strength and form of this feedback is not understood. In this paper, we use the phenomenological model GALFORM to explore how galaxy formation depends on the strength and halo mass dependence of feedback. We focus on 'expulsion' models in which the wind mass loading, beta, is proportional to 1/\\vdisk^n, with n=0,1,2 and contrast these models with the successful Bower et al.\\ 2008 model (B8W7). A crucial development is that our code explicitly accounts for the recapture of expelled gas as the system's halo mass (and thus gravitational potential) increases. We find that a model with modest wind speed but high mass loading matches the flat portion of the SMF. When combined with AGN feedback, the model provides a good description of the observed SMF above 10^9 h^-1 Msol. However, in the expulsion mo...

  16. The Optical Luminosity Function of Void Galaxies in the SDSS and ALFALFA Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Crystal M.; Vogeley, Michael S.; Hoyle, Fiona; Pan, Danny C.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2015-09-01

    We measure the r-band galaxy luminosity function (LF) across environments over the redshift range 0 ALFALFA). We find that the global LF of the ALFALFA sample is not well fit by a Schechter function because of the presence of a wide dip in the LF around Mr = -18 and an upturn at fainter magnitudes (α ˜ -1.47). We compare the H i selected r-band LF to various LFs of optically selected populations to determine where the H i selected optical LF obtains its shape. We find that sample selection plays a large role in determining the shape of the LF.

  17. Prospects for AGN Science using the ART-XC on the SRG Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Douglas A.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Bonamente, Massimiliano

    2012-01-01

    The enhanced hard X-ray sensitivity provided by the Astronomical Roentgen Telescope to the Spectrum Roentgen Gamma mission facilitates the detection of heavily obscured and other hard-spectrum cosmic X-ray sources. The SRG all-sky survey will obtain large, statistically-well-defined samples of active galactic nuclei (AGN) including a significant population of local heavily-obscured AGN. In anticipation of the SRG all-sky survey, we investigate the prospects for refining the bright end of the AGN luminosity function and determination of the local black hole mass function and comparing the spatial distribution of AGN with large-scale structure defined by galaxy clusters and groups. Particular emphasis is placed on studies of the deep survey Ecliptic Pole regions.

  18. The GALEX-VVDS Measurement of the Evolution of the 1500A Luminosity Function

    CERN Document Server

    Arnouts, S; Ilbert, O; Tresse, L; Milliard, B; Treyer, M; Bardelli, S; Budavari, T; Wyder, T K; Zucca, E; Le, F O; Martin, C; Vettolani, G; Adami, C; Arnaboldi, M; Barlow, T A; Bianchi, L; Bolzonella, M; Bottini, D; Byun, Y I; Cappi, A; Charlot, S; Contini, T; Donas, J; Forster, K; Foucaud, S; Franzetti, P; Friedman, P G; Garilli, B; Gavignaud, I; Guzzo, L; Heckman, T M; Hoopes, C; Iovino, A; Jelinsky, P N; Le Brun, V; Lee, Y W; MacCagni, D; Madore, B F; Malina, R; Marano, B; Marinoni, C; McCracken, H J; Mazure, A; Meneux, B; Merighi, R; Morrissey, P F; Neff, S; Paltani, S; Pell, R; Picat, J P; Pollo, A; Pozzetti, L; Radovich, M; Rich, R M; Scaramella, R; Scodeggio, M; Seibert, M; Siegmund, O; Small, T; Szalay, A S; Welsh, B; Xu, C K; Zamorani, G; Zanichelli, A

    2004-01-01

    We present the first measurement of the galaxy luminosity function at 1500A between 0.2luminosity evolution is observed with Delta(Mstar)=-2.0 mag between z=0 and z=1 and Delta(Mstar)=-1.0mag between z=1 and z=3. This confirms that the star formation activity was significantly higher in the past. (ii) the LF slopes vary between -1.2< alpha <-1.65, with a marginally significant hint of increase at higher z. (iii) we split the sample in three restframe (B-I) intervals providing an approximate spectral type classification: Sb-Sd, Sd-Irr and unobscured starbursts. We find that the bluest class evolves less strongly in luminosity than the two other classes. On the other hand their number density increases sharply with z (15% in the local universe to 55% at z=1) while that of the reddest classes decreases.

  19. Globular Cluster Systems in Brightest Cluster Galaxies: A Near-Universal Luminosity Function?

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, William E; Gnedin, Oleg Y; O'Halloran, Heather; Blakeslee, John P; Whitmore, Bradley C; Cote, Patrick; Geisler, Douglas; Peng, Eric W; Bailin, Jeremy; Rothberg, Barry; Cockcroft, Robert; DeGraaff, Regina Barber

    2014-01-01

    We present the first results from our HST Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) survey of seven central supergiant cluster galaxies and their globular cluster (GC) systems. We measure a total of 48000 GCs in all seven galaxies, representing the largest single GC database. We find that a log-normal shape accurately matches the observed luminosity function (LF) of the GCs down to the GCLF turnover point, which is near our photometric limit. In addition, the LF has a virtually identical shape in all seven galaxies. Our data underscore the similarity in the formation mechanism of massive star clusters in diverse galactic environments. At the highest luminosities (log L > 10^7 L_Sun) we find small numbers of "superluminous" objects in five of the galaxies; their luminosity and color ranges are at least partly consistent with those of UCDs (Ultra-Compact Dwarfs). Lastly, we find preliminary evidence that in the outer halo (R > 20 kpc), the LF turnover point shows a weak dependence on projected distance, scaling as L_0 ~ R...

  20. AGN feedback works both ways

    CERN Document Server

    Zinn, Peter-Christian; Norris, Ray P; Dettmar, Ralf-Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Simulations of galaxy growth need to invoke strong negative feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) to suppress the formation of stars and thus prevent the over-production of very massive systems. While some observations provide evidence for such negative feedback, other studies find either no feedback, or even positive feedback, with increased star formation associated with higher AGN luminosities. Here we report an analysis of several hundred AGN and their host galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field South using X-ray and radio data for sample selection. Combined with archival far infrared data as a reliable tracer of star formation activity in the AGN host galaxies, we find that AGN with pronounced radio jets exhibit a much higher star formation rate than the purely X-ray selected ones, even at the same X-ray luminosities. This difference implies that positive AGN feedback plays an important role, too, and therefore has to be accounted for in all future simulation work. We interpret this to indicate that the...

  1. Hard X-ray Luminosity Function of Tidal Disruption Events: First Results from MAXI Extragalactic Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Kawamuro, Taiki; Shidatsu, Megumi; Hori, Takafumi; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Negoro, Hitoshi; Mihara, Tatehiro

    2016-01-01

    We derive the first hard X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of stellar tidal disruption events (TDEs) by supermassive black holes (SMBHs), which gives an occurrence rate of TDEs per unit volume as a function of peak luminosity and redshift, utilizing an unbiased sample observed by the Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI). On the basis of the light curves characterized by a power-law decay with an index of $-5/3$, a systematic search using the MAXI data in the first 37 months detected four TDEs, all of which have been found in the literature. To formulate the TDE XLF, we consider the mass function of SMBHs, that of disrupted stars, the specific TDE rate as a function of SMBH mass, and the fraction of TDEs with relativistic jets. We perform an unbinned maximum likelihood fit to the MAXI TDE list and check the consistency with the observed TDE rate in the ROSAT all sky survey. The results suggest that the intrinsic fraction of the jet-accompanying events is $0.0007$--$34\\%$. We confirm that at $z \\lesssim 1.5$ the...

  2. The K20 survey. V The evolution of the near-IR Luminosity Function

    CERN Document Server

    Pozzetti, L; Zamorani, G; Daddi, E; Menci, N; Fontana, A; Renzini, A; Mignoli, M; Poli, F; Saracco, P; Broadhurst, T J; Cristiani, S; D'Odorico, S; Giallongo, E; Gilmozzi, R

    2003-01-01

    We present the galaxy rest-frame near-IR Luminosity Function (LF) and its cosmic evolution to z=1.5 based on a spectroscopic survey of a magnitude limited sample of galaxies with Ks=1, whereas PLE models are more consistent with the data up to z=1.5. The GIF model (Kaufmann et al. 1999) shows a clear deficiency of red luminous galaxies at z=1 compared to our observations and predicts a decrease of luminous galaxies with redshift not observed in our sample.

  3. First results from HerMES on the evolution of the submillimetre luminosity function

    CERN Document Server

    Eales, S; Roseboom, I G; Altieri, B; Amblard, A; Arumugam, V; Auld, R; Aussel, H; Babbedge, T; Blain, A; Bock, J; Boselli, A; Brisbin, D; Buat, V; Burgarella, D; Castro-Rodriguez, N; Cava, A; Chanial, P; Clements, D L; Conley, A; Conversi, L; Cooray, A; Dowell, C D; Dwek, E; Dye, S; Elbaz, D; Farrah, D; Fox, M; Franceschini, A; Gear, W; Glenn, J; Gonzalez~Solares, E A; Griffin, M; Harwit, M; Hatziminaoglou, E; Huang, J; Ibar, E; Isaak, K; Ivison, R J; Lagache, G; Levenson, L; Lonsdale, C J; Lu, N; Madden, S; Maffei, B; Mainetti, G; Marchetti, L; Morrison, G E; Mortier, A M J; Nguyen, H T; O'Halloran, B; Oliver, S J; Omont, A; Owen, F N; Page, M J; Pannella, M; Panuzzo, P; Papageorgiou, A; Pearson, C P; Perez-Fournon, I; Pohlen, M; Rawlings, J I; Rigopoulou, D; Rizzo, D; Rowan-Robinson, M; Portal, M Sanchez; Schulz, B; Scott, Douglas; Seymour, N; Shupe, D L; Smith, A J; Stevens, J A; Strazzullo, V; Symeonidis, M; Trichas, M; Tugwell, K E; Vaccari, M; Valtchanov, I; Vigroux, L; Wang, L; Ward, R; Wright, G; Xu, K; Zemcov, M

    2010-01-01

    We have carried out two extremely deep surveys with SPIRE, one of the two cameras on Herschel, at 250 microns, close to the peak of the far-infrared background. We have used the results to investigate the evolution of the rest-frame 250-micron luminosity function out to z=2. We find evidence for strong evolution out to a redshift of around 1 but evidence for at most weak evolution beyond this redshift. Our results suggest that a significant part of the stars and metals in the Universe today were formed at z<1.4 in spiral galaxies.

  4. First results from HerMES on the evolution of the submillimetre luminosity function

    OpenAIRE

    Eales, S.; Raymond, G; Roseboom, I. G.; Altieri, B.; Amblard, A.; Arumugam, V.; Auld, R.; Aussel, H.; Babbedge, T.; Blain, A.; Bock, J.; Boselli, A.; Brisbin, D.; Buat, V.; Burgarella, D.

    2010-01-01

    We have carried out two extremely deep surveys with SPIRE, one of the two cameras on Herschel, at 250 microns, close to the peak of the far-infrared background. We have used the results to investigate the evolution of the rest-frame 250-micron luminosity function out to z=2. We find evidence for strong evolution out to a redshift of around 1 but evidence for at most weak evolution beyond this redshift. Our results suggest that a significant part of the stars and metals in the Universe today w...

  5. BVI Photometry and the Red Giant Branch Luminosity Function of M15

    CERN Document Server

    Feuillet, Diane K; Chaboyer, Brian

    2014-01-01

    We present new $BVI$ photometry containing 40,000 stars of the Galactic globular cluster M15 (NGC 7078) covering a $25 \\times 25$ arcminute area centered on the cluster with a magnitude range from the tip of the Red Giant Branch to three magnitudes below the main sequence turn-off. Using $\\alpha$-enhanced Dartmouth Stellar Evolution Program models, we find an age of $13.0 \\ \\pm \\ 1.0$ Gyr and distance modulus of $(m-M)_V = 15.4 \\pm 0.1$ through isochrone fitting. Unlike previous works, we find good agreement between the observed completeness-corrected stellar luminosity function and models.

  6. The dependence of the Lyman_a luminosity function on Redshift using SHARDS

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Espinosa, J. M.; González-Martín, O.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Cava, A

    2012-01-01

    We report in this work on a project aimed at determining Ly{\\alpha} luminosity functions from z=3 to z=6. The project is based on the use of very deep photometry from the SHARDS Survey, in a set of 24 medium band filters in the GOODS-N field. We present here some preliminary work carried out with four test images in four consecutive bands. We use the narrow band selection technique for searching emission line candidates. Eleven candidates have been detected so far, many of which are strong Ly...

  7. Luminosity function of galaxies in groups in the SDSS DR7: the dependence on mass, environment and galaxy type

    CERN Document Server

    Zandivarez, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    We perform an analysis of the luminosities of galaxies in groups in the SDSS DR7. We analyse the luminosity function (LF) as a function of group mass for different photometric bands, galaxy populations, galaxy positions within the groups, and the group surrounding large scale density. We find that M* brightens and alpha becomes steeper as a function of mass in all SDSS photometric bands, in agreement with previous results. From the analysis of different galaxy populations, we observe that different methods to split galaxy populations, based on the concentration index or the colour-magnitude diagram, produce quite different behaviours in the luminosity trends, mainly for alpha. These discrepancies and the trends with mass mentioned above are explained when analysing the LF of galaxies classified simultaneously according to their concentrations and colours. We find that only the red spheroids have a LF that strongly depends on group mass. Late type galaxies, whether blue or red, have luminosity functions that d...

  8. Feedback in AGN heating of galaxy clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeft, M.; Brueggen, M

    2004-01-01

    One of the challenges that models of AGN heating of the intracluster medium (ICM) face, is the question how the mechanical luminosity of the AGN is tuned to the radiative losses of the ICM. Here we implement a simple 1D model of a feedback mechanism that links the luminosity of the AGN to the accretion rate. We demonstrate how this simple feedback mechanism leads to a quasi-steady state for a broad range of parameters. Moreover, within this feedback model, we investigate the effect of thermal...

  9. The SDSS Quasar Survey: Quasar Luminosity Function from Data Release Three

    CERN Document Server

    Richards, G T; Barentine, J C; Brewington, H J; Brinkmann, J; Brunner, R J; Fukugita, M; Gray, J; Gunn, J E; Hall, P B; Harvanek, M; Ivezic, Z; Jester, S; Kent, S M; Kirkland, M E; Kleinman, S J; Knapp, G R; Krzesínski, J; Long, D C; Loveday, J; Lupton, R H; Meiksin, A; Nash, T; Neilsen, E H; Nitta, A; Pope, A; Schlegel, D J; Schneider, D P; Snedden, S A; Stoughton, C; Strauss, M A; Szalay, A S; Thakar, A R; Vanden Berk, Daniel E; Xiaohui F; Yanny, B; York, Do G; Anderson, Scott F.; Berk, Daniel E. Vanden; Brunner, Robert J.; Fan, Xiaohui; Gray, Jim; Gunn, James E.; Hall, Patrick B.; Ivezic, Zeljko; Jester, Sebastian; Kirkland, Margaret E.; Loveday, Jon; Meiksin, Avery; Pope, Adrian; Richards, Gordon T.; Schneider, Donald P.; Stoughton, Chris; Strauss, Michael A.; Szalay, Alexander S.; Thakar, Anirudda R.; Yanny, Brian; York, Donald G.

    2006-01-01

    We determine the number counts and z=0-5 luminosity function for a well-defined, homogeneous sample of quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We conservatively define the most uniform statistical sample possible, consisting of 15,343 quasars within an effective area of 1622 deg^2 that was derived from a parent sample of 46,420 spectroscopically confirmed broad-line quasars in the 5282 deg^2 of imaging data from SDSS Data Release Three. The sample extends from i=15 to i=19.1 at z3. The number counts and luminosity function agree well with the results of the 2dF QSO Survey, but the SDSS data probe to much higher redshifts than does the 2dF sample. The number density of luminous quasars peaks between redshifts 2 and 3, although uncertainties in the selection function in this range do not allow us to determine the peak redshift more precisely. Our best fit model has a flatter bright end slope at high redshift than at low redshift. For z5-sigma level, must be accounted for in models of the evolution of ...

  10. High-energy neutrino fluxes from AGN populations inferred from X-ray surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobsen, Idunn B; On, Alvina Y L; Saxton, Curtis J

    2015-01-01

    High-energy neutrinos and photons are complementary messengers, probing violent astrophysical processes and structural evolution of the Universe. X-ray and neutrino observations jointly constrain conditions in active galactic nuclei (AGN) jets: their baryonic and leptonic contents, and particle production efficiency. Testing two standard neutrino production models for local source Cen A \\citep{KT2008,BB2009}, we calculate the high-energy neutrino spectra of single AGN sources and derive the flux of high-energy neutrinos expected for the current epoch. Assuming that accretion determines both X-rays and particle creation, our parametric scaling relations predict neutrino yield in various AGN classes. We derive redshift-dependent number densities of each class, from {\\it Chandra} and {\\it Swift}/BAT X-ray luminosity functions \\citep{SGB2008,ACS2009}. We integrate the neutrino spectrum expected from the cumulative history of AGN (correcting for cosmological and source effects, e.g. jet orientation and beaming). B...

  11. The space density and X-ray luminosity function of non-magnetic cataclysmic variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Magaretha L.; Knigge, Christian

    2012-01-01

    We combine two complete, X-ray flux-limited surveys, the ROSAT Bright Survey (RBS) and the ROSAT North Ecliptic Pole (NEP) survey, to measure the space density (ρ) and X-ray luminosity function (Φ) of non-magnetic cataclysmic variables (CVs). The combined survey has a flux limit of FX≳ 1.1 × 10-12 erg cm-2 s-1 over most of its solid angle of just over ?, but is as deep as ≃10-14 erg cm-2 s-1 over a small area. The CV sample that we construct from these two surveys contains 20 non-magnetic systems. We carefully include all sources of statistical error in calculating ρ and Φ by using Monte Carlo simulations; the most important uncertainty proves to be the often large errors in distances estimates. If we assume that the 20 CVs in the combined RBS and NEP survey sample are representative of the intrinsic population, the space density of non-magnetic CVs is ?. We discuss the difficulty in measuring Φ in some detail - in order to account for biases in the measurement, we have to adopt a functional form for Φ. Assuming that the X-ray luminosity function of non-magnetic CVs is a truncated power law, we constrain the power-law index to -0.80 ± 0.05. It seems likely that the two surveys have failed to detect a large, faint population of short-period CVs, and that the true space density may well be a factor of 2 or 3 larger than what we have measured; this is possible, even if we only allow for undetected CVs to have X-ray luminosities in the narrow range 28.7 log(LX/erg s-1) < 29.7. However, ρ as high as 2 × 10-4 pc-3 would require that the majority of CVs has X-ray luminosities below LX= 4 × 1028 erg s-1 in the 0.5-2.0 keV band.

  12. Unobscured Type 2 AGNs

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Yong; Smith, Paul; Rigby, Jane; Hines, Dean; Donley, Jennifer; Schmidt, Gary; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M; 10.1088/0004-637X/714/1/115

    2010-01-01

    Type 2 AGNs with intrinsically weak broad emission lines (BELs) would be exceptions to the unified model. After examining a number of proposed candidates critically, we find that the sample is contaminated significantly by objects with BELs of strengths indicating that they actually contain intermediate-type AGNs, plus a few Compton-thick sources as revealed by extremely low ratios of X-ray to nuclear IR luminosities. We develop quantitative metrics that show two (NGC 3147 and NGC 4594) of the remaining candidates to have BELs 2-3 orders of magnitude weaker than those of typical type-1 AGNs. Several more galaxies remain as candidates to have anomalously weak BELs, but this status cannot be confirmed with the existing information. Although the parent sample is poorly defined, the two confirmed objects are well under 1% of its total number of members, showing that the absence of a BEL is possible, but very uncommon in AGN. We evaluate these two objects in detail using multi-wavelength measurements. They have li...

  13. Far-IR/Submillimeter Spectroscopic Cosmological Surveys: Predictions of Infrared Line Luminosity Functions for z<4 Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Spinoglio, Luigi; Franceschini, Alberto; Gruppioni, Carlotta; Valiante, Elisabetta; Isaak, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Star formation and accretion onto supermassive black holes in the nuclei of galaxies are the two most energetic processes in the Universe, producing the bulk of the observed emission throughout its history. We simulated the luminosity functions of star-forming and active galaxies for spectral lines that are thought to be good spectroscopic tracers of either phenomenon, as a function of redshift. We focused on the infrared (IR) and sub-millimeter domains, where the effects of dust obscuration are minimal. Using three different and independent theoretical models for galaxy formation and evolution, constrained by multi-wavelength luminosity functions, we computed the number of star-forming and active galaxies per IR luminosity and redshift bin. We converted the continuum luminosity counts into spectral line counts using relationships that we calibrated on mid- and far-IR spectroscopic surveys of galaxies in the local universe. Our results demonstrate that future facilities optimized for survey-mode observations,...

  14. SPITZER observations of Abell 1763. III. The infrared luminosity function in different supercluster environments

    CERN Document Server

    Biviano, A; Durret, F; Edwards, L O V; Marleau, F

    2011-01-01

    We determine the galaxy infrared (IR) luminosity function (LF) as a function of the environment in a supercluster at z=0.23, using optical, near-IR, and mid- to far-IR photometry, as well as redshifts from optical spectroscopy. We identify 467 supercluster members in a sample of 24-micron-selected galaxies, on the basis of their spectroscopic (153) and photometric (314) redshifts. IR luminosities, stellar masses and star formation rates (SFRs) are determined for supercluster members via spectral energy distribution fitting and the Kennicutt relation. Galaxies with active galactic nuclei are excluded from the sample. We determine the IR LF of the whole supercluster as well as the IR LFs of three different regions in the supercluster: the cluster core, a large-scale filament, and the cluster outskirts (excluding the filament). The IR LF shows an environmental dependence which is not simply related to the local galaxy density. The filament, an intermediate-density region in the A1763 supercluster, contains the h...

  15. A Monte Carlo Approach to Evolution of the Far-Infrared Luminosity Function with BLAST

    CERN Document Server

    Marsden, Gaelen; Halpern, Mark; Patanchon, Guillaume; Scott, Douglas; Truch, Matthew D P; Valiante, Elisabetta; Viero, Marco P; Wiebe, Donald V

    2010-01-01

    We constrain the evolution of the rest-frame far-infrared (FIR) luminosity function out to z~3.5 by combining several pieces of complementary information provided by the deep Balloon-borne Large-Aperture Submillimeter Telescope surveys at 250, 350 and 500 micron, as well as other FIR and millimeter data. Unlike most other phenomenological models, we characterize the uncertainties in our fitted parameters using Monte Carlo Markov Chains. We specifically use the surface density of sources, Cosmic Infrared Background measurements and redshift distributions of bright sources for which identifications have been made. The precise evolution of the FIR luminosity function across this crucial range has eluded studies at longer wavelengths (e.g., using SCUBA and MAMBO) and at shorter wavelengths (e.g., with Spitzer), and now provides a key piece of information required for the study of massive galaxy evolution. Our adoption of Monte Carlo methods enables us not only to find the best-fit evolution model, but also to exp...

  16. A population synthesis study of the luminosity function of hot white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, S; Krzesinski, J; Kleinman, S J

    2014-01-01

    We present a coherent and detailed Monte Carlo simulation of the population of hot white dwarfs. We assess the statistical significance of the hot end of the white dwarf luminosity function and the role played by the bolometric corrections of hydrogen-rich white dwarfs at high effective temperatures. We use the most up-to-date stellar evolutionary models and implement a full description of the observational selection biases to obtain realistic simulations of the observed white dwarf population. Our theoretical results are compared with the luminosity function of hot white dwarfs obtained from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), for both DA and non-DA white dwarfs. We find that the theoretical results are in excellent agreement with the observational data for the population of white dwarfs with hydrogen deficient atmospheres (non-DA white dwarfs). For the population of white dwarfs with hydrogen-rich atmospheres (white dwarfs of the DA class), our simulations show some discrepancies with the observations for ...

  17. Sub-mm emission line deep fields: CO and [C II] luminosity functions out to z = 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popping, Gergö; van Kampen, Eelco; Decarli, Roberto; Spaans, Marco; Somerville, Rachel S.; Trager, Scott C.

    2016-09-01

    Now that Atacama Large (Sub)Millimeter Array is reaching its full capabilities, observations of sub-mm emission line deep fields become feasible. We couple a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation with a radiative transfer code to make predictions for the luminosity function of CO J =1-0 out to CO J = 6-5 and [C II] at redshifts z= 0-6. We find that (1) our model correctly reproduces the CO and [C II] emission of low- and high-redshift galaxies and reproduces the available constraints on the CO luminosity function at z ≤ 2.75; (2) we find that the CO and [C II] luminosity functions of galaxies increase from z = 6 to z = 4, remain relatively constant till z = 1 and rapidly decrease towards z = 0. The galaxies that are brightest in CO and [C II] are found at z ˜ 2; (3) the CO J = 3-2 emission line is most favourable to study the CO luminosity and global H2 mass content of galaxies, because of its brightness and observability with currently available sub-mm and radio instruments; (4) the luminosity functions of high-J CO lines show stronger evolution than the luminosity functions of low-J CO lines; (5) our model barely reproduces the available constraints on the CO and [C II] luminosity function of galaxies at z ≥ 1.5 and the CO luminosity of individual galaxies at intermediate redshifts. We argue that this is driven by a lack of cold gas in galaxies at intermediate redshifts as predicted by cosmological simulations of galaxy formation.

  18. AN EXPONENTIAL DECLINE AT THE BRIGHT END OF THE z = 6 GALAXY LUMINOSITY FUNCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willott, Chris J. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council, 5071 West Saanich Rd, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); McLure, Ross J.; Bruce, Victoria A. [SUPA Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Hibon, Pascale [Gemini Observatory, Gemini South, AURA/Chile, P.O. Box 26732, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); Bielby, Richard [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); McCracken, Henry J. [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Kneib, Jean-Paul; Ilbert, Olivier [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, Universite Aix-Marseille, 38 Rue Frederic Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille (France); Bonfield, David G.; Jarvis, Matt J., E-mail: chris.willott@nrc.ca [Centre for Astrophysics, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, Herts AL10 9AB (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of a search for the most luminous star-forming galaxies at redshifts z Almost-Equal-To 6 based on Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey data. We identify a sample of 40 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) brighter than magnitude z' = 25.3 across an area of almost 4 deg{sup 2}. Sensitive spectroscopic observations of seven galaxies provide redshifts for four, of which only two have moderate to strong Ly{alpha} emission lines. All four have clear continuum breaks in their spectra. Approximately half of the LBGs are spatially resolved in 0.7 arcsec seeing images, indicating larger sizes than lower luminosity galaxies discovered with the Hubble Space Telescope, possibly due to ongoing mergers. The stacked optical and infrared photometry is consistent with a galaxy model with stellar mass {approx}10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }. There is strong evidence for substantial dust reddening with a best-fit A{sub V} = 0.75 and A{sub V} > 0.48 at 2{sigma} confidence, in contrast to the typical dust-free galaxies of lower luminosity at this epoch. The spatial extent and spectral energy distribution suggest that the most luminous z Almost-Equal-To 6 galaxies are undergoing merger-induced starbursts. The luminosity function of z = 5.9 star-forming galaxies is derived. This agrees well with previous work and shows strong evidence for an exponential decline at the bright end, indicating that the feedback processes that govern the shape of the bright end are occurring effectively at this epoch.

  19. THE GALAXY LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS DOWN TO MR = –10 IN THE COMA CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We derived the luminosity function (LF) of dwarf galaxies in the Coma Cluster down to MR = –10 at three fields located at the center, intermediate, and outskirt of the cluster. The LF (–19 R R ∼ –13 and is composed of two distinct components of different slopes; the bright component with –19 R R R R < –10) consists largely of point-spread-function-like compact galaxies. We found that both these compact galaxies and some extended galaxies are present in the center while only compact galaxies are seen in the outskirt. In the faint component, the fraction of blue galaxies is larger in the outskirt than in the center. We suggest that the dwarf galaxies in the Coma Cluster, which make up the two components in the LF, are heterogeneous with some different origins.

  20. The luminosity function of cluster galaxies relations among M$_{1}$, M* and the morphological type

    CERN Document Server

    Trevese, D; Appodia, B

    1996-01-01

    A study of the luminosity function of 36 Abell clusters of galaxies has been carried out using photographic plates obtained with the Palomar 1.2 m Schmidt telescope. The relation between the magnitude M_1 of the brightest cluster member and the Schechter function parameter M* has been analyzed. A positive correlation between M* and M_1 is found. However clusters appear segregated in the M_1-M* plane according to their Rood & Sastry class in such a way that on average M_1 becomes brighter while M* becomes fainter going from late to early Rood & Sastry and also Bautz & Morgan classes. Also a partial correlation analysis involving the magnitude M_10 of the 10th brightest galaxy, shows a negative intrinsic correlation between M_1 and M*. These results agree with the cannibalism model for the formation of brightest cluster members, and provide new constraints for theories of cluster formation and evolution.

  1. Differential Evolution of the UV Luminosity Function of Lyman Break Galaxies from z~5 to 3

    CERN Document Server

    Iwata, I; Tamura, N; Akiyama, M; Aoki, K; Ando, M; Kiuchi, G; Sawicki, M

    2007-01-01

    (abridged) We report the UV luminosity function (LF) of Lyman break galaxies at z~5 derived from a deep and wide survey using the Subaru/Suprime-Cam. Target fields consist of two blank regions of the sky (the HDF-N and J0053+1234), and the total effective surveyed area is 1290 sqarcmin. Applications of carefully determined colour selection criteria in V-I and I-z' yield a detection of 853 candidates with z'AB=L*_z=3) LBGs from that at z~3, while there is a significant decline in the LF's faint end with increasing lookback time. This result means that the evolution of the number densities is differential with UV luminosity: the number density of UV luminous objects remains almost constant from z~5 to 3 while the number density of fainter objects gradually increases with cosmic time. This trend becomes apparent thanks to the small uncertainties in number densities both in the bright and faint parts of LFs at different epochs that are made possible by the deep and wide surveys. We discuss the origins of this dif...

  2. Galaxy luminosities, stellar masses, sizes, velocity dispersions as a function of morphological type

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardi, M; Hyde, J B; Mei, S; Marulli, F; Sheth, R K

    2009-01-01

    We provide fits to the distribution of galaxy luminosity, size, velocity dispersion and stellar mass as a function of concentration index C_r and morphological type in the SDSS. We also quantify how estimates of the fraction of `early' or `late' type galaxies depend on whether the samples were cut in color, concentration or light profile shape, and compare with similar estimates based on morphology. Our fits show that Es account for about 20% of the r-band luminosity density, rho_Lr, and 25% of the stellar mass density, rho_*; including S0s and Sas increases these numbers to 33% and 40%, and 50% and 60%, respectively. Summed over all galaxy types, we find rho_* ~ 3 * 10^8 M_Sun Mpc^{-3} at z ~ 0. This is in good agreement with expectations based on integrating the star formation history. However, compared to most previous work, we find an excess of objects at large masses, up to a factor of ~ 10 at M_* ~ 5*10^{11} M_Sun. The stellar mass density further increases at large masses if we assume different IMFs fo...

  3. The evolution of the [OII], H{\\beta} and [OIII] emission-line luminosity functions

    CERN Document Server

    Comparat, Johan; Perez-Gonzalez, Violeta; Norberg, Peder; Newman, Jeffrey; Tresse, Laurence; Richard, Johan; Yepes, Gustavo; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Raichoor, Anand; Prada, Francisco; Maraston, Claudia; Yèche, Christophe; Delubac, Timothée; Jullo, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Emission-line galaxies (ELGs) are one of the main tracers of the large-scale structure to be targeted by the next-generation dark energy surveys. To provide a better understanding of the properties and statistics of these galaxies, we have collected spectroscopic data from the VVDS and DEEP2 deep surveys and estimated the galaxy luminosity functions (LFs) of three distinct emission lines, [OII], H$\\beta$ and [OIII] at redshifts ($0.2 < z < 1.3$). Our measurements are based on the largest sample so far. We present the first measurement of the \\Hb LF at these redshifts. We have also compiled LFs from the literature that were based on independent data or covered different redshift ranges, and we fit the entire set over the whole redshift range with analytic Schechter and Saunders models, assuming a natural redshift dependence of the parameters. We find that the characteristic luminosity ($L_*$) and density ($\\phi_*$) of all LFs increase with redshift. Using the Schechter model, we find that $L^*$ of [OII] ...

  4. A Multivariate Fit Luminosity Function and World Model for Long GRBs

    CERN Document Server

    Shahmoradi, Amir

    2012-01-01

    It is proposed that the luminosity function, the comoving-frame spectral correlations and distributions of cosmological Long-duration Gamma-Ray Bursts (LGRBs) may be very well described as multivariate log-normal distribution. This result is based on careful selection, analysis and modeling of the spectral parameters of LGRBs in the largest catalog of Gamma-Ray Bursts available to date: 2130 BATSE GRBs, while taking into account the detection threshold and possible selection effects on observational data. Constraints on the joint quadru-variate distribution of the isotropic peak luminosity, the total isotropic emission, the comoving-frame time-integrated spectral peak energy and the comoving-frame duration of LGRBs are derived. Extensive goodness-of-fit tests are performed. The presented analysis provides evidence for a relatively large fraction of LGRBs that have been missed by BATSE detector with total isotropic emissions extending down to 10^49 [erg] and observed spectral peak energies as low as 5 [KeV]. T...

  5. Revisiting the axion bounds from the Galactic white dwarf luminosity function

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolami, Marcelo M Miller; Althaus, Leandro G; Isern, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown that the shape of the luminosity function of white dwarfs (WDLF) is a powerful tool to check for the possible existence of DFSZ-axions, a proposed but not yet detected type of weakly interacting particles. With the aim of deriving new constraints on the axion mass, we compute in this paper new theoretical WDLFs on the basis of WD evolving models that incorporate for the feedback of axions on the thermal structure of the white dwarf. We find that the impact of the axion emission into the neutrino emission can not be neglected at high luminosities ($M_{\\rm Bol}\\lesssim 8$) and that the axion emission needs to be incorporated self-consistently into the evolution of the white dwarfs when dealing with axion masses larger than $m_a\\cos^2\\beta\\gtrsim 5$ meV (i.e. axion-electron coupling constant $g_{ae}\\gtrsim 1.4\\times 10^{-13}$). We went beyond previous works by including 5 different derivations of the WDLF in our analysis. Then we have performed $\\chi^2$-tests to have a quantitative measure of t...

  6. On the Star Formation-AGN Connection at zeta (is) approximately greater than 0.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Heckman, T. M.; Ptak, Andrew; Urry, C. Megan

    2013-01-01

    Using the spectra of a sample of approximately 28,000 nearby obscured active galaxies from Data Release 7 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we probe the connection between active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity and star formation over a range of radial scales in the host galaxy. We use the extinction-corrected luminosity of the [O iii] 5007A line as a proxy of intrinsic AGN power and supermassive black hole (SMBH) accretion rate. The star formation rates (SFRs) are taken from the MPA-JHU value-added catalog and are measured through the 3 inch SDSS aperture. We construct matched samples of galaxies covering a range in redshifts. With increasing redshift, the projected aperture size encompasses increasing amounts of the host galaxy. This allows us to trace the radial distribution of star formation as a function of AGN luminosity. We find that the star formation becomes more centrally concentrated with increasing AGN luminosity and Eddington ratio. This implies that such circumnuclear star formation is associated with AGN activity, and that it increasingly dominates over omnipresent disk star formation at higher AGN luminosities, placing critical constraints on theoretical models that link host galaxy star formation and SMBH fueling. We parameterize this relationship and find that the star formation on radial scales (is) less than 1.7 kpc, when including a constant disk component, has a sub-linear dependence on SMBH accretion rate: SFR in proportion to solar mass(sup 0.36), suggesting that angular momentum transfer through the disk limits accretion efficiency rather than the supply from stellar mass loss.

  7. Effects of variability of X-ray binaries on the X-ray luminosity functions of Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Nazma; Paul, Biswajit

    2016-08-01

    The X-ray luminosity functions of galaxies have become a useful tool for population studies of X-ray binaries in them. The availability of long term light-curves of X-ray binaries with the All Sky X-ray Monitors opens up the possibility of constructing X-ray luminosity functions, by also including the intensity variation effects of the galactic X-ray binaries. We have constructed multiple realizations of the X-ray luminosity functions (XLFs) of Milky Way, using the long term light-curves of sources obtained in the 2-10 keV energy band with the RXTE-ASM. The observed spread seen in the value of slope of both HMXB and LMXB XLFs are due to inclusion of variable luminosities of X-ray binaries in construction of these XLFs as well as finite sample effects. XLFs constructed for galactic HMXBs in the luminosity range 1036-1039 erg/sec is described by a power-law model with a mean power-law index of -0.48 and a spread due to variability of HMXBs as 0.19. XLFs constructed for galactic LMXBs in the luminosity range 1036-1039 erg/sec has a shape of cut-off power-law with mean power-law index of -0.31 and a spread due to variability of LMXBs as 0.07.

  8. Effects of variability of X-ray binaries on the X-ray luminosity functions of Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, Nazma

    2016-01-01

    The X-ray luminosity functions of galaxies have become a useful tool for population studies of X-ray binaries in them. The availability of long term light-curves of X-ray binaries with the All Sky X-ray Monitors opens up the possibility of constructing X-ray luminosity functions, by also including the intensity variation effects of the galactic X-ray binaries. We have constructed multiple realizations of the X-ray luminosity functions (XLFs) of Milky Way, using the long term light-curves of sources obtained in the 2-10 keV energy band with the RXTE-ASM. The observed spread seen in the value of slope of both HMXB and LMXB XLFs are due to inclusion of variable luminosities of X-ray binaries in construction of these XLFs as well as finite sample effects. XLFs constructed for galactic HMXBs in the luminosity range 10^{36} - 10^{39} erg/sec is described by a power-law model with a mean power-law index of -0.48 and a spread due to variability of HMXBs as 0.19. XLFs constructed for galactic LMXBs in the luminosity r...

  9. Global survey of star clusters in the Milky Way. V. Integrated JHKS magnitudes and luminosity functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharchenko, N. V.; Piskunov, A. E.; Schilbach, E.; Röser, S.; Scholz, R.-D.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: In this study we determine absolute integrated magnitudes in the J,H,KS passbands for Galactic star clusters from the Milky Way Star Clusters survey. In the wide solar neighbourhood, we derive the open cluster luminosity function (CLF) for different cluster ages. Methods: The integrated magnitudes are based on uniform cluster membership derived from the 2MAst catalogue (a merger of the PPMXL and 2MASS) and are computed by summing up the individual luminosities of the most reliable cluster members. We discuss two different techniques of constructing the CLF, a magnitude-limited and a distance-limited approach. Results: Absolute J,H,KS integrated magnitudes are obtained for 3061 open clusters, and 147 globular clusters. The integrated magnitudes and colours are accurate to about 0.8 and 0.2 mag, respectively. Based on the sample of open clusters we construct the general cluster luminosity function in the solar neighbourhood in the three passbands. In each passband the CLF shows a linear part covering a range of 6 to 7 mag at the bright end. The CLFs reach their maxima at an absolute magnitude of -2 mag, then drop by one order of magnitude. During cluster evolution, the CLF changes its slope within tight, but well-defined limits. The CLF of the youngest clusters has a steep slope of about 0.4 at bright magnitudes and a quasi-flat portion for faint clusters. For the oldest population, we find a flatter function with a slope of about 0.2. The CLFs at Galactocentric radii smaller than that of the solar circle differ from those in the direction of the Galactic anti-centre. The CLF in the inner area is flatter and the cluster surface density higher than the local one. In contrast, the CLF is somewhat steeper than the local one in the outer disk, and the surface density is lower. The corresponding catalogue of integrated magnitudes is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  10. The WARPS Survey - VIII. Evolution of the galaxy cluster X-ray Luminosity Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koens, L. A.; Maughan, B. J.; Jones, L. R.; Ebeling, H.; Horner, D. J.; Perlman, E. S.; Phillipps, S.; Scharf, C. A.

    2013-11-01

    We present measurements of the galaxy cluster X-ray Luminosity Function (XLF) from the Wide Angle ROSAT Pointed Survey (WARPS) and quantify its evolution. WARPS is a serendipitous survey of the central region of ROSAT pointed observations and was carried out in two phases (WARPS-I and WARPS-II). The results here are based on a final sample of 124 clusters, complete above a flux limit of 6.5 × 10-14 erg cm-2 s-1, with members out to redshift z ˜ 1.05, and a sky coverage of 70.9 deg2. We find significant evidence for negative evolution of the XLF, which complements the majority of X-ray cluster surveys. To quantify the suggested evolution, we perform a maximum likelihood analysis and conclude that the evolution is driven by a decreasing number density of high-luminosity clusters with redshift, while the bulk of the cluster population remains nearly unchanged out to redshift z ≈ 1.1, as expected in a low-density universe. The results are found to be insensitive to a variety of sources of systematic uncertainty that affect the measurement of the XLF and determination of the survey selection function. We perform a Bayesian analysis of the XLF to fully account for uncertainties in the local XLF on the measured evolution, and find that the detected evolution remains significant at the 95 per cent level. We observe a significant excess of clusters in the WARPS at 0.1 WARPS data. We find that the excess cannot be explained by sample variance, or Eddington bias, and is unlikely to be due to problems with the survey selection function.

  11. Effects of AGN feedback on LCDM galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Lagos, Claudia del P; Padilla, Nelson D

    2008-01-01

    We study the effects of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) feedback on the formation and evolution of galaxies in a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation. This model is an improved version of the one described by Cora (2006), which now considers the growth of black holes (BHs) as driven by (i) gas accretion during merger-driven starbursts and mergers with other BHs, (ii) accretion during starbursts triggered by disc instabilities, and (iii) accretion of gas cooled from quasi-hydrostatic hot gas haloes. It is assumed that feedback from AGN operates in the later case. The model has been calibrated in order to reproduce observational correlations between BH mass and mass, velocity dispersion, and absolute magnitudes of the galaxy bulge. AGN feedback has a strong impact on reducing or even suppressing gas cooling, an effect that becomes important at lower redshifts. This phenomenon helps to reproduce the observed galaxy luminosity function (LF) in the optical and near IR bands at z=0, and the cosmic star formation ra...

  12. The galaxy UV luminosity function at z ≃ 2-4; new results on faint-end slope and the evolution of luminosity density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Shaghayegh; Dunlop, James S.; McLure, Ross J.; Mortlock, Alice

    2016-03-01

    We present a new, robust measurement of the evolving rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) galaxy luminosity function (LF) over the key redshift range from z ≃ 2 to z ≃ 4. Our results are based on the high dynamic range provided by combining the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF), CANDELS/GOODS-South, and UltraVISTA/COSMOS surveys. We utilize the unparalleled multifrequency photometry available in this survey `wedding cake' to compile complete galaxy samples at z ≃ 2, 3, 4 via photometric redshifts (calibrated against the latest spectroscopy) rather than colour-colour selection, and to determine accurate rest-frame UV absolute magnitudes (M1500) from spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting. Our new determinations of the UV LF extend from M1500 ≃ -22 (AB mag) down to M1500 = -14.5, -15.5 and -16 at z ≃ 2, 3 and 4, respectively (thus, reaching ≃ 3-4 mag fainter than previous blank-field studies at z ≃ 2,3). At z ≃ 2, 3, we find a much shallower faint-end slope (α = -1.32 ± 0.03) than reported in some previous studies (α ≃ -1.7), and demonstrate that this new measurement is robust. By z ≃ 4, the faint-end slope has steepened slightly, to α = -1.43 ± 0.04, and we show that these measurements are consistent with the overall evolutionary trend from z = 0 to 8. Finally, we find that while characteristic number density (φ*) drops from z ≃ 2 to z ≃ 4, characteristic luminosity (M*) brightens by ≃ 1 mag. This, combined with the new flatter faint-end slopes, has the consequence that UV luminosity density (and hence unobscured star formation density) peaks at z ≃ 2.5-3, when the Universe was ≃ 2.5 Gyr old.

  13. The Second INTEGRAL AGN Catalogue

    CERN Document Server

    Beckmann, V; Ricci, C; Alfonso-Garzón, J; Courvoisier, T J -L; Domingo, A; Gehrels, N; Lubinski, P; Mas-Hesse, J M; Zdziarski, A A

    2009-01-01

    The INTEGRAL mission provides a large data set for studying the hard X-ray properties of AGN and allows to test the unified scheme for AGN. We present analysis of INTEGRAL IBIS/ISGRI, JEM-X, and OMC data for 199 AGN that have been reported to be detected by INTEGRAL above 20 keV. The data analysed here allow a significant spectral extraction on 148 objects and optical variability study of 57 AGN. The slopes of the hard X-ray spectra of Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 galaxies are found to be consistent within the uncertainties, whereas lower luminosities are measured for the more absorbed / type 2 AGN. The intermediate Seyfert 1.5 objects exhibit hard X-ray spectra consistent with those of Seyfert 1. When applying a Compton reflection model, the underlying continua appear still the same in Seyfert 1 and 2 with photon index 2, and the reflection strength is about R = 1, when assuming different inclination angles. A significant correlation is found between the hard X-ray and optical luminosity and the mass of the centr...

  14. LOW LUMINOSITY AGN CANDIDATES IN SDSS

    OpenAIRE

    J. P. Torres-Papaqui; R. Coziol; J. M. Islas-Islas; Ortega-Minakata, R. A.; D. M. Neri-Larios

    2011-01-01

    En una muestra de 476931 galaxias con l neas de emisi n agostas del Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5, identificamos y estudiamos galaxias de las cuales algunas importantes l neas de emisi n usadas para determinar la naturaleza de su actividad ([OIII]h5007 A, H , o ambas) no est an presentes. Este fen meno afecta al 22% de las galaxias con l neas de emisi n y no esta relacionado con una baja raz n de se al a ruido. En el diagrama comparando el ancho equivalente EW([NII]h6584) con la raz...

  15. The HerMES submillimetre local and low-redshift luminosity functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, L.; Vaccari, M.; Franceschini, A.; Arumugam, V.; Aussel, H.; Béthermin, M.; Bock, J.; Boselli, A.; Buat, V.; Burgarella, D.; Clements, D. L.; Conley, A.; Conversi, L.; Cooray, A.; Dowell, C. D.; Farrah, D.; Feltre, A.; Glenn, J.; Griffin, M.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Heinis, S.; Ibar, E.; Ivison, R. J.; Nguyen, H. T.; O'Halloran, B.; Oliver, S. J.; Page, M. J.; Papageorgiou, A.; Pearson, C. P.; Pérez-Fournon, I.; Pohlen, M.; Rigopoulou, D.; Roseboom, I. G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Schulz, B.; Scott, Douglas; Seymour, N.; Shupe, D. L.; Smith, A. J.; Symeonidis, M.; Valtchanov, I.; Viero, M.; Wang, L.; Wardlow, J.; Xu, C. K.; Zemcov, M.

    2016-02-01

    We used wide-area surveys over 39 deg2 by the HerMES (Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey) collaboration, performed with the Herschel Observatory SPIRE multiwavelength camera, to estimate the low-redshift, 0.02 < z < 0.5, monochromatic luminosity functions (LFs) of galaxies at 250, 350 and 500 μm. Within this redshift interval, we detected 7087 sources in five independent sky areas, ˜40 per cent of which have spectroscopic redshifts, while for the remaining objects photometric redshifts were used. The SPIRE LFs in different fields did not show any field-to-field variations beyond the small differences to be expected from cosmic variance. SPIRE flux densities were also combined with Spitzer photometry and multiwavelength archival data to perform a complete spectral energy distribution fitting analysis of SPIRE detected sources to calculate precise k-corrections, as well as the bolometric infrared (IR; 8-1000 μm) LFs and their low-z evolution from a combination of statistical estimators. Integration of the latter prompted us to also compute the local luminosity density and the comoving star formation rate density (SFRD) for our sources, and to compare them with theoretical predictions of galaxy formation models. The LFs show significant and rapid luminosity evolution already at low redshifts, 0.02 < z < 0.2, with L_{IR}^{*} ∝ (1+z)^{6.0± 0.4} and Φ _{IR}^{*} ∝ (1+z)^{-2.1± 0.4}, L_{250}^{*} ∝ (1+z)^{5.3± 0.2} and Φ _{250}^{*} ∝ (1+z)^{-0.6± 0.4} estimated using the IR bolometric and the 250 μm LFs, respectively. Converting our IR LD estimate into an SFRD assuming a standard Salpeter initial mass function and including the unobscured contribution based on the UV dust-uncorrected emission from local galaxies, we estimate an SFRD scaling of SFRD0 + 0.08z, where SFRD0 ≃ (1.9 ± 0.03) × 10-2 [M⊙ Mpc-3] is our total SFRD estimate at z ˜ 0.02.

  16. Binary Aggregations in Hierarchical Galaxy Formation The Evolution of the Galaxy Luminosity Function

    CERN Document Server

    Menci, N; Fontana, A; Giallongo, E; Poli, F

    2002-01-01

    We develop a semi-analytic model of hierarchical galaxy formation with an improved treatment of the evolution of galaxies inside dark matter haloes. We take into account not only dynamical friction processes building up the central dominant galaxy, but also binary aggregations of satellite galaxies inside a common halo described using the kinetic Smoluchowski equation. The description of gas cooling, star formation and evolution, and Supernova feedback follows the standard prescriptions widely used in semi-analytic modelling. We find that binary aggregations are effective in depleting the number of small/intermediate mass galaxies over the redshift range 1-16. We compare our predicted luminosity functions with those obtained from deep multicolor surveys in the rest-frame B and UV bands for the redshift ranges 01 and even more at z ~ 3 by the effect of binary aggregations. The predictions from our dynamical model are discussed and compared with the effects of complementary processes which may conspire in affec...

  17. Deep HST-WFPC2 photometry of NGC 288. II. The Main Sequence Luminosity Function

    CERN Document Server

    Bellazzini, M; Montegriffo, P; Messineo, M; Monaco, L; Rood, R T; Pecci, Flavio Fusi; Montegriffo, Paolo; Messineo, Maria

    2002-01-01

    The Main Sequence Luminosity Function (LF) of the Galactic globular cluster NGC 288 has been obtained using deep WFPC2 photometry. We have employed a new method to correct for completeness and fully account for bin-to-bin migration due to blending and/or observational scatter. The effect of the presence of binary systems in the final LF is quantified and is found to be negligible. There is a strong indication of the mass segregation of unevolved single stars and clear signs of a depletion of low mass stars in NGC 288 with respect to other clusters. The results are in good agreement with the prediction of theoretical models of the dynamical evolution of NGC 288 that take into account the extreme orbital properties of this cluster.

  18. The Global 21-cm Signal in the Context of the High-z Galaxy Luminosity Function

    CERN Document Server

    Mirocha, Jordan; Sun, G

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by recent progress in studies of the high-$z$ Universe, we build a new model for the global 21-cm signal that is explicitly calibrated to measurements of the galaxy luminosity function (LF) and further tuned to match the Thomson scattering optical depth of the cosmic microwave background, $\\tau_e$. Assuming that the $z \\lesssim 8$ galaxy population can be smoothly extrapolated to higher redshifts, the recent decline in best-fit values of $\\tau_e$ and the inefficient heating induced by X-ray binaries (HMXBs; the presumptive sources of the X-ray background at high-$z$) imply that the entirety of cosmic reionization and reheating occurs at redshifts $z \\lesssim 12$. In contrast to past global 21-cm models, whose $z \\sim 20$ ($\

  19. The dependence of the Lyman_a luminosity function on Redshift using SHARDS

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez-Espinosa, J M; Lopez-Aguerri, J A; Muñoz-Tuñon, C; Perez-Gonzalez, P G; Cava, A

    2012-01-01

    We report in this work on a project aimed at determining Ly{\\alpha} luminosity functions from z=3 to z=6. The project is based on the use of very deep photometry from the SHARDS Survey, in a set of 24 medium band filters in the GOODS-N field. We present here some preliminary work carried out with four test images in four consecutive bands. We use the narrow band selection technique for searching emission line candidates. Eleven candidates have been detected so far, many of which are strong Ly{\\alpha} candidates. In particular, we have seen a firm candidate to an interacting pair of Ly{\\alpha} sources at z=5.4.

  20. A Complete K-band Luminosity Function of the Central 30 PC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, S.; Mezger, P. G.; Zylka, R.

    1999-06-01

    We have obtained a K band mosaic image of an area Δα times Δ δ ~650'' times 710'' centered approximately on Sgr A*. With a detection limit of SK' ~100 μ Jy and a completeness limit of ~2000 μ Jy our source counts will only be complete for early O-stars, Supergiants and the most luminous red Giants; less luminous stars will merge into an unresolved background continuum. Special care was taken in our observing procedure to recover all of this continuum emission. 6.1 times 104 individual sources were separated from the background continuum by fitting them with modified Lorentzian distributions. For the low-luminosity sources we construct a model K-band luminosity function (KLF) based on a Salpeter IMF, which is compared with the KLF of Baade's Window after readjustment to match the stellar surface density in the mosaic. We obtain the following results: The emission of both point like sources (interpreted as luminous stars) and an unresolved continuum (interpreted as low-mass main sequence (MS) stars) can be fitted by a KLF ~ SK'α consisting of four power-law approximations with different exponents α: The modeled sectors which relate to MS stars have the functional dependences ~ SK'-0.6 and SK' -0.8; the observed KLF, which relates to Giants and Supergiants becomes gradually steeper. Compared to the KLF of Baades Window (Tiede et al., 1995) the KLF of the mosaic shows a clear overabundance of stars with high K band flux densities which is strongest within the central 24'' (~1 pc).

  1. ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AS MAIN CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ULTRAVIOLET IONIZING EMISSIVITY AT HIGH REDSHIFTS: PREDICTIONS FROM A {Lambda}-CDM MODEL WITH LINKED AGN/GALAXY EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giallongo, E.; Menci, N.; Fiore, F.; Castellano, M.; Fontana, A.; Grazian, A.; Pentericci, L. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via di Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio (Italy)

    2012-08-20

    We have evaluated the contribution of the active galactic nuclei (AGN) population to the ionization history of the universe based on a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation and evolution in the cold dark matter cosmological scenario. The model connects the growth of black holes and of the ensuing AGN activity to galaxy interactions. In the model we have included a self-consistent physical description of the escape of ionizing UV photons; this is based on the blast-wave model for the AGN feedback we developed in a previous paper to explain the distribution of hydrogen column densities in AGNs of various redshifts and luminosities, due to absorption by the host galaxy gas. The model predicts UV luminosity functions for AGNs that are in good agreement with those derived from the observations especially at low and intermediate redshifts (z {approx} 3). At higher redshifts (z > 5), the model tends to overestimate the data at faint luminosities. Critical biases in both the data and in the model are discussed to explain such apparent discrepancies. The predicted hydrogen photoionization rate as a function of redshift is found to be consistent with that derived from the observations. All of the above suggests that we should reconsider the role of the AGNs as the main driver of the ionization history of the universe.

  2. The First INTEGRAL AGN Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Beckmann, V; Shrader, C R; Soldi, S

    2006-01-01

    We present the first INTEGRAL AGN catalog, based on observations performed from launch of the mission in October 2002 until January 2004. The catalog includes 42 AGN, of which 10 are Seyfert 1, 17 are Seyfert 2, and 9 are intermediate Seyfert 1.5. The fraction of blazars is rather small with 5 detected objects, and only one galaxy cluster and no star-burst galaxies have been detected so far. A complete subset consists of 32 AGN with a significance limit of 7 sigma in the INTEGRAL/ISGRI 20-40 keV data. Although the sample is not flux limited, the distribution of sources shows a ratio of obscured to unobscured AGN of 1.5 - 2.0, consistent with luminosity dependent unified models for AGN. Only four Compton-thick AGN are found in the sample. Based on the INTEGRAL data presented here, the Seyfert 2 spectra are slightly harder (Gamma = 1.95 +- 0.01) than Seyfert 1.5 (Gamma = 2.10 +- 0.02) and Seyfert 1 (Gamma = 2.11 +- 0.05).

  3. The local stellar luminosity function and mass-to-light ratio in the near-infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, A.; Fuchs, B.; Jahreiß, H.; Flynn, C.; Dettbarn, C.; Rybizki, J.

    2015-07-01

    A new sample of stars, representative of the solar neighbourhood luminosity function (LF), is constructed from the Hipparcos catalogue and the Fifth Catalogue of Nearby Stars. We have cross-matched to sources in the Two Micron All Sky Survey catalogue so that for all stars individually determined near-infrared (NIR) photometry is available on a homogeneous system (typically Ks). The spatial completeness of the sample has been carefully determined by statistical methods, and the NIR LF of the stars has been derived by direct star counts. We find a local volume luminosity of 0.121 ± 0.004 LK⊙ pc-3, corresponding to a volumetric mass-to-light ratio (M/L) of M/L_K = 0.31 ± 0.02 {M}_{⊙}/L_{K⊙}, where giants contribute 80 per cent to the light but less than 2 per cent to the stellar mass. We derive the surface brightness of the solar cylinder with the help of a vertical disc model. We find a surface brightness of 99 LK⊙ pc-2 with an uncertainty of approximately 10 per cent. This corresponds to an M/L for the solar cylinder of M/L_K = 0.34 {M}_{⊙}/L_{K⊙}. The M/L for the solar cylinder is only 10 per cent larger than the local value despite the fact that the local population has a much larger contribution of young stars. It turns out that the effective scaleheights of the lower main sequence carrying most of the mass is similar to that of the giants, which are dominating the NIR light. The corresponding colour for the solar cylinder is V - K = 2.89 mag compared to the local value of V - K = 2.46 mag. An extrapolation of the local surface brightness to the whole Milky Way yields a total luminosity of MK = -24.2 mag. The Milky Way falls in the range of K band Tully-Fisher relations from the literature.

  4. A MULTIVARIATE FIT LUMINOSITY FUNCTION AND WORLD MODEL FOR LONG GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahmoradi, Amir, E-mail: amir@physics.utexas.edu [Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    It is proposed that the luminosity function, the rest-frame spectral correlations, and distributions of cosmological long-duration (Type-II) gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) may be very well described as a multivariate log-normal distribution. This result is based on careful selection, analysis, and modeling of LGRBs' temporal and spectral variables in the largest catalog of GRBs available to date: 2130 BATSE GRBs, while taking into account the detection threshold and possible selection effects. Constraints on the joint rest-frame distribution of the isotropic peak luminosity (L{sub iso}), total isotropic emission (E{sub iso}), the time-integrated spectral peak energy (E{sub p,z}), and duration (T{sub 90,z}) of LGRBs are derived. The presented analysis provides evidence for a relatively large fraction of LGRBs that have been missed by the BATSE detector with E{sub iso} extending down to {approx}10{sup 49} erg and observed spectral peak energies (E{sub p} ) as low as {approx}5 keV. LGRBs with rest-frame duration T{sub 90,z} {approx}< 1 s or observer-frame duration T{sub 90} {approx}< 2 s appear to be rare events ({approx}< 0.1% chance of occurrence). The model predicts a fairly strong but highly significant correlation ({rho} = 0.58 {+-} 0.04) between E{sub iso} and E{sub p,z} of LGRBs. Also predicted are strong correlations of L{sub iso} and E{sub iso} with T{sub 90,z} and moderate correlation between L{sub iso} and E{sub p,z}. The strength and significance of the correlations found encourage the search for underlying mechanisms, though undermine their capabilities as probes of dark energy's equation of state at high redshifts. The presented analysis favors-but does not necessitate-a cosmic rate for BATSE LGRBs tracing metallicity evolution consistent with a cutoff Z/Z{sub Sun} {approx} 0.2-0.5, assuming no luminosity-redshift evolution.

  5. An Empirical Model for the Galaxy Luminosity and Star-Formation Rate Function at High Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Mashian, Natalie; Loeb, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Using the most recent measurements of the ultraviolet (UV) luminosity functions (LFs) and dust estimates of early galaxies, we derive updated dust-corrected star-formation rate functions (SFRFs) at z~4-8, which we model to predict the evolution to higher redshifts, z>8. We employ abundance matching techniques to calibrate a relation between galaxy star formation rate (SFR) and host halo mass M{_h} by mapping the shape of the observed SFRFs at z~4-8 to that of the halo mass function. The resulting scaling law remains roughly constant over this redshift range. We apply the average SFR-M{_h} relation to reproduce the observed SFR functions at 4 10 indicate that JWST will be able to detect galaxies out to z~15 with an extensive treasury sized program. We also derive the redshift evolution of the star formation rate density and associated reionization history by galaxies for which we find that the inclusion of galaxies with SFRs well below the current detection limit leads to a fully reionized universe by z~6.5 an...

  6. Spatial dependence of 2MASS luminosity and mass functions in the old open cluster NGC 188

    CERN Document Server

    Bonatto, C; Santos, J F C

    2005-01-01

    Luminosity and mass functions in the old open cluster NGC 188 are analysed by means of J and H 2MASS photometry. Within the uncertainties, the observed projected radial density profile of NGC 188 departs from the two-parameter King model in two inner regions, which reflects the non-virialized dynamical state and possibly, some degree of non-sphericity in the spatial shape of this old open cluster. Fits with two and three-parameter King models to the radial distribution of stars resulted in a core radius of 1.3 pc and a tidal radius of 21 pc. The present 2MASS analysis resulted in significant slope variations with distance in the mass function $\\phi(m)\\propto m^{-(1+\\chi)}$, being flat in the central parts ($\\chi=0.6\\pm0.7$) and steep in the cluster outskirts ($\\chi=7.2\\pm0.6$). The overall mass function has a slope $\\chi=1.9\\pm0.7$, slightly steeper than a standard Salpeter mass function. Solar metallicity Padova isochrone fits to the near-infrared colour-magnitude diagram of NGC 188 resulted in an age of $7....

  7. ACCESS: NIR Luminosity and Stellar Mass Function of Galaxies in the Shapley Supercluster Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Merluzzi, P; Haines, C P; Smith, R J; Busarello, G; Lucey, J R

    2009-01-01

    We present the NIR luminosity (LF) and stellar mass functions (SMF) of galaxies in the core of the Shapley supercluster at z=0.048, based on new K-band observations in conjunction with B- and R-band photometry and a subsample of ~650 galaxies spectroscopically confirmed supercluster members, allowing to investigate the galaxies down to M_K^*+6 and M=10^8.75 M_sun. For the 3 deg^2 field the K-band LF is described by a Schechter function with M_K^*=-24.96+-0.10 and \\alpha=-1.42+-0.03. We investigate the effect of environment by deriving the LF in three regions selected according to the local galaxy density, and observe a significant increase in the faint-end slope going from the high- (\\alpha=-1.33) to the low-density (\\alpha=-1.49) environments. The SMF is fitted well by a Schechter function with log_10(M^*)=11.16+-0.04 and \\alpha=-1.20+-0.02. The SMF of supercluster galaxies is also characterised by an excess of massive galaxies that are associated to the cluster BCGs. While the value of M* depends on environ...

  8. The near-infrared luminosity function of cluster galaxies beyond redshift one

    CERN Document Server

    Strazzullo, V; Eisenhardt, P E; Ettori, S; Lidman, C; Mainieri, V; Nonino, M; Rosati, P; Stanford, S A; Toft, S; Toft, and S.

    2006-01-01

    We determined the K band luminosity function (LF) of cluster galaxies at redshift z~1.2, using near-infrared images of three X-ray luminous clusters at z=1.11,1.24,1.27. The composite LF was derived down to M*+4, by means of statistical background subtraction, and is well described by a Schechter function with K*=20.5 AB mag and alpha=-1. From the K band composite LF we derived the stellar mass function of cluster galaxies. Using available X-ray mass profiles we determined the M/L ratios of these three clusters, which tend to be lower than those measured in the local universe. With these data, no significant difference can be seen between the shapes of the cluster galaxies LF and the LF of field galaxies at similar redshift. We also found no significant evolution out to z ~1.2 in the bright (2. The results obtained in this work support and extend previous findings that most of the stars in bright galaxies were formed at high redshift, and that K-bright (M>10^11 Msun) galaxies were already in place at z ~ 1.2,...

  9. The initial luminosity and mass functions of the Galactic open clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Piskunov, A E; Schilbach, E; Röser, S; Scholz, R -D; Zinnecker, H

    2008-01-01

    (... abridged) The observed luminosity function can be constructed in a range of absolute integrated magnitudes $I_{M_V}= [-10, -0.5]$ mag, i.e. about 5 magnitudes deeper than in the most nearby galaxies. It increases linearly from the brightest limit to a turnover at about $I_{M_V}\\approx-2.5$. The slope of this linear portion is $a=0.41\\pm0.01$, which agrees perfectly with the slope deduced for star cluster observations in nearby galaxies. (...) We find that the initial mass function of open clusters (CIMF) has a two-segment structure with the slopes $\\alpha=1.66\\pm0.14$ in the range $\\log M_c/M_\\odot=3.37...4.93$ and $\\alpha=0.82\\pm0.14$ in the range $\\log M_c/M_\\odot=1.7...3.37$. The average mass of open clusters at birth is $4.5\\cdot 10^3 M_\\odot$, which should be compared to the average observed mass of about $700 M_\\odot$. The average cluster formation rate derived from the comparison of initial and observed mass functions is $\\bar{\\upsilon}=0.4 \\mathrm{kpc}^{-2}\\mathrm{Myr}^{-1}$. Multiplying by the a...

  10. The luminosity function of galactic X-ray sources - A cutoff and a 'standard candle'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margon, B.; Ostriker, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    Analysis of the 2- to 10-kev luminosity distribution of 36 X-ray sources in the Local Group having known or estimated distances, showing that there exists a luminosity cutoff of approximately 10 to the 37.7th ergs/sec in agreement with the theoretical (Eddington) limit for the luminosity of an approximately 1 solar mass star. Furthermore, among the complete sample of high-luminosity sources, there appears to be a statistically significant group of X-ray 'standard candles' at (within less than 0.8 mag) the critical luminosity. This finding (which is in agreement with the self-consistent mass flow accretion models) presents the possibility that X-ray sources may be used as extragalactic distance indicators in the next generation of X-ray astronomy experiments.

  11. The XXL Survey. II. The bright cluster sample: catalogue and luminosity function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacaud, F.; Clerc, N.; Giles, P. A.; Adami, C.; Sadibekova, T.; Pierre, M.; Maughan, B. J.; Lieu, M.; Le Fèvre, J. P.; Alis, S.; Altieri, B.; Ardila, F.; Baldry, I.; Benoist, C.; Birkinshaw, M.; Chiappetti, L.; Démoclès, J.; Eckert, D.; Evrard, A. E.; Faccioli, L.; Gastaldello, F.; Guennou, L.; Horellou, C.; Iovino, A.; Koulouridis, E.; Le Brun, V.; Lidman, C.; Liske, J.; Maurogordato, S.; Menanteau, F.; Owers, M.; Poggianti, B.; Pomarède, D.; Pompei, E.; Ponman, T. J.; Rapetti, D.; Reiprich, T. H.; Smith, G. P.; Tuffs, R.; Valageas, P.; Valtchanov, I.; Willis, J. P.; Ziparo, F.

    2016-06-01

    Context. The XXL Survey is the largest survey carried out by the XMM-Newton satellite and covers a total area of 50 square degrees distributed over two fields. It primarily aims at investigating the large-scale structures of the Universe using the distribution of galaxy clusters and active galactic nuclei as tracers of the matter distribution. The survey will ultimately uncover several hundreds of galaxy clusters out to a redshift of ~2 at a sensitivity of ~10-14 erg s-1 cm-2 in the [0.5-2] keV band. Aims: This article presents the XXL bright cluster sample, a subsample of 100 galaxy clusters selected from the full XXL catalogue by setting a lower limit of 3 × 10-14 erg s-1 cm-2 on the source flux within a 1' aperture. Methods: The selection function was estimated using a mixture of Monte Carlo simulations and analytical recipes that closely reproduce the source selection process. An extensive spectroscopic follow-up provided redshifts for 97 of the 100 clusters. We derived accurate X-ray parameters for all the sources. Scaling relations were self-consistently derived from the same sample in other publications of the series. On this basis, we study the number density, luminosity function, and spatial distribution of the sample. Results: The bright cluster sample consists of systems with masses between M500 = 7 × 1013 and 3 × 1014 M⊙, mostly located between z = 0.1 and 0.5. The observed sky density of clusters is slightly below the predictions from the WMAP9 model, and significantly below the prediction from the Planck 2015 cosmology. In general, within the current uncertainties of the cluster mass calibration, models with higher values of σ8 and/or ΩM appear more difficult to accommodate. We provide tight constraints on the cluster differential luminosity function and find no hint of evolution out to z ~ 1. We also find strong evidence for the presence of large-scale structures in the XXL bright cluster sample and identify five new superclusters. Based on

  12. The Eddington Ratio of H2O Maser Host AGN

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Q. Guo; J. S. Zhang; J. Wang

    2011-03-01

    The Eddington ratio was derived for the entire maser host AGN sample, based on the intrinsic X-ray luminosity, the X-ray bolometric correction X and the mass of central black hole. Further the [O III] bolometric correction [O III] was estimated for our sample. Possible relations were also investigated between the maser luminosity and the bolometric luminosity – the Eddington ratio.

  13. Mid- and Far-infrared Luminosity Functions and Galaxy Evolution from Multiwavelength Spitzer Observations up to z~2.5

    CERN Document Server

    Rodighiero, G; Franceschini, A; Tresse, L; Le Fèvre, O; Le Brun, V; Mancini, C; Matute, I; Cimatti, A; Marchetti, L; Ilbert, O; Arnouts, S; Bolzonella, M; Zucca, E; Bardelli, S; Lonsdale, C J; Shupe, D; Surace, J; Rowan-Robinson, M; Garilli, B; Zamorani, G; Pozzetti, L; Bondi, M; De la Torre, S; Vergani, D; Santini, P; Grazian, A; Fontana, A

    2009-01-01

    [Abridged]We exploit a large homogeneous dataset to derive a self-consistent picture of IR emission based on the time-dependent 24, 15, 12 and 8micron monochromatic and bolometric IR luminosity functions (LF) over the 01. The mean redshift of the peak in the source number density shifts with luminosity: the brighest IR galaxies appear to be forming stars earlier in cosmic time (z>1.5), while the less luminous ones keep doing it at more recent epochs (z~1 for L (IR)1. We also seem to find a difference in the evolution rate of the source number densities as a function of luminosity, a downsizing evolutionary pattern similar to that reported from other samples of cosmic sources.

  14. The Main Sequence Luminosity Function of Low-Mass Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Graeme

    2009-07-01

    Theoretical work indicates that the dynamical evolution of globular clusters of low mass and low central concentration is strongly determined by mass-loss processes, such as stellar evaporation and tidal stripping, that can eventually lead to cluster dissolution. In fact, mass loss and cluster disruption is now considered to be a viable explanation for the form of the faint end of the Milky Way globular cluster luminosity function. A clear observational demonstration of the prevalence of cluster mass-loss would have ramifications not only for the dynamical evolution of individual globular clusters and their internal stellar mass distributions, but also for the relationships between halo field and cluster stars and the properties of globular cluster systems in galaxies. Our previous WFPC2 imaging of the low-mass diffuse halo cluster Palomar 5 revealed a main sequence deficient in stars compared to other low-concentration globular clusters of much higher mass, consistent with there having been a considerable loss of stars from this system. But is Pal 5 typical of low-mass, low-concentration halo clusters? We propose to place the mass-loss scenario on a firm observational footing {or otherwise} by using WFC3 imaging to measure the main-sequence stellar mass functions of two of the lowest-mass lowest-concentration globular clusters in the Milky Way, AM-4 and Palomar 13, in order to search for analogous evidence of stellar depletion.

  15. Galaxy Luminosity Function of Dynamically Young Abell 119 Cluster: Probing the Cluster Assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Youngdae; Hilker, Michael; Sheen, Yun-Kyeong; Yi, Sukyoung K

    2016-01-01

    We present the galaxy luminosity function (LF) of the Abell 119 cluster down to $M_r\\sim-14$ mag based on deep images in the $u$-, $g$-, and $r$-bands taken by using MOSAIC II CCD mounted on the Blanco 4m telescope at the CTIO. The cluster membership was accurately determined based on the radial velocity information as well as on the color-magnitude relation for bright galaxies and the scaling relation for faint galaxies. The overall LF exhibits a bimodal behavior with a distinct dip at $r\\sim18.5$ mag ($M_r\\sim-17.8$ mag), which is more appropriately described by a two-component function. The shape of the LF strongly depends on the cluster-centric distance and on the local galaxy density. The LF of galaxies in the outer, low-density region exhibits a steeper slope and more prominent dip compared with that of counterparts in the inner, high-density region. We found evidence for a substructure in the projected galaxy distribution in which several overdense regions in the Abell 119 cluster appear to be closely ...

  16. The Norma cluster (ACO3627): II. The near infrared K_s-band luminosity function

    CERN Document Server

    Skelton, R E; Kraan-Korteweg, R C

    2009-01-01

    A deep K_s-band photometric catalogue of galaxies at the core of the rich, nearby Norma cluster (ACO3627) is presented. The survey covers about 45 by 45 square arcmin (slightly less than 1/3 Abell radius), which corresponds to approx. 0.8 Mpc^2 at the adopted distance (v_cmb/H0) of 70 Mpc of this cluster. The survey is estimated to be complete to a magnitude of M_Ks <~ -19.5 mag. This extends into the dwarf regime, 6 magnitudes below M_Ks*. The catalogue contains 390 objects, 235 of which are classified as likely or definite galaxies and 155 as candidate galaxies. The Ks-band luminosity function (LF) is constructed from the photometric sample, using a spectroscopic subsample to correct for fore- and background contamination. We fit a Schechter function with a characteristic magnitude of M_Ks* = -25.39 \\pm 0.80 mag and faint-end slope of alpha = -1.26 \\pm 0.10 to the data. The shape of the LF is similar to those found in previous determinations of the cluster LF, in both optical and near infrared. The Schec...

  17. Occurence and Luminosity Functions of Giant Radio Halos from Magneto-Turbulent Model

    CERN Document Server

    Cassano, R; Setti, G; Cassano, Rossella; Brunetti, Gianfranco; Setti, Giancarlo

    2004-01-01

    We calculate the probability to form giant radio halos (~ 1 Mpc size) as a function of the mass of the host clusters by using a Statistical Magneto-Turbulent Model (Cassano & Brunetti, these proceedings). We show that the expectations of this model are in good agreement with the observations for viable values of the parameters. In particular, the abrupt increase of the probability to find radio halos in the more massive galaxy clusters (M > 2x10^{15} solar masses) can be well reproduced. We calculate the evolution with redshift of such a probability and find that giant radio halos can be powered by particle acceleration due to MHD turbulence up to z~0.5 in a LCDM cosmology. Finally, we calculate the expected Luminosity Functions of radio halos (RHLFs). At variance with previous studies, the shape of our RHLFs is characterized by the presence of a cut-off at low synchrotron powers which reflects the inefficiency of particle acceleration in the case of less massive galaxy clusters.

  18. The optical luminosity function of gamma-ray bursts deduced from ROTSE-III observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the optical luminosity function (LF) of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) estimated from a uniform sample of 58 GRBs from observations with the Robotic Optical Transient Search Experiment III (ROTSE-III). Our GRB sample is divided into two sub-samples: detected afterglows (18 GRBs) and those with upper limits (40 GRBs). We derive R-band fluxes for these two sub-samples 100 s after the onset of the burst. The optical LFs at 100 s are fitted by assuming that the co-moving GRB rate traces the star formation rate. While fitting the optical LFs using Monte Carlo simulations, we take into account the detection function of ROTSE-III. We find that the cumulative distribution of optical emission at 100 s is well described by an exponential rise and power-law decay, a broken power law,and Schechter LFs. A single power-law (SPL) LF, on the other hand, is ruled out with high confidence.

  19. The Properties of Poor Groups of Galaxies; 3, The Galaxy Luminosity Function

    CERN Document Server

    Zabludoff, A I; Zabludoff, Ann I.; Mulchaey, John S.

    2000-01-01

    We obtain R-band photometry for galaxies in six nearby poor groups for which we have spectroscopic data, including 328 new galaxy velocities. For the five groups with luminous X-ray halos, the composite group galaxy luminosity function (GLF) is fit adequately by a Schechter function with Mstar = -21.6 +/- 0.4 + 5log h and alpha = -1.3 +/- 0.1. We also find that (1) the ratio of dwarfs to giants is significantly larger for the five groups with luminous X-ray halos than for the one marginally X-ray detected group, (2) the composite GLF for the luminous X-ray groups is consistent in shape with that for rich clusters, (3) the composite group GLF rises more steeply at the faint end than that of the field, (4) the shape difference between the field and composite group GLF's results mostly from the population of non-emission line galaxies, whose dwarf-to-giant ratio is larger in the denser group environment than in the field, and (5) the non-emission line dwarfs are more concentrated about the group center than the ...

  20. The Optical Luminosity Function of Gamma-ray Bursts deduced from ROTSE-III Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, X H; Wei, J J; Yuan, F; Zheng, W K; Liang, E W; Akerlof, C W; Ashley, M C B; Flewelling, H A; Gogus, E; Guver, T; Kiziloglu, U; McKay, T A; Pandey, S B; Rykoff, E S; Rujopakarn, W; Schaefer, B E; Wheeler, J C; Yost, S A

    2014-01-01

    We present the optical luminosity function (LF) of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) estimated from a uniform sample of 58 GRBs from observations with the Robotic Optical Transient Search Experiment III (ROTSE-III). Our GRB sample is divided into two sub-samples: detected afterglows (18 GRBs), and those with upper limits (40 GRBs). The $R$ band fluxes 100s after the onset of the burst for these two sub-samples are derived. The optical LFs at 100s are fitted by assuming that the co-moving GRB rate traces the star-formation rate. The detection function of ROTSE-III is taken into account during the fitting of the optical LFs by using Monte Carlo simulations. We find that the cumulative distribution of optical emission at 100s is well-described with an exponential rise and power-law decay (ERPLD), broken power-law (BPL), and Schechter LFs. A single power-law (SPL) LF, on the other hand, is ruled out with high confidence.

  1. The Close AGN Reference Survey (CARS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothberg, Barry; Husemann, Bernd; Busch, Gerold; Dierkes, Jens; Eckart, Andreas; Krajnovic, Davor; Scharwaechter, Julia; Tremblay, Grant R.; Urrutia, Tanya

    2015-08-01

    We present the first science results from the Close AGN Reference Survey (CARS). This program is a snapshot survey of 39 local type 1 AGN (0.01 MUSE), an optical wavelength integral field unit (IFU) with a 1'x1' field of view on the VLT. The optical 3D spectroscopy complements existing sub-mm CO(1-0) data and near-IR imaging to establish a unique dataset combining molecular and stellar masses with star formation rates, gas, stellar kinematics and AGN properties. The primary goals of CARS are to:1) investigate if the star formation efficiency and gas depletion time scales are suppressed as a consequence of AGN feedback; 2) identify AGN-driven outflows and their relation to the molecular gas reservoir of the host galaxy; 3) investigate the the balance of AGN feeding and feedback through the ratio of the gas reservoir to the AGN luminosity; and 4) provide the community with a reference survey of local AGN with a high legacy value. Future work will incorporate near-infrared IFU observations to present a complete spatially resolved picture of the interplay among AGN, star-formation, stellar populations, and the ISM.

  2. What does the local black hole mass distribution tell us about the evolution of the quasar luminosity function?

    CERN Document Server

    Ciotti, L; Ostriker, J P; Ciotti, Luca; Haiman, Zoltan; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    2001-01-01

    We present a robust method to derive the duty cycle of QSO activity based on the empirical QSO luminosity function and on the present-day linear relation between the masses of supermassive black holes and those of their spheroidal host stellar systems. It is found that the duty cycle is substantially less than unity, with characteristic values in the range $3-6\\times 10^{-3}$. Finally, we tested the expectation that the QSO luminosity evolution and the star formation history should be roughly parallel, as a consequence of the above--mentioned relation between BH and galaxy masses.

  3. A critical analysis of the UV Luminosity Function at redshift~7 from deep WFC3 data

    CERN Document Server

    Grazian, A; Koekemoer, A M; Fontana, A; Pentericci, L; Testa, V; Boutsia, K; Giallongo, E; Giavalisco, M; Santini, P

    2010-01-01

    The study of the Luminosity Function (LF) of Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) at z=7 is important for ascertaining their role in the reionization of the Universe. We perform a detailed and critical analysis of the statistical and systematic errors in the z~7 LF determination: we have assembled a large sample of candidate LBGs at z~7 from different surveys, spanning a large variety of areas and depths. In particular, we have combined data from the deep (J<27.4) and ultradeep (J<29.2) surveys recently acquired with the new WFC3 NIR camera on HST, over the GOODS-ERS and the HUDF fields, with ground based surveys in wide and shallow areas from VLT and Subaru. We have used public ACS images in the z-band to select z-dropout galaxies, and other public data both in the blue (BVI) and in the red bands to reject possible low-redshift interlopers. We have compared our results with extensive simulations to quantify the observational effects of our selection criteria as well as the effects of photometric scatter, color ...

  4. On the faint-end of the high-$z$ galaxy luminosity function

    CERN Document Server

    Yue, Bin; Xu, Yidong

    2016-01-01

    Recent measurement of the Luminosity Function (LF) of galaxies in the Epoch of Reionization (EoR, redshift $z>6$) indicates a very steep increase of the number density of low-mass galaxies populating the LF faint-end. As star formation in such systems can be easily quenched by radiative feedback effects, a turn-off is expected at some faint magnitude. Using a physically-motivated analytical model, we quantify reionization feedback effects on the LF. If reionization feedback is neglected, the power-law Schechter parameterization characterizing the faint-end of the LF remains valid up to $M_{\\rm UV}\\sim -9$. If (strong) feedback is included, the LF drops above $M_{\\rm UV} \\sim -15$, slightly below the detection limit of current surveys at $z\\sim5$. However, the LF may rise again at higher $M_{\\rm UV}$ as a result of the interplay between reionization topology and photo-evaporation physics. Moreover, we find that the stellar age -- magnitude relation might be used as a probe of feedback strength as well: in mode...

  5. The Luminosity Function at z~8 from 97 Y-band dropouts: Inferences About Reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Kasper B; Trenti, Michele; Bradley, Larry D; Kelly, Brandon C; Oesch, Pascal A; Holwerda, Benne W; Shull, J Michael; Stiavelli, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    [Abbreviated] We present the largest search to date for $z\\sim8$ Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) based on 350 arcmin$^2$ of HST observations in the V-, Y-, J- and H-bands from the Brightest of Reionizing Galaxies (BoRG) survey. The BoRG dataset includes $\\sim$50 arcmin$^2$ of new data and deeper observations of two previous BoRG pointings, from which we present 9 new $z\\sim8$ LBG candidates, bringing the total number of BoRG LBGs to 38 with $25.5\\leqslant m_{J} \\leqslant 27.6$ (AB system). We introduce a new Bayesian formalism for estimating the galaxy luminosity function (LF), which does not require binning (and thus smearing) of the data and includes a likelihood based on the correct binomial distribution as opposed to the often used approximate Poisson distribution. We demonstrate the utility of the new method on a sample of $97$ LBGs that combines the bright BoRG galaxies with the fainter sources published in Bouwens et al. (2012) from the HUDF and ERS programs. We show that the $z\\sim8$ LF is well described ...

  6. Hidden Photon Compton and Bremsstrahlung in White Dwarf Anomalous Cooling and Luminosity Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Chia-Feng

    2016-01-01

    We computed the contribution of the Compton and Bremsstrahlung processes with a hidden light $U(1)_D$ neutral boson $\\gamma_D$ to the white dwarf G117-B15A anomalous cooling rate, as well as the white dwarf luminosity functions (WDLF). We demonstrated that for a light mass of hidden photon ($m_{\\gamma_D} \\ll$ a few keV), compatible results are obtained for the recent Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the SuperCOSMOS Sky Survey observation, but the stringent limits would be imposed on the kinetic mixing $\\epsilon$. We performed $\\chi^2$-tests to acquire a quantitative assessment on the WDLF data in the context of our model, computed under the assumption of different kinetic mixing $\\epsilon$, the age of the oldest computed stars $T_D$, and a constant star formation rate $\\psi$. Then taken together, the WDLF analysis of 2$\\sigma$ confidence interval $\\epsilon = \\left( 0.37^{+0.35}_{-0.37}\\right) \\times 10^{-14}$ is barely consistent with the cooling rate analysis at 2$\\sigma$ regime $\\epsilon = \\left( 0.97^{+0.35}_{...

  7. Characterizing the Properties of Clusters of Galaxies as a Function of Luminosity and Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, K; Madejski, G; Goobar, A

    2009-01-01

    We report the application of a new Monte Carlo method, Smoothed Particle Inference (SPI, described in a pair of companion papers), towards analysis and interpretation of X-ray observations of clusters of galaxies with the XMM-Newton satellite. Our sample consists of publicly available, well-exposed observations of clusters at redshifts z > 0.069, totaling 101 objects. We determine the luminosity and temperature structure of the X-ray emitting gas, with the goal to quantify the scatter and the evolution of the L_X - T relation, as well as to investigate the dependence on cluster substructure with redshift. We confirm that L_X \\propto T^3 and we find a weak redshift dependence (\\propto (1+z)^(\\beta_LT), \\beta_LT=0.50 +- 0.34), in contrast to some Chandra results. The level of dynamical activity is established using the "power ratios" method, and we find signs of evolution in the P_3/P_0 power ratio. A new method, the "temperature two-point correlation function," is proposed. This method is used to determine the...

  8. Galaxy luminosity function per morphological type up to z=1.2

    CERN Document Server

    Ilbert, O; Tresse, L; Buat, V; Arnout, S; Lefèvre, O; Burgarella, D; Zucca, E; Bardelli, S; Zamorani, G; Bottini, D; Garilli, B; Le Brun, V; MacCagni, D; Picat, J P; Scaramella, R; Scodeggio, M; Vettolani, G; Zanichelli, A; Adami, C; Arnaboldi, M; Bolzonella, M; Cappi, A; Charlot, S; Contini, T; Foucaud, S; Franzetti, P; Gavignaud, I; Guzzo, L; Iovino, A; McCracken, H J; Marano, B; Marinoni, C; Mathez, G; Mazure, A; Meneux, B; Merighi, R; Paltani, S; Pellò, R; Pollo, A; Pozzetti, L; Radovich, M; Bondi, M; Bongiorno, A; Busarello, G; Ciliegi, P; Mellier, Y; Merluzzi, P; Ripepi, V; Rizzo, D

    2006-01-01

    We have computed the evolution of the rest-frame B-band luminosity function (LF) for bulge and disk-dominated galaxies since z=1.2. We use a sample of 605 spectroscopic redshifts with I_{AB}0.9 and bright galaxies showing a strongly decreasing LF slope \\alpha=+0.55 \\pm 0.21, and 32% of blue (B-I)_{AB}<0.9 and more compact galaxies which populate the LF faint-end. We observe that red bulge-dominated galaxies are already well in place at z~1, but the volume density of this population is increasing by a factor 2.7 between z~1 and z~0.6. It may be related to the building-up of massive elliptical galaxies in the hierarchical scenario. In addition, we observe that the blue bulge-dominated population is dimming by 0.7 magnitude between z~1 and z~0.6. Galaxies in this faint and more compact population could possibly be the progenitors of the local dwarf spheroidal galaxies.

  9. The Optical Luminosity Function of Void Galaxies in the SDSS and ALFALFA Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Moorman, Crystal M; Hoyle, Fiona; Pan, Danny C; Haynes, Martha P; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    We measure the r-band galaxy luminosity function (LF) across environments over the redshift range 0<$z$<0.107 using the SDSS. We divide our sample into galaxies residing in large scale voids (void galaxies) and those residing in denser regions (wall galaxies). The best fitting Schechter parameters for void galaxies are: log$\\Phi^*$= -3.40$\\pm$0.03 log(Mpc$^{-3}$), $M^*$= -19.88$\\pm$0.05, and $\\alpha$=-1.20$\\pm$0.02. For wall galaxies, the best fitting parameters are: log$\\Phi^*$=-2.86$\\pm$0.02 log(Mpc$^{-3}$), $M^*$=-20.80$\\pm$0.03, and $\\alpha$=-1.16$\\pm$0.01. We find a shift in the characteristic magnitude, $M^*$, towards fainter magnitudes for void galaxies and find no significant difference between the faint-end slopes of the void and wall galaxy LFs. We investigate how low surface brightness selections effects can affect the galaxy LF. To attempt to examine a sample of galaxies that is relatively free of surface brightness selection effects, we compute the optical galaxy LF of galaxies detected by ...

  10. The Galaxy Luminosity Function at z~1 in the HUDF: Probing the Dwarf Population

    CERN Document Server

    Ryan, R E; Cohen, S H; Malhotra, S; Rhoads, J; Windhorst, R A; Budavari, T; Pirzkal, N; Xu, C; Panagia, N; Moustakas, L; Alighieri, S di Serego; Yan, H

    2007-01-01

    We present a catalog of spectro-photometric redshifts for 1308 galaxies from the GRism ACS Program for Extragalactic Science (GRAPES) observations with the Hubble Space Telescope. These low-resolution spectra between 6000 A and 9500 A are supplemented with U, J, H, and Ks from various facilities, resulting in redshifts computed with ~40 spectral bins per galaxy. For 81 galaxies between 0.5luminosity function in this redshift range from 72 galaxies. Owing to the depth of the GRAPES survey, we are able to accurately constrain the faint-end slope by going to M_B~-18 mag at 0.8

  11. The space density and X-ray luminosity function of non-magnetic cataclysmic variables

    CERN Document Server

    Pretorius, Magaretha L

    2011-01-01

    We combine two complete, X-ray flux-limited surveys, the ROSAT Bright Survey (RBS) and the ROSAT North Ecliptic Pole (NEP) survey, to measure the space density (\\rho) and X-ray luminosity function (\\Phi) of non-magnetic CVs. The combined survey has a flux limit of F_X \\ga 1.1 \\times 10^{-12} erg cm^{-2}s^{-1} over most of its solid angle of just over 2\\pi, but is as deep as \\simeq 10^{-14} erg cm^{-2}s^{-1} over a small area. The CV sample that we construct from these two surveys contains 20 non-magnetic systems. We carefully include all sources of statistical error in calculating \\rho and \\Phi by using Monte Carlo simulations; the most important uncertainty proves to be the often large errors in distances estimates. If we assume that the 20 CVs in the combined RBS and NEP survey sample are representative of the intrinsic population, the space density of non-magnetic CVs is 4^{+6}_{-2} \\times 10^{-6} pc^{-3}. We discuss the difficulty in measuring \\Phi in some detail---in order to account for biases in the me...

  12. The Radio Luminosity Function of the NEP Distant Cluster Radio Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Branchesi, M; Fanti, C; Fanti, R; Perley, R

    2005-01-01

    A complete sample of 18 X-ray selected clusters of galaxies belonging to the ROSAT North Ecliptic Pole (NEP) survey has been observed with the Very Large Array at 1.4 GHz. These are the most distant clusters in the X-ray survey with redshift in the range 0.3 =0.17 mJy/beam, except for three sources, belonging to the same cluster, which have a higher peak brightness limit of 0.26 mJy/beam. The NEP field source counts are in good agreement with the source counts of a comparison survey, the VLA-VIRMOS deep field survey, indicating that the NEP sample is statistically complete. Thirty-two out of the 79 sources are within 0.2 Abell radii, twenty-two of them are considered cluster members based on spectroscopic redshifts or their optical magnitude and morphological classification. The cluster radio galaxies are used to construct the Radio Luminosity Function (RLF) of distant X-ray selected clusters. A comparison with two nearby cluster RLFs shows that the NEP RLF lies above the local ones, has a steeper slope at lo...

  13. Re-analysis of the radio luminosity function of Galactic HII regions

    CERN Document Server

    Paladini, R; Noriega-Crespo, A; Carey, S J

    2009-01-01

    We have re-analyzed continuum and recombination lines radio data available in the literature in order to derive the luminosity function (LF) of Galactic HII regions. The study is performed by considering the first and fourth Galactic quadrants independently. We estimate the completeness level of the sample in the fourth quadrant at 5 Jy, and the one in the first quadrant at 2 Jy. We show that the two samples (fourth or first quadrant) include, as well as giant and super-giant HII regions, a significant number of sub-giant sources. The LF is obtained, in each Galactic quadrant, with a generalized Schmidt's estimator using an effective volume derived from the observed spatial distribution of the considered HII regions. The re-analysis also takes advantage of recently published ancillary absorption data allowing to solve the distance ambiguity for several objects. A single power-law fit to the LFs retrieves a slope equal to -2.23+/-0.07 (fourth quadrant) and to -1.85+/-0.11 (first quadrant). We also find margina...

  14. High Frequency Cluster Radio Galaxies: Luminosity Functions and Implications for SZE Selected Cluster Samples

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, N; Mohr, J J; Benson, B A; Bocquet, S; Carlstrom, J E; Capasso, R; Chiu, I; Crawford, T M; de Haan, T; Dietrich, J P; Gangkofner, C; Holzapfel, W L; McDonald, M; Rapetti, D; Reichardt, C L

    2016-01-01

    We study the overdensity of point sources in the direction of X-ray-selected galaxy clusters from the Meta-Catalog of X-ray detected Clusters of galaxies (MCXC; $\\langle z \\rangle = 0.14$) at South Pole Telescope (SPT) and Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey (SUMSS) frequencies. Flux densities at 95, 150 and 220 GHz are extracted from the 2500 deg$^2$ SPT-SZ survey maps at the locations of SUMSS sources, producing a multi-frequency catalog of radio galaxies. In the direction of massive galaxy clusters, the radio galaxy flux densities at 95 and 150 GHz are biased low by the cluster Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect (SZE) signal, which is negative at these frequencies. We employ a cluster SZE model to remove the expected flux bias and then study these corrected source catalogs. We find that the high frequency radio galaxies are centrally concentrated within the clusters and that their luminosity functions (LFs) exhibit amplitudes that are characteristically an order of magnitude lower than the cluster LF at 843 MHz. ...

  15. The European Large Area ISO Survey - IX. The 90-mu m luminosity function from the Final Analysis sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serjeant, S; Carraminana, A; Gonzales-Solares, E; Heraudeau, P; Mujica, R; Perez-Fournon, [No Value; Sedgwick, N; Rowan-Robinson, M; Franceschini, A; Babbedge, T; del Burgo, C; Ciliegi, P; Efstathiou, A; La Franca, F; Gruppioni, C; Hughes, D; Lari, C; Oliver, S; Pozzi, F; Stickel, M; Vaccari, M

    2004-01-01

    We present the 90-mum luminosity function of the Final Analysis of the European Large Area ISO Survey (ELAIS), extending the sample size of our previous analysis (Paper IV) by about a factor of 4. Our sample extends to z = 1.1, similar to50 times the comoving volume of Paper IV, and 10(7.7)

  16. Properties of galaxies at the faint end of the Hα luminosity function at z ~ 0.62

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Guijarro, Carlos; Gallego, Jesús; Villar, Víctor; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Lucía; Clément, Benjamin; Cuby, Jean-Gabriel

    2016-07-01

    Context. Studies measuring the star formation rate density, luminosity function, and properties of star-forming galaxies are numerous. However, it exists a gap at 0.5 Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO), Chile, Prog-Id 181.A-0485(A).

  17. The VIMOS-VLT Deep Survey: Evolution of the galaxy luminosity function up to z=2 in first epoch data

    CERN Document Server

    Ilbert, O; Zucca, E; Bardelli, S; Arnouts, S; Zamorani, G; Pozzetti, L; Bottini, D; Garilli, B; Le Brun, V; Lefèvre, O; MacCagni, D; Picat, J P; Scaramella, R; Scodeggio, M; Vettolani, G; Zanichelli, A; Adami, C; Arnaboldi, M; Bolzonella, M; Cappi, A; Charlot, S; Contini, T; Foucaud, S; Franzetti, P; Gavignaud, I; Guzzo, L; Iovino, A; McCracken, H J; Marano, B; Marinoni, C; Mathez, G; Mazure, A; Meneux, B; Merighi, R; Paltani, S; Pellò, R; Pollo, A; Radovich, M; Bondi, M; Bongiorno, A; Busarello, G; Ciliegi, P; Mellier, Y; Merluzzi, P; Ripepi, V; Rizzo, D

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of the galaxy luminosity function from the VIMOS-VLT Deep Survey (VVDS) from the present to z=2 in five (U, B, V, R and I) rest-frame band-passes. We use the first epoch VVDS deep sample of 11,034 spectra selected at 17.5 <= I_{AB} <= 24.0, on which we apply the Algorithm for Luminosity Function (ALF), described in this paper. We observe a substantial evolution with redshift of the global luminosity functions in all bands. From z=0.05 to z=2, we measure a brightening of the characteristic magnitude M* included in the magnitude range 1.8-2.4, 1.6-2.2, 1.0-1.7, 0.9-1.6 and 0.8-1.4 in the U, B, V, R and I rest-frame bands, respectively. We confirm this differential evolution of the luminosity function with rest-frame wavelength, from the measurement of the comoving density of bright galaxies (M < M*(z=0.1)). This density increases by a factor of around 2.5, 2.2, 1.7, 1.4, 1.3 between z=0.05 and z=1 in the U, B, V, R, I bands, respectively. We also measure a possible steepeni...

  18. The INTEGRAL/IBIS AGN catalogue I: X-ray absorption properties versus optical classification

    CERN Document Server

    Malizia, A; Bazzano, A; Bird, A J; Masetti, N; Panessa, F; Stephen, J B; Ubertini, P

    2012-01-01

    In this work we present the most comprehensive INTEGRAL AGN sample which lists 272 objects. Here we mainly use this sample to study the absorption properties of active galaxies, to probe new AGN classes and to test the AGN unification scheme. We find that half (48%) of the sample is absorbed while the fraction of Compton thick AGN is small (~7%). In line with our previous analysis, we have however shown that when the bias towards heavily absorbed objects which are lost if weak and at large distance is removed, as it is possible in the local Universe, the above fractions increase to become 80% and 17%. We also find that absorption is a function of source luminosity, which implies some evolution in the obscuration properties of AGN. Few peculiar classes, so far poorly studied in the hard X-ray band, have been detected and studied for the first time such as 5 XBONG, 5 type 2 QSOs and 11 LINERs. In terms of optical classification, our sample contains 57% of type 1 and 43% of type 2 AGN; this subdivision is simila...

  19. The average 0.5-200 keV spectrum of local active galactic nuclei and a new determination of the 2-10 keV luminosity function at z ≈ 0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, D. R.

    2014-01-01

    The broad-band X-ray spectra of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) contains information about the nuclear environment from Schwarzschild radii scales (where the primary power law is generated in a corona) to distances of ˜1 pc (where the distant reflector may be located). In addition, the average shape of the X-ray spectrum is an important input into X-ray background synthesis models. Here, local (z ≈ 0) AGN luminosity functions (LFs) in five energy bands are used as a low-resolution, luminosity-dependent X-ray spectrometer in order to constrain the average AGN X-ray spectrum between 0.5 and 200 keV. The 15-55 keV LF measured by Swift-BAT is assumed to be the best determination of the local LF, and then a spectral model is varied to determine the best fit to the 0.5-2 keV, 2-10 keV, 3-20 keV and 14-195 keV LFs. The spectral model consists of a Gaussian distribution of power laws with a mean photon-index and cutoff energy Ecut, as well as contributions from distant and disc reflection. The reflection strength is parametrized by varying the Fe abundance relative to solar, AFe, and requiring a specific Fe Kα equivalent width (EW). In this way, the presence of the X-ray Baldwin effect can be tested. The spectral model that best fits the four LFs has = 1.85 ± 0.15, E_{cut}=270^{+170}_{-80} keV, A_{Fe}=0.3^{+0.3}_{-0.15}. The sub-solar AFe is unlikely to be a true measure of the gas-phase metallicity, but indicates the presence of strong reflection given the assumed Fe Kα EW. Indeed, parametrizing the reflection strength with the R parameter gives R=1.7^{+1.7}_{-0.85}. There is moderate evidence for no X-ray Baldwin effect. Accretion disc reflection is included in the best-fitting model, but it is relatively weak (broad iron Kα EW BAT and RXTE. We therefore present a new determination of the local 2-10 keV LF that is consistent with all other energy bands, as well as the de-evolved 2-10 keV LF estimated from the XMM-Newton Hard Bright Survey. This new LF should be used

  20. Seeking the epoch of maximum luminosity for dusty quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infrared luminosities νLν(7.8 μm) arising from dust reradiation are determined for Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars with 1.4 luminosity does not show a maximum at any redshift z < 5, reaching a plateau for z ≳ 3 with maximum luminosity νLν(7.8 μm) ≳ 1047 erg s–1; luminosity functions show one quasar Gpc–3 having νLν(7.8 μm) > 1046.6 erg s–1 for all 2 luminosity has not yet been identified at any redshift below 5. The most ultraviolet luminous quasars, defined by rest frame νLν(0.25 μm), have the largest values of the ratio νLν(0.25 μm)/νLν(7.8 μm) with a maximum ratio at z = 2.9. From these results, we conclude that the quasars most luminous in the ultraviolet have the smallest dust content and appear luminous primarily because of lessened extinction. Observed ultraviolet/infrared luminosity ratios are used to define 'obscured' quasars as those having >5 mag of ultraviolet extinction. We present a new summary of obscured quasars discovered with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph and determine the infrared luminosity function of these obscured quasars at z ∼ 2.1. This is compared with infrared luminosity functions of optically discovered, unobscured quasars in the SDSS and in the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey. The comparison indicates comparable numbers of obscured and unobscured quasars at z ∼ 2.1 with a possible excess of obscured quasars at fainter luminosities.

  1. Dark-ages reionization and galaxy formation simulation - IV. UV luminosity functions of high-redshift galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuanwu; Mutch, Simon J.; Angel, P. W.; Duffy, Alan R.; Geil, Paul M.; Poole, Gregory B.; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we present calculations of the UV luminosity function (LF) from the Dark-ages Reionization And Galaxy-formation Observables from Numerical Simulations project, which combines N-body, semi-analytic and seminumerical modelling designed to study galaxy formation during the Epoch of Reionization. Using galaxy formation physics including supernova feedback, the model naturally reproduces the UV LFs for high-redshift star-forming galaxies from z ˜ 5 through to z ˜ 10. We investigate the luminosity-star formation rate (SFR) relation, finding that variable SFR histories of galaxies result in a scatter around the median relation of 0.1-0.3 dex depending on UV luminosity. We find close agreement between the model and observationally derived SFR functions. We use our calculated luminosities to investigate the LF below current detection limits, and the ionizing photon budget for reionization. We predict that the slope of the UV LF remains steep below current detection limits and becomes flat at MUV ≳ -14. We find that 48 (17) per cent of the total UV flux at z ˜ 6 (10) has been detected above an observational limit of MUV ˜ -17, and that galaxies fainter than MUV ˜ -17 are the main source of ionizing photons for reionization. We investigate the luminosity-stellar mass relation, and find a correlation for galaxies with MUV luminosity-halo mass relation to be M_vir ∝ 10^{-0.35M_UV}, finding that galaxies with MUV = -20 reside in host dark matter haloes of 1011.0±0.1 M⊙ at z ˜ 6, and that this mass decreases towards high redshift.

  2. Lessons learnt from INTEGRAL AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Beckmann, V; Soldi, S; Alfonso-Garzon, J; Courvoisier, T J -L; Domingo, A; Gehrels, N; Lubinski, P; Mas-Hesse, J M; Zdziarski, A A

    2010-01-01

    The INTEGRAL mission provides a large data set for studying the hard X-ray properties of AGN and allows to test the unified scheme for AGN. We present results based on the analysis of 199 AGN. A difference between the Seyfert types is detected in slightly flatter spectra with higher cut-off energies and lower luminosities for the more absorbed/type 2 AGN. When applying a Compton reflection model, the underlying continua (photon index 1.95) appear the same in Seyfert 1 and 2, and the reflection strength is R=1 in both cases, with differences in the inclination angle only. A difference is seen in the sense that Seyfert 1 are on average twice as luminous in hard X-rays than the Seyfert 2 galaxies. The unified model for Seyfert galaxies seems to hold, showing in hard X-rays that the central engine is the same in Seyfert 1 and 2 galaxies, seen under different inclination angle and absorption. Based on our knowledge of AGN from INTEGRAL data, we briefly outline open questions and investigations to answer them. In t...

  3. The galaxy UV luminosity function at z ~ 2 - 4; new results on faint-end slope and the evolution of luminosity density

    CERN Document Server

    Parsa, Shaghayegh; McLure, Ross J; Mortlock, Alice

    2015-01-01

    We present a new, robust measurement of the evolving rest-frame UV galaxy luminosity function (LF) over the key redshift range z = 2 - 4. Our results are based on the high dynamic range provided by combining the HUDF, CANDELS/GOODS-South, and UltraVISTA/COSMOS surveys. We utilise the unparalleled multi-frequency photometry available in this survey `wedding cake' to compile complete galaxy samples at z ~ 2,3,4 via photometric redshifts (calibrated against the latest spectroscopy) rather than colour-colour selection, and to determine accurate rest-frame UV absolute magnitudes from SED fitting. Our new determinations of the UV LF extend from M_{1500} ~ -22 down to M_{1500} = -14.5, -15.5 and -16 at z ~ 2, 3 and 4 respectively (thus reaching ~ 3 - 4 magnitudes fainter than previous blank-field studies at z ~ 2 - 3). At z ~ 2 - 3 we find a much shallower faint-end slope (alpha = -1.32 +- 0.03) than the steeper values (alpha ~ -1.7) reported by Reddy & Steidel (2009) or by Alavi et al. (2014), and show that thi...

  4. A physical model for the evolving UV luminosity function of high redshift galaxies and their contribution to the cosmic reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Zhen-Yi; Bressan, Alessandro; De Zotti, Gianfranco; Negrello, Mattia; Danese, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    [Abridged] We present a physical model for the evolution of the ultraviolet (UV) luminosity function (LF) of high-z galaxies taking into account in a self-consistent way their chemical evolution and the associated evolution of dust extinction. The model yields good fits of the UV and Lyman-alpha LFs at z>~2. The weak evolution of both LFs between z=2 and z=6 is explained as the combined effect of the negative evolution of the halo mass function, of the increase with redshift of the star formation efficiency, and of dust extinction. The slope of the faint end of the UV LF is found to steepen with increasing redshift, implying that low luminosity galaxies increasingly dominate the contribution to the UV background at higher and higher redshifts. The observed range of UV luminosities at high-z implies a minimum halo mass capable of hosting active star formation M_crit <~ 10^9.8 M_odot, consistent with the constraints from hydrodynamical simulations. From fits of Lyman-alpha LFs plus data on the luminosity dep...

  5. DEEP ULTRAVIOLET LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS AT THE INFALL REGION OF THE COMA CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used deep GALEX observations at the infall region of the Coma cluster to measure the faintest ultraviolet (UV) luminosity functions (LFs) presented for a rich galaxy cluster thus far. The Coma UV LFs are measured to MUV = –10.5 in the GALEX FUV and NUV bands, or 3.5 mag fainter than previous studies, and reach the dwarf early-type galaxy population in Coma for the first time. The Schechter faint-end slopes (α ≈ –1.39 in both GALEX bands) are shallower than reported in previous Coma UV LF studies owing to a flatter LF at faint magnitudes. A Gaussian-plus-Schechter model provides a slightly better parameterization of the UV LFs resulting in a faint-end slope of α ≈ –1.15 in both GALEX bands. The two-component model gives faint-end slopes shallower than α = –1 (a turnover) for the LFs constructed separately for passive and star-forming galaxies. The UV LFs for star-forming galaxies show a turnover at MUV ≈ –14 owing to a deficit of dwarf star-forming galaxies in Coma with stellar masses below M* = 108 M☉. A similar turnover is identified in recent UV LFs measured for the Virgo cluster suggesting this may be a common feature of local galaxy clusters, whereas the field UV LFs continue to rise at faint magnitudes. We did not identify an excess of passive galaxies as would be expected if the missing dwarf star-forming galaxies were quenched inside the cluster. In fact, the LFs for both dwarf passive and star-forming galaxies show the same turnover at faint magnitudes. We discuss the possible origin of the missing dwarf star-forming galaxies in Coma and their expected properties based on comparisons to local field galaxies.

  6. Deep UV Luminosity Functions at the Infall Region of the Coma Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, D. M.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Salim, S.; Smith, R.; Jenkins, L.; Mobasher, B.; Miller, N.; Ferguson, H.

    2011-01-01

    We have used deep GALEX observations at the infall region of the Coma cluster to measure the faintest UV luminosity functions (LFs) presented for a rich galaxy cluster thus far. The Coma UV LFs are measured to M(sub uv) = -10.5 in the GALEX FUV and NUV bands, or 3.5 mag fainter than previous studies, and reach the dwarf early-type galaxy population in Coma for the first time. The Schechter faint-end slopes (alpha approximately equal to -1.39 in both GALEX bands) are shallower than reported in previous Coma UV LF studies owing to a flatter LF at faint magnitudes. A Gaussian-plus-Schechter model provides a slightly better parametrization of the UV LFs resulting in a faint-end slope of alpha approximately equal to -1.15 in both GALEX bands. The two-component model gives faint-end slopes shallower than alpha = -1 (a turnover) for the LFs constructed separately for passive and star forming galaxies. The UV LFs for star forming galaxies show a turnover at M(sub UV) approximately equal to -14 owing to a deficit of dwarf star forming galaxies in Coma with stellar masses below M(sub *) = 10(sup 8) solar mass. A similar turnover is identified in recent UV LFs measured for the Virgo cluster suggesting this may be a common feature of local galaxy clusters, whereas the field UV LFs continue to rise at faint magnitudes. We did not identify an excess of passive galaxies as would be expected if the missing dwarf star forming galaxies were quenched inside the cluster. In fact, the LFs for both dwarf passive and star forming galaxies show the same turnover at faint magnitudes. We discuss the possible origin of the missing dwarf star forming galaxies in Coma and their expected properties based on comparisons to local field galaxies.

  7. The Properties of Poor Groups of Galaxies. III. The Galaxy Luminosity Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabludoff, Ann I.; Mulchaey, John S.

    2000-08-01

    The form of the galaxy luminosity function (GLF) in poor groups-regions of intermediate galaxy density that are common environments for galaxies-is not well understood. Multiobject spectroscopy and wide-field CCD imaging now allow us to measure the GLF of bound group members directly (i.e., without statistical background subtraction) and to compare the group GLF with the GLFs of the field and of rich clusters. We use R-band images in 1.5×1.5 degree2 mosaics to obtain photometry for galaxies in the fields of six nearby (2800composite group GLF for group members with -23+5logh=MR>-19+5logh) to giants (MRcomposite GLF for the luminous X-ray groups is consistent in shape with two measures of the composite R-band GLF for rich clusters (Trentham; Driver et al.) and flatter at the faint end than another (α~-1.5 Smith et al.); (3) the composite group GLF rises more steeply at the faint end than the R-band GLF of the Las Campanas Redshift Survey (LCRS; α=-0.7 from Lin et al.), a large volume survey dominated by galaxies in environments more rarefied than luminous X-ray groups; (4) the shape difference between the LCRS field and composite group GLFs results mostly from the population of non-emission line galaxies (EW [O II]line dwarfs are more concentrated about the group center than the non-emission line giants, except for the central, brightest (MRdark matter. This trend conflicts with the prediction of standard biased galaxy formation models.

  8. Compton Thick AGN in the 70 Month Swift-BAT All-Sky Hard X-ray Survey: a Bayesian approach

    CERN Document Server

    Akylas, A; Ranalli, P; Gkiokas, E; Corral, A; Lanzuisi, G

    2016-01-01

    The 70-month Swift/BAT catalogue provides a sensitive view of the extragalactic X-ray sky at hard energies (>10 keV) containing about 800 Active Galactic Nuclei. We explore its content in heavily obscured, Compton-thick AGN by combining the BAT (14-195 keV) with the lower energy XRT (0.3-10 keV) data. We apply a Bayesian methodology using Markov chains to estimate the exact probability distribution of the column density for each source. We find 54 possible Compton-thick sources (with probability 3 to 100%) translating to a ~7% fraction of the AGN in our sample. We derive the first parametric luminosity function of Compton-thick AGN. The unabsorbed luminosity function can be represented by a double power-law with a break at $L_{\\star} 2 \\times 10^{42}$ $\\rm ergs~s^{-1}$ in the 20-40 keV band.

  9. Hard X-ray luminosity function of tidal disruption events: First results from the MAXI extragalactic survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamuro, Taiki; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Shidatsu, Megumi; Hori, Takafumi; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Negoro, Hitoshi; Mihara, Tatehiro

    2016-08-01

    We derive the first hard X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of stellar tidal disruption events (TDEs) by supermassive black holes (SMBHs), which gives an occurrence rate of TDEs per unit volume as a function of peak luminosity and redshift, utilizing an unbiased sample observed by the Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI). On the basis of the light curves characterized by a power-law decay with an index of -5/3, a systematic search using the MAXI data detected four TDEs in the first 37 months of observations, all of which have been found in the literature. To formulate the TDE XLF, we consider the mass function of SMBHs, that of disrupted stars, the specific TDE rate as a function of SMBH mass, and the fraction of TDEs with relativistic jets. We perform an unbinned maximum likelihood fit to the MAXI TDE list and check the consistency with the observed TDE rate in the ROSAT all-sky survey. The results suggest that the intrinsic fraction of the jet-accompanying events is 0.0007%-34%. We confirm that at z ≲ 1.5 the contamination of the hard X-ray luminosity functions of active galactic nuclei by TDEs is not significant and hence that their contribution to the growth of SMBHs is negligible at the redshifts.

  10. The Herschel PEP/HerMES Luminosity Function. I: Probing the Evolution of PACS selected Galaxies to z~4

    CERN Document Server

    Gruppioni, C; Rodighiero, G; Delvecchio, I; Berta, S; Pozzetti, L; Zamorani, G; Andreani, P; Cimatti, A; Ilbert, O; Floch, E Le; Lutz, D; Magnelli, B; Marchetti, L; Monaco, P; Nordon, R; Oliver, S; Popesso, P; Riguccini, L; Roseboom, I; Rosario, D J; Sargent, M; Vaccari, M; Altieri, B; Aussel, H; Bongiovanni, A; Cepa, J; Daddi, E; Dominguez-Sanchez, H; Elbaz, D; Forster-Schreiber, N; Genzel, R; Iribarrem, A; Magliocchetti, M; Maiolino, R; Poglitsch, A; Garcia, A Perez; Sanchez-Portal, M; Sturm, E; Tacconi, L; Valtchanov, I; Amblard, A; Arumugam, V; Bethermin, M; Bock, J; Boselli, A; Buat, V; Burgarella, D; Castro-Rodriguez, N; Cava, A; Chanial, P; Clements, D L; Conley, A; Cooray, A; Dowell, C D; Dwek, E; Eales, S; Franceschini, A; Glenn, J; Griffin, M; Halpern, M; Hatziminaoglou, E; Ibar, E; Isaak, K; Ivison, R J; Lagache, G; Levenson, L; Lu, N; Madden, S; Maffei, B; Mainetti, G; Nguyen, H T; Halloran, B O; Page, M J; Panuzzo, P; Papageorgiou, A; Pearson, C P; Perez-Fournon, I; Pohlen, M; Rigopoulou, D; Rowan-Robinson, M; Schulz, B; Scott, D; Seymour, N; Shupe, D L; Smith, A J; Stevens, J A; Symeonidis, M; Trichas, M; Tugwell, K E; Vigroux, L; Wang, L; Wright, G; Xu, C K; Zemcov, M; Bardelli, S; Carollo, M; Contini, T; Fevre, O Le; Lilly, S; Mainieri, V; Renzini, A; Scodeggio, M; Zucca, E

    2013-01-01

    We exploit the deep and extended far infrared data sets (at 70, 100 and 160 um) of the Herschel GTO PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP) Survey, in combination with the HERschel Multi tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) data at 250, 350 and 500 um, to derive the evolution of the restframe 35 um, 60 um, 90 um, and total infrared (IR) luminosity functions (LFs) up to z~4. We detect very strong luminosity evolution for the total IR LF combined with a density evolution. In agreement with previous findings, the IR luminosity density increases steeply to z~1, then flattens between z~1 and z~3 to decrease at z greater than 3. Galaxies with different SEDs, masses and sSFRs evolve in very different ways and this large and deep statistical sample is the first one allowing us to separately study the different evolutionary behaviours of the individual IR populations contributing to the IR luminosity density. Galaxies occupying the well established SFR/stellar mass main sequence (MS) are found to dominate both the total IR LF a...

  11. HerMES: Unveiling obscured star formation - the far infrared luminosity function of ultraviolet-selected galaxies at z~1.5

    CERN Document Server

    Heinis, S; Béthermin, M; Aussel, H; Bock, J; Boselli, A; Burgarella, D; Conley, A; Cooray, A; Farrah, D; Ibar, E; Ilbert, O; Ivison, R J; Magdis, G; Marsden, G; Oliver, S J; Page, M J; Rodighiero, G; Roehlly, Y; Schulz, B; Scott, Douglas; Smith, A J; Viero, M; Wang, L; Zemcov, M

    2012-01-01

    We study the far-infrared (IR) and sub-millimeter properties of a sample of ultraviolet (UV) selected galaxies at z\\sim1.5. Using stacking at 250, 350 and 500 um from Herschel Space Observatory SPIRE imaging of the COSMOS field obtained within the HerMES key program, we derive the mean IR luminosity as a function of both UV luminosity and slope of the UV continuum beta. The IR to UV luminosity ratio is roughly constant over most of the UV luminosity range we explore. We also find that the IR to UV luminosity ratio is correlated with beta. We observe a correlation that underestimates the correlation derived from low-redshift starburst galaxies, but is in good agreement with the correlation derived from local normal star-forming galaxies. Using these results we reconstruct the IR luminosity function of our UV-selected sample. This luminosity function recovers the IR luminosity functions measured from IR selected samples at the faintest luminosities (Lir ~ 10^{11} L_sun), but might underestimate them at the brig...

  12. Biochemical characterization of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis α-1,3-glucanase Agn1p, and its functionality by heterologous Expression in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Villalobos-Duno

    Full Text Available α-1,3-Glucan is present as the outermost layer of the cell wall in the pathogenic yeastlike (Y form of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Based on experimental evidence, this polysaccharide has been proposed as a fungal virulence factor. To degrade α-1,3-glucan and allow remodeling of the cell wall, α-1,3-glucanase is required. Therefore, the study of this enzyme, its encoding gene, and regulatory mechanisms, might be of interest to understand the morphogenesis and virulence process in this fungus. A single gene, orthologous to other fungal α-1,3-glucanase genes, was identified in the Paracoccidioides genome, and labeled AGN1. Transcriptional levels of AGN1 and AGS1 (α-1,3-glucan synthase-encoding gene increased sharply when the pathogenic Y phase was cultured in the presence of 5% horse serum, a reported booster for cell wall α-1,3-glucan synthesis in this fungus. To study the biochemical properties of P. brasiliensis Agn1p, the enzyme was heterologously overexpressed, purified, and its activity profile determined by means of the degradation of carboxymethyl α-1,3-glucan (SCMG, chemically modified from P. brasiliensis α-1,3-glucan, used as a soluble substrate for the enzymatic reaction. Inhibition assays, thin layer chromatography and enzymatic reactions with alternative substrates (dextran, starch, chitin, laminarin and cellulose, showed that Agn1p displays an endolytic cut pattern and high specificity for SCMG. Complementation of a Schizosaccharomyces pombe agn1Δ strain with the P. brasiliensis AGN1 gene restored the wild type phenotype, indicating functionality of the gene, suggesting a possible role of Agn1p in the remodeling of P. brasiliensis Y phase cell wall. Based on amino acid sequence, P. brasiliensis Agn1p, groups within the family 71 of fungal glycoside hydrolases (GH-71, showing similar biochemical characteristics to other members of this family. Also based on amino acid sequence alignments, we propose a subdivision of fungal

  13. AGN feedback in elliptical galaxies: numerical simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Ciotti, L

    2011-01-01

    The importance of feedback (radiative and mechanical) from massive black holes at the centers of elliptical galaxies is not in doubt, given the well established relation among black hole mass and galaxy optical luminosity. Here, with the aid of high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations, we discuss how this feedback affects the hot ISM of isolated elliptical galaxies of different mass. The cooling and heating functions include photoionization plus Compton heating, the radiative transport equations are solved, and the mechanical feedback due to the nuclear wind is also described on a physical basis; star formation is considered. In the medium-high mass galaxies the resulting evolution is highly unsteady. At early times major accretion episodes caused by cooling flows in the recycled gas produced by stellar evolution trigger AGN flaring: relaxation instabilities occur so that duty cycles are small enough to account for the very small fraction of massive ellipticals observed to be in the QSO-phase, when the accr...

  14. The Evolution of the Galaxy Rest-frame Ultraviolet Luminosity Function over the First Two Billion Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Steven L.; Ryan, Russell E., Jr.; Papovich, Casey; Dickinson, Mark; Song, Mimi; Somerville, Rachel S.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Salmon, Brett; Giavalisco, Mauro; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Behroozi, Peter; Castellano, Marco; Dunlop, James S.; Faber, Sandy M.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Fontana, Adriano; Grogin, Norman A.; Hathi, Nimish; Jaacks, Jason; Kocevski, Dale D.; Livermore, Rachael; McLure, Ross J.; Merlin, Emiliano; Mobasher, Bahram; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Rafelski, Marc; Tilvi, Vithal; Willner, S. P.

    2015-09-01

    We present a robust measurement and analysis of the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) luminosity functions at z = 4-8. We use deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging over the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey/GOODS fields, the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, and the Hubble Frontier Field deep parallel observations near the Abell 2744 and MACS J0416.1-2403 clusters. The combination of these surveys provides an effective volume of 0.6-1.2 × 106 Mpc3 over this epoch, allowing us to perform a robust search for faint ({M}{UV}=-18) and bright (M{}{UV}\\lt -21) high-redshift galaxies. We select candidate galaxies using a well-tested photometric redshift technique with careful screening of contaminants, finding a sample of 7446 candidate galaxies at 3.5 \\lt z \\lt 8.5, with >1000 galaxies at z ≈ 6-8. We measure both a stepwise luminosity function for candidate galaxies in our redshift samples, and a Schechter function, using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis to measure robust uncertainties. At the faint end, our UV luminosity functions agree with previous studies, yet we find a higher abundance of UV-bright candidate galaxies at z ≥slant 6. Our best-fit value of the characteristic magnitude {M}{UV}* is consistent with -21 at z ≥slant 5, which is different than that inferred based on previous trends at lower redshift, and brighter at ˜2σ significance than previous measures at z = 6 and 7. At z = 8, a single power law provides an equally good fit to the UV luminosity function, while at z = 6 and 7 an exponential cutoff at the bright end is moderately preferred. We compare our luminosity functions to semi-analytical models, and find that the lack of evolution in {M}{UV}* is consistent with models where the impact of dust attenuation on the bright end of the luminosity function decreases at higher redshift, although a decreasing impact of feedback may also be possible. We measure the evolution of the cosmic star-formation rate (SFR) density by

  15. The Evolution of the Galaxy Rest-Frame Ultraviolet Luminosity Function Over the First Two Billion Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Steven L.; Ryan, Russell E., Jr.; Papovich, Casey; Dickinson, Mark; Song, Mimi; Somerville, Rachel; Ferguson, Henry C.; Salmon, Brett; Giavalisco, Mauro; Koekomoer, Anton M.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Behroozi, Peter; Castellano, Marco; Dunlop, James S.; Faber, Sandy M.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Fontana, Adriano; Grogin, Norman A.; Hathi, Nimish; Jaacks, Jason; Kocevski, Dale D.; Livermore, Rachael; McLure, Ross J.; Merlin, Emiliano; Rafelski, Marc Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We present a robust measurement and analysis of the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) luminosity function at z = 4 to 8. We use deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging over the CANDELS/GOODS fields, the Hubble Ultra Deep Field and the Hubble Frontier Field deep parallel observations near the Abell 2744 and MACS J0416.1- 2403 clusters. The combination of these surveys provides an effective volume of 0.6-1.2 ×10(exp 6) Mpc(exp 3) over this epoch, allowing us to perform a robust search for bright (M(sub UV) less than -21) and faint (M(sub UV) = -18) galaxies. We select galaxies using a well-tested photometric redshift technique with careful screening of contaminants, finding a sample of 7446 galaxies at 3.5 less than z less than 8.5, with more than 1000 galaxies at z of approximately 6 - 8. We measure both a stepwise luminosity function for galaxies in our redshift samples, as well as a Schechter function, using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis to measure robust uncertainties. At the faint end our UV luminosity functions agree with previous studies, yet we find a higher abundance of UV-bright galaxies at z of greater than or equal to 6. Our bestfit value of the characteristic magnitude M* is consistent with -21 at z of greater than or equal to 5, different than that inferred based on previous trends at lower redshift. At z = 8, a single power-law provides an equally good fit to the UV luminosity function, while at z = 6 and 7, an exponential cutoff at the bright-end is moderately preferred. We compare our luminosity functions to semi-analytical models, and find that the lack of evolution in M* is consistent with models where the impact of dust attenuation on the bright-end of the luminosity function decreases at higher redshift, though a decreasing impact of feedback may also be possible. We measure the evolution of the cosmic star-formation rate (SFR) density by integrating our observed luminosity functions to M(sub UV) = -17, correcting for dust attenuation, and find that

  16. A Comprehensive Study of Gamma-Ray Burst Optical Emission: III. Brightness Distributions and Luminosity Functions of Optical Afterglows

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xiang-Gao; Li, Liang; Lu, Rui-Jing; Wei, Jian-Yan; Zhang, Bing

    2013-01-01

    We continue our systematic statistical study on optical afterglow data of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We present the apparent magnitude distributions of early optical afterglows at different epochs (t= 10^2 s, t = 10^3 s, and 1 hour) for the optical lightcurves of a sample of 93 GRBs (the global sample), and for sub-samples with an afterglow onset bump or a shallow decay segment. For the onset sample and shallow decay sample we also present the brightness distribution at the peak time t_{p} and break time t_{b}, respectively. All the distributions can be fit with Gaussian functions. We further perform Monte Carlo simulations to infer the luminosity function of GRB optical emission at the rest-frame time 10^3 seconds, t_{p}, and t_{b}, respectively. Our results show that a single power-law luminosity function is adequate to model the data, with indices -1.40+/-0.10, -1.06+/- 0.16, and -1.54\\+/- 0.22, respectively. Based on the derived rest-frame 10^3 s luminosity function, we generate the intrinsic distribution o...

  17. The Radius-Luminosity Relationship for Active Galactic Nuclei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Netzer, Hagai;

    2009-01-01

    We present high-resolution HST images of all 35 AGNs with optical reverberation-mapping results, which we have modeled to create a nucleus-free image of each AGN host galaxy. From the nucleus-free images, we determine the host-galaxy contribution to ground-based spectroscopic luminosity measureme...

  18. The Gamma-Ray Luminosity Function of Millisecond Pulsars and Implications for the GeV Excess

    CERN Document Server

    Hooper, Dan

    2015-01-01

    It has been proposed that a large population of unresolved millisecond pulsars (MSPs) could potentially account for the excess of GeV-scale gamma-rays observed from the region surrounding the Galactic Center. The viability of this scenario depends critically on the gamma-ray luminosity function of this source population, which determines how many MSPs Fermi should have already detected as resolved point sources. In this paper, we revisit the gamma-ray luminosity function of MSPs, without relying on uncertain distance measurements. Our determination, based on a comparison of models with the observed characteristics of the MSP population, suggests that Fermi should have already detected a significant number of sources associated with such a hypothesized Inner Galaxy population. We cannot rule out a scenario in which the MSPs residing near the Galactic Center are systematically less luminous than those present in the Galactic Plane or within globular clusters.

  19. Disentangling AGN and Star Formation in Soft X-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Heckman, T. M.; Ptak, A.

    2012-01-01

    We have explored the interplay of star formation and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity in soft X-rays (0.5-2 keV) in two samples of Seyfert 2 galaxies (Sy2s). Using a combination of low-resolution CCD spectra from Chandra and XMM-Newton, we modeled the soft emission of 34 Sy2s using power-law and thermal models. For the 11 sources with high signal-to-noise Chandra imaging of the diffuse host galaxy emission, we estimate the luminosity due to star formation by removing the AGN, fitting the residual emission. The AGN and star formation contributions to the soft X-ray luminosity (i.e., L(sub x,AGN) and L(sub x,SF)) for the remaining 24 Sy2s were estimated from the power-law and thermal luminosities derived from spectral fitting. These luminosities were scaled based on a template derived from XSINGS analysis of normal star-forming galaxies. To account for errors in the luminosities derived from spectral fitting and the spread in the scaling factor, we estimated L(sub x,AGN) and L(sub x,SF))from Monte Carlo simulations. These simulated luminosities agree with L(sub x,AGN) and L(sub x,SF) derived from Chandra imaging analysis within a 3sigma confidence level. Using the infrared [Ne ii]12.8 micron and [O iv]26 micron lines as a proxy of star formation and AGN activity, respectively, we independently disentangle the contributions of these two processes to the total soft X-ray emission. This decomposition generally agrees with L(sub x,SF) and L(sub x,AGN) at the 3 sigma level. In the absence of resolvable nuclear emission, our decomposition method provides a reasonable estimate of emission due to star formation in galaxies hosting type 2 AGNs.

  20. Mid-Infrared Luminosity Function of Local Star-Forming Galaxies in the NEP-Wide Survey Field of AKARI

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Seong Jin; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Goto, Tomotsugu; Matsuhara, Hideo; Im, Myungshin; Shim, Hyunjin; Kim, Min Gyu; Lee, Myung Gyoon

    2015-01-01

    We present mid-infrared (MIR) luminosity functions (LFs) of local star-forming (SF) galaxies in the AKARI NEP-Wide Survey field. In order to derive more accurate luminosity function, we used spectroscopic sample only. Based on the NEP-Wide point source catalogue containing a large number of infrared (IR) sources distributed over the wide (5.4 sq. deg.) field, we incorporated the spectroscopic redshift data for about 1790 selected targets obtained by optical follow-up surveys with MMT/Hectospec and WIYN/Hydra. The AKARI continuous 2 to 24 micron wavelength coverage as well as photometric data from optical u band to NIR H-band with the spectroscopic redshifts for our sample galaxies enable us to derive accurate spectral energy distributions (SEDs) in the mid-infrared. We carried out SED fit analysis and employed 1/Vmax method to derive the MIR (8, 12, and 15 micron rest-frame) luminosity functions. We fit our 8 micron LFs to the double power-law with the power index of alpha= 1.53 and beta= 2.85 at the break lu...

  1. The WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey: Star-formation in UV-luminous galaxies from their luminosity functions

    CERN Document Server

    Jurek, Russell J; Pimbblet, Kevin; Glazebrook, Karl; Blake, Chris; Brough, Sarah; Colless, Matthew; Contreras, Carlos; Couch, Warrick; Croom, Scott; Croton, Darren; Davis, Tamara M; Forster, Karl; Gilbank, David; Gladders, Mike; Jelliffe, Ben; Li, I-hui; Madore, Barry; Martin, D Christopher; Poole, Gregory B; Pracy, Michael; Sharp, Rob; Wisnioski, Emily; Woods, David; Wyder, Ted K; Yee, H K C

    2013-01-01

    We present the ultraviolet (UV) luminosity function of galaxies from the GALEX Medium Imaging Survey with measured spectroscopic redshifts from the first data release of the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey. This sample selects galaxies with high star formation rates: at 0.6 M_NUV>-22.5) evolve very rapidly with a number density declining as (1+z)^{5\\pm 1} from redshift z = 0.9 to z = 0.6. These starburst galaxies (M_NUV<-21 is approximately a star formation rate of 30 \\msuny) contribute about 1 per cent of cosmic star formation over the redshift range z=0.6 to z=0.9. The star formation rate density of these very luminous galaxies evolves rapidly, as (1+z)^{4\\pm 1}. Such a rapid evolution implies the majority of star formation in these large galaxies must have occurred before z = 0.9. We measure the UV luminosity function in 0.05 redshift intervals spanning 0.1luminosity function is not...

  2. The Evolution of the Galaxy Rest-Frame Ultraviolet Luminosity Function Over the First Two Billion Years

    CERN Document Server

    Finkelstein, Steven L; Papovich, Casey; Dickinson, Mark; Song, Mimi; Somerville, Rachel; Ferguson, Henry C; Salmon, Brett; Giavalisco, Mauro; Koekemoer, Anton M; Ashby, Matthew L N; Behroozi, Peter; Castellano, Marco; Dunlop, James S; Faber, Sandy M; Fazio, Giovanni G; Fontana, Adriano; Grogin, Norman A; Hathi, Nimish; Jaacks, Jason; Kocevski, Dale D; Livermore, Rachael; McLure, Ross J; Merlin, Emiliano; Mobasher, Bahram; Newman, Jeffrey A; Rafelski, Marc; Tilvi, Vithal; Willner, S P

    2014-01-01

    We present a robust measurement and analysis of the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) luminosity function at z=4-8. We use deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging over the CANDELS/GOODS fields, the Hubble Ultra Deep Field and the Year 1 Hubble Frontier Field deep parallel observations. These surveys provides an effective volume of 0.6-1.2 x 10^6 Mpc^3 over this epoch, allowing us to perform a robust search for bright (M_UV 1000 galaxies at z~6-8. We measure the luminosity function using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis to measure robust uncertainties. At the faint end our results agree with previous studies, yet we find a higher abundance of UV-bright galaxies at z>6, with M* ~ -21 at z>5, different than that inferred based on previous trends at lower redshift. At z=8, a single power-law provides an equally good fit to the UV luminosity function, while at z=6 and 7, an exponential cutoff at the bright-end is moderately preferred. We compare to semi-analytical models, and find that the lack of evolution in M* is cons...

  3. The space density of Compton-thick AGN at z~0.8 in the zCOSMOS-Bright Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Vignali, C; Gilli, R; Comastri, A; Iwasawa, K; Zamorani, G; Mainieri, V; Bongiorno, A

    2014-01-01

    The obscured accretion phase in BH growth is a key ingredient in many models linking the AGN activity with the evolution of their host galaxy. At present, a complete census of obscured AGN is still missing. The purpose of this work is to assess the reliability of the [NeV] emission line at 3426 A to pick up obscured AGN up to z~1 by assuming that [NeV] is a reliable proxy of the intrinsic AGN luminosity and using moderately deep X-ray data to characterize the amount of obscuration. A sample of 69 narrow-line (Type 2) AGN at z=0.65-1.20 were selected from the 20k-zCOSMOS Bright galaxy sample on the basis of the presence of the [NeV] emission. The X-ray properties of these galaxies were then derived using the Chandra-COSMOS coverage of the field; the X-ray-to-[NeV] flux ratio, coupled with X-ray spectral and stacking analyses, was then used to infer whether Compton-thin or Compton-thick absorption were present in these sources. Then the [NeV] luminosity function was computed to estimate the space density of Com...

  4. Properties of galaxies around AGNs with the most massive supermassive black holes revealed by clustering analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaki, Yuji; Komiya, Yutaka; Ohishi, Masatoshi; Mizumoto, Yoshihiko

    2016-04-01

    We present results of the clustering analysis between active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and galaxies at redshift 0.1-1.0, which was performed to investigate the properties of galaxies associated with the AGNs and reveal the nature of the fueling mechanism of supermassive black holes (SMBHs). We used 8059 AGNs/quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) for which virial masses of individual SMBHs were measured, and divided them into four mass groups.Cross-correlation analysis was performed to reconfirm our previous result that cross-correlation length increases with SMBH mass MBH; we obtained consistent results. A linear bias of AGN for each mass group was measured as 1.47 for MBH = 107.5-108.2 M⊙ and 3.08 for MBH = 109-1010 M⊙. The averaged color and luminosity distributions of galaxies around the AGNs/QSOs were also derived for each mass group. The galaxy color Dopt-IR was estimated from a spectral energy distribution (SED) constructed from a catalog derived by merging the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) catalogs. The distributions of color and luminosity were derived by a subtraction method, which does not require redshift information of galaxies. The main results of this work are as follows. (1) A linear bias increases by a factor of two from the lower-mass group to the highest-mass group. (2) The environment around AGNs with the most massive SMBHs (MBH > 109 M⊙) is dominated by red sequence galaxies. (3) Marginal indication of decline in luminosity function at dimmer side of MIR > -19.5 is found for galaxies around AGNs with MBH = 108.2-109 M⊙ and nearest redshift group (z = 0.1-0.3). These results indicate that AGNs with the most massive SMBHs reside in haloes where a large fraction of galaxies have been transited to the red sequence. The accretion of hot halo gas as well as recycled gas from evolving stars can be one of the plausible mechanisms to fuel the SMBHs above ˜ 109 M⊙.

  5. Narrow-line region gas kinematics of 24,264 optically-selected AGN: the radio connection

    CERN Document Server

    Mullaney, J R; Fine, S; Goulding, A D; Harrison, C M; Hickox, R C

    2013-01-01

    Using a sample of 24264 optically selected AGNs from the SDSS DR7 database, we characterise how the profile of the [OIII] emission line relates to bolometric luminosity (L_Bol), Eddington ratio, radio loudness, radio luminosity (L_Rad) and optical class (Sy 1/2) to determine what drives the kinematics of this kpc-scale line emitting gas. Spectral stacking is used to characterise how the average [OIII] profile changes as a function of these variables. After accounting for the correlation between L_Bol and L_Rad, we report that L_Rad has the strongest influence on the [OIII] profile, with moderate radio luminosity AGNs (log(L_Rad)=23-25 W/Hz) having the broadest [OIII] profiles. When binned according to Eddington ratio, only AGNs in our highest bin (i.e., R_Edd>0.3) show any signs of having broadened [OIII] profiles, although the small numbers of such extreme AGNs mean we cannot rule out that other processes (e.g., radio jets) are responsible for this broadening. We find no significant difference between the [O...

  6. Time Series Analysis of the UV Flickering in AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Edward L.

    2003-01-01

    Goals of the Research: Many active galactic nuclei (AGN) exhibit large-amplitude luminosity fluctuations on short timescales. The fluctuations lead to a profound conclusion: The size of the emitting region is remarkably small. This observational fact is one of the pillars supporting the AGN paradigm: Prodigious amounts of gravitational potential energy are liberated in an accretion disk around a supermassive black hole. The goals of the research were to extract from the IUE Archive the very best observational characterizations of AGN flickering, and to use these to test and develop models for AGN variability.

  7. A spectroscopic survey of X-ray-selected AGNs in the northern XMM-XXL field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, M.-L.; Merloni, A.; Georgakakis, A.; Salvato, M.; Aubourg, E.; Brandt, W. N.; Brusa, M.; Buchner, J.; Dwelly, T.; Nandra, K.; Pâris, I.; Petitjean, P.; Schwope, A.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a survey of X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with optical spectroscopic follow-up in a ˜ 18 deg2 area of the equatorial XMM-XXL north field. A sample of 8445 point-like X-ray sources detected by XMM-Newton above a limiting flux of F_{0.5-10 keV} > 10^{-15} erg cm^{-2} s^{-1} was matched to optical (Sloan Digital Sky Survey, SDSS) and infrared (IR; WISE) counterparts. We followed up 3042 sources brighter than r = 22.5 mag with the SDSS Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) spectrograph. The spectra yielded a reliable redshift measurement for 2578 AGNs in the redshift range z = 0.02-5.0, with 0.5-2 keV luminosities ranging from 1039-1046 erg s- 1. This is currently the largest published spectroscopic sample of X-ray-selected AGNs in a contiguous area. The BOSS spectra of AGN candidates show a distribution of optical line widths which is clearly bimodal, allowing an efficient separation between broad- and narrow-emission line AGNs. The former dominate our sample (70 per cent) due to the relatively bright X-ray flux limit and the optical BOSS magnitude limit. We classify the narrow-emission line objects (22 per cent of the full sample) using standard optical emission line diagnostics: the majority have line ratios indicating the dominant source of ionization is the AGN. A small number (8 per cent of the full sample) exhibit the typical narrow line ratios of star-forming galaxies, or only have absorption lines in their spectra. We term the latter two classes `elusive' AGN, which would not be easy to identify correctly without their X-ray emission. We also compare X-ray (XMM-Newton), optical colour (SDSS) and and IR (WISE) AGN selections in this field. X-ray observations reveal, by far, the largest number of AGN. The overlap between the selections, which is a strong function of the imaging depth in a given band, is also remarkably small. We show using spectral stacking that a large fraction of the X-ray AGNs would not be

  8. Properties of galaxies at the faint end of the Hα luminosity function at z ~ 0.62

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Guijarro, Carlos; Gallego, Jesús; Villar, Víctor; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Lucía; Clément, Benjamin; Cuby, Jean-Gabriel

    2016-07-01

    Context. Studies measuring the star formation rate density, luminosity function, and properties of star-forming galaxies are numerous. However, it exists a gap at 0.5 basic photometric and spectroscopic properties. Methods: We use a narrow-band technique in the near-infrared, with a filter centred at 1.06 μm. The data come from ultra-deep VLT/HAWK-I observations in the GOODS-S field with a total of 31.9 h in the narrow-band filter. In addition to our survey, we mainly make use of ancillary data coming from the CANDELS and Rainbow Cosmological Surveys Database, from the 3D-HST for comparison, and also spectra from the literature. We perform a visual classification of the sample and study their morphologies from structural parameters available in CANDELS. In order to obtain the luminosity function, we apply a traditional V/Vmax method and perform individual extinction corrections for each object to accurately trace the shape of the function. Results: Our 28 Hα-selected sample of faint star-forming galaxies reveals a robust faint-end slope of the luminosity function α = - 1.46-0.08+0.16 . The derived star formation rate density at z ~ 0.62 is ρSFR = 0.036-0.008+0.012 M⊙ yr-1 Mpc-3 . The sample is mainly composed of disks, but an important contribution of compact galaxies with Sérsic indexes n ~ 2 display the highest specific star formation rates. Conclusions: The luminosity function at z ~ 0.62 from our ultra-deep data points towards a steeper α when an individual extinction correction for each object is applied. Compact galaxies are low-mass, low-luminosity, and starburst-dominated objects with a light profile in an intermediate stage from early to late types. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO), Chile, Prog-Id 181.A-0485(A).

  9. Mid- and far-infrared luminosity functions and galaxy evolution from multiwavelength Spitzer observations up to z ~ 2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodighiero, G.; Vaccari, M.; Franceschini, A.; Tresse, L.; Le Fevre, O.; Le Brun, V.; Mancini, C.; Matute, I.; Cimatti, A.; Marchetti, L.; Ilbert, O.; Arnouts, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Zucca, E.; Bardelli, S.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Shupe, D.; Surace, J.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Garilli, B.; Zamorani, G.; Pozzetti, L.; Bondi, M.; de la Torre, S.; Vergani, D.; Santini, P.; Grazian, A.; Fontana, A.

    2010-06-01

    Context. Studies of the infrared (IR) emission of cosmic sources have proven essential to constraining the evolutionary history of cosmic star formation and the gravitational accretion of nuclear black holes, because many of these events occur inside heavily dust-extinguished environments. Aims: The Spitzer Space Telescope has provided a large amount of data to constrain the nature and cosmological evolution of infrared source populations. In the present paper we exploit a large homogeneous dataset to derive a self-consistent picture of IR emission based on the time-dependent λ_eff = 24, 15, 12, and 8 μm monochromatic and bolometric IR luminosity functions (LF) over the full 0 1.5. Based on the multiwavelength information available in these areas, we constrain the LFs at 8, 12, 15, and 24 μm. We also infer the total IR luminosities from our best-fit model of the observed SEDs of each source, and use this to derive the bolometric (8-1000 μm) LF and comoving volume emissivity to z ~ 2.5. Results: In the redshift interval 0 1. The mean redshift of the peak in the source number density shifts with luminosity: the brightest IR galaxies appear to form stars at earlier cosmic times (z > 1.5), while star formation in the less luminous galaxies continues until more recent epochs (z ~ 1 for LIR 1. We also appear to measure a difference in the evolutionary rate of the source number densities as a function of luminosity, which is consistent with the downsizing evolutionary patterns reported for other samples of cosmic sources.

  10. Changing Ionization Conditions in SDSS Galaxies with AGN as a Function of Environment from Pairs to Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Khabiboulline, Emil T; Silverman, John D; Ellison, Sara L; Mendel, J Trevor; Patton, David R

    2014-01-01

    We study how AGN activity changes across environments from galaxy pairs to clusters using $143\\, 843$ galaxies with $z<0.2$ from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Using a refined technique, we apply a continuous measure of AGN activity, characteristic of the ionization state of the narrow-line emitting gas. Changes in key emission-line ratios ([NII]$\\lambda6548$/H$\\alpha$, [OIII]$\\lambda5007$/H$\\beta$) between different samples allow us to disentangle different environmental effects while removing contamination. We confirm that galaxy interactions enhance AGN activity. However, conditions in the central regions of clusters are inhospitable for AGN activity even if galaxies are in pairs. These results can be explained through models of gas dynamics in which pair interactions stimulate the transfer of gas to the nucleus and clusters suppress gas availability for accretion onto the central black hole.

  11. Spectral Energy Distributions of Type 1 AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Heng

    The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are essential to understand the physics of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and their host galaxies. This thesis present a detailed study of AGN SED shapes in the optical-near infrared bands (0.3--3microm) for 413 X-ray selected Type 1 AGNs from the XMM-COSMOS Survey. We define a useful near-IR/optical index-index ('color-color') diagram to investigate the mixture of AGN continuum, host galaxy and reddening contributions. We found that ˜90% of the AGNs lie on mixing curves between the Elvis et al. (1994) mean AGN SED (E94) and a host galaxy, with only the modest reddening [E(B-V)=0.1--0.2] expected in type 1 AGNs. Lower luminosity and Eddington ratio objects have more host galaxy, as expected. The E94 template is remarkably good in describing the SED shape in the 0.3--3microrn decade of the spectrum over a range of 3.2 dex in LOPT, 2.7 dex in L/LEdd, and for redshifts up to 3. The AGN phenomenon is thus insensitive to absolute or relative accretion rate and to cosmic time. However, 10% of the AGNs are inconsistent with any AGN+host+reddening mix. These AGNs have weak or non-existent near-IR bumps, suggesting a lack of the hot dust characteristic of AGNs. The fraction of these hot-dust-poor AGNs evolves with redshift from 6% at low redshift (z times the gravitational stability radii. Either the host-dust is destroyed (dynamically or by radiation), or is offset from the central black hole due to recoiling. Alternatively, the universality of HDP quasars in samples with different selection methods and the continuous distribution of dust covering factor in type 1 AGNs, suggest that the range of SEDs could be related to the range of tilts in warped fueling disks, as in the model of Lawrence and Elvis (2010), with HDP quasars having relatively small warps. A small number of other outliers are found with the help of the mixing diagram, which could represent quasars on different evolutionary stage

  12. The Horizon-AGN simulation: evolution of galaxy properties over cosmic time

    CERN Document Server

    Kaviraj, S; Kimm, T; Devriendt, J E G; Dubois, Y; Pichon, C; Slyz, A; Chisari, E; Peirani, S

    2016-01-01

    We compare the predictions of Horizon-AGN, a hydro-dynamical cosmological simulation that uses an adaptive mesh refinement code, to observational data in the redshift range 0luminosity and stellar-mass functions, the star formation main sequence, rest-frame UV-optical-near infrared colours and the cosmic star-formation history. We show that Horizon-AGN, which is not tuned to reproduce the local Universe, produces good overall agreement with these quantities, from the present day to the epoch when the Universe was 5% of its current age. By comparison to Horizon-noAGN, a twin simulation without AGN feedback, we quantify how feedback from black holes is likely to help shape galaxy stellar-mass growth in the redshift range 0AGN successfully captures the evolutionary trends of ob...

  13. Why are there strong radio AGNs in the center of "non-cool core" clusters?

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Ming

    2009-01-01

    Radio AGN feedback in X-ray cool cores has been proposed as a crucial ingredient in the evolution of baryonic structures. However, it has long been known that strong radio AGNs also exist in "noncool core" clusters, which brings up the question whether an X-ray cool core is always required for radio feedback. We present a systematic analysis of 152 groups and clusters to show that every BCG with a strong radio AGN has an X-ray cool core. Those strong radio AGNs in the center of the "noncool core" systems identified before are in fact associated with small X-ray cool cores with typical radii of < 5 kpc (we call them coronae). Small coronae are most likely of ISM origin and they carry enough fuel to power radio AGNs. Our results suggest that the traditional cool core/noncool core dichotomy is too simple. A better alternative is the cool core distribution function with the enclosed X-ray luminosity. Other implications of our results are also discussed, including a warning on the simple extrapolation of the de...

  14. A complete view of galaxy evolution: panchromatic luminosity functions and the generation of metals

    CERN Document Server

    Blain, Andrew W; Bertoldi, Frank; Bock, James; Bradford, Matt; Dowell, C Darren; Glenn, Jason; Goldsmith, Paul; Harwit, Martin; Helou, George; Smith, J D; Soifer, B T; Stacey, Gordon; Vieira, Joaquin; Yun, Min; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2009-01-01

    When and how did galaxies form and their metals accumulate? Over the last decade, this has moved from an archeological question to a live investigation: there is now a broad picture of the evolution of galaxies in dark matter halos: their masses, stars, metals and supermassive blackholes. Galaxies have been found and studied in which these formation processes are taking place most vigorously, all the way back in cosmic time to when the intergalactic medium (IGM) was still largely neutral. However, the details of how and why the interstellar medium (ISM) in distant galaxies cools, is processed, recycled and enriched in metals by stars, and fuels active galactic nuclei (AGNs) remain uncertain. In particular, the cooling of gas to fuel star formation, and the chemistry and physics of the most intensely active regions is hidden from view at optical wavelengths, but can be seen and diagnosed at mid- & far-infrared (IR) wavelengths. Rest-frame IR observations are important first to identify the most luminous, i...

  15. The X-ray luminosity function of M37 and the evolution of coronal activity in low-mass stars

    CERN Document Server

    Núñez, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    We use a 440.5 ks Chandra observation of the $\\approx$500-Myr-old open cluster M37 to derive the X-ray luminosity functions of its $\\leq1.2$ $M_{\\odot}$ stars. Combining detections of 162 M37 members with upper limits for 160 non-detections, we find that its G, K, and M stars have a similar median (0.5$-$7 keV) X-ray luminosity L$_X =10^{29.0}$ erg/s, whereas the L$_X$-to-bolometric-luminosity ratio (L$_X$/L$_{bol}$) indicates that M stars are more active than G and K stars by $\\approx$1 order of magnitude at 500 Myr. To characterize the evolution of magnetic activity in low-mass stars over their first $\\approx$600 Myr, we consolidate X-ray and optical data from the literature for stars in six other open clusters: from youngest to oldest, the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC), NGC 2547, NGC 2516, the Pleiades, NGC 6475, and the Hyades. For these, we homogenize the conversion of instrumental count rates to L$_X$ by applying the same one-temperature emission model as for M37, and obtain masses using the same empirical...

  16. Photometric properties and luminosity function of nearby massive early-type galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    He, Y Q; Hao, C N; Jing, Y P; Mao, S; Li, Cheng

    2013-01-01

    We perform photometric analyses for a bright early-type galaxy (ETG) sample with 2949 galaxies ($M_{\\rm r}<-22.5$ mag) in the redshift range of 0.05 to 0.15, drawn from the SDSS DR7 with morphological classification from Galaxy Zoo 1. We measure the Petrosian and isophotal magnitudes, as well as the corresponding half-light radius for each galaxy. We find that our Petrosian magnitudes, and isophotal magnitudes to 25 ${\\rm mag/arcsec^2}$ and 1% of the sky brightness are on average 0.16 mag, 0.2 mag, and 0.26 mag brighter than the SDSS Petrosian values, respectively. In the first case the underestimations are caused by overestimations in the sky background by the SDSS PHOTO algorithm, while the latter two are also due to deeper photometry. We find the overestimations are more strongly influenced by galaxy sizes than by galaxy luminosities. Similarly, the typical half-light radii ($r_{50}$) measured by the SDSS algorithm are smaller than our measurements. As a result, the bright-end of the $r-$band luminosity...

  17. Variability Selected Low-Luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei in the 4 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M.; Brandt, W. N.; Xue, Y. Q.; Paolillo, D. M.; Alexander, F. E.; Bauer, F. E.; Lehmer, B. D.; Luo, B.; Shemmer, O.; Schneider, D. P.; Vignail, C.

    2012-01-01

    The 4 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) and other deep X-ray surveys have been highly effective at selecting active galactic nuclei (AGN). However, cosmologically distant low-luminosity AGN (LLAGN) have remained a challenge to identify due to significant contribution from the host galaxy. We identify long-term X ray variability (approx. month years, observed frame) in 20 of 92 CDF-S galaxies spanning redshifts approx equals 00.8 - 1.02 that do not meet other AGN selection criteria. We show that the observed variability cannot be explained by X-ray binary populations or ultraluminous X-ray sources, so the variability is most likely caused by accretion onto a supermassive black hole. The variable galaxies are not heavily obscured in general, with a stacked effective power-law photon index of Gamma(sub Stack) approx equals 1.93 +/- 0.13, and arc therefore likely LLAGN. The LLAGN tend to lie it factor of approx equal 6-89 below the extrapolated linear variability-luminosity relation measured for luminous AGN. This may he explained by their lower accretion rates. Variability-independent black-hole mass and accretion-rate estimates for variable galaxies show that they sample a significantly different black hole mass-accretion-rate space, with masses a factor of 2.4 lower and accretion rates a factor of 22.5 lower than variable luminous AGNs at the same redshift. We find that an empirical model based on a universal broken power-law power spectral density function, where the break frequency depends on SMBH mass and accretion rate, roughly reproduces the shape, but not the normalization, of the variability-luminosity trends measured for variable galaxies and more luminous AGNs.

  18. Constraining the Warm Dark Matter Particle Mass through Ultra-Deep UV Luminosity Functions at z=2

    CERN Document Server

    Menci, N; Castellano, M; Grazian, A

    2016-01-01

    We compute the mass function of galactic dark matter halos for different values of the Warm Dark Matter (WDM) particle mass m_X and compare it with the abundance of ultra-faint galaxies derived from the deepest UV luminosity function available so far at redshift z~2. The magnitude limit M_UV=-13 reached by such observations allows us to probe the WDM mass functions down to scales close to or smaller than the half-mass mode mass scale ~10^9 M_sun. This allowed for an efficient discrimination among predictions for different m_X which turn out to be independent of the star formation efficiency adopted to associate the observed UV luminosities of galaxies to the corresponding dark matter masses. Adopting a conservative approach to take into account the existing theoretical uncertainties in the galaxy halo mass function, we derive a robust limit m_X>1.8 keV for the mass of thermal relic WDM particles when comparing with the measured abundance of the faintest galaxies, while m_X>1.5 keV is obtained when we compare ...

  19. Are the hosts of VLBI selected radio-AGN different to those of radio-loud AGN?

    CERN Document Server

    Rees, G A; Spitler, L R; Herrera-Ruiz, N; Middelberg, E

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have found that radio-AGN selected by radio-loudness show little difference in terms of their host galaxy properties when compared to non-AGN galaxies of similar stellar mass and redshift. Using new 1.4~GHz VLBI observations of the COSMOS field we find that approximately 49$\\pm8$\\% of high-mass (M $>$ 10$^{10.5}$ M$_{\\odot}$), high luminosity (L$_{1.4}$ $>$ 10$^{24}$ W~Hz$^{-1}$) radio-AGN possess a VLBI detected counterpart. These objects show no discernible bias towards specific stellar masses, redshifts or host properties other than what is shown by the radio-AGN population in general. Radio-AGN that are detected in VLBI observations are not special, but form a representative sample of the radio-loud AGN population.

  20. Luminosity functions of YSO clusters in Sh-2 255, W3 Main and NGC 7538 star forming regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Devendra; Tamura, Motohide

    We have conducted deep near-infrared surveys of the Sh-2 255, W3 Main and NGC 7538 massive star forming regions using simultaneous observations of the JHKs-band with the near-infrared camera SIRIUS on the UH 88-inch telescope and with SUBARU. The near-infrared surveys cover a total area of ~72 square arcmin of three regions with 10-sigma limiting magnitudes of ~19.5, 18.4 and 17.3 in J, H and Ks-band, respectively. Based on the color-color and color-magnitude diagrams and their clustering properties, the candidate young stellar objects are identified and their luminosity functions are constructed in Sh-2 255, W3 Main and NGC 7538. A large number of previously unreported red sources (H-K > 2) have also been detected around these regions. We argue that these red stars are most probably pre-main sequence stars with intrinsic color excesses. The detected young stellar objects show a clear clustering pattern in each region: the Class I-like sources are mostly clustered in molecular cloud region, while the Class II-like sources in or around more evolved optical HII regions. We find that the slopes of the Ks-band luminosity functions of Sh-2 255, W3 Main and NGC 7538 are lower than the typical values reported for the young embedded clusters and their stellar populations are primarily composed of low mass pre-main sequence stars. From the slopes of the Ks-band luminosity functions, we infer that Sh-2 255, W3 Main and NGC 7538 star forming regions are rather young (age <=1 Myr).

  1. Decreased specific star formation rates in AGN host galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, T. Taro; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Meléndez, Marcio; Koss, Michael; Rosario, David J.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the location of an ultra-hard X-ray selected sample of active galactic nuclei (AGN) from the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) catalogue with respect to the main sequence (MS) of star-forming galaxies using Herschel-based measurements of the star formation rate (SFR) and M*'s from Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry where the AGN contribution has been carefully removed. We construct the MS with galaxies from the Herschel Reference Survey and Herschel Stripe 82 Survey using the exact same methods to measure the SFR and M* as the Swift/BAT AGN. We find that a large fraction of the Swift/BAT AGN lie below the MS indicating decreased specific SFR (sSFR) compared to non-AGN galaxies. The Swift/BAT AGN are then compared to a high-mass galaxy sample (CO Legacy Database for GALEX Arecibo SDSS Survey, COLD GASS), where we find a similarity between the AGN in COLD GASS and the Swift/BAT AGN. Both samples of AGN lie firmly between star-forming galaxies on the MS and quiescent galaxies far below the MS. However, we find no relationship between the X-ray luminosity and distance from the MS. While the morphological distribution of the BAT AGN is more similar to star-forming galaxies, the sSFR of each morphology is more similar to the COLD GASS AGN. The merger fraction in the BAT AGN is much higher than the COLD GASS AGN and star-forming galaxies and is related to distance from the MS. These results support a model in which bright AGN tend to be in high-mass star-forming galaxies in the process of quenching which eventually starves the supermassive black hole itself.

  2. Large-scale peculiar velocities through the galaxy luminosity function at z ~ 0.1

    CERN Document Server

    Feix, Martin; Branchini, Enzo

    2014-01-01

    Peculiar motion introduces systematic variations in the observed luminosity distribution of galaxies. This allows one to constrain the cosmic peculiar velocity field from large galaxy redshift surveys. Using around half a million galaxies from the SDSS Data Release 7 at z ~ 0.1, we demonstrate the applicability of this approach to large datasets and obtain bounds on peculiar velocity moments and $\\sigma_{8}$, the amplitude of the linear matter power spectrum. Our results are in good agreement with the $\\Lambda$CDM model and consistent with the previously reported ~ 1% zero-point tilt in the SDSS photometry. Finally, we discuss the prospects of constraining the growth rate of density perturbations by reconstructing the full linear velocity field from the observed galaxy clustering in redshift space.

  3. The $H\\alpha$ Luminosity Function and Global Star Formation Rate From Redshifts of One to Two

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, L; Freudling, W; Teplitz, H I; Malumuth, E M; Weymann, R J; Malkan, M A; Yan, Lin; Carthy, Patrick J. Mc; Freudling, Wolfram; Teplitz, Harry I.; Malumuth, Eliot M.; Weymann, Ray J.; Malkan, Matthew A.

    1999-01-01

    We present a luminosity function for H$\\alpha$ emission from galaxies at redshifts between 0.7 and 1.9 based on slitless spectroscopy with NICMOS on HST. The luminosity function is well fit by a Schechter function over the range $6 \\times 10^{41} < L(H\\alpha) < 2 \\times 10^{43} erg/sec$ with $L^* = 7 \\times 10^{42} erg/sec$ and $\\phi^* = 1.7 \\times 10^{-3} Mpc^{-3}$ for $H_0=50 km/s Mpc^{-1}$ and $q_0=0.5$. We derive a volume averaged star formation rate at $z = 1.3 \\pm 0.5$ of 0.13 M_{ødot} yr^{-1} Mpc^{-3} without correction for extinction. The SFR that we derive at $\\sim 6500 \\AA is a factor of 3 higher than that deduced from 2800 \\AA continua. If this difference is due entirely to reddening, the extinction correction at 2800 \\AA is quite significant. The precise magnitude of the total extinction correction at rest-frame UV wavelengths (e.g. 2800 \\AA and 1500 \\AA) is sensitive to the relative spatial distribution of the stars, gas and dust, as well as on the extinction law. In the extreme case of a ...

  4. AGN Winds and Blazar Phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanas, Demos

    2012-01-01

    The launch of {\\em Fermi} produced a significant number of AGN detections to allow statistical treatment of their properties. One of the first such systematics was the "Blazar Divide" in FSRQs and BL Lacs according to their gamma-ray spectral index and luminosity. Further data accumulation indicated this separation to be less clear than thought before. An MHD wind model which can model successfully the Seyfert X-ray absorber properties provides the vestiges of an account of the observed blazar classification. We propose to employ this model to model in detail the broad band blazar spectra and their statistical properties in terms of the physical parameters of these MHD winds.

  5. A Global Picture of AGN Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanas, D.; Fukumura, K.

    2011-01-01

    We present a unified structure for accretion powered sources across their entire luminosity range from accreting galactic black holes to the most luminous quasars, with emphasis on AGN and their phenomenology. Central to this end is the notion of MHD winds launched from the accretion disks that power these objects. This work similar in spirit to that of Elvis of more that a decade ago, provides, on one hand, only the broadest characteristics of these objects, but on the other, also scaling laws that allow one to make contact with objects of different luminosity. The conclusion of this work is that AGN phenomenology can be accounted for in terms of dot(m), the wind mass flux in units of the Eddington value, the observer's inclination angle theta and alpha_OX the logarithmic slope between UV and X-ray flares. However given the well known correlation between alpha(sub ox) and UV Luminosity, we conclude that the AGN structure depends on only two parameters. The small number of model parameters hence suggests that an understanding of the global AGN properties maybe within reach.

  6. Far-infrared and accretion luminosities of the present-day active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuoka, Kenta

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the relation between star formation (SF) and black hole accretion luminosities, using a sample of 492 type-2 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at z < 0.22, which are detected in the far-infrared (FIR) surveys with AKARI and Herschel. We adopt FIR luminosities at 90 and 100 um as SF luminosities, assuming the proposed linear proportionality of star formation rate with FIR luminosities. By estimating AGN luminosities from [OIII]5007 and [OI]6300 emission lines, we find a positive linear trend between FIR and AGN luminosities over a wide dynamical range. This result appears to be inconsistent with the recent reports that low-luminosity AGNs show essentially no correlation between FIR and X-ray luminosities, while the discrepancy is likely due to the Malmquist and sample selection biases. By analyzing the spectral energy distribution, we find that pure-AGN candidates, of which FIR radiation is thought to be AGN-dominated, show significantly low-SF activities. These AGNs hosted by low-SF galaxies are...

  7. THE LOW-LUMINOSITY END OF THE RADIUS-LUMINOSITY RELATIONSHIP FOR ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an updated and revised analysis of the relationship between the Hβ broad-line region (BLR) radius and the luminosity of the active galactic nucleus (AGN). Specifically, we have carried out two-dimensional surface brightness decompositions of the host galaxies of nine new AGNs imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3. The surface brightness decompositions allow us to create ''AGN-free'' images of the galaxies, from which we measure the starlight contribution to the optical luminosity measured through the ground-based spectroscopic aperture. We also incorporate 20 new reverberation-mapping measurements of the Hβ time lag, which is assumed to yield the average Hβ BLR radius. The final sample includes 41 AGNs covering four orders of magnitude in luminosity. The additions and updates incorporated here primarily affect the low-luminosity end of the RBLR-L relationship. The best fit to the relationship using a Bayesian analysis finds a slope of α= 0.533+0.035-0.033, consistent with previous work and with simple photoionization arguments. Only two AGNs appear to be outliers from the relationship, but both of them have monitoring light curves that raise doubt regarding the accuracy of their reported time lags. The scatter around the relationship is found to be 0.19 ± 0.02 dex, but would be decreased to 0.13 dex by the removal of these two suspect measurements. A large fraction of the remaining scatter in the relationship is likely due to the inaccurate distances to the AGN host galaxies. Our results help support the possibility that the RBLR-L relationship could potentially be used to turn the BLRs of AGNs into standardizable candles. This would allow the cosmological expansion of the universe to be probed by a separate population of objects, and over a larger range of redshifts.

  8. THE LOW-LUMINOSITY END OF THE RADIUS-LUMINOSITY RELATIONSHIP FOR ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentz, Misty C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Denney, Kelly D.; Vestergaard, Marianne [Dark Cosmology Center, Niels Bohr Institute, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Grier, Catherine J.; Peterson, Bradley M.; De Rosa, Gisella; Pogge, Richard W. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Barth, Aaron J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Bennert, Vardha N. [Physics Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407 (United States); Canalizo, Gabriela [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li Weidong [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Gates, Elinor L. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, P.O. Box 85, Mount Hamilton, CA 95140 (United States); Greene, Jenny E. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Peyton Hall - Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Malkan, Matthew A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Treu, Tommaso [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Woo, Jong-Hak, E-mail: bentz@chara.gsu.edu [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-20

    We present an updated and revised analysis of the relationship between the H{beta} broad-line region (BLR) radius and the luminosity of the active galactic nucleus (AGN). Specifically, we have carried out two-dimensional surface brightness decompositions of the host galaxies of nine new AGNs imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3. The surface brightness decompositions allow us to create ''AGN-free'' images of the galaxies, from which we measure the starlight contribution to the optical luminosity measured through the ground-based spectroscopic aperture. We also incorporate 20 new reverberation-mapping measurements of the H{beta} time lag, which is assumed to yield the average H{beta} BLR radius. The final sample includes 41 AGNs covering four orders of magnitude in luminosity. The additions and updates incorporated here primarily affect the low-luminosity end of the R{sub BLR}-L relationship. The best fit to the relationship using a Bayesian analysis finds a slope of {alpha}= 0.533{sup +0.035}{sub -0.033}, consistent with previous work and with simple photoionization arguments. Only two AGNs appear to be outliers from the relationship, but both of them have monitoring light curves that raise doubt regarding the accuracy of their reported time lags. The scatter around the relationship is found to be 0.19 {+-} 0.02 dex, but would be decreased to 0.13 dex by the removal of these two suspect measurements. A large fraction of the remaining scatter in the relationship is likely due to the inaccurate distances to the AGN host galaxies. Our results help support the possibility that the R{sub BLR}-L relationship could potentially be used to turn the BLRs of AGNs into standardizable candles. This would allow the cosmological expansion of the universe to be probed by a separate population of objects, and over a larger range of redshifts.

  9. Binary black hole merger rates inferred from luminosity function of ultra-luminous X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Tanaka, Yasuyuki T.; Isobe, Naoki

    2016-10-01

    The Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (aLIGO) has detected direct signals of gravitational waves (GWs) from GW150914. The event was a merger of binary black holes whose masses are 36^{+5}_{-4} M_{{⊙}} and 29^{+4}_{-4} M_{{⊙}}. Such binary systems are expected to be directly evolved from stellar binary systems or formed by dynamical interactions of black holes in dense stellar environments. Here we derive the binary black hole merger rate based on the nearby ultra-luminous X-ray source (ULX) luminosity function (LF) under the assumption that binary black holes evolve through X-ray emitting phases. We obtain the binary black hole merger rate as 5.8(tULX/0.1 Myr)- 1λ- 0.6exp ( - 0.30λ) Gpc- 3 yr- 1, where tULX is the typical duration of the ULX phase and λ is the Eddington ratio in luminosity. This is coincident with the event rate inferred from the detection of GW150914 as well as the predictions based on binary population synthesis models. Although we are currently unable to constrain the Eddington ratio of ULXs in luminosity due to the uncertainties of our models and measured binary black hole merger event rates, further X-ray and GW data will allow us to narrow down the range of the Eddington ratios of ULXs. We also find the cumulative merger rate for the mass range of 5 M⊙ ≤ MBH ≤ 100 M⊙ inferred from the ULX LF is consistent with that estimated by the aLIGO collaboration considering various astrophysical conditions such as the mass function of black holes.

  10. Spectral decomposition of broad-line agns and host galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanden Berk, Daniel E.; Shen, Jiajian; /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys.; Yip, Ching-Wa; /Pittsburgh U.; Schneider, Donald P.; /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys.; Connolly,; /Pittsburgh U.; Burton, Ross E.; /Pittsburgh U. /Case Western Reserve U.; Jester, Sebastian; /Fermilab; Hall, Patrick B.; /York U., Canada; Szalay, Alex S.; /Johns Hopkins; Brinkmann, John; /Apache Point Observ.

    2005-09-01

    Using an eigenspectrum decomposition technique, we separate the host galaxy from the broad line active galactic nucleus (AGN) in a set of 4666 spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), from redshifts near zero up to about 0.75. The decomposition technique uses separate sets of galaxy and quasar eigenspectra to efficiently and reliably separate the AGN and host spectroscopic components. The technique accurately reproduces the host galaxy spectrum, its contributing fraction, and its classification. We show how the accuracy of the decomposition depends upon S/N, host galaxy fraction, and the galaxy class. Based on the eigencoefficients, the sample of SDSS broad-line AGN host galaxies spans a wide range of spectral types, but the distribution differs significantly from inactive galaxies. In particular, post-starburst activity appears to be much more common among AGN host galaxies. The luminosities of the hosts are much higher than expected for normal early-type galaxies, and their colors become increasingly bluer than early-type galaxies with increasing host luminosity. Most of the AGNs with detected hosts are emitting at between 1% and 10% of their estimated Eddington luminosities, but the sensitivity of the technique usually does not extend to the Eddington limit. There are mild correlations among the AGN and host galaxy eigencoefficients, possibly indicating a link between recent star formation and the onset of AGN activity. The catalog of spectral reconstruction parameters is available as an electronic table.

  11. The B-Band Luminosity Function of Red and Blue Galaxies up to z=3.5

    CERN Document Server

    Giallongo, E; Menci, N; Zamorani, G; Fontana, A; Dickinson, M; Cristiani, S; Pozzetti, L

    2004-01-01

    We have explored the redshift evolution of the luminosity function of red and blue galaxies up to $z=3.5$. This was possible joining a deep I band composite galaxy sample, which includes the spectroscopic K20 sample and the HDFs samples, with the deep $H_{AB}=26$ and $K_{AB}=25$ samples derived from the deep NIR images of the Hubble Deep Fields North and South, respectively. About 30% of the sample has spectroscopic redshifts and the remaining fraction well-calibrated photometric redshifts. This allowed to select and measure galaxies in the rest-frame blue magnitude up to $z\\sim 3$ and to derive the redshift evolution of the B-band luminosity function of galaxies separated by their rest-frame $U-V$ color or specific (i.e. per unit mass) star-formation rate. The class separation was derived from passive evolutionary tracks or from their observed bimodal distributions. Both distributions appear bimodal at least up to $z\\sim 2$ and the locus of red/early galaxies is clearly identified up to these high redshifts....

  12. The Rise of Dwarfs and the Fall of Giants: Galaxy Formation Feedback Signatures in the Halo Satellite Luminosity Function

    CERN Document Server

    Cooray, A R; Cooray, Asantha; Cen, Renyue

    2005-01-01

    The observed luminosity function (LF) of satellite galaxies shows several interesting features that require a better understanding of gas-thermodynamic processes and feedback effects related to reionization and galaxy formation. In galaxy clusters, the abundance of dwarf galaxies is in good agreement with the expectation based on the subhalo mass function, whereas in galaxy groups, the relatively small abundance of dwarfs conflicts with theoretical expectations. In all halo systems, there is a dip in the abundance of galaxies with luminosities in the range ~ 2x10^8 L_sun to 10^10 L_sun, corresponding to subhalo mass scales between ~ 5x10^10 M_sun to few times 10^11 M_sun. Photoionization from reionization has been used to explain statistics of the dwarf population, with larger systems forming prior to, and smaller systems forming subsequent to, reionization. The observed dip in the LF is an imprint of small dwarf galaxies ( 3.4-4.4, their gas content, hence star formation, is greatly suppressed on average and...

  13. The Rise of Dwarfs and the Fall of Giants: Galaxy Formation Feedback Signatures in the Halo Satellite Luminosity Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooray, Asantha; Cen, Renyue

    2005-11-01

    The observed luminosity function (LF) of satellite galaxies shows several interesting features that require a better understanding of gas-thermodynamic processes and feedback effects related to reionization and galaxy formation. In galaxy clusters, the abundance of dwarf galaxies is consistent with the expectation based on the subhalo mass function, whereas in galaxy groups, a relatively small abundance of dwarfs is expected based on models of photoionization. In all halo systems, however, there is a dip in the abundance of galaxies with luminosities in the range ~2×108 Lsolar to 1010 Lsolar, corresponding to subhalo mass scales between ~5×1010 Msolar and a few times 1011 Msolar. Photoionization from reionization has been used to explain statistics of the dwarf population, with larger systems forming prior to, and smaller systems forming subsequent to, reionization. The observed dip in the LF is an imprint of small dwarf galaxies (powered by supernovae in these dwarf galaxies propagate energy and metals to large distances such that the intergalactic medium is uniformly enriched to a level of 10-3 Zsolar. The associated energy raises the intergalactic medium temperature and the Jeans mass to a range 1010-1011 Msolar at z~3.4-6.0. Because the epoch of nonlinearity for halos in this mass range is at z>=3.4-4.4, their gas content, hence star formation, is greatly suppressed on average and leads to the observed dip in the observed LF at z=0.

  14. HST Luminosity Functions of the Globular Clusters M10, M22, and M55. A comparison with other clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Piotto, G

    1999-01-01

    From a combination of deep Hubble Space Telescope V and I images with groundbased images in the same bands, we have obtained color-magnitude diagrams of M10, M22, and M55, extending from just above the hydrogen burning limit to the tip of the red giant branch, down to the white dwarf cooling sequence. We have used the color-magnitude arrays to extract main sequence luminosity functions (LFs) from the turnoff to about 0.13 solar masses. The LFs of M10 is significantly steeper than that for the other two clusters. The difference cannot be due to a difference in metallicity. A comparison with the LFs from Piotto, Cool, and King (1997), shows a large spread in the LF slopes. This spread is also present in the local mass functions (MFs) obtained from the observed LFs using different theoretical mass--luminosity relations. The dispersion in the MF slopes remains also after removing the mass segregation effects by using multimass King-Michie models. The globular cluster MF slopes are also flatter than the MF slope o...

  15. The CALYMHA survey: Lya luminosity function and global escape fraction of Lya photons at z=2.23

    CERN Document Server

    Sobral, David; Best, Philip; Stroe, Andra; Röttgering, Huub; Oteo, Iván; Smail, Ian; Morabito, Leah; Paulino-Afonso, Ana

    2016-01-01

    We present the CAlibrating LYMan-$\\alpha$ with H$\\alpha$ (CALYMHA) pilot survey and new results on Lyman-$\\alpha$ (Lya) selected galaxies at z~2. We use a custom-built Lya narrow-band filter at the Isaac Newton Telescope, designed to provide a matched volume coverage to the z=2.23 Ha HiZELS survey. Here we present the first results for the COSMOS and UDS fields. Our survey currently reaches a 3$\\sigma$ line flux limit of ~4x10$^{-17}$ erg/s/cm$^{2}$, and a Lya luminosity limit of ~10$^{42.3}$ erg/s. We find 188 Lya emitters over 7.3x10$^5$ Mpc$^{3}$, but also find significant numbers of other line emitting sources corresponding to HeII, CIII] and CIV emission lines. These sources are important contaminants, and we carefully remove them, unlike most previous studies. We find that the Lya luminosity function at z=2.23 is very well described by a Schechter function up to L~10$^{43}$ erg/s with L$^*=10^{42.59+-0.05}$ erg/s, $\\phi^*=10^{-3.09+-0.08}$ Mpc$^{-3}$ and $\\alpha$=-1.75+-0.15. Above L~10$^{43}$ erg/s the...

  16. The Near-Ultraviolet Luminosity Function of Young, Early M-Type Dwarf Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Ansdell, Megan; Mann, Andrew W; Lepine, Sebastien; James, David; Buccino, Andrea; Baranec, Christoph; Law, Nicholas M; Riddle, Reed; Mauas, Pablo; Petrucci, Romina

    2014-01-01

    Planets orbiting within the close-in habitable zones of M dwarf stars will be exposed to elevated high-energy radiation driven by strong magneto-hydrodynamic dynamos during stellar youth. Near-ultraviolet (NUV) irradiation can erode and alter the chemistry of planetary atmospheres, and a quantitative description of the evolution of NUV emission from M dwarfs is needed when modeling these effects. We investigated the NUV luminosity evolution of early M-type dwarfs by cross-correlating the Lepine & Gaidos (2011) catalog of bright M dwarfs with the GALEX catalog of NUV (1771-2831A) sources. Of the 4805 sources with GALEX counterparts, 797 have NUV emission significantly (> 2.5 sigma) in excess of an empirical basal level. We inspected these candidate active stars using visible-wavelength spectra, high-resolution adaptive optics imaging, time-series photometry, and literature searches to identify cases where the elevated NUV emission is due to unresolved background sources or stellar companions; we estimated ...

  17. The AGN content of deep radio surveys and radio emission in radio-quiet AGN. Why every astronomer should care about deep radio fields

    CERN Document Server

    Padovani, P; Miller, N; Kellermann, K I; Mainieri, V; Rosati, P; Tozzi, P; Vattakunnel, S

    2014-01-01

    We present our very recent results on the sub-mJy radio source populations at 1.4 GHz based on the Extended Chandra Deep Field South VLA survey, which reaches ~ 30 {\\mu}Jy, with details on their number counts, evolution, and luminosity functions. The sub-mJy radio sky turns out to be a complex mix of star-forming galaxies and radio-quiet AGN evolving at a similar, strong rate and declining radio-loud AGN. While the well-known flattening of the radio number counts below 1 mJy is mostly due to star-forming galaxies, these sources and AGN make up an approximately equal fraction of the sub-mJy sky. Our results shed also light on a fifty-year-old issue, namely radio emission from radio-quiet AGN, and suggest that it is closely related to star formation, at least at z ~ 1.5 - 2. The implications of our findings for future, deeper radio surveys, including those with the Square Kilometre Array, are also discussed. One of the main messages, especially to non-radio astronomers, is that radio surveys are reaching such f...

  18. Bolometric luminosities and Eddington ratios of X-ray selected Active Galactic Nuclei in the XMM-COSMOS survey

    OpenAIRE

    Lusso, E.; Comastri, A.; Simmons, B. D.; M. Mignoli(INAF); Zamorani, G.; Vignali, C.; Brusa, M.; Shankar, F.; Lutz, D.; Trump, J. R.; R. Maiolino; Gilli, R.; Bolzonella, M.; Puccetti, S.; Salvato, M.

    2012-01-01

    Bolometric luminosities and Eddington ratios of both X-ray selected broad-line (Type-1) and narrow-line (Type-2) AGN from the XMM-Newton survey in the COSMOS field are presented. The sample is composed by 929 AGN (382 Type-1 AGN and 547 Type-2 AGN) and it covers a wide range of redshifts, X-ray luminosities and absorbing column densities. About 65% of the sources are spectroscopically identified as either Type-1 or Type-2 AGN (83% and 52% respectively), while accurate photometric redshifts ar...

  19. The Relation Between Quasar and Merging Galaxy Luminosity Functions and the Merger-Induced Star Formation Rate of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, P F; Hernquist, L; Li, Y; Robertson, B; Somerville, R S; Cox, Thomas J.; Hernquist, Lars; Hopkins, Philip F.; Robertson, Brant; Somerville, Rachel

    2006-01-01

    Using a model for self-regulated growth of black holes (BHs) in mergers involving gas-rich galaxies, we study the relationship between quasars and the population of merging galaxies and predict the merger-induced star formation rate density of the Universe. Mergers drive nuclear gas inflows, fueling starbursts and 'buried quasars' until accretion feedback expels the gas, rendering a briefly visible optical quasar. Star formation is shut down and accretion declines, leaving a passively evolving remnant with properties typical of red, elliptical galaxies. Based on evolution of these events in our simulations, we demonstrate that the observed statistics of merger rates, luminosity functions (LFs) and mass functions, SFR distributions, specific SFRs, quasar and quasar host galaxy LFs, and elliptical/red galaxy LFs are self-consistent and follow from one another as predicted by the merger hypothesis. We use our simulations to de-convolve both quasar and merging galaxy LFs to determine the birthrate of black holes ...

  20. M dwarfs in the Local Milky Way: The Field Low-Mass Stellar Luminosity and Mass Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochanski, John J., Jr.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.

    2006-06-01

    Modern sky surveys, such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Two-Micron All Sky Survey, have revolutionized how Astronomy is done. With millions of photometric and spectroscopic observations, global observational properties can be studied with unprecedented statistical significance. Low-mass stars dominate the local Milky Way, with tens of millions observed by SDSS within a few kpc. Thus, they make ideal tracers of the Galactic potential, and the thin and thick disks. In this thesis dissertation, I present my efforts to characterize the local low-mass stellar population, using a collection of observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). First, low-mass stellar template spectra were constructed from the co-addition of thousands of SDSS spectroscopic observations. These template spectra were used to quantify the observable changes introduced by chromospheric activity and metallicity. Furthermore, the average ugriz colors were measured as a function of spectral type. Next, the local kinematic structure of the Milky Way was quantified, using a special set of SDSS spectroscopic observations. Combining proper motions and radial velocities (measured using the spectral templates), along with distances, the full UVW space motions of over 7000 low-mass stars along one line of sight were computed. These stars were also separated kinematically to investigate other observational differences between the thin and thick disks. Finally, this dissertation details a project designed to measure the luminosity and mass functions of low-mass stars. Using a new technique optimized for large surveys, the field luminosity function (LF) and local stellar density profile are measured simultaneously. The sample size used to estimate the LF is nearly three orders of magnitude larger than any previous study, offering a definitive measurement of this quantity. The observed LF is transformed into a mass function (MF) and compared to previous studies.

  1. M dwarfs in the Local Milky Way: The Field Low-Mass Stellar Luminosity and Mass Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochanski, Jr, John J. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Modern sky surveys, such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Two-Micron All Sky Survey, have revolutionized how Astronomy is done. With millions of photometric and spectroscopic observations, global observational properties can be studied with unprecedented statistical significance. Low-mass stars dominate the local Milky Way, with tens of millions observed by SDSS within a few kpc. Thus, they make ideal tracers of the Galactic potential, and the thin and thick disks. In this thesis dissertation, I present my efforts to characterize the local low-mass stellar population, using a collection of observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). First, low-mass stellar template spectra were constructed from the co-addition of thousands of SDSS spectroscopic observations. These template spectra were used to quantify the observable changes introduced by chromospheric activity and metallicity. Furthermore, the average ugriz colors were measured as a function of spectral type. Next, the local kinematic structure of the Milky Way was quantified, using a special set of SDSS spectroscopic observations. Combining proper motions and radial velocities (measured using the spectral templates), along with distances, the full UVW space motions of over 7000 low-mass stars along one line of sight were computed. These stars were also separated kinematically to investigate other observational differences between the thin and thick disks. Finally, this dissertation details a project designed to measure the luminosity and mass functions of low-mass stars. Using a new technique optimized for large surveys, the field luminosity function (LF) and local stellar density profile are measured simultaneously. The sample size used to estimate the LF is nearly three orders of magnitude larger than any previous study, offering a definitive measurement of this quantity. The observed LF is transformed into a mass function (MF) and compared to previous studies.

  2. Evolution of mid-infrared galaxy luminosity functions from the entire AKARI NEP-Deep field with new CFHT photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Goto, Tomotsugu; Ohyama, Youichi; Malkan, Matthew; Matsuhara, Hideo; Wada, Takehiko; Karouzos, Marios; Im, Myungshin; Nakagawa, Takao; Buat, Veronique; Burgarella, Denis; Sedgwick, Chris; Toba, Yoshiki; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Marchetti, Lucia; Małek, Katarzyna; Koptelova, Ekaterina; Chao, Dani; Wu, Yi-Han; Pearson, Chris; Takagi, Toshinobu; Lee, Hyung Mok; Serjeant, Stephen; Takeuchi, Tsutomu T; Kim, Seong Jin

    2015-01-01

    We present infrared galaxy luminosity functions (LFs) in the AKARI North Ecliptic Pole (NEP) deep field using recently-obtained, wider CFHT optical/near-IR images. AKARI has obtained deep images in the mid-infrared (IR), covering 0.6 deg$^2$ of the NEP deep field. However, our previous work was limited to the central area of 0.25 deg$^2$ due to the lack of optical coverage of the full AKARI NEP survey. To rectify the situation, we recently obtained CFHT optical and near-IR images over the entire AKARI NEP deep field. These new CFHT images are used to derive accurate photometric redshifts, allowing us to fully exploit the whole AKARI NEP deep field. AKARI's deep, continuous filter coverage in the mid-IR wavelengths (2.4, 3.2, 4.1, 7, 9, 11, 15, 18, and 24$\\mu$m) exists nowhere else, due to filter gaps of other space telescopes. It allows us to estimate restframe 8$\\mu$m and 12$\\mu$m luminosities without using a large extrapolation based on spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting, which was the largest uncer...

  3. A complete sample of bright Swift Long Gamma-Ray Bursts: Sample presentation, Luminosity Function and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Salvaterra, R; Vergani, S D; Covino, S; D'Avanzo, P; Fugazza, D; Ghirlanda, G; Ghisellini, G; Melandri, A; Nava, L; Sbarufatti, B; Flores, H; Piranomonte, S; Tagliaferri, G

    2011-01-01

    We present a carefully selected sub-sample of Swift Long Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs), that is complete in redshift. The sample is constructed by considering only bursts with favorable observing conditions for ground-based follow-up searches, that are bright in the 15-150 keV Swift/BAT band, i.e. with 1-s peak photon fluxes in excess to 2.6 ph s^-1 cm^-2. The sample is composed by 58 bursts, 53 of them with redshift for a completeness level of 91%, while another two have a redshift constraint, reaching a completeness level of 95%. For only three bursts we have no constraint on the redshift. The high level of redshift completeness allows us for the first time to constrain the GRB luminosity function and its evolution with cosmic times in a unbiased way. We find that strong evolution in luminosity (d_l=2.3\\pm 0.6) or in density (d_d=1.7\\pm 0.5) is required in order to account for the observations. The derived redshift distribution in the two scenarios are consistent with each other, in spite of their different intri...

  4. A COMPLETE SAMPLE OF BRIGHT SWIFT LONG GAMMA-RAY BURSTS. I. SAMPLE PRESENTATION, LUMINOSITY FUNCTION AND EVOLUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a carefully selected sub-sample of Swift long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) that is complete in redshift. The sample is constructed by considering only bursts with favorable observing conditions for ground-based follow-up searches, which are bright in the 15-150 keV Swift/BAT band, i.e., with 1-s peak photon fluxes in excess to 2.6 photons s–1 cm–2. The sample is composed of 58 bursts, 52 of them with redshift for a completeness level of 90%, while another two have a redshift constraint, reaching a completeness level of 95%. For only three bursts we have no constraint on the redshift. The high level of redshift completeness allows us for the first time to constrain the GRB luminosity function and its evolution with cosmic times in an unbiased way. We find that strong evolution in luminosity (δl = 2.3 ± 0.6) or in density (δd = 1.7 ± 0.5) is required in order to account for the observations. The derived redshift distributions in the two scenarios are consistent with each other, in spite of their different intrinsic redshift distributions. This calls for other indicators to distinguish among different evolution models. Complete samples are at the base of any population studies. In future works we will use this unique sample of Swift bright GRBs to study the properties of the population of long GRBs.

  5. A COMPLETE SAMPLE OF BRIGHT SWIFT LONG GAMMA-RAY BURSTS. I. SAMPLE PRESENTATION, LUMINOSITY FUNCTION AND EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvaterra, R. [INAF, IASF Milano, via E. Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Campana, S.; Vergani, S. D.; Covino, S.; D' Avanzo, P.; Fugazza, D.; Ghirlanda, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Melandri, A.; Sbarufatti, B.; Tagliaferri, G. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Saint Lucia) (Italy); Nava, L. [SISSA, via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); Flores, H. [Laboratoire GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS-UMR8111, Univ. Paris-Diderot 5 place Jules Janssen, 92195 Meudon (France); Piranomonte, S., E-mail: ruben@lambrate.inaf.it [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, 00040 Monte Porzio Catone, Rome (Italy)

    2012-04-10

    We present a carefully selected sub-sample of Swift long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) that is complete in redshift. The sample is constructed by considering only bursts with favorable observing conditions for ground-based follow-up searches, which are bright in the 15-150 keV Swift/BAT band, i.e., with 1-s peak photon fluxes in excess to 2.6 photons s{sup -1} cm{sup -2}. The sample is composed of 58 bursts, 52 of them with redshift for a completeness level of 90%, while another two have a redshift constraint, reaching a completeness level of 95%. For only three bursts we have no constraint on the redshift. The high level of redshift completeness allows us for the first time to constrain the GRB luminosity function and its evolution with cosmic times in an unbiased way. We find that strong evolution in luminosity ({delta}{sub l} = 2.3 {+-} 0.6) or in density ({delta}{sub d} = 1.7 {+-} 0.5) is required in order to account for the observations. The derived redshift distributions in the two scenarios are consistent with each other, in spite of their different intrinsic redshift distributions. This calls for other indicators to distinguish among different evolution models. Complete samples are at the base of any population studies. In future works we will use this unique sample of Swift bright GRBs to study the properties of the population of long GRBs.

  6. The cosmological co-evolution of supermassive black holes, AGN and galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Marulli, F; Branchini, E; Moscardini, L; Springel, V

    2008-01-01

    We model the cosmological co-evolution of galaxies and their central supermassive black holes (BHs) within a semi-analytical framework developed on the outputs of the Millennium Simulation (Croton et al., 2006; De Lucia & Blaizot, 2007). In this work, we analyze the model BH scaling relations, fundamental plane and mass function, and compare them with the most recent observational data. Furthermore, we extend the original code developed by Croton et al. (2006) to follow the evolution of the BH mass accretion and its conversion into radiation, and compare the derived AGN bolometric luminosity function with the observed one. We find, for the most part, a very good agreement between predicted and observed BH properties. Moreover, the model is in good agreement with the observed AGN number density in 0

  7. The Low-Luminosity End of the Radius-Luminosity Relationship for Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Bentz, Misty C; Grier, Catherine J; Barth, Aaron J; Peterson, Bradley M; Vestergaard, Marianne; Bennert, Vardha N; Canalizo, Gabriela; De Rosa, Gisella; Filippenko, Alexei V; Gates, Elinor L; Greene, Jenny E; Li, Weidong; Malkan, Matthew A; Pogge, Richard W; Stern, Daniel; Treu, Tommaso; Woo, Jong-Hak

    2013-01-01

    We present an updated and revised analysis of the relationship between the Hbeta broad-line region (BLR) radius and the luminosity of the active galactic nucleus (AGN). Specifically, we have carried out two-dimensional surface brightness decompositions of the host galaxies of 9 new AGNs imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3. The surface brightness decompositions allow us to create "AGN-free" images of the galaxies, from which we measure the starlight contribution to the optical luminosity measured through the ground-based spectroscopic aperture. We also incorporate 20 new reverberation-mapping measurements of the Hbeta time lag, which is assumed to yield the average Hbeta BLR radius. The final sample includes 41 AGNs covering four orders of magnitude in luminosity. The additions and updates incorporated here primarily affect the low-luminosity end of the R-L relationship. The best fit to the relationship using a Bayesian analysis finds a slope of alpha = 0.533 (+0.035/-0.033), consistent ...

  8. The GALEX Ultraviolet Virgo Cluster Survey (GUViCS). VI: The UV luminosity function of the Virgo cluster and its surrounding regions

    CERN Document Server

    Boselli, A; Voyer, E; Ferrarese, L; Consolandi, G; Cortese, L; Cote, P; Cuillandre, J C; Gavazzi, G; Gwyn, S; Heinis, S; Ilbert, O; MacArthur, L; Roehlly, Y

    2015-01-01

    We use the GALEX data of the GUViCS survey to construct the NUV luminosity function of the Virgo cluster over ~ 300 deg.2, an area covering the cluster and its surrounding regions up to ~ 1.8 virial radii. The NUV luminosity function is also determined for galaxies of different morphological type and NUV-i colour, and for the different substructures within the cluster. These luminosity functions are robust vs. statistical corrections since based on a sample of 833 galaxies mainly identified as cluster members with spectroscopic redshift (808) or high-quality optical scaling relations (10). We fit these luminosity functions with a Schechter function, and compare the fitted parameters with those determined for other nearby clusters and for the field. The faint end slope of the Virgo NUV luminosity function (alpha = -1.19), here sampled down to ~ NUV = -11.5 mag, is significantly flatter than the one measured in other nearby clusters and similar to the field one. Similarly M* = -17.56 is one-to-two magnitudes fa...

  9. A MUSE View of the HUDF: The Lyα Luminosity Function out to z ˜ 6.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryony Drake, Alyssa

    2015-08-01

    I will present first results on the Lyα luminosity function in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF), using a large, homogeneous, sample of LAEs selected through blind spectroscopy from MUSE. The unprecedented detection power of MUSE gives us the sensitivity to study the progenitors of L∗ galaxies when the Universe was just ˜ 2 Gyr old. These data therefore probe further down the Lyα LF than ever before, allowing us to reliably constrain the faint end slope, α, at high redshift, as well as assessing the evolution of the Lyα LF between z ˜ 3.0 and z ˜ 6.5. Finally I will show the first assessment from MUSE of the contribution of LAEs to the cosmic SFRD across this redshift range, and discuss the implications of our results on models of galaxy formation and evolution.

  10. HST luminosity functions of the globular clusters M10, M22, and M55. A comparison with other clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotto, G.; Zoccali, M.

    1999-05-01

    From a combination of deep Hubble Space Telescope V and I images with groundbased images in the same bands, we have obtained color-magnitude diagrams of M10, M22, and M55, extending from just above the hydrogen burning limit to the tip of the red giant branch, down to the white dwarf cooling sequence. We have used the color-magnitude arrays to extract main sequence luminosity functions (LFs) from the turnoff to m ~ 0.13m_sun. The LFs of M10 is significantly steeper than that for the other two clusters. The difference cannot be due to a difference in metallicity. A comparison with the LFs from Piotto et al. (1997), shows a large spread in the LF slopes. This spread is also present in the local mass functions (MFs) obtained from the observed LFs using different theoretical mass-luminosity relations. The dispersion in the MF slopes remains also after removing the mass segregation effects by using multimass King-Michie models. The globular cluster MF slopes are also flatter than the MF slope of the field stars and of the Galactic clusters in the same mass interval. We interpret the MF slope dispersion and the MF flatness as an evidence of dynamical evolution which makes the present day globular cluster stellar MFs different from the initial MFs. The slopes of the present day MFs exclude that the low mass star can be dynamically relevant for the Galactic globular clusters. Based on HST observations retrieved from the ESO ST-ECF Archive, and on observations made at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile, and at the JKT telescope at La Palma, Islas Canarias.

  11. The VIMOS VLT Deep Survey - Evolution of the luminosity functions per galaxy type up to z=1.5 from first epoch data

    CERN Document Server

    Zucca, E; Bardelli, S; Tresse, L; Zamorani, G; Arnouts, S; Pozzetti, L; Bolzonella, M; Bottini, D; Garilli, B; Brun, V L; Le Fèvre, O; MacCagni, D; Picat, J P; Scaramella, R; Scodeggio, M; Vettolani, G; Zanichelli, A; Adami, C; Arnaboldi, M; Cappi, A; Charlot, S; Ciliegi, P; Contini, T; Foucaud, S; Franzetti, P; Gavignaud, I; Guzzo, L; Iovino, A; McCracken, H J; Marano, B; Marinoni, C; Mazure, A; Meneux, B; Merighi, R; Paltani, S; Pello`, R; Pollo, A; Radovich, M; Bondi, M; Bongiorno, A; Busarello, G; Cucciati, O; Gregorini, L; Lemareille, F; Mathez, G; Mellier, Y; Merluzzi, P; Ripepi, V; Rizzo, D

    2005-01-01

    We present luminosity functions of galaxies per spectral type derived from the first epoch observations of the VIMOS VLT Deep Survey (VVDS) out to z=1.5. The VVDS data allow for the first time to study from the same sample and with good statistical accuracy the evolution of the luminosity functions per galaxy type in several rest frame bands from a purely magnitude selected sample, covering ~70% of the life of the Universe. Galaxies have been classified in four spectral classes using their colours and redshift, from early type to irregular galaxies, and luminosity functions have been derived for each type in redshift bins, from z=0.05 to z=1.5, in the U, B, V, R and I rest frame bands. In all the considered rest frame bands, we find a significant strong steepening of the luminosity function going from early to late types. The characteristic luminosity M^* of the Schechter function is significantly fainter for late type galaxies and this difference increases in the redder bands. Within each of the galaxy spect...

  12. Black Holes across the Mass Spectrum-from Stellar Mass BH to ULXs and AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushotzky, Richard

    2006-01-01

    I will discuss the observational characteristics of black holes and how they compare across the 10^8 range in mass and as a function of luminosity and apparent Eddington ratio. I will concentrate on the broad band spectrum, the timing signatures and the energy budget of these objects. In particular I will stress the similarities and differences in the x-ray spectra and power density spectra of AGN, ultraluminous x-ray sources and galactic black holes as a function of 'state'. I will also discuss the nature of the Fe K line and other diagnostics of the regions near the event horizon.

  13. Echo mappping of the broad line region of agns a critical appraisal

    CERN Document Server

    Maoz, D

    1994-01-01

    The results of recent AGN monitoring campaigns confirm the ``big picture'' of the echo paradigm, but the details of the emission-line light curves cannot be accurately reproduced with only the simplest assumptions, some of which must be invalid. I discuss possible solutions. I present some preliminary optical light curves from Wise Observatory for NGC 4151 during the December 1993 multi-satellite campaign. The optical data show a continuity with the complex behavior observed in the IUE data, and may explain the peculiarities in emission-line response seen in this and other AGNs. I review some recent results on quasar emission line variability from the Steward-Wise PG quasar monitoring program, which allow extension of the observed AGN BLR Radius--Luminosity relation to higher luminosities than previously feasible. Agreement with the expected R\\propto L^{1/2} relation is suggested. Finally, I criticize the trend to attribute significance to the details of transfer functions recovered by inversion techniques. I...

  14. Constraining the UV emissivity of AGN throughout cosmic time via X-ray surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Ricci, F; Shankar, F; La Franca, F; Civano, F

    2016-01-01

    The cosmological process of hydrogen (HI) reionization in the intergalactic medium is thought to be driven by UV photons emitted by star-forming galaxies and ionizing active galactic nuclei (AGN). The contribution of QSOs to HI reionization at $z>4$ has been traditionally believed to be quite modest. However, this view has been recently challenged by new estimates of a higher faint-end UV luminosity function (LF). To set firmer constraints on the emissivity of AGN at $z<6$, we here make use of complete X-ray selected samples including deep Chandra and new COSMOS data, capable to efficiently measure the 1 ryd comoving AGN emissivity up to $z\\sim5-6$ and down to five magnitudes fainter than probed by current optical surveys, without any luminosity extrapolation. We find good agreement between the logN$\\rm{_H}\\lesssim21-22$ cm$^{-2}$ X-ray LF and the optically-selected QSO LF at all redshifts for $M_{1450}\\leq -23$. The full range of the logN$\\rm{_H}\\lesssim21-22$ cm$^{-2}$ LF ($M_{1450} \\leq -17$) was then u...

  15. Star-formation in the host galaxies of radio-AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Karouzos, Marios; Im, Myungshin; Malkan, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    There exist strong evidence supporting the co-evolution of central supermassive black holes and their host galaxies. It is however still unclear what the exact role of nuclear activity, in the form of accretion onto these supermassive black holes, in this co-evolution is. We use a rich multi-wavelength dataset available for the North Ecliptic Pole field, most notably surveyed by the AKARI satellite infrared telescope to study the host galaxy properties of AGN. In particular we are interested in investigating star-formation in the host galaxies of radio-AGN and the putative radio feedback mechanism, potentially responsible for the eventual quenching of star-formation. Using both broadband SED modeling and optical spectroscopy, we simultaneously study the nu- clear and host galaxy components of our sources, as a function of their radio luminosity, bolo- metric luminosity, and radio-loudness. Here we present preliminary results concerning the AGN content of the radio sources in this field, while offering tentati...

  16. Misclassified type 1 AGNs in the local universe

    CERN Document Server

    Woo, Jong-Hak; Park, Daeseong; Bae, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Jae-Hyuk; Lee, Seung-Eun; Kim, Sang Chul; Kwon, Hong-Jin

    2014-01-01

    We search for misclassified type 1 AGNs among type 2 AGNs identified with emission line flux ratios, and investigate the properties of the sample. Using 4\\,113 local type 2 AGNs at $0.02AGNs among type 2 AGN sample is $\\sim$3.5%, implying that a large number of missing type 1 AGN population may exist. The misclassified type 1 AGNs have relatively low luminosity with a mean broad \\Ha\\ luminosity, log L$_{H\\alpha} = 40.50\\pm0.35$ \\ergs, while black hole mass of the sample is comparable to that of the local black hole population, with a mean black hole mass, log M$_{\\rm BH} = 6.94\\pm0.51$ M$_{\\odot}$. The mean Eddington ratio of the sample is log L$_{\\rm bol}$/L$_{\\rm Edd}$ = $-2.00\\pm0.40$, indicating tha...

  17. Dissecting Galaxies: Spatial and Spectral Separation of Emission Excited by Star Formation and AGN Activity

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Rebecca L; Kewley, Lisa J; Dopita, Michael A; Hampton, Elise J; Shastri, Prajval; Scharwachter, Julia; Sutherland, Ralph; Kharb, Preeti; Bhatt, Harish; Jin, Chichuan; Banfield, Julie; Zaw, Ingyin; James, Bethan; Juneau, Stephanie; Srivastava, Shweta

    2016-01-01

    The optical spectra of Seyfert galaxies are often dominated by emission lines excited by both star formation and AGN activity. Standard calibrations (such as for the star formation rate) are not applicable to such composite (mixed) spectra. In this paper, we describe how integral field data can be used to spectrally and spatially separate emission associated with star formation from emission associated with accretion onto an active galactic nucleus (AGN). We demonstrate our method using integral field data for two AGN host galaxies (NGC 5728 and NGC 7679) from the Siding Spring Southern Seyfert Spectroscopic Snapshot Survey (S7). The spectra of NGC 5728 and NGC 7679 form clear sequences of AGN fraction on standard emission line ratio diagnostic diagrams. We show that the emission line luminosities of the majority (> 85 per cent) of spectra along each AGN fraction sequence can be reproduced by linear superpositions of the emission line luminosities of one AGN dominated spectrum and one star formation dominated...

  18. Light, Luminosity and the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Short interview to Lucio Rossi, project leader of the High Luminosity LHC, about the concept of light in physics, light and luminosity in particle accelerators and the High Luminosity LHC project. On the occasion of International Year of Light 2015.

  19. The X-Ray Luminosity Function of M37 and the Evolution of Coronal Activity in Low-mass Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Alejandro; Agüeros, Marcel A.

    2016-10-01

    We use a 440.5 ks Chandra observation of the ≈500 Myr old open cluster M37 to derive the X-ray luminosity functions of its ≤1.2 {M}ȯ stars. Combining detections of 162 M37 members with upper limits for 160 non-detections, we find that its G, K, and M stars have a similar median (0.5–7 keV) X-ray luminosity {L}{{X}}={10}29.0 {erg} {{{s}}}-1, whereas the {L}{{X}}-to-bolometric-luminosity ratio ({L}{{X}}/{L}{bol}) indicates that M stars are more active than G and K stars by ≈ 1 order of magnitude at 500 Myr. To characterize the evolution of magnetic activity in low-mass stars over their first ≈ 600 {{Myr}}, we consolidate X-ray and optical data from the literature for stars in six other open clusters: from youngest to oldest they are, the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC), NGC 2547, NGC 2516, the Pleiades, NGC 6475, and the Hyades. For these, we homogenize the conversion of instrumental count rates to {L}{{X}} by applying the same one-temperature emission model as for M37, and obtain masses using the same empirical mass-absolute magnitude relation (except for the ONC). We find that for G and K stars X-ray activity decreases ≈ 2 orders of magnitude over their first 600 Myr, and for M stars, ≈1.5. The decay rate of the median {L}{{X}} follows the relation {L}{{X}}\\propto {t}b, where b=-0.61+/- 0.12 for G stars, ‑0.82 ± 0.16 for K stars, and ‑0.40 ± 0.17 for M stars. In {L}{{X}}/{L}{bol} space, the slopes are ‑0.68 ± 0.12, ‑0.81 ± 0.19, and ‑0.61 ± 0.12, respectively. These results suggest that for low-mass stars the age-activity relation steepens after ≈ 625 {{Myr}}, consistent with the faster decay in activity observed in solar analogs at t\\gt 1 {{Gyr}}.

  20. The X-ray Power Spectral Density Function and Black Hole Mass Estimate for the Seyfert AGN IC 4329a

    CERN Document Server

    Markowitz, A

    2009-01-01

    We present the X-ray broadband power spectral density function (PSD) of the X-ray-luminous Seyfert IC 4329a, constructed from light curves obtained via Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer monitoring and an XMM-Newton observation. Modeling the 3-10 keV PSD using a broken power-law PSD shape, a break in power-law slope is significantly detected at a temporal frequency of 2.5(+2.5,-1.7) * 10^-6 Hz, which corresponds to a PSD break time scale T_b of 4.6(+10.1,-2.3) days. Using the relation between T_b, black hole mass M_BH, and bolometric luminosity as quantified by McHardy and coworkers, we infer a black hole mass estimate of M_BH = 1.3(+1.0,-0.3) * 10^8 solar masses and an accretion rate relative to Eddington of 0.21(+0.06,-0.10) for this source. Our estimate of M_BH is consistent with other estimates, including that derived by the relation between M_BH and stellar velocity dispersion. We also present PSDs for the 10-20 and 20-40 keV bands; they lack sufficient temporal frequency coverage to reveal a significant break,...

  1. NGC 5548 in a Low-Luminosity State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Denney, Kelly D.; Cackett, Edward M.;

    2007-01-01

    We describe results from a new ground-based monitoring campaign on NGC 5548, the best studied reverberation-mapped AGN. We find that it was in the lowest luminosity state yet recorded during a monitoring program, namely L(5100) = 4.7 x 10^42 ergs s^-1. We determine a rest-frame time lag between...... reverberation-mapped AGNs as a whole....

  2. The space density of Compton-thick AGN at z ≈ 0.8 in the zCOSMOS-Bright Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignali, C.; Mignoli, M.; Gilli, R.; Comastri, A.; Iwasawa, K.; Zamorani, G.; Mainieri, V.; Bongiorno, A.

    2014-11-01

    Context. The obscured accretion phase in black hole growth is a crucial ingredient in many models linking the active galactic nuclei (AGN) activity with the evolution of their host galaxy. At present, a complete census of obscured AGN is still missing, although several attempts in this direction have been carried out recently, mostly in the hard X-rays and at mid-infrared wavelengths. Aims: The purpose of this work is to assess whether the [Ne v] emission line at 3426 Å can reliably pick up obscured AGN up to z ≈ 1 by assuming that it is a reliable proxy of the intrinsic AGN luminosity and using moderately deep X-ray data to characterize the amount of obscuration. Methods: A sample of 69 narrow-line (Type 2) AGN at z ≈ 0.65-1.20 were selected from the 20k-zCOSMOS Bright galaxy sample on the basis of the presence of the [Ne v]3426 Å emission. The X-ray properties of these galaxies were then derived using the Chandra-COSMOS coverage of the field; the X-ray-to-[Ne v] flux ratio, coupled with X-ray spectral and stacking analyses, was then used to infer whether Compton-thin or Compton-thick absorption is present in these sources. Then the [Ne v] luminosity function was computed to estimate the space density of Compton-thick AGN at z ≈ 0.8. Results: Twenty-three sources were detected by Chandra, and their properties are consistent with moderate obscuration (on average, ≈a few × 1022 cm-2). The X-ray properties of the remaining 46 X-ray undetected Type 2 AGN (among which we expect to find the most heavily obscured objects) were derived using X-ray stacking analysis. Current data, supported by Monte Carlo simulations, indicate that a fraction as high as ≈40% of the present sample is likely to be Compton thick. The space density of Compton-thick AGN with logL2-10 keV> 43.5 at z = 0.83 is ΦThick = (9.1 ± 2.1) × 10-6 Mpc-3, in good agreement with both X-ray background model expectations and the previously measured space density for objects in a similar

  3. Luminosity functions in the CLASH-VLT cluster MACS J1206.2-0847: the importance of tidal interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Mercurio, A; Biviano, A; Nonino, M; Rosati, P; Balestra, I; Brescia, M; Girardi, M; Gobat, R; Grillo, C; Lombardi, M; Sartoris, B

    2015-01-01

    We present the optical luminosity functions (LFs) of galaxies for the CLASH-VLT cluster MACS J1206.2-0847 at z=0.439, based on HST and SUBARU data, including ~600 spectroscopically confirmed member galaxies. The LFs on the wide SUBARU FoV are well described by a single Schechter function down to M~M*+3, whereas this fit is poor for HST data, due to a faint-end upturn visible down M~M*+7, suggesting a bimodal behaviour. We also investigate the effect of local environment by deriving the LFs in four different regions, according to the distance from the centre, finding an increase in the faint-end slope going from the core to the outer rings. Our results confirm and extend our previous findings on the analysis of mass functions, which showed that the galaxies with stellar mass below 10^10.5, M_sun have been significantly affected by tidal interaction effects, thus contributing to the intra cluster light.

  4. The luminosity function at the end of the main sequence: Results of a deep, large-area, CCD survey for cool dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Mcgraw, John T.; Hess, Thomas R.; Liebert, James; Mccarthy, Donald W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The luminosity function at the end of the main sequence is determined from V, R, and I data taken by the charge coupled devices (CCD)/Transit Instrument, a dedicated telescope surveying an 8.25 min wide strip of sky centered at delta = +28 deg, thus sampling Galactic latitudes of +90 deg down to -35 deg. A selection of 133 objects chosen via R - I and V - I colors has been observed spectroscopically at the 4.5 m Multiple Mirror Telescope to assess contributions by giants and subdwarfs and to verify that the reddest targets are objects of extremely late spectral class. Eighteen dwarfs of type M6 or later have been discovered, with the latest being of type M8.5. Data used for the determination of the luminosity function cover 27.3 sq. deg down to a completeness limit of R = 19.0. This luminosity function, computed at V, I, and bolometric magnitudes, shows an increase at the lowest luminosities, corresponding to spectral types later than M6- an effect suggested in earlier work by Reid & Gilmore and Legget & Hawkins. When the luminosity function is segregated into north Galactic and south Galactic portions, it is found that the upturn at faint magnitudes exists only in the southern sample. In fact, no dwarfs with M(sub I) is greater than or equal to 12.0 are found within the limiting volume of the 19.4 sq deg northern sample, in stark contrast to the smaller 7.9 sq deg area at southerly latitudes where seven such dwarfs are found. This fact, combined with the fact that the Sun is located approximately 10-40 pc north of the midplane, suggests that the latest dwarfs are part of a young population with a scale height much smaller than the 350 pc value generally adopted for other M dwarfs. These objects comprise a young population either because the lower metallicities prevelant at earlier epochs inhibited the formation of late M dwarfs or because the older counterparts of this population have cooled beyond current detection limits. The latter scenario would hold if these

  5. The XXL Survey. II. The bright cluster sample: catalogue and luminosity function

    CERN Document Server

    Pacaud, F; Giles, P A; Adami, C; Sadibekova, T; Pierre, M; Maughan, B J; Lieu, M; Fèvre, J -P Le; Alis, S; Altieri, B; Ardila, F; Baldry, I; Benoist, C; Birkinshaw, M; Chiappetti, L; Démoclès, J; Eckert, D; Evrard, A E; Faccioli, L; Gastaldello, F; Guennou, L; Horellou, C; Iovino, A; Koulouridis, E; Brun, V Le; Lidman, C; Liske, J; Maurogordato, S; Menanteau, F; Owers, M; Poggianti, B; Pomarède, D; Pompei, E; Ponman, T J; Rapetti, D; Reiprich, T H; Smith, G P; Tuffs, R; Valageas, P; Valtchanov, I; Willis, J P; Ziparo, F

    2015-01-01

    Context. The XXL Survey is the largest survey carried out by the XMM-Newton satellite and covers a total area of 50 square degrees distributed over two fields. It primarily aims at investigating the large-scale structures of the Universe using the distribution of galaxy clusters and active galactic nuclei as tracers of the matter distribution. Aims. This article presents the XXL bright cluster sample, a subsample of 100 galaxy clusters selected from the full XXL catalogue by setting a lower limit of $3\\times 10^{-14}\\,\\mathrm{erg \\,s^{-1}cm^{-2}}$ on the source flux within a 1$^{\\prime}$ aperture. Methods. The selection function was estimated using a mixture of Monte Carlo simulations and analytical recipes that closely reproduce the source selection process. An extensive spectroscopic follow-up provided redshifts for 97 of the 100 clusters. We derived accurate X-ray parameters for all the sources. Scaling relations were self-consistently derived from the same sample in other publications of the series. On th...

  6. Are Radio AGN Powered by Accretion or Black Hole Spin?

    CERN Document Server

    McNamara, B R; Nulsen, P E J

    2010-01-01

    We compare accretion and black hole spin as potential energy sources for outbursts from AGN in brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs). We find that the distribution of AGN power estimated from X-ray cavities is consistent with a broad range of both spin parameter and accretion rate. Sufficient quantities of molecular gas are available in most BCGs to power their AGN by accretion alone. However, we find no correlation between AGN power and molecular gas mass. For a given AGN power, the BCG's gas mass and accretion efficiency vary by more than two orders of magnitude. Most of the molecular gas in BCGs is apparently consumed by star formation or is driven out of the nucleus by the AGN before it reaches the nuclear black hole. Bondi accretion from hot atmospheres is generally unable to fuel powerful AGN, unless their black holes are more massive than their bulge luminosities imply. We identify several powerful AGN that reside in relatively gas-poor galaxies, indicating an unusually efficient mode of accretion, or that...

  7. The Spitzer mid-infrared AGN survey. I - optical and near-infrared spectroscopy of candidate obscured and normal AGN selected in the mid-infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Lacy, M; Gates, E L; Nielsen, D M; Petric, A O; Sajina, A; Urrutia, T; Drews, S Cox; Harrison, C; Seymour, N; Storrie-Lombardi, L J

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of a program of optical and near-infrared spectroscopic follow-up of candidate Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) selected in the mid-infrared. This survey selects both normal and obscured AGN closely matched in luminosity across a wide range, from Seyfert galaxies with bolometric luminosities L_bol~10^10L_sun, to highly luminous quasars (L_bol~10^14L_sun), and with redshifts from 0-4.3. Samples of candidate AGN were selected through mid-infrared color cuts at several different 24 micron flux density limits to ensure a range of luminosities at a given redshift. The survey consists of 786 candidate AGN and quasars, of which 672 have spectroscopic redshifts and classifications. Of these, 137 (20%) are type-1 AGN with blue continua, 294 (44%) are type-2 objects with extinctions A_V>~5 towards their AGN, 96 (14%) are AGN with lower extinctions (A_V~1) and 145 (22%) have redshifts, but no clear signs of AGN activity in their spectra. 50% of the survey objects have L_bol >10^12L_sun, in the quasar ...

  8. The massive end of the luminosity and stellar mass functions: Dependence on the fit to the light profile

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardi, M; Sheth, R K; Vikram, V; Huertas-Company, M; Mei, S; Shankar, F

    2013-01-01

    In addition to the large systematic differences arising from assumptions about the stellar mass-to-light ratio, the massive end of the stellar mass function is rather sensitive to how one fits the light profiles of the most luminous galaxies. We quantify this by comparing the luminosity and stellar mass functions based on SDSS cmodel magnitudes, and PyMorph single-Sersic and Sersic-Exponential fits to the surface brightness profiles of galaxies in the SDSS. The PyMorph fits return more light, so that the predicted masses are larger than when cmodel magnitudes are used. As a result, the total stellar mass density at z~0.1 is about 1.2x larger than in our previous analysis of the SDSS. The differences are most pronounced at the massive end, where the measured number density of objects having M* > 6 x 10^{11} Msun is ~5x larger. Alternatively, at number densities of 10^{-6} Mpc^{-3}, the limiting stellar mass is 2x larger. The differences with respect to fits by other authors, typically based on Petrosian-like m...

  9. Far-Ultraviolet and Far-Infrared Bivariate Luminosity Function of Galaxies: Complex Relation between Stellar and Dust Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Takeuchi, Tsutomu T; Yuan, Fang-Ting; Buat, Veronique; Burgarella, Denis

    2012-01-01

    Far-ultraviolet (FUV) and far-infrared (FIR) luminosity functions (LFs) of galaxies show a strong evolution from $z = 0$ to $z = 1$, but the FIR LF evolves much stronger than the FUV one. The FUV is dominantly radiated from newly formed short-lived OB stars, while the FIR is emitted by dust grains heated by the FUV radiation field. It is known that dust is always associated with star formation activity. Thus, both FUV and FIR are tightly related to the star formation in galaxies, but in a very complicated manner. In order to disentangle the relation between FUV and FIR emissions, we estimate the UV-IR bivariate LF (BLF) of galaxies with {\\sl GALEX} and {\\sl AKARI} All-Sky Survey datasets. Recently we invented a new mathematical method to construct the BLF with given marginals and prescribed correlation coefficient. This method makes use of a tool from mathematical statistics, so called "copula". The copula enables us to construct a bivariate distribution function from given marginal distributions with prescri...

  10. The H-alpha luminosity function at redshift 2.2: A new determination using VLT/HAWK-I

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, Matthew; Ostlin, Goran

    2009-01-01

    We aim to place new, strengthened constraints on the luminosity function (LF) of H-alpha emitting galaxies at redshift z=2.2, and to further constrain the instantaneous star-formation rate density of the universe (rho*). We have used the new HAWK-I instrument at ESO-VLT to obtain extremely deep narrow-band (line; NB2090) and broad-band (continuum; Ks) imaging observations. The target field is in the GOODS-South, providing us with a rich multi-wavelength auxiliary data set, which we utilise for redshift confirmation and to estimate dust content. We use this new data to measure the faint-end slope (alpha) of LF(H-alpha) with unprecedented precision. The data are well fit by a Schechter function and also a single power-law, yielding alpha=(-1.72 +/- 0.20) and (-1.77 +/- 0.21), respectively. Thus we are able to confirm the steepening of alpha from low- to high-z predicted by a number of authors and observed at other wavelengths. We combine our LF data-points with those from a much shallower but wider survey at z=...

  11. Characterising the evolving $K$-band luminosity function using the UltraVISTA, CANDELS and HUDF surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Mortlock, Alice; Bowler, Rebecca A A; McLeod, Derek J; Marmol-Queralto, Esther; Parsa, Shaghayegh; Dunlop, James S; Bruce, Victoria A

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a new study of the K-band galaxy luminosity function (KLF) at redshifts z0.25 is relatively steep (-1.30.25 the evolution of the KLF is remarkably smooth, with little or no evolution evident at faint (M_K>-20.5) or bright magnitudes (M_K<-24.5). Instead, the KLF is seen to evolve rapidly at intermediate magnitudes, with the number density of galaxies at M_K~-23 dropping by a factor of ~5 over the redshift interval 0.25function with fixed faint-end slopes (alpha_1=-0.5, alpha_2=-1.5) and a shared characteristic magnitude (M_K*). According to this parameterisation, the normalisation of the component which dominates the faint-end of the KLF remains approximately constant, with phi*_2 decreasing by only a factor of ~2 between z~0 and z~3.25. In contrast, the component which dominates the bright end of the KLF at low redshifts evolves dramatically, becoming essentially negl...

  12. The Role of Star-Formation and AGN in Dust Heating of z=0.3-2.8 Galaxies - II. Informing IR AGN fraction estimates through simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Roebuck, Eric; Hayward, Christopher C; Pope, Alexandra; Kirkpatrick, Allison; Hernquist, Lars; Yan, Lin

    2016-01-01

    A key question in extragalactic studies is the determination of the relative roles of stars and AGN in powering dusty galaxies at $z\\sim$1-3 where the bulk of star-formation and AGN activity took place. In Paper I, we present a sample of $336$ 24$\\mu$m-selected (Ultra)Luminous Infrared Galaxies, (U)LIRGs, at $z \\sim 0.3$-$2.8$, where we focus on determining the AGN contribution to the IR luminosity. Here, we use hydrodynamic simulations with dust radiative transfer of isolated and merging galaxies, to investigate how well the simulations reproduce our empirical IR AGN fraction estimates and determine how IR AGN fractions relate to the UV-mm AGN fraction. We find that: 1) IR AGN fraction estimates based on simulations are in qualitative agreement with the empirical values when host reprocessing of the AGN light is considered; 2) for star-forming galaxy-AGN composites our empirical methods may be underestimating the role of AGN, as our simulations imply $>$50% AGN fractions, $\\sim$3$\\times$ higher than previous...

  13. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS). XIII. The Luminosity and Mass Function of Galaxies in the Core of the Virgo Cluster and the Contribution from Disrupted Satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrarese, Laura; Sanchez-Janssen, Ruben; Roediger, Joel; McConnachie, Alan W; Durrell, Patrick R; MacArthur, Lauren A; Blakeslee, John P; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Boissier, S; Boselli, Alessandro; Courteau, Stephane; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Emsellem, Eric; Gwyn, S D J; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Jordan, Andres; Lancon, Ariane; Liu, Chengze; Mei, Simona; Mihos, J Christopher; Puzia, Thomas H; Taylor, James E; Zhang, Hongxin

    2016-01-01

    We present measurements of the galaxy luminosity and stellar mass function in a 3.71 deg$^2$ (0.3 Mpc$^2$) area in the core of the Virgo cluster, based on $ugriz$ data from the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS). The galaxy sample consists of 352 objects brighter than $M_g=-9.13$ mag, the 50% completeness limit of the survey. Using a Bayesian analysis, we find a best-fit faint end slope of $\\alpha=-1.33 \\pm 0.02$ for the g-band luminosity function; consistent results are found for the stellar mass function as well as the luminosity function in the other four NGVS bandpasses. We discuss the implications for the faint-end slope of adding 92 ultra compact dwarfs galaxies (UCDs) -- previously compiled by the NGVS in this region -- to the galaxy sample, assuming that UCDs are the stripped remnants of nucleated dwarf galaxies. Under this assumption, the slope of the luminosity function (down to the UCD faint magnitude limit, $M_g = -9.6$ mag) increases dramatically, up to $\\alpha = -1.60 \\pm 0.06$ when cor...

  14. The extended ROSAT-ESO Flux Limited X-ray Galaxy Cluster Survey (REFLEX II) IV. X-ray Luminosity Function and First Constraints on Cosmological Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Böhringer, H; Collins, C A

    2014-01-01

    The X-ray luminosity function is an important statistic of the census of galaxy clusters and an important means to probe the cosmological model of our Universe. Based on our recently completed REFLEX II cluster sample we construct the X-ray luminosity function of galaxy clusters for several redshift slices from $z = 0$ to $z = 0.4$ and discuss its implications. We find no significant signature of redshift evolution of the luminosity function in the redshift interval. We provide the results of fits of a parameterized Schechter function and extensions of it which provide a reasonable characterization of the data. Using a model for structure formation and galaxy cluster evolution we compare the observed X-ray luminosity function with predictions for different cosmological models. For the most interesting constraints for the cosmological parameters $\\Omega_m$ and $\\sigma_8$ we obatain $\\Omega_m \\sim 0.27 \\pm 0.03$ and $\\sigma_8 \\sim 0.80 \\pm 0.03$ based on the statistical uncertainty alone. Marginalizing over the...

  15. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): ugrizYJHK S\\'ersic luminosity functions and the cosmic spectral energy distribution by Hubble type

    CERN Document Server

    Kelvin, Lee S; Robotham, Aaron S G; Graham, Alister W; Phillipps, Steven; Agius, Nicola K; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Baldry, Ivan; Bamford, Steven P; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Brough, Sarah; Brown, Michael J I; Colless, Matthew; Conselice, Christopher J; Hopkins, Andrew M; Liske, Jochen; Loveday, Jon; Norberg, Peder; Pimbblet, Kevin A; Popescu, Cristina C; Prescott, Matthew; Taylor, Edward N; Tuffs, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    We report the morphological classification of 3727 galaxies from the Galaxy and Mass Assembly survey with M_r < -17.4 mag and in the redshift range 0.025 < z < 0.06 (2.1 x 10^5 Mpc^3 ) into E, S0-Sa, SB0-SBa, Sab-Scd, SBab-SBcd, Sd-Irr and little blue spheroid classes. Approximately 70% of galaxies in our sample are disk dominated systems, with the remaining ~30% spheroid dominated. We establish the robustness of our classifications, and use them to derive morphological-type luminosity functions and luminosity densities in the ugrizYJHK passbands, improving on prior studies that split by global colour or light profile shape alone. We find that the total galaxy luminosity function is best described by a double-Schechter function while the constituent morphological-type luminosity functions are well described by a single-Schechter function. These data are also used to derive the star-formation rate densities for each Hubble class, and the attenuated and unattenuated (corrected for dust) cosmic spectral...

  16. The infrared luminosity function of galaxies at redshifts z=1 and z=2 in the GOODS fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caputi, K. I.; Lagache, G.; Yan, Lin; Dole, H.; Bavouzet, N.; Le Floc'h, E.; Choi, P. I.; Helou, G.; Reddy, N.

    2007-01-01

    We present the rest-frame 8 mu m LF at redshifts z = 1 and similar to 2, computed from Spitzer 24 mu m-selected galaxies in the GOODS fields over an area of 291 arcmin(2). Using classification criteria based on X-ray data and IRAC colors, we identify the AGNs in our sample. The rest-frame 8 mu m LFs

  17. The effect of AGN feedback on the X-ray morphologies of clusters: Simulations vs. observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Gayoung; Puchwein, Ewald; Böhringer, Hans

    2016-07-01

    Clusters of galaxies probe the large-scale distribution of matter and are a useful tool to test the cosmological models by constraining cosmic structure growth and the expansion of the Universe. It is the scaling relations between mass observables and the true mass of a cluster through which we obtain the cosmological constraints by comparing to theoretical cluster mass functions. These scaling relations are, however, heavily influenced by cluster morphology. The presence of the slight tension in recent cosmological constraints on Ωm and σ8 based on the CMB and clusters has boosted the interests in looking for possible sources for the discrepancy. Therefore we study here the effect of active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback as one of the major mechanisms modifying the cluster morphology influencing scaling relations. It is known that AGN feedback injects energies up to 1062 erg into the intracluster medium, controls the heating and cooling of a cluster, and re-distributes cold gas from the centre to outer radii. We have also learned that cluster simulations with AGN feedback can reproduce observed cluster properties, for example, the X-ray luminosity, temperature, and cooling rate at the centre better than without the AGN feedback. In this paper using cosmological hydrodynamical simulations we investigate how the AGN feedback changes the X-ray morphology of the simulated systems, and compare this to the observed Representative XMM-Newton Cluster Structure Survey (REXCESS) clusters. We apply two substructure measures, centre shifts (w) and power ratios (e.g. P3/P0), to characterise the cluster morphology, and find that our simulated clusters are more substructured than the observed clusters based on the values of w and P3/P0. We also show that the degree of this discrepancy is affected by the inclusion of AGN feedback. While the clusters simulated with the AGN feedback are in much better agreement with the REXCESS LX-T relation, they are also more substructured

  18. X-ray absorption, nuclear infrared emission and dust covering factors of AGN: testing Unification Schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Mateos, S; Alonso-Herrero, A; Hernán-Caballero, A; Barcons, X; Ramos, A Asensio; Watson, M G; Blain, A; Caccianiga, A; Ballo, L; Braito, V; Almeida, C Ramos

    2016-01-01

    We present the distributions of geometrical covering factors of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) dusty tori (f2) using an X-ray selected complete sample of 227 AGN drawn from the Bright Ultra-hard XMM-Newton Survey. The AGN have z from 0.05 to 1.7, 2-10 keV luminosities between 10^42 and 10^46 erg/s and Compton-thin X-ray absorption. Employing data from UKIDSS, 2MASS and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer in a previous work we determined the rest-frame 1-20 microns continuum emission from the torus which we model here with the clumpy torus models of Nenkova et al. Optically classified type 1 and type 2 AGN are intrinsically different, with type 2 AGN having on average tori with higher f2 than type 1 AGN. Nevertheless, ~20 per cent of type 1 AGN have tori with large covering factors while ~23-28 per cent of type 2 AGN have tori with small covering factors. Low f2 are preferred at high AGN luminosities, as postulated by simple receding torus models, although for type 2 AGN the effect is certainly small. f2 in...

  19. AGN Feedback in Overdense Environments at z=2.23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucy, Adrian B.; Lehmer, B.; Alexander, D. M.; Best, P.; Geach, J.; Harrison, C. M.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Matsuda, Y.; Mullaney, J.; Smail, I.; Sobral, D.

    2013-01-01

    We present results from a ≈100 ks Chandra observation of the 2QZ Cluster 1004+00 galaxy overdensity at z=2.23. This 2QZ Clus structure was first identified as an overdensity of four optically-selected quasars; that sample was subsequently found to overlap with an overdensity of 22 Hα-emitting galaxies (HAEs) identified through narrow and broad band near-infrared imaging by Matsuda et al. (2011). In addition to the preselected quasars in 2QZ Clus, our Chandra observation reveals that a further three HAEs are X-ray sources, all characterized by X-ray luminosities and spectral slopes consistent with unobscured active galactic nuclei (AGN). In total, we find that ≈30% of HAEs in our observed region of 2QZ Clus are AGN. This AGN fraction is high compared to AGN fractions among HAEs in the Chandra-COSMOS field (C-COSMOS), and if this enhancement is purely a result of the quasar selection bias of our sample, we estimate that such activity is rare at this redshift. Hα is a tracer of star formation, so 2QZ Clus is well suited to the investigation of the coeval growth of supermassive black holes and their host galaxies in the precursors to rich local clusters. Moreover, we have an ideal control sample in C-COSMOS; this survey contains a large sample of HAEs classified identically using infrared imaging, but without any selection of quasars. We calculate AGN fraction as a function of galaxy overdensity in C-COSMOS, and perform stacking analyses of Chandra and 250μ Herschel SPIRE data to obtain mean black hole accretion rates dMBH/dt and star formation rates SFR. Preliminary results indicate that dMBH/dt and its ratio to SFR are significantly elevated in 2QZ Clus compared to similarly overdense regions of C-COSMOS. We discuss these relations in the context of theoretical models describing the emergence of the MBH/Mgal relation of the local Universe.

  20. Galaxies in Filaments have More Satellites: The Influence of the Cosmic Web on the Satellite Luminosity Function in the SDSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Quan; Tempel, E.; Libeskind, N. I.

    2015-02-01

    We investigate whether the satellite luminosity function (LF) of primary galaxies identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) depends on whether the host galaxy is in a filament or not. Isolated primary galaxies are identified in the SDSS spectroscopic sample, and potential satellites (that are up to four magnitudes fainter than their hosts) are searched for in the much deeper photometric sample. Filaments are constructed from the galaxy distribution by the Bisous process. Isolated primary galaxies are divided into two subsamples: those in filaments and those not in filaments. We examine the stacked mean satellite LF of both the filament and nonfilament samples and find that, on average, the satellite LF of galaxies in filaments is significantly higher than those of galaxies not in filaments. The filamentary environment can increase the abundance of the brightest satellites (M sat. 2.0) by a factor of ~2 compared with nonfilament isolated galaxies. This result is independent of the primary galaxy magnitude, although the satellite LF of galaxies in the faintest magnitude bin is too noisy to determine if such a dependence exists. Because our filaments are extracted from a spectroscopic flux-limited sample, we consider the possibility that the difference in satellite LF is due to a redshift, color, or environmental bias, finding these to be insufficient to explain our result. The dependence of the satellite LF on the cosmic web suggests that the filamentary environment may have a strong effect on the efficiency of galaxy formation.

  1. The evolution of the galaxy luminosity function in the rest frame blue band up to z=3.5

    CERN Document Server

    Poli, F; Fontana, A; Menci, N; Zamorani, G; Nonino, M; Saracco, P; Vanzella, E; Donnarumma, I; Salimbeni, S; Cimatti, A; Cristiani, S; Daddi, E; D'Odorico, S; Mignoli, M; Pozzetti, L; Renzini, A

    2003-01-01

    We present an estimate of the cosmological evolution of the field galaxy luminosity function (LF) in the rest frame 4400 Angstrom B -band up to redshift z=3.5. To this purpose, we use a composite sample of 1541 I--selected galaxies selected down to I_(AB)=27.2 and 138 galaxies selected down to K_(AB)=25 from ground-based and HST multicolor surveys, most notably the new deep JHK images in the Hubble Deep Field South (HDF-S) taken with the ISAAC instrument at the ESO-VLT telescope. About 21% of the sample has spectroscopic redshifts, and the remaining fraction well calibrated photometric redshifts. The resulting blue LF shows little density evolution at the faint end with respect to the local values, while at the bright end (M_B(AB)<-20) a brightening increasing with redshift is apparent with respect to the local LF. Hierarchical CDM models overpredict the number of faint galaxies by about a factor 3 at z=1. At the bright end the predicted LFs are in reasonable agreement only at low and intermediate redshift...

  2. Galaxies in filaments have more satellites: the influence of the cosmic web on the satellite luminosity function in the SDSS

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Quan; Libeskind, Noam I

    2014-01-01

    We investigate if the satellite luminosity function (LFs) of primary galaxies identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS DR8) depends on whether the host galaxy is in a filament or not. Isolated primary galaxies are identified in the SDSS spectroscopic sample while potential satellites are searched for in the much deeper photometric sample. Filaments are constructed from the galaxy distribution by the "Bisous" process. Isolated primary galaxies are divided into two subsamples: those in filaments and those not in filaments. We examine the stacked mean LF of each sample and found that, in the mean, the satellite LFs of primary galaxies (extending to at least 4 magnitude fainter than the primary galaxies) in filaments is significantly higher than those of primary galaxies not in filaments. The filamentary environment can increases the abundance of the brightest satellites ($M_\\mathrm{sat.} < M_\\mathrm{prim.}+ 2.0$), by a factor of $\\sim 2$ compared with non-filament galaxies. This result is independent ...

  3. The Luminosity Functions of the Galaxy Cluster MS1054-0321 at z=0.83 based on ACS Photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Goto, T; Cross, N J G; Illingworth, G D; Tran, K; Magee, D; Franx, M; Benítez, N; Bouwens, R J; Demarco, R; Ford, H C; Homeier, N L; Martel, A R; Menanteau, F; Clampin, M; Hartig, G F; Ardila, D R; Bartko, F; Blakeslee, J P; Bradley, L D; Broadhurst, T J; Brown, R A; Burrows, C J; Cheng, E S; Feldman, P D; Golimowski, D A; Gronwall, C; Holden, B; Infante, L; Jee, M J; Krist, J E; Lesser, M P; Mei, S; Meurer, G R; Miley, G K; Motta, V; Overzier, R; Rosati, P; Sirianni, M; Sparks, W B; Tran, H D; Tsvetanov, Z I; White, R L; Zheng, W; Zirm, A W; Goto, Tomotsugu; Postman, Marc; Cross, Nicholas J.G.

    2004-01-01

    We present new measurements of the galaxy luminosity function (LF) and its dependence on local galaxy density, color, morphology, and clustocentric radius for the massive $z=0.83$ cluster MS1054-0321. Our analyses are based on imaging performed with the ACS onboard the HST in the F606W, F775W and F850LP passbands and extensive spectroscopic data obtained with the Keck LRIS. Our main results are based on a spectroscopically selected sample of 143 cluster members with morphological classifications derived from the ACS observations. Our three primary findings are (1) the faint-end slope of the LF is steepest in the bluest filter, (2) the LF in the inner part of the cluster (or highest density regions) has a flatter faint-end slope, and (3) the fraction of early-type galaxies is higher at the bright end of the LF, and gradually decreases toward fainter magnitudes. These characteristics are consistent with those in local galaxy clusters, indicating that, at least in massive clusters, the common characteristics of ...

  4. DA white dwarfs from the LSS-GAC survey DR1: the preliminary luminosity and mass functions and formation rate

    CERN Document Server

    Rebassa-Mansergas, A; Cojocaru, R; Yuan, H -B; Torres, S; Garcia-Berro, E; Xiang, M -X; Huang, Y; Koester, D; Hou, Y; Li, G; Zhang, Y

    2015-01-01

    Modern large-scale surveys have allowed the identification of large numbers of white dwarfs. However, these surveys are subject to complicated target selection algorithms, which make it almost impossible to quantify to what extent the observational biases affect the observed populations. The LAMOST (Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope) Spectroscopic Survey of the Galactic anti-center (LSS-GAC) follows a well-defined set of criteria for selecting targets for observations. This advantage over previous surveys has been fully exploited here to identify a small yet well-characterised magnitude-limited sample of hydrogen-rich (DA) white dwarfs. We derive preliminary LSS-GAC DA white dwarf luminosity and mass functions. The space density and average formation rate of DA white dwarfs we derive are 0.83+/-0.16 x 10^{-3} pc^{-3} and 5.42 +/- 0.08 x 10^{-13} pc^{-3} yr^{-1}, respectively. Additionally, using an existing Monte Carlo population synthesis code we simulate the population of single DA w...

  5. The Century Survey Galactic Halo Project II: Global Properties and the Luminosity Function of Field Blue Horizontal Branch Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, W R; Kenyon, S J; Kurtz, M J; Allende-Prieto, C; Beers, T C; Wilhelm, R; Brown, Warren R.; Geller, Margaret J.; Kenyon, Scott J.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Beers, Timothy C.; Wilhelm, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    We discuss a 175 deg^2 spectroscopic survey for blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars in the Galactic halo. We use the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to select BHB candidates, and find that the 2MASS and SDSS color-selection is 38% and 50% efficient, respectively, for BHB stars. Our samples include one likely run-away B7 star 6 kpc below the Galactic plane. The global properties of the BHB samples are consistent with membership in the halo population: the median metallicity is [Fe/H]=-1.7, the velocity dispersion is 108 km/s, and the mean Galactic rotation of the BHB stars 3<|z|<15 kpc is -4 +- 30 km/s. We discuss the theoretical basis of the Preston, Shectman & Beers M_V-color relation for BHB stars, and conclude that intrinsic shape of the BHB M_V-color relation results from the physics of stars on the horizontal branch. We calculate the luminosity function for the field BHB star samples using the Efstathiou, Ellis, & Peterson maximum-likelihood method w...

  6. The bright end of the galaxy luminosity function at z ~ 7: before the onset of mass quenching?

    CERN Document Server

    Bowler, R A A; McLure, R J; Rogers, A B; McCracken, H J; Milvang-Jensen, B; Furusawa, H; Fynbo, J P U; Taniguchi, Y; Afonso, J; Bremer, M N; Fevre, O Le

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of a new search for bright star-forming galaxies at z ~ 7 within the UltraVISTA DR2 and UKIDSS UDS DR10 data, which together provide 1.65 sq deg of near-infrared imaging with overlapping optical and Spitzer data. Using a full photo-z analysis to identify high-z galaxies and reject contaminants, we have selected a sample of 34 luminous (-22.7 < M_UV < -21.2) galaxies with the 6.5 < z < 7.5. Crucially, the deeper imaging provided by UltraVISTA DR2 confirms all of the robust objects previously uncovered by Bowler et al. (2012), validating our selection technique. Our sample includes the most massive galaxies known at z ~ 7, with M_* ~ 10^{10} M_sun, and the majority are resolved, consistent with larger sizes (r_{1/2} ~ 1 - 1.5 kpc) than displayed by less massive galaxies. From our final sample, we determine the form of the bright end of the rest-frame UV galaxy luminosity function (LF) at z ~ 7, providing strong evidence that the bright end of the z = 7 LF does not decline as s...

  7. Supernova Remnants in the Local Group I: A model for the radio luminosity function and visibility times of supernova remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Sarbadhicary, Sumit K; Chomiuk, Laura; Caprioli, Damiano; Huizenga, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Supernova remnants (SNRs) in Local Group galaxies offer unique insights into the origin of different types of supernovae. In order to take full advantage of these insights, one must understand the intrinsic and environmental diversity of SNRs in the context of their host galaxies. We introduce a semi-analytic model that reproduces the statistical properties of a radio continuum-selected SNR population, taking into account the detection limits of radio surveys, the range of SN kinetic energies, the measured ISM and stellar mass distribution in the host galaxy from multi-wavelength images and the current understanding of electron acceleration and field amplification in SNR shocks from first-principle kinetic simulations. Applying our model to the SNR population in M33, we reproduce the SNR radio luminosity function with a median SN rate of $\\sim 3.1 \\times 10^{-3}$ per year and an electron acceleration efficiency, $\\epsilon_{\\rm{e}} \\sim 4.2 \\times 10^{-3}$. We predict that the radio visibility times of $\\sim 7...

  8. RECONSTRUCTING THE NEAR-INFRARED BACKGROUND FLUCTUATIONS FROM KNOWN GALAXY POPULATIONS USING MULTIBAND MEASUREMENTS OF LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We model fluctuations in the cosmic infrared background (CIB) arising from known galaxy populations using 233 measured UV, optical, and near-IR luminosity functions (LFs) from a variety of surveys spanning a wide range of redshifts. We compare best-fit Schechter parameters across the literature and find clear indication of evolution with redshift. Providing fitting formulae for the multi-band evolution of the LFs out to z ∼ 5, we calculate the total emission redshifted into the near-IR bands in the observer frame and recover the observed optical and near-IR galaxy counts to good accuracy. Our empirical approach, in conjunction with a halo model describing the clustering of galaxies, allows us to compute the fluctuations of the unresolved CIB and compare the models to current measurements. We find that fluctuations from known galaxy populations are unable to account for the large-scale CIB clustering signal seen by Spitzer/IRAC and AKARI/IRC and continue to diverge out to larger angular scales. This holds true even if the LFs are extrapolated out to faint magnitudes with a steep faint-end slope all the way to z = 8. We also show that removing resolved sources to progressively fainter magnitude limits isolates CIB fluctuations to increasingly higher redshifts. Our empirical approach suggests that known galaxy populations are not responsible for the bulk of the fluctuation signal seen in the measurements and favors a very faint population of highly clustered sources.

  9. The bright end of the exo-Zodi luminosity function: Disk evolution and implications for exo-Earth detectability

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, Grant M

    2013-01-01

    We present the first characterisation of the 12um warm dust ("exo-Zodi") luminosity function around Sun-like stars, focussing on the dustiest systems that can be identified by WISE. We detect six new warm dust candidates, five of which have unknown ages. We show that the dustiest old (>Gyr) systems BD+20 307 and HD 15407A are 1 in 10,000 occurrences. Bright warm dust is more common around young (<120Myr) systems, with a ~1% occurrence rate. We show that a two component in situ model where all stars have initially massive warm disks and in which warm debris is also generated at some random time along the stars' main-sequence lifetime, perhaps due to a collision, can explain the observations. However, if all stars only have initially massive warm disks these would not be visible at Gyr ages, and random collisions on the main-sequence are too infrequent to explain the high disk occurrence rate for young stars. That is, neither component can explain the observations on their own. Despite these conclusions, we ...

  10. The Millennium Galaxy Catalogue 16 < B_MGC < 24 galaxy counts and the calibration of the local galaxy luminosity function

    CERN Document Server

    Liske, J; Driver, S P; Cross, N J G; Couch, W J

    2003-01-01

    The Millennium Galaxy Catalogue (MGC) is a 37.5 deg^2, medium-deep, B-band imaging survey along the celestial equator, taken with the Wide Field Camera on the Isaac Newton Telescope. The survey region is contained within the regions of both the Two Degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Early Data Release (SDSS-EDR). The survey has a uniform isophotal detection limit of 26 mag arcsec^-2 and it provides a robust, well-defined catalogue of stars and galaxies in the range 16 < B_MGC < 24 mag. Here we describe the survey strategy, the photometric and astrometric calibration, source detection and analysis, and present the galaxy number counts which connect the bright and faint galaxy populations within a single survey. We argue that these counts represent the state of the art and use them to constrain the normalisations (phi*) of a number of recent estimates of the local galaxy luminosity function. We find that the 2dFGRS, SDSS-EDR, SSRS2, Durham/UKST, ESO Slice Project...

  11. The zCOSMOS survey : the role of the environment in the evolution of the luminosity function of different galaxy types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zucca, E.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Zamorani, G.; Ilbert, O.; Pozzetti, L.; Mignoli, M.; Kovac, K.; Lilly, S.; Tresse, L.; Tasca, L.; Cassata, P.; Halliday, C.; Vergani, D.; Caputi, K.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J-P.; Le Fevre, O.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Coppa, G.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Iovino, A.; Kampczyk, P.; Knobel, C.; Lamareille, F.; Le Borgne, J-F.; Le Brun, V.; Maier, C.; Pello, R.; Peng, Y.; Perez-Montero, E.; Ricciardelli, E.; Silverman, J. D.; Tanaka, M.; Abbas, U.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cimatti, A.; Guzzo, L.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Leauthaud, A.; Maccagni, D.; Marinoni, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Memeo, P.; Meneux, B.; Moresco, M.; Oesch, P.; Porciani, C.; Scaramella, R.; Arnouts, S.; Aussel, H.; Capak, P.; Kartaltepe, J.; Salvato, M.; Sanders, D.; Scoville, N.; Taniguchi, Y.; Thompson, D.

    2009-01-01

    Aims. An unbiased and detailed characterization of the galaxy luminosity function (LF) is a basic requirement in many astrophysical issues: it is of particular interest in assessing the role of the environment in the evolution of the LF of different galaxy types. Methods. We studied the evolution in

  12. The role of cluster mergers and travelling shocks in shaping the H$\\alpha$ luminosity function at $\\bf z\\sim0.2$: `sausage' and `toothbrush' clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Stroe, Andra; Röttgering, Huub J A; van Weeren, Reinout J

    2013-01-01

    The most extreme cluster mergers can lead to massive cluster-wide travelling shock waves. The CIZA J2242.8+5301 ('sausage') and 1RXS J0603.3+4213 (`toothbrush') clusters ($z\\sim0.2$) host enormous radio-emitting shocks with simple geometry. We investigate the role of mergers and shocks in shaping the H$\\alpha$ luminosity function, using custom-made narrow-band filters matching the cluster redshifts mounted on the INT. We surveyed $\\sim0.28$ deg$^2$ for each cluster and found $181$ line emitters in the `sausage' (volume of $3.371\\times10^3$ Mpc$^3$ for H$\\alpha$ at $z=0.1945$) and $141$ in the `toothbrush' ($4.546\\times10^3$ Mpc$^3$ for H$\\alpha$ at $z=0.225$), out of which $49$ (`sausage') and $30$ (`toothbrush') are expected to be H$\\alpha$. We build luminosity functions for the field-of-view down to an average limiting star formation rate of $0.14$ M$_{\\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$, find good agreement with field luminosity functions at $z=0.2$, but significant differences between the shapes of the luminosity functions...

  13. Ultra-faint Ultraviolet Galaxies at z~2 Behind the Lensing Cluster Abell 1689: the Luminosity Function, Dust Extinction and Star Formation Rate Density

    CERN Document Server

    Alavi, Anahita; Richard, Johan; Stark, Daniel P; Scarlata, Claudia; Teplitz, Harry I; Freeman, William R; Dominguez, Alberto; Rafelski, Marc; Robertson, Brant; Kewley, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    We have obtained deep HST ultraviolet (F275W/F336W) imaging of the lensing cluster Abell1689. The images are used to identify z~2 star-forming galaxies via their Lyman break. Because of the unprecedented depth of the images and the large magnification provided by the cluster, we detect galaxies 100x fainter than previous surveys at this redshift. After removing multiple images, we have 58 galaxies in our sample between -19.5 3. There is no turnover in the luminosity function down to MUV = -13. The observed trend of increasingly redder UV spectral slopes with luminosity at higher redshifts is observed in our sample, but with redder slopes at all luminosities and average reddening of = 0.15. We assume the stars in these galaxies are metal poor (0.2 Z_{sun}) compared to their brighter counterparts (Z_{sun}), resulting in bluer assumed intrinsic UV slopes and larger derived dust extinction. The total UV luminosity density at z~2 is 4.3 x 10^26 erg/s/Hz/Mpc^3, 80% of which is emitted by galaxies in the luminosity...

  14. The X-ray Luminosity Functions of Field Low Mass X-ray Binaries in Early-Type Galaxies: Evidence for a Stellar Age Dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Lehmer, B D; Zezas, A; Alexander, D M; Basu-Zych, A; Bauer, F E; Brandt, W N; Fragos, T; Hornschemeier, A E; Kalogera, V; Ptak, A; Sivakoff, G R; Tzanavaris, P; Yukita, M

    2014-01-01

    We present direct constraints on how the formation of low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) populations in galactic fields depends on stellar age. In this pilot study, we utilize Chandra and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data to detect and characterize the X-ray point source populations of three nearby early-type galaxies: NGC 3115, 3379, and 3384. The luminosity-weighted stellar ages of our sample span 3-10 Gyr. X-ray binary population synthesis models predict that the field LMXBs associated with younger stellar populations should be more numerous and luminous per unit stellar mass than older populations due to the evolution of LMXB donor star masses. Crucially, the combination of deep Chandra and HST observations allows us to test directly this prediction by identifying and removing counterparts to X-ray point sources that are unrelated to the field LMXB populations, including LMXBs that are formed dynamically in globular clusters, Galactic stars, and background AGN/galaxies. We find that the "young" early-type galax...

  15. Compton-thick AGN in the 70-month Swift-BAT All-Sky Hard X-ray Survey: A Bayesian approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akylas, A.; Georgantopoulos, I.; Ranalli, P.; Gkiokas, E.; Corral, A.; Lanzuisi, G.

    2016-10-01

    The 70-month Swift-BAT catalogue provides a sensitive view of the extragalactic X-ray sky at hard energies (>10 keV) containing about 800 active galactic nuclei (AGN). We explore its content in heavily obscured, Compton-thick AGN by combining the BAT (14-195 keV) with the lower energy XRT (0.3-10 keV) data. We apply a Bayesian methodology using Markov chains to estimate the exact probability distribution of the column density for each source. We find 53 possible Compton-thick sources (probability range 3-100%) translating to a ~7% fraction of the AGN in our sample. We derive the first parametric luminosity function of Compton-thick AGN. The unabsorbed luminosity function can be represented by a double power law with a break at L⋆ ~ 2 × 1042erg s-1 in the 20-40 keV band. The Compton-thick AGN contribute ~17% of the total AGN emissivity. We derive an accurate Compton-thick number count distribution taking into account the exact probability of a source being Compton-thick and the flux uncertainties. This number count distribution is critical for the calibration of the X-ray background synthesis models, i.e. for constraining the intrinsic fraction of Compton-thick AGN. We find that the number counts distribution in the 14-195 keV band agrees well with our models which adopt a low intrinsic fraction of Compton-thick AGN (~ 12%) among the total AGN population and a reflected emission of ~ 5%. In the extreme case of zero reflection, the number counts can be modelled with a fraction of at most 30% Compton-thick AGN of the total AGN population and no reflection. Moreover, we compare our X-ray background synthesis models with the number counts in the softer 2-10 keV band. This band is more sensitive to the reflected component and thus helps us to break the degeneracy between the fraction of Compton-thick AGN and the reflection emission. The number counts in the 2-10 keV band are well above the models which assume a 30% Compton-thick AGN fraction and zero reflection, while

  16. Radio Loud AGNs are Mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Chiaberge, Marco; Lotz, Jennifer; Norman, Colin

    2015-01-01

    We measure the merger fraction of Type 2 radio-loud and radio-quiet active galactic nuclei at z>1 using new samples. The objects have HST images taken with WFC3 in the IR channel. These samples are compared to the 3CR sample of radio galaxies at z>1 and to a sample of non-active galaxies. We also consider lower redshift radio galaxies with HST observations and previous generation instruments (NICMOS and WFPC2). The full sample spans an unprecedented range in both redshift and AGN luminosity. We perform statistical tests to determine whether the different samples are differently associated with mergers. We find that all (92%) radio-loud galaxies at z>1 are associated with recent or ongoing merger events. Among the radio-loud population there is no evidence for any dependence of the merger fraction on either redshift or AGN power. For the matched radio-quiet samples, only 38% are merging systems. The merger fraction for the sample of non-active galaxies at z>1 is indistinguishable from radio-quiet objects. This...

  17. X-Ray Absorption, Nuclear Infrared Emission, and Dust Covering Factors of AGNs: Testing Unification Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, S.; Carrera, F. J.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Hernán-Caballero, A.; Barcons, X.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Watson, M. G.; Blain, A.; Caccianiga, A.; Ballo, L.; Braito, V.; Ramos Almeida, C.

    2016-03-01

    We present the distributions of the geometrical covering factors of the dusty tori (f2) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) using an X-ray selected complete sample of 227 AGNs drawn from the Bright Ultra-hard XMM-Newton Survey. The AGNs have z from 0.05 to 1.7, 2-10 keV luminosities between 1042 and 1046 erg s-1, and Compton-thin X-ray absorption. Employing data from UKIDSS, 2MASS, and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer in a previous work, we determined the rest-frame 1-20 μm continuum emission from the torus, which we model here with the clumpy torus models of Nenkova et al. Optically classified type 1 and type 2 AGNs are intrinsically different, with type 2 AGNs having, on average, tori with higher f2 than type 1 AGNs. Nevertheless, ˜20% of type 1 AGNs have tori with large covering factors, while ˜23%-28% of type 2 AGNs have tori with small covering factors. Low f2 are preferred at high AGN luminosities, as postulated by simple receding torus models, although for type 2 AGNs the effect is certainly small. f2 increases with the X-ray column density, which implies that dust extinction and X-ray absorption take place in material that share an overall geometry and most likely belong to the same structure, the putative torus. Based on our results, the viewing angle, AGN luminosity, and also f2 determine the optical appearance of an AGN and control the shape of the rest-frame ˜1-20 μm nuclear continuum emission. Thus, the torus geometrical covering factor is a key ingredient of unification schemes.

  18. MUSE Deep-Fields: The Lya Luminosity Function in the Hubble Deep Field South at 2.91 < z < 6.64

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, Alyssa B; Blaizot, Jeremy; Wisotzki, Lutz; Herenz, Edmund Christian; Garel, Thibault; Richard, Johan; Bacon, Roland; Bina, David; Cantalupo, Sebastiano; Contini, Thierry; Brock, Mark den; Hashimoto, Takuya; Marino, Raffaella Anna; Pello, Roser; Schaye, Joop; Schmidt, Kasper B

    2016-01-01

    We present the first estimate of the Ly{\\alpha} luminosity function using blind spectroscopy from the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer, MUSE, in the Hubble Deep Field South. Using automatic source-detection software, we assemble a homogeneously-detected sample of 59 Ly{\\alpha} emitters covering a flux range of -18.0 < log10 (F) < -16.3 (erg s^-1 cm^-2), corresponding to luminosities of 41.4 < log10 (L) < 42.8 (erg s^-1). As recent studies have shown, Ly{\\alpha} fluxes can be underestimated by a factor of two or more via traditional methods, and so we undertake a careful assessment of each object's Ly{\\alpha} flux using a curve-of-growth analysis to account for extended emission. We describe our self-consistent method for determining the completeness of the sample, and present an estimate of the global Ly{\\alpha} luminosity function between redshifts 2.91 < z < 6.64 using the 1/Vmax estimator. We find the luminosity function is higher than many number densities reported in the literature by ...

  19. The massive end of the luminosity and stellar mass functions and clustering from CMASS to SDSS: evidence for and against passive evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, M.; Meert, A.; Sheth, R. K.; Huertas-Company, M.; Maraston, C.; Shankar, F.; Vikram, V.

    2016-02-01

    We describe the luminosity function, based on Sérsic fits to the light profiles, of CMASS galaxies at z ˜ 0.55. Compared to previous estimates, our Sérsic-based reductions imply more luminous, massive galaxies, consistent with the effects of Sérsic- rather than Petrosian or de Vaucouleur-based photometry on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) main galaxy sample at z ˜ 0.1. This implies a significant revision of the high-mass end of the correlation between stellar and halo mass. Inferences about the evolution of the luminosity and stellar mass functions depend strongly on the assumed, and uncertain, k + e corrections. In turn, these depend on the assumed age of the population. Applying k + e corrections taken from fitting the models of Maraston et al. to the colours of both SDSS and CMASS galaxies, the evolution of the luminosity and stellar mass functions appears impressively passive, provided that the fits are required to return old ages. However, when matched in comoving number- or luminosity-density, the SDSS galaxies are less strongly clustered compared to their counterparts in CMASS. This rules out the passive evolution scenario, and, indeed, any minor merger scenarios which preserve the rank ordering in stellar mass of the population. Potential incompletenesses in the CMASS sample would further enhance this mismatch. Our analysis highlights the virtue of combining clustering measurements with number counts.

  20. The massive end of the luminosity and stellar mass functions and clustering from CMASS to SDSS: Evidence for and against passive evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardi, M; Sheth, R K; Huertas-Company, M; Maraston, C; Shankar, F; Vikram, V

    2015-01-01

    We describe the luminosity function, based on Sersic fits to the light profiles, of CMASS galaxies at z ~ 0.55. Compared to previous estimates, our Sersic-based reductions imply more luminous, massive galaxies, consistent with the effects of Sersic- rather than Petrosian or de Vaucouleur-based photometry on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) main galaxy sample at z ~ 0.1. This implies a significant revision of the high mass end of the correlation between stellar and halo mass. Inferences about the evolution of the luminosity and stellar mass functions depend strongly on the assumed, and uncertain, k+e corrections. In turn, these depend on the assumed age of the population. Applying k+e corrections taken from fitting the models of Maraston et al. (2009) to the colors of both SDSS and CMASS galaxies, the evolution of the luminosity and stellar mass functions appears impressively passive, provided that the fits are required to return old ages. However, when matched in comoving number- or luminosity-density, the...

  1. A UV to mid-IR study of AGN selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Sun Mi; Kochanek, Christopher S. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Assef, Roberto [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Brown, Michael J. I. [School of Physics, Monash University, Clayton, Vic 3800 (Australia); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Mail Stop 169-221, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Jannuzi, Buell T. [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Gonzalez, Anthony H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Hickox, Ryan C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Moustakas, John [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Siena College, 515 Loudon Road, Loudonville, NY 12211 (United States)

    2014-07-20

    We classify the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 431,038 sources in the 9 deg{sup 2} Boötes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey (NDWFS). There are up to 17 bands of data available per source, including ultraviolet (GALEX), optical (NDWFS), near-IR (NEWFIRM), and mid-infrared (IRAC and MIPS) data, as well as spectroscopic redshifts for ∼20,000 objects, primarily from the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey. We fit galaxy, active galactic nucleus (AGN), stellar, and brown dwarf templates to the observed SEDs, which yield spectral classes for the Galactic sources and photometric redshifts and galaxy/AGN luminosities for the extragalactic sources. The photometric redshift precision of the galaxy and AGN samples are σ/(1 + z) = 0.040 and σ/(1 + z) = 0.169, respectively, with the worst 5% outliers excluded. On the basis of the χ{sub ν}{sup 2} of the SED fit for each SED model, we are able to distinguish between Galactic and extragalactic sources for sources brighter than I = 23.5 mag. We compare the SED fits for a galaxy-only model and a galaxy-AGN model. Using known X-ray and spectroscopic AGN samples, we confirm that SED fitting can be successfully used as a method to identify large populations of AGNs, including spatially resolved AGNs with significant contributions from the host galaxy and objects with the emission line ratios of 'composite' spectra. We also use our results to compare with the X-ray, mid-IR, optical color, and emission line ratio selection techniques. For an F-ratio threshold of F > 10, we find 16,266 AGN candidates brighter than I = 23.5 mag and a surface density of ∼1900 AGN deg{sup –2}.

  2. AGN Black Hole Masses from Reverberation Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, B. M.

    2004-01-01

    Emission-line variability data on bright AGNs indicates that the central objects in these sources have masses in the million to few-hundred million solar mass range. The time-delayed response of the emission lines to continuum variations can be used to infer the size of the line-emitting region via light travel-time arguments. By combining these sizes with the Doppler widths of the variable part of the emission lines, a virial mass estimate can be obtained. For three especially well-studied sources, NGC 5548, NGC 7469, and 3C 390.3, data on multiple emission lines can be used to test the virial hypothesis. In each of these cases, the response time of the various emission lines is anticorrelated with the line width, with the dependence as expected for gravitationally bound motion of the line-emitting clouds, i.e., that the square of the Doppler line width is inversely proportional to the emission-line time delay. Virial masses based on the Balmer lines have now been measured for about three dozen AGNs. Systematic effects currently limit the accuracy of these masses to a factor of several, but characteristics of the radius-luminosity and mass-luminosity relationships for AGNs are beginning to emerge.

  3. Spectral Decomposition of Broad-Line AGNs and Host Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Vanden Berk, Daniel E; Yip, C W; Schneider, D P; Connolly, A J; Burton, R E; Jester, S; Hall, P B; Szalay, A S; Brinkmann, J; Berk, Daniel E. Vanden; Shen, Jiajian; Yip, Ching-Wa; Schneider, Donald P.; Connolly, Andrew J.; Burton, Ross E.; Jester, Sebastian; Hall, Patrick B.; Szalay, Alex S.; Brinkmann, John

    2005-01-01

    Using an eigenspectrum decomposition technique, we separate the host galaxy from the broad line active galactic nucleus (AGN) in a set of 4666 spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), from redshifts near zero up to about 0.75. The decomposition technique uses separate sets of galaxy and quasar eigenspectra to efficiently and reliably separate the AGN and host spectroscopic components. The technique accurately reproduces the host galaxy spectrum, its contributing fraction, and its classification. We show how the accuracy of the decomposition depends upon S/N, host galaxy fraction, and the galaxy class. Based on the eigencoefficients, the sample of SDSS broad-line AGN host galaxies spans a wide range of spectral types, but the distribution differs significantly from inactive galaxies. In particular, post-starburst activity appears to be much more common among AGN host galaxies. The luminosities of the hosts are much higher than expected for normal early-type galaxies, and their colors become increasing...

  4. Satellites of Radio AGN in SDSS: Insights into AGN Triggering and Feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Pace, Cameron

    2014-01-01

    We study the effects of radio jets on galaxies in their vicinity (satellites) and the role of satellites in triggering radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The study compares the aggregate properties of satellites of a sample of 7,220 radio AGNs at z < 0.3 (identified by Best & Heckman 2012 from the SDSS and NVSS+FIRST surveys) to the satellites of a control sample of radio-quiet galaxies, which are matched in redshift, color, luminosity, and axis ratio, as well as by environment type: field galaxies, cluster members and brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs). Remarkably, we find that radio AGNs exhibit on average a 50% excess (17{\\sigma} significance) in the number of satellites within 100 kpc even though the cluster membership was controlled for (e.g., radio BCGs have more satellites than radio-quiet BCGs, etc.). Satellite excess is not confirmed for high-excitation sources, which are only 2% of radio AGN. Extra satellites may be responsible for raising the probability for hot gas AGN accretion via t...

  5. Estimating Black Hole Masses of AGNs using Ultraviolet Emission Line Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min-Zhi Kong; Xue-Bing Wu; Ran Wang; Jin-Lin Han

    2006-01-01

    Based on measured broad line region sizes in the reverberation-mapping AGN sample, two new empirical relations are introduced to estimate the central black hole masses of radio-loud high-redshift (z > 0.5) AGNs. First, using the archival IUE/HST spectroscopy data at UV band for the reverberation-mapping objects, we obtained two new empirical relations between the BLR size and Mg Ⅱ/C Ⅳ emission line luminosity. Secondly, using the newly determined black hole masses of the reverberation-mapping sample as calibration, we found two new relationships for determining the black hole mass with the full width at half maximum and the luminosity of Mg Ⅱ/C Ⅳ line. We then apply the relations to estimate the black hole masses of the AGNs in the Large Bright Quasar Survey and a sample of radio-loud quasars. For the objects with small radio-loudness, the black hole mass estimated using the RBLR-LMg Ⅱ/C Ⅳ relation is consistent with that from the RBLR-L3000(A)/1350(A) relation. For radio-loud AGNs, however, the mass estimated from the RBLR-LMg Ⅱ/C Ⅳ relation is systematically lower than that from the continuum luminosity L3000 (A)/1350 (A).Because jets could have significant contributions to the UV/optical continuum luminosity of radio-loud AGNs,we emphasize once again that for radio-loud AGNs, the emission line luminosity may be a better tracer of the ionizing luminosity than the continuum luminosity, so that the relations between the BLR size and UV emission line luminosities should be used to estimate the black hole masses of high redshift radio-loud AGNs.

  6. AGN variability at hard X-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Soldi, S; Beckmann, V; Lubinski, P

    2010-01-01

    We present preliminary results on the variability properties of AGN above 20 keV in order to show the potential of the INTEGRAL IBIS/ISGRI and Swift/BAT instruments for hard X-ray timing analysis of AGN. The 15-50 keV light curves of 36 AGN observed by BAT during 5 years show significantly larger variations when the blazar population is considered (average normalized excess variance = 0.25) with respect to the Seyfert one (average normalized excess variance = 0.09). The hard X-ray luminosity is found to be anti-correlated to the variability amplitude in Seyfert galaxies and correlated to the black hole mass, confirming previous findings obtained with different AGN hard X-ray samples. We also present results on the Seyfert 1 galaxy IC 4329A, as an example of spectral variability study with INTEGRAL/ISGRI data. The position of the high-energy cut-off of this source is found to have varied during the INTEGRAL observations, pointing to a change of temperature of the Comptonising medium. For several bright Seyfert...

  7. 星系团Abell 85的光度函数%Luminosity Functions of Galaxy Cluster Abell 85

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李峰; 闫鹏飞; 袁启荣

    2014-01-01

    基于NASA/IPAC河外星系数据库(NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database,NED)和Sloan数字巡天(Sloan Digital Sky Survey,SDSS)第8次释放的数据(The Eighth Data Release,DR8),对星系团Abell 85(以下简称A85)的2倍动力学特征半径2r200内的光度函数(Luminosity Function,LF)进行了研究.研究表明,A85的光度函数在Sloan巡天5个波段用Schechter函数均能拟合得很好.在u、g和z波段光度函数都显示出1个下凹.早型星系r波段的两个最佳拟合参数(r波段特征绝对星等和暗端的陡度)分别为Mr*=-21.14+0.17-0.17mag,α=-0.83+0.12-0.14,晚型星系为Mr*=-21.98+0.84-0.98mag,α=-1.5+0.24-0.35.早型星系的特征星等暗于晚型星系,而暗端比晚型星系要平坦得多.早型星系的光度函数在-20.5~-20.0 mag下凹.将1.5T200范围内的星系按距离团中心的远近划分为3个环状区域,发现距离团中心越近,光度函数的暗端越陡,特征星等越亮.

  8. The X-ray Zurich Environmental Study (X-ZENS). I. Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of AGNs in galaxies in nearby groups

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, J D; Finoguenov, A; Carollo, C M; Cibinel, A; Lilly, S J; Schawinski, K

    2013-01-01

    We describe X-ray observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton of 18 galaxy groups (M_group ~ 1-6x10^13 Msolar, z~0.05) from the Zurich Environmental Study (ZENS). We aim to establish the frequency and properties, unaffected by host galaxy dilution and obscuration, of AGNs in central and satellite galaxy members, also as a function of halo-centric distance. X-ray point-source detections are reported for 22 of 177 observed galaxies, down to a limit of f_(0.5-8 keV) ~ 5x10^-15 erg cm^-2 s^-1, corresponding to a limiting luminosity of L_(0.5-8 keV)~3x10^40 erg s^-1. With the majority of the X-ray sources attributed to AGNs of low-to-moderate levels (L/L_Edd>~10^-4), we discuss the detection rate in the context of the occupation of AGNs to halos of this mass scale and redshift, and compare the structural/morphological properties between AGN-active and non-active galaxies of different rank and location within the group halos. We see a slight tendency for AGN hosts to have either relatively brighter/denser disks (or re...

  9. Signatures of AGN feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylezalek, D.; Zakamska, N.

    2016-06-01

    Feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) is widely considered to be the main driver in regulating the growth of massive galaxies. It operates by either heating or driving the gas that would otherwise be available for star formation out of the galaxy, preventing further increase in stellar mass. Observational proof for this scenario has, however, been hard to come by. We have assembled a large sample of 133 radio-quiet type-2 and red AGN at 0.1importantly, we find a negative correlation between W_{90} and sSFR in the AGN hosts with the highest star formation rates, i.e., with the highest gas content. This relationship implies that AGN with strong outflow signatures are hosted in galaxies that are more `quenched' considering their stellar mass than galaxies with weaker outflow signatures. This correlation is only seen in AGN host galaxies with SFR >100 M_{⊙} yr^{-1} where presumably the coupling of the AGN-driven wind to the gas is strongest. This observation is consistent with the AGN having a net suppression, or `negative' impact, through feedback on the galaxies' star formation history.

  10. ALMA spectroscopic survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: CO luminosity functions and the evolution of the cosmic density of molecular gas

    CERN Document Server

    Decarli, Roberto; Aravena, Manuel; Carilli, Chris; Bouwens, Rychard; da Cunha, Elisabete; Daddi, Emanuele; Ivison, R J; Popping, Gergö; Riechers, Dominik; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, Mark; Weiss, Axel; Anguita, Timo; Assef, Roberto; Bauer, Franz; Bell, Eric F; Bertoldi, Frank; Chapman, Scott; Colina, Luis; Cortes, Paulo C; Cox, Pierre; Dickinson, Mark; Elbaz, David; Gónzalez-López, Jorge; Ibar, Edo; Infante, Leopoldo; Hodge, Jacqueline; Karim, Alex; Fevre, Olivier Le; Magnelli, Benjamin; Neri, Roberto; Oesch, Pascal; Ota, Kazuaki; Rix, Hans-Walter; Sargent, Mark; Sheth, Kartik; van der Wel, Arjen; van der Werf, Paul; Wagg, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we use ASPECS, the ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the {\\em Hubble} Ultra Deep Field (UDF) in band 3 and band 6, to place blind constraints on the CO luminosity function and the evolution of the cosmic molecular gas density as a function of redshift up to $z\\sim 4.5$. This study is based on galaxies that have been solely selected through their CO emission and not through any other property. In all of the redshift bins the ASPECS measurements reach the predicted `knee' of the CO luminosity function (around $5\\times10^{9}$ K km/s pc$^2$). We find clear evidence of an evolution in the CO luminosity function with respect to $z\\sim 0$, with more CO luminous galaxies present at $z\\sim 2$. The observed galaxies at $z\\sim 2$ also appear more gas-rich than predicted by recent semi-analytical models. The comoving cosmic molecular gas density within galaxies as a function of redshift shows a factor 3-10 drop from $z \\sim 2$ to $z \\sim 0$ (with significant error bars), and possibly a decline at $z>3$. This tre...

  11. VLT-FORS2 optical imaging and spectroscopy of 9 luminous type 2 AGN at 0.3

    CERN Document Server

    Humphrey, A; Almeida, C Ramos; Tadhunter, C N; Arribas, S; Bessiere, P S; Cabrera-Lavers, A

    2015-01-01

    We present optical imaging and long slit spectroscopic observations of 9 luminous type 2 AGNs within the redshift range 0.3luminosity Seyfert 2, and three are type 2 quasars (QSO2), with our sample extending to lower luminosity than previous works. Seven out of nine objects (78%) show morphological evidence for interactions or mergers in the form of disturbed morphologies and/or peculiar features such as tidal tails, amorphous halos, or compact emission line knots. The detection rate of morphological evidence for interaction is consistent with those found during previous studies of QSO2 at similar z, suggesting that the merger rate is independent of AGN power at the high end of the AGN luminosity function. We find the emission line flux spatial profiles are often dominated by the often spatially unresolved central source. In addition, all but one of our sample is associated with much fainter, extended line emission. We find these extended emiss...

  12. A molecular line scan in the Hubble deep field north: Constraints on the co luminosity function and the cosmic H{sub 2} density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, F.; Decarli, R.; Da Cunha, E. [Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Sargent, M. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Carilli, C. [NRAO, Pete V. Domenici Array Science Center, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Dickinson, M.; Daddi, E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Riechers, D. [Cornell University, 220 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Ellis, R. [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, MC105-24, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stark, D.; Weiner, B. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Street, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Aravena, M. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Bell, E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Bertoldi, F. [Argelander Institute for Astronomy, University of Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Cox, P.; Downes, D.; Neri, R. [IRAM, 300 rue de la piscine, F-38406 Saint-Martin d' Hères (France); Lentati, L.; Maiolino, R. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, 19 J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Menten, K. M., E-mail: walter@mpia.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); and others

    2014-02-20

    We present direct constraints on the CO luminosity function at high redshift and the resulting cosmic evolution of the molecular gas density, ρ{sub H{sub 2}}(z), based on a blind molecular line scan in the Hubble Deep Field North (HDF-N) using the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. Our line scan of the entire 3 mm window (79-115 GHz) covers a cosmic volume of ∼7000 Mpc{sup 3}, and redshift ranges z < 0.45, 1.01 < z < 1.89 and z > 2. We use the rich multiwavelength and spectroscopic database of the HDF-N to derive some of the best constraints on CO luminosities in high redshift galaxies to date. We combine the blind CO detections in our molecular line scan (presented in a companion paper) with stacked CO limits from galaxies with available spectroscopic redshifts (slit or mask spectroscopy from Keck and grism spectroscopy from the Hubble Space Telescope) to give first blind constraints on high-z CO luminosity functions and the cosmic evolution of the H{sub 2} mass density ρ{sub H{sub 2}}(z) out to redshifts z ∼ 3. A comparison to empirical predictions of ρ{sub H{sub 2}}(z) shows that the securely detected sources in our molecular line scan already provide significant contributions to the predicted ρ{sub H{sub 2}}(z) in the redshift bins (z) ∼ 1.5 and (z) ∼ 2.7. Accounting for galaxies with CO luminosities that are not probed by our observations results in cosmic molecular gas densities ρ{sub H{sub 2}}(z) that are higher than current predictions. We note, however, that the current uncertainties (in particular the luminosity limits, number of detections, as well as cosmic volume probed) are significant, a situation that is about to change with the emerging ALMA observatory.

  13. Understanding the observed evolution of the galaxy luminosity function from z = 6–10 in the context of hierarchical structure formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent observations of the Lyman-break galaxy (LBG) luminosity function (LF) from z ≈ 6–10 show a steep decline in abundance with increasing redshift. However, the LF is a convolution of the mass function of dark matter halos (HMF) — which also declines sharply over this redshift range — and the galaxy-formation physics that maps halo mass to galaxy luminosity. We consider the strong observed evolution in the LF from z ≈ 6–10 in this context and determine whether it can be explained solely by the behavior of the HMF. From z ≈ 6–8, we find a residual change in the physics of galaxy formation corresponding to a ∼ 0.5 dex increase in the average luminosity of a halo of fixed mass. On the other hand, our analysis of recent LF measurements at z ≈ 10 shows that the paucity of detected galaxies is consistent with almost no change in the average luminosity at fixed halo mass from z ≈ 8. The LF slope also constrains the variation about this mean such that the luminosity of galaxies hosted by halos of the same mass are all within about an order-of-magnitude of each other. We show that these results are well-described by a simple model of galaxy formation in which cold-flow accretion is balanced by star formation and momentum-driven outflows. If galaxy formation proceeds in halos with masses down to 108Msun, then such a model predicts that LBGs at z ≈ 10 should be able to maintain an ionized intergalactic medium as long as the ratio of the clumping factor to the ionizing escape fraction is C/fesc∼<10

  14. Early evolution stage of AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunert-Bajraszewska, M.; Labiano, A.; Siemiginowska, A.; Guainazzi, M.; Gawroński, M.

    2015-03-01

    Radio sources are divided into two distinct morphological groups of objects: Fanaroff-Riley type I and type II sources. There is a relatively sharp luminosity boundary between these at low frequency. The nature of the FR division is still an open issue, as are the details of the evolutionary process in which younger and smaller GHz-peaked spectrum (GPS) and compact steep spectrum (CSS) sources become large-scale radio structures. It is still unclear whether FRII objects evolve to become FRIs, or whether a division has already occurred amongst CSS sources and some of these then become FRIs and some FRIIs. We explored evolution scenarios of AGNs using new radio, optical and X-ray data of unstudied so far Low Luminosity Compact (LLC) sources. We suggest that the determining factors of the further evolution of compact radio objects could occur at subgalactic (or even nuclear) scales, or they could be related to the radio jet - interstellar medium (ISM) interactions and evolution. Our studies show that the evolutionary track could be related to the interaction, strength of the radio source and excitation levels of the ionized gas instead of the radio morphology of the young radio source.

  15. Extracting Information from AGN Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Kasliwal, Vishal P; Richards, Gordon T

    2016-01-01

    AGN exhibit rapid, high amplitude stochastic flux variability across the entire electromagnetic spectrum on timescales ranging from hours to years. The cause of this variability is poorly understood. We present a new method for using variability to (1) measure the time-scales on which flux perturbations evolve and (2) characterize the driving flux perturbations. We model the observed light curve of an AGN as a linear differential equation driven by stochastic impulses. Physically, the impulses could be local `hot-spots' in the accretion disk---the linear differential equation then governs how the hot spots evolve and dissipate. The impulse-response function of the accretion disk material is given by the Green's function of the linear differential equation. The timescales on which the hot-spots radiate energy is characterized by the powerspectrum of the driving stochastic impulses. We analyze the light curve of the \\Kepler AGN Zw 229-15 and find that the observed variability behavior can be modeled as a damped...

  16. Mass-loss rates and luminosity functions of dust-enshrouded AGB stars and red supergiants in the LMC

    CERN Document Server

    Van Loon, J T; De Koter, A; Trams, N R; Waters, L B F M; Zijlstra, A A; Whitelock, P A; Loup, C; Loon, Jacco Th. van; Trams, Norman R.; Zijlstra, Albert A.; Whitelock, Patricia A.; Loup, Cecile

    1999-01-01

    A radiative transfer code is used to model the spectral energy distributions of 57 mass-losing Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars and red supergiants (RSGs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) for which ISO spectroscopic and photometric data are available. As a result we derive mass-loss rates and bolometric luminosities. A gap in the luminosity distribution around M_bol = -7.5 mag separates AGB stars from RSGs. The luminosity distributions of optically bright carbon stars, dust-enshrouded carbon stars and dust-enshrouded M-type stars have only little overlap, suggesting that the dust-enshrouded AGB stars are at the very tip of the AGB and will not evolve significantly in luminosity before mass loss ends their AGB evolution. Derived mass-loss rates span a range from Mdot about 10^-7 to 10^-3 M_sun/yr. More luminous and cooler stars are found to reach higher mass-loss rates. The highest mass-loss rates exceed the classical limit set by the momentum of the stellar radiation field, L/c, by a factor of a few due...

  17. Neutrinos from AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanas, Demosthenes; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The great penetrating power of neutrinos makes them ideal probe of astrophysical sites and conditions inaccessible to other forms of radiation. These are the centers of stars (collapsing or not) and the centers of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). It has been suggested that AGN presented a very promising source of high energy neutrinos, possibly detectable by underwater neutrino detectors. This paper reviews the evolution of ideas concerning the emission of neutrinos from AGN in view of the more recent developments in gamma-ray astronomy and their implications for the neutrino emission from these class of objects.

  18. Decoding spectral energy distributions of dust-obscured starburst-AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Yunkun

    2012-01-01

    We present BayeSED, a general purpose tool for doing Bayesian analysis of SEDs by using whatever pre-existing model SED libraries or their linear combinations. The artificial neural networks (ANNs), principal component analysis (PCA) and multimodal nested sampling (MultiNest) techniques are employed to allow a highly efficient sampling of posterior distribution and the calculation of Bayesian evidence. As a demonstration, we apply this tool to a sample of hyperluminous infrared galaxies (HLIRGs). The Bayesian evidences obtained for a pure Starburst, a pure AGN, and a linear combination of Starburst+AGN models show that the Starburst+AGN model have the highest evidence for all galaxies in this sample. The Bayesian evidences for the three models and the estimated contributions of starburst and AGN to infrared luminosity show that HLIRGs can be classified into two groups: one dominated by starburst and the other dominated by AGN. Other parameters and corresponding uncertainties about starburst and AGN are also e...

  19. Variability-based AGN selection using image subtraction in the SDSS and LSST era

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Yumi; Becker, Andrew C; Ivezić, \\vZeljko; Connolly, Andrew J; MacLeod, Chelsea L; Ruan, John J; Anderson, Scott F

    2013-01-01

    With upcoming all sky surveys such as LSST poised to generate a deep digital movie of the optical sky, variability-based AGN selection will enable the construction of highly-complete catalogs with minimum contamination. In this study, we generate $g$-band difference images and construct light curves for QSO/AGN candidates listed in SDSS Stripe 82 public catalogs compiled from different methods, including spectroscopy, optical colors, variability, and X-ray detection. Image differencing excels at identifying variable sources embedded in complex or blended emission regions such as Type II AGNs and other low-luminosity AGNs that may be omitted from traditional photometric or spectroscopic catalogs. To separate QSOs/AGNs from other sources using our difference image light curves, we explore several light curve statistics and parameterize optical variability by the characteristic damping timescale ($\\tau$) and variability amplitude. By virtue of distinguishable variability parameters of AGNs, we are able to select...

  20. Investigating the Disk-Corona Relation in a Blue AGN Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jie-Ying; Liu, B.F.

    2009-01-01

    We compile a blue AGN sample from SDSS and investigate the ratio of hard X-ray to bolometric luminosity in dependence on Eddington ratio and black hole mass. Our sample comprises 240 radio-quiet Seyfert 1 galaxies and QSOs. We find that the fraction of hard X-ray luminosity (log$(L_{\\rm 2-10 kev}/L_{\\rm bol})$) decreases with the increase of Eddington ratio. We also find that the fraction of hard X-ray luminosity is independent on the black hole mass for the radio-quiet AGNs. The relation of ...

  1. The luminosity function of star clusters in 20 star-forming galaxies based on Hubble legacy archive photometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitmore, Bradley C.; Bowers, Ariel S.; Lindsay, Kevin; Ansari, Asna; Evans, Jessica [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Chandar, Rupali [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Larsen, Soeren, E-mail: whitmore@stsci.edu [Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, P. O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2014-04-01

    Luminosity functions (LFs) have been determined for star cluster populations in 20 nearby (4-30 Mpc), star-forming galaxies based on Advanced Camera for Surveys source lists generated by the Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA). These cluster catalogs provide one of the largest sets of uniform, automatically generated cluster candidates available in the literature at present. Comparisons are made with other recently generated cluster catalogs demonstrating that the HLA-generated catalogs are of similar quality, but in general do not go as deep. A typical cluster LF can be approximated by a power law, dN/dL∝L {sup α}, with an average value for α of –2.37 and rms scatter = 0.18 when using the F814W ('I') band. A comparison of fitting results based on methods that use binned and unbinned data shows good agreement, although there may be a systematic tendency for the unbinned (maximum likelihood) method to give slightly more negative values of α for galaxies with steeper LFs. We find that galaxies with high rates of star formation (or equivalently, with the brightest or largest numbers of clusters) have a slight tendency to have shallower values of α. In particular, the Antennae galaxy (NGC 4038/39), a merging system with a relatively high star formation rate (SFR), has the second flattest LF in the sample. A tentative correlation may also be present between Hubble type and values of α, in the sense that later type galaxies (i.e., Sd and Sm) appear to have flatter LFs. Hence, while there do appear to be some weak correlations, the relative similarity in the values of α for a large number of star-forming galaxies suggests that, to first order, the LFs are fairly universal. We examine the bright end of the LFs and find evidence for a downturn, although it only pertains to about 1% of the clusters. Our uniform database results in a small scatter (≈0.4 to 0.5 mag) in the correlation between the magnitude of the brightest cluster (M {sub brightest}) and log of

  2. The 2dF-SDSS LRG and QSO Survey: The z<2.1 Quasar Luminosity Function from 5645 Quasars to g=21.85

    CERN Document Server

    Richards, G T; Anderson, S F; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Boyle, B J; De Propris, R; Drinkwater, M J; Fan, X; Gunn, J E; Ivezic, Z; Jester, S; Loveday, J; Meiksin, A; Miller, L; Myers, A; Nichol, R C; Outram, P J; Pimbblet, K A; Roseboom, I G; Ross, N; Schneider, D P; Shanks, T; Sharp, R G; Stoughton, C; Strauss, M A; Szalay, A S; Vanden Berk, Daniel E; York, D G

    2005-01-01

    We have used the 2dF instrument on the AAT to obtain redshifts of a sample of z21 deep surveys. The 2SLAQ data exhibit no well defined ``break'' but do clearly flatten with increasing magnitude. The shape of the quasar luminosity function derived from 2SLAQ is in good agreement with that derived from type I quasars found in hard X-ray surveys. [Abridged

  3. On the properties of galaxies at the faint-end of the H$\\alpha$ luminosity function at $z\\sim0.62$

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez-Guijarro, Carlos; Villar, Víctor; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Lucía; Clément, Benjamin; Cuby, Jean-Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Studies measuring the star formation rate density, luminosity function and properties of star-forming galaxies are numerous. However, it exists a gap at $0.5luminosity function and derived star formation rate density, characterising their morphologies and basic photometric and spectroscopic properties. We use a narrow-band technique in the near-infrared, with a filter centered at 1.06 $\\mu$m. The data come from ultra-deep VLT/HAWK-I observations in the GOODS-S field with a total of 31.9 h in the narrow-band filter. We perform a visual classification of the sample and study their morphologies from structural parameters available in CANDELS. Our 28 H$\\alpha$-selected sample of faint star-forming galaxies reveals a robust faint-end slope of the luminosity function $\\alpha=-1.46_{-0.08}^{+0.16}$. The derived star formation...

  4. X-ray counterpart of gravitational waves due to binary neutron star mergers: light curves, luminosity functions, and event rate densities

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Hui; Gao, He

    2016-01-01

    Zhang (2013) proposed a type of GRB-less X-ray transient associated with double neutron star (NS-NS) mergers under the conjecture of a rapidly-spinning magnetar merger product with the line of sight off the short GRB beam. We investigate possible light curves of these transients by considering different observer's viewing angles, including looking into a free zone where the emission due to direct dissipation of the magnetar wind is observable, and a trapped zone where X-rays are initially trapped by the ejecta launched during the merger, but later become transparent when the ejecta become optically thin. We perform Monte Carlo simulations to calculate the peak luminosity function (LF) and event rate density of these X-ray transients. By considering that a fraction of massive neutron stars may be supra-massive and collapse into black holes after a certain time, we investigate how the predicted luminosity functions depend on the equation of state (EoS) of the central object. In general, the luminosity functions...

  5. Host Galaxy Properties of the Swift BAT Ultra Hard X-Ray Selected AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Michael; Mushotzky, Richard; Veilleux, Sylvain; Winter, Lisa M.; Baumgartner, Wayne; Tueller, Jack; Gehrels, Neil; Valencic, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    We have assembled the largest sample of ultra hard X-ray selected (14-195 keV) AGN with host galaxy optical data to date, with 185 nearby (zAGN from the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) sample. The BAT AGN host galaxies have intermediate optical colors (u -- r and g -- r) that are bluer than a comparison sample of inactive galaxies and optically selected AGN from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) which are chosen to have the same stellar mass. Based on morphological classifications from the RC3 and the Galaxy Zoo, the bluer colors of BAT AGN are mainly due to a higher fraction of mergers and massive spirals than in the comparison samples. BAT AGN in massive galaxies (log Stellar Mass >10.5) have a 5 to 10 times higher rate of spiral morphologies than in SDSS AGN or inactive galaxies. We also see enhanced far-IR emission in BAT AGN suggestive of higher levels of star formation compared to the comparison samples. BAT AGN are preferentially found in the most massive host galaxies with high concentration indexes indicative of large bulge-to-disk ratios and large supermassive black holes. The narrow-line (NL) BAT AGN have similar intrinsic luminosities as the SDSS NL Seyferts based on measurements of [O III] Lambda 5007. There is also a correlation between the stellar mass and X-ray emission. The BAT AGN in mergers have bluer colors and greater ultra hard X-ray emission compared to the BAT sample as whole. In agreement with the Unified Model of AGN, and the relatively unbiased nature of the BAT sources, the host galaxy colors and morphologies are independent of measures of obscuration such as X-ray column density or Seyfert type. The high fraction of massive spiral galaxies and galaxy mergers in BAT AGN suggest that host galaxy morphology is related to the activation and fueling of local AGN.

  6. Constraining the X-ray AGN halo occupation distribution: implications for eROSITA

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Priyanka; Majumdar, Subhabrata; Nath, Biman B

    2016-01-01

    The X-ray emission from active galactic nucleus (AGN) is a major component of extragalactic X-ray sky. In this paper, we use the X-ray luminosity function (XLF) and halo occupation distribution (HOD) formalism to construct a halo model for the X-ray emission from AGNs. Verifying that the two inputs (XLF and HOD) are in agreement with each other, we compute the auto-correlation power spectrum in the soft X-ray band (0.5-2 kev) due to the AGNs potentially resolved by eROSITA mission and explore the redshift and mass dependence of the power spectrum. Studying the relative contribution of the Poisson and the clustering terms to the total power, we find that at multipoles $l\\lesssim 1000$ (i.e. large scales), the clustering term is larger than the Poisson term. We also forecast the potential of X-ray auto-correlation power spectrum and X-ray-lensing cross-correlation power spectrum using eROSITA and eROSITA-LSST surveys, respectively, to constrain the HOD parameters and their redshift evolution. In addition, we co...

  7. Constraining the properties of AGN host galaxies with Spectral Energy Distribution modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Ciesla, L; Georgakakis, A; Bernhard, E; Mitchell, P D; Buat, V; Elbaz, D; Floc'h, E Le; Lacey, C G; Magdis, G E; Xilouris, M

    2015-01-01

    [abridged] We use the latest release of CIGALE, a galaxy SED fitting model relying on energy balance, to study the influence of an AGN in estimating both the SFR and stellar mass in galaxies, as well as the contribution of the AGN to the power output of the host. Using the galaxy formation SAM GALFORM, we create mock galaxy SEDs using realistic star formation histories (SFH) and add an AGN of Type 1, Type 2, or intermediate type whose contribution to the bolometric luminosity can be variable. We perform an SED fitting of these catalogues with CIGALE assuming three different SFHs: a single- and double-exponentially-decreasing, and a delayed SFH. Constraining thecontribution of an AGN to the LIR (fracAGN) is very challenging for fracAGN<20%, with uncertainties of ~5-30% for higher fractions depending on the AGN type, while FIR and sub-mm are essential. The AGN power has an impact on the estimation of $M_*$ in Type 1 and intermediate type AGNs but has no effect for galaxies hosting Type 2 AGNs. We find that i...

  8. AGN outflow feedback: Constraints from variability

    CERN Document Server

    Detmers, R G

    2009-01-01

    We present an overview on how variability can be used to constrain the location of the ionized outflow in nearby Active Galactic Nuclei using high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy. Without these constraints on the location of the outflow, the kinetic luminosity and mass loss rate can not be determined. We focus on the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548, which is arguably the best studied AGN on a timescale of 10 years. Our results show that frequent observations combined with long term monitoring, such as with the \\textit{Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE)} satellite, are crucial to investigate the effects of these outflows on their surroundings.

  9. On the Reliability of Cross Correlation Function Lag Determinations in Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Welsh, W F

    1999-01-01

    Many AGN exhibit a highly variable luminosity. Some AGN also show a pronounced time delay between variations seen in their optical continuum and in their emission lines. In effect, the emission lines are light echoes of the continuum. This light travel-time delay provides a characteristic radius of the region producing the emission lines. The cross correlation function (CCF) is the standard tool used to measure the time lag between the continuum and line variations. For the few well-sampled AGN, the lag ranges from 1-100 days, depending upon which line is used and the luminosity of the AGN. In the best sampled AGN, NGC 5548, the H_beta lag shows year-to-year changes, ranging from about 8.7 days to about 22.9 days over a span of 8 years. In this paper it is demonstrated that, in the context of AGN variability studies, the lag estimate using the CCF is biased too low and subject to a large variance. Thus the year-to-year changes of the measured lag in NGC 5548 do not necessarily imply changes in the AGN structu...

  10. On the Lx-L6micron ratio as a diagnostic for Compton-thick AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Georgantopoulos, I; Akylas, A; Comastri, A; Ranalli, P; Vignali, C; Balestra, I; Gilli, R; Cappelluti, N

    2011-01-01

    As the mid-IR luminosity represents a good isotropic proxy of the AGN power, a low X-ray to mid-IR luminosity ratio is often claimed to be a reliable indicator for selecting Compton-thick (CT) AGN. We assess the efficiency of this diagnostic by examining the 12mu IRAS AGN sample for which high signal-to-noise XMM observations have been recently become available. We find that the vast majority (10/11) of the AGN that have been classified as CT on the basis the X-ray spectroscopy by Brightman & Nandra present a low Lx/L6 luminosity ratio, i.e. lower than a few percent of the average AGN ratio which is typical of reflection-dominated CT sources. At low Lx/L6 ratios we also find a comparable number of AGN, most of which are heavily absorbed but not CT. This implies that although most Compton-thick AGN present low Lx/L6 ratios, at least in the local, Universe, the opposite is not necessarily true. Next, we extend our analysis to higher redshifts. We perform the same analysis in the CDFS where excellent quality...

  11. The Lyman-alpha luminosity function at z=5.7-6.6 and the steep drop of the faint end: implications for reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Sérgio; Matthee, Jorryt

    2016-01-01

    We present new results from the widest narrow band survey search for Lyman-alpha (Lya) emitters at z=5.7, just after reionization. We survey a total of 7 deg$^2$ spread over the COSMOS, UDS and SA22 fields. We find over 11,000 line emitters, out of which 514 are robust Lya candidates at z=5.7 within a volume of 6.3x10$^6$ Mpc$^3$. Our Lya emitters span a wide range in Lya luminosities, from faint to bright (L$_{\\rm Ly\\alpha}\\sim10^{42.5-44}$ erg s$^{-1}$) and rest-frame equivalent widths (EW$_0$~25-1000 \\AA) in a single, homogeneous data-set. By combining all our fields we find that the faint end slope of the z=5.7 Lya luminosity function is very steep, with $\\alpha=-2.3^{+0.4}_{-0.3}$. We also present an updated z=6.6 Lya luminosity function, based on comparable volumes and obtained with the same methods, which we directly compare with that at z=5.7. We find a significant decline of the number density of faint Lya emitters from z=5.7 to z=6.6 (by $0.5\\pm0.1$ dex), but no evolution at the bright end/no evolut...

  12. A Molecular Line Scan in the Hubble Deep Field North: Constraints on the CO Luminosity Function and the Cosmic H2 Density

    CERN Document Server

    Walter, F; Sargent, M; Carilli, C; Dickinson, M; Riechers, D; Ellis, R; Stark, D; Weiner, B; Aravena, M; Bell, E; Bertoldi, F; Cox, P; Da Cunha, E; Daddi, E; Downes, D; Lentati, L; Maiolino, R; Menten, K M; Neri, R; Rix, H W; Weiss, A

    2013-01-01

    We present direct constraints on the CO luminosity function at high redshift and the resulting cosmic evolution of the molecular gas density, $\\rho_{\\rm H2}$(z), based on a blind molecular line scan in the Hubble Deep Field North (HDF-N) using the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. Our line scan of the entire 3mm window (79-115 GHz) covers a cosmic volume of ~7000 Mpc$^3$, and redshift ranges z2. We use the rich multiwavelength and spectroscopic database of the HDF-N to derive some of the best constraints on CO luminosities in high redshift galaxies to date. We combine the blind CO detections in our molecular line scan (presented in a companion paper) with stacked CO limits from galaxies with available spectroscopic redshifts (slit or mask spectroscopy from Keck and grism spectroscopy from HST) to give first blind constraints on high-z CO luminosity functions and the cosmic evolution of the H2 mass density $\\rho_{\\rm H2}$(z) out to redshifts z~3. A comparison to empirical predictions of $\\rho_{\\rm H2}$(z) s...

  13. Evidence for a fast evolution of the UV luminosity function beyond redshift 6 from a deep HAWK-I survey of the GOODS-S field

    CERN Document Server

    Castellano, M; Boutsia, K; Grazian, A; Pentericci, L; Bouwens, R; Dickinson, M; Giavalisco, M; Santini, P; Cristiani, S; Fiore, F; Gallozzi, S; Giallongo, E; Maiolino, R; Mannucci, F; Menci, N; Moorwood, A; Nonino, M; Paris, D; Renzini, A; Rosati, P; Salimbeni, S; Vanzella, E

    2009-01-01

    We perform a deep search for galaxies in the redshift range 6.51, Y-J6 (M_1500 ~- 19.5 to -21.5). After accounting for the expected incompleteness, we rule out at a 99% confidence level a Luminosity Function constant from z=6 to z=7, even including the effects of cosmic variance. For galaxies brighter than M_1500=-19.0 we derive a luminosity density rho_UV=1.5^{+2.0}_{-0.9} 10^25 erg/s/Hz/Mpc3, implying a decrease by a factor 3.5 from z=6 to z~6.8. On the basis of our findings, we make predictions for the surface densities expected in future surveys, either based on ULTRA-VISTA or on HST-WFC3, evaluating the best observational strategy to maximise their impact.

  14. Dissecting galaxies: spatial and spectral separation of emission excited by star formation and AGN activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Rebecca L.; Groves, Brent; Kewley, Lisa J.; Dopita, Michael A.; Hampton, Elise J.; Shastri, Prajval; Scharwächter, Julia; Sutherland, Ralph; Kharb, Preeti; Bhatt, Harish; Jin, Chichuan; Banfield, Julie; Zaw, Ingyin; James, Bethan; Juneau, Stéphanie; Srivastava, Shweta

    2016-10-01

    The optical spectra of Seyfert galaxies are often dominated by emission lines excited by both star formation and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity. Standard calibrations (such as for the star formation rate) are not applicable to such composite (mixed) spectra. In this paper, we describe how integral field data can be used to spectrally and spatially separate emission associated with star formation from emission associated with accretion on to an AGN. We demonstrate our method using integral field data for two AGN host galaxies (NGC 5728 and NGC 7679) from the Siding Spring Southern Seyfert Spectroscopic Snapshot Survey (S7). The spectra of NGC 5728 and NGC 7679 form clear sequences of AGN fraction on standard emission line ratio diagnostic diagrams. We show that the emission line luminosities of the majority (>85 per cent) of spectra along each AGN fraction sequence can be reproduced by linear superpositions of the emission line luminosities of one AGN dominated spectrum and one star formation dominated spectrum. We separate the Hα, Hβ, [N II]λ6583, [S II]λλ6716, 6731, [O III]λ5007 and [O II]λλ3726, 3729 luminosities of every spaxel into contributions from star formation and AGN activity. The decomposed emission line images are used to derive the star formation rates and AGN bolometric luminosities for NGC 5728 and NGC 7679. Our calculated values are mostly consistent with independent estimates from data at other wavelengths. The recovered star-forming and AGN components also have distinct spatial distributions which trace structures seen in high-resolution imaging of the galaxies, providing independent confirmation that our decomposition has been successful.

  15. The Relationship between black hole accretion and host star formation in dusty AGNs

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Y Sophia; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Omont, Alain; Kuraszkiewicz, Joanna; Teplitz, Harry I

    2015-01-01

    We study the relationship between the X-ray luminosity and star formation rate (SFR) in an unbiased sample of dusty active galactic nuclei (AGNs), detected in both the hard X-ray and far-infrared (IR) bands in the XMM-LSS field. The sample consists of 451 AGNs with spectroscopic redshifts of 0.04 < z <3.3, and spans an X-ray luminosity range of L(2-10keV)=10^41-45 erg/s. We find a positive correlation between the X-ray luminosity and SFR derived from AGN-removed IR luminosity. We find that binning the sample by SFR instead of LX results in a more positive correlation. This is consistent with the scenario in which the shorter variability time scale of AGN than star formation flattens the observed correlation between AGN and star formation. We do not find significant diversity in the observed correlation when considering subsets selected based on supermassive black hole mass or Eddington ratio, indicating that AGN accretion has at most a limited effect on the SFR-Lx relation. Comparing to results in the l...

  16. Evidence for Widespread AGN Activity among Massive Quiescent Galaxies at z ~ 2

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, Karen Pardos; Toft, Sune; Zirm, Andrew W

    2012-01-01

    We quantify the presence of Active Galactic nuclei (AGN) in a mass-complete (M_* >5e10 M_sun) sample of 123 star-forming and quiescent galaxies at 1.5 3e42 ergs/s). The latter fraction is similar for star-forming and quiescent galaxies, and does not depend on galaxy stellar mass, suggesting that perhaps luminous AGN are triggered by external effects such as mergers. We detect significant mean X-ray signals in stacked images for both the individually non-detected star-forming and quiescent galaxies, with spectra consistent with star formation only and/or a low luminosity AGN in both cases. Comparing star formation rates inferred from the 2-10 keV luminosities to those from rest-frame IR+UV emission, we find evidence for an X-ray excess indicative of low-luminosity AGN. Among the quiescent galaxies, the excess suggests that as many as 70-100% of these contain low- or high-luminosity AGN, while the corresponding fraction is lower among star-forming galaxies (43-65%). The ubiquitous presence of AGN in massive, q...

  17. Supermassive Black Holes, AGN Feedback, and Hot X-ray Coronae in Early Type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, William R.; Anderson, Michael E.; Churazov, Eugene; Nulsen, Paul; Jones, Christine; Kraft, Ralph P.

    2016-06-01

    We present the analysis of a sample of more than 200 nearby, early type galaxies observed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We exclude resolved point sources, and model the emission from both unresolved X-ray binaries and CVs and ABs to derive the residual thermal emission from the hot atmosphere around each galaxy. We compute the X-ray luminosity of the central supermassive black hole (SMBH). Using galaxy velocity dispersion (or stellar mass) as a proxy for SMBH mass, we derive the Eddington ratios for these low luminosity AGN. We present the X-ray luminosity and gas temperature of the hot coronae as a function of stellar mass (a proxy for dark matter halo mass) and central velocity dispersion to look for anomalously X-ray bright gaseous coronae and to determine the stellar (or halo) mass, below which galactic winds may be important. For hot coronae with X-ray cavities, we derive the "mechanical" power of SMBHs and compare these to their radiative luminosities.

  18. Cosmic star formation history and AGN evolution near and far: from AKARI to SPICA

    CERN Document Server

    Goto, Tomotsugu; Matsuhara, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    Infrared (IR) luminosity is fundamental to understanding the cosmic star formation history and AGN evolution, since their most intense stages are often obscured by dust. Japanese infrared satellite, AKARI, provided unique data sets to probe these both at low and high redshifts. The AKARI performed an all sky survey in 6 IR bands (9, 18, 65, 90, 140, and 160$\\mu$m) with 3-10 times better sensitivity than IRAS, covering the crucial far-IR wavelengths across the peak of the dust emission. Combined with a better spatial resolution, AKARI can measure the total infrared luminosity ($L_{TIR}$) of individual galaxies much more precisely, and thus, the total infrared luminosity density of the local Universe. In the AKARI NEP deep field, we construct restframe 8$\\mu$m, 12$\\mu$m, and total infrared (TIR) luminosity functions (LFs) at 0.15$

  19. X-ray AGN in the XMM-LSS galaxy clusters: no evidence for AGN suppression

    CERN Document Server

    Koulouridis, E; Melnyk, O; Elyiv, A; Georgantopoulos, I; Clerc, N; Surdej, J; Chiappetti, L; Pierre, M

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of the overdensity of X-ray selected AGN in 33 galaxy clusters in the XMM-LSS field, up to redhift z=1.05. Previous studies have shown that the presence of X-ray selected AGN in rich galaxy clusters is suppressed. In the current study we investigate the occurrence of X-ray selected AGN in low and moderate X-ray luminosity galaxy clusters. Due to the wide contiguous XMM-LSS survey area we are able to extend the study to the cluster outskirts. We therefore determine the projected overdensity of X-ray point-like sources out to 6r_{500} radius. To provide robust statistical results we also use a stacking analysis of the cluster projected overdensities. We investigate whether the observed X-ray overdensities are to be expected by estimating also the corresponding optical galaxy overdensities. We find a positive X-ray projected overdensity at the first radial bin, which is however of the same amplitude as that of optical galaxies. Therefore, no suppression of X-ray AGN activity with respect to th...

  20. The roles of star formation and AGN activity of IRS sources in the HerMES fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltre, A.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Hernán-Caballero, A.; Fritz, J.; Franceschini, A.; Bock, J.; Cooray, A.; Farrah, D.; Solares, E. A. González; Ibar, E.; Isaak, K. G.; Faro, B. Lo; Marchetti, L.; Oliver, S. J.; Page, M. J.; Rigopoulou, D.; Roseboom, I. G.; Symeonidis, M.; Vaccari, M.

    2013-09-01

    In this work, we explore the impact of the presence of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) on the mid- and far-infrared (IR) properties of galaxies as well as the effects of simultaneous AGN and starburst activity in the same galaxies. To do this, we apply a multicomponent, multiband spectral synthesis technique to a sample of 250 μm selected galaxies of the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES), with Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra available for all galaxies. Our results confirm that the inclusion of the IRS spectra plays a crucial role in the spectral analysis of galaxies with an AGN component improving the selection of the best-fitting hot dust (torus) model. We find a correlation between the obscured star formation rate, SFRIR, derived from the IR luminosity of the starburst component, and SFRPAH, derived from the luminosity of the PAH features, LPAH, with SFRFIR taking higher values than SFRPAH. The correlation is different for AGN- and starburst-dominated objects. The ratio of LPAH to that of the starburst component, LPAH/LSB, is almost constant for AGN-dominated objects but decreases with increasing LSB for starburst-dominated objects. SFRFIR increases with the accretion luminosity, Lacc, with the increase less prominent for the very brightest, unobscured AGN-dominated sources. We find no correlation between the masses of the hot (AGN-heated) and cold (starburst-heated) dust components. We interpret this as a non-constant fraction of gas driven by the gravitational effects to the AGN while the starburst is ongoing. We also find no evidence of the AGN affecting the temperature of the cold dust component, though this conclusion is mostly based on objects with a non-dominant AGN component. We conclude that our findings do not provide evidence that the presence of AGN affects the star formation process in the host galaxy, but rather that the two phenomena occur simultaneously over a wide range of luminosities.