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Sample records for agn activity self-regulation

  1. AGN self-regulation in cooling flow clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Cattaneo, A

    2006-01-01

    We use three-dimensional high-resolution adaptive-mesh-refinement simulations to investigate if mechanical feedback from active galactic nucleus jets can halt a massive cooling flow in a galaxy cluster and give rise to a self-regulated accretion cycle. We start with a 3 x 10^9MSun black hole at the centre of a spherical halo with the mass of the Virgo cluster. Initially, all the baryons are in a hot intracluster medium in hydrostatic equilibrium within the dark matter's gravitational potential. The black hole accretes the surrounding gas at the Bondi rate and a fraction of the accretion power is returned into the intracluster medium mechanically through the production of jets. The accretion, initially slow (~2 x 10^-4MSun), becomes catastrophic, as the gas cools and condenses in the dark matter's potential. Therefore, it cannot prevent the cooling catastrophe at the centre of the cluster. However, after this rapid phase, where the accretion rate reaches a peak of ~0.2MSun/yr, the cavities inflated by the jets...

  2. The self-regulated AGN feedback loop: the role of chaotic cold accretion

    CERN Document Server

    Gaspari, M

    2015-01-01

    Supermassive black hole accretion and feedback play central role in the evolution of galaxies, groups, and clusters. I review how AGN feedback is tightly coupled with the formation of multiphase gas and the newly probed chaotic cold accretion (CCA). In a turbulent and heated atmosphere, cold clouds and kpc-scale filaments condense out of the plasma via thermal instability and rain toward the black hole. In the nucleus, the recurrent chaotic collisions between the cold clouds, filaments, and central torus promote angular momentum cancellation or mixing, boosting the accretion rate up to 100 times the Bondi rate. The rapid variability triggers powerful AGN outflows, which quench the cooling flow and star formation without destroying the cool core. The AGN heating stifles the formation of multiphase gas and accretion, the feedback subsides and the hot halo is allowed to cool again, restarting a new cycle. Ultimately, CCA creates a symbiotic link between the black hole and the whole host via a tight self-regulate...

  3. The Dance of Heating and Cooling in Galaxy Clusters: 3D Simulations of Self-Regulated AGN Outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Gaspari, M; Brighenti, F; D'Ercole, A

    2010-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that heating processes play a fundamental role in galaxy clusters, struggling in an intricate but fascinating `dance' with its antagonist, radiative cooling. Last generation observations, especially X-ray, are giving us tiny hints about the notes of this endless ballet. Cavities, shocks, turbulence and wide absorption-lines indicate the central active nucleus is injecting huge amount of energy in the intracluster medium. However, which is the real dominant engine of self-regulated heating? One of the model we propose are massive subrelativistic outflows, probably generated by a wind disc or just the result of the entrainment on kpc scale by the fast radio jet. Using a modified version of AMR code FLASH 3.2, we explored several feedback mechanisms which self-regulate the mechanical power. Two are the best schemes that answer our primary question, id est quenching cooling flow and at the same time preserving a cool core appearance for a long term evolution (7 Gyr): one more explosive (...

  4. AGN Zoo and Classifications of Active Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, Areg M.

    2015-07-01

    We review the variety of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) classes (so-called "AGN zoo") and classification schemes of galaxies by activity types based on their optical emission-line spectrum, as well as other parameters and other than optical wavelength ranges. A historical overview of discoveries of various types of active galaxies is given, including Seyfert galaxies, radio galaxies, QSOs, BL Lacertae objects, Starbursts, LINERs, etc. Various kinds of AGN diagnostics are discussed. All known AGN types and subtypes are presented and described to have a homogeneous classification scheme based on the optical emission-line spectra and in many cases, also other parameters. Problems connected with accurate classifications and open questions related to AGN and their classes are discussed and summarized.

  5. Physical Activity, Self-Regulation, and Early Academic Achievement in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Derek R.; McClelland, Megan M.; Loprinzi, Paul; Trost, Stewart G.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The present study investigated whether active play during recess was associated with self-regulation and academic achievement in a prekindergarten sample. A total of 51 children in classes containing approximately half Head Start children were assessed on self-regulation, active play, and early academic achievement. Path…

  6. Self-Regulated Learning and Perceived Health among University Students Participating in Physical Activity Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Ron E.; Altunsöz, Irmak Hürmeriç; Su, Xiaoxia; Xiang, Ping; Demirhan, Giyasettin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore motivational indicators of self-regulated learning (SRL) and the relationship between self-regulation (SR) and perceived health among university students enrolled in physical activity (PA) classes. One hundred thirty-one Turkish students participating in physical education activity classes at two…

  7. Comparing Models for Generating a System of Activation and Inhibition of Self-Regulated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magno, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of activation and negative affect on self-regulation. The activation factors are self-determination, disengagement, initiative, and persistence while negative affect is composed of worry, anxiety, thought suppression, and fear of negative evaluation. Separate measures were used for each factor and administered to…

  8. Examining "Active" Procrastination from a Self-Regulated Learning Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Li

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the notion that active procrastinators are a positive type of procrastinators who possess desirable characteristics similar to non-procrastinators, but different from the traditional passive procrastinators. A two-step procedure was followed to categorise university students (N = 125) as active procrastinators, passive…

  9. Cycling for Students with ASD: Self-Regulation Promotes Sustained Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Teri; Reid, Greg; Butler-Kisber, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with autism often lack motivation to engage in sustained physical activity. Three adolescents with severe autism participated in a 16-week program and each regularly completed 30 min of cycling at the end of program. This study investigated the effect of a self-regulation instructional strategy on sustained cycling, which included…

  10. Self-regulated growth of supermassive black holes by a dual jet/heating AGN feedback mechanism: methods, tests and implications for cosmological simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Dubois, Yohan; Slyz, Adrianne; Teyssier, Romain

    2011-01-01

    We develop a new sub-grid model for the growth of supermassive Black Holes (BHs) and their associated Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) feedback in hydrodynamical cosmological simulations. Assuming that BHs are created in the early stages of galaxy formation, they grow by mergers and accretion of gas at a Eddington-limited Bondi accretion rate. However this growth is regulated by AGN feedback which we model using two different modes: a quasar-heating mode when accretion rates onto the BHs are comparable to the Eddington rate, and a radio-jet mode at lower accretion rates. In other words, our feedback model deposits energy as a succession of thermal bursts and jet outflows depending on the properties of the gas surrounding the BHs. We assess the plausibility of such a model by comparing our results to observational measurements of the coevolution of BHs and their host galaxy properties, and check their robustness with respect to numerical resolution. We show that AGN feedback must be a crucial physical ingredient f...

  11. Tracing the process of self-regulated learning – students’ strategic activity in g/nStudy learning environment

    OpenAIRE

    Malmberg, J

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study focuses on the process of self-regulated learning by investigating in detail how learners engage in self-regulated and strategic learning when studying in g/nStudy learning environments. The study uses trace methods to enable recognition of temporal patterns in learners’ activity that can signal strategic and self-regulated learning. The study comprises three data sets. In each data set, g/nStudy technology was used to support and trace self-regulated learning. In ...

  12. Temporal self-regulation theory: a neurobiologically informed model for physical activity behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Peter eHall; Geoffrey eFong

    2015-01-01

    Dominant explanatory models for physical activity behavior are limited by the exclusion of several important components, including temporal dynamics, ecological forces, and neurobiological factors. The latter may be a critical omission, given the relevance of several aspects of cognitive function for the self-regulatory processes that are likely required for consistent implementation of physical activity behavior in everyday life. This narrative review introduces temporal self-regulation theo...

  13. Changes in Self-Regulation-Related Prefrontal Activities in Eating Disorders: A Near Infrared Spectroscopy Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sutoh, Chihiro; Nakazato, Michiko; Matsuzawa, Daisuke; Tsuru, Kadushi; Niitsu, Tomihisa; Iyo, Masaomi; Shimizu, Eiji

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to clarify the symptomatology of the eating disorders examining the prefrontal function and activity associated with self-regulation among participants with or without eating disorders. Methods Ten patients with anorexia nervosa, fourteen with bulimia nervosa, and fourteen healthy control participants performed two cognitive tasks assessing self-regulatory functions, an auditorily distracted word fluency task and a rock-paper-scissors task under the measurem...

  14. Interactions, star formation and AGN activity

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Cheng; Heckman, Timothy M; White, Simon D M; Jing, Y P

    2007-01-01

    It has long been known that galaxy interactions are associated with enhanced star formation. In a companion paper, we explored this connection by applying a variety of statistics to SDSS data. In particular, we showed that specific star formation rates of galaxies are higher if they have close neighbours. Here we apply exactly the same techniques to AGN in the survey, showing that close neighbours are not associated with any similar enhancement of nuclear activity. Star formation is enhanced in AGN with close neighbours in exactly the same way as in inactive galaxies, but the accretion rate onto the black hole, as estimated from the extinction-corrected [O III] luminosity, is not influenced by the presence or absence of companions. Previous work has shown that galaxies with more strongly accreting black holes contain more young stars in their inner regions. This leads us to conclude that star formation induced by a close companion and star formation associated with black hole accretion are distinct events. Th...

  15. A Multi-Wavelength Photometric Census of AGN and Star Formation Activity in the Brightest Cluster Galaxies of X-ray Selected Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, T. S.; Edge, A. C.; Stott, J. P.; Ebeling, H.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Draper, P. W.; Metcalfe, N.; Kaiser, N.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C.

    2016-06-01

    Despite their reputation as being "red and dead", the unique environment inhabited by Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs) can often lead to a self-regulated feedback cycle between radiatively cooling intracluster gas and star formation and AGN activity in the BCG. However the prevalence of "active" BCGs, and details of the feedback involved, are still uncertain. We have performed an optical, UV and Mid-IR photometric analysis of the BCGs in 981 clusters at 0.03 medium.

  16. Temporal self-regulation Theory: A neurobiologically informed model for physical activity behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eHall

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dominant explanatory models for physical activity behavior are limited by the exclusion of several important components, including temporal dynamics, ecological forces, and neurobiological factors. The latter may be a critical omission, given the relevance of several aspects of cognitive function for the self-regulatory processes that are likely required for consistent implementation of physical activity behavior in everyday life. This narrative mini-review introduces temporal self-regulation theory (TST; Hall & Fong, 2007; 2013, as a new explanatory model for physical activity behavior. Important features of the model include consideration of the default status of the physical activity behavior, as well as the disproportionate influence of temporally proximal behavioral contingencies. Most importantly, the TST model proposes positive feedback loops linking executive function and the performance of physical activity behavior. Specifically, those with relatively stronger executive control (and optimized brain structures supporting it, such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex are able to implement physical activity with more consistency than others, which in turn serves to strengthen the executive control network itself. The TST model has the potential to explain everyday variants of incidental physical activity, sport-related excellence via capacity for deliberate practise, and variability in the propensity to schedule and implement exercise routines.

  17. Methods of psychological self-regulation in the activities of the teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilya Bildanova

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the techniques of psychological self-regulation for the correction of psychophysiological state that lead to optimization of mental and physical functions of the teacher.

  18. Does a Combination of Metaphor and Pairing Activity Help Programming Performance of Students with Different Self-Regulated Learning Level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Tie Hui; Umar, Irfan Naufal

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of metaphors and pairing activity on programming performance of students with different self-regulated-learning (SRL) level. A total of 84 computing students were involved in this seven-week study, and they were randomly assigned either to a group that received a combination of metaphor and pair…

  19. Exploring AGN Activity over Cosmic Time with the SKA

    CERN Document Server

    Smolcic, Vernesa; Delhaize, Jacinta; Prandoni, Isabella; Seymour, Nicholas; Jarvis, Matt; Afonso, Jose; Magliocchetti, Manuela; Huynh, Minh; Vaccari, Mattia; Karim, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    In this Chapter we present the motivation for undertaking both a wide and deep survey with the SKA in the context of studying AGN activity across cosmic time. With an rms down to 1 $\\mu$Jy/beam at 1 GHz over 1,000 - 5,000 deg$^2$ in 1 year (wide tier band 1/2) and an rms down to 200 nJy/beam over 10 - 30 deg$^2$ in 2000 hours (deep tier band 1/2), these surveys will directly detect faint radio-loud and radio-quiet AGN (down to a 1 GHz radio luminosity of about $2\\times10^{23}$ W/Hz at $z=6$). For the first time, this will enable us to conduct detailed studies of the cosmic evolution of radio AGN activity to the cosmic dawn ($z\\gtrsim6$), covering all environmental densities.

  20. Viscous time lags between starburst and AGN activity

    CERN Document Server

    Blank, Marvin

    2016-01-01

    There is strong observational evidence indicating a time lag of order of some 100 Myr between the onset of starburst and AGN activity in galaxies. Dynamical time lags have been invoked to explain this. We extend this approach by introducing a viscous time lag the gas additionally needs to flow through the AGN's accretion disc before it reaches the central black hole. Our calculations reproduce the observed time lags and are in accordance with the observed correlation between black hole mass and stellar velocity dispersion.

  1. Comparing Active Delay and Procrastination from a Self-Regulated Learning Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corkin, Danya M.; Yu, Shirley L.; Lindt, Suzanne F.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have proposed that the act of postponing academic work may be divided into a traditional definition of procrastination, viewed as maladaptive, and adaptive forms of delay. Adaptive forms of delay may be more consistent with certain facets of self-regulated learning. The current study investigated this issue by examining whether the…

  2. Self-regulation of circumscribed brain activity modulates spatially selective and frequency specific connectivity of distributed resting state networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukelić, Mathias; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms of learning involved in brain self-regulation have still to be unveiled to exploit the full potential of this methodology for therapeutic interventions. This skill of volitionally changing brain activity presumably resembles motor skill learning which in turn is accompanied by plastic changes modulating resting state networks. Along these lines, we hypothesized that brain regulation and neurofeedback would similarly modify intrinsic networks at rest while presenting a distinct spatio-temporal pattern. High-resolution electroencephalography preceded and followed a single neurofeedback training intervention of modulating circumscribed sensorimotor low β-activity by kinesthetic motor imagery in eleven healthy participants. The participants were kept in the deliberative phase of skill acquisition with high demands for learning self-regulation through stepwise increases of task difficulty. By applying the corrected imaginary part of the coherency function, we observed increased functional connectivity of both the primary motor and the primary somatosensory cortex with their respective contralateral homologous cortices in the low β-frequency band which was self-regulated during feedback. At the same time, the primary motor cortex-but none of the surrounding cortical areas-showed connectivity to contralateral supplementary motor and dorsal premotor areas in the high β-band. Simultaneously, the neurofeedback target displayed a specific increase of functional connectivity with an ipsilateral fronto-parietal network in the α-band while presenting a de-coupling with contralateral primary and secondary sensorimotor areas in the very same frequency band. Brain self-regulation modifies resting state connections spatially selective to the neurofeedback target of the dominant hemisphere. These are anatomically distinct with regard to the cortico-cortical connectivity pattern and are functionally specific with regard to the time domain of coherent activity

  3. A STUDY OF THE PROBLEM SOLVING ACTIVITY IN HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS: STRATEGIES AND SELF-REGULATED LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Brad

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted with the purpose of analyzing high school students’ approach to problem solving activities, namely the metacognitive abilities and the strategies they employ. The results show that although students apply basic strategies well, they use a trial-and-error approach, they give-up when faced with difficulties and have deficiencies in metacognitive abilities, which are signals that must be taken into account. The conclusions suggest that greater attention should be given to the students’ needs, putting more emphasis on reasoning and understanding, so that students can improve their self-regulated learning.

  4. Disentangling AGN and Star Formation Activity at High Redshift Using Hubble Space Telescope Grism Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Bridge, Joanna S.; Zeimann, Gregory R.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Gronwall, Caryl; Ciardullo, Robin; Fox, Derek B.; Schneider, Donald P.

    2016-01-01

    Differentiating between active galactic nuclei (AGN) activity and star formation in z ~ 2 galaxies is difficult because traditional methods, such as line ratio diagnostics, change with redshift while multi-wavelength methods (X-ray, radio, IR) are sensitive to only the brightest AGN. We have developed a new method for spatially resolving emission lines in HST/WFC3 G141 grism spectra and quantifying AGN activity through the spatial gradient of the [O III]/H$\\beta$ line ratio. Through detailed ...

  5. Effect of a behavioral intervention on dimensions of self-regulation and physical activity among overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silfee, Valerie; Petosa, Rick; Laurent, Devin; Schaub, Timothy; Focht, Brian

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the preliminary effect of a behavioral intervention on the use of self-regulation strategies and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes. 23 individuals recruited from ResearchMatc.org and campus advertisements were randomized into an intervention (n = 12) and control (n = 11) group. The intervention group received a behavioral intervention that used goal setting, time management, and self-monitoring to target dimensions of self-regulation and MVPA. The control received information regarding their PA habits. MVPA was measured via BodyMedia Armbands at pre- and post-test. The use of self-regulatory strategies for MVPA was assessed at pretest and posttest using the Self-Regulation for Exercise Scale. Cohen's d effect sizes were calculated to determine the practical impact of the intervention. The intervention had a large effect on all dimensions of self-regulation across time: including total self-regulation (3.15), self-monitoring (4.63), goal setting (3.17), social support (1.29), self-reward (1.98), time management (4.41), and overcoming barriers (2.25). The intervention had no impact on dimensions of MVPA across time. This pilot study demonstrated the ability of a behavioral intervention to improve the use of self-regulation strategies for MVPA in a sample of adults with type 2 diabetes. These findings can further inform the development of health promotion programs to promote self-regulation. Future research should focus on determining ability of improvements in self-regulation to stimulate behavior change. PMID:26785605

  6. Dissecting Galaxies: Spatial and Spectral Separation of Emission Excited by Star Formation and AGN Activity

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Rebecca L; Kewley, Lisa J; Dopita, Michael A; Hampton, Elise J; Shastri, Prajval; Scharwachter, Julia; Sutherland, Ralph; Kharb, Preeti; Bhatt, Harish; Jin, Chichuan; Banfield, Julie; Zaw, Ingyin; James, Bethan; Juneau, Stephanie; Srivastava, Shweta

    2016-01-01

    The optical spectra of Seyfert galaxies are often dominated by emission lines excited by both star formation and AGN activity. Standard calibrations (such as for the star formation rate) are not applicable to such composite (mixed) spectra. In this paper, we describe how integral field data can be used to spectrally and spatially separate emission associated with star formation from emission associated with accretion onto an active galactic nucleus (AGN). We demonstrate our method using integral field data for two AGN host galaxies (NGC 5728 and NGC 7679) from the Siding Spring Southern Seyfert Spectroscopic Snapshot Survey (S7). The spectra of NGC 5728 and NGC 7679 form clear sequences of AGN fraction on standard emission line ratio diagnostic diagrams. We show that the emission line luminosities of the majority (> 85 per cent) of spectra along each AGN fraction sequence can be reproduced by linear superpositions of the emission line luminosities of one AGN dominated spectrum and one star formation dominated...

  7. Dynamical Delays Between Starburst and AGN Activity in Galaxy Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, Philip F

    2011-01-01

    Observations of AGN have suggested a possible delay between the peak of star formation (on some scale) and AGN activity. Feedback from fast stellar winds has been invoked to explain this, but this is not likely to be viable in bright systems accreting primarily cold dense gas. We show that such a delay can arise even in bright quasars for purely dynamical reasons. If some large-scale process produces rapid inflow, smaller scales will quickly become gas-dominated. As the gas density peaks, so does the SFR. However, gravitational torques which govern further inflow are relatively inefficient in gas-dominated systems; as more gas is turned into stars, the stars provide an efficient angular momentum sink allowing more rapid inflow. Moreover, the gas provided to the central regions in mergers or strong disk instabilities will typically be ~100 times larger than that needed to fuel the BH; the system is effectively in the 'infinite gas supply' limit. BH growth can therefore continue for some time while the gas supp...

  8. Advertising self-regulation activity: A Comparison between Spain and US

    OpenAIRE

    Medina, M.; An, S

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the activity of the Spain’s advertising self-regulatory system, Autocontrol, from 2005-2009. The cases analyzed were coded according to product category, challenger, media, Autocontrol and advertiser response, codes and laws involved and basic principles addressed. Results were compared to the activity developed by Autocontrol during the last nineties and to the US case. Ramos (2001) analyzed the cases attended by AACC from 1996-2000 and Armstrong and Ozanne’s (1983) did ...

  9. Self-regulation of human brain activity using simultaneous real-time fMRI and EEG neurofeedback

    CERN Document Server

    Zotev, Vadim; Yuan, Han; Misaki, Masaya; Bodurka, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Neurofeedback is a promising approach for non-invasive modulation of human brain activity with applications for treatment of mental disorders and enhancement of brain performance. Neurofeedback techniques are commonly based on either electroencephalography (EEG) or real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI). Advances in simultaneous EEG-fMRI have made it possible to combine the two approaches. Here we report the first implementation of simultaneous multimodal rtfMRI and EEG neurofeedback (rtfMRI-EEG-nf). It is based on a novel system for real-time integration of simultaneous rtfMRI and EEG data streams. We applied the rtfMRI-EEG-nf to training of emotional self-regulation in healthy subjects performing a positive emotion induction task based on retrieval of happy autobiographical memories. The participants were able to simultaneously regulate their BOLD fMRI activation of the left amygdala and frontal EEG power asymmetry in the high-beta band using the rtfMRI-EEG-nf. Our proof-of-concept results...

  10. Effect of bars in AGN host galaxies and black hole activity

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso, Sol; Coldwell, Georgina; Lambas, Diego Garcia

    2012-01-01

    With the aim of assessing the effects of bars on active galactic nuclei (AGN), we present an analysis of host characteristics and nuclear activity of AGN galaxies with and without bars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS-DR7). By visual inspection of SDSS images we classified the hosts of face-on AGN spiral galaxies brighter than g < 16.5 into barred or unbarred. With the purpose of providing an appropriate quantification of the effects of bars, we also constructed...

  11. Comparing Simulations of AGN Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Mark L. A.; Scannapieco, Evan; Devriendt, Julien; Slyz, Adrianne; Thacker, Robert J.; Dubois, Yohan; Wurster, James; Silk, Joseph

    2016-07-01

    We perform adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) and smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) cosmological zoom simulations of a region around a forming galaxy cluster, comparing the ability of the methods to handle successively more complex baryonic physics. In the simplest, non-radiative case, the two methods are in good agreement with each other, but the SPH simulations generate central cores with slightly lower entropies and virial shocks at slightly larger radii, consistent with what has been seen in previous studies. The inclusion of radiative cooling, star formation, and stellar feedback leads to much larger differences between the two methods. Most dramatically, at z=5, rapid cooling in the AMR case moves the accretion shock to well within the virial radius, while this shock remains near the virial radius in the SPH case, due to excess heating, coupled with poorer capturing of the shock width. On the other hand, the addition of feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to the simulations results in much better agreement between the methods. For our AGN model, both simulations display halo gas entropies of 100 keV cm2, similar decrements in the star formation rate, and a drop in the halo baryon content of roughly 30%. This is consistent with the AGN growth being self-regulated, regardless of the numerical method. However, the simulations with AGN feedback continue to differ in aspects that are not self-regulated, such that in SPH a larger volume of gas is impacted by feedback, and the cluster still has a lower entropy central core.

  12. Effect of bars in AGN host galaxies and black hole activity

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso, Sol; Lambas, Diego Garcia

    2012-01-01

    With the aim of assessing the effects of bars on active galactic nuclei (AGN), we present an analysis of host characteristics and nuclear activity of AGN galaxies with and without bars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS-DR7). By visual inspection of SDSS images we classified the hosts of face-on AGN spiral galaxies brighter than g < 16.5 into barred or unbarred. With the purpose of providing an appropriate quantification of the effects of bars, we also constructed a suitable control sample of unbarred AGN galaxies with similar redshift, magnitude, morphology, bulge sizes and local environment distributions. We find that the bar fraction, with respect to the full sample of spiral face-on AGN host galaxies, is 28.5%, in good agreement with previous works. Barred AGN host galaxies show an excess of young stellar populations dominated by red u-r and g-r colors, with respect to the control sample, suggesting that bars produce an important effect on galaxy properties of AGN hosts. Re...

  13. Active Galactic Nuclei with Double-peaked Narrow Lines: Are They Dual AGNs?

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, J -M; Hu, C; Mao, W -M; Zhang, S; Bian, W -H

    2009-01-01

    Double-peaked [O III]5007, profiles in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) may provide evidence for the existence of dual AGNs, but a good diagnostic for selecting them is currently lacking. Starting from $\\sim$ 7000 active galaxies in SDSS DR7, we assemble a sample of 87 type 2 AGNs with double-peaked [O III]5007, profiles. The nuclear obscuration in the type 2 AGNs allows us to determine redshifts of host galaxies through stellar absorption lines. We typically find that one peak is redshifted and another is blueshifted relative to the host galaxy. We find a strong correlation between the ratios of the shifts and the double peak fluxes. The correlation can be naturally explained by the Keplerian relation predicted by models of co-rotating dual AGNs. The current sample statistically favors that most of the [O III] double-peaked sources are dual AGNs and disfavors other explanations, such as rotating disk and outflows. These dual AGNs have a separation distance at $\\sim 1$ kpc scale, showing an intermediate phase of...

  14. Constraining AGN triggering mechanisms through the clustering analysis of active black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, M.; Shankar, F.; Bouillot, V.; Menci, N.; Lamastra, A.; Hirschmann, M.; Fiore, F.

    2016-02-01

    The triggering mechanisms for active galactic nuclei (AGN) are still debated. Some of the most popular ones include galaxy interactions (IT) and disc instabilities (DIs). Using an advanced semi-analytic model (SAM) of galaxy formation, coupled to accurate halo occupation distribution modelling, we investigate the imprint left by each separate triggering process on the clustering strength of AGN at small and large scales. Our main results are as follows: (i) DIs, irrespective of their exact implementation in the SAM, tend to fall short in triggering AGN activity in galaxies at the centre of haloes with Mh > 1013.5 h-1 M⊙. On the contrary, the IT scenario predicts abundance of active central galaxies that generally agrees well with observations at every halo mass. (ii) The relative number of satellite AGN in DIs at intermediate-to-low luminosities is always significantly higher than in IT models, especially in groups and clusters. The low AGN satellite fraction predicted for the IT scenario might suggest that different feeding modes could simultaneously contribute to the triggering of satellite AGN. (iii) Both scenarios are quite degenerate in matching large-scale clustering measurements, suggesting that the sole average bias might not be an effective observational constraint. (iv) Our analysis suggests the presence of both a mild luminosity and a more consistent redshift dependence in the AGN clustering, with AGN inhabiting progressively less massive dark matter haloes as the redshift increases. We also discuss the impact of different observational selection cuts in measuring AGN clustering, including possible discrepancies between optical and X-ray surveys.

  15. Mechanical AGN Feedback: Controlling the Thermodynamical Evolution of Elliptical Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Gaspari, M; Temi, P

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental gap in the current understanding of galaxies concerns the thermodynamical evolution of the ordinary, baryonic matter. On one side, radiative emission drastically decreases the thermal energy content of the interstellar plasma (ISM), inducing a slow cooling flow toward the centre. On the other side, the active galactic nucleus (AGN) struggles to prevent the runaway cooling catastrophe, injecting huge amount of energy in the ISM. The present study intends to deeply investigate the role of mechanical AGN feedback in (isolated or massive) elliptical galaxies, extending and completing the mass range of tested cosmic environments. Our previously successful feedback models, in galaxy clusters and groups, demonstrated that AGN outflows, self-regulated by cold gas accretion, are able to properly quench the cooling flow, without destroying the cool core. Via 3D hydrodynamic simulations (FLASH 3.3), including also stellar evolution, we show that massive mechanical AGN outflows can indeed solve the cooling ...

  16. DIAGNOSIS OF EMOTIONAL AND VOLITIONAL SELF-REGULATION OF PRIMARY SCHOOL AGED PUPILS’ IN TERMS OF THE VOCAL AND CHORAL ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Malakhova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to investigate emotional and volitional self-regulation of primary school children during musical activities such as a choral performance.Methods. The proposed method of diagnosing emotional and volitional selfregulation in the process of choral activities, and methods of mathematical statistics are applied. Results and scientific novelty. The author formulates the definition of emotional and volitional self-regulation; criteria and indicators for its diagnosis are developed. The main criteria for the development of emotional and volitional selfregulation are: «self-control in the process of hearing musical performance», «emotional performance of a musical work», and «arbitrary regulation of psychophysiological state». The data obtained in the course of diagnosis in the Ural College of Music in vocal and choral activities at primary school children are analyzed. The use of mathematical statistics to summarize the data is justified.Practical significance. The development techniques of emotional and volitional self-regulation of future musicians to choral exercises are described; this technology may be used in music colleges, children’s art schools, as well as the highest level of musical performing and musical-pedagogical education. Research materials can be useful both to psychologists, and experts in the field of music education.

  17. A Multi-Wavelength Photometric Census of AGN and Star Formation Activity in the Brightest Cluster Galaxies of X-ray Selected Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Green, T S; Stott, J P; Ebeling, H; Burgett, W S; Chambers, K C; Draper, P W; Metcalfe, N; Kaiser, N; Wainscoat, R J; Waters, C

    2016-01-01

    Despite their reputation as being "red and dead", the unique environment inhabited by Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs) can often lead to a self-regulated feedback cycle between radiatively cooling intracluster gas and star formation and AGN activity in the BCG. However the prevalence of "active" BCGs, and details of the feedback involved, are still uncertain. We have performed an optical, UV and Mid-IR photometric analysis of the BCGs in 981 clusters at 0.03 < z < 0.5, selected from the ROSAT All Sky Survey. Using Pan-STARRS PS1 3pi, GALEX and WISE survey data we look for BCGs with photometric colours which deviate from that of the bulk population of passive BCGs - indicative of AGN and/or star formation activity within the BCG. We find that whilst the majority of BCGs are consistent with being passive, at least 14% of our BCGs show a significant colour offset from passivity in at least one colour index. And, where available, supplementary spectroscopy reveals the majority of these particular BCGs show...

  18. Disentangling AGN and Star Formation Activity at High Redshift Using Hubble Space Telescope Grism Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Bridge, Joanna S; Trump, Jonathan R; Gronwall, Caryl; Ciardullo, Robin; Fox, Derek B; Schneider, Donald P

    2016-01-01

    Differentiating between active galactic nuclei (AGN) activity and star formation in z ~ 2 galaxies is difficult because traditional methods, such as line ratio diagnostics, change with redshift while multi-wavelength methods (X-ray, radio, IR) are sensitive to only the brightest AGN. We have developed a new method for spatially resolving emission lines in HST/WFC3 G141 grism spectra and quantifying AGN activity through the spatial gradient of the [O III]/H$\\beta$ line ratio. Through detailed simulations, we show that our novel line-ratio gradient approach identifies ~ sim 40% more low-mass and obscured AGN than obtained by classical methods. Based on our simulations, we developed a relationship that maps stellar mass, star formation rate, and measured [O III]/H$\\beta$ gradient to AGN Eddington ratio. We apply our technique to previously studied stacked samples of galaxies at z ~2 and find that our results are consistent with these studies. Using this gradient method will also be able to inform other galaxy ev...

  19. Constraining AGN triggering mechanisms through the clustering analysis of active black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gatti, M; Bouillot, V; Menci, N; Lamastra, A; Hirschmann, M; Fiore, F

    2015-01-01

    The triggering mechanisms for Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are still debated. Some of the most popular ones include galaxy interactions (IT) and disk instabilities (DI). Using an advanced semi analytic model (SAM) of galaxy formation, coupled to accurate halo occupation distribution modeling, we investigate the imprint left by each separate triggering process on the clustering strength of AGN at small and large scales. Our main results are as follows: i) DIs, irrespective of their exact implementation in the SAM, tend to fall short in triggering AGN activity in galaxies at the center of halos with $M_h>10^{13.5} h^{-1}M_{\\odot}$. On the contrary, the IT scenario predicts abundance of active, central galaxies that generally agrees well with observations at every halo mass. ii) The relative number of satellite AGN in DIs at intermediate-to-low luminosities is always significantly higher than in IT models, especially in groups and clusters. The low AGN satellite fraction predicted for the IT scenario might sugge...

  20. Where the active galaxies live: a panchromatic view of radio-AGN in the AKARI-NEP field

    CERN Document Server

    Karouzos, Marios; Trichas, Markos

    2013-01-01

    We study the host galaxy properties of radio sources in the AKARI-North Ecliptic Pole (NEP) field, using an ensemble of multi-wavelength datasets. We identify both radio-loud and radio-quiet AGN and study their host galaxy properties by means of SED fitting. We investigate the relative importance of nuclear and star-formation activity in radio-AGN and assess the role of radio-AGN as efficient quenchers of star-formation in their host galaxies.

  1. The 60 Month All-Sky Burst Alert Telescope Survey of Active Galactic Nucleus and the Anisotropy of Nearby AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajello, M.; Alexander, D. M.; Greiner, J.; Madejeski, G. M.; Gehrels, N.; Burlon, D.

    2014-01-01

    Surveys above 10 keV represent one of the best resources to provide an unbiased census of the population of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We present the results of 60 months of observation of the hard X-ray sky with Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT). In this time frame, BAT-detected (in the 15-55 keV band) 720 sources in an all-sky survey of which 428 are associated with AGNs, most of which are nearby. Our sample has negligible incompleteness and statistics a factor of approx. 2 larger over similarly complete sets of AGNs. Our sample contains (at least) 15 bona fide Compton-thick AGNs and 3 likely candidates. Compton-thick AGNs represent approx. 5% of AGN samples detected above 15 keV. We use the BAT data set to refine the determination of the log N-log S of AGNs which is extremely important, now that NuSTAR prepares for launch, toward assessing the AGN contribution to the cosmic X-ray background. We show that the log N-log S of AGNs selected above 10 keV is now established to approx. 10% precision. We derive the luminosity function of Compton-thick AGNs and measure a space density of 7.9(+4.1/-2.9)× 10(exp -5)/cubic Mpc for objects with a de-absorbed luminosity larger than 2 × 10(exp 42) erg / s. As the BAT AGNs are all mostly local, they allow us to investigate the spatial distribution of AGNs in the nearby universe regardless of absorption. We find concentrations of AGNs that coincide spatially with the largest congregations of matter in the local (much < 85 Mpc) universe. There is some evidence that the fraction of Seyfert 2 objects is larger than average in the direction of these dense regions..

  2. AGN activity and IGM heating in fossil cluster RX J1416.4+2315

    CERN Document Server

    Miraghaei, H; Sengupta, C; Raychaudhury, S; Jetha, N N; Abbassi, S

    2015-01-01

    We study Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) activity in the fossil galaxy cluster, RX J1416.4+2315. Radio observations were carried out using Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) at two frequencies, 1420 MHz and 610 MHz. A weak radio lobe that extends from the central nucleus is detected in 610 MHz map. Assuming the radio lobe originated from the central AGN, we show the energy injection into the Inter Galactic Medium (IGM) is only sufficient to heat up the central 50 kpc within the cluster core, while the cooling radius is larger ( $\\sim$ 130 kpc). In the hardness ratio map, three low energy cavities have been identified. No radio emission is detected for these regions. We evaluated the power required to inflate the cavities and showed that the total energy budget is sufficient to offset the radiative cooling. We showed that the initial conditions would change the results remarkably. Furthermore, efficiency of Bondi accretion to power the AGN has been estimated.

  3. Disentangling star formation and AGN activity in powerful infrared luminous radio galaxies at 1

    CERN Document Server

    Drouart, Guillaume; De Breuck, Carlos; Fioc, Michel; Lehnert, Matthew; Seymour, Nick; Stern, Dan; Vernet, Joel

    2016-01-01

    High-redshift radio galaxies present signs of both star formation and AGN activity, making them ideal candidates to investigate the connection and coevolution of AGN and star formation in the progenitors of present-day massive galaxies. We make use of a sample of 11 powerful radio galaxies spanning 1AGN and star formation by combining the galaxyevolutioncodePEGASE.3 with an AGN torus model. We find that three components are necessary to reproduce the observed SEDs: an evolved and massive stellar component, a submm bright young starburst, and an AGN torus. We find that powerful radio galaxies form at very high-redshift, but experience episodic and important growth at 1

  4. FRESH ACTIVITY IN OLD SYSTEMS: RADIO AGNs IN FOSSIL GROUPS OF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the first systematic 1.4 GHz Very Large Array radio continuum survey of fossil galaxy group candidates. These are virialized systems believed to have assembled over a gigayear in the past through the merging of galaxy group members into a single, isolated, massive elliptical galaxy and featuring an extended hot X-ray halo. We use new photometric and spectroscopic data from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 to determine that three of the candidates are clearly not fossil groups. Of the remaining 30 candidates, 67% contain a radio-loud (L1.4GHz > 1023 W Hz–1) active galactic nucleus (AGN) at the center of their dominant elliptical galaxy. We find a weak correlation between the radio luminosity of the AGN and the X-ray luminosity of the halo suggesting that the AGN contributes to energy deposition into the intragroup medium. We only find a correlation between the radio and optical luminosity of the central elliptical galaxy when we include X-ray-selected, elliptically dominated non-fossil groups, indicating a weak relationship between AGN strength and the mass assembly history of the groups. The dominant elliptical galaxy of fossil groups is on average roughly an order of magnitude more luminous than normal group elliptical galaxies in optical, X-ray, and radio luminosities and our findings are consistent with previous results that the radio-loud fraction in elliptical galaxies is linked to the stellar mass of a population. The current level of activity in fossil groups suggests that AGN fueling continues long after the last major merger. We discuss several possibilities for fueling the AGN at the present epoch.

  5. The roles of star formation and AGN activity of IRS sources in the HerMES fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltre, A.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Hernán-Caballero, A.; Fritz, J.; Franceschini, A.; Bock, J.; Cooray, A.; Farrah, D.; Solares, E. A. González; Ibar, E.; Isaak, K. G.; Faro, B. Lo; Marchetti, L.; Oliver, S. J.; Page, M. J.; Rigopoulou, D.; Roseboom, I. G.; Symeonidis, M.; Vaccari, M.

    2013-09-01

    In this work, we explore the impact of the presence of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) on the mid- and far-infrared (IR) properties of galaxies as well as the effects of simultaneous AGN and starburst activity in the same galaxies. To do this, we apply a multicomponent, multiband spectral synthesis technique to a sample of 250 μm selected galaxies of the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES), with Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra available for all galaxies. Our results confirm that the inclusion of the IRS spectra plays a crucial role in the spectral analysis of galaxies with an AGN component improving the selection of the best-fitting hot dust (torus) model. We find a correlation between the obscured star formation rate, SFRIR, derived from the IR luminosity of the starburst component, and SFRPAH, derived from the luminosity of the PAH features, LPAH, with SFRFIR taking higher values than SFRPAH. The correlation is different for AGN- and starburst-dominated objects. The ratio of LPAH to that of the starburst component, LPAH/LSB, is almost constant for AGN-dominated objects but decreases with increasing LSB for starburst-dominated objects. SFRFIR increases with the accretion luminosity, Lacc, with the increase less prominent for the very brightest, unobscured AGN-dominated sources. We find no correlation between the masses of the hot (AGN-heated) and cold (starburst-heated) dust components. We interpret this as a non-constant fraction of gas driven by the gravitational effects to the AGN while the starburst is ongoing. We also find no evidence of the AGN affecting the temperature of the cold dust component, though this conclusion is mostly based on objects with a non-dominant AGN component. We conclude that our findings do not provide evidence that the presence of AGN affects the star formation process in the host galaxy, but rather that the two phenomena occur simultaneously over a wide range of luminosities.

  6. Detailed Analysis of Starburst and AGN Activity in Blue E/S0 Galaxies in RESOLVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Ashley; Snyder, Elaine M.; Kannappan, Sheila; Norman, Dara J.; Norris, Mark A.; Moffett, Amanda J.; Hoversten, Erik A.; Stark, David; RESOLVE Team

    2016-01-01

    We identify a population of ~120 blue E/S0 galaxies among the ~1350 galaxies that are targeted for spectroscopy and have measured morphologies in the highly complete REsolved Spectroscopy Of a Local Volume (RESOLVE) survey. Blue E/S0s are identified as being early type objects morphologically classified between E and S0/a that fall on the blue sequence. Most (~85%) of our blue E/S0s have stellar masses sample. Using three variations of the M_BH -- sigma relation, this kinematic subsample is estimated to typically host central black holes within the range log M_BH = 4-6 M_sun. Following up on previous suggestions of nuclear activity in the blue E/S0 population, we investigate nuclear starburst and/or AGN activity occurring within the full sample. Preliminary results from cross-checking known AGN catalogs with the blue E/S0 sample have revealed nuclear activity in ~20 of these galaxies based on heterogeneous criteria (BPT line ratio analysis, spectral line broadening, etc.), some of which may not entirely distinguish starburst from AGN activity. In an attempt to break the degeneracy between AGN and starburst activity, we perform detailed spectral analysis for a few of the galaxies with kinematic data. We also consider the viability of alternate AGN detection methods based on L_Edd estimates calculated from the M_BH estimates. This research has been supported by the National Science Foundation through the CAP REU Program (ACI-1156614) and the RESOLVE Survey (AST-0955368) as well as the National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program and the NC Space Grant Consortium.

  7. Understanding AGN-host connection in partially obscured active galactic nuclei. Part III: Properties of ROSAT-selected SDSS AGNs

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, J

    2010-01-01

    As the third paper of our serial studies that are aim at examining the AGN-host coevolution by using partially obscured AGNs, we extend the broad-line composite galaxies (composite AGNs) into ROSAT-selected Seyfert 1.8/1.9 galaxies basing upon the RASS/SDSS-DR5 catalog given by Anderson et al.. The SDSS spectra of in total 92 objects are analyzed by the same method used in our previous studies, after requiring the signal-to-noise ratio in the SDSS r' band is larger than 20. Combing the ROSAT-selected Seyfert galaxies with the composite AGNs reinforces the tight correlation between the line ratio [OI]/H\\alpha vs. D_n(4000), and establishes a new tight correlation between [SII]/H\\alpha vs. D_n(4000). Both correlations suggest the two line ratios are plausible age indicators of the circumnuclear stellar population for typical type I AGNs in which the stellar populations are difficult to be derived from their optical spectra. The ROSAT-selected Seyfert galaxies show that the two correlations depend on the soft X-...

  8. The environment of AGNs and the activity degree of their surrounding galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kollatschny, W; Zetzl, M

    2012-01-01

    Aims. We present results of a comprehensive spectral study on the large-scale environment of AGNs based on Sloan Spectroscopic Survey data. Methods. We analyzed the spectra of galaxies in the environment of AGN and other activity classes up to distances of 1 Mpc. Results. The mean H{\\alpha} and [OIII] {\\lambda}5007 line luminosities in the environmental galaxies within a projected radius of 1 Mpc are highest around Seyfert 1 galaxies, with decreasing luminosities for Seyfert 2 and HII galaxies, and lowest for absorption line galaxies. Furthermore, there is a trend toward H{\\alpha} and [OIII] luminosities in the environmental galaxies increasing as a function of proximity to the central emission line galaxies. There is another clear trend toward a neighborhood effect within a radius of 1000 kpc for the AGN and non-AGN types: Seyfert galaxies tend to have the highest probability of having another Seyfert galaxy in the neighborhood. HII galaxies tend to have the highest probability of having another HII galaxy i...

  9. An Expert Performance Approach to the Study of Individual Differences in Self-Regulated Learning Activities in Upper-Level College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandagopal, Kiruthiga; Ericsson, K. Anders

    2012-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of adolescent and adult development of expert performance is its self regulation. This paper reviews different approaches to assessing the use of self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies in high-school and college students and their ability to predict academic performance. The current study assesses the use of SRL strategies…

  10. Assessing self-regulation strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vet, Emely; de Ridder, Denise T. D.; Stok, Marijn;

    2014-01-01

    Background: Applying self-regulation strategies have proven important in eating behaviors, but it remains subject to investigation what strategies adolescents report to use to ensure healthy eating, and adequate measures are lacking. Therefore, we developed and validated a self-regulation questio...

  11. Self-Regulated Reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Iliev, I T; Shapiro, P R; Pen, U L; Iliev, Ilian T.; Mellema, Garrelt; Shapiro, Paul R.; Pen, Ue-Li

    2006-01-01

    Recently, we have presented the first large-scale radiative transfer simulations of reionization. Here we present new simulations which extend the source halo mass range downward to 10^8M_solar, to capture the full range of halo masses thought to be primarily responsible for reionization by their star formation following atomic hydrogen radiative cooling and gravitational collapse. Haloes below about 10^9M_solar, however, are subject to Jeans-mass filtering in the ionized regions, which suppresses their baryonic content and their ability to release ionizing radiation. By including these smaller-mass haloes but accounting for their suppression, too, we find that reionization is ``self-regulating,'' as follows. As the mean ionized fraction rises, so does the fraction of the volume within which suppression occurs. Hence, the degree of suppression is related to the mean ionized fraction. Since low-mass haloes with high emissivity achieve a given mean ionized fraction earlier than do those with low efficiency, Jea...

  12. The nature and origin of Narrow Line AGN activity in a sample of isolated SDSS galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Coziol, R; Plauchu-Frayn, I; Islas-Islas, J M; Ortega-Minakata, R A; Larios, D M Neri; Andernach, H

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the nature and origin of the nuclear activity observed in a sample of 292 SDSS narrow-emission-line galaxies, considered to have formed and evolved in isolation. All these galaxies are spiral like and show some kind of nuclear activity. The fraction of Narrow Line AGNs (NLAGNs) and Transition type Objects (TOs; a NLAGN with circumnuclear star formation) is relatively high, amounting to 64% of the galaxies. There is a definite trend for the NLAGNs to appear in early-type spirals, while the star forming galaxies and TOs are found in later-type spirals. We verify that the probability for a galaxy to show an AGN characteristic increases with the bulge mass of the galaxy (Torre-Papaqui et al. 2011), and find evidence that this trend is really a by-product of the morphology, suggesting that the AGN phenomenon is intimately connected with the formation process of the galaxies. Consistent with this interpretation, we establish a strong connection between the astration rate--the efficiency with which the ga...

  13. AGNs and galaxy interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso, M. Sol; Lambas, Diego G.; Tissera, Patricia; Coldwell, Georgina

    2007-01-01

    We perform a statistical analysis of AGN host characteristics and nuclear activity for AGNs in pairs and without companions. Our study concerns a sample of AGNs derived from the SDSS-DR4 data by Kauffmann et al (2003) and pair galaxies obtained from the same data set by Alonso et al. (2006). An eye-ball classification of images of 1607 close pairs ($r_p

  14. Comparative Studies of Clustering Properties Between Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) Host Galaxies and Star-Forming Ones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the volume-limited Main galaxy sample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 6 (SDSS DR6), we have explored the difference of clustering properties between Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) host galaxies and star-forming galaxies. Our results preferentially show that AGN host galaxies have a lower fraction in isolated, close double and multiple systems than star-forming galaxies. (authors)

  15. Understanding Children's Self-Regulation within Different Classroom Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons, Kristy; Pelletier, Janette; Corter, Carl

    2016-01-01

    In this study, children's self-regulation was observed, along with other social and academic activities in kindergarten classrooms during whole group, small group, transition and play contexts. We examined how children's self-regulation and engagement differed among classroom grouping, play and transition contexts. Results showed that students…

  16. The Fermi Bubbles. I. Possible Evidence for Recent AGN Jet Activity in the Galaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Fulai; Mathews, William G.

    2011-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope reveals two large gamma-ray bubbles in the Galaxy, which extend about 50 degrees (~ 10 kpc) above and below the Galactic center (GC) and are symmetric about the Galactic plane. Using axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations with a self-consistent treatment of the dynamical cosmic ray (CR) - gas interaction, we show that the bubbles can be created with a recent active galactic nucleus (AGN) jet activity about 1 - 3 Myr ago, which was active for a duration of ~ ...

  17. Star Formation and AGN Activity in Luminous and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartaltepe, Jeyhan

    2015-08-01

    In the local universe, Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs, L_IR > 10^12 L⊙) are all interacting and merging systems. We explore the evolution of the morphological and nuclear properties of (U)LIRGs over cosmic time using a large sample of galaxies from Her- schel observations of the CANDELS fields (including GOODS, COSMOS, and UDS). In particular, we investigate whether the role of galaxy mergers has changed between z ˜ 2 and now using the extensive visual classification catalogs produced by the CANDELS team. The combination of a selection from Herschel, near the peak of IR emission, and rest-frame optical morphologies from CANDELS, provides the ideal comparison to nearby (U)LIRGs. We also use rest-frame optical emission line diagnostics, X-ray luminosity, and MIR colors to separate AGN from star-formation dominated galaxies. We then study the how role of galaxy mergers and the presence of AGN activity correspond to the galaxy’s position in the star formation rate - stellar mass plane. Are galaxies that have specific star formation rates elevated above the main sequence more likely to be mergers? We investigate how AGN identified with different methods correspond to different morphologies and merger stages as well as position on the star formation rate - stellar mass plane.

  18. Self-Regulation in School

    OpenAIRE

    Nett, Ulrike Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    Successful self-regulation depends on the ability to regulate the self both motivationally and emotionally in order to protect the self and the learning process against competing personal needs as well as situational distractions. Successful self-regulation further requires students to adequately use metacognitive and cognitive learning strategies to organize the learning process efficiently. The studies presented in this dissertation focus on students' strategies for regulating themselves in...

  19. The role of social influences and cognitive self-regulation in supporting cancer patients to engage in physical activity

    OpenAIRE

    Ungar, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Cancer patients are recommended to engage in regular physical activity, as research has identified various beneficial effects of exercise both during and after medical treatment (Schmitz et al., 2010; Speck, Courneya, Mâsse, Duval, & Schmitz, 2010). Most cancer patients are motivated to adopt a healthy lifestyle including regular physical activity (Demark-Wahnefried, Aziz, Rowland, & Pinto, 2005). However, it has been shown that only a minority of cancer patients meet the exercise guidelines ...

  20. Investigating the relationship between AGN activity and stellar mass in zCOSMOS galaxies at 0

    CERN Document Server

    Vitale, M; Cimatti, A; Lilly, S J; Carollo, C M; Contini, T; Kneib, J -P; Fevre, O Le; Mainieri, V; Renzini, A; Scodeggio, M; Zamorani, G; Bardelli, S; Barnes, L; Bolzonella, M; Bongiorno, A; Bordoloi, R; Bschorr, T J; Cappi, A; Caputi, K; Coppa, G; Cucciati, O; de la Torre, S; de Ravel, L; Franzetti, P; Garilli, B; Iovino, A; Kampczyk, P; Knobel, C; Koekemoer, A M; Kovac, K; Lamareille, F; Borgne, J -F Le; Brun, V Le; Lopez-Sanjuan, C; Maier, C; McCracken, H J; Moresco, M; Nair, P; Oesch, P A; Pello, R; Peng, Y; Montero, E Perez; Pozzetti, L; Presotto, V; Silverman, J; Tanaka, M; Tasca, L; Tresse, L; Vergani, D; Welikala, N; Zucca, E

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the link between AGN activity, star-formation and stellar mass of the host galaxy at 010.2 threshold. Moreover, the stellar populations of AGN hosts are found to be older with respect to star-forming and composites galaxies. This could be due to the the tendency of AGN to reside in massive hosts. The dependence of the AGN classification on the stellar mass is in agreement with what has been already found in previous studies. It is consistent with, together with the evidence of older stellar populations inhabiting the AGN-like galaxies, the downsizing scenario. In particular, our evidence points to an evolutionary scenario where the AGN-feedback is capable of quenching the star formation in the most massive galaxies. Therefore, the AGN-feedback is the best candidate for initiating the passive evolutionary phase of galaxies.

  1. Self-regulation of human brain activity using simultaneous real-time fMRI and EEG neurofeedback

    OpenAIRE

    Zotev, Vadim; Phillips, Raquel; Yuan, Han; Misaki, Masaya; Bodurka, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    Neurofeedback is a promising approach for non-invasive modulation of human brain activity with applications for treatment of mental disorders and enhancement of brain performance. Neurofeedback techniques are commonly based on either electroencephalography (EEG) or real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI). Advances in simultaneous EEG-fMRI have made it possible to combine the two approaches. Here we report the first implementation of simultaneous multimodal rtfMRI and EEG neur...

  2. Radio Evidence for AGN Activity: Relativistic as Tracers of SMBHs

    CERN Document Server

    Kellermann, K I

    2014-01-01

    Although the radio emission from most quasars appears to be associated with star forming activity in the host galaxy, about ten percent of optically selected quasars have very luminous relativistic jets apparently powered by a SMBH which is located at the base of the jet. When these jets are pointed close to the line of sight their apparent luminosity is enhanced by Doppler boosting and appears highly variable. High resolution radio interferometry shows directly the outflow of relativistic plasma jets from the SMBH. Apparent transverse velocities in these so called blazars are typically about 7c but reach as much as 50c indicating true velocities within one percent of the speed of light. The jets appear to be collimated and accelerated in regions as much as a hundred parsecs downstream from the SMBH. Measurements made with Earth to space interferometers indicate apparent brightness temperatures of about 10E14 K or more. This is well in excess of the limits imposed by inverse Compton cooling. The modest Dopple...

  3. Unveiling the AGN activity in multiple SMBH systems: the remarkable case of SDSS J0959+1259

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rosa, A.; Magna Team

    2016-06-01

    In this talk we will present results from the MAGNA (Multiple AGN Activity) project focused on the detection and study of multiple supermassive BH systems. We aim at studying the physical properties of multiple AGN candidates in interacting/disturbed systems from both an observational and a theoretical point of view. The final goal is to understand the possible mechanisms that could relate the triggering of AGN activity with the different stages of galaxies mergers. The MAGNA project includes the study of several samples of dual AGN, extracted from different wavebands, supplied by an extensive set of multiwavelength observations granted to our team by MUSE, XMM, VLA as well as available in archives. This strategy allowed us to identify a galaxy compact group (CG SDSS J0959+1259) that appears exceptional having a high concentration of nuclear activity. We present here the multi-wavelength study of this CG through XMM, SDSS and BUSCA data. The XMM analysis extends and modifies the previous identification of the members of this group, which is composed of 3 Compton thin AGN, 2 LINERs and 3 star forming region.

  4. A SEARCH FOR BINARY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: DOUBLE-PEAKED [O III] AGNs IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present active galactic nuclei (AGNs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) having double-peaked profiles of [O III]λλ5007, 4959 and other narrow emission lines, motivated by the prospect of finding candidate binary AGNs. These objects were identified by means of a visual examination of 21,592 quasars at z < 0.7 in SDSS Data Release 7 (DR7). Of the spectra with adequate signal-to-noise, 148 spectra exhibit a double-peaked [O III] profile. Of these, 86 are Type 1 AGNs and 62 are Type 2 AGNs. Only two give the appearance of possibly being optically resolved double AGNs in the SDSS images, but many show close companions or signs of recent interaction. Radio-detected quasars are three times more likely to exhibit a double-peaked [O III] profile than quasars with no detected radio flux, suggesting a role for jet interactions in producing the double-peaked profiles. Of the 66 broad-line (Type 1) AGNs that are undetected in the FIRST survey, 0.9% show double-peaked [O III] profiles. We discuss statistical tests of the nature of the double-peaked objects. Further study is needed to determine which of them are binary AGNs rather than disturbed narrow line regions, and how many additional binaries may remain undetected because of insufficient line-of-sight velocity splitting. Previous studies indicate that 0.1% of SDSS quasars are spatially resolved binaries, with typical spacings of ∼10-100 kpc. If a substantial fraction of the double-peaked objects are indeed binaries, then our results imply that binaries occur more frequently at smaller separations (<10 kpc). This suggests that simultaneous fueling of both black holes is more common as the binary orbit decays through these spacings.

  5. Chandra X-Ray and Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of Optically Selected Kiloparsec-scale Binary Active Galactic Nuclei. II. Host Galaxy Morphology and AGN Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Jinyi; Liu, Xin; Ho, Luis C.; Shen, Yue; Peng, Chien Y.; Greene, Jenny E.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2016-05-01

    Binary active galactic nuclei (AGNs) provide clues to how gas-rich mergers trigger and fuel AGNs and how supermassive black hole (SMBH) pairs evolve in a gas-rich environment. While significant effort has been invested in their identification, the detailed properties of binary AGNs and their host galaxies are still poorly constrained. In a companion paper, we examined the nature of ionizing sources in the double nuclei of four kiloparsec-scale binary AGNs with redshifts between 0.1 and 0.2. Here, we present their host galaxy morphology based on F336W (U-band) and F105W (Y-band) images taken by the Wide Field Camera 3 on board the Hubble Space Telescope. Our targets have double-peaked narrow emission lines and were confirmed to host binary AGNs with follow-up observations. We find that kiloparsec-scale binary AGNs occur in galaxy mergers with diverse morphological types. There are three major mergers with intermediate morphologies and a minor merger with a dominant disk component. We estimate the masses of the SMBHs from their host bulge stellar masses and obtain Eddington ratios for each AGN. Compared with a representative control sample drawn at the same redshift and stellar mass, the AGN luminosities and Eddington ratios of our binary AGNs are similar to those of single AGNs. The U ‑ Y color maps indicate that clumpy star-forming regions could significantly affect the X-ray detection of binary AGNs, e.g., the hardness ratio. Considering the weak X-ray emission in AGNs triggered in merger systems, we suggest that samples of X-ray-selected AGNs may be biased against gas-rich mergers. Based, in part, on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program number GO 12363.

  6. The peculiar radio galaxy 4C 35.06: a case for recurrent AGN activity?

    CERN Document Server

    Shulevski, A; Barthel, P D; Murgia, M; van Weeren, R J; White, G J; Brüggen, M; Kunert-Bajraszewska, M; Jamrozy, M; Best, P N; Röttgering, H J A; Chyzy, K T; de Gasperin, F; Bîrzan, L; Brunetti, G; Brienza, M; Rafferty, D A; Anderson, J; Beck, R; Deller, A; Zarka, P; Schwarz, D; Mahony, E; Orrú, E; Bell, M E; Bentum, M J; Bernardi, G; Bonafede, A; Breitling, F; Broderick, J W; Butcher, H R; Carbone, D; Ciardi, B; de Geus, E; Duscha, S; Eislöffel, J; Engels, D; Falcke, H; Fallows, R A; Fender, R; Ferrari, C; Frieswijk, W; Garrett, M A; Grießmeier, J; Gunst, A W; Heald, G; Hoeft, M; Hörandel, J; Horneffer, A; van der Horst, A J; Intema, H; Juette, E; Karastergiou, A; Kondratiev, V I; Kramer, M; Kuniyoshi, M; Kuper, G; Maat, P; Mann, G; McFadden, R; McKay-Bukowski, D; McKean, J P; Meulman, H; Mulcahy, D D; Munk, H; Norden, M J; Paas, H; Pandey-Pommier, M; Pizzo, R; Polatidis, A G; Reich, W; Rowlinson, A; Scaife, A M M; Serylak, M; Sluman, J; Smirnov, O; Steinmetz, M; Swinbank, J; Tagger, M; Tang, Y; Tasse, C; Thoudam, S; Toribio, M C; Vermeulen, R; Vocks, C; Wijers, R A M J; Wise, M W; Wucknitz, O

    2015-01-01

    Using observations obtained with the LOw Fequency ARray (LOFAR), the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) and archival Very Large Array (VLA) data, we have traced the radio emission to large scales in the complex source 4C 35.06 located in the core of the galaxy cluster Abell 407. At higher spatial resolution (~4"), the source was known to have two inner radio lobes spanning 31 kpc and a diffuse, low-brightness extension running parallel to them, offset by about 11 kpc (in projection). At 62 MHz, we detect the radio emission of this structure extending out to 210 kpc. At 1.4 GHz and intermediate spatial resolution (~30"), the structure appears to have a helical morphology. We have derived the characteristics of the radio spectral index across the source. We show that the source morphology is most likely the result of at least two episodes of AGN activity separated by a dormant period of around 35 Myr. The AGN is hosted by one of the galaxies located in the cluster core of Abell 407. We propose that it ...

  7. The impact of galaxy interactions on AGN activity in zCOSMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, J D; Jahnke, K; Andrae, R; Lilly, S; Elvis, M; Civano, F; Mainieri, V; Vignali, C; Zamorani, G; Nair, P; Fevre, O Le; de Ravel, L; Bardelli, S; Bongiorno, A; Bolzonella, M; Brusa, M; Cappelluti, N; Cappi, A; Caputi, K; Carollo, C M; Contini, T; Coppa, G; Cucciati, O; de la Torre, S; Franzetti, P; Garilli, B; Halliday, C; Hasinger, G; Iovino, A; Knobel, C; koekemoer, A; Kovac, K; Lamareille, F; Borgne, J -F Le; Brun, V Le; Maier, C; Mignoli, M; Pello, R; Montero, E Perez; Ricciardelli, E; Peng, Y; Scodeggio, M; Tanaka, M; Tasca, L; Tresse, L; Vergani, D; Zucca, E; Comastri, A; Finoguenov, A; Fu, H; Gilli, R; Hao, H; Ho, L; Salvato, M

    2011-01-01

    Close encounters between galaxies are expected to be a viable mechanism, as predicted by numerical simulations, by which accretion onto supermassive black holes can be initiated. To test this scenario, we construct a sample of 562 galaxies (M*>2.5x10^10 M_sun) in kinematic pairs over the redshift range 0.25 2x10^42 erg s^-1) detected by Chandra. We find a higher fraction of AGN in galaxies in pairs relative to isolated galaxies of similar stellar mass. Our result is primarily due to an enhancement of AGN activity, by a factor of 1.9 (observed) and 2.6 (intrinsic), for galaxies in pairs of projected separation less than 75 kpc and line-of-sight velocity offset less than 500 km s^-1. This study demonstrates that close kinematic pairs are conducive environments for black hole growth either indicating a causal physical connection or an inherent relation, such as, to enhanced star formation. In the Appendix, we describe a method to estimate the intrinsic fractions of galaxies (either in pairs or the field) hosting...

  8. Brain self-regulation in criminal psychopaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konicar, Lilian; Veit, Ralf; Eisenbarth, Hedwig; Barth, Beatrix; Tonin, Paolo; Strehl, Ute; Birbaumer, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Psychopathic individuals are characterized by impaired affective processing, impulsivity, sensation-seeking, poor planning skills and heightened aggressiveness with poor self-regulation. Based on brain self-regulation studies using neurofeedback of Slow Cortical Potentials (SCPs) in disorders associated with a dysregulation of cortical activity thresholds and evidence of deficient cortical functioning in psychopathy, a neurobiological approach seems to be promising in the treatment of psychopathy. The results of our intensive brain regulation intervention demonstrate, that psychopathic offenders are able to gain control of their brain excitability over fronto-central brain areas. After SCP self-regulation training, we observed reduced aggression, impulsivity and behavioral approach tendencies, as well as improvements in behavioral-inhibition and increased cortical sensitivity for error-processing. This study demonstrates improvements on the neurophysiological, behavioral and subjective level in severe psychopathic offenders after SCP-neurofeedback training and could constitute a novel neurobiologically-based treatment for a seemingly change-resistant group of criminal psychopaths. PMID:25800672

  9. The peculiar radio galaxy 4C 35.06: a case for recurrent AGN activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulevski, A.; Morganti, R.; Barthel, P. D.; Murgia, M.; van Weeren, R. J.; White, G. J.; Brüggen, M.; Kunert-Bajraszewska, M.; Jamrozy, M.; Best, P. N.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Chyzy, K. T.; de Gasperin, F.; Bîrzan, L.; Brunetti, G.; Brienza, M.; Rafferty, D. A.; Anderson, J.; Beck, R.; Deller, A.; Zarka, P.; Schwarz, D.; Mahony, E.; Orrú, E.; Bell, M. E.; Bentum, M. J.; Bernardi, G.; Bonafede, A.; Breitling, F.; Broderick, J. W.; Butcher, H. R.; Carbone, D.; Ciardi, B.; de Geus, E.; Duscha, S.; Eislöffel, J.; Engels, D.; Falcke, H.; Fallows, R. A.; Fender, R.; Ferrari, C.; Frieswijk, W.; Garrett, M. A.; Grießmeier, J.; Gunst, A. W.; Heald, G.; Hoeft, M.; Hörandel, J.; Horneffer, A.; van der Horst, A. J.; Intema, H.; Juette, E.; Karastergiou, A.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Kramer, M.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Kuper, G.; Maat, P.; Mann, G.; McFadden, R.; McKay-Bukowski, D.; McKean, J. P.; Meulman, H.; Mulcahy, D. D.; Munk, H.; Norden, M. J.; Paas, H.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Pizzo, R.; Polatidis, A. G.; Reich, W.; Rowlinson, A.; Scaife, A. M. M.; Serylak, M.; Sluman, J.; Smirnov, O.; Steinmetz, M.; Swinbank, J.; Tagger, M.; Tang, Y.; Tasse, C.; Thoudam, S.; Toribio, M. C.; Vermeulen, R.; Vocks, C.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Wise, M. W.; Wucknitz, O.

    2015-07-01

    Using observations obtained with the LOw Fequency ARray (LOFAR), the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) and archival Very Large Array (VLA) data, we have traced the radio emission to large scales in the complex source 4C 35.06 located in the core of the galaxy cluster Abell 407. At higher spatial resolution (~ 4″), the source was known to have two inner radio lobes spanning 31 kpc and a diffuse, low-brightness extension running parallel to them, offset by about 11 kpc (in projection). At 62 MHz, we detect the radio emission of this structure extending out to 210 kpc. At 1.4 GHz and intermediate spatial resolution (~ 30″), the structure appears to have a helical morphology. We have derived the characteristics of the radio spectral index across the source. We show that the source morphology is most likely the result of at least two episodes of AGN activity separated by a dormant period of around 35 Myr. The outermost regions of radio emission have a steep spectral index (α< - 1), indicative of old plasma. We connect the spectral index properties of the resolved source structure with the integrated fluxdensity spectral index of 4C 35.06 and suggest an explanation for its unusual integrated flux density spectral shape (a moderately steep power law with no discernible spectral break), possibly providing a proxy for future studies of more distant radio sources through inferring their detailed spectral index properties and activity history from their integrated spectral indices. The AGN is hosted by one of the galaxies located in the cluster core of Abell 407. We propose that it is intermittently active as it moves in the dense environment in the cluster core. In this scenario, the AGN turned on sometime in the past, and has produced the helical pattern of emission, possibly a sign of jet precession/merger during that episode of activity. Using LOFAR, we can trace the relic plasma from that episode of activity out to greater distances from the core than ever

  10. THE CLUSTER AND FIELD GALAXY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FRACTION AT z = 1-1.5: EVIDENCE FOR A REVERSAL OF THE LOCAL ANTICORRELATION BETWEEN ENVIRONMENT AND AGN FRACTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fraction of cluster galaxies that host luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is an important probe of AGN fueling processes, the cold interstellar medium at the centers of galaxies, and how tightly black holes and galaxies co-evolve. We present a new measurement of the AGN fraction in a sample of 13 clusters of galaxies (M ≥ 1014 M☉) at 1 A = 3.0+2.4-1.4% for AGNs with a rest-frame, hard X-ray luminosity greater than LX,H ≥ 1044 erg s–1. This fraction is measured relative to all cluster galaxies more luminous than M*3.6(z) + 1, where M*3.6(z) is the absolute magnitude of the break in the galaxy luminosity function at the cluster redshift in the IRAC 3.6 μm bandpass. The cluster AGN fraction is 30 times greater than the 3σ upper limit on the value for AGNs of similar luminosity at z ∼ 0.25, as well as more than an order of magnitude greater than the AGN fraction at z ∼ 0.75. AGNs with LX,H ≥ 1043 erg s–1 exhibit similarly pronounced evolution with redshift. In contrast to the local universe, where the luminous AGN fraction is higher in the field than in clusters, the X-ray and MIR-selected AGN fractions in the field and clusters are consistent at 1 < z < 1.5. This is evidence that the cluster AGN population has evolved more rapidly than the field population from z ∼ 1.5 to the present. This environment-dependent AGN evolution mimics the more rapid evolution of star-forming galaxies in clusters relative to the field.

  11. A Multi-wavelength Survey of AGN in Massive Clusters: AGN Detection and Cluster AGN Fraction

    OpenAIRE

    Klesman, Alison J.; Sarajedini, Vicki L.

    2012-01-01

    We aim to study the effect of environment on the presence and fuelling of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) in massive galaxy clusters. We explore the use of different AGN detection techniques with the goal of selecting AGN across a broad range of luminosities, AGN/host galaxy flux ratios, and obscuration levels. From a sample of 12 galaxy clusters at redshifts 0.5 < z < 0.9, we identify AGN candidates using optical variability from multi-epoch HST imaging, X-ray point sources in Chandra images, a...

  12. J1216+0709: A Radio Galaxy with Three Episodes of AGN Jet Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Veeresh; Ishwara-Chandra, C. H.; Kharb, Preeti; Srivastava, Shweta; Janardhan, P.

    2016-08-01

    We report the discovery of a “triple-double radio galaxy,” J1216+0709, detected in deep low-frequency Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) observations. J1216+0709 is only the third radio galaxy, after B0925+420 and Speca, with three pairs of lobes resulting from three different episodes of active galactic nucleus (AGN) jet activity. The 610 MHz GMRT image clearly displays an inner pair of lobes, a nearly coaxial middle pair of lobes, and a pair of outer lobes that is bent with respect to the axis of the inner pair of lobes. The total end-to-end projected sizes of the inner, middle, and outer lobes are 40″ (∼95 kpc), 1.‧65 (∼235 kpc), and 5.‧7 (∼814 kpc), respectively. Unlike the outer pair of lobes, both the inner and middle pairs of lobes exhibit asymmetries in arm lengths and flux densities, but in the opposite sense, i.e., the eastern sides are farther and also brighter than the western sides, thus, suggesting the possibility of the jet being intrinsically asymmetric rather than due to a relativistic beaming effect. The host galaxy is a bright elliptical (m r ∼ 16.56) with M SMBH ∼ 3.9 × 109 M ⊙ and a star formation rate of ∼{4.66}-1.61{{+4.65}} M ⊙ yr‑1. The host galaxy resides in a small group of three galaxies (m r ≤ 17.77) and is possibly going through an interaction with faint dwarf galaxies in the neighborhood, which may have triggered the recent episodes of AGN activity.

  13. Two Active States of the Narrow-Line Gamma-Ray-Loud AGN GB 1310 + 487

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolovsky, K. V.; Schinzel, F. K.; Tanaka, Y. T.; Abolmasov, P. K.; Angelakis, E.; Bulgarelli, A.; Carrasco, L.; Cenko, S. B.; Cheung, C. C.; Clubb, K. I.; D'Ammando, F.; Escande, L.; Fegan, S. J.; Filippenko, A. V.; Finke, J. D.; Fuhrmann, L.; Fukazawa, Y.; Hays, E.; Healey, S. E.; Ikejiri, Y.; Itoh, R.; Kawabata, K. S.; Komatsu, T.; Kovalev, Yu. A.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Krichbaum, T. P.

    2014-01-01

    Context. Previously unremarkable, the extragalactic radio source GB1310 487 showed gamma-ray flare on 2009 November 18, reaching a daily flux of approximately 10(exp -6) photons cm(exp -2) s(exp -1) at energies E greater than 100MeV and became one of the brightest GeV sources for about two weeks. Its optical spectrum shows strong forbidden-line emission while lacking broad permitted lines, which is not typical for a blazar. Instead, the spectrum resembles those of narrow emission-line galaxies. Aims. We investigate changes in the object's radio-to-GeV spectral energy distribution (SED) during and after the prominent gamma-ray flare with the aim of determining the nature of the object and of constraining the origin of the variable high-energy emission. Methods. The data collected by the Fermi and AGILE satellites at gamma-ray energies; Swift at X-ray and ultraviolet (UV); the Kanata, NOT, and Keck telescopes at optical; OAGH and WISE at infrared (IR); and IRAM30m, OVRO 40m, Effelsberg 100m, RATAN-600, and VLBA at radio are analyzed together to trace the SED evolution on timescales of months. Results. The gamma-ray radio-loud narrow-line active galactic nucleus (AGN) is located at redshift z = 0.638. It shines through an unrelated foreground galaxy at z = 0.500. The AGN light is probably amplified by gravitational lensing. The AGN SED shows a two-humped structure typical of blazars and gamma-ray-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies, with the high-energy (inverse-Compton) emission dominating by more than an order of magnitude over the low-energy (synchrotron) emission during gamma-ray flares. The difference between the two SED humps is smaller during the low-activity state. Fermi observations reveal a strong correlation between the gamma-ray flux and spectral index, with the hardest spectrum observed during the brightest gamma-ray state. The gamma-ray flares occurred before and during a slow rising trend in the radio, but no direct association between gamma-ray and

  14. Mergers as triggers for nuclear activity: a near-IR study of the close environment of AGN in the VISTA-VIDEO survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouzos, M.; Jarvis, M. J.; Bonfield, D.

    2014-03-01

    There is an ongoing debate concerning the driver of nuclear activity in galaxies, with active galactic nuclei (AGN) either being triggered by major or minor galactic mergers or, alternatively, through secular processes like cold gas accretion and/or formation of bars. We investigate the close environment of active galaxies selected in the X-ray, the radio and the mid-IR. We utilize the first data release of the new near-IR VISTA Deep Extragalactic Observations (VIDEO) survey of the XMM-Large Scale Structure field. We use two measures of environment density, namely counts within a given aperture and a finite redshift slice (pseudo-3D density) and closest neighbour density measures Σ2 and Σ5. We select both AGN and control samples, matching them in redshift and apparent Ks-band magnitude. We find that AGN are found in a range of environments, with a subset of the AGN samples residing in overdense environments. Seyfert-like X-ray AGN and flat-spectrum radio-AGN are found to inhabit significantly overdense environments compared to their control sample. The relation between overdensities and AGN luminosity does not however reveal any positive correlation. Given the absence of an environment density-AGN luminosity relation, we find no support for a scheme where high-luminosity AGN are preferentially triggered by mergers. On the contrary, we find that AGN likely trace over dense environments at high redshift due to the fact that they inhabit the most massive galaxies, rather than being an AGN.

  15. The Radius-Luminosity Relationship for Active Galactic Nuclei: The Effect of Host-Galaxy Starlight on Luminosity Measurements. II. The Full Sample of Reverberation-Mapped AGNs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Netzer, Hagai; Pogge, Richard W.; Vestergaard, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    We present high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope images of all 35 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with optical reverberation-mapping results, which we have modeled to create a nucleus-free image of each AGN host galaxy. From the nucleus-free images, we determine the host-galaxy contribution to...

  16. Herschel Observed Stripe 82 Quasars and Their Host Galaxies: Connections between AGN Activity and host Galaxy Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X. Y.; Wu, Xue-Bing

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we present a study of 207 quasars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasar catalogs and the Herschel Stripe 82 survey. Quasars within this sample are high-luminosity quasars with a mean bolometric luminosity of 1046.4 erg s‑1. The redshift range of this sample is within z selected quasars that have been detected in all three Herschel-SPIRE bands, the quasar sample is complete yet highly biased. Based on the multi-wavelength photometric observation data, we conducted a spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting through UV to FIR. Parameters such as active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosity, far-IR (FIR) luminosity, stellar mass, as well as many other AGN and galaxy properties are deduced from the SED fitting results. The mean star formation rate (SFR) of the sample is 419 M ⊙ yr‑1 and the mean gas mass is ∼1011.3 M ⊙. All of these results point to an IR luminous quasar system. Compared with star formation main sequence (MS) galaxies, at least 80 out of 207 quasars are hosted by starburst galaxies. This supports the statement that luminous AGNs are more likely to be associated with major mergers. The SFR increases with the redshift up to z = 2. It is correlated with the AGN bolometric luminosity, where {L}{{FIR}}\\propto {L}{{Bol}}0.46+/- 0.03. The AGN bolometric luminosity is also correlated with the host galaxy mass and gas mass. Yet the correlation between L FIR and L Bol has higher significant level, implies that the link between AGN accretion and the SFR is more primal. The M BH/M * ratio of our sample is 0.02, higher than the value 0.005 in the local universe. It might indicate an evolutionary trend of the M BH–M * scaling relation.

  17. HST-COS observations of AGNs. II. Extended survey of ultraviolet composite spectra from 159 active galactic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevans, Matthew L. [Present address: Astronomy Department, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712, USA. (United States); Shull, J. Michael [Also at Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge University, Cambridge CB3 OHA, UK. (United Kingdom); Danforth, Charles W.; Tilton, Evan M., E-mail: stevans@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: michael.shull@colorado.edu, E-mail: charles.danforth@colorado.edu, E-mail: evan.tilton@colorado.edu [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2014-10-10

    The ionizing fluxes from quasars and other active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are critical for interpreting their emission-line spectra and for photoionizing and heating the intergalactic medium. Using far-ultraviolet (FUV) spectra from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), we directly measure the rest-frame ionizing continua and emission lines for 159 AGNs at redshifts 0.001 < z {sub AGN} < 1.476 and construct a composite spectrum from 475 to 1875 Å. We identify the underlying AGN continuum and strong extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission lines from ions of oxygen, neon, and nitrogen after masking out absorption lines from the H I Lyα forest, 7 Lyman-limit systems (N{sub H} {sub I}≥10{sup 17.2} cm{sup –2}) and 214 partial Lyman-limit systems (14.5AGNs exhibit a wide range of FUV/EUV spectral shapes, F{sub ν}∝ν{sup α{sub ν}}, typically with –2 ≤ α{sub ν} ≤ 0 and no discernible continuum edges at 912 Å (H I) or 504 Å (He I). The composite rest-frame continuum shows a gradual break at λ{sub br} ≈ 1000 Å, with mean spectral index α{sub ν} = –0.83 ± 0.09 in the FUV (1200-2000 Å) steepening to α{sub ν} = –1.41 ± 0.15 in the EUV (500-1000 Å). We discuss the implications of the UV flux turnovers and lack of continuum edges for the structure of accretion disks, AGN mass inflow rates, and luminosities relative to Eddington values.

  18. Supporting self-regulated learning

    OpenAIRE

    Nussbaumer, Alexander; Dahn, Ingo; Kroop, Sylvana; Mikroyannidis, Alexander; Albert, Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    Self-regulated learning (SRL) competences are crucial for lifelong learning. Their cultivation requires the right balance between freedom and guidance during the learning processes. Current learning systems and approaches, such as personal learning environments, give overwhelming freedom, but also let weak learners alone. Other systems, such as learning management systems or adaptive systems, tend to institutionalise learners too much, which does not support the development of SRL competences...

  19. On self regulation and laughter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie

    and facilitating learning processes for the student or conducting research projects. Information technology exposes the teacher's and the researcher's performative dimensions: how teachers and researchers choose their acts in certain situations, and how that demands an intensified reflexivity.  It is...... that video streaming increases self regulation and laughter. The discussions are based on empirical material in relation to both video streamed teaching sessions and online discussions....

  20. X-ray Surface Brightness Profiles of Active Galactic Nuclei in the Extended Groth Strip: Implications for AGN Feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Suchetana; Jeltema, Tesla; Myers, Adam D; Aird, James; Coil, Alison L; Cooper, Michael; Finoguenov, Alexis; Laird, Elise; Montero-Dorta, Antonio; Nandra, Kripal; Willmer, Christopher; Yan, Renbin

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the All Wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey (AEGIS) we statistically detect the extended X-ray emission in the interstellar medium (ISM) in both active and normal galaxies at 0.3 < z < 1.3 at a scale of 40-60 kpc. We study the effect of feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) on the diffuse interstellar gas by comparing the stacked X-ray surface brightness profiles of active and normal galaxies in the same redshift range with identical properties in optical color--magnitude space. In accordance with theoretical studies we detect a slight deficit (< 1.5 \\sigma) of X-ray photons when averaged over a scale of 0-30 kpc in the profile of AGN host galaxies at 0.3 < z < 0.7. The equivalent flux deficit is (1.25 +/- 0.75) X 10^(-19) ergs/s/cm^(-2). When averaged over a scale of 30-60 kpc, beyond the PSF scales of our AGN sources, we observe a (~ 2 \\sigma) photon excess in the profile of the AGN host galaxies with an equivalent flux excess of (1.1 +/- 0.5) X 10^{-19} ...

  1. Signatures of AGN feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylezalek, D.; Zakamska, N.

    2016-06-01

    Feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) is widely considered to be the main driver in regulating the growth of massive galaxies. It operates by either heating or driving the gas that would otherwise be available for star formation out of the galaxy, preventing further increase in stellar mass. Observational proof for this scenario has, however, been hard to come by. We have assembled a large sample of 133 radio-quiet type-2 and red AGN at 0.1importantly, we find a negative correlation between W_{90} and sSFR in the AGN hosts with the highest star formation rates, i.e., with the highest gas content. This relationship implies that AGN with strong outflow signatures are hosted in galaxies that are more `quenched' considering their stellar mass than galaxies with weaker outflow signatures. This correlation is only seen in AGN host galaxies with SFR >100 M_{⊙} yr^{-1} where presumably the coupling of the AGN-driven wind to the gas is strongest. This observation is consistent with the AGN having a net suppression, or `negative' impact, through feedback on the galaxies' star formation history.

  2. Self-Regulation and Mathematics Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, Marjorie

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of research-based interventions that incorporate self-regulation strategies to improve mathematics performance of students with learning disabilities (LD). Self-regulation is a metacognitive function essential to academic success. Students with LD are notoriously poor at self-regulation and…

  3. The roles of star formation and AGN activity of IRS sources in the HerMES fields

    CERN Document Server

    Feltre, Anna; Hernán-Caballero, Antonio; Frtiz, Jacopo; Franceschini, Alberto; Bock, Jamie; Cooray, Asantha; Farrah, Duncan; Gonzalez-Solares, Eduardo A; Ibar, Edo; Isaak, Kate G; Faro, Barbara Lo; Marchetti, Lucia; Oliver, Seb J; Page, Mathew J; Rigopoulou, Dimitra; Roseboom, Isaac G; Symeonidis, Myrto; Vaccari, Mattia

    2013-01-01

    In this work we explore the impact of the presence of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) on the mid- and far-infrared (IR) properties of galaxies as well as the effects of simultaneous AGN and starburst activity in these same galaxies. To do this we apply a multi-component, multi-band spectral synthesis technique to a sample of 250 micron selected galaxies of the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey, with IRS spectra available for all galaxies. Our results confirm that the inclusion of the IRS spectra plays a crucial role in the spectral analysis of galaxies with an AGN component improving the selection of the best-fit hot dust model (torus). We find a correlation between the obscured star formation rate (SFR) derived from the IR luminosity of the starburst component, SFR_IR and SFR_PAH, derived from the luminosity of the PAH features, L_PAH, with SFR_FIR taking higher values than SFR_PAH. The correlation is different for AGN- and starburst-dominated objects. The ratio of L_PAH to that of the starburst co...

  4. ZFOURGE catalogue of AGN candidates: an enhancement of 160-μm-derived star formation rates in active galaxies to z = 3.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Michael J.; Spitler, Lee R.; Tran, Kim-Vy H.; Rees, Glen A.; Labbé, Ivo; Allen, Rebecca J.; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Glazebrook, Karl; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Juneau, Stéphanie; Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Mullaney, James R.; Nanayakkara, Themiya; Papovich, Casey; Quadri, Ryan F.; Straatman, Caroline M. S.; Tomczak, Adam R.; van Dokkum, Pieter G.

    2016-03-01

    We investigate active galactic nuclei (AGN) candidates within the FourStar Galaxy Evolution Survey (ZFOURGE) to determine the impact they have on star formation in their host galaxies. We first identify a population of radio, X-ray, and infrared-selected AGN by cross-matching the deep Ks-band imaging of ZFOURGE with overlapping multiwavelength data. From this, we construct a mass-complete (log(M_{{*}}/M_{{⊙}}) ≥9.75), AGN luminosity limited sample of 235 AGN hosts over z = 0.2-3.2. We compare the rest-frame U - V versus V - J (UVJ) colours and specific star formation rates (sSFRs) of the AGN hosts to a mass-matched control sample of inactive (non-AGN) galaxies. UVJ diagnostics reveal AGN tend to be hosted in a lower fraction of quiescent galaxies and a higher fraction of dusty galaxies than the control sample. Using 160 μm Herschel PACS data, we find the mean specific star formation rate of AGN hosts to be elevated by 0.34 ± 0.07 dex with respect to the control sample across all redshifts. This offset is primarily driven by infrared-selected AGN, where the mean sSFR is found to be elevated by as much as a factor of ˜5. The remaining population, comprised predominantly of X-ray AGN hosts, is found mostly consistent with inactive galaxies, exhibiting only a marginal elevation. We discuss scenarios that may explain these findings and postulate that AGN are less likely to be a dominant mechanism for moderating galaxy growth via quenching than has previously been suggested.

  5. Chandra X-ray and Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of Optically Selected Kiloparsec-Scale Binary Active Galactic Nuclei II: Host Galaxy Morphology and AGN Activity

    CERN Document Server

    Shangguan, Jinyi; Ho, Luis C; Shen, Yue; Peng, Chien Y; Greene, Jenny E; Strauss, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Binary active galactic nuclei (AGNs) provide clues to how gas-rich mergers trigger and fuel AGNs and how supermassive black hole (SMBH) pairs evolve in a gas-rich environment. While significant effort has been invested in their identification, the detailed properties of binary AGNs and their host galaxies are still poorly constrained. In a companion paper, we examined the nature of ionizing sources in the double nuclei of four kpc-scale binary AGNs with redshifts between 0.1~0.2. Here, we present their host galaxy morphology based on F336W (U-band) and F105W (Y-band) images taken by the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) onboard the Hubble Space Telescope. Our targets have double-peaked narrow emission lines and were confirmed to host binary AGNs with follow up observations. We find that kpc-scale binary AGNs occur in galaxy mergers with diverse morphological types. There are three major mergers with intermediate morphologies and a minor merger with a dominant disk component. We estimate the masses of the SMBHs from ...

  6. AGN III - primordial activity in nuclei of late-type galaxies with pseudobulges

    CERN Document Server

    Komberg, B V

    2013-01-01

    1. Based on observational data on evolution of quasars and galaxies of different types along with the results of numerical simulations we make a conclusion that on low redshifts ($z<0.5$) QSOI/II objects in massive elliptical and spiral galaxies with classical bulges cannot be in late single activity event (be "primordial"). Instead of it they have had events of activity earlier in their evolution. It means that their presence on low redshifts is connected with the recurrence phenomenon, sequential wet minor mergings, because timescale of the activity does not exceed several units of $10^7$ years. 2. We define a new class - "AGN III" as active galactic nuclei in isolated late-type spirals with low-mass rapidly rotating pseudobulges. We also state that only such objects can be in the primordial phase of activity at low redshifts. Black holes in such galaxies have masses $M_{BH}<10^7M_\\odot$ and also, probably very high spin. Such properties can explain their peculiar emission spectra. A good representati...

  7. Environmental dependence of AGN activity in the supercluster A901/2

    CERN Document Server

    Gilmour, R; Almaini, O; Best, P; Wolf, C; Meisenheimer, K; Papovich, C; Bell, E

    2007-01-01

    We present XMM data for the supercluster A901/2, at z ~ 0.17, which is combined with deep imaging and 17-band photometric redshifts (from the COMBO-17 survey), 2dF spectra and Spitzer 24um data, to identify AGN in the supercluster. The 90ksec XMM image contains 139 point sources, of which 11 are identified as supercluster AGN with L_X(0.5-7.5keV) > 1.7x10^41 erg/cm2/s. The host galaxies have M_R 98 per cent significance. The AGN host galaxies lie predominantly in areas of moderate projected galaxy density and with more local blue galaxies than the control sample, with the exception of one very bright Type I AGN very near the centre of a cluster. These environments are similar to, but not limited to, cluster outskirts and blue groups. Despite the large number of potential host galaxies, no AGN are found in regions with the highest galaxy density (excluding some cluster cores where emission from the ICM obscures moderate luminosity AGN). AGN are also absent from the areas with lowest galaxy density. We conclude...

  8. Environmental dependence of AGN activity. I.: the effects of host galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Yun-Young; Park, Changbum

    2009-01-01

    Using a large sample of local galaxies (144,940) with -17.5 6. We find that the fraction of galaxies hosting an AGN (f_AGN) depends strongly on morphology together with color, and very weakly on luminosity or velocity dispersion of host galaxies. In particular, f_AGN of early-type galaxies is almost independent of luminosity nor velocity dispersion when color is fixed. The host galaxy color preferred by AGNs is u-r ~2.0 for early-type hosts and u-r=2.0-2.4 for late-type hosts. This trend suggests that AGNs are dominantly hosted by intermediate-mass late-type galaxies. We also investigate how the accretion power varies with galaxy properties. While the Eddington ratio ([OIII] line luminosity normalized by black hole mass) ranges over three orders of magnitude for both morphological types, late-type galaxies are the dominant hosts over all AGN power. Among late-type galaxies, bluer color galaxies host higher power AGNs. These results are consistent with a scenario that more massive and redder galaxies are harde...

  9. HST-COS Observations of AGN. II. Extended Survey of Ultraviolet Composite Spectra from 159 Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Stevans, Matthew L; Danforth, Charles W; Tilton, Evan M

    2014-01-01

    The ionizing fluxes from quasars and other active galactic nuclei (AGN) are critical for interpreting their emission-line spectra and for photoionizing and heating the intergalactic medium (IGM). Using far-ultraviolet spectra from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), we directly measure the rest-frame ionizing continua and emission lines for 159 AGN at redshifts 0.001 10^17.2 cm^-2) and 214 partial Lyman-limit systems (15.0 < log N_HI < 17.2). The 159 AGN exhibit a wide range of FUV/EUV spectral shapes, F_nu \\propto nu^(alpha_nu), typically with -2 < alpha_nu < 0 and no discernible continuum edges at 912A (H I) or 504A (He I). The composite rest-frame continuum shows a gradual break at 1000 A, with mean spectral index alpha_nu = -0.83 +/- 0.09 in the FUV (1200-2000A) steepening to alpha_nu = -1.41 +/- 0.15 in the EUV (500-1000A). We discuss the implications of the UV flux turnovers and lack of continuum edges for the structure of accretion disks, AGN mass inf...

  10. ZFOURGE catalogue of AGN candidates: an enhancement of 160{\\mu}m-derived star-formation rates in active galaxies to $z$ = 3.2

    CERN Document Server

    Cowley, Michael J; Tran, Kim-Vy H; Rees, Glen A; Labbé, Ivo; Allen, Rebecca J; Brammer, Gabriel B; Glazebrook, Karl; Hopkins, Andrew M; Juneau, Stéphanie; Kacprzak, Glenn G; Mullaney, James R; Nanayakkara, Themiya; Papovich, Casey; Quadri, Ryan F; Straatman, Caroline M S; Tomczak, Adam R; van Dokkum, Pieter G

    2016-01-01

    We investigate active galactic nuclei (AGN) candidates within the FourStar Galaxy Evolution Survey (ZFOURGE) to determine the impact they have on star-formation in their host galaxies. We first identify a population of radio, X-ray, and infrared-selected AGN by cross-matching the deep $K_{s}$-band imaging of ZFOURGE with overlapping multi-wavelength data. From this, we construct a mass-complete (log(M$_{*}$/M$_{\\odot}$) $\\ge$ 9.75), AGN luminosity limited sample of 235 AGN hosts over z = 0.2 - 3.2. We compare the rest-frame U - V versus V - J (UVJ) colours and specific star-formation rates (sSFRs) of the AGN hosts to a mass-matched control sample of inactive (non-AGN) galaxies. UVJ diagnostics reveal AGN tend to be hosted in a lower fraction of quiescent galaxies and a higher fraction of dusty galaxies than the control sample. Using 160{\\mu}m Herschel PACS data, we find the mean specific star-formation rate of AGN hosts to be elevated by 0.34$\\pm$0.07 dex with respect to the control sample across all redshift...

  11. AGNs and galaxy interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso, M S; Tissera, P; Coldwell, G; Lambas, Diego G.; Tissera, Patricia; Coldwell, Georgina

    2007-01-01

    We perform a statistical analysis of AGN host characteristics and nuclear activity for AGNs in pairs and without companions. Our study concerns a sample of AGNs derived from the SDSS-DR4 data by Kauffmann et al (2003) and pair galaxies obtained from the same data set by Alonso et al. (2006). An eye-ball classification of images of 1607 close pairs ($r_p<25$ kpc $h^{-1}$, $\\Delta V<350$ km $s^{-1}$) according to the evidence of interaction through distorted morphologies and tidal features provides us with a more confident assessment of galaxy interactions from this sample. We notice that, at a given luminosity or stellar mass content, the fraction of AGNs is larger for pair galaxies exhibiting evidence for strong interaction and tidal features which also show sings of strong star formation activity. Nevertheless, this process accounts only for a $\\sim 10%$ increase of the fraction of AGNs. As in previous works, we find AGN hosts to be redder and with a larger concentration morphological index than non-AG...

  12. Theory of winds in AGNs

    OpenAIRE

    Proga, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    I present a brief review of theory of winds in active galactic nuclei (AGN). Magnetic, radiation, and thermal driving likely operate in AGN. In many cases, it is difficult to distinguish, both from observational and theoretical point of view, which of these wind driving mechanisms dominates in producing winds. Therefore, I focus on specific theoretical predictions which could help to improve our understanding of the physics of AGN winds.

  13. Self-regulation via neural simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilead, Michael; Boccagno, Chelsea; Silverman, Melanie; Hassin, Ran R; Weber, Jochen; Ochsner, Kevin N

    2016-09-01

    Can taking the perspective of other people modify our own affective responses to stimuli? To address this question, we examined the neurobiological mechanisms supporting the ability to take another person's perspective and thereby emotionally experience the world as they would. We measured participants' neural activity as they attempted to predict the emotional responses of two individuals that differed in terms of their proneness to experience negative affect. Results showed that behavioral and neural signatures of negative affect (amygdala activity and a distributed multivoxel pattern reflecting affective negativity) simulated the presumed affective state of the target person. Furthermore, the anterior medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)-a region implicated in mental state inference-exhibited a perspective-dependent pattern of connectivity with the amygdala, and the multivoxel pattern of activity within the mPFC differentiated between the two targets. We discuss the implications of these findings for research on perspective-taking and self-regulation. PMID:27551094

  14. J1216+0709 : A radio galaxy with three episodes of AGN jet activity

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Veeresh; Kharb, Preeti; Srivastava, Shweta; Janardhan, P

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of a `Triple-Double Radio Galaxy (TDRG)' J1216+0709 detected in deep low-frequency Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) observations. J1216+0709 is only the third radio galaxy, after B0925+420 and Speca, with three pairs of lobes resulting from three different episodes of AGN jet activity. The 610 MHz GMRT image clearly displays an inner pair of lobes, a nearly co-axial middle pair of lobes and a pair of outer lobes that is bent w.r.t. the axis of inner pair of lobes. The total end-to-end projected sizes of the inner, middle, and outer lobes are 40$^{{\\prime}{\\prime}}$ ($\\sim$ 95 kpc), 1$^{\\prime}$.65 ($\\sim$ 235 kpc) and 5$^{\\prime}$.7 ($\\sim$ 814 kpc), respectively. Unlike the outer pair of lobes both the inner and middle pairs of lobes exhibit asymmetries in arm-lengths and flux densities, but in opposite sense, i.e., the eastern sides are farther and also brighter that the western sides, thus suggesting the possibility of jet being intrinsically asymmetric rather than due to rela...

  15. THE NATURE AND ORIGIN OF NARROW LINE AGN ACTIVITY IN A SAMPLE OF ISOLATED SDSS GALAXIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Coziol

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Discutimos la naturaleza y origen de la actividad nuclear observada en una muestra de 292 galaxias con líneas de emisión angostas del SDSS, cuya formación y evolución se considera que ha ocurrido en aislamiento. La fracción de galaxias con un núcleo activo (AGNs o de objetos de transición (TOs; un AGN con formación estelar circunnuclear alcanza 64% de la muestra. Verificamos que la probabilidad de que una galaxia muestre un núcleo activo aumenta con la masa de su bulbo (Torres-Papaqui et al. 2011. También encontramos evidencia de que dicha tendencia es realmente un subproducto de la morfología, y sugiere que el fenómeno AGN está íntimamente ligado al proceso de formación de galaxias. Los AGNs con líneas de emisión angostas en nuestra muestra son consistentes con una versión a menor escala o menor energía de cuásares y AGNs con líneas de emisión anchas.

  16. Role of Feedback in AGN-HOST Coevolution: A Study from Partially Obscured Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, J

    2014-01-01

    Partially obscured AGNs within a redshift range $z=0.011\\sim0.256$ are used to re-study the role of feedback in the AGN-host coevolution issue in terms of their [OIII]$\\lambda$5007 emission line profile. The spectra of these objects enable us to determine the AGN's accretion properties directly from their broad H$\\alpha$ emission. This is essential for getting rid of the "circular reasoning" in our previous study of narrow emission-line galaxies, in which the [OIII] emission line was used not only as a proxy of AGN's bolometric luminosity, but also as a diagnostic of outflow. In addition, the measurement of $D_n(4000)$ index is improved by removing an underlying AGN's continuum according to the corresponding broad H$\\alpha$ emission. With these improvements, we confirm and reinforce the correlation between $L/L_{\\mathrm{Edd}}$ and stellar population age. More important is that this correlation is found to be related to both [OIII] line blue asymmetry and bulk blueshift velocity, which suggests a linkage betwe...

  17. Properties of dusty tori in active galactic nuclei - II. Type 2 AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Hatziminaoglou, Evanthia; Jarrett, Tom

    2009-01-01

    (abridged) This paper is the second part of a work investigating the properties of dusty tori in AGN by means of multi-component SED fitting. It focuses on low luminosity, low redshift (z < 0.25) AGN selected among emission line galaxies as well as X-ray, radio and mid-infrared selected type 2 AGN samples from the literature. The available multi-band photometry covers the spectral range from the u-band up to 160 um. The observed SED of each object is fit to a set of multi-component models comprising a stellar component, a high optical depth torus and cold emission from a starburst (SB). The contribution of the various components (stars, torus, SB) is reflected in the position of the objects on the IRAC colour diagram. The comparison of type 1 (as derived from Hatziminaoglou et al. 2008) and type 2 AGN properties is broadly consistent with the Unified Scheme. The estimated ratio between type 2 and type 1 objects is about 2-2.5:1. The AGN accretion-to-infrared luminosity ratio is an indicator of the obscurat...

  18. Reflection amplifiers in self-regulated learning

    OpenAIRE

    Verpoorten, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Verpoorten, D. (2012). Reflection amplifiers in self-regulated learning. Doctoral thesis. November, 9, 2012, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open Universiteit (CELSTEC). Datawyse / Universitaire Pers Maastricht.

  19. Toward a physical basis of attention and self-regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K.

    2009-06-01

    The concept of self-regulation is central to the understanding of human development. Self-regulation allows effective socialization and predicts both psychological pathologies and levels of achievement in schools. What has been missing are neural mechanisms to provide understanding of the cellular and molecular basis for self-regulation. We show that self-regulation can be measured during childhood by parental reports and by self-reports of adolescents and adults. These reports are summarized by a higher order factor called effortful control, which reflects perceptions about the ability of a given person to regulate their behavior in accord with cultural norms. Throughout childhood effortful control is related to children's performance in computerized conflict related tasks. Conflict tasks have been shown in neuroimaging studies to activate specific brain networks of executive attention. Several brain areas work together at rest and during cognitive tasks to regulate competing brain activity and thus control resulting behavior. The cellular structure of the anterior cingulate and insula contain cells, unique to humans and higher primates that provide strong links to remote brain areas. During conflict tasks, anterior cingulate activity is correlated with activity in remote sensory and emotional systems, depending upon the information selected for the task. During adolescence the structure and activity of the anterior cingulate has been found to be correlated with self-reports of effortful control. Studies have provided a perspective on how genes and environment act to shape the executive attention network, providing a physical basis for self-regulation. The anterior cingulate is regulated by dopamine. Genes that influence dopamine levels in the CNS have been shown to influence the efficiency of self-regulation. For example, alleles of the COMT gene that influence the efficiency of dopamine transmission are related to the ability to resolve conflict. Humans with

  20. Thinking and Action: A Cognitive Perspective on Self-Regulation during Endurance Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Brick, Noel E.; MacIntyre, Tadhg E.; Campbell, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulation reflects an individual's efforts to bring behavior and thinking into line with often consciously desired goals. During endurance activity, self-regulation requires an athlete to balance their speed or power output appropriately to achieve an optimal level of performance. Considering that both behavior and thinking are core elements of self-regulation, this article provides a cognitive perspective on the processes required for effective pace-regulation during endurance performa...

  1. Thinking and action: a cognitive perspective on self-regulation during endurance performance

    OpenAIRE

    Noel Edward Brick; Tadhg Eoghan MacIntyre; Mark John Campbell

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulation reflects an individual’s efforts to bring behavior and thinking into line with often consciously desired goals. During endurance activity, self-regulation requires an athlete to balance their speed or power output appropriately to achieve an optimal level of performance. Considering that both behavior and thinking are core elements of self-regulation, this article provides a cognitive perspective on the processes required for effective pace-regulation during endurance performa...

  2. The development of a color-magnitude diagram for active galactic nuclei (AGN): hope for a new standard candle

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, G.; Chung, S.; Gonzales, E. V.; Gorjian, V.; Pruett, L.

    2015-12-01

    Of the galaxies in our universe, only a small percentage currently have Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). These galaxies tend to be further out in the universe and older, and are different from inactive galaxies in that they emit high amounts of energy from their central black holes. These AGN can be classified as either Seyferts or quasars, depending on the amount of energy emitted from the center (less or more). We are studying the correlation between the ratio of dust emission and accretion disk emission to luminosities of AGN in order to determine if there is a relationship strong enough to act as a predictive model for distance within the universe. This relationship can be used as a standard candle if luminosity is found to determine distances in space. We have created a color-magnitude diagram depicting this relationship between luminosity and wavelengths, similar to the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram. The more luminous the AGN, the more dust surface area over which to emit energy, which results in a greater near-infrared (NIR) luminosity. This differs from previous research because we use NIR to differentiate accretion from dust emission. Using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), we analyzed over one thousand Type 1 Seyferts and quasars. We studied data at different wavelengths in order to show the relationship between color (the ratio of one wavelength to another) and luminosity. It was found that plotting filters i-K (the visible and mid-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum) against the magnitude absolute K (luminosity) showed a strong correlation. Furthermore, the redshift range between 0.14 and 0.15 was the most promising, with an R2 of 0.66.

  3. Self-regulation through Goal Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Nafziger, Julia

    self-control problems. We show how goals permit self-regulation, but also that they are painful self-disciplining devices. Greater self-control problems therefore lead to stronger self-regulation through goals only up to a certain point. For severely present-biased preferences, the required goal for...

  4. Self-regulation within and between groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.J. Jonas; K. Sassenberg; D. Scheepers

    2010-01-01

    Over recent years, the study of self-regulation within and between groups has burgeoned into a vibrant field of research. Classic research findings, now substantiated with process analyses, feed back into and inform self-regulation theorizing. This Special Issue presents ten empirical articles that

  5. ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AS MAIN CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ULTRAVIOLET IONIZING EMISSIVITY AT HIGH REDSHIFTS: PREDICTIONS FROM A {Lambda}-CDM MODEL WITH LINKED AGN/GALAXY EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giallongo, E.; Menci, N.; Fiore, F.; Castellano, M.; Fontana, A.; Grazian, A.; Pentericci, L. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via di Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio (Italy)

    2012-08-20

    We have evaluated the contribution of the active galactic nuclei (AGN) population to the ionization history of the universe based on a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation and evolution in the cold dark matter cosmological scenario. The model connects the growth of black holes and of the ensuing AGN activity to galaxy interactions. In the model we have included a self-consistent physical description of the escape of ionizing UV photons; this is based on the blast-wave model for the AGN feedback we developed in a previous paper to explain the distribution of hydrogen column densities in AGNs of various redshifts and luminosities, due to absorption by the host galaxy gas. The model predicts UV luminosity functions for AGNs that are in good agreement with those derived from the observations especially at low and intermediate redshifts (z {approx} 3). At higher redshifts (z > 5), the model tends to overestimate the data at faint luminosities. Critical biases in both the data and in the model are discussed to explain such apparent discrepancies. The predicted hydrogen photoionization rate as a function of redshift is found to be consistent with that derived from the observations. All of the above suggests that we should reconsider the role of the AGNs as the main driver of the ionization history of the universe.

  6. Mergers as triggers for nuclear activity: A near-IR study of the close environment of AGN in the VISTA-VIDEO survey

    CERN Document Server

    Karouzos, Marios; Bonfield, David

    2013-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate concerning the driver of nuclear activity in galaxies, with AGN either being triggered by major or minor galactic mergers or, alternatively, through secular processes like cooling gas accretion and/or formation of bars. We investigate the close environment of active galaxies selected in the X-ray, the radio, and the mid-IR. We utilise the first data release of the new near-IR VISTA Deep Extragalactic Observations (VIDEO) survey of the XMM-Large Scale Structure (LSS) field. We use two measures of environment density, namely counts within a given aperture and a finite redshift slice (pseudo-3D density) and closest neighbour density measures ${\\Sigma}_{2}$ and ${\\Sigma}_{5}$. We select both AGN and control samples, matching them in redshift and apparent Ks-band magnitude. We find that AGN are found in a range of environments, with a subset of the AGN samples residing in over-dense environments. Seyfert-like X-ray AGN and flat-spectrum radio-AGN are found to inhabit significantly over-d...

  7. The MIXR sample: AGN activity versus star formation across the cross-correlation of WISE, 3XMM, and FIRST/NVSS

    CERN Document Server

    Mingo, B; Rosen, S R; Hardcastle, M J; Ruiz, A; Blain, A; Carrera, F J; Mateos, S; Pineau, F X; Stewart, G C

    2016-01-01

    We cross-correlate the largest available Mid-Infrared (WISE), X-ray (3XMM) and Radio (FIRST+NVSS) catalogues to define the MIXR sample of AGN and star-forming galaxies. We pre-classify the sources based on their positions on the WISE colour/colour plot, showing that the MIXR triple selection is extremely effective to diagnose the star formation and AGN activity of individual populations, even on a flux/magnitude basis, extending the diagnostics to objects with luminosities and redshifts from SDSS DR12. We recover the radio/mid-IR star formation correlation with great accuracy, and use it to classify our sources, based on their activity, as radio-loud and radio-quiet AGN, LERGs/LINERs, and non-AGN galaxies. These diagnostics can prove extremely useful for large AGN and galaxy samples, and help develop ways to efficiently triage sources when data from the next generation of instruments becomes available. We study bias in detail, and show that while the widely-used WISE colour selections for AGN are very success...

  8. Secondary students’ self-regulated engagement in reading: researching self-regulation as situated in context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah L. Butler

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we drew on a model of self-regulated learning (SRL (Butler & Cartier, 2005; Cartier & Butler, 2004 to investigate student engagement in learning through reading (LTR as situated in context. Our overarching goals were to enhance theoretical understanding about SRL as situated, identify patterns in self-regulated learning through reading (LTR for secondary students within and across classrooms, and continue developing productive methodological strategies for investigating SRL and LTR. To those ends, we employed a mixed-methods design to find patterns within and across 31 classrooms at multiple levels of aggregation. Participants were 646 secondary students engaged in curriculum-based LTR activities. Findings were derived from two coupled assessments: A self-report questionnaire and a performance-based measure of LTR. We used frequency, factor analytic, and cluster analyses to create descriptive profiles of SRL (across emotion, motivation, cognition, and metacognition. Main findings were: (1 important mismatches between students’ self-reported LTR engagement and the demands of LTR activities; (2 four coherent profiles of LTR engagement (actively engaged; disengaged; high stress/actively inefficient; passive/inactively efficient, (3 moderate links between students’ self-reported LTR profiles and LTR performance; and (4 differences in SRL profiles that reflected individual-context interactions. We close by distilling implications for understanding, researching, and fostering SRL as situated within naturalistic settings.

  9. Examining Self Regulated Learning in Relation to Certain Selected Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, N.

    2012-01-01

    Self-regulation is the controlling of a process or activity by the students who are involved in Problem solving in Physics rather than by an external agency (Johnson, 2011). Selfregulated learning consists of three main components: cognition, metacognition, and motivation. Cognition includes skills necessary to encode, memorise, and recall…

  10. The PEP Survey: evidence for intense star-forming activity in the majority of radio-selected AGN at z>~1

    CERN Document Server

    Magliocchetti, Manuela; Santini, Paola; Salvato, Mara; Popesso, Paola; Berta, Stefano; Pozzi, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the FIR properties of radio-active AGN, we have considered three different fields where both radio and FIR observations are the deepest to-date: GOODS-South, GOODS-North and the Lockman Hole. Out of a total of 92 radio-selected AGN, ~64% are found to have a counterpart in Herschel maps. The percentage is maximum in the GOODS-North (72%) and minimum (~50%) in the Lockman Hole, where FIR observations are shallower. Our study shows that in all cases FIR emission is associated to star-forming activity within the host galaxy. Such an activity can even be extremely intense, with star-forming rates as high as ~10^3-10^4 Msun/yr. AGN activity does not inhibit star formation in the host galaxy, just as on-site star-formation does not seem to affect AGN properties, at least those detected at radio wavelengths and for z>~1. Furthermore, physical properties such as the mass and age distributions of the galaxies hosting a radio-active AGN do not seem to be affected by the presence of an ongoing sta...

  11. Black hole variability and the star formation-AGN connection: Do all star-forming galaxies host an AGN?

    OpenAIRE

    Hickox, R. C.; Mullaney, J. R.; Alexander, D. M.; Chen, C.-T.J.; Civano, F. M.; Goulding, A. D.; Hainline, K. N.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the effect of active galactic nucleus (AGN) variability on the observed connection between star formation and black hole accretion in extragalactic surveys. Recent studies have reported relatively weak correlations between observed AGN luminosities and the properties of AGN hosts, which has been interpreted to imply that there is no direct connection between AGN activity and star formation. However, AGNs may be expected to vary significantly on a wide range of timescales (from ...

  12. Excess AGN Activity in the z=2.30 Protocluster in HS 1700+64

    CERN Document Server

    Digby-North, J A; Laird, E S; Steidel, C C; Georgakakis, A; Bogosavljević, M; Erb, D K; Shapley, A E; Reddy, N A; Aird, J

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of spectroscopic, narrow-band and X-ray observations of a z=2.30 protocluster in the field of the QSO HS 1700+643. Using a sample of BX/MD galaxies, which are selected to be at z~2.2-2.7 by their rest-frame ultraviolet colours, we find that there are 5 protocluster AGN which have been identified by characteristic emission-lines in their optical/near-IR spectra; this represents an enhancement over the field significant at ~98.5 per cent confidence. Using a ~200 ks Chandra/ACIS-I observation of this field we detect a total of 161 X-ray point sources to a Poissonian false-probability limit of 4x10^{-6} and identify 8 of these with BX/MD galaxies. Two of these are spectroscopically confirmed protocluster members and are also classified as emission-line AGN. When compared to a similarly selected field sample the analysis indicates this is also evidence for an enhancement of X-ray selected BX/MD AGN over the field, significant at ~99 per cent confidence. Deep Lya narrow-band imaging reveals t...

  13. Instructions, Independence and Uncertainty: Student Framing in Self-Regulated Project Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklof, Anders; Nilsson, Lars-Erik; Ottosson, Torgny

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an approach to student interaction in self-regulated project work. By combining frame analysis and socio-cultural risk theory, the authors explore the importance of students' framing activities as a basis for their understanding of tasks. The increase in self-regulated work in Swedish schools can be seen as being in line…

  14. The Relationship between Self-Regulated Learning Strategies and Academic Achievement in a Turkish EFL Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inan, Banu

    2013-01-01

    Self-regulation has gained worldwide popularity in the field of language teaching research with the help of recent interest in the active role of learners in the classroom. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between self-regulated learning strategies of the students in an ELT program and their Grade Point Average (GPA)…

  15. Learning Goals and Strategies in the Self-regulation of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaeta Gonzalez, Martha Leticia

    2013-01-01

    In order to self-regulate their learning, students need to use different strategies to plan, monitor, and evaluate their learning activities (meta-cognitive strategies), as well as to control their motivation and emotion (volitional strategies). Students' effectiveness in their self-regulated learning process also varies depending on the academic…

  16. AGN feedback in galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Antonuccio-Delogu, Vincenzo

    2010-01-01

    During the past decade, convincing evidence has been accumulated concerning the effect of active galactic nuclei (AGN) activity on the internal and external environment of their host galaxies. Featuring contributions from well-respected researchers in the field, and bringing together work by specialists in both galaxy formation and AGN, this volume addresses a number of key questions about AGN feedback in the context of galaxy formation. The topics covered include downsizing and star-formation time scales in massive elliptical galaxies, the connection between the epochs of supermassive black h

  17. Cognitive Neuroscience of Self-Regulation Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Heatherton, Todd F.; Wagner, Dylan D.

    2011-01-01

    Self-regulatory failure is a core feature of many social and mental health problems. Self-regulation can by undermined by failures to transcend overwhelming temptations, negative moods, resource depletion, and when minor lapses in self-control snowball into self-regulatory collapse. Cognitive neuroscience research suggests that successful self-regulation is dependent on top-down control from the prefrontal cortex over subcortical regions involved in reward and emotion. We highlight recent neu...

  18. Discovery of a population of bulgeless galaxies with extremely red MID-IR colors: Obscured AGN activity in the low-mass regime?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satyapal, S.; Secrest, N. J.; McAlpine, W.; Rosenberg, J. L. [School of Physics, Astronomy, and Computational Sciences, George Mason University, MS 3F3, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Ellison, S. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8P 1A1 (Canada); Fischer, J., E-mail: satyapal@physics.gmu.edu [Naval Research Laboratory, Remote Sensing Division, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    In contrast to massive, bulge hosting galaxies, very few supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are known in either low-mass or bulgeless galaxies. Such a population could provide clues to the origins of SMBHs and to secular pathways for their growth. Using the all-sky Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE ) survey, and bulge-to-disk decompositions from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7, we report the discovery of a population of local (z < 0.3) bulgeless disk galaxies with extremely red mid-infrared colors which are highly suggestive of a dominant active galactic nucleus (AGN), despite having no optical AGN signatures in their SDSS spectra. Using various mid-infrared selection criteria from the literature, there are between 30 and over 300 bulgeless galaxies with possible AGNs. Other known scenarios that can heat the dust to high temperatures do not appear to explain the observed colors of this sample. If these galaxies are confirmed to host AGNs, this study will provide a breakthrough in characterizing the properties of SMBHs in the low bulge mass regime and in understanding their relation with their host galaxies. Mid-infrared selection identifies AGNs that dominate their host galaxy's emission and therefore reveal a different AGN population than that uncovered by optical studies. We find that the fraction of all galaxies identified as candidate AGNs by WISE is highest at lower stellar masses and drops dramatically in higher mass galaxies, in striking contrast to the findings from optical studies.

  19. Discovery of a population of bulgeless galaxies with extremely red MID-IR colors: Obscured AGN activity in the low-mass regime?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In contrast to massive, bulge hosting galaxies, very few supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are known in either low-mass or bulgeless galaxies. Such a population could provide clues to the origins of SMBHs and to secular pathways for their growth. Using the all-sky Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE ) survey, and bulge-to-disk decompositions from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7, we report the discovery of a population of local (z < 0.3) bulgeless disk galaxies with extremely red mid-infrared colors which are highly suggestive of a dominant active galactic nucleus (AGN), despite having no optical AGN signatures in their SDSS spectra. Using various mid-infrared selection criteria from the literature, there are between 30 and over 300 bulgeless galaxies with possible AGNs. Other known scenarios that can heat the dust to high temperatures do not appear to explain the observed colors of this sample. If these galaxies are confirmed to host AGNs, this study will provide a breakthrough in characterizing the properties of SMBHs in the low bulge mass regime and in understanding their relation with their host galaxies. Mid-infrared selection identifies AGNs that dominate their host galaxy's emission and therefore reveal a different AGN population than that uncovered by optical studies. We find that the fraction of all galaxies identified as candidate AGNs by WISE is highest at lower stellar masses and drops dramatically in higher mass galaxies, in striking contrast to the findings from optical studies.

  20. AGN from HeII: AGN host galaxy properties & demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Rudolf E.; Schawinski, Kevin; Weigel, Anna

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of HeII emitting objects classified as AGN. In a sample of 81'192 galaxies taken from the seventh data release (DR7) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey in the redshift interval 0.02 < z < 0.05 and with r < 17 AB mag, the Baldwin, Philips & Terlevitsch 1981 method (BPT) identifies 1029 objects as active galactic nuclei. By applying an analysis using HeII λ 4686 emission lines, based on Shirazi & Binchmann 2012, we have identified an additional 283 active galactic nuclei, which were missed by the BPT method. This represents an increase of over 25 %. The characteristics of the HeII selected AGN are different from the AGN found through the PBT; the colour - mass diagram and the colour histogram both show that HeII selected AGN are bluer. This new selection technique can help inform galaxy black hole coevolution scenarios.

  1. Training Self-Regulated Learning in the Classroom: Development and Evaluation of Learning Materials to Train Self-Regulated Learning during Regular Mathematics Lessons at Primary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Leidinger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the intervention based on the self-regulation theory by Zimmerman (2000 was to promote a powerful learning environment for supporting self-regulated learning by using learning materials. In the study, primary school teachers were asked to implement specific learning materials into their regular mathematics lessons in grade four. These learning materials focused on particular (metacognitive and motivational components of self-regulated learning and were subdivided into six units, with which the students of the experimental group were asked to deal with on a weekly basis. The evaluation was based on a quasiexperimental pre-/postcontrol-group design combined with a time series design. Altogether, 135 fourth graders participated in the study. The intervention was evaluated by a self-regulated learning questionnaire, mathematics test, and process data gathered through structured learning diaries for a period of six weeks. The results revealed that students with the self-regulated learning training maintained their level of self-reported self-regulated learning activities from pre- to posttest, whereas a significant decline was observed for the control students. Regarding students’ mathematical achievement, a slightly greater improvement was found for the students with self-regulated learning training.

  2. THE GALACTIC SPIN OF AGN GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using an extensive sample of galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5, we compare the angular momentum distribution of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with non-AGN hosting late-type galaxies. To this end we characterize galactic spin through the dimensionless angular momentum parameter λ, which we estimate through simple dynamical considerations. Using a volume-limited sample, we find a considerable difference when comparing the empirical distributions of λ for AGNs and non-AGN galaxies, the AGNs showing typically low λ values and associated dispersions, while non-AGNs present higher λ values and a broader distribution. A more striking difference is found when looking at λ distributions in thin Mr cuts; while the spin of non-AGN galaxies presents an anticorrelation with Mr , with bright (massive) galaxies having low spins, AGN host galaxies present uniform values of λ at all magnitudes, a behavior probably imposed by the fact that most late-type AGN galaxies present a narrow range in color, with a typical constant λ value. We also find that the fraction of AGN hosting galaxies in our sample strongly depends on galactic spin, increasing dramatically for decreasing λ. For AGN host galaxies, we compute the mass of their supermassive black holes and find that this value tends to be higher for low spin galaxies, even at fixed luminosity, a result that could account, to a certain extent, for the spread on the luminosity-black-hole mass relation.

  3. Constraints on Feedback in the local Universe: The relation between star formation and AGN activity in early type galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Vaddi, Sravani; Baum, Stefi A; Whitmore, Samantha; Ahmed, Rabeea; Pierce, Katherine; Leary, Sara

    2016-01-01

    We address the relation between star formation and AGN activity in a sample of 231 nearby ($0.0002AGNs, with $P<10^{22}\\,WHz^{-1}$ for a majority of the galaxies. Only massive galaxies are capable of hosting powerful radio sources while less massive galaxies are hosts to lower radio power sources. Evidence of ongoing star formation is seen in approximately 7% of the sample. The SFR of these galaxies is less than 0.1 $M_{\\odot}yr^{-1}$. They also tend to be radio faint ($P<10^{22}\\,WHz^{-1}$). There is a nearly equal fraction of star forming galaxies in radio faint ($P<10^{22}\\,WHz^{-1}$) and radio bright galaxies ($P\\geq10^{22}\\,WHz^{-1}$) suggesting that both star formation and radio mode feedback are constrained to be very low in our sample. We notice that our galaxy sample and the B...

  4. Herschel observed Stripe 82 quasars and their host galaxies: connections between the AGN activity and the host galaxy star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Xiaoyi

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present a study of 207 quasars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasar catalogs and the Herschel Stripe 82 survey. Quasars within this sample are high luminosity quasars with a mean bolometric luminosity of $10^{46.4}$ erg s$^{-1}$. The redshift range of this sample is within $z<4$, with a mean value of $1.5\\pm0.78$. Because we only selected quasars that have been detected in all three Herschel-SPIRE bands, the quasar sample is complete yet highly biased. Based on the multi-wavelength photometric observation data, we conducted a spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting through UV to FIR. Parameters such as active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosity, FIR luminosity, stellar mass, as well as many other AGN and galaxy properties are deduced from the SED fitting results. The mean star formation rate (SFR) of the sample is 419 $M_{\\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$ and the mean gas mass is $\\sim 10^{11.3}$ $M_{\\odot}$. All these results point to an IR luminous quasar system. Comparing with star format...

  5. The Cosmic History of Hot Gas Cooling and Radio AGN Activity in Massive Early-Type Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Danielson, A L R; Alexander, D M; Brandt, W N; Luo, B; Miller, N; Xue, Y Q; Stott, J P

    2012-01-01

    We study the X-ray properties of 393 optically selected early-type galaxies (ETGs) over the redshift range of z~0.0-1.2 in the Chandra Deep Fields. To measure the average X-ray properties of the ETG population, we use X-ray stacking analyses with a subset of 158 passive ETGs (148 of which were individually undetected in X-ray). This ETG subset was constructed to span the redshift ranges of z = 0.1-1.2 in the ~4 Ms CDF-S and ~2 Ms CDF-N and z = 0.1-0.6 in the ~250 ks E-CDF-S where the contribution from individually undetected AGNs is expected to be negligible in our stacking. We find that 55 of the ETGs are detected individually in the X-rays, and 12 of these galaxies have properties consistent with being passive hot-gas dominated systems (i.e., systems not dominated by an X-ray bright Active Galactic Nucleus; AGN). On the basis of our analyses, we find little evolution in the mean 0.5-2 keV to B-band luminosity ratio (L_X/L_B proportional to [1 + z]^1.2) since z~1.2, implying that some heating mechanism preve...

  6. Mental self-regulation as factor of increasing reliability of power system operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letikhova, L.A.

    Mental self-regulation, based on self-suggestion, allows activation of mental processes to achieve desired behaviors. Mastery of the skills of mental self-regulation can significantly smooth interactions among teams at power plants and improve their working effectiveness. All power-plant workers should be included in a program of self-training to achieve the benefits of mental self regulation. Such programs have been developed at the Ukrainian Scientific Research Institute of Psychology and are successfully used in psychological training of specialists in various professions. Training in mental self-regulation should involve all power plant administrative workers as well as production workers. Drills on mental self-regulation can be included in courses intended to improve the qualifications of administrators and workers. 4 references.

  7. Star formation and AGN activity in the most luminous LINERs in the local universe

    CERN Document Server

    Pović, Mirjana; Netzer, Hagai; Masegosa, Josefa; Nordon, Raanan; Pérez, Enrique; Schoenell, William

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the properties of 42 objects in the group of the most luminous, highest star formation rate LINERs at z = 0.04 - 0.11. We obtained long-slit spectroscopy of the nuclear regions for all sources, and FIR data (Herschel and IRAS) for 13 of them. We measured emission line intensities, extinction, stellar populations, stellar masses, ages, AGN luminosities, and star-formation rates. We find considerable differences from other low-redshift LINERs, in terms of extinction, and general similarity to star forming (SF) galaxies. We confirm the existence of such luminous LINERs in the local universe, after being previously detected at z ~ 0.3 by Tommasin et al. (2012). The median stellar mass of these LINERs corresponds to 6 - 7 $\\times$ 10$^{10}$M$_{\\odot}$ which was found in previous work to correspond to the peak of relative growth rate of stellar populations and therefore for the highest SFRs. Other LINERs although showing similar AGN luminosities have lower SFR. We find that most of these sources ...

  8. UNDERSTANDING AGN-HOST CONNECTION IN PARTIALLY OBSCURED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. III. PROPERTIES OF ROSAT-SELECTED SDSS ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the third paper of our series of studies that aim at examining the AGN-host co-evolution by using partially obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs), we extend the broad-line composite galaxies (composite AGNs) into ROSAT-selected Seyfert 1.8/1.9 galaxies based upon the ROSAT All Sky Survey/Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5 (SDSS-DR5) catalog given by Anderson et al. The SDSS spectra of a total of 92 objects are analyzed by the same method used in our previous studies, after requiring the signal-to-noise ratio in the SDSS r' band to be larger than 20. Combining the ROSAT-selected Seyfert galaxies with the composite AGNs reinforces the tight correlation between the line ratio [O I]/Hα versus Dn (4000), and establishes a new tight correlation between [S II]/Hα versus Dn (4000). Both correlations suggest that the two line ratios are plausible age indicators of the circumnuclear stellar population for typical Type I AGNs in which the stellar populations are difficult to derive from their optical spectra. The ROSAT-selected Seyfert galaxies show that the two correlations depend on the soft X-ray spectral slope α X, which is roughly estimated from the hardness ratios by requiring that the X-ray count rates within 0.1-2.4 keV be larger than 0.02 counts s-1. However, we fail to establish a relationship between α X and Dn (4000), which is likely caused by the relatively large uncertainties of both the parameters (especially for α X because of the AGN intrinsic obscuration). The previously established L/L Edd-Dn (4000) evolutionary sequence is reinforced again by the extension to the ROSAT-selected Seyfert galaxies. These X-ray-selected Seyfert galaxies are, however, biased against the two ends of the sequence, which implies that the X-ray Seyfert galaxies present a population at a middle evolutionary stage.

  9. How are AGN Found?

    CERN Document Server

    Mushotzky, R

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the very different methods in each wavelength band for selecting and finding Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). We briefly review the history of the different techniques for finding AGN and compare and contrast the advantages and difficulties of selection in different wavelength bands. We stress the strong selection effects in each wavelength band and the difficulty of defining complete samples. Of all the techniques presently used, we conclude that selection in the hard X-ray band via imaging and spectroscopy is the most complete and allows the best estimate of the number and evolution of active galaxies. However, all of the techniques have difficulties at low luminosities where emission due to stellar processes can have similar sizes and luminosities.

  10. IR Emission from AGNs

    OpenAIRE

    Elitzur, Moshe

    2005-01-01

    Unified schemes of active galactic nuclei (AGN) require an obscuring dusty torus around the central engine. Torus sizes of hundreds of parsecs were deduced from early theoretical modeling efforts, but high-resolution IR observations now show that the torus size is no more than a few parsecs. This conflict is resolved when the clumpy nature of the torus is taken into account. The compact torus may be best understood when identified with the dusty, optically thick region of the wind coming off ...

  11. Self-Regulation through Goal Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Alexander K.; Nafziger, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Goals are an important source of motivation. But little is known about why and how people set them. We address these questions in a model based on two stylized facts from psychology and behavioral economics: i) Goals serve as reference points for performance. ii) Present-biased preferences create self-control problems. We show how goals permit self-regulation, but also that they are painful self-disciplining devices. Greater self-control problems therefore lead to stronger self-regulation thr...

  12. Developing self-regulation in early childhood☆

    OpenAIRE

    Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K.; Tang, Yiyuan

    2013-01-01

    Studies using fMRI at rest and during task performance have revealed a set of brain areas and their connections that can be linked to the ability of children to regulate their thoughts, actions and emotions. Higher self-regulation has also been related favorable outcomes in adulthood. These findings have set the occasion for methods of improving self-regulation via training. A tool kit of such methods is now available. It remains to be seen if educators will use these new findings and tools t...

  13. Developing self-regulation in early childhood☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothbart, Mary K.; Tang, Yiyuan

    2014-01-01

    Studies using fMRI at rest and during task performance have revealed a set of brain areas and their connections that can be linked to the ability of children to regulate their thoughts, actions and emotions. Higher self-regulation has also been related favorable outcomes in adulthood. These findings have set the occasion for methods of improving self-regulation via training. A tool kit of such methods is now available. It remains to be seen if educators will use these new findings and tools to forge practical methods for improving the lives of the world's children. PMID:24563845

  14. Learner Autonomy, Self Regulation and Metacognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feryal CUBUKCU

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Different theories try to explain why some students are more successful than the others. Phenomenologists (Mc Combs, 1989 study self concepts of the students and find such students prone to achieve more. Attributional Theorists (Dweck, 1986; Weiner, 2005 focus on personal outcome such as effort or ability. Metacognitive theorists (Pressley, 2000; Schunk, Pintrich & Meece, 2007 examine students’ self regulated learning strategies whereas Constructivists (Maxim, 2009; Paris & Byrnes, 1989 believe supportive environments are important to be successful. In this study, the metacognitive theory will be given more importance and the purpose of the article is to find the correlation between self regulation, metacognition and autonomy.

  15. Two active states of the narrow-line gamma-ray-loud AGN GB 1310+487

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolovsky, K. V.; Schinzel, F. K.; Tanaka, Y. T.; Abolmasov, P. K.; Angelakis, E.; Bulgarelli, A.; Carrasco, L.; Cenko, S. B.; Cheung, C. C.; Clubb, K. I.; D'Ammando, F.; Escande, L.; Fegan, S. J.; Filippenko, A. V.; Finke, J. D.; Fuhrmann, L.; Fukazawa, Y.; Hays, E.; Healey, S. E.; Ikejiri, Y.; Itoh, R.; Kawabata, K. S.; Komatsu, T.; Kovalev, Yu. A.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Larsson, S.; Lister, M. L.; Lott, B.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Nestoras, I.; Pittori, C.; Pursimo, T.; Pushkarev, A. B.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Recillas, E.; Richards, J. L.; Riquelme, D.; Romani, R. W.; Sakimoto, K.; Sasada, M.; Schmidt, R.; Shaw, M. S.; Sievers, A.; Thompson, D. J.; Uemura, M.; Ungerechts, H.; Vercellone, S.; Verrecchia, F.; Yamanaka, M.; Yoshida, M.; Zensus, J. A.

    2014-05-01

    Context. Previously unremarkable, the extragalactic radio source GB 1310+487 showed a γ-ray flare on 2009 November 18, reaching a daily flux of ~ 10-6 photons cm-2 s-1 at energies E> 100 MeV and became one of the brightest GeV sources for about two weeks. Its optical spectrum shows strong forbidden-line emission while lacking broad permitted lines, which is not typical for a blazar. Instead, the spectrum resembles those of narrow emission-line galaxies. Aims: We investigate changes in the object's radio-to-GeV spectral energy distribution (SED) during and after the prominent γ-ray flare with the aim of determining the nature of the object and of constraining the origin of the variable high-energy emission. Methods: The data collected by the Fermi and AGILE satellites at γ-ray energies; Swift at X-ray and ultraviolet (UV); the Kanata, NOT, and Keck telescopes at optical; OAGH and WISE at infrared (IR); and IRAM 30 m, OVRO 40 m, Effelsberg 100 m, RATAN-600, and VLBA at radio are analyzed together to trace the SED evolution on timescales of months. Results: The γ-ray/radio-loud narrow-line active galactic nucleus (AGN) is located at redshift z = 0.638. It shines through an unrelated foreground galaxy at z = 0.500. The AGN light is probably amplified by gravitational lensing. The AGN SED shows a two-humped structure typical of blazars and γ-ray-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies, with the high-energy (inverse-Compton) emission dominating by more than an order of magnitude over the low-energy (synchrotron) emission during γ-ray flares. The difference between the two SED humps is smaller during the low-activity state. Fermi observations reveal a strong correlation between the γ-ray flux and spectral index, with the hardest spectrum observed during the brightest γ-ray state. The γ-ray flares occurred before and during a slow rising trend in the radio, but no direct association between γ-ray and radio flares could be established. Conclusions: If the γ-ray flux

  16. Proactive and defensive self-regulation in learning

    OpenAIRE

    Darko Lončarić; Cirila Peklaj

    2008-01-01

    Although self-regulation research is fragmented over several interdisciplinary areas and theories, the concept of self-regulation could represent a cohesive force for integrating different areas of psychology, such as clinical, educational, or organisational psychology. This paper focuses on self-regulation within the educational framework and elaborates the concept of self-regulated learning. Current advances in self-regulated learning research indicated that concepts, such as cognition and ...

  17. Bootstrapping learner’s self-regulated learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip H. Winne

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Self-regulating learners can be characterized as learners who actively research what they do to learn and how well their goals are achieved by variations in their approaches to learning. Extensive research on how and how well learners understand and apply the scientific method demonstrates that they encounter significant challenges in designing and validly interpreting experiments. I juxtapose these two views to make a case that learners need significant support to carry out a progressive program of research to make self-regulated learning productive. One key to this endeavor is gathering data that can accurately and systematically reflect how learning unfolds. I describe a software system called nStudy that is designed to do this, and I speculate on how software systems like nStudy can play powerful roles in improving learning and simultaneously advancing learning science.

  18. Improving Measurements of Self-Regulated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winne, Philip H.

    2010-01-01

    Articles in this special issue present recent advances in using state-of-the-art software systems that gather data with which to examine and measure features of learning and particularly self-regulated learning (SRL). Despite important advances, there remain challenges. I examine key features of SRL and how they are measured using common tools. I…

  19. Self-regulation in the mining industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinding, Knud; Peck, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Many industries have established their own systems for self-regulation. They often do so when companies involved in the industry operate in countries where financial, technical, environmental and social regulation is weak and when the industry is challenged by legitimacy issues related to behavio...

  20. Self-Regulation and Academic Procrastination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senecal, Caroline; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Assesses the role of autonomous self-regulation as a predictor of academic procrastination. Maintains that academic procrastination is often a motivational problem related to fear of failure. Reveals that students with intrinsic reasons for studying procrastinate less than those with less autonomous reasons (for example, external regulation). (MJP)

  1. Self-Regulation Competence in Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludovico, Luca Andrea; Mangione, Giuseppina Rita

    2014-01-01

    This work starts from a systematic review about music education and self-regulation during learning processes. Then the paper identifies those meta-cognitive strategies that music students should adopt during their instrumental practice. The goal is applying such concepts in order to rethink the structure of a didactic e-book for instrumental…

  2. Strength in cognitive self-regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayla eBarutchu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Failures in self-regulation are predictive of adverse cognitive, academic and vocational outcomes, yet the interplay between cognition and self-regulation failure remains elusive. Two experiments tested the hypothesis that lapses in self-regulation, as predicted by the strength model, can be induced in individuals using cognitive paradigms and whether such failures are related to cognitive performance. In Experiments 1, the stop-signal task (SST was used to show reduced behavioural inhibition after performance of a cognitively demanding arithmetic task, but only in people with low arithmetic accuracy, when compared with SST performance following a simple discrimination task. Surprisingly, and inconsistently with existing models, subjects rapidly recovered without rest or glucose. In Experiment 2, depletions of both go-signal reaction times and response inhibition were observed when a simple detection task was used as a control. These experiments provide new evidence that cognitive self-regulation processes are influenced by cognitive performance, and subject to improvement and recovery without rest.

  3. Self-regulated learning using multimedia programs in dentistry postgraduate students: A multimethod approach

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Rivas LLORET; Estela Mejía AGUILAR; Alejandro Rivas LLORET

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to study the effect of a multimedia computing program on the production of activities and self-regulated learning processes in 18 students of the Dentistry postdegree (Celaya, Mexico). A multi-method design (quasi-experimental, pretest-post-test and qualitative: Think aloud protocol) was used. Self-regulated activities were identified with the MSLQ questionnaire. Results of the MSLQ pretest/post-test questionnaire didn't show an intervention effect. In contrast, ...

  4. One-Class FMRI-Inspired EEG Model for Self-Regulation Training

    OpenAIRE

    Meir-Hasson, Yehudit; Jackob N Keynan; Kinreich, Sivan; Jackont, Gilan; Cohen, Avihay; Podlipsky-Klovatch, Ilana; Hendler, Talma; Intrator, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that learned self-regulation of localized brain activity in deep limbic areas such as the amygdala, may alleviate symptoms of affective disturbances. Thus far self-regulation of amygdala activity could be obtained only via fMRI guided neurofeedback, an expensive and immobile procedure. EEG on the other hand is relatively inexpensive and can be easily implemented in any location. However the clinical utility of EEG neurofeedback for affective disturbances remains limit...

  5. Integrating Technologically - Enhanced Self - Regulated Strategies into Writing English as a Foreign Language Classes

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Coşkun; Hamed Ghaemi

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the influence of technologically-enhanced (i.e., NetSupport School) self-regulated strategies (i.e., wrapper activity, think aloud and reciprocal teaching) on learners' achievement in the writing section of the TOEFL iBT (TOEFL Internet-based Test) and to explore the change in learners' self-regulated learning skill levels as a result of the technologically-enhanced self-regulated strategies training. Thirty-nine TOEFL iBT candidates who were studying TOEFL iBT ...

  6. AGN activity and the misaligned hot ISM in the compact radio elliptical NGC4278

    CERN Document Server

    Pellegrini, S; Fabbiano, G; Kim, D W; Brassington, N J; Gallagher, J S; Trinchieri, G; Zezas, A

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of a deep (579 ks) Chandra ACIS pointing of the elliptical galaxy NGC4278, which hosts a low luminosity AGN and compact radio emission, allowed us to detect extended emission from hot gas out to a radius of \\sim 5 kpc, with a 0.5--8 keV luminosity of 2.4x10^{39} erg/s. The emission is elongated in the NE-SW direction, misaligned with respect to the stellar body, and aligned with the ionized gas, and with the Spitzer IRAC 8\\mum non-stellar emission. The nuclear X-ray luminosity decreased by a factor of \\sim 18 since the first Chandra observation in 2005, a dimming that enabled the detection of hot gas even at the position of the nucleus. Both in the projected and deprojected profiles, the gas shows a significantly larger temperature (kT=0.75 keV) in the inner \\sim 300 pc than in the surrounding region, where it stays at \\sim 0.3 keV, a value lower than expected from standard gas heating assumptions. The nuclear X-ray emission is consistent with that of a low radiative efficiency accretion flow, ac...

  7. Stellar processes near AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Nayakshin, S

    2007-01-01

    Precise mechanisms by which Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) receive their gaseous fuel is still a mystery. Here I draw attention to the extra ordinary star formation event that took place in the central ~ 0.5 parsec of our Galaxy. The most reliable explanation of the event seems to be that two somewhat massive nearly co-eval gaseous disks failed to accrete on Sgr A*, the super-massive black hole (SMBH) in our Galaxy, and instead cooled down and gravitationally collapsed, forming the stars observed now. This emphasises that star formation must be an important part of AGN feeding puzzle. I also discuss a model in which stellar winds create the observed obscuration of AGN. These winds are cold, clumpy and dusty, as required by the observations, but they are Compton-thin unless wind outflow rate is highly super-Eddington. This argument is in fact a general one, independent of the wind driving mechanism. I thus suggest that winds may be important for optically thin absorbers, and that a better model for optically thi...

  8. Optical surveys of AGN and their host galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Dubinovska, Daria

    2013-01-01

    This thesis rests on two large Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) surveys. The first survey deals with galaxies that host low-level AGNs (LLAGN) and aims at identifying such galaxies by quantifying their variability. While numerous studies have shown that AGNs can be variable at all wavelengths, the nature of the variability is still not well understood. Studying the properties of LLAGNs may help to understand better galaxy evolution, and how AGNs transit between active and inactive states. In thi...

  9. How do students self-regulate?: review of Zimmerman's cyclical model of self-regulated learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Panadero

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of learning strategies is crucial for students' academic performance and promoting deeper learning approaches. The self-regulated learning models offer comprehensive theoretical backgrounds. These enable more holistic approaches to the use of learning strategies. In this paper, Zimmerman's (2000; 2003; Zimmerman & Moylan, 2009 cyclical model of self-regulated learning is described and analysed as one of the most comprehensive. The model is grounded in social cognitive theory and is comprised of three phases (forethought, performance and self-reflection with a special focus on the influences of motivation on self-regulation. The different processes included in the model are analysed here in detail. Zimmerman's framework is considered in relation to other self-regulated learning models in order to recognize its importance in theory and practice.

  10. THE RADIUS-LUMINOSITY RELATIONSHIP FOR ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: THE EFFECT OF HOST-GALAXY STARLIGHT ON LUMINOSITY MEASUREMENTS. II. THE FULL SAMPLE OF REVERBERATION-MAPPED AGNs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope images of all 35 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with optical reverberation-mapping results, which we have modeled to create a nucleus-free image of each AGN host galaxy. From the nucleus-free images, we determine the host-galaxy contribution to ground-based spectroscopic luminosity measurements at 5100 A. After correcting the luminosities of the AGNs for the contribution from starlight, we re-examine the Hβ R BLR-L relationship. Our best fit for the relationship gives a power-law slope of 0.52 with a range of 0.45-0.59 allowed by the uncertainties. This is consistent with our previous findings, and thus still consistent with the naive assumption that all AGNs are simply luminosity-scaled versions of each other. We discuss various consistency checks relating to the galaxy modeling and starlight contributions, as well as possible systematic errors in the current set of reverberation measurements from which we determine the form of the R BLR-L relationship.

  11. Discovery of a Population of Bulgeless Galaxies with Extremely Red Mid-IR Colors: Obscured AGN Activity in the Low Mass Regime?

    CERN Document Server

    Satyapal, Shobita; McAlpine, William; Ellison, Sara L; Fischer, Jacqueline; Rosenberg, Jessica L

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to massive, bulge hosting galaxies, very few supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are known in either low mass, or bulgeless galaxies. Such a population could provide clues to the origins of SMBHs and to secular pathways for their growth. Using the all-sky Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) survey, and bulge-to-disk decompositions from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7, we report the discovery of a population of local (z<0.3) bulgeless disk galaxies with extremely red mid-infrared colors highly suggestive of a dominant active galactic nucleus (AGN), despite having no optical AGN signatures in their SDSS spectra. Using various mid-infrared selection criteria from the literature, there are between 30 to over 300 bulgeless galaxies with possible AGNs. Other known scenarios that can heat the dust to high temperatures do not appear to explain the observed colors of this sample. If these galaxies are confirmed to host AGNs, this study will provide a breakthrough in characterizing...

  12. Suzaku View of the Swift/BAT Active Galactic Nuclei (I): Spectral Analysis of Six AGNs and Evidence for Two Types of Obscured Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Satoshi; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Terashima, Yuichi; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Tueller, Jack

    2009-01-01

    We present a systematic spectral analysis with Suzaku of six AGNs detected in the Swift/BAT hard X-ray (15-200 keV) survey, Swift J0138.6-4001, J0255.2-0011, J0350.1-5019, J0505.7-2348, J0601.9-8636, and J1628.1-5145. This is considered to be a representative sample of new AGNs without X-ray spectral information before the BAT survey. We find that the 0.5-200 keV spectra of these sources can be uniformly fit with a base model consisting of heavily absorbed (log NH >23.5/sq cm) transmitted components, scattered lights, a reflection component, and an iron-K emission line. There are two distinct groups, three "new type" AGNs (including the two sources reported by Ueda et al. 2007) with an extremely small scattered fraction (f(sub scat) or equal to 0.8 where omega is the solid angle of the reflector), and three "classical type" ones with f(sub scat > 0.5% and R or approx. 30deg. We infer that a significant number of new type AGNs with an edge-on view is missing in the current all-sky hard X-ray surveys. Subject headings: galaxies: active . gamma rays: observations . X-rays: galaxies . X-rays: general

  13. Secondary students’ self-regulated engagement in reading: researching self-regulation as situated in context

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah L. Butler; Cartier, Sylvie C.; Leyton Schnellert; France Gagnon; Matt Giammarino

    2011-01-01

    In this research, we drew on a model of self-regulated learning (SRL) (Butler & Cartier, 2005; Cartier & Butler, 2004) to investigate student engagement in learning through reading (LTR) as situated in context. Our overarching goals were to enhance theoretical understanding about SRL as situated, identify patterns in self-regulated learning through reading (LTR) for secondary students within and across classrooms, and continue developing productive methodological strategies for investigating ...

  14. Self-regulation of general upper secondary school students with specific learning disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Švajger Savič, Karmen

    2015-01-01

    Self-regulated learning, as an active approach to learning at which students set the goals themselves, insist on them, monitor and evaluate their results and in view of that change their behaviour, has become increasingly important in education in the last decades. Numerous studies of adolescents with specific learning disabilities reveal the particulars of their self-regulation of learning. They need more support in their family and educational environment due to their peculiarities and beca...

  15. "Do as I say!": parenting and the biology of child self-regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Kok, Rianne

    2013-01-01

    The development of self-regulation is one of the major challenges of a child’s healthy development. In the current thesis, the contribution and interplay of parental and biological factors in the development of self-regulation in preschoolers are studied in a large population-based cohort, the Generation R Study. We found that attachment insecurity in infancy was related to higher levels of toddler active resistance during Clean-Up. Maternal negative discipline was related to lower levels of ...

  16. Differences in academic achievement according to the levels of cognitive and of self-regulation strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Valle; Susana Rodríguez; Ramón Cabanach; José Núñez; Julio González-Pienda; Pedro Rosário

    2013-01-01

    Understanding study as a strategic and self-regulated activity and having in mind the distinction between cognitive and self-regulated learning strategies suggested in the literature, this paper analyses whether the differences in the use of this kind of strategies leads to different levels of academic achievement. Data were collected using a sample of 447 (12 to 16 years-old) students from Spanish Secondary Compulsive Education. Various instruments were applied to assess students’ cognitive ...

  17. Professional Learning Through Everyday Work: How Finance Professionals Self-Regulate Their Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Littlejohn, Allison; Milligan, Colin; Fontana, Rosa Pia; Margaryan, Anoush

    2016-01-01

    Professional learning is a critical component of ongoing improvement and innovation and the adoption of new practices in the workplace. Professional learning is often achieved through learning embedded in everyday work tasks. However, little is known about how professionals self-regulate their learning through regular work activities. This paper explores how professionals in the finance sector (n-30) self-regulate their learning through day-to-day work. Analysis focuses on three sub-processes...

  18. HOW MATHEMATICS TEACHERS DEVELOP THEIR PUPILS’ SELF-REGULATED LEARNING SKILLS

    OpenAIRE

    Iuliana Marchis

    2011-01-01

    Self-regulated learning skills are important in mathematical problem solving. The aim of the paper is to present a research on how mathematics teachers guide their pupils’ mathematical problem-solving activities in order to increase self-regulation. 62 teachers have filled in a questionnaire developed for this research. The results are show that more than two third of the teachers promote the methods of understanding the problem; develop pupils’ self-efficacy and self-control. But only one th...

  19. Self-regulation of unlawful newsgathering techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Carney, Damian

    2008-01-01

    The PCC's self-regulation regime is presupposed on journalists' and publications' adherence to its Code of Practice. In the last two years, concerns have been raised about the effectiveness of the Code in preventing journalists from obtaining personal information through illegal means. In 2006, the Information Commissioner suggested that journalists were major buyers of information illicitly obtained in contravention of the Data Protection Act 1998, whilst the conviction of the former News of...

  20. Physiological Self-Regulation and Adaptive Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzell, Lawrence J.; Pope, Alan T.; Freeman, Frederick G.

    2007-01-01

    Adaptive automation has been proposed as a solution to current problems of human-automation interaction. Past research has shown the potential of this advanced form of automation to enhance pilot engagement and lower cognitive workload. However, there have been concerns voiced regarding issues, such as automation surprises, associated with the use of adaptive automation. This study examined the use of psychophysiological self-regulation training with adaptive automation that may help pilots deal with these problems through the enhancement of cognitive resource management skills. Eighteen participants were assigned to 3 groups (self-regulation training, false feedback, and control) and performed resource management, monitoring, and tracking tasks from the Multiple Attribute Task Battery. The tracking task was cycled between 3 levels of task difficulty (automatic, adaptive aiding, manual) on the basis of the electroencephalogram-derived engagement index. The other two tasks remained in automatic mode that had a single automation failure. Those participants who had received self-regulation training performed significantly better and reported lower National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index scores than participants in the false feedback and control groups. The theoretical and practical implications of these results for adaptive automation are discussed.

  1. Cold neutron source with self-regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A way to increase the cold neutron flux is to cool moderator from where cold neutrons are extracted. Although various kinds of cooling system are considered, the closed thermo-siphon cooling system is adopted in many institutes. The notable feature of this system is to be able to keep the liquid level stable in the moderator cell against thermal disturbances, by using self-regulation, which allows a stable supply of cold neutrons. The main part of the closed thermo-siphon consists of a condenser, a moderator transfer tube and moderator cell, which is called the hydrogen cold system. When an extra heat load is applied to the hydrogen cold system having no flow resistance in a moderator transfer tube, the system pressure rises by evaporation of liquid hydrogen. Then the boiling point of hydrogen rises. The liquefaction capacity of the condenser is increasing with a rise of temperature, because a refrigerating power of the helium refrigerator increases linearly with temperature rise of the system. Therefore, the effect of thermal heat load increase is compensated and cancelled out. The closed thermo-siphon has this feature generally, when the moderator transfer tube is designed to be no flow resistance. The report reviews the concept of self-regulation, and how to design and construct the cold neutron source with self-regulation. (author)

  2. Differences in academic achievement according to the levels of cognitive and of self-regulation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Valle

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding study as a strategic and self-regulated activity and having in mind the distinction between cognitive and self-regulated learning strategies suggested in the literature, this paper analyses whether the differences in the use of this kind of strategies leads to different levels of academic achievement. Data were collected using a sample of 447 (12 to 16 years-old students from Spanish Secondary Compulsive Education. Various instruments were applied to assess students’ cognitive and self-regulated learning strategies. Students’ marks in Maths, Spanish, English (Foreign language, Science, Social studies and Music were taken as indicators of academic achievement. Data suggest that the more students use cognitive and self-regulated learning strategies in a specifi c subject the better their level of achievement in that same subject.

  3. The demographics and evolution of the absorbed AGN population.

    OpenAIRE

    Dwelly, T.

    2006-01-01

    It has become increasingly apparent that active galactic nuclei (AGN) have played a key role in the galaxy formation process, leading to the galaxy population we see to day. In order to understand better this inter-relationship, we must first measure the characteristics and evolution of the AGN population over cosmic timescales. Models of the AGN population which reproduce the spectrum and intensity of the extra-galactic X-ray background require a large population of faint AGN, the majority o...

  4. The Necessary Architecture of Self-Regulating Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Leslie; Stergiou, Maria

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we present the meaning of self-regulation in Self- Regulating Teams (SRTs) and show the importance of self- regulating teams in a learning organisation. Self-regulating (also known as self-managing) teams guide and perform their own tasks without a visible leader. In the present dynamic business environment, SRTs promise to deliver higher motivation and empowerment to the individuals that participate in them as well as elevated performance and efficiency to the organisations tha...

  5. Self-Regulation through Goal Setting. ERIC/CASS Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunk, Dale H.

    Self-regulation, the systematic effort to direct thoughts, feelings, and actions towards the attainment of one's goals, is receiving importance in the psychological and educational literatures. Goals are involved across the different phases of self-regulation, first as forethought, then in performance control, and finally in self-regulation. This…

  6. Babies' Self-Regulation: Taking a Broad Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Enid; Gonzalez-Mena, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Self-regulation is a complex process that involves coordinating various systems of the body and mind, including feelings. It's not only about emotions but also about cognition. Self-regulation has an impact on social development, influencing how babies and toddlers get along with others. Through self-regulation, babies and toddlers learn to pay…

  7. Self-Regulated Learning: From Theory to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ya-Hui

    2010-01-01

    While there have been many articles published in the area of self-regulated learning, there is a need to have a research article that solely emphasizes on how to put self-regulated learning theory into practice. In order to help teachers incorporate self-regulated learning theory into their classroom teaching and students to do so into their…

  8. Effects of team-based learning on self-regulated online learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Alice A

    2015-01-01

    Online learning requires higher levels of self-regulation in order to achieve optimal learning outcomes. As nursing education moves further into the blended and online learning venue, new teaching/learning strategies will be required to develop and enhance self-regulated learning skills in nursing students. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of team-based learning (TBL) with traditional instructor-led (IL) learning, on self-regulated online learning outcomes, in a blended undergraduate research and evidence-based practice course. The nonrandomized sample consisted of 98 students enrolled in the IL control group and 86 students enrolled in the TBL intervention group. The percentage of total possible online viewing time was used as the measure of self-regulated online learning activity. The TBL group demonstrated a significantly higher percentage (p self-regulated learning activities than the IL control group. The TBL group scored significantly higher on the course examinations (p = 0.003). The findings indicate that TBL is an effective instructional strategy that can be used to achieve the essential outcomes of baccalaureate nursing education by increasing self-regulated learning capabilities in nursing students. PMID:25860866

  9. The 60-month all-sky BAT Survey of AGN and the Anisotropy of Nearby AGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surveys above 10 keV represent one of the the best resources to provide an unbiased census of the population of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). We present the results of 60 months of observation of the hard X-ray sky with Swift/BAT. In this timeframe, BAT detected (in the 15-55 keV band) 720 sources in an all-sky survey of which 428 are associated with AGN, most of which are nearby. Our sample has negligible incompleteness and statistics a factor of ∼2 larger over similarly complete sets of AGN. Our sample contains (at least) 15 bona-fide Compton-thick AGN and 3 likely candidates. Compton-thick AGN represent a ∼5% of AGN samples detected above 15 keV. We use the BAT dataset to refine the determination of the LogN-LogS of AGN which is extremely important, now that NuSTAR prepares for launch, towards assessing the AGN contribution to the cosmic X-ray background. We show that the LogN-LogS of AGN selected above 10 keV is now established to a ∼10% precision. We derive the luminosity function of Compton-thick AGN and measure a space density of 7.9-2.9+4.1 x 10-5 Mpc-3 for objects with a de-absorbed luminosity larger than 2 x 1042 erg s-1. As the BAT AGN are all mostly local, they allow us to investigate the spatial distribution of AGN in the nearby Universe regardless of absorption. We find concentrations of AGN that coincide spatially with the largest congregations of matter in the local ((le) 85 Mpc) Universe. There is some evidence that the fraction of Seyfert 2 objects is larger than average in the direction of these dense regions.

  10. The physics of megamaser AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masini, A.

    2015-09-01

    Many local active galactic nuclei (AGN) show water vapor molecule maser emission at 22 GHz. Using Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) radio interferometry, this emission can be spatially mapped, showing in some sources a nearly edge-on, disk-like structure, in keplerian motion around a supermassive black hole (SMBH). Together with radio emission, hard X-rays are an important way to test and probe the physics of AGN, especially the most obscured ones. Very few local, VLBI-mapped, with high quality hard X-ray observations AGN are known today, but it is clear that disk megamasers are preferentially found in Compton thick (NH > 1.5x10^{24}) Seyfert 2 (Sy2) AGN, hinting towards a connection between high obscuration and maser emission. We show that, using a well defined sample of 15 local Sy2 megamasers with both radio VLBI mapping and NuSTAR hard X-ray spectral coverage, a simple analytical model with spatial continuity and same density profile between the maser disk and the torus allows to recover obscuring column densities in parsec-scale tori in good agreement with the NuSTAR measurements. Moreover, we provide a simple geometrical interpretation for the rarity of maser disk emitting sources and their connection with high obscuring columns in Sy2 AGN, together with hints of a slightly different torus density profile between Compton thin and Compton thick sources.

  11. Two active states of the narrow-line gamma-ray-loud AGN GB 1310+487

    CERN Document Server

    Sokolovsky, K V; Tanaka, Y T; Abolmasov, P K; Angelakis, E; Bulgarelli, A; Carrasco, L; Cenko, S B; Cheung, C C; Clubb, K I; Fegan, S J; Filippenko, A V; Finke, J D; Fuhrmann, L; Fukazawa, Y; Hays, E; Healey, S E; Ikejiri, Y; Itoh, R; Kawabata, K S; Komatsu, T; Kovalev, Yu A; Kovalev, Y Y; Krichbaum, T P; Larsson, S; Lister, M L; Lott, B; Max-Moerbeck, W; Nestoras, I; Pittori, C; Pursimo, T; Pushkarev, A B; Readhead, A C S; Recillas, E; Richards, J L; Riquelme, D; Romani, R W; Sakimoto, K; Sasada, M; Schmidt, R; Shaw, M S; Sievers, A; Thompson, D J; Uemura, M; Ungerechts, H; Vercellone, S; Verrecchia, F; Yamanaka, M; Yoshida, M; Zensus, J A

    2014-01-01

    Previously unremarkable, the extragalactic radio source GB 1310+487 showed a gamma-ray flare on 2009 November 18, reaching a daily flux of ~10^-6 photons/cm^2/s at energies E>100 MeV and becoming one of the brightest GeV sources for about two weeks. Its optical spectrum is not typical for a blazar, instead, it resembles those of narrow emission-line galaxies. We investigate changes of the object's radio-to-GeV spectral energy distribution (SED) during and after the prominent GeV flare with the aim to determine the nature of the object and constrain the origin of the variable high-energy emission. The data collected by the Fermi and AGILE satellites at gamma-ray energies, Swift at X-ray and ultraviolet, Kanata, NOT, and Keck telescopes at optical, OAGH and WISE at infrared, and IRAM 30m, OVRO 40m, Effelsberg 100m, RATAN-600, and VLBA at radio, are analysed together to trace the SED evolution on timescales of months. The gamma-ray/radio-loud narrow-line active galactic nucleus (AGN) is located at redshift z=0.6...

  12. A Multi-wavelength Survey of AGN in Massive Clusters: AGN Distribution and Host Galaxy Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Klesman, Alison J.; Sarajedini, Vicki L.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the effect of environment on the presence and fuelling of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) by identifying galaxies hosting AGN in massive galaxy clusters and the fields around them. We have identified AGN candidates via optical variability (178), X-ray emission (74), and mid-IR SEDs (64) in multi- wavelength surveys covering regions centered on 12 galaxy clusters at redshifts 0.5 < z < 0.9. In this paper, we present the radial distribution of AGN in clusters to examine how local en...

  13. Self-regulation through Goal Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Nafziger, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Goals are an important motivator. But little is known about why and how people set them. We address this issue in a model based on two stylized facts. i) Goals serve as reference points for performance. ii) Present-biased preferences create self-control problems. We show the power and limits of...... self-regulation through goals. Goals increase an individual's motivation - but only up to a certain point. And they are painful self-disciplining devices. Greater self-control problems may result in tougher goals; but for a severe present bias goals either lack motivating force, or are too painful to...

  14. Implementation in International Business Self-Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porter, Tony; Ronit, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    together in a decentralized manner. Many international business actors devise ways to carry out the sequences in order to implement rules that are important for them, reflecting a functional logic of implementation that is creative and pragmatic, and together constitute an important stage in the policy......Self-regulation by business is increasingly common internationally, but the effective implementation of international rules often continues to be seen as something that only states can carry out. We argue that more exclusively private forms of effective implementation can be constructed in self...

  15. A Multi-wavelength Survey of AGN in Massive Clusters: AGN Distribution and Host Galaxy Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Klesman, Alison J

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the effect of environment on the presence and fuelling of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) by identifying galaxies hosting AGN in massive galaxy clusters and the fields around them. We have identified AGN candidates via optical variability (178), X-ray emission (74), and mid-IR SEDs (64) in multi- wavelength surveys covering regions centered on 12 galaxy clusters at redshifts 0.5 < z < 0.9. In this paper, we present the radial distribution of AGN in clusters to examine how local environment affects the presence of an AGN and its host galaxy. While distributions vary from cluster to cluster, we find that the radial distribution of AGN generally differs from that of normal galaxies. AGN host galaxies also show a different colour distribution than normal galaxies, with many AGN hosts displaying galaxy colours in the "green valley" between the red sequence and blue star-forming normal galaxies. This result is similar to those found in field galaxy studies. The colour distribution of AGN hosts is ...

  16. The 60-month all-sky BAT Survey of AGN and the Anisotropy of Nearby AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Ajello, M; Greiner, J; Madejski, G M; Gehrels, N; Burlon, D

    2012-01-01

    Surveys above 10 keV represent one of the the best resources to provide an unbiased census of the population of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). We present the results of 60 months of observation of the hard X-ray sky with Swift/BAT. In this timeframe, BAT detected (in the 15--55 keV band) 720 sources in an all-sky survey of which 428 are associated with AGN, most of which are nearby. Our sample has negligible incompleteness and statistics a factor of \\sim2 larger over similarly complete sets of AGN. Our sample contains (at least) 15 bona-fide Compton-thick AGN and 3 likely candidates. Compton-thick AGN represent a ~5% of AGN samples detected above 15 keV. We use the BAT dataset to refine the determination of the LogN--LogS of AGN which is extremely important, now that NuSTAR prepares for launch, towards assessing the AGN contribution to the cosmic X-ray background. We show that the LogN--LogS of AGN selected above 10 keV is now established to a ~10% precision. We derive the luminosity function of Compton-thick ...

  17. Spectral Energy Distributions of Type 1 AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Heng

    The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are essential to understand the physics of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and their host galaxies. This thesis present a detailed study of AGN SED shapes in the optical-near infrared bands (0.3--3microm) for 413 X-ray selected Type 1 AGNs from the XMM-COSMOS Survey. We define a useful near-IR/optical index-index ('color-color') diagram to investigate the mixture of AGN continuum, host galaxy and reddening contributions. We found that ˜90% of the AGNs lie on mixing curves between the Elvis et al. (1994) mean AGN SED (E94) and a host galaxy, with only the modest reddening [E(B-V)=0.1--0.2] expected in type 1 AGNs. Lower luminosity and Eddington ratio objects have more host galaxy, as expected. The E94 template is remarkably good in describing the SED shape in the 0.3--3microrn decade of the spectrum over a range of 3.2 dex in LOPT, 2.7 dex in L/LEdd, and for redshifts up to 3. The AGN phenomenon is thus insensitive to absolute or relative accretion rate and to cosmic time. However, 10% of the AGNs are inconsistent with any AGN+host+reddening mix. These AGNs have weak or non-existent near-IR bumps, suggesting a lack of the hot dust characteristic of AGNs. The fraction of these hot-dust-poor AGNs evolves with redshift from 6% at low redshift (z times the gravitational stability radii. Either the host-dust is destroyed (dynamically or by radiation), or is offset from the central black hole due to recoiling. Alternatively, the universality of HDP quasars in samples with different selection methods and the continuous distribution of dust covering factor in type 1 AGNs, suggest that the range of SEDs could be related to the range of tilts in warped fueling disks, as in the model of Lawrence and Elvis (2010), with HDP quasars having relatively small warps. A small number of other outliers are found with the help of the mixing diagram, which could represent quasars on different evolutionary stage

  18. Early science with the large millimeter telescope: exploring the effect of AGN activity on the relationships between molecular gas, dust, and star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The molecular gas, H2, that fuels star formation in galaxies is difficult to observe directly. As such, the ratio of L IR to LCO′ is an observational estimate of the star formation rate compared with the amount of molecular gas available to form stars, which is related to the star formation efficiency and the inverse of the gas consumption timescale. We test what effect an IR luminous active galactic nucleus (AGN) has on the ratio LIR/LCO′ in a sample of 24 intermediate redshift galaxies from the 5 mJy Unbiased Spitzer Extragalactic Survey (5MUSES). We obtain new CO(1-0) observations with the Redshift Search Receiver on the Large Millimeter Telescope. We diagnose the presence and strength of an AGN using Spitzer IRS spectroscopy. We find that removing the AGN contribution to LIRtot results in a mean LIRSF/LCO′ for our entire sample consistent with the mean LIR/LCO′ derived for a large sample of star forming galaxies from z ∼ 0-3. We also include in our comparison the relative amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission for our sample and a literature sample of local and high-redshift ultra luminous infrared galaxies and find a consistent trend between L6.2/LIRSF and LIRSF/LCO′, such that small dust grain emission decreases with increasing LIRSF/LCO′ for both local and high-redshift dusty galaxies.

  19. Star Formation and AGN Activity in Galaxy Clusters from $z=1-2$: a Multi-wavelength Analysis Featuring $Herschel$/PACS

    CERN Document Server

    Alberts, Stacey; Brodwin, Mark; Chung, Sun Mi; Cybulski, Ryan; Dey, Arjun; Eisenhardt, Peter; Galametz, Audrey; Gonzalez, Anthony; Jannuzi, Buell; Stanford, S Adam; Snyder, Gregory; Stern, Daniel; Zeimann, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed, multi-wavelength study of star formation (SF) and AGN activity in 11 near-infrared (IR) selected, spectroscopically confirmed, massive ($\\gtrsim10^{14}\\,\\rm{M_{\\odot}}$) galaxy clusters at $1AGN through SED fittings allows us to include the contribution to cluster SF from AGN host galaxies. We quantify the star-forming fraction, dust-obscured SF rates (SFRs), and specific-SFRs for cluster galaxies as a function of cluster-centric radius and redshift. In good agreement with previous studies, we find that SF in cluster galaxies at $z\\gtrsim1.4$ is largely consistent with field galaxies at similar epochs, indicating an era before significant quenching in the cluster cores ($r<0.5\\,$Mpc). This is followed by a ...

  20. Validation of an instrument to measure students' motivation and self-regulation towards technology learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Pey-Yan; Kuo, Pei-Jung

    2014-05-01

    Background:Few studies have examined students' attitudinal perceptions of technology. There is no appropriate instrument to measure senior high school students' motivation and self-regulation toward technology learning among the current existing instruments in the field of technology education. Purpose:The present study is to validate an instrument for assessing senior high school students' motivation and self-regulation towards technology learning. Sample:A total of 1822 Taiwanese senior high school students (1020 males and 802 females) responded to the newly developed instrument. Design and method:The Motivation and Self-regulation towards Technology Learning (MSRTL) instrument was developed based on the previous instruments measuring students' motivation and self-regulation towards science learning. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were utilized to investigate the structure of the items. Cronbach's alpha was applied for measuring the internal consistency of each scale. Furthermore, multivariate analysis of variance was used to examine gender differences. Results:Seven scales, including 'Technology learning self-efficacy,' 'Technology learning value,' 'Technology active learning strategies,' 'Technology learning environment stimulation,' 'Technology learning goal-orientation,' 'Technology learning self-regulation-triggering,' and 'Technology learning self-regulation-implementing' were confirmed for the MSRTL instrument. Moreover, the results also showed that male and female students did not present the same degree of preference in all of the scales. Conclusions:The MSRTL instrument composed of seven scales corresponding to 39 items was shown to be valid based on validity and reliability analyses. While male students tended to express more positive and active performance in the motivation scales, no gender differences were found in the self-regulation scales.

  1. Dichotomy in host environments and signs of recycled AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Coldwell, Georgina V; Soechting, Ilona K; Gurovich, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    We analyse the relation between AGN host properties and large scale environment for a representative red and blue AGN host galaxy sample selected from the DR4 SDSS. A comparison is made with two carefully constructed control samples of non-active galaxies, covering the same redshift range and color baseline. The cross-correlation functions show that the density distribution of neighbours is almost identical for blue galaxies, either active, or non-active. Although active red galaxies inhabit environments less dense compared to non-active red galaxies, both reside in environments considerably denser than those of blue hosts. Moreover, the radial density profile of AGN, relative to galaxy group centres is less concentrated than galaxies. This is particularly evident when comparing red AGN and non-active galaxies. The properties of the neighbouring galaxies of blue and red AGN and non active galaxies reflect this effect. While the neighbourhood of the blue samples is indistinguishable, the red AGN environs show ...

  2. Bistable switching asymptotics for the self regulating gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple stochastic model of a self regulating gene that displays bistable switching is analyzed. While on, a gene transcribes mRNA at a constant rate. Transcription factors can bind to the DNA and affect the gene’s transcription rate. Before an mRNA is degraded, it synthesizes protein, which in turn regulates gene activity by influencing the activity of transcription factors. Protein is slowly removed from the system through degradation. Depending on how the protein regulates gene activity, the protein concentration can exhibit noise induced bistable switching. An asymptotic approximation of the mean switching rate is derived that includes the pre exponential factor, which improves upon a previously reported logarithmically accurate approximation. With the improved accuracy, a uniformly accurate approximation of the stationary probability density, describing the gene, mRNA copy number, and protein concentration is also obtained. (paper)

  3. INVESTIGATING SELF-REGULATED LEARNING HABITS OF DISTANCE EDUCATION STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ozkan Kirmizi

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at exploring self-regulated learning habits of distance education students. Self-regulation can be defined as a process where learners take the initiative, with or without the guidance of others, in identifying their own needs, formulating goals, exploring resources, focusing on appropriate learning strategies, and evaluating learning outcomes. This study investigates self-regulated learning in terms of goal setting, environment structuring, time management, help seeking, self...

  4. SELF-REGULATION IN CHILDREN WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    MEMISEVIC Haris

    2015-01-01

    Background:Self-regulation is an important executive function responsible for the control of emotions, behaviors and inner processes. It is related to the academic success of the children as well as to their cognitive and social development. Children with intellectual disability are reported to have significant deficits in self-regulation skills. Objective:The goal of this study was to examine self-regulation skills in children with mild intellectual disability. The additional goals were t...

  5. Cognitive and metacognitive processes in self-regulation of learning

    OpenAIRE

    Erika Tomec; Sonja Pečjak; Cirila Peklaj

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate differences among secondary school students in cognitive and metacognitive processes in self-regulated learning (SRL) according to year of education, learning program, sex and achievement. Beside this, the autors were interested in the relationship between (meta)cognitive components of self-regulated learning. The theoretical framework of the research was the four-component model of self-regulated learning by Hofer, Yu and Pintrich (1998). T...

  6. The Effects of Self-Regulation on State Authenticity

    OpenAIRE

    Sattin, Amy E

    2012-01-01

    Self-regulation was tested for its direct and indirect effects on state authenticity. A between-subjects online study was conducted, whereby participants were asked to write a paragraph describing their morning routine within either a free-writing condition (low self-regulation) or without using the letters ‘a’ or ‘n’ (high self-regulation). State authenticity was subsequently assessed alongside potential mediators of self-esteem, positive and negative affect, public and private self-consciou...

  7. X-ray transient AGN and galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Grupe, D.

    2001-01-01

    X-ray transience is the most extreme form of variability observed in AGN or normal in-active galaxies. While factors of 2-3 on timescales of days to years are quite commen among AGN, X-ray transients appear only once and vanish from the X-ray sky years later. The ROSAT All-Sky Survey was the tool to discover these sources. X-ray transience in AGN or galaxies can be caused by dramatic changes in the accretion rate of the central black hole or by changes of the properties of the accretion disk.

  8. The AGN phenomenon: open issues

    CERN Document Server

    Beckmann, Volker

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this short paper is to motivate and encourage research in the field of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). Here we summarize the main open questions concerning the central engine. Is the central black hole rapidly spinning and can we prove this? What is the dominant accretion mechanism in AGN? Why do some AGN form jets while others don't and how do the jets originate? What keeps jets collimated out to distances of 100 kpc? Is the emission of blazars dominated rather by synchrotron self-Compton or by external Compton processes? Which parameters are important in the unified model? We outline the status of related research, formulate the questions and try to hint at research projects able to tackle these fundamental topics. Deep surveys, polarization measurements, improved models, faster and more accurate simulations as well as bridging the gap in the MeV range can be part of the tools to bring us closer to an understanding of AGN.

  9. SELF-REGULATION IN CHILDREN WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haris MEMISEVIC

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background:Self-regulation is an important executive function responsible for the control of emotions, behaviors and inner processes. It is related to the academic success of the children as well as to their cognitive and social development. Children with intellectual disability are reported to have significant deficits in self-regulation skills. Objective:The goal of this study was to examine self-regulation skills in children with mild intellectual disability. The additional goals were to examine selfregulation in relation to the child’s gender and to examine the relationship between age and self-regulation. Method:The sample for this study comprised 42 children with mild intellectual disability, aged 7 to 15. There were 22 boys and 20 girls. Self-regulation was assessed with the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF. Results:The results indicated that 10 children or 23.8% had clinically significant deficit in self-regulation skills. Self-regulation skills in this sample were significantly lower as compared to the normative sample. Boys had better self-regulation skills than the girls in this sample. Self-regulation skills were improving with age for this sample of participants. Conclusion: Given the fact that these skills can be improved, it is suggested that educational institutions should give more attention to the development of executive functions at school age. Educational institutions should consider incorporating the training of executive functions into their curriculums.

  10. X-ray spectroscopy of AGN with the AXAF 'Microcalorimeter'. [Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Stephen S.

    1987-01-01

    A novel technique for X-ray spectroscopy has been configured as part of the definition payload of the AXAF Observatory. It is basically a calorimeter which, operating at 0.1 K, senses the total conversion of single photoelectrically absorbed X-rays via the differential temperature rise of the absorber. The technique promises to achieve less than 10 eV FWHM with near-unit efficiency simultaneously over the entire AXAF bandpass. This combination of high resolution and high efficiency allows for the possibility of investigating thermal, fluorescent and absorption X-ray line features in many types of X-ray source, including a large sample of active galactic nuclei.

  11. Self-regulated learning using multimedia programs in dentistry postgraduate students: A multimethod approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel LLORET

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to study the effect of a multimedia computing program on the production of activities and self-regulated learning processes in 18 students of the Dentistry postdegree (Celaya, Mexico. A multi-method design (quasi-experimental, pretest-post-test and qualitative: Think aloud protocol was used. Self-regulated activities were identified with the MSLQ questionnaire. Results of the MSLQ pretest/post-test questionnaire didn't show an intervention effect. In contrast, the qualitative methodology allowed the registration of a high frequency of self-regulated dimensions on the metacognitive area, on the making of inferences (cognitive area, and on the planning time and effort (behaviouralarea. Our data revealed the usefulness of a qualitative methodology for the understanding of the complex nature of the self-regulatory processes on learning environments based on computers.

  12. Self-regulated learning using multimedia programs in Dentistry posgraduate students. A multimethod approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Rivas LLORET

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to study the effect of a multimedia computing program on the production of activities and self-regulated learning processes in 18 students of the Dentistry postdegree (Celaya, Mexico. A multi-method design (quasi-experimental, pretest-post-test and qualitative: Think aloud protocol was used. Self-regulated activities were identified with the MSLQ questionnaire. Results of the MSLQ pretest/post-test questionnaire didn't show an intervention effect. In contrast, the qualitative methodology allowed the registration of a high frequency of self-regulated dimensions on the metacognitive area, on the making of inferences (cognitive area, and on the planning time and effort (behavioural area. Our data revealed the usefulness of a qualitative methodology for the understanding of the complex nature of the self-regulatory processes on learning environments based on computers.

  13. Radio evidence for AGN activity: relativistic jets as tracers of SMBHs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellermann, Kenneth I.

    2016-02-01

    Although the radio emission from most quasars appears to be associated with star forming activity in the host galaxy, about ten percent of optically selected quasars have very luminous relativistic jets apparently powered by a SMBH which is located at the base of the jet. When these jets are pointed close to the line of sight their apparent luminosity is enhanced by Doppler boosting and appears highly variable. High resolution radio interferometry shows directly the outflow of relativistic plasma jets from the SMBH. Apparent transverse velocities in these so-called ``blazars'' are typically about 7c but reach as much as 50c indicating true velocities within one percent of the speed of light. The jets appear to be collimated and accelerated in regions as much as a hundred parsecs downstream from the SMBH. Measurements made with Earth to space interferometers indicate apparent brightness temperatures of ~ 1014 K or more. This is well in excess of the limits imposed by inverse Compton cooling. The modest Doppler factors deduced from the observed ejection speeds appear to be inadequate to explain the high observed brightness temperatures in terms of relativistic boosting.

  14. Process Mining Techniques for Analysing Patterns and Strategies in Students' Self-Regulated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannert, Maria; Reimann, Peter; Sonnenberg, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Referring to current research on self-regulated learning, we analyse individual regulation in terms of a set of specific sequences of regulatory activities. Successful students perform regulatory activities such as analysing, planning, monitoring and evaluating cognitive and motivational aspects during learning not only with a higher frequency…

  15. Compact radio cores in radio-quiet AGNs

    CERN Document Server

    Maini, Alessandro; Norris, Ray P; Giovannini, Gabriele; Spitler, Lee R

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism of radio emission in radio-quiet (RQ) active galactic nuclei (AGN) is still debated and might arise from the central AGN, from star formation activity in the host, or from either of these sources. A direct detection of compact and bright radio cores embedded in sources that are classified as RQ can unambiguously determine whether a central AGN significantly contributes to the radio emission. We search for compact, high-surface-brightness radio cores in RQ AGNs that are caused unambiguously by AGN activity. We used the Australian Long Baseline Array to search for compact radio cores in four RQ AGNs located in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS). We also targeted four radio-loud (RL) AGNs as a control sample. We detected compact and bright radio cores in two AGNs that are classified as RQ and in one that is classified as RL. Two RL AGNs were not imaged because the quality of the observations was too poor. We report on a first direct evidence of radio cores in RQ AGNs at cosmological reds...

  16. Method for Determining AGN Accretion Phase in Field Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Micic, Miroslav; Sinha, Manodeep

    2016-01-01

    Recent observations of AGN activity in massive galaxies (log Mstar / Msun > 10.4) show that: 1) at z 1, percentage of AGNs in star forming galaxies increases and becomes comparable to AGN percentage in quiescent galaxies at z ~ 2. How can major mergers explain AGN activity in massive quiescent galaxies which have no merger features and no star formation to indicate recent galaxy merger? By matching merger events in a cosmological N-body simulation to the observed AGN incidence probability in the COSMOS survey, we show that major merger triggered AGN activity is consistent with the observations. By distinguishing between "peak" AGNs (recently merger triggered and hosted by star forming galaxies) and "faded" AGNs (merger triggered a long time ago and now residing in quiescent galaxies), we show that the AGN occupation fraction in star forming and quiescent galaxies simply follows the evolution of the galaxy merger rate. Since the galaxy merger rate drops dramatically at z < 1, the only AGNs left to be obser...

  17. Active Galactic Nuclei flicker on a characteristic timescale of 105 years: implications for black hole growth and AGN feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schawinski, Kevin; Koss, Michael; Sartori, Lia F.; Berney, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The total duration of quasar phases has been estimated to be on the order of 100 Myr to 1 Gyr. However, black hole accretion may not be a smooth process and a long-lasting growth phase may actually be composed of maby brief 105 year accretion bursts, interspersed by low-Eddington phases and even quiescence. I present an observational argument for the 105 year timescale, discuss its implications as well as current observational efforts to map out the entire AGN lifecycle.

  18. Decreased specific star formation rates in AGN host galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, T. Taro; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Meléndez, Marcio; Koss, Michael; Rosario, David J.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the location of an ultra-hard X-ray selected sample of active galactic nuclei (AGN) from the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) catalogue with respect to the main sequence (MS) of star-forming galaxies using Herschel-based measurements of the star formation rate (SFR) and M*'s from Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry where the AGN contribution has been carefully removed. We construct the MS with galaxies from the Herschel Reference Survey and Herschel Stripe 82 Survey using the exact same methods to measure the SFR and M* as the Swift/BAT AGN. We find that a large fraction of the Swift/BAT AGN lie below the MS indicating decreased specific SFR (sSFR) compared to non-AGN galaxies. The Swift/BAT AGN are then compared to a high-mass galaxy sample (CO Legacy Database for GALEX Arecibo SDSS Survey, COLD GASS), where we find a similarity between the AGN in COLD GASS and the Swift/BAT AGN. Both samples of AGN lie firmly between star-forming galaxies on the MS and quiescent galaxies far below the MS. However, we find no relationship between the X-ray luminosity and distance from the MS. While the morphological distribution of the BAT AGN is more similar to star-forming galaxies, the sSFR of each morphology is more similar to the COLD GASS AGN. The merger fraction in the BAT AGN is much higher than the COLD GASS AGN and star-forming galaxies and is related to distance from the MS. These results support a model in which bright AGN tend to be in high-mass star-forming galaxies in the process of quenching which eventually starves the supermassive black hole itself.

  19. Rubrics vs. self-assessment scripts: effects on first year university students’ self-regulation and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Panadero Calderón, Pedro Ernesto; Alonso Tapia, Jesús; Huertas Martínez, Juan Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of rubrics and self-assessment scripts on self-regulation, learning, self-efficacy and goal activation. A total of 85 university students enrolled in a psychology course on Motivation and Emotion participated in the study. During a semester, they summarized texts and designed conceptual maps of each topic unit with the help of rubrics or scripts. Self-regulation, self-efficacy and goal activation were measured through questionnaires, and ...

  20. Selecting AGN through variability in SN datasets

    OpenAIRE

    Boutsia, K.; Leibundgut, B.; Trevese, D.; Vagnetti, F.

    2010-01-01

    Variability is a main property of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and it was adopted as a selection criterion using multi epoch surveys conducted for the detection of supernovae (SNe). We have used two SN datasets. First we selected the AXAF field of the STRESS project, centered in the Chandra Deep Field South where, besides the deep X-ray surveys also various optical catalogs exist. Our method yielded 132 variable AGN candidates. We then extended our method including the dataset of the ESSENCE ...

  1. Hubungan antara Self-efficacy dengan Self-regulated Learning pada Mahasiswa Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Sumatera Utara

    OpenAIRE

    Muharrani, Tis’a

    2011-01-01

    Self-regulated learning is a concept about how student become a regulator to his/her study. Self-regulated learning is a process in which student activate his/her mind, feeling, and action that is hoped to reach the specific goal of education. One of factors that influence self-regulated learning is self-efficacy. Self efficacy can influence student to choose a task, effort, diligence, and achievement. The student who has a high self efficacy will increase the use of cognitive and self regula...

  2. A Search for AGN Intra-day Variability with KVN

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Taeseok; Trippe, Sascha; Oh, Junghwan; Byun, Do-Young; Sohn, Bong-Won; Lee, Sang-Sung

    2015-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) are known for irregular variability on all time scales, down to intra-day variability with relative variations of a few percent within minutes to hours. On such short timescales, unexplored territory, such as the possible existence of a shortest characteristic time scale of activity and the shape of the high frequency end of AGN power spectra, still exists. We present the results of AGN single-dish fast photometry performed with the Korean VLBI Network (KVN). Obse...

  3. THE MEDIATED INFLUENCE OF ON-LINE SELF-REGULATED LEARNING ACTIVITIES ON THE LEARNING OUTCOMES IN DIFFERENT LEARNING SITUATIONS%不同情境下临场自我调节学习活动对学习结果的中介影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘儒德; 陈琦

    2000-01-01

    The mediated influence of on-line self-regulated learning activities of 60 subjects on their learning outcomes in the situations of two kinds of learning goal and two kinds of time pressure was explored. The results showed that there were significant differences in on-line self-regulated learning activities between two kinds of learning task requirements, as well as between two kinds of time pressure. There was no significant difference in the multiple choice test score between the different situations. However, there was significant difference in the writing score between the different situations. Some of the on-line self-regulated learning activities mediated the influence of learning goal requirement and time pressure on the learning outcome.%探讨在两种学习目标(大致浏览与全面掌握)与两种时间压力(无时间限制提示与有时间限制提示)的情境下,60名被试的临场自我调节学习活动水平对两种学习结果(选择题测验与作文)的中介影响。结果表明,在不同情境下,无论学习目标高低或时间压力大小,被试的选择题测验成绩均不存在显著差异;而作文成绩均存在显著差异;被试的临场自我调节学习活动存在显著差异;被试的部分临场自我调节学习活动对学习结果具有中介影响。

  4. A close look to quasar-triggered winds: is the black hole-bulge relation self-regulated?

    CERN Document Server

    Monaco, P

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the role of feedback from AGNs on the formation of spheroidal galaxies. The energy released by an accreting Black Hole (BH) may be injected into the ISM through blast waves arising directly from the central engine, radiation pressure or radiative heating. A scenario is described in which radiative heating perturbs the methabolism of a star-forming spheroid, leading to a critical stage where SNe form a cold expanding shell, pushed out of the galaxy by radiation pressure from the AGN. This mechanism can regulate the BH--bulge relation to the observed value. However, this relation may be simply imprinted by the mechanism responsible for the nearly complete loss of angular momentum of the gas that accretes onto the BH. Using a novel model of galaxy formation that includes AGNs, we show that models without self-regulation have problems in reproducing the correct slope of the AGN luminosity function, while models with winds give a much better fit; however, all these models are almost indistingishable as ...

  5. Do demanding conditions help or hurt self-regulation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Koole; N.B. Jostmann; N. Baumann

    2012-01-01

    Although everyday life is often demanding, it remains unclear how demanding conditions impact self-regulation. Some theories suggest that demanding conditions impair self-regulation, by undermining autonomy, interfering with skilled performance and working memory, and depleting energy resources. Oth

  6. Linking Maternal Warmth and Responsiveness to Children's Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Suchodoletz, Antje; Trommsdorff, Gisela; Heikamp, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    The present study demonstrated that a more differentiated view of positive parenting practices is necessary in the study of children's acquisition of self-regulation. Here, the unique contributions of maternal warmth and responsiveness to distress to children's self-regulation were tested in a sample of 102 German mothers and their kindergarten…

  7. Emotion-Related Self-Regulation in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Sulik, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors review basic conceptual issues in research on children's emotion-related self-regulation, including the differentiation between self-regulation that is effortful and voluntary and control-related processes that are less amenable to effortful control. In addition, the authors summarize what researchers know about…

  8. Enhancement of Self-Regulation, Assertiveness, and Empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz de Acedo Lizarraga, M. Luisa; Ugarte, M. Dolores; Cardelle-Elawar, Maria; Iriarte, M. Dolores; Sanz de Acedo Baquedano, M. Teresa

    2003-01-01

    Examined the effects of teaching self-regulation strategies and social skills to 40 middle school students who presented difficulties in self-reflection, self-inquiry, assertiveness, and empathy. Significant gains were observed in the experimental group in self-regulation of learning, self-control of behavior, assertiveness, empathy, and…

  9. Chinese Parenting Styles and Children's Self-Regulated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Juan; Prochner, Larry

    2004-01-01

    Self-regulated learning is an important aspect of student learning and academic achievement. Certain parenting styles help children develop self-regulated learning and encourage them to exert control over their own learning. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between Chinese parenting style and children's involvement in…

  10. Self-Regulated Learning, Social Cognitive Theory, and Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jack

    2004-01-01

    The conception and theory of agency as self-regulation that is contained within Bandura's social cognitive theory is examined and elaborated in the context of the relevant philosophical history of ideas and through consideration of recent work in theoretical developmental psychology. Implications for self-regulated learning in classrooms are…

  11. Developing Self-Regulated Learners through an Intelligent Tutoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kim; Heffernan, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Intelligent tutoring systems have been developed to help students learn independently. However, students who are poor self-regulated learners often struggle to use these systems because they lack the skills necessary to learn independently. The field of psychology has extensively studied self-regulated learning and can provide strategies to…

  12. Adapting Online Self-Regulated Learning Scale into Turkish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Ozgen; Kaya, Sinan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine online self-regulated learning levels of students by adapting "Online Self-Regulated Learning Scale" designed by Barnard and his colleagues into Turkish. Present study, irrespective of being a scale analysis, is at the same time a qualitative research. It is executed via scan model. Study group of research…

  13. Supporting Self-Regulated Hypermedia Learning through Prompts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannert, Maria; Reimann, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to develop and evaluate tools and supports for self-regulated learning with hypertext information structures, such as Web pages. Two kinds of supports for self-regulated learning were developed and tested experimentally: Prompting and Prompting with Training. In Experiment 1, Prompting was tested with a pre-post-test…

  14. Assessing Preschool Teachers' Practices to Promote Self-Regulated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adagideli, Fahretdin Hasan; Saraç, Seda; Ader, Engin

    2015-01-01

    Recent research reveals that in preschool years, through pedagogical interventions, preschool teachers can and should promote self-regulated learning. The main aim of this study is to develop a self-report instrument to assess preschool teachers' practices to promote self-regulated learning. A pool of 50 items was recruited through literature…

  15. 78 FR 37114 - Self-Regulation of Class II Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... the issuance of a certificate for tribal self-regulation of Class II gaming. 78 FR 20236, April 4... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Part 518 RIN 3141-AA44 Self-Regulation of Class II Gaming AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission, Department of the Interior. ACTION: Final rule; technical and...

  16. Music as Emotional Self-Regulation throughout Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarikallio, Suvi

    2011-01-01

    Emotional self-regulation is acknowledged as one of the most important reasons for musical engagement at all ages. Yet there is little knowledge on how this self-regulatory use of music develops across the life span. A qualitative study was conducted to initially explore central processes and strategies of the emotional self-regulation during…

  17. Dynamical Self-regulation in Self-propelled Particle Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Gopinath, Arvind; Marchetti, M Cristina; Baskaran, Aparna

    2011-01-01

    We study a continuum model of overdamped self-propelled particles with an aligning interaction in two dimensions. By combining analytical and numerical work, we map out the phase diagram for generic parameters. We find that the system self-organizes into two robust structures in different regions of parameter space: solitary waves of ordered swarms moving through a low density disordered background, and stationary asters. The self-regulating nature of the flow yields phase separation, ubiquitous in this class of systems, and controls the formation of solitary waves. Self-propulsion and the associated active convection play a crucial role in aster formation. A new result of our work is a phase diagram that displays these different regimes in a unified manner.

  18. Early science with the large millimeter telescope: exploring the effect of AGN activity on the relationships between molecular gas, dust, and star formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, Allison; Pope, Alexandra; Calzetti, Daniela; Narayanan, Gopal; Schloerb, F. Peter; Yun, Min S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01002 (United States); Aretxaga, Itziar; Montaña, Alfredo; Vega, Olga [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Optica y Electrónica, Apdos. Postales 51 y 216, C.P. 72000 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Armus, Lee [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Helou, George [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Shi, Yong, E-mail: kirkpatr@astro.umass.edu [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093 (China)

    2014-12-01

    The molecular gas, H{sub 2}, that fuels star formation in galaxies is difficult to observe directly. As such, the ratio of L {sub IR} to L{sub CO}{sup ′} is an observational estimate of the star formation rate compared with the amount of molecular gas available to form stars, which is related to the star formation efficiency and the inverse of the gas consumption timescale. We test what effect an IR luminous active galactic nucleus (AGN) has on the ratio L{sub IR}/L{sub CO}{sup ′} in a sample of 24 intermediate redshift galaxies from the 5 mJy Unbiased Spitzer Extragalactic Survey (5MUSES). We obtain new CO(1-0) observations with the Redshift Search Receiver on the Large Millimeter Telescope. We diagnose the presence and strength of an AGN using Spitzer IRS spectroscopy. We find that removing the AGN contribution to L{sub IR}{sup tot} results in a mean L{sub IR}{sup SF}/L{sub CO}{sup ′} for our entire sample consistent with the mean L{sub IR}/L{sub CO}{sup ′} derived for a large sample of star forming galaxies from z ∼ 0-3. We also include in our comparison the relative amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission for our sample and a literature sample of local and high-redshift ultra luminous infrared galaxies and find a consistent trend between L{sub 6.2}/L{sub IR}{sup SF} and L{sub IR}{sup SF}/L{sub CO}{sup ′}, such that small dust grain emission decreases with increasing L{sub IR}{sup SF}/L{sub CO}{sup ′} for both local and high-redshift dusty galaxies.

  19. AGN outflows trigger starbursts in gas-rich galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Zubovas, Kastytis; King, Andrew; Wilkinson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Recent well resolved numerical simulations of AGN feedback have shown that its effects on the host galaxy may be not only negative but also positive. In the late gas poor phase, AGN feedback blows the gas away and terminates star formation. However, in the gas-rich phase(s), AGN outflows trigger star formation by over-compressing cold dense gas and thus provide positive feedback on their hosts. In this paper we study this AGN-triggered starburst effect. We show that star formation rate in the burst increases until the star formation feedback counteracts locally the AGN outflow compression. Globally, this predicts a strong nearly linear statistical correlation between the AGN and starburst bolometric luminosities in disc galaxies, L_* \\propto L_{AGN}^{5/6}. The correlation is statistical only because AGN activity may fluctuate on short time scales (as short as tens of years), and because AGN may turn off but its effects on the host may continue to last until the AGN-driven outflow leaves the host, which may be...

  20. Self-Regulation, Motivation and Teaching Styles in Physical Education Classes: An Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzipanteli, Athanasia; Digelidis, Nikolaos; Papaioannou, Athanasios G.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of student-activated teaching styles through a specific intervention program on students' self-regulation, lesson satisfaction, and motivation. Six hundred and one 7th grade students (318 boys and 283 girls), aged 13 years were randomly assigned to an experimental group and a comparison group.…

  1. Self-Regulated Learning Using Multimedia Programs in Dentistry Postgraduate Students: A Multimethod Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, Miguel; Aguila, Estela; Lloret, Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to study the effect of a multimedia computing program on the production of activities and self-regulated learning processes in 18 students of the Dentistry postdegree (Celaya, Mexico). A multi-method design (quasi-experimental, pretest-post-test and qualitative: Think aloud protocol) was used. Self-regulated…

  2. Professional Learning through Everyday Work: How Finance Professionals Self-Regulate Their Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlejohn, Allison; Milligan, Colin; Fontana, Rosa Pia; Margaryan, Anoush

    2016-01-01

    Professional learning is a critical component of ongoing improvement and innovation and the adoption of new practices in the workplace. Professional learning is often achieved through learning embedded in everyday work tasks. However, little is known about how professionals self-regulate their learning through regular work activities. This paper…

  3. Children's Self-Regulation in the Context of Participatory Pedagogy in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Jonna; Ojala, Mikko; Venninen, Tuulikki

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: Research has shown that self-regulation can support child development in the areas of children's attentional flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control for excluding impulsive responses. How this is actually related in everyday pedagogical early childhood education (ECE) activities has rarely been studied in detail. In…

  4. Understanding Mobile Learning from the Perspective of Self-Regulated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, L.; Looi, C.-K.; Chen, W.; Zhang, B. H.

    2012-01-01

    Cognizant of the research gap in the theorization of mobile learning, this paper conceptually explores how the theories and methodology of self-regulated learning (SRL), an active area in contemporary educational psychology, are inherently suited to address the issues originating from the defining characteristics of mobile learning: enabling…

  5. Relationships among constructivist learning environment perceptions, motivational beliefs, self-regulation and science achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingir, Sevgi; Tas, Yasemin; Gok, Gulsum; Sungur Vural, Semra

    2013-11-01

    Background. There are attempts to integrate learning environment research with motivation and self-regulation research that considers social context influences an individual's motivation, self-regulation and, in turn, academic performance. Purpose. This study explored the relationships among constructivist learning environment perception variables (personal relevance, uncertainty, shared control, critical voice, student negotiation), motivational beliefs (self-efficacy, intrinsic interest, goal orientation), self-regulation, and science achievement. Sample. The sample for this study comprised 802 Grade 8 students from 14 public middle schools in a district of Ankara in Turkey. Design and methods. Students were administered 4 instruments: Constructivist Learning Environment Survey, Goal Achievement Questionnaire, Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire, and Science Achievement Test. LISREL 8.7 program with SIMPLIS programming language was used to test the conceptual model. Providing appropriate fit indices for the proposed model, the standardized path coefficients for direct effects were examined. Results. At least one dimension of the constructivist learning environment was associated with students' intrinsic interest, goal orientation, self-efficacy, self-regulation, and science achievement. Self-efficacy emerged as the strongest predictor of both mastery and performance avoidance goals rather than the approach goals. Intrinsic value was found to be significantly linked to science achievement through its effect on self-regulation. The relationships between self-efficacy and self-regulation and between goal orientation and science achievement were not significant. Conclusion. In a classroom environment supporting student autonomy and control, students tend to develop higher interest in tasks, use more self-regulatory strategies, and demonstrate higher academic performance. Science teachers are highly recommended to consider these findings when designing

  6. SUPPORT AND PROMOTION OF SELF-REGULATED LEARNING THROUGH THE EDUCATIONAL MATERIAL AT THE HELLENIC OPEN UNIVERSITY

    OpenAIRE

    NIKOLAKI, Evi; Maria I. KOUTSOUBA

    2012-01-01

    In distance education both the physical separation between learner and instructor, and the use of technology create an educational environment that is characterized by learning autonomy and the learner’s active involvement. Because of these, self-regulated learning constitutes an inseparable concept of distance education. This study explores the support and promotion of self-regulated learning in the educational environment of the Hellenic Open University. In particular, this paper examines h...

  7. Keeping aware of being an older driver? Stereotype threat as a cue in older adults' self-regulation

    OpenAIRE

    MOTAK,L; HUET,N; GABAUDE,C; BOUGEANT,JC

    2011-01-01

    Research has previously demonstrated that older adults succeed to self-regulate their activity respectfully of their available cognitive resources. Yet question remains, which metacognitive cues may allow--or hinder--older adults to self-regulate in an adaptive way. While stereotypes represent basically an extrinsic, theory-based cue, a stereotype threat effect--i.e. lower performance when facing a stereotype--occurs through depleting working memory resources, and as such represents an intern...

  8. The Horizon-AGN Simulation: Morphological Diversity of Galaxies Promoted by AGN feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Dubois, Yohan; Pichon, Christophe; Devriendt, Julien; Gavazzi, Raphael; Welker, Charlotte; Volonteri, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The interplay between cosmic gas accretion onto galaxies and galaxy mergers drives the observed morphological diversity of galaxies. By comparing the state-of-the-art hydrodynamical cosmological simulations Horizon-AGN and Horizon-noAGN, we unambiguously identify the critical role of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) in setting up the correct galaxy morphology for the massive end of the population. With AGN feedback, typical kinematic and morpho-metric properties of galaxy populations as well as the galaxy-halo mass relation are in much better agreement with observations. Only AGN feedback allows massive galaxies at the center of groups and clusters to become ellipticals, while without AGN feedback those galaxies reform discs. It is the merger-enhanced AGN activity that is able to freeze the morphological type of the post-merger remnant by durably quenching its quiescent star formation. Hence morphology is shown not to be purely driven by mass but also by the nature of cosmic accretion: at constant galaxy mass, el...

  9. Non-thermal AGN models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The infrared, optical and x-ray continua from radio quiet active galactic nuclei (AGN) are explained by a compact non-thermal source surrounding a thermal ultraviolet emitter, presumably the accretion disk around a supermassive black hole. The ultraviolet source is observed as the ''big blue bump.'' The flat (α ≅ .7) hard x-ray spectrum results from the scattering of thermal ultraviolet photons by the flat, low energy end of an electron distribution ''broken'' by Compton losses; the infrared through soft x-ray continuum is the synchrotron radiation of the steep, high energy end of the electron distribution. Quantitative fits to specific AGN result in models which satisfy the variability constraints but require electron (re)acceleration throughout the source. 11 refs., 1 fig

  10. AGN Absorption Linked to Host Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Juneau, Stéphanie

    2013-01-01

    Multiwavelength identification of AGN is crucial not only to obtain a more complete census, but also to learn about the physical state of the nuclear activity (obscuration, efficiency, etc.). A panchromatic strategy plays an especially important role when the host galaxies are star-forming. Selecting far-Infrared galaxies at 0.3AGN tracers in the X-ray, optical spectra, mid-infrared, and radio regimes, we found a twice higher AGN fraction than previous studies, thanks to the combined AGN identification methods and in particular the recent Mass-Excitation (MEx) diagnostic diagram. We furthermore find an intriguing relation between AGN X-ray absorption and the specific star formation rate (sSFR) of the host galaxies, indicating a physical link between X-ray absorption and either the gas fraction or the gas geometry in the hosts. These findings have implications for our current understanding of both the AGN unification model and the nature of the black hole-galaxy connection. These proceedi...

  11. MC$^2$: Boosted AGN and star-formation activity in CIZA J2242.8+5301, a massive post-merger cluster at z=0.19

    CERN Document Server

    Sobral, David; Dawson, William A; Wittman, David; Jee, James; Röttgering, Huub; van Weeren, Reinout J; Brüggen, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Cluster mergers may play a fundamental role in the formation and evolution of cluster galaxies. Stroe et al. (2014) revealed unexpected over-densities of candidate H$\\alpha$ emitters near the ~1 Mpc-wide shock fronts of the massive (~2x10$^{15}$M$_{\\odot}$) "Sausage" merging cluster, CIZA J2242.8+5301. We used Keck/DEIMOS and WHT/AF2 to confirm 83 H$\\alpha$ emitters in and around the merging cluster. We find that cluster star-forming galaxies in the hottest X-ray gas and/or in the cluster sub-cores (away from the shock fronts) show high [SII]6716/[SII]6761 and high [SII]6716/H$\\alpha$, implying very low electron densities (2.5 Mpc). This suggests that the shock front may have triggered remaining metal-rich gas which galaxies were able to retain into forming stars. Our observations show that the merger of impressively massive (~10$^{15}$M$_\\odot$) clusters can provide the conditions for significant star-formation and AGN activity, but, as we witness strong feedback by star-forming galaxies and AGN (and given h...

  12. Industry Self-Regulation as a Means to Promote Nonproliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hund, Gretchen; Elkhamri, Oksana O.

    2005-10-01

    Companies within numerous industries that have been “early adopters” of self-regulation concept, considering the environment and society alongside business issues, have realized several benefits and some competitive advantage while substantially improving their environmental performance. Given that proliferation prevention is also a public good, our premise is that the experience gained and lessons learned from the self-regulation initiative in other industries and more broadly in the arena of sustainable development provide a basis for examining the feasibility of developing self-regulation mechanisms applicable to industries involved with sensitive technologies (nuclear, radiological source, and other dual-use industries)

  13. The radio AGN population dichotomy: Green valley Seyferts versus red sequence low-excitation AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Smolcic, V

    2009-01-01

    Radio outflows of active galactic nuclei (AGN) are invoked in cosmological models as a key feedback mechanism in the latest phases of massive galaxy formation. Recently it has been suggested that the two major radio AGN populations -- the powerful high-excitation, and the weak low-excitation radio AGN (HERAGN and LERAGN, resp.) -- represent two earlier and later stages of massive galaxy build-up. To test this, here we make use of a local (0.04AGN with available optical spectroscopy, drawn from the FIRST, NVSS, SDSS, and 3CRR surveys. A clear dichotomy is found between the properties of low-excitation (absorption line AGN, and LINERs) and high-excitation (Seyferts) radio AGN. The hosts of the first have the highest stellar masses, reddest optical colors, and highest mass black holes but accrete inefficiently (at low rates). On the other hand, the high-excitation radio AGN have lower stellar masses, bluer optical colors (consistent with the `green valley'), and lower mass blac...

  14. Time Series Analysis of the UV Flickering in AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Edward L.

    2003-01-01

    Goals of the Research: Many active galactic nuclei (AGN) exhibit large-amplitude luminosity fluctuations on short timescales. The fluctuations lead to a profound conclusion: The size of the emitting region is remarkably small. This observational fact is one of the pillars supporting the AGN paradigm: Prodigious amounts of gravitational potential energy are liberated in an accretion disk around a supermassive black hole. The goals of the research were to extract from the IUE Archive the very best observational characterizations of AGN flickering, and to use these to test and develop models for AGN variability.

  15. Thinking and Action: A Cognitive Perspective on Self-Regulation during Endurance Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brick, Noel E; MacIntyre, Tadhg E; Campbell, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulation reflects an individual's efforts to bring behavior and thinking into line with often consciously desired goals. During endurance activity, self-regulation requires an athlete to balance their speed or power output appropriately to achieve an optimal level of performance. Considering that both behavior and thinking are core elements of self-regulation, this article provides a cognitive perspective on the processes required for effective pace-regulation during endurance performance. We also integrate this viewpoint with physiological and performance outcomes during activity. As such, evidence is presented to suggest that what an athlete thinks about has an important influence on effort perceptions, physiological outcomes, and, consequently, endurance performance. This article also provides an account of how an athlete might control their cognition and focus attention during an endurance event. We propose that effective cognitive control during performance requires both proactive, goal-driven processes and reactive, stimulus-driven processes. In addition, the role of metacognition-or thinking about thinking-in pace-regulation will also be considered. Metacognition is an essential component of self-regulation and its primary functions are to monitor and control the thoughts and actions required for task completion. To illustrate these processes in action, a metacognitive framework of attentional focus and cognitive control is applied to an endurance performance setting: specifically, Bradley Wiggins' successful 2015 Hour record attempt in cycling. Finally, future perspectives will consider the potentially deleterious effects of the sustained cognitive effort required during prolonged and strenuous endurance tasks. PMID:27199774

  16. Pattern of Task Interpretation and Self-Regulated Learning Strategies of High School Students and College Freshmen during an Engineering Design Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawanto, Oenardi; Butler, Deborah; Cartier, Sylvie C.; Santoso, Harry B.; Goodridge, Wade; Lawanto, Kevin N.; Clark, David

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this exploratory study was to describe patterns in self-regulated learning (SRL) for both high school students and college freshmen while engaged in a design activity. The main research question guiding this study was: How did high school and first-year college students self-regulate their approaches to learning when engaged in an…

  17. Radio AGN in the local universe: unification, triggering and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Tadhunter, Clive

    2016-01-01

    Associated with one of the most important forms of active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback, and showing a strong preference for giant elliptical host galaxies, radio AGN (L_1.4GHz > 10^24 W Hz^-1) are a key sub-class of the overall AGN population. Here I review our current state of understanding of the population of radio AGN at low and intermediate redshifts (z < 0.7), concentrating on their AGN and host galaxy properties, and covering three interlocking themes: the classification of radio AGN and its interpretation; the triggering and fuelling of the jet and AGN activity; and the evolution of the host galaxies. I show that much of the observed diversity in the AGN properties of radio AGN can be explained in terms of a combination of orientation/anisotropy, mass accretion rate, and variability effects. The detailed morphologies of the host galaxies are consistent with the triggering of strong-line radio galaxies (SLRG) in galaxy mergers. However, the star formation properties and cool ISM contents suggest ...

  18. Satellites of radio AGN in SDSS: Insights into agn triggering and feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the effects of radio jets on galaxies in their vicinity (satellites) and the role of satellites in triggering radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The study compares the aggregate properties of satellites of a sample of 7220 radio AGNs at z < 0.3 (identified by Best and Heckman from the SDSS and NVSS+FIRST surveys) to the satellites of a control sample of radio-quiet galaxies, which are matched in redshift, color, luminosity, and axis ratio, as well as by environment type: field galaxies, cluster members, and brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs). Remarkably, we find that radio AGNs exhibit on average a 50% excess (17σ significance) in the number of satellites within 100 kpc even though the cluster membership was controlled (e.g., radio BCGs have more satellites than radio-quiet BCGs, etc.). Satellite excess is not confirmed for high-excitation sources, which are only 2% of radio AGN. Extra satellites may be responsible for raising the probability for hot gas AGN accretion via tidal effects or may otherwise enhance the intensity or duration of the radio-emitting phase. Furthermore, we find that the incidence of radio AGNs among potential hosts (massive ellipticals) is similar for field galaxies and for non-BCG cluster members, suggesting that AGN fueling depends primarily on conditions in the host halo rather than the parent, cluster halo. Regarding feedback, we find that radio AGNs, either high or low excitation, have no detectable effect on star formation in their satellites, as neither induced star formation nor star formation quenching is present in more than ∼1% of radio AGN.

  19. Satellites of radio AGN in SDSS: Insights into agn triggering and feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, Cameron; Salim, Samir, E-mail: cjpace@indiana.edu, E-mail: salims@indiana.edu [Indiana University, Department of Astronomy, Swain Hall West 319, Bloomington, IN 47405-7105 (United States)

    2014-04-10

    We study the effects of radio jets on galaxies in their vicinity (satellites) and the role of satellites in triggering radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The study compares the aggregate properties of satellites of a sample of 7220 radio AGNs at z < 0.3 (identified by Best and Heckman from the SDSS and NVSS+FIRST surveys) to the satellites of a control sample of radio-quiet galaxies, which are matched in redshift, color, luminosity, and axis ratio, as well as by environment type: field galaxies, cluster members, and brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs). Remarkably, we find that radio AGNs exhibit on average a 50% excess (17σ significance) in the number of satellites within 100 kpc even though the cluster membership was controlled (e.g., radio BCGs have more satellites than radio-quiet BCGs, etc.). Satellite excess is not confirmed for high-excitation sources, which are only 2% of radio AGN. Extra satellites may be responsible for raising the probability for hot gas AGN accretion via tidal effects or may otherwise enhance the intensity or duration of the radio-emitting phase. Furthermore, we find that the incidence of radio AGNs among potential hosts (massive ellipticals) is similar for field galaxies and for non-BCG cluster members, suggesting that AGN fueling depends primarily on conditions in the host halo rather than the parent, cluster halo. Regarding feedback, we find that radio AGNs, either high or low excitation, have no detectable effect on star formation in their satellites, as neither induced star formation nor star formation quenching is present in more than ∼1% of radio AGN.

  20. Secondary school pupils’ self-regulated learning skills

    OpenAIRE

    Iuliana Marchis; Timea Balogh

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a research on 258 secondary school pupils’ (10-15 yearsold, 5th-8th grades) self-regulated learning skills as self-efficacy, self-judgement, selfreactionand their interest for studying Mathematics.

  1. Self-regulated learning: An opportunity in vocational education

    OpenAIRE

    Jossberger, Helen; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Van de Wiel, Margje; Boshuizen, Els

    2011-01-01

    Jossberger, H., Brand-Gruwel, S., Van de Wiel, M., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2011, August/September). Self-regulated learning: An opportunity in vocational education. Presentation at the 13th JURE Conference 2011, Exeter, England.

  2. MATHEMATICS ACHIEVEMENT, SELF-REGULATED LEARNING AND COGNITIVE STYLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela Camargo Uribe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the relationship among high school students’ mathematics achievement, use of self-regulated learning strategies and cognitive style in the field dependence-independence dimension is examined. Subjects were 128 tenth graders of a public school at Bogotá, Colombia. The MSLQ Questionnaire was used to assess students’ level of self-regulation and the EFT test was used to measure students’ field dependence-independence cognitive style. Mathematics achievement was indicated by the grades obtained by the students during the academic year. Results show that self-regulated learning and cognitive style are related to Math achievement, each one separately. Additionally, complex relations between self-regulation and field dependence-independence were found.

  3. Self-Regulated Learning in Accounting: Diagnosis, Dimensions and Explanations

    OpenAIRE

    Raimundo Nonato Lima Filho; Gerlando Augusto Sampaio Franco de Lima; Adriano Leal Bruni

    2015-01-01

    This research analyzes self-regulated learning in A ccounting students in two public universities, presenting diagnosis, dimensions and possible explanations, contextualized from the gender, age and stage in the course. The object ives of this paper include to: (a) identify the self-regulated learning strategies used by Accounti ng students in two public universities, (b) determine the dimensions associated with those stra tegies, and (c) analyze how these strategies could be...

  4. MATHEMATICS ACHIEVEMENT, SELF-REGULATED LEARNING AND COGNITIVE STYLE

    OpenAIRE

    Ángela Camargo Uribe; Christian Hederich-Martínez; Omar López Vargas

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the relationship among high school students’ mathematics achievement, use of self-regulated learning strategies and cognitive style in the field dependence-independence dimension is examined. Subjects were 128 tenth graders of a public school at Bogotá, Colombia. The MSLQ Questionnaire was used to assess students’ level of self-regulation and the EFT test was used to measure students’ field dependence-independence cognitive style. Mathematics achievement was indicated by the gra...

  5. Adapting Online Self-Regulated Learning Scale Into Turkish

    OpenAIRE

    Ozgen KORKMAZ; KAYA, Sinan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine online self-regulated learning levels of students by adapting “Online Self-Regulated Learning Scale” designed by Barnard and his colleagues into Turkish. Present study, irrespective of being a scale analysis, is at the same time a qualitative research. It is executed via scan model. Study group of research consists of collectively 222 students. Firstly the original scale has been translated by two educational technologists who are efficient in both Tu...

  6. Toddler self-regulation skills predict risk for pediatric obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Graziano, Paulo A.; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of early self-regulation skills, including emotion regulation, sustained attention, and inhibitory control/reward sensitivity, in predicting pediatric obesity in early childhood. Method Participants for this study included 57 children (25 girls) obtained from three different cohorts participating in a larger ongoing longitudinal study. At 2 years of age, participants participated in several laboratory tasks designed to assess their self-regulation abilities. ...

  7. Emotion-Related Self-Regulation in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Sulik, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors review basic conceptual issues in research on children’s emotion-related self-regulation, including the differentiation between self-regulation that is effortful and voluntary and control-related processes that are less amenable to effortful control. In addition, the authors summarize what researchers know about developmental changes in self-regulatory capacities, give examples of various methods used to assess these abilities, and summarize findings on the relati...

  8. Self-regulation and student's goals in the social context

    OpenAIRE

    Strmšek Turk, Suzana

    2012-01-01

    The fields of self-regulation and motivational goals are in the centre of theories which try to explain motivational processes and learning achievement. The latter are namely strongly connected with the goal orientation, the self-regulation of learning and the self-efficiency of students. Therefore the main research problem of the thesis is to enlighten the complexity of goals of students in vocational and professional education in the social context and the argumentation and interpretation o...

  9. Sex differences in self-regulation: an evolutionary perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseini-Kamkar, Niki; Morton, J. Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Bjorklund and Kipp (1996) provide an evolutionary framework predicting that there is a female advantage in inhibition and self-regulation due to differing selection pressures placed on males and females. The majority of the present review will summarize sex differences in self-regulation at the behavioral level. The neural and hormonal underpinnings of this potential sexual dimorphism will also be investigated and the results of the experiments summarized will be related to the hypothesis adv...

  10. AGN Watch Continuum Monitoring of Radio-quiet and Radio-loud AGN

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Paul T.; Leighly, Karen M.

    1997-01-01

    The International AGN Watch has monitored a number of radio-quiet and radio-loud Active Galactic Nuclei - the most luminous objects in the universe. We present a review of the main observational results from the continuum monitoring campaigns, concentrating on those which aim to quantify the simultaneous ultraviolet to X-ray variability characteristics. These data provide strong constraints on the proposed continuum emission mechanisms. The AGN Watch campaigns have made extensive use of a wid...

  11. Self-Regulated Learning in Accounting: Diagnosis, Dimensions and Explanations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Nonato Lima Filho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes self-regulated learning in A ccounting students in two public universities, presenting diagnosis, dimensions and possible explanations, contextualized from the gender, age and stage in the course. The object ives of this paper include to: (a identify the self-regulated learning strategies used by Accounti ng students in two public universities, (b determine the dimensions associated with those stra tegies, and (c analyze how these strategies could be explained on the basis of gende r, age or stage (semester of the students in the course. A sample consisting of 249 individuals revealed that gender and age are factors that influence the degree of self-regulation of a s tudent. Women and younger students tend to have higher levels of self-regulated learning, howe ver, in the stage analysis, the results did not show normal distribution, thus demonstrating the im possibility of realizing the increase or decrease of the degree of self-regulated learning a mong respondents. These results contribute to the practice of teaching accounting, as older st udents and those with a male gender should receive more special attention in relation to their development of self-regulated, independent and proactive learning.

  12. Maternal abuse history and self-regulation difficulties in preadolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delker, Brianna C; Noll, Laura K; Kim, Hyoun K; Fisher, Philip A

    2014-12-01

    Although poor parenting is known to be closely linked to self-regulation difficulties in early childhood, comparatively little is understood about the role of other risk factors in the early caregiving environment (such as a parent's own experiences of childhood abuse) in developmental pathways of self-regulation into adolescence. Using a longitudinal design, this study aimed to examine how a mother's history of abuse in childhood relates to her offspring's self-regulation difficulties in preadolescence. Maternal controlling parenting and exposure to intimate partner aggression in the child's first 24-36 months were examined as important early social and environmental influences that may explain the proposed connection between maternal abuse history and preadolescent self-regulation. An ethnically diverse sample of mothers (N=488) who were identified as at-risk for child maltreatment was recruited at the time of their children's birth. Mothers and their children were assessed annually from the child's birth through 36 months, and at age 9-11 years. Structural equation modeling and bootstrap tests of indirect effects were conducted to address the study aims. Findings indicated that maternal abuse history indirectly predicted their children's self-regulation difficulties in preadolescence mainly through maternal controlling parenting in early childhood, but not through maternal exposure to aggression by an intimate partner. Maternal history of childhood abuse and maternal controlling parenting in her child's early life may have long-term developmental implications for child self-regulation. PMID:25459984

  13. Validation of the self regulation questionnaire as a measure of health in quality of life research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Several epidemiological studies address psychosomatic 'self regulation' as a measure of quality of life aspects. However, although widely used in studies with a focus on complementary cancer treatment, and recognized to be associated with better survival of cancer patients, it is unclear what the 'self regulation' questionnaire exactly measures. Design and setting In a sample of 444 individuals (27% healthy, 33% cancer, 40% other internal diseases), we performed reliability and exploratory factor analyses, and correlated the 16-item instrument with external measures such as the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Herdecke Quality of Life questionnaire, and autonomic regulation questionnaire. Results The 16-item pool had a very good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.948) and satisfying/good (rrt = 0.796) test-retest reliability after 3 months. Exploratory factor analysis indicated 2 sub-constructs: (1) Ability to change behaviour in order to reach goals, and (2) Achieve satisfaction and well-being. Both sub-scales correlated well with quality of life aspects, particularly with Initiative Power/Interest, Social Interactions, Mental Balance, and negatively with anxiety and depression. Conclusions The Self Regulation Questionnaire (SRQ) was found to be a valid and reliable tool which measures unique psychosomatic abilities. Self regulation deals with competence and autonomy and can be regarded as a problem solving capacity in terms of an active adaptation to stressful situations to restore wellbeing. The tool is an interesting option to be used particularly in complementary medicine research with a focus on behavioural modification. PMID:19541580

  14. What Teachers Think about Self-Regulated Learning: Investigating Teacher Beliefs and Teacher Behavior of Enhancing Students’ Self-Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Charlotte Dignath-van Ewijk; Greetje van der Werf

    2012-01-01

    In order to foster self-regulated learning (SRL), teachers should provide students with learning strategies, as well as with constructivist learning environments that allow them to self-regulate their learning. These two components complement each other. When investigating teachers’ promotion of SRL, not only teacher behavior, but also teachers’ beliefs as well as their knowledge about SRL are relevant aspects to consider. Therefore, this study seeks to examine teachers’ knowledge and beliefs...

  15. The cosmic evolution of massive black holes in the Horizon-AGN simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volonteri, M.; Dubois, Y.; Pichon, C.; Devriendt, J.

    2016-08-01

    We analyse the demographics of black holes (BHs) in the large-volume cosmological hydrodynamical simulation Horizon-AGN. This simulation statistically models how much gas is accreted onto BHs, traces the energy deposited into their environment and, consequently, the back-reaction of the ambient medium on BH growth. The synthetic BHs reproduce a variety of observational constraints such as the redshift evolution of the BH mass density and the mass function. Strong self-regulation via AGN feedback, weak supernova feedback, and unresolved internal processes result in a tight BH-galaxy mass correlation. Starting at z~2, tidal stripping creates a small population of BHs over-massive with respect to the halo. The fraction of galaxies hosting a central BH or an AGN increases with stellar mass. The AGN fraction agrees better with multi-wavelength studies, than single-wavelength ones, unless obscuration is taken into account. The most massive halos present BH multiplicity, with additional BHs gained by ongoing or past mergers. In some cases, both a central and an off-centre AGN shine concurrently, producing a dual AGN. This dual AGN population dwindles with decreasing redshift, as found in observations. Specific accretion rate and Eddington ratio distributions are in good agreement with observational estimates. The BH population is dominated in turn by fast, slow, and very slow accretors, with transitions occurring at z=3 and z=2 respectively.

  16. Combining Chandra Observations and Near-Infrared Imaging to Search for Dual AGNs Among Double-Peaked [O III] SDSS AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGurk, Rosalie C.; Max, Claire E.; Holden, Bradford; Shields, Gregory A.; Medling, Anne

    2016-01-01

    When galaxies merge, gas accretes onto both central supermassive black holes. Thus, one expects to see close pairs of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), or dual AGNs, in a fraction of galaxy mergers. However, finding them remains a challenge. We studied a sample of double-peaked SDSS [O III] AGNs using Keck 2 Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics assisted imaging to find that 30% of double-peaked SDSS AGNs have two spatial components within a 3" radius. However, the identity of the companion object is not revealed with imaging; X-ray observations can confirm these galaxy pairs as systems containing two AGNs. We performed Chandra X-ray ACIS-S observations on 12 double-peaked candidate dual AGNs with a possible near-infrared companion 1-3" away. Using our observations and 8 archival observations of additional candidate dual AGNs, we compare the distribution of X-ray photons to our spatially double near-IR images, measure X-ray luminosities and hardness ratios, and estimate column densities. Additionally, we can compare our near-IR spatially double candidates with 7 double-peaked [O III] SDSS AGNs that are spatially single in our near-IR imaging and have archival Chandra ACIS-S observations. By assessing what fraction of double- peaked emission line SDSS AGNs are true dual AGNs, we can better determine whether double-peaked [O III] is an efficient dual AGN indicator and constrain the statistics of dual AGNs

  17. The merging/AGN connection: a case for 3D spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Christensen, L.; Becker, T.; Kelz, A.; Jahnke, K.; Benn, C. R.; García-Lorenzo, B.; Roth, M. M.

    2004-02-01

    We discuss an ongoing study of the connection between galaxy merging/interaction and AGN activity, based on integral field spectroscopy. We focus on the search for AGN ionization in the central regions of mergers, previously not classified as AGNs. We present here the science case, the current status of the project, and plans for future observations.

  18. The merging/AGN connection: A case for 3D spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, S. F.; Christensen, L; Becker, T; Kelz, A.; Jahnke, K.; Benn, C. R.; Garcia-Lorenzo, B.; Roth, M. M.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss an ongoing study of the connection between galaxy merging/interaction and AGN activity, based on integral field spectroscopy. We focus on the search for AGN ionization in the central regions of mergers, previously not classified as AGNs. We present here the science case, the current status of the project, and plans for future observations.

  19. Soft X-Ray Spectra of AGN Discovered Via Their Hard X-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    This final report is a study of the Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). Investigation of the soft x-ray spectra of AGN were performed by using their hard x-ray emission. ROSAT observations of AGN was also performed, which allowed for the study of these x-ray spectra and the structures of 7 clusters of galaxies.

  20. Intranight polarization variability in radio-loud and radio-quiet AGN

    OpenAIRE

    Villforth, C.; Nilsson, K.; Østensen, R.; Heidt, J.; Niemi, S-M; Pforr, J.

    2009-01-01

    Intranight polarization variability in active galactic nuclei (AGN) has not been studied extensively so far. Studying the variability in polarization makes it possible to distinguish between different emission mechanisms. Thus, it can help answering the question if intranight variability in radio-loud and radio-quiet AGN is of the same or of fundamentally different origin. In this paper, we investigate intranight polarization variability in AGN. Our sample consists of 28 AGN at low to moderat...

  1. The DEEP Groth Strip Survey VI. Spectroscopic, Variability, and X-ray Detection of AGN

    OpenAIRE

    Sarajedini, Vicki L.; Koo, David C.; Phillips, Andrew C.; Kobulnicky, Henry. A.; Gebhardt, Karl; Willmer, Christopher N. A.; Nicole P. Vogt(Department of Astronomy, MSC 4500, New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 30001, Las Cruces, NM 88003, USA); Laird, Elise; Im, Myungshin; Iverson, Sarah; Mattos, Wanessa

    2006-01-01

    We identify active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the Groth-Westphal Survey Strip (GSS) using the independent and complementary selection techniques of optical spectroscopy and photometric variability. We discuss the X-ray properties of these AGN using Chandra/XMM data for this region. From a sample of 576 galaxies with high quality spectra we identify 31 galaxies with AGN signatures. Seven of these have broad emission lines (Type 1 AGNs). We also identify 26 galaxies displaying nuclear variability...

  2. THE DEEP SWIRE FIELD. IV. FIRST PROPERTIES OF THE SUB-mJy GALAXY POPULATION: REDSHIFT DISTRIBUTION, AGN ACTIVITY, AND STAR FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a study of a 20 cm selected sample in the Deep Spitzer Wide-area InfraRed Extragalactic Legacy Survey Very Large Array Field, reaching a 5σ limiting flux density at the image center of S1.4GHz ∼ 13.5 μJy. In a 0.6 x 0.6 deg2 field, we are able to assign an optical/IR counterpart to 97% of the radio sources. Up to 11 passbands from the NUV to 4.5 μm are then used to sample the spectral energy distribution (SED) of these counterparts in order to investigate the nature of the host galaxies. By means of an SED template library and stellar population synthesis models, we estimate photometric redshifts, stellar masses, and stellar population properties, dividing the sample into three sub-classes of quiescent, intermediate, and star-forming galaxies. We focus on the radio sample in the redshift range 0.3 < z < 1.3 where we estimate to have a redshift completeness higher than 90% and study the properties and redshift evolution of these sub-populations. We find that, as expected, the relative contributions of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and star-forming galaxies to the μJy population depend on the flux density limit of the sample. At all flux levels, a significant population of 'green-valley' galaxies is observed. While the actual nature of these sources is not definitely understood, the results of this work may suggest that a significant fraction of faint radio sources might be composite (and possibly transition) objects, thus a simple 'AGN versus star-forming' classification might not be appropriate to fully understand what faint radio populations really are.

  3. Motivations for self-regulation: The clean air action plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the fall of 2006 the Ports of Long Beach and Los Angeles announced the Clean Air Action Plan (CAAP). Its intent was to greatly accelerate emissions reductions from port activities. The CAAP was unprecedented in several ways: it was a voluntary agreement between two competing ports; it was achieved with the cooperation of local, state and federal agencies; it promised large particulate emissions reductions along with continued port growth, and it had a price tag of $2.1 billion. What explains the Ports’ decision to implement the CAAP? We conduct a case study to explore alternative explanations for the CAAP. Using data from interviews, media, and the history of events leading up to the CAAP, we find that the CAAP was a strategic response to social and political pressures that had built up over the previous decade. Its intent was to respond to local concerns and reduce opposition to port growth. The CAAP represents an example of the potential of voluntary efforts to solve environmental problems. - Highlights: • We conduct a case study of self-regulation for emissions reduction at seaports in Southern California. • We examine motivations for implementing the Clean Air Action Plan. • We find that social and political pressures were the main motivators, with regulatory threats a contributing factor. • The Clean Air Action Plan is a powerful example of the potential of voluntary strategies

  4. AGN evolution from a galaxy evolution viewpoint

    CERN Document Server

    Caplar, Neven; Trakhtenbrot, Benny

    2014-01-01

    We explore the connections between the evolving galaxy and AGN populations. We present a simple phenomenological model that links the evolving galaxy mass function and the evolving quasar luminosity function, motivated by similarities between the two, which makes specific and testable predictions for the distribution of host galaxy masses for AGN of different luminosities. We show that the phi$^{*}$ normalisations of the galaxy mass function and the AGN luminosity function closely track each other over a wide range of redshifts, implying a constant "duty cycle" of AGN activity. The strong redshift evolution in the AGN break luminosity $L^*$ is produced by either an evolution in the distribution of Eddington rations, or in the $m_{bh}/m_{*}$ mass ratio, or both. An evolving $m_{bh}/m_{*}$ ratio, such that it is ten times higher at $z \\sim 2$ (i.e. roughly following $(1+z)^{2}$), reproduces the observed distribution of SDSS quasars in the ($m_{bh},L$) plane and accounts for the apparent "sub-Eddington boundary"...

  5. ASTRO-H White Paper - AGN Reflection

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, C; Awaki, H; Gallo, L; Gandhi, P; Haba, Y; Kawamuro, T; LaMassa, S; Lohfink, A; Ricci, C; Tazaki, F; Zoghbi, A

    2014-01-01

    X-ray observations provide a powerful tool to probe the central engines of active galactic nuclei (AGN). A hard X-ray continuum is produced from deep within the accretion flow onto the supermassive black hole, and all optically thick structures in the AGN (the dusty torus of AGN unification schemes, broad emission line clouds, and the black hole accretion disk) "light up" in response to irradiation by this continuum. This White Paper describes the prospects for probing AGN physics using observations of these X-ray reflection signatures. High-resolution SXS spectroscopy of the resulting fluorescent iron line in type-2 AGN will give us an unprecedented view of the obscuring torus, allowing us to assess its dynamics (through line broadening) and geometry (through the line profile as well as observations of the "Compton shoulder"). The broad-band view obtained by combining all of the ASTRO-H instruments will fully characterize the shape of the underlying continuum (which may be heavily absorbed) and reflection/sc...

  6. Assessment of a self-regulated learning intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pienda, Julio A; Fernández, Estrella; Bernardo, Ana; Núñez, José C; Rosário, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Following a pretest-posttest design with no control group, this paper evaluates the efficacy of an intervention program. Consisting of twelve sessions, the program endeavored to increase knowledge and use of self-regulated learning strategies, as well as study time, in 277 first-year students in the Spanish secondary education system. The intervention's efficacy was assessed in terms of three variables: knowledge of self-regulated learning strategies, use of self-regulated learning strategies, and study time. The results of post-intervention data analysis indicate that statistically significant changes occurred in students' knowledge of self-regulated learning strategies and weekly study time, but not in their use of self-regulated learning strategies. When the sample was stratified into three groups (high, moderate, and low) according to baseline scores on the dependent variables, our findings show that students in the lower group profited most from the intervention on all three variables. This suggests that participation in the program is especially useful for at-risk students (i.e. those with little knowledge and use of effective learning strategies). PMID:25011558

  7. A Study into Self Regulation Sufficiencies of the Students Attending to the Colle ge Physical Education and Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma TEZEL ŞAHİN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Self - regulation could be defined as the skills for getting to know oneself , keeping his own life and processes under control. Due to the fact that no one can know a person and the processes he experiences better than himself, self - regulation skills have a key role for such cases as coping with the problems encountered in life, p reventing from meeting problems, increasing the efficiency of life. It is of great importance to train individuals being aware of his own learning and abilities, structuring the knowledge and participating in the learning process actively in modern age. In dividuals with these features become successful students being able to arrange their own learning processes. It is believed that self - regulation skill is one of the most significant factors in success and academic performance. Therefore, it is of importanc e to determine the self - regulation levels of students and form their learning environment with a self - regulation. In this context, it was aimed to investigate the self - regulation competencies of students studying at the College of Physical Education and Sp ort in the current study. The sampling of the study was comprised of 135 students attending to the third and fourth grades of the College of Physical Education and Sport Department in Gazi University. The data of the study were collected through “General I nformation Form”, prepared to determine the personal data of the students and “Self - Regulation Scale” that was adapted to Turkish and of which validity and reliability study was made by Aydın, Keskin and Yel (2013 in order to measure the behavioural self - regulations of the students. In the analysis of the data, the distributions with regard to the demographic information of the students as frequency and percentage values. Mann - Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis – H tests were used in the evaluation of Self - Regul ation Scale. At the end of the research, a statistically significant

  8. Long Timescale Variability of AGN with RXTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we review the very large contribution made by RXTE to our understanding of Active Galaxies (AGN). We discuss the relationship between AGN and Galactic Black Hole X-ray binary systems (GBHs) and show, by comparison of their powerspectral densities (PSDs) that some AGN are the equivalent of GBHs in their 'high' state, rather than in their 'low' state as has previously been assumed. We plot the timescale at which the PSD slope steepens from -1 to -2 against the black hole mass for a sample of AGN, and for Cyg X-1 in its high and low states. We find it is not possible to fit all AGN to the same linear scaling of break timescale with black hole mass. However broad line AGN are consistent with a linear scaling of break timescale with mass from Cyg X-1 in its low state and NLS1 galaxies scale better with Cyg X-1 in its high state, although there is an exception, NGC3227. We suggest that the relationship between black hole mass and break timescale is a function of another underlying parameter which may be accretion rate or black hole spin or, probably, both. We examine X-ray spectral variability and show how simple 'flux-flux' plots can distinguish between 'two-component' and 'spectral pivoting' models. We also examine the relationship between the X-ray emission and that in other wavebands. In the case of X-ray/optical variability we show how cooler discs in AGN with larger mass black holes lead to greater proximity of the X-ray and optical emission regions and hence to more highly correlated variability. The very large amplitude of optical variability then rules out reprocessing as the origin of the optical emission. We show how the radio emission in NGC 4051 is strongly correlated with the X-ray emission, implying some contribution to the X-ray emission from a jet for which there is some evidence in radio images. We point out, however, that we have only studied in detail the X-ray variability of a handful of AGN. There is a strong requirement to extend such

  9. Promotion of Self-Regulated Learning in Classrooms: Investigating Frequency, Quality, and Consequences for Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistner, Saskia; Rakoczy, Katrin; Otto, Barbara; Dignath-van Ewijk, Charlotte; Buttner, Gerhard; Klieme, Eckhard

    2010-01-01

    An implication of the current research on self-regulation is to implement the promotion of self-regulated learning in schools. Teachers can promote self-regulated learning either directly by teaching learning strategies or indirectly by arranging a learning environment that enables students to practice self-regulation. This study investigates…

  10. AGN variability: from Seyfert nuclei to QSOs

    OpenAIRE

    Aretxaga, Itziar

    1996-01-01

    The continuum variability of optically selected Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) is found to be consistent with that expected from a simple Poissonian process, in which the total luminosity of an object is produced by the multiple superposition of identical pulses. The energies, time-scales and rates of the pulses are found to be in the range of those expected from supernovae which generate fast evolving remnants in a nuclear starburst.However, radio-loud AGN don't follow the predictions of that ...

  11. Formation of self-regulation culture of physical education faculty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudin S.F.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to experimentally substantiate effectiveness of pedagogic conditions of self-regulation culture formation of future physical culture teachers. Material: in the research 110 3rd year students of physical education faculty participated. The students were questioned. The level of students’ anxiety was assessed. Results: Implementation of the author’s course in educational process facilitated formation of students’ self-regulation skills and abilities; raises confidence and self estimation; influences positively on functional state. It was found that students acquire ability to consciously observe their own verbal constructs of negative thinking and create positive alternatives. Conclusions: preparing of future physical culture teachers stipulates his (her ability to effectively fulfill professional functioning in the aspect of health preservation. The necessary conditions of self-regulation culture formation are formation of students’ holistic value-meaningful attitude to individual health and health of surrounding people.

  12. Radio Loud AGNs are Mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Chiaberge, Marco; Lotz, Jennifer; Norman, Colin

    2015-01-01

    We measure the merger fraction of Type 2 radio-loud and radio-quiet active galactic nuclei at z>1 using new samples. The objects have HST images taken with WFC3 in the IR channel. These samples are compared to the 3CR sample of radio galaxies at z>1 and to a sample of non-active galaxies. We also consider lower redshift radio galaxies with HST observations and previous generation instruments (NICMOS and WFPC2). The full sample spans an unprecedented range in both redshift and AGN luminosity. We perform statistical tests to determine whether the different samples are differently associated with mergers. We find that all (92%) radio-loud galaxies at z>1 are associated with recent or ongoing merger events. Among the radio-loud population there is no evidence for any dependence of the merger fraction on either redshift or AGN power. For the matched radio-quiet samples, only 38% are merging systems. The merger fraction for the sample of non-active galaxies at z>1 is indistinguishable from radio-quiet objects. This...

  13. Infant Self-Regulation and Early Childhood Media Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Michael; Zuckerman, Barry; Christakis, Dimitri A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Examine prospective associations between parent-reported early childhood self-regulation problems and media exposure (television and video viewing) at 2 years. We hypothesized that children with poor self-regulation would consume more media, possibly as a parent coping strategy. METHODS: We used data from 7450 children in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study–Birth Cohort. When children were 9 months and 2 years old, parents completed the Infant Toddler Symptom Checklist (ITSC), a validated scale of self-regulation. With daily media use at 2 years as our outcome, we conducted weighted multivariable regression analyses, controlling for child, maternal, and household characteristics. RESULTS: Children watched an average of 2.3 hours per day (SD 1.9) of media at age 2 years. Infants with poor self-regulation (9-month ITSC score ≥3) viewed 0.23 hour per day (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.12–0.35) more media at 2 years compared with those with 9-month ITSC score of 0 to 2; this remained significant in adjusted models (0.15 hour per day [95% CI 0.02–0.28]). Children rated as having persistent self-regulation problems (ITSC ≥3 at both 9 months and 2 years) were even more likely to consume media at age 2 (adjusted β 0.21 hour per day [95% CI 0.03–0.39]; adjusted odds ratio for >2 hours per day 1.40 [95% CI 1.14–1.71]). These associations were slightly stronger in low socioeconomic status and English-speaking households. CONCLUSIONS: Early childhood self-regulation problems are associated with mildly increased media exposure, even after controlling for important confounding variables. Understanding this relationship may provide insight into helping parents reduce their children’s screen time. PMID:24733868

  14. Using Interaction Analysis to reveal Self-Regulated Learning in Virtual Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Dettori, Giuliana; Persico, Donatella

    2007-01-01

    Aim of this paper is to analyse whether Interaction Analysis can help investigate the practice and development of Self-Regulated Learning (SRL) in Virtual Learning Communities (VLC). Interaction analysis is increasingly used to study learning dynamics within online activities. It proceeds by searching expressions that reveal the aspects under study in the written messages exchanged by the learners. To this end, we devised and classified a number of indicators suggesting the existence of self-...

  15. Successful behavior change in obesity interventions in adults: a systematic review of self-regulation mediators

    OpenAIRE

    Texeira, Pedro J; Carraça, Eliana V; Marques, Marta M; Rutter, Harry; Oppert, Jean-Michel; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Lakerveld, Jeroen; Brug, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Background Relapse is high in lifestyle obesity interventions involving behavior and weight change. Identifying mediators of successful outcomes in these interventions is critical to improve effectiveness and to guide approaches to obesity treatment, including resource allocation. This article reviews the most consistent self-regulation mediators of medium- and long-term weight control, physical activity, and dietary intake in clinical and community behavior change interventions targeting ove...

  16. Dichotomy in host environments and signs of recycled AGN

    OpenAIRE

    Coldwell, Georgina V.; Lambas, Diego G.; Soechting, Ilona K.; Gurovich, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    We analyse the relation between AGN host properties and large scale environment for a representative red and blue AGN host galaxy sample selected from the DR4 SDSS. A comparison is made with two carefully constructed control samples of non-active galaxies, covering the same redshift range and color baseline. The cross-correlation functions show that the density distribution of neighbours is almost identical for blue galaxies, either active, or non-active. Although active red galaxies inhabit ...

  17. Clues to the Structure of AGN through massive variability surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrence, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Variability studies hold information on otherwise unresolvable regions in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). Population studies of large samples likewise have been very productive for our understanding of AGN. These two themes are coming together in the idea of systematic variability studies of large samples - with SDSS, PanSTARRS, and soon, LSST. I summarise what we have learned about the optical and UV variability of AGN, and what it tells us about accretion discs and the BLR. The most exciting recent results have focused on rare large-scale outbursts and collapses - Tidal Disruption Events, changing-look AGN, and large amplitude microlensing. All of these promise to give us new insight into AGN physics.

  18. Consequences of AGN energy feedback on the ICM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: We investigate the energy contribution by jets of active galactic nuclei (AGN) to the intra-cluster medium (ICM). The AGNs are triggered by major mergers of latetype cluster galaxies. We investigate the dependence of ICM heating by AGNs on different AGN accretion rates, different lengths of duty cycles and different mass thresholds of merging galaxies for two model clusters. The cluster components are simulated by a combination of N-body (dark matter), hydrodynamic (ICM) and semi-numerical galaxy-formation (galaxies) techniques. We find that AGN energy feedback does not increase the temperature of the ICM at low redshifts. At high redshifts (z ∼ 1) the thermal feedback increases the temperature of the galaxy clusters significantly. (author)

  19. The bulge-disc decomposition of AGN host galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, V. A.; Dunlop, J. S.; Mortlock, A.; Kocevski, D. D.; McGrath, E. J.; Rosario, D. J.

    2016-05-01

    We present the results from a study of the morphologies of moderate luminosity X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei (AGN) host galaxies in comparison to a carefully mass-matched control sample at 0.5 hosts are by a potential nuclear contribution from the AGN itself. We find that the AGN hosts are indistinguishable from the general galaxy population except that beyond z ≃ 1.5 they have significantly higher bulge fractions. Even including nuclear sources in our modelling, the probability of this result arising by chance is ˜1 × 10-5, alleviating concerns that previous, purely single Sérsic, analyses of AGN hosts could have been spuriously biased towards higher bulge fractions. This data set also allows us to further probe the physical nature of these point-source components; we find no strong correlation between the point-source component and AGN activity. Our analysis of the bulge and disc fractions of these AGN hosts in comparison to a mass-matched control sample reveals a similar morphological evolutionary track for both the active and non-active populations, providing further evidence in favour of a model where AGN activity is triggered by secular processes.

  20. A plea for self-regulated learning as a process: Modelling, measuring and intervenin

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Klug; Sabine Ogrin; Sylvana Keller; Alice Ihringer; Bernhard Schmitz

    2011-01-01

    Self-regulated learning is regarded as a necessary prerequisite for life-long learning. Some of the existing models consider self-regulated learning as a process (e.g. Zimmerman, 2000; Schmitz & Wiese, 2006). Taking a process perspective on self-regulated learning gives us new insights in self-regulation processes, which allows using suitable methods for measuring self-regulation processes and allows evaluating the effectiveness of training programs more precisely. In this article, we want to...

  1. X-ray Groups of Galaxies at 0.5AGN Activities in High Redshift Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Tanaka, M; Lilly, S J; Bolzonella, M; Carollo, C M; Contini, T; Iovino, A; Kneib, J -P; Lamareille, F; Fevre, O Le; Mainieri, V; Presotto, V; Renzini, A; Scodeggio, M; Silverman, J D; Zamorani, G; Bardelli, S; Bongiorno, A; Caputi, K; Cucciati, O; de la Torre, S; de Ravel, L; Franzetti, P; Garilli, B; Kampczyk, P; Knobel, C; Kovac, K; Borgne, J -F Le; Brun, V Le; Lopez-Sanjuan, C; Maier, C; Mignoli, M; Pello, R; Peng, Y; Montero, E Perez; Tasca, L; Tresse, L; Vergani, D; Zucca, E; Barnes, L; Bordoloi, R; Cappi, A; Cimatti, A; Coppa, G; Koekemoer, A M; McCracken, H J; Moresco, M; Nair, P; Oesch, P; Pozzetti, L; Welikala, N

    2011-01-01

    We present a photometric and spectroscopic study of galaxies at 0.5activities and/or increased activities of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in high redshift groups. We study these possibilities using the 30-band photometry and X-ray data. We find that the stellar population of...

  2. Self-Regulated Learning in the Classroom: A Literature Review on the Teacher’s Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C. Moos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Empirical research has supported the long held assumption that individual differences exist in how students learn. Recent methodological advancements have allowed educational research to examine not only what students learn, but also how they learn. Research has found that active involvement in learning, including setting meaningful goals, selecting appropriate and task-specific strategies, monitoring motivational levels, and adapting based on feedback are all positively related to learning outcomes. How can teachers support students’ development and use of these learning processes? The goal of this paper is to examine research that has used the Self-Regulated Learning (SRL theory to consider this broad question. Methodological advancements recently used in this field of research, various SRL theoretical frameworks guiding this research, and studies that empirically examined self-regulation with both preservice and inservice teachers are discussed. The paper concludes with the theoretical, methodological, and practical implications of the reviewed studies.

  3. HOW MATHEMATICS TEACHERS DEVELOP THEIR PUPILS’ SELF-REGULATED LEARNING SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Marchis

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Self-regulated learning skills are important in mathematical problem solving. The aim of the paper is to present a research on how mathematics teachers guide their pupils’ mathematical problem-solving activities in order to increase self-regulation. 62 teachers have filled in a questionnaire developed for this research. The results are show that more than two third of the teachers promote the methods of understanding the problem; develop pupils’ self-efficacy and self-control. But only one third of the teachers ask pupils to use different strategies for solving a problem; ask students to explain the solution to their colleagues. In case of unsuccessful problem solving only one third of the respondents ask pupils to present previous knowledge about the problem or/and recall and try different methods.

  4. SELF-REGULATION STRATEGIES OF ORAL COMMUNICATION IN CHILDREN WITH HEARING IMPAIRMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alois GHERGUT

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study identifies some self-regulation strategies used by deaf children in order to make their speech more intelligible. To achieve self-control while speaking, the child with severe hearing loss needs not only a high level of intelligence, but also an effective lip-reading capability and a strong intrinsic motivation. This is the reason why there are many cases of children with a high level of intelligence, but with a mediocre lip-reading capability and others with a lower level of intelligence, but with a good lip-reading capability. These differences also depend on the degree of hearing loss. Among the self-regulation strategies used by the children that achieve an intelligible speech are: the cognitive and meta-cognitive strategies, the motivational strategies etc. These results are important while designing the therapeutic activities, and especially the speech intelligibility factor being crucial in the social integration of those children with hearing impairment.

  5. The Self-Regulation of Electronic Commerce: An Appraisal in Accordance to the Chilean Law of Unfair Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David López Jiménez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Electronic commerce or e-commerce constitutes a commercial activity on the rise. Although it has many advantages, there are several lingering factors that prevent its consolidation, such as the lack of trust of the potential consumer/user. In order to overcome that obstacle, instruments of self-regulation were created in the field of advertising. Firms that wish to distinguish themselves favorably against their competitors have the option of adopting those instruments, which play a praiseworthy role regarding the target audience and constitutes a considerable improvement of consumer rights. However, on occasions, problems arise in the market when those systems of self-regulation bind third parties that did not voluntarily enter into a contract. This paper tackles the question of if self-regulation of advertising in the net can be put in place should it affects the honor of the third party not committed with the fair-practices document. Methodology/approach/design – In this article, we will refer to the particularities that arise from a case concerning the Chilean Law no. 20,168, of 2007, on unfair competition and self-regulation of advertising in the Internet pertaining WOM, Movistar, Entel, Claro and Virgin. Findings – The Chilean Law no. 20,168, of 2007 contributes to the goal of discouraging conduct contrary to good faith or good practices in advertising in conjunction with codes of conduct that have been approved in the field related to the systems of self-regulation.

  6. Assessing the Impact and Social Perception of Self-Regulated Music Stimulation with Patients with Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Grumo, Gianluca; Pinto, Katia; Stasolla, Fabrizio; Signorino, Mario; Groeneweg, Jop

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the impact and social rating of an active and a passive music condition implemented with six patients with Alzheimer's disease. In the active condition, the patients used a simple hand response and a microswitch to self-regulate music stimulation inputs. In the passive condition, music stimulation was automatically presented throughout…

  7. Thinking and action: a cognitive perspective on self-regulation during endurance performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Edward Brick

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Self-regulation reflects an individual’s efforts to bring behavior and thinking into line with often consciously desired goals. During endurance activity, self-regulation requires an athlete to balance their speed or power output appropriately to achieve an optimal level of performance. Considering that both behavior and thinking are core elements of self-regulation, this article provides a cognitive perspective on the processes required for effective pace-regulation during endurance performance. We also integrate this viewpoint with physiological and performance outcomes during activity. As such, evidence is presented to suggest that what an athlete thinks about has an important influence on effort perceptions, physiological outcomes, and, consequently, endurance performance. This article also provides an account of how an athlete might control their cognition and focus attention during an endurance event. We propose that effective cognitive control during performance requires both proactive, goal-driven processes and reactive, stimulus-driven processes. In addition, the role of metacognition – or thinking about thinking – in pace-regulation will also be considered. Metacognition is an essential component of self-regulation and its primary functions are to monitor and control the thoughts and actions required for task completion. To illustrate these processes in action, a metacognitive framework of attentional focus and cognitive control is applied to an endurance performance setting: specifically, Bradley Wiggins’ successful 2015 Hour record attempt in cycling. Finally, future perspectives will consider the potentially deleterious effects of the sustained cognitive effort and self-control required during prolonged and strenuous endurance tasks.

  8. Are the Variability Properties of the Kepler AGN Light Curves Consistent with a Damped Random Walk?

    OpenAIRE

    Kasliwal, Vishal P.; Vogeley, Michael S.; Richards, Gordon T.

    2015-01-01

    We test the consistency of active galactic nuclei (AGN) optical flux variability with the $\\textit{damped random walk}$ (DRW) model. Our sample consists of 20 multi-quarter $\\textit{Kepler}$ AGN light curves including both Type 1 and 2 Seyferts, radio-loud and -quiet AGN, quasars, and blazars. $\\textit{Kepler}$ observations of AGN light curves offer a unique insight into the variability properties of AGN light curves because of the very rapid ($11.6-28.6$ min) and highly uniform rest-frame sa...

  9. Motivational Effects on Self-Regulated Learning with Different Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmeyer, Regina; Rheinberg, Falko

    2006-01-01

    In our cognitive motivational process model (Vollmeyer & Rheinberg, "Zeitschrift fur Padagogische Psychologie," 12:11-23, 1998) we assume that initial motivation affects performance via motivation during learning and learning strategies. These variables are also central for self-regulation theories (e.g., M. Boekaerts, "European Psychologist,"…

  10. Developing Self-Regulation Skills: The Important Role of Homework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdass, Darshanand; Zimmerman, Barry J.

    2011-01-01

    The article evaluates the relationship between homework and self-regulation from the elementary grades to college. It reveals that quality measures of homework such as managing distractions, self-efficacy and perceived responsibility for learning, setting goals, self-refection, managing time, and setting a place for homework completion are more…

  11. Cued Retrospective Reporting: Measuring Self-Regulated Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Van Meeuwen, Ludo; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Kirschner, Paul A.; De Bock, Jeano; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2012-01-01

    Van Meeuwen, L. W., Brand-Gruwel, S., Kirschner, P. A., De Bock, J. J. P. R., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2012, april). Cued retrospective reporting: Measuring self-regulated learning. Paper presented at the AERA annual meeting, Vancouver, B. C.

  12. Longitudinal Study of Self-Regulation of Junior Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedova, Ekaterina; Goryacheva, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    The research studies features of self-regulation of schoolchildren in the age of eight to nine and 11 to 12 years. The sample consisting of 30 students (12 boys and 18 girls) has been divided into two groups--students with good and poor school progress. The school results are compared with the results of neuropsychological tests and the level of…

  13. Self-Regulated Learning in the Context of Teacher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer-Hayon, L.; Tillema, H. H.

    1999-01-01

    Examined Dutch and Israeli teacher educators' and student teachers' perceptions of meaning, implementation, and role expectations in self-regulated learning (SRL) within teacher education. Interview data indicated support for the concept of SRL, although conditions for its actual implementation were not always favorable. Student teachers were more…

  14. Obesity, international food and beverage industries and self-regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Ronit, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how large international companies in the breakfast cereal, snack, and beverage industries address the issue of obesity, and how their strategies are governed by various forms of self-regulation. In a first step, we study websites of ten companies and identify five different...

  15. Eating and Emotions in Obese Toddlers: Facilitating Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatoor, Irene

    2007-01-01

    Infants and young children have the ability to regulate their food intake according to their energy needs, and parents play an important role in facilitating their children's self-regulation. When overweight children learn to eat in accordance with feelings of hunger and fullness and learn to soothe themselves without eating, they will reduce…

  16. Neurophysiological Basis of Self-Regulation in Children and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Many children and youth have difficulty controlling emotions and impulsive behavior. Brain science is shining new light on the process by which children develop self-regulation and controls from within. This article expands upon Fritz Redl and David Wineman's pioneering work aiding children in the development of flexible and effective controls…

  17. Cumulative-Genetic Plasticity, Parenting and Adolescent Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, Jay; Beaver, Kevin M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The capacity to control or regulate one's emotions, cognitions and behavior is central to competent functioning, with limitations in these abilities associated with developmental problems. Parenting appears to influence such self-regulation. Here the differential-susceptibility hypothesis is tested that the more putative "plasticity…

  18. Self-Regulated Learning in Doctor of Physical Therapy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Amy E.

    2013-01-01

    There is a paucity of adult professional education literature, yet there are multiple theories and models from which to extrapolate information regarding learning in this population, including self-regulated learning theory and adult learning models. The first aim of this study was to explore these bodies of literature and provide a compelling…

  19. Motivational and Self Regulated Learning Components of Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moliterni, Pasquale; De Stasio, Simona; Carboni, Mauro; Di Chiacchio, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    This investigation is concerned with the examination of cognitive, motivational and emotional components of learning strategies and with the ways in which combinations of those dimensions, are associated with academic achievement. Recent models of self-regulated learning stress the importance of integrating both motivational and cognitive…

  20. Self-Regulated Learning in an Introductory Undergraduate Accounting Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Lana Lowe

    2011-01-01

    Self-regulated learning skills have been shown to positively impact academic achievement in educational settings. This same set of skills becomes critically important as graduates enter today's dynamic work environment. That environment increasingly requires accountants and other professionals to be lifelong learners. This study is a response to…

  1. Sex differences in self-regulation: An evolutionary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niki eHosseini-Kamkar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Bjorklund and Kipp (1996 provide an evolutionary framework predicting that there is a female advantage in inhibition and self-regulation due to differing selection pressures placed on males and females. The majority of the present review will summarize sex differences in self-regulation at the behavioral level. The neural and hormonal underpinnings of this potential sexual dimorphism will also be investigated and the results of the experiments summarized will be related to the hypothesis advanced by Bjorklund and Kipp (1996. Paradoxically, sex differences in self-regulation are more consistently reported in children prior to the onset of puberty. In adult cohorts, the results of studies examining sex differences in self-regulation are mixed. A few recent experiments suggesting that females are less impulsive than males only during fertile stages of the menstrual cycle will be reviewed. A brief discussion of an evolutionary framework proposing that it is adaptive for females to employ a self-regulatory behavioral strategy when fertile will follow.

  2. Strategic self-regulation in an multicultural setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhahir, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Strategic self-regulation in an intercultural setting Abstract This article reports on my investigation of the interplay between Arab Heritage Language Learners (AHLLs) and learners of Arabic as a foreign language (FLLs) in the classroom for learning Arabic at University of Southern Denmark (SDU...

  3. Homophily among Peer Groups Members' Perceived Self-Regulated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Martin H.; Alexander, Joyce M.; Estell, David B.

    2010-01-01

    The present study is one of the first examining whether peer group members hold similar levels of self-regulated learning. The study specifically addresses the potential homophily among group members' regulative abilities (metacognition, environment regulation, effort regulation, peer learning, and help seeking) and whether group members'…

  4. Increasing Self-Regulated Learning through the LinguaFolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Nicholas A.; Moeller, Aleidine J.

    2012-01-01

    Within foreign language classrooms, one intervention gaining recognition is LinguaFolio, a portfolio-based formative assessment designed to increase self-regulated learning. The question emerges whether such an intervention impacts student motivation, learning, and achievement. Researchers conducted a classroom-based, quasi-experimental,…

  5. Self-Regulated Learning (SRL): Emergence of the RSRLM Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani

    2012-01-01

    This paper claims that the current theories of Self-regulated learning (SRL) are short-sighted. The author provides a comprehensive, but brief, overview of SRL which addresses such issues as (a) SRL processes, (b) SRL strategies, (c) compartments of SRL, (d) theories of SRL, (e) agency in SRL, and (f) models of SRL. He then presents a new model…

  6. Measuring Self-Regulated Learning in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Rosa Pia; Milligan, Colin; Littlejohn, Allison; Margaryan, Anoush

    2015-01-01

    In knowledge-intensive industries, the workplace has become a key locus of learning. To perform effectively, knowledge workers must be able to take responsibility for their own developmental needs, and in particular, to regulate their own learning. This paper describes the construction and validation of an instrument (the Self-Regulated Learning…

  7. Secondary School Pupils' Self-Regulated Learning Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchis, Iuliana; Balogh, Timea

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a research on 258 secondary school pupils' (10-15 years old, 5th-8th grades) self-regulated learning skills as self-efficacy, self-judgement, self-reaction and their interest for studying Mathematics.

  8. Metacognition and Self-Regulation in James, Piaget, and Vygotsky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Emily; Riconscente, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the intertwined constructs of metacognition and self-regulation as they emerge in the works and theories of James, Piaget, and Vygotsky. To coordinate this exploration, we use an interpretive framework based on the relation of subject and object. In this framework, James's perspective on metacognition and self-regulation…

  9. Motivational, Volitional and Metacognitive Aspects of Self Regulated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaeta, Martha Leticia; Teruel, M. Pilar; Orejudo, Santos

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Today one of the main objectives of education is to help students to become autonomous and efficient learners. This is only possible to the extent that students self-regulate their own learning. Hence, the purpose of this study was to study some contextual and personal factors that facilitate this process. Method: Participants were…

  10. Understanding Procrastination from a Self-Regulated Learning Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Christopher A.

    2003-01-01

    Reports on two studies examining procrastination and its relation to several key components of self-regulated learning using self-report surveys. Results indicate that procrastination was related to college students' self-efficacy and work-avoidant goal orientation and, to a lesser extent, their use of metacognitive strategies. (Contains 54…

  11. A Model for Self-Regulated Distance Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Maureen S.; Bunker, Ellen L.

    2009-01-01

    The role of learner autonomy and self-regulated learning in distance education has received much attention. The application of these concepts impacts course design and, potentially, learner achievement. In the case of distance language learning, course designers must consider not only how to help learners gain communicative competence but also…

  12. Origin and properties of dual and offset AGN in a cosmological simulation at z=2

    CERN Document Server

    Steinborn, Lisa K; Comerford, Julia M; Hirschmann, Michaela; Remus, Rhea-Silvia; Teklu, Adelheid F

    2015-01-01

    In the last few years, it became possible to observationally resolve galaxies with two distinct nuclei in their centre. For separations smaller than 10kpc, dual and offset active galactic nuclei (AGN) are distinguished: in dual AGN, both nuclei are active, whereas in offset AGN only one nucleus is active. To theoretically study the origin of such AGN pairs, we employ a cosmological, hydrodynamic simulation with a large volume of (182 Mpc)^3 from the set of Magneticum Pathfinder Simulations. The simulation self-consistently produces 35 resolved black hole (BH) pairs at redshift z=2, with a comoving distance smaller than 10kpc. 14 of them are offset AGN and nine are dual AGN, resulting in a fraction of (1.2 \\pm 0.3)% AGN pairs with respect to the total number of AGN. In this paper, we discuss fundamental differences between the BH and galaxy properties of dual AGN, offset AGN and inactive BH pairs and investigate their different triggering mechanisms. We find that in dual AGN, the corresponding BH from the less...

  13. AGN spiral galaxies in groups: effects of bars

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso, Sol; Lambas, Diego García

    2014-01-01

    We explore properties of barred active spiral galaxies in groups selected from the SDSS-DR7, with the aim of assessing the effects of bars on AGN and the role of the high density environment. We identified barred active galaxies that reside in groups from SDSS-DR7 group catalog. To provide a suitable quantification of the effects of bars, a reliable control sample of unbarred active galaxies in high density environments with similar redshift, magnitude, morphology, and bulge size distributions was constructed. We found that the fraction of barred AGN galaxies in groups (~ 38 %) is higher than those in the total barred AGN sample ( ~ 28 %), indicating that AGN spiral galaxies in groups are more likely to be barred than those in the field. We also found that barred AGN galaxies are more concentrated towards the group centers than the other unbarred AGN group members. In addition, barred AGN host galaxies show an excess of population dominated by red colors suggesting that bars produce an importanteffect on gala...

  14. Spectral decomposition of broad-line agns and host galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanden Berk, Daniel E.; Shen, Jiajian; /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys.; Yip, Ching-Wa; /Pittsburgh U.; Schneider, Donald P.; /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys.; Connolly,; /Pittsburgh U.; Burton, Ross E.; /Pittsburgh U. /Case Western Reserve U.; Jester, Sebastian; /Fermilab; Hall, Patrick B.; /York U., Canada; Szalay, Alex S.; /Johns Hopkins; Brinkmann, John; /Apache Point Observ.

    2005-09-01

    Using an eigenspectrum decomposition technique, we separate the host galaxy from the broad line active galactic nucleus (AGN) in a set of 4666 spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), from redshifts near zero up to about 0.75. The decomposition technique uses separate sets of galaxy and quasar eigenspectra to efficiently and reliably separate the AGN and host spectroscopic components. The technique accurately reproduces the host galaxy spectrum, its contributing fraction, and its classification. We show how the accuracy of the decomposition depends upon S/N, host galaxy fraction, and the galaxy class. Based on the eigencoefficients, the sample of SDSS broad-line AGN host galaxies spans a wide range of spectral types, but the distribution differs significantly from inactive galaxies. In particular, post-starburst activity appears to be much more common among AGN host galaxies. The luminosities of the hosts are much higher than expected for normal early-type galaxies, and their colors become increasingly bluer than early-type galaxies with increasing host luminosity. Most of the AGNs with detected hosts are emitting at between 1% and 10% of their estimated Eddington luminosities, but the sensitivity of the technique usually does not extend to the Eddington limit. There are mild correlations among the AGN and host galaxy eigencoefficients, possibly indicating a link between recent star formation and the onset of AGN activity. The catalog of spectral reconstruction parameters is available as an electronic table.

  15. Multimodal imaging of the self-regulating developing brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjell, Anders M.; Walhovd, Kristine Beate; Brown, Timothy T.; Kuperman, Joshua M.; Chung, Yoonho; Hagler, Donald J.; Venkatraman, Vijay; Roddey, J. Cooper; Erhart, Matthew; McCabe, Connor; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Amaral, David G.; Bloss, Cinnamon S.; Libiger, Ondrej; Darst, Burcu F.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Casey, B. J.; Chang, Linda; Ernst, Thomas M.; Gruen, Jeffrey R.; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Kenet, Tal; Frazier, Jean; Murray, Sarah S.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; van Zijl, Peter; Mostofsky, Stewart; Jernigan, Terry L.; Dale, Anders M.; Jernigan, Terry L.; McCabe, Connor; Chang, Linda; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Newman, Erik; Dale, Anders M.; Ernst, Thomas; Dale, Anders M.; Van Zijl, Peter; Kuperman, Joshua; Murray, Sarah; Bloss, Cinnamon; Schork, Nicholas J.; Appelbaum, Mark; Gamst, Anthony; Thompson, Wesley; Bartsch, Hauke; Jernigan, Terry L.; Dale, Anders M.; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Chang, Linda; Ernst, Thomas; Keating, Brian; Amaral, David; Sowell, Elizabeth; Kaufmann, Walter; Van Zijl, Peter; Mostofsky, Stewart; Casey, B.J.; Ruberry, Erika J.; Powers, Alisa; Rosen, Bruce; Kenet, Tal; Frazier, Jean; Kennedy, David; Gruen, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Self-regulation refers to the ability to control behavior, cognition, and emotions, and self-regulation failure is related to a range of neuropsychiatric problems. It is poorly understood how structural maturation of the brain brings about the gradual improvement in self-regulation during childhood. In a large-scale multicenter effort, 735 children (4–21 y) underwent structural MRI for quantification of cortical thickness and surface area and diffusion tensor imaging for quantification of the quality of major fiber connections. Brain development was related to a standardized measure of cognitive control (the flanker task from the National Institutes of Health Toolbox), a critical component of self-regulation. Ability to inhibit responses and impose cognitive control increased rapidly during preteen years. Surface area of the anterior cingulate cortex accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in cognitive performance. This finding is intriguing, because characteristics of the anterior cingulum are shown to be related to impulse, attention, and executive problems in neurodevelopmental disorders, indicating a neural foundation for self-regulation abilities along a continuum from normality to pathology. The relationship was strongest in the younger children. Properties of large-fiber connections added to the picture by explaining additional variance in cognitive control. Although cognitive control was related to surface area of the anterior cingulate independently of basic processes of mental speed, the relationship between white matter quality and cognitive control could be fully accounted for by speed. The results underscore the need for integration of different aspects of brain maturation to understand the foundations of cognitive development. PMID:23150548

  16. Radio AGN in the local universe: unification, triggering and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadhunter, Clive

    2016-06-01

    Associated with one of the most important forms of active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback, and showing a strong preference for giant elliptical host galaxies, radio AGN (L_{1.4 GHz} > 10^{24} W Hz^{-1}) are a key sub-class of the overall AGN population. Recently their study has benefitted dramatically from the availability of high-quality data covering the X-ray to far-IR wavelength range obtained with the current generation of ground- and space-based telescope facilities. Reflecting this progress, here I review our current state of understanding of the population of radio AGN at low and intermediate redshifts (z < 0.7), concentrating on their nuclear AGN and host galaxy properties, and covering three interlocking themes: the classification of radio AGN and its interpretation; the triggering and fuelling of the jet and AGN activity; and the evolution of the host galaxies. I show that much of the observed diversity in the AGN properties of radio AGN can be explained in terms of a combination of orientation/anisotropy, mass accretion rate, and variability effects. The detailed morphologies of the host galaxies are consistent with the triggering of strong-line radio galaxies (SLRG) in galaxy mergers. However, the star formation properties and cool ISM contents suggest that the triggering mergers are relatively minor in terms of their gas masses in most cases, and would not lead to major growth of the supermassive black holes and stellar bulges; therefore, apart from a minority (<20 %) that show evidence for higher star formation rates and more massive cool ISM reservoirs, the SLRG represent late-time re-triggering of activity in mature giant elliptical galaxies. In contrast, the host and environmental properties of weak-line radio galaxies (WLRG) with Fanaroff-Riley class I radio morphologies are consistent with more gradual fuelling of the activity via gas accretion at low rates onto the supermassive black holes.

  17. Self-regulated Learning in a Hybrid Science Course at a Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuelito, Shannon Joy

    Community college students are attracted to courses with alternative delivery formats such as hybrid courses because the more flexible delivery associated with such courses provides convenience for busy students. In a hybrid course, face-to-face, structured seat time is exchanged for online components. In such courses, students take more responsibility for their learning because they assume additional responsibility for learning more of the course material on their own. Thus, self-regulated learning (SRL) behaviors have the potential to be useful for students to successfully navigate hybrid courses because the online components require exercise of more personal control over the autonomous learning situations inherent in hybrid courses. Self-regulated learning theory includes three components: metacognition, motivation, and behavioral actions. In the current study, this theoretical framework is used to examine how inducing self-regulated learning activities among students taking a hybrid course influence performance in a community college science course. The intervention for this action research study consisted of a suite of activities that engage students in self-regulated learning behaviors to foster student performance. The specific SRL activities included predicting grades, reflections on coursework and study efforts in course preparation logs, explanation of SRL procedures in response to a vignette, photo ethnography work on their personal use of SRL approaches, and a personalized study plan. A mixed method approach was employed to gather evidence for the study. Results indicate that community college students use a variety of self-regulated learning strategies to support their learning of course material. Further, engaging community college students in learning reflection activities appears to afford some students with opportunities to refine their SRL skills and influence their learning. The discussion focuses on integrating the quantitative and qualitative

  18. Validation of the self regulation questionnaire as a measure of health in quality of life research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Büssing A

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Several epidemiological studies address psychosomatic 'self regulation' as a measure of quality of life aspects. However, although widely used in studies with a focus on complementary cancer treatment, and recognized to be associated with better survival of cancer patients, it is unclear what the 'self regulation' questionnaire exactly measures. Design and setting In a sample of 444 individuals (27% healthy, 33% cancer, 40% other internal diseases, we performed reliability and exploratory factor analyses, and correlated the 16-item instrument with external measures such as the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Herdecke Quality of Life questionnaire, and autonomic regulation questionnaire. Results The 16-item pool had a very good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.948 and satisfying/good (rrt = 0.796 test-retest reliability after 3 months. Exploratory factor analysis indicated 2 sub-constructs: (1 Ability to change behaviour in order to reach goals, and (2 Achieve satisfaction and well-being. Both sub-scales correlated well with quality of life aspects, particularly with Initiative Power/Interest, Social Interactions, Mental Balance, and negatively with anxiety and depression. Conclusions The Self Regulation Questionnaire (SRQ was found to be a valid and reliable tool which measures unique psychosomatic abilities. Self regulation deals with competence and autonomy and can be regarded as a problem solving capacity in terms of an active adaptation to stressful situations to restore wellbeing. The tool is an interesting option to be used particularly in complementary medicine research with a focus on behavioural modification.

  19. Associations Between Self-Regulation, Exercise Participation, and Adherence Intention Among Korean University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jihoon; Jeon, Hyunsoo; Kwon, Sungho

    2016-08-01

    The social cognitive theory model of physical activity is useful in understanding and promoting exercise. Self-regulation, as an element of the social cognitive theory model, is key to success in regular exercise participation. Existing research suggests that intrinsic motivation and positive emotion are associated with exercise participation and adherence. This study examined the relationships between self-regulation and exercise participation and adherence intention in university students when these two variables were controlled. Participants included 418 students enrolled in universities in Seoul (244 men, M age = 23.5 year, SD = 0.8; 174 women, M age = 22.8 year, SD = 1.0). The measures included the Self-Control Scale, exercise participation level, the Korea Exercise Adherence Intention Scale, the Korean Sport Participation Motivation scale, and the Korean Positive and Negative Affect Scale. Results showed that self-regulation ability was significantly associated with exercise participation level and adherence intention, when intrinsic motivation and positive emotion were controlled. PMID:27450864

  20. The PEP Survey: Infrared Properties of Radio-Selected AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Magliocchetti, M; Rosario, D; Berta, S; Floc'h, E Le; Magnelli, B; Pozzi, F; Riguccini, L; Santini, P

    2014-01-01

    By exploiting the VLA-COSMOS and the Herschel-PEP surveys, we investigate the Far Infrared (FIR) properties of radio-selected AGN. To this purpose, from VLA-COSMOS we considered the 1537, F[1.4 GHz]>0.06 mJy sources with a reliable redshift estimate, and sub-divided them into star-forming galaxies and AGN solely on the basis of their radio luminosity. The AGN sample is complete with respect to radio selection at all z<~3.5. 832 radio sources have a counterpart in the PEP catalogue. 175 are AGN. Their redshift distribution closely resembles that of the total radio-selected AGN population, and exhibits two marked peaks at z~0.9 and z~2.5. We find that the probability for a radio-selected AGN to be detected at FIR wavelengths is both a function of radio power and redshift, whereby powerful sources are more likely to be FIR emitters at earlier epochs. This is due to two distinct effects: 1) at all radio luminosities, FIR activity monotonically increases with look-back time and 2) radio activity of AGN origin i...

  1. Galaxy Zoo: The properties of merging galaxies in the nearby Universe - local environments, colours, masses, star-formation rates and AGN activity

    CERN Document Server

    Darg, D W; Lintott, C J; Schawinski, K; Sarzi, M; Bamford, S; Silk, J; Andreescu, D; Murray, P; Nichol, R C; Raddick, M J; Slosar, A; Szalay, A S; Thomas, D; Vandenberg, J

    2009-01-01

    Following the study of Darg et al. (2009; hereafter D09a) we explore the environments, optical colours, stellar masses, star-formation and AGN activity in a sample of 3003 merging galaxies drawn from the SDSS using the Galaxy Zoo project. While D09a found that the spiral-to-elliptical ratio in (major) mergers appeared higher than that of the global galaxy population, no significant differences are found between the environmental distributions of mergers and a randomly selected control sample. This makes the high occurrence of spirals in mergers unlikely to be an environmental effect and must, therefore, arise from differing time-scales of detectability for spirals and ellipticals. We find that merging galaxies have a wider spread in colour than the global galaxy population, with a significant blue tail resulting from intense star-formation in spiral mergers. Galaxies classed as star-forming using their emission-line properties have average star-formation rates approximately doubled by the merger process thoug...

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF A SAMPLE OF INTERMEDIATE-TYPE AGNs. I. SPECTROSCOPIC PROPERTIES AND SERENDIPITOUS DISCOVERY OF NEW DUAL AGNs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sample of 10 nearby intermediate-type active galactic nuclei (AGNs) drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey is presented. The aim of this work is to provide estimations of the black hole (BH) mass for the sample galaxies from the dynamics of the broad-line region. For this purpose, a detailed spectroscopic analysis of the objects was done. Using Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich diagnostic diagrams, we have carefully classified the objects as true intermediate-type AGNs and found that 80%+7.2%–17.3% are composite AGNs. The BH mass estimated for the sample is within 6.54 ± 0.16 BH –1 –1. Two of them, J121607.08+504930.0 and J141238.14+391836.5, are candidates for dual AGNs since their double-peaked emission lines are dominated by AGN activity. In searches of dual AGNs, type 1, type II, and intermediate-type AGNs should be carefully separated, due to the high serendipitous number of narrow double-peaked sources (50% ± 14.4%) found in our sample.

  3. Satellites of Radio AGN in SDSS: Insights into AGN Triggering and Feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Pace, Cameron

    2014-01-01

    We study the effects of radio jets on galaxies in their vicinity (satellites) and the role of satellites in triggering radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The study compares the aggregate properties of satellites of a sample of 7,220 radio AGNs at z < 0.3 (identified by Best & Heckman 2012 from the SDSS and NVSS+FIRST surveys) to the satellites of a control sample of radio-quiet galaxies, which are matched in redshift, color, luminosity, and axis ratio, as well as by environment type: field galaxies, cluster members and brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs). Remarkably, we find that radio AGNs exhibit on average a 50% excess (17{\\sigma} significance) in the number of satellites within 100 kpc even though the cluster membership was controlled for (e.g., radio BCGs have more satellites than radio-quiet BCGs, etc.). Satellite excess is not confirmed for high-excitation sources, which are only 2% of radio AGN. Extra satellites may be responsible for raising the probability for hot gas AGN accretion via t...

  4. Hard X-ray variability of AGN observed with Suzaku

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study of time variable spectra is independent tool to decompose the spectral components in the AGN (Active Galactic Nucleus); direct nuclear emission and reflection component. Since the difference between these two components becomes clear by comparing the behavior below and above 10 keV, hard X-ray study of time variability of AGNs is very important. Here we report the initial results of studies of hard X-ray variability of AGNs (MCG-6-30-15, MCG-5-23-16, NGC 4388, NGC 3516) observed with Suzaku. RMS spectra and flux-flux correlation above 10 keV is derived and discussed. (author)

  5. The Exosat spectral survey of AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, T. J.; Pounds, K. A.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented from Exosat observations of 48 hard X-ray selected Seyfert-type active galactic nuclei (AGN). These include all 30 of the emission line AGN in the Piccinotti (1981) sample. Combining Exosat LE and ME data has yielded X-ray spectra over the broad energy range 0.1-10 keV. Spectra in the about 2-10 keV range are found to be well described by a simple power law, with a narrow distribution of spectral indices across the sample about a mean energy index alpha = 0.70. Exosat has also revealed a substantial number of sources with complex soft X-ray spectra. Evidence that soft emission components occur in many Seyferts, together with detection of rapid variability in the soft component, provides a quantitative support for an accretion disk model for AGN. Approximately half of the present sample of AGN show low-energy absorption attributable to substantial cold matter within the host galaxy. A few cases show evidence for column variability and reduced low-energy opacity (by photo-ionization). These results and the observed rarity of intrinsic absorption in the higher luminosity sources suggest the absorbing matter lies close to the central continuum source.

  6. Hard X-ray Variability of AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Beckmann, V; Courvoisier, T J -L; Gehrels, N; Soldi, S; Tüller, J; Wendt, G

    2007-01-01

    Aims: Active Galactic Nuclei are known to be variable throughout the electromagnetic spectrum. An energy domain poorly studied in this respect is the hard X-ray range above 20 keV. Methods: The first 9 months of the Swift/BAT all-sky survey are used to study the 14 - 195 keV variability of the 44 brightest AGN. The sources have been selected due to their detection significance of >10 sigma. We tested the variability using a maximum likelihood estimator and by analysing the structure function. Results: Probing different time scales, it appears that the absorbed AGN are more variable than the unabsorbed ones. The same applies for the comparison of Seyfert 2 and Seyfert 1 objects. As expected the blazars show stronger variability. 15% of the non-blazar AGN show variability of >20% compared to the average flux on time scales of 20 days, and 30% show at least 10% flux variation. All the non-blazar AGN which show strong variability are low-luminosity objects with L(14-195 keV) < 1E44 erg/sec. Conclusions: Concer...

  7. Self-Regulated Learning: Studying the Effects of a Nontraditional Instructional Method in the High School Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Gianluca

    2010-01-01

    Self-regulated learning (SRL) encourages students to learn using metacognition, strategic action, and motivation. This nontraditional approach to education relies on the student's active role in learning and the instructor's facilitatory role in teaching. This article provides a comprehensive analysis of an SRL instructional model the author…

  8. The Effects of Goal Specificity and Scaffolding on Programming Performance and Self-Regulation in Game Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chia-Yen; Chen, Ming-Puu

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of goal specificity and scaffolding on the programming performance and self-regulation of elementary students engaged in learning game design. This study recruited 232 students for the experimental activities. Two levels of goal specificity were employed: specific and nonspecific.…

  9. Support and Promotion of Self-Regulated Learning through the Educational Material at the Hellenic Open University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaki, Evi; Koutsouba, Maria I.

    2012-01-01

    In distance education both the physical separation between learner and instructor, and the use of technology create an educational environment that is characterized by learning autonomy and the learner's active involvement. Because of these, self-regulated learning constitutes an inseparable concept of distance education. This study explores the…

  10. Intermediate Inclinations of Type 2 Coronal-Line Forest AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Rose, Marvin; Crenshaw, Michael; Glidden, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Coronal-Line Forest Active Galactic Nuclei (CLiF AGN) are remarkable in the sense that they have a rich spectrum of dozens of coronal emission lines (e.g. [FeVII], [FeX] and [NeV]) in their spectra. Rose, Elvis & Tadhunter (2015) suggest that the inner obscuring torus wall is the most likely location of the coronal line region in CLiF AGN, and the unusual strength of the forbidden high ionization lines is due to a specific AGN-torus inclination angle. Here we test this suggestion using mid-IR colours (4.6$\\mu$m-22$\\mu$m) from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) for the CLiF AGN. We use the Fischer et al. (2014) result that showed that as the AGN-torus inclination becomes more face on, the Spitzer 5.5$\\mu$m to 30$\\mu$m colours become bluer. We show that the [W2-W4] colours for the CLiF AGN ($\\langle$[W2-W4]$\\rangle$ = 5.92$\\pm$0.12) are intermediate between SDSS type 1 ($\\langle$[W2-W4]$\\rangle$ = 5.22$\\pm$0.01) and type 2 AGN ($\\langle$[W2-W4]$\\rangle$ = 6.35$\\pm$0.03). This implies that the AG...

  11. Individual Differences and Day-to-Day Fluctuations in Perceived Self-Regulation Associated With Daily Adherence in Late Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Cynthia A.; Wiebe, Deborah J.; Suchy, Yana; Hughes, Amy E.; Anderson, Jessica H.; Godbey, Elida I.; Butner, Jonathan; Tucker, Christy; Franchow, Emilie I.; Pihlaskari, Andrea K.; King, Pamela S.; Murray, Mary A.; White, Perrin C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine whether individual differences and intraindividual (within-person day-to-day) fluctuations in late adolescents’ self-regulation were associated with daily adherence to the type 1 diabetes regimen. Methods 110 school seniors (M age = 17.78 years) and their mothers assessed adolescents’ skills underlying self-regulation (executive function, attention, self-control, behavioral inhibition and activation, emotion regulation) and adherence, with glycosylated hemoglobin from med...

  12. Self-regulated learning in students of pedagogy

    OpenAIRE

    Janete Aparecida da Silva Marini; Evely Boruchovitch

    2014-01-01

    Self-regulated learning is the process by which students plan, monitor and regulate their own learning. The aim of this study was to investigate relationships between motivation to learn, implicit theories of intelligence and self-handicapping strategies, and to examine the association of these variables in the prediction of the use of learning strategies in students of Pedagogy. The sample consisted of 107 Pedagogy students of two private universities of a city of São Paulo state. Data were ...

  13. Childhood Self-Regulation, Academic Achievement, and Occupational Attainment

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Håkan

    2012-01-01

    The general aim of this thesis was to extend knowledge of the interplay between self-regulation (SR) skills during childhood in relation to academic achievement and later adult educational and occupational attainment. Previous research has shown that cool SR (i.e., cognitive) is more closely linked to academic achievement than hot SR (i.e., motivational/emotional). However, studies investigating both cool and hot SR in relation to academic achievement have been restricted to young children. T...

  14. Household instability and self-regulation among poor children

    OpenAIRE

    McCoy, Dana Charles; Raver, C. Cybele

    2014-01-01

    Past research suggests that poverty may negatively influence children’s psychological and behavioral health by increasing their exposure to chaotic living conditions in the household. The present study provides a descriptive ‘snapshot’ of instability in low-income households, and examines the associations between exposure to major destabilizing events over the course of a year and three domains of poor urban children’s self-regulation. Descriptive analyses suggest that altho...

  15. Self-regulative changes in psychological contracts over time

    OpenAIRE

    Hattori, Yasuhiro; Morinaga, Yuta

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This study focuses on the effect of an employer’s psychological contract fulfillment onan employee’s self-regulative corrective actions. In particular, the study investigates the effect ofgaps between the level of an employer’s fulfillment and an employee’s desires concerningexpectations (revision), fulfillment (balancing), and intent to leave the organization (desertion).Design/methodology/approach A two-point survey was conducted involving 2,514 Japaneseemployees in a large pharmace...

  16. Meditation improves self-regulation over the life span

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Yi-Yuan; Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K.

    2013-01-01

    The use of meditation to improve emotion and attention regulation has a long history in Asia and there are many practitioners in Western countries. Much of the evidence on the effectiveness of meditation is either anecdotal or a comparison of long-term meditators with controls matched in age and health. Recently, it has been possible to establish changes in self-regulation in undergraduate students after only 5 days of meditation practice, allowing randomized trials comparing effects of medit...

  17. Effective self-regulating teams: a generative psychological approach

    OpenAIRE

    Millward, LJ; Banks, AP; Riga, K

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe and defend a generative model for understanding effective self-regulating teams from a distinctively psychological perspective that has implications for both research and practice. Design/methodology/approach – The paper complements Hackman's work on the critical conditions for effecting “self-regulated” teamwork with an understanding of team psychology, as the basis for evolving a propositional model of effective teamwork. Findings – Assumin...

  18. Self-Regulation and Emotion: Predicting Risky Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Panno, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    All of the experiments presented in this dissertation focus on people's risk taking. In order to shed light on mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, I point out how emotions (i.e., anticipated emotions, integral emotions, anticipated regret, and emotion regulation strategies) and individuals' goal-oriented self-regulation (i.e., regulatory mode) affect risky behaviors. First – in the present dissertation – I introduce a comprehensive series of three studies (i.e., chapter 2) demonstrating wh...

  19. Education for social work as a self-regulating profession

    OpenAIRE

    Constable, R.

    2002-01-01

    The paper was given on 5 April 2000 as an invitational paper at the university of Macerata in Italy upon the opening of their new program preparing for social work (assistence sociale) practice in Italy. The paper discusses models of social work education which would prepare for free-standing, self-regulated practice (una libera professione) of social work, similar to professions of physicians, lawyers, accountants, etc. there is discussion of international models of s...

  20. The self-regulation of information processing and decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Bieleke, Maik

    2015-01-01

    The present thesis investigates whether people can strategically regulate their information processing (Research Papers I and II), and the effects of strategic information processing on decision making (Research Paper III). These topics are addressed from the perspective of the self-regulation strategy of if-then planning (also referred to as implementation intentions).The first research paper tested the hypothesis that if-then planning enhances perceptual processing. Two experiments were bas...

  1. Comparing Simulations of AGN Feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Mark L A; Devriendt, Julien; Slyz, Adrianne; Thacker, Robert J; Dubois, Yohan; Wurster, James; Silk, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    We perform adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) and smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) cosmological zoom simulations of a region around a forming galaxy cluster, comparing the ability of the methods to handle successively more complex baryonic physics. In the simplest, non-radiative case, the two methods are in good agreement with each other, but the SPH simulations generate central cores with slightly lower entropies and virial shocks at slightly larger radii, consistent with what has been seen in previous studies. The inclusion of radiative cooling, star formation, and stellar feedback leads to much larger differences between the two methods. Most dramatically, at z=5, rapid cooling in the AMR case moves the accretion shock well within the virial radius, while this shock remains near the virial radius in the SPH case, due to excess heating, coupled with poorer capturing of the shock width. On the other hand, the addition of feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) to the simulations results in much better ag...

  2. Spectral Decomposition of Broad-Line AGNs and Host Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Vanden Berk, Daniel E; Yip, C W; Schneider, D P; Connolly, A J; Burton, R E; Jester, S; Hall, P B; Szalay, A S; Brinkmann, J; Berk, Daniel E. Vanden; Shen, Jiajian; Yip, Ching-Wa; Schneider, Donald P.; Connolly, Andrew J.; Burton, Ross E.; Jester, Sebastian; Hall, Patrick B.; Szalay, Alex S.; Brinkmann, John

    2005-01-01

    Using an eigenspectrum decomposition technique, we separate the host galaxy from the broad line active galactic nucleus (AGN) in a set of 4666 spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), from redshifts near zero up to about 0.75. The decomposition technique uses separate sets of galaxy and quasar eigenspectra to efficiently and reliably separate the AGN and host spectroscopic components. The technique accurately reproduces the host galaxy spectrum, its contributing fraction, and its classification. We show how the accuracy of the decomposition depends upon S/N, host galaxy fraction, and the galaxy class. Based on the eigencoefficients, the sample of SDSS broad-line AGN host galaxies spans a wide range of spectral types, but the distribution differs significantly from inactive galaxies. In particular, post-starburst activity appears to be much more common among AGN host galaxies. The luminosities of the hosts are much higher than expected for normal early-type galaxies, and their colors become increasing...

  3. Self-regulation in ADHD: the role of error processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiels, Keri; Hawk, Larry W

    2010-12-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by persistent and impairing developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Such behavioral dysregulation may be a consequence of deficits in self-monitoring or adaptive control, both of which are required for adaptive behavior. Processing of contextual demands, ongoing monitoring of one's behavior to evaluate whether it is appropriate for a particular situation, and adjusting behavior when it is suboptimal are components of self-regulation. This review examines and integrates the emerging literature on error-processing and adaptive control as components of self-regulation into the prominent etiological theories of ADHD. Available data on error-processing, as reflected in event-related potentials (ERN and Pe) and behavioral performance, suggest that both early error detection and later error-evaluation may be diminished in ADHD, thereby interfering with adaptive control processes. However, variability in results limit broad conclusions, particularly for early error detection. A range of methodological issues, including ERP parameters and sample and task characteristics, likely contribute to this variability, and recommendations for future work are presented. The emerging literature on error-processing and adaptive control informs etiological theories of ADHD in general and may provide a method for testing self-regulation models in particular. PMID:20659781

  4. Becoming Lifelong Learners: A Study in Self-Regulated Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Diane E; Saylors, Cynthia P; Boone, Erna L; Rye, Kathy J; Berry, Katherine S; Kennedy, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    While health professions educators espouse the need to develop lifelong learning skills in students, little is written about such attempts. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of educational and awareness interventions designed to promote self-regulated learning processes as a means to improve lifelong learning skills. First-year students in respiratory care and radiologic imaging sciences took the Learning and Study Skills Inventory (LASSI) in fall and spring semesters. They made the decision to use or not use educational resources in an online course focused on self-regulated learning skills. All students maintained a journal and responded to prompts about changes in their study skills. Final grades, reported in percentages, from selected required courses for fall and spring semesters were recorded. There were no substantive effects of the intervention (LASSI and online resources) as measured by the LASSI and course averages. Qualitative analysis indicated that students valued the LASSI and the online resources and that they altered their study skills as they perceived the need. Suggestions for future work include continued use of the LASSI, integration of self-regulated learning strategies into courses with role-modeling by faculty, and the use of microanalytic protocols. PMID:26342616

  5. Cognitive and metacognitive processes in self-regulation of learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Tomec

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate differences among secondary school students in cognitive and metacognitive processes in self-regulated learning (SRL according to year of education, learning program, sex and achievement. Beside this, the autors were interested in the relationship between (metacognitive components of self-regulated learning. The theoretical framework of the research was the four-component model of self-regulated learning by Hofer, Yu and Pintrich (1998. The focus was on the first part of the model which is about cognitive structure and cognitive strategies.Metacognitive awareness inventory (Shraw and Sperling Dennison, 1994 and Cognitive strategies awareness questionnaire (Pečjak, 2000, in Peklaj and Pečjak, 2002 were applied. In a sample of 321 students, differences in perception of importance of cognitive strategies among students attending different grades (1st and 4th, students attending different learning programs, students of different gender and students with different achievements emerged. Students' achievement in the whole sample was related to amount of metacognitive awareness. In the sample of 4-year students and students attending professional secondary schools, students' achievement was additionally related to appraisal of importance elaboration and organizational strategies. Further statistical analyses of relationship between components in SRL showed high positive correlation between cognitive and metacognitive components.

  6. OMEGA -- OSIRIS Mapping of Emission-line Galaxies in A901/2: I.-- Survey description, data analysis, and star formation and AGN activity in the highest density regions

    CERN Document Server

    Chies-Santos, Ana L; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Bamford, Steven P; Gray, Meghan E; Wolf, Christian; Böhm, Asmus; Maltby, David T; Pintos-Castro, Irene; Sánchez-Portal, Miguel; Weinzirl, Tim

    2015-01-01

    We present an overview of and first results from the OMEGA survey: the OSIRIS Mapping of Emission-line Galaxies in the multi-cluster system A901/2. The ultimate goal of this project is to study star formation and AGN activity across a broad range of environments at a single redshift. Using the tuneable-filter mode of the OSIRIS instrument on GTC, we target Halpha and [NII] emission lines over a ~0.5 X 0.5 deg2 region containing the z~0.167 multi-cluster system A901/2. In this paper we describe the design of the survey, the observations and the data analysis techniques developed. We then present early results from two OSIRIS pointings centred on the cores of the A901a and A902 clusters. AGN and star-forming (SF) objects are identified using the [NII]/Halpha vs. W_Halpha (WHAN) diagnostic diagram. The AGN hosts are brighter, more massive, and possess earlier-type morphologies than SF galaxies. Both populations tend to be located towards the outskirts of the high density regions we study. The typical Halpha lumi...

  7. The Development of Zheng Practice Program Based on Self-regulated Learning Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Xinning Wu; Yong-Chil Yang

    2015-01-01

    An effective music practice of a musical instrument can be attained over the use of self-regulated learning strategies. Musicians often use self-regulated learning strategies in their practice sessions. Similarly, a string instrument can be linked with self-regulated learning, when it comes to its posture, tone production, bowing, and fingering features with various tuning potentials. In our study, we discussed the use of a string instrument for self-regulated learning. We developed a practic...

  8. EFIKASI DIRI, DUKUNGAN SOSIAL KELUARGA DAN SELF REGULATED LEARNING PADA SISWA KELAS VIII

    OpenAIRE

    Alfi Purnamasari; Nobelina Adicondro

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to find out (1) the relation betweenself efficacy, family social support and self regulated learning (2) the relationbetween self efficacy and self regulated learning (3) the relation betweenfamily social support and self regulated learning. The populations of thestudy were students of 8th grade students at SMP Muhammadiyah. Thetechnique sampling was cluster random sampling. The study used SelfEfficacy Scale, Family Social Support Scale and Self Regulated Learn...

  9. THE EFFECT OF PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING ON SELF-REGULATED LEARNING: A REVIEW OF LITERATURE

    OpenAIRE

    Tas, Yasemin; SUNGUR, SEMRA

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is threefold. Firstly, self-regulated learning is described from the social cognitive perspective and why self-regulated learning should be targeted in schools is discussed. Secondly, problem-based learning is proposed to facilitate self-regulated learning. Literature on the effects of problem-based learning on students’ self-regulated learning in K-12 science classes is reviewed. An empirical base for how particular aspects of problem-based learning can improve stud...

  10. Profiles in Self-Regulated Learning in the Online Learning Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Lucy Barnard-Brak; William Y. Lan; Valerie Osland Paton

    2010-01-01

    Individuals who are self-regulated in their learning appear to achieve more positive academic outcomes than individuals who do not exhibit self-regulated learning behaviors. We suggest that distinct profiles of self-regulated learning behaviors exist across learners. In turn, these profiles appear to be associated with significantly different academic outcomes. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether profiles for self-regulated learning skills and strategies exist among learne...

  11. Self-Regulation and Dimensions of Parenting Styles Predict Psychological Procrastination of Undergraduate Students

    OpenAIRE

    Habibeh Mortazanajad; Faride mostafafi; Shahram Vahedi

    2009-01-01

    "n Objective: "n "nPrevious research has linked self regulation and parenting styles separately to academic procrastination. This article investigates the impact of the dimensions of parenting styles, behavioral self regulation and short term self regulation on procrastination of students. "nMethod: A sample of 249 adolescents (174 females and 75 male) aged 19 - 21 years completed measures of Parent as Social Context Questionnaire- Adolescent Report, Self-regulation Questionnaire (SRQ), ...

  12. Conscious self-regulation of modern school students learning in different types of educational institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Janna Levshynova

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the results of study of conscious self-regulation of modern school students (on the example of senior classes’ pupils). In work the author used methodic «The style of self-regulation of behavior» by V.I. Morosanova and the hardware complex «Aktivatsiometr» for diagnostic of psychoemotional stability, stability of thinking, self-regulation of thinking and self-regulation of psychic states.

  13. Developing young adolescents’ self-regulation by means of formative assessment: A theoretical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly D. Meusen-Beekman; Desirée Joosten-ten Brinke; Boshuizen, Henny P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Fostering self-regulated learning (SRL) has become increasingly important at various educational levels. Most studies on SRL have been conducted in higher education. The present literature study aims toward understanding self-regulation processes of students in primary and secondary education. We explored the development of young students’ self-regulation from a theoretical perspective. In addition, effective characteristics for an intervention to develop young students’ self-regulation were ...

  14. Using gravitational lensed images to investigate the intrinsic AGN variability

    OpenAIRE

    Marti-Vidal, I.; Muller, S

    2016-01-01

    We discuss about how the relative flux densities among the images of gravitationally-lensed active galactic nuclei, AGN, can be used to study the intrinsic AGN variability with high accuracy. Multi-frequency monitoring observations of resolved gravitational lenses can allow us to detect signals of very weak variability and also provide information about the jet opacity and structure. As an example, we investigate the variability of the flux-density ratio between the two lensed images of the b...

  15. AGN Variability Surveys: DASCH from BATSS to EXIST

    OpenAIRE

    Grindlay, Jonathan E.

    2007-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) are variable on a wide range of timescales, though relatively few systematic variability surveys have been conducted. Previous broad-band (both spectral and temporal) variability surveys of AGN are limited in their temporal and spectral bandwidth, despite their promise for probing the central engine and black hole mass. We outline optimal properties for variability studies and provide a brief summary of three new variability surveys, two (BATSS and DASCH) about to...

  16. Exploring Multiwavelength AGN Variability with Swift Archival Data

    OpenAIRE

    Gelbord, Jonathan; Gronwall, Caryl; Grupe, Dirk; Berk, Dan Vanden; Wu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    We are conducting an archival Swift program to measure multiwavelength variability in active galactic nuclei (AGN). This variability information will provide constraints on the geometry, physical conditions and processes of the structures around the central black holes that emit and reprocess the observed flux. Among our goals are: (1) to produce a catalog of type 1 AGN with time-resolved multi-wavelength data; (2) to characterize variability in the optical, UV and X-ay bands as well as chang...

  17. AGN The High-Energy Status before INTEGRAL

    CERN Document Server

    Collmar, W

    2000-01-01

    Much progress in the knowledge of the high-energy emission (>50 keV) from Active Galactic Nuclei has been made during the last decade, predominately by the experiments aboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory. After the end of the CGRO mission and prior to the upcoming INTEGRAL mission the current status of high-energy emission properties and scenarios is summarized for different AGN classes. In addition, prospects for INTEGRAL observations of AGN are given.

  18. A Degeneracy in DRW Modelling of AGN Light Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Kozlowski, Szymon

    2016-01-01

    Individual light curves of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are nowadays successfully modelled with the damped random walk (DRW) stochastic process, characterized by the power exponential covariance matrix of the signal, with the power $\\beta=1$. By Monte Carlo simulation means, we generate mock AGN light curves described by non-DRW stochastic processes ($0.5\\leq\\beta\\leq 1.5$ and $\\beta\

  19. Training Self-Regulated Learning in the Classroom: Development and Evaluation of Learning Materials to Train Self-Regulated Learning during Regular Mathematics Lessons at Primary School

    OpenAIRE

    Manuela Leidinger; Franziska Perels

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the intervention based on the self-regulation theory by Zimmerman (2000) was to promote a powerful learning environment for supporting self-regulated learning by using learning materials. In the study, primary school teachers were asked to implement specific learning materials into their regular mathematics lessons in grade four. These learning materials focused on particular (meta)cognitive and motivational components of self-regulated learning and were subdivided into six units, ...

  20. CoNoteS2: A Software Tool for Promoting Self-Regulation and Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadwin, Allyson Fiona; Winne, Philip H.

    2001-01-01

    Outlines contemporary theories of self-regulation and presents a four-phase model of self-regulation. Builds on this theory to describe features of CoNoteS2 ( a prototype electronic notebook) that support self-regulation through tacit and explicit scaffolding. Discusses how learning theory can be used to drive instructional innovation and…

  1. Self-Monitoring of Self-Regulation during Math Homework Behaviour Using Standardized Diaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Bernhard; Perels, Franziska

    2011-01-01

    This study aims at enhancing math learning and general self-regulation by supporting daily self-regulated learning during math homework. The authors use standardized diaries as a self-monitoring tool to support self-regulatory behaviour. Following the theory of self-monitoring, frequent self-monitoring of self-regulation will lead to an…

  2. Refining the Preschool Self-Regulation Assessment for Use in Preschool Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Hideko Hamada; Denham, Susanne; Wyatt, Todd M.; Warren-Khot, Heather Kiernan

    2012-01-01

    To aid in understanding preschoolers' self-regulation and refinement of measurement, we examined properties of a field-based assessment battery of preschooler's self-regulation, the Preschool Self-regulation Assessment (PSRA). The PSRA, which includes seven age-appropriate tasks that tap children's executive control, was…

  3. Factors Influencing Self-Regulation in E-Learning 2.0: Confirmatory Factor Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The importance of self-regulation in e-learning has been well noted in research. Relevant studies have shown a consistent positive correlation between learners' self-regulation and their success rate in e-learning. Increasing attention has been paid to developing learners' self-regulated abilities in e-learning. For students, what and how to learn…

  4. Effect of Teaching of Self-Regulated Learning Strategies on Attribution Styles in Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakolizadeh, Jahanshir; Qavam, Soghra Ebrahimi

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Nowadays, self-regulated learning has become an important focus in research and a large number of studies have been undergone about self-regulation, school achievement and motivation of learning, but few researches has been done in the field of self-regulated leaning and motivational variables and attributions. This research has…

  5. Effects of Self-Regulated Vocabulary Learning Process on Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizumoto, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    Researchers, especially in the field of educational psychology, have argued that self-efficacy plays an important role in self-regulated learning. As such, teaching of self-regulated learning often focuses on enhancing self-efficacy. However, few studies have examined how the process of self-regulated learning might lead to the enhancement of…

  6. GP Supervisors' Experience in Supporting Self-Regulated Learning: A Balancing Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagasser, Margaretha H.; Kramer, Anneke W. M.; van Weel, Chris; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    2015-01-01

    Self-regulated learning is essential for professional development and lifelong learning. As self-regulated learning has many inaccuracies, the need to support self-regulated learning has been recommended. Supervisors can provide such support. In a prior study trainees reported on the variation in received supervisor support. This study aims at…

  7. Profiles in Self-Regulated Learning in the Online Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Lan, William Y.; Paton, Valerie Osland

    2010-01-01

    Individuals who are self-regulated in their learning appear to achieve more positive academic outcomes than individuals who do not exhibit self-regulated learning behaviors. We suggest that distinct profiles of self-regulated learning behaviors exist across learners. In turn, these profiles appear to be associated with significantly different…

  8. How Does Self-Regulation Affect Computer-Programming Achievement in a Blended Context?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigdem, Harun

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on learners' self-regulation which is one of the essential skills for student achievement in blended courses. Research on learners' self-regulation skills in blended learning environments has gained popularity in recent years however only a few studies investigating the correlation between self-regulation skills and student…

  9. Physical properties of simulated galaxy populations at z=2 -- I. Effect of metal-line cooling and feedback from star formation and AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Haas, Marcel R; Booth, C M; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla; Springel, Volker; Theuns, Tom; Wiersma, Robert P C

    2012-01-01

    We use hydrodynamical simulations from the OWLS project to investigate the dependence of the physical properties of galaxy populations at redshift 2 on metal-line cooling and feedback from star formation and active galactic nuclei (AGN). We find that if the sub-grid feedback from star formation is implemented kinetically, the feedback is only efficient if the initial wind velocity exceeds a critical value. This critical velocity increases with galaxy mass and also if metal-line cooling is included. This suggests that radiative losses quench the winds if their initial velocity is too low. If the feedback is efficient, then the star formation rate is inversely proportional to the amount of energy injected per unit stellar mass formed (which is proportional to the initial mass loading for a fixed wind velocity). This can be understood if the star formation is self-regulating, i.e. if the star formation rate (and thus the gas fraction) increase until the outflow rate balances the inflow rate. Feedback from AGN is...

  10. The AGN Black Hole Mass Database

    CERN Document Server

    Bentz, Misty C

    2014-01-01

    The AGN Black Hole Mass Database is a compilation of all published spectroscopic reverberation-mapping studies of active galaxies. We have created a public web interface, where users may get the most up-to-date black hole masses from reverberation mapping for any particular active galactic nucleus (AGN), as well as obtain the individual measurements upon which the masses are based and the appropriate references. While the database currently focuses on the measurements necessary for black hole mass determinations, we also plan to expand it in the future to include additional useful information, such as host-galaxy characteristics. New reverberation mapping results will also be incorporated into the database as they are published in peer-refereed journals.

  11. New mechanism of radiation polarization in Seyfert-1 AGNs

    CERN Document Server

    Silant'ev, N A; Piotrovich, M Yu; Natsvlishvili, T M; Buliga, S D

    2016-01-01

    In most of Seyfert-1 active galactic nucei (AGN) the optical linear continuum polarization degree is usually small (less than 1%) and the polarization position angle is nearly parallel to the AGN radio-axis. However, there are many types-1 AGNs with unexplained intermediate values for both positional angles and polarization degrees. Our explanation of polarization degree and positional angle of Seyfert-1 AGNs focuses on the reflection of non-polarized radiation from sub-parsec jets in optically thick accretion discs. The presence of a magnetic field surrounding the scattering media will induce Faraday rotation of the polarization plane that may explain the intermediate values of positional angles if there is a magnetic field component normal to the accretion disc. The Faraday rotation depolarization effect in disc diminishes the competition between polarization of the reflected radiation with the parallel component of polarization and the perpendicular polarization from internal radiation of disc (the Milne p...

  12. AGN Broad Line Regions Scale with Bolometric Luminosity

    CERN Document Server

    Trippe, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    The masses of supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei (AGN) can be derived spectroscopically via virial mass estimators based on selected broad optical/ultraviolet emission lines. These estimates commonly use the line width as a proxy for the gas speed and the monochromatic continuum luminosity as a proxy for the radius of the broad line region. However, if the size of the broad line region scales with bolometric rather than monochromatic AGN luminosity, mass estimates based on different emission lines will show a systematic discrepancy which is a function of the color of the AGN continuum. This has actually been observed in mass estimates based on H-alpha / H-beta and C IV lines, indicating that AGN broad line regions indeed scale with bolometric luminosity. Given that this effect seems to have been overlooked as yet, currently used single-epoch mass estimates are likely to be biased.

  13. Millimeter VLBI and Variability in AGN Jets

    OpenAIRE

    Krichbaum, T. P.; Graham, D. A.; Witzel, A.; Zensus, J. A.; Greve, A.; Ungerechts, H.; Grewing, M.

    2003-01-01

    Millimeter-VLBI images probe as deep as never before the nuclei of AGN. Global 3mm-VLBI where the VLBA is combined with sensitive European stations, gives CLEAN maps of a quality, which never before was so good. VLBI at 147 GHz yields transatlantic fringes for the first time. Now it will become possible to study the relation between jet kinematics and spectral activity with a few ten micro-arcsecond resolution at the shortest wavelengths.

  14. AGN Observations with the MAGIC Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Bigongiari, Ciro

    2006-01-01

    MAGIC is presently the imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope with the largest reflecting surface and the lowest energy threshold. MAGIC concluded its first year of regular observation in April 2006. During this period and the preceding commissioning phase, 25 Active Galactic Nuclei have been observed and VHE gamma-ray emission has been confirmed by 4 of them. Two more AGNs have been detected as gamma-ray sources with high statistical significance for the first time. We report in this paper ...

  15. Distributed Self-regulation Induced by Negative Feedbacks in Ecological and Economic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gafiychuk, V V; Ulanowicz, R E; Ulanowicz, Robert E.

    1998-01-01

    We consider an ecological system governed by Lotka-Volterra dynamics and an example of an economic system as a mesomarket with perfect competition. We propose a mechanism for cooperative self-regulation that enables the system under consideration to respond properly to changes in the environment. This mechanism is based on (1) active individual behavior of the system elements at each hierarchical level and (2) self-processing of information caused by the hierarchical organization. It is shown how the proposed mechanism suppresses nonlocal interaction of elements belonging to a particular level as mediated by higher levels.

  16. Can AGN feedback break the self-similarity of galaxies, groups, and clusters?

    CERN Document Server

    Gaspari, M; Temi, P; Ettori, S

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly thought that AGN feedback can break the self-similar scaling relations of galaxies, groups, and clusters. Using high-resolution 3D hydrodynamic simulations, we isolate the impact of AGN feedback on the $L_{\\rm x}-T_{\\rm x} $ relation, testing the two archetypal and common regimes, self-regulated mechanical feedback and a quasar thermal blast. We find that AGN feedback has severe difficulty in breaking the relation in a consistent way. The similarity breaking is directly linked to the gas evacuation within $R_{500}$, while the central cooling times are inversely proportional to the core density. Breaking self-similarity implies thus breaking the cool core, morphing all systems to non-cool-core objects, which is in clear contradiction with the observed data populated by several cool-core systems. Self-regulated feedback, which quenches cooling flows and preserves cool cores, prevents the dramatic evacuation and similarity breaking at any scale; the relation scatter is also limited. The impulsive ...

  17. Feeding and Feedback in nearby AGN from Integral Field Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa

    2009-01-01

    I report results of recent integral field spectroscopy of the inner few hundred parsecs (pc) around nearby Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) at a sampling of a few pc, obtained with the Gemini Telescopes. In the lowest activity AGNs, it is possible to observe inflows in ionized gas along nuclear spirals and filaments. In more luminous AGN inflows have been observed also in hot molecular gas (H_2) emission in the near-IR. In most cases the H_2 kinematics is dominated by circular rotation in the plane around the nucleus, tracing the AGN feeding. The ionized gas, on the other hand, traces the AGN feedback. Its kinematics shows two components: (1) one originating in the plane, and dominated by circular rotation; (2) another outflowing along the Narrow-Line Region (NLR) whose flux distribution and kinematics frequently correlate with structures seen in radio maps. Mass outflow rates along the NLR range from 10^-2 to 1 M_sun yr^-1, corresponding to 10-100 times the accretion rate to the AGN, indicating that most of the ...

  18. The problem of the development of voluntary self-regulation in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savina E.A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews main approaches to the development of self-regulation in children in contemporary Western psychology. It further discusses the core neurocognitive processes involved in voluntary self-regulation including inhibition, working memory, and executive attention. Readers will learn about the paradigms and methods used to measure voluntary self-regulation such as Stroop test, stop-signal and flanker tests as well as tests to measure delayed gratification. The developmental trajectory of voluntary self-regulation and the importance of self-regulation for children’s mental health, socio-emotional development and school success are discussed in detail

  19. Age shall not weary us: deleterious effects of self-regulation depletion are specific to younger adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Dahm

    Full Text Available Self-regulation depletion (SRD, or ego-depletion, refers to decrements in self-regulation performance immediately following a different self-regulation-demanding activity. There are now over a hundred studies reporting SRD across a broad range of tasks and conditions. However, most studies have used young student samples. Because prefrontal brain regions thought to subserve self-regulation do not fully mature until 25 years of age, it is possible that SRD effects are confined to younger populations and are attenuated or disappear in older samples. We investigated this using the Stroop color task as an SRD induction and an autobiographical memory task as the outcome measure. We found that younger participants (<25 years were susceptible to depletion effects, but found no support for such effects in an older group (40-65 years. This suggests that the widely-reported phenomenon of SRD has important developmental boundary conditions casting doubt on claims that it represents a general feature of human cognition.

  20. DUAL SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE CANDIDATES IN THE AGN AND GALAXY EVOLUTION SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dual supermassive black holes (SMBHs) with kiloparsec-scale separations in merger-remnant galaxies are informative tracers of galaxy evolution, but the avenue for identifying them in large numbers for such studies is not yet clear. One promising approach is to target spectroscopic signatures of systems where both SMBHs are fueled as dual active galactic nuclei (AGNs), or where one SMBH is fueled as an offset AGN. Dual AGNs may produce double-peaked narrow AGN emission lines, while offset AGNs may produce single-peaked narrow AGN emission lines with line-of-sight velocity offsets relative to the host galaxy. We search for such dual and offset systems among 173 Type 2 AGNs at z +3.6-1.9% to 18+5-5%). This may be associated with the rise in the galaxy merger fraction over the same cosmic time. As further evidence for a link with galaxy mergers, the AGES offset and dual AGN candidates are tentatively ∼3 times more likely than the overall AGN population to reside in a host galaxy that has a companion galaxy (from 16/173 to 2/7, or 9+3-2% to 29-19+26%). Follow-up observations of the seven offset and dual AGN candidates in AGES will definitively distinguish velocity offsets produced by dual SMBHs from those produced by narrow-line region kinematics, and will help sharpen our observational approach to detecting dual SMBHs

  1. X-ray absorption, nuclear infrared emission and dust covering factors of AGN: testing Unification Schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Mateos, S; Alonso-Herrero, A; Hernán-Caballero, A; Barcons, X; Ramos, A Asensio; Watson, M G; Blain, A; Caccianiga, A; Ballo, L; Braito, V; Almeida, C Ramos

    2016-01-01

    We present the distributions of geometrical covering factors of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) dusty tori (f2) using an X-ray selected complete sample of 227 AGN drawn from the Bright Ultra-hard XMM-Newton Survey. The AGN have z from 0.05 to 1.7, 2-10 keV luminosities between 10^42 and 10^46 erg/s and Compton-thin X-ray absorption. Employing data from UKIDSS, 2MASS and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer in a previous work we determined the rest-frame 1-20 microns continuum emission from the torus which we model here with the clumpy torus models of Nenkova et al. Optically classified type 1 and type 2 AGN are intrinsically different, with type 2 AGN having on average tori with higher f2 than type 1 AGN. Nevertheless, ~20 per cent of type 1 AGN have tori with large covering factors while ~23-28 per cent of type 2 AGN have tori with small covering factors. Low f2 are preferred at high AGN luminosities, as postulated by simple receding torus models, although for type 2 AGN the effect is certainly small. f2 in...

  2. The MOSDEF survey: AGN multi-wavelength identification, selection biases and host galaxy properties

    CERN Document Server

    Azadi, Mojegan; Aird, James; Reddy, Naveen; Shapley, Alice; Freeman, William R; Kriek, Mariska; Leung, Gene C K; Mobasher, Bahram; Price, Sedona H; Sanders, Ryan L; Shivaei, Irene; Siana, Brian

    2016-01-01

    We present results from the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field (MOSDEF) survey on the identification, selection biases and host galaxy properties of 55 X-ray, IR and optically-selected active galactic nuclei (AGN) at $1.4 < z < 3.8$. We obtain rest-frame optical spectra of galaxies and AGN and use the BPT diagram to identify optical AGN. We examine the uniqueness and overlap of the AGN identified at different wavelengths. There is a strong bias against identifying AGN at any wavelength in low mass galaxies, and an additional bias against identifying IR AGN in the most massive galaxies. AGN host galaxies span a wide range of star formation rate (SFR), similar to inactive galaxies once stellar mass selection effects are accounted for. However, we generally identify IR AGN in less dusty galaxies with relatively higher SFR and optical AGN in dusty galaxies with relatively lower SFR. X-ray AGN selection does not display a bias with host galaxy SFR. These results are consistent with those from larger studies at low...

  3. Studying primary school children's self-regulated learning

    OpenAIRE

    Vandevelde, Sabrina; Van Keer, Hilde

    2011-01-01

    Notwithstanding the fact that self-regulated learning (SRL) is an important educational goal and the call for promoting SRL early in students’ school careers, only a few studies have been conducted on primary school children’s SRL. This empirical shortage is related to the current need for valid measures of SRL for this age group. In order to gain more insight in late primary school children’s SRL, the present study focused on the development and validation of a comprehensive self-report ques...

  4. Preschool Self-Regulation Assessment (PSRA): Adaptation Study for Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Fındık Tanrıbuyurdu, Ezgi; Ankara Üniversitesi, Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi, Çocuk Gelişimi Bölümü; Güler Yıldız, Tülin; Hacettepe Üniversitesi, Eğitim Fakültesi, İlköğretim Bölümü, Okul Öncesi Eğitimi AD

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to conduct the validity and reliability studies of the Preschool Self-Regulation Assessment (PSRA) in Turkey. The study was carried out with 233 children, aging between 48-72 months. First of all, the scale was translated from the source language, and then translated back to the source language by experts and the texts were checked for consistency. The tasks in the scale were then reviewed by domain experts. Scoring was conducted simultaneously by the researcher and a...

  5. From Habits to Self-Regulation: How Do We Change?

    OpenAIRE

    Gianessi, Carol A

    2012-01-01

    The Yale Cognitive Science department hosted the conference “From Habits to Self-Regulation: How Do We Change?” on November 4 and 5, 2011, to showcase current research on self-control in cognitive science, psychology, and neuroscience. The conference included a panel discussion by four philosophers who gave context for the scope and limitations of research on self-control. The common theme concerning the best method to attain lasting change included becoming aware of what one wants to change,...

  6. Uses of self-regulation to facilitate and restrain addictive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Roy F; Vonasch, Andrew J

    2015-05-01

    We apply self-regulation theory to understand addictive behavior. Self-regulation and volition depend on a limited resource, and when that resource has been depleted, self-regulation becomes prone to fail. Moving beyond traditional models that have emphasized the relevance of self-regulation to quitting addiction, we propose that self-regulation is used both to facilitate and resist addictive behaviors. Self-regulation is often needed to overcome initial aversion to drugs and alcohol, as well as to maintain addictive usage patterns despite situational obstacles (e.g., illegality, erratic availability, family disapproval). Sustaining addiction also requires preventing use from spiraling out of control and interfering with other aspects of life. More generally, the automaticity and irresistibility of addictive responses may have been overrated, as indicated by how addictive behaviors respond rationally to incentives and other concerns. Self-regulation does facilitate quitting, and relapse may be especially likely when self-regulatory capabilities are depleted. PMID:25267213

  7. Angular Broadening of Intraday Variable AGN. II. Interstellar and Intergalactic Scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Lazio, T. J. W.; Ojha, R; Fey, A. L.; Kedziora-Chudczer, L.; Cordes, J.M.; Jauncey, D. L.; Lovell, J. E. J.

    2007-01-01

    We analyze a sample of 58 multi-wavelength, Very Long Baseline Array observations of active galactic nuclei (AGN) to determine their scattering properties. Approximately 75% of the sample consists of AGN that exhibit centimeter-wavelength intraday variability (interstellar scintillation) while the other 25% do not show intraday variability. We find that interstellar scattering is measurable for most of these AGN, and the typical broadening diameter is 2 mas at 1 GHz. We find that the scintill...

  8. XMM-NEWTON SCIENTIFIC HIGHLIGHTS: X-RAY SPECTROSCOPIC POPULATION STUDIES OF AGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Guainazzi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I review the contribution that the XMM-Newton ESA X-ray mission has given to our understanding of Active Galactic Nuclei, together with other operational, and complementary, X-ray facilities. I will focus on answering three basic questions: a to which extent do AGN share the same engine?; b to which extent are AGN “relativistic machines”?; c to which extent do AGN affect their immediate environment?

  9. Host Galaxy Properties of the Swift BAT Ultra Hard X-Ray Selected AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Michael; Mushotzky, Richard; Veilleux, Sylvain; Winter, Lisa M.; Baumgartner, Wayne; Tueller, Jack; Gehrels, Neil; Valencic, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    We have assembled the largest sample of ultra hard X-ray selected (14-195 keV) AGN with host galaxy optical data to date, with 185 nearby (zBAT) sample. The BAT AGN host galaxies have intermediate optical colors (u -- r and g -- r) that are bluer than a comparison sample of inactive galaxies and optically selected AGN from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) which are chosen to have the same stellar mass. Based on morphological classifications from the RC3 and the Galaxy Zoo, the bluer colors of BAT AGN are mainly due to a higher fraction of mergers and massive spirals than in the comparison samples. BAT AGN in massive galaxies (log Stellar Mass >10.5) have a 5 to 10 times higher rate of spiral morphologies than in SDSS AGN or inactive galaxies. We also see enhanced far-IR emission in BAT AGN suggestive of higher levels of star formation compared to the comparison samples. BAT AGN are preferentially found in the most massive host galaxies with high concentration indexes indicative of large bulge-to-disk ratios and large supermassive black holes. The narrow-line (NL) BAT AGN have similar intrinsic luminosities as the SDSS NL Seyferts based on measurements of [O III] Lambda 5007. There is also a correlation between the stellar mass and X-ray emission. The BAT AGN in mergers have bluer colors and greater ultra hard X-ray emission compared to the BAT sample as whole. In agreement with the Unified Model of AGN, and the relatively unbiased nature of the BAT sources, the host galaxy colors and morphologies are independent of measures of obscuration such as X-ray column density or Seyfert type. The high fraction of massive spiral galaxies and galaxy mergers in BAT AGN suggest that host galaxy morphology is related to the activation and fueling of local AGN.

  10. Extremely efficient Zevatron in rotating AGN magnetospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Osmanov, Zaza; Machabeli, George; Chkheidze, Nino

    2014-01-01

    A novel model of particle acceleration in the magnetospheres of rotating Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) is constructed.The particle energies may be boosted up to 10^{21}eV in a two step mechanism: In the first stage, the Langmuir waves are centrifugally excited and amplified by means of a parametric process that efficiently pumps rotational energy to excite electrostatic fields. In the second stage, the electrostatic energy is transferred to particle kinetic energy via Landau damping made possible by rapid "Langmuir collapse". The time scale for parametric pumping of Langmuir waves turns out to be small compared to the kinematic timescale, indicating high efficiency of the first process. The second process of "Langmuir collapse" - the creation of caverns or low density regions - also happens rapidly for the characteristic parameters of the AGN magnetosphere. The Langmuir collapse creates appropriate conditions for transferring electric energy to boost up already high particle energies to much higher values. It ...

  11. Learned self-regulation of the lesioned brain with epidural electrocorticography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza eGharabaghi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Different techniques for neurofeedback of voluntary brain activations are currently being explored for clinical application in brain-related disorders. One of the most frequently used approaches is the self-regulation of oscillatory signals recorded with electroencephalography (EEG. Many patients are, however, not in a position to use such tools. This could be due to the specific anatomical and physiological properties of the patient's brain after the lesion, as well as to methodological issues related to the technique chosen for recording brain signals.Methods: A patient with extended ischemic lesions of the cortex was unable to gain volitional control of sensorimotor oscillations when using a standard EEG-based approach. We provided him with a neurofeedback set-up with which his brain activity could be recorded from the epidural space by electrocorticography (ECoG.Results: Ipsilesional epidural recordings of field potentials facilitated learned self-regulation of brain oscillations in an online closed-loop paradigm and allowed swift and reliable neurofeedback training for a period of four weeks on a daily basis.Conclusion: Epidural implants may decode and train brain activity even when the cortical physiology is distorted following severe brain injury. Such practice would allow for reinforcement learning of preserved neural networks and may well provide restorative tools for those patients who are worst afflicted.

  12. Profiles in Self-Regulated Learning in the Online Learning Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Barnard-Brak

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Individuals who are self-regulated in their learning appear to achieve more positive academic outcomes than individuals who do not exhibit self-regulated learning behaviors. We suggest that distinct profiles of self-regulated learning behaviors exist across learners. In turn, these profiles appear to be associated with significantly different academic outcomes. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether profiles for self-regulated learning skills and strategies exist among learners. To achieve this purpose, we conducted two studies using two different samples. We administered the Online Self-Regulated Learning Questionnaire (OLSQ, a 24-item scale with a 5-point Likert-type response format, to students enrolled in online degree programs at a large, public university located in the Southwestern United States. The OSLQ consists of six subscale constructs, including environment structuring, goal setting, time management, help seeking, task strategies, and self-evaluation. Latent class analyses were performed with participant subscale scores from the OSLQ.Our results indicate the presence of five, distinct profiles of self-regulated learning replicated across both study samples: super self-regulators, competent self-regulators, forethought-endorsing self-regulators, performance/reflection self-regulators, and non- or minimal self-regulators. Results also indicate that individuals differ significantly in their academic achievement according to their profile membership; for example, minimal and disorganized profiles of self-regulated learning are both associated with similar, poorer academic outcomes (e.g., lower GPAs. These profiles in self-regulated learning may be viewed as contributing to the development of theory by elucidating how exactly individuals are and are not self-regulated in their learning. The authors suggest future research directions.

  13. Self-Regulation Empowerment Program: A School-Based Program to Enhance Self-Regulated and Self-Motivated Cycles of Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Timothy J.; Zimmerman, Barry J.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a training program, Self-Regulation Empowerment Program (SREP), that school professionals can use to empower adolescent students to engage in more positive, self-motivating cycles of learning. It is a two-part approach whereby self-regulated learning coaches (SRC) (a) use microanalytic assessment procedures to assess…

  14. Assessing self-regulation strategies: development and validation of the tempest self-regulation questionnaire for eating (TESQ-E) in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vet, de E.; Ridder, de Denise; Stok, M.; Brunso, K.; Baban, A.; Gaspar, T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Applying self-regulation strategies have proven important in eating behaviors, but it remains subject to investigation what strategies adolescents report to use to ensure healthy eating, and adequate measures are lacking. Therefore, we developed and validated a self-regulation questionnai

  15. Assessing self-regulation strategies : Development and validation of the tempest self-regulation questionnaire for eating (TESQ-E) in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vet, Emely; De Ridder, Denise; Stok, Marijn; Brunso, Karen; Baban, Adriana; Gaspar, Tania

    2014-01-01

    Background: Applying self-regulation strategies have proven important in eating behaviors, but it remains subject to investigation what strategies adolescents report to use to ensure healthy eating, and adequate measures are lacking. Therefore, we developed and validated a self-regulation questionna

  16. The Dark Matter Halos of Moderate Luminosity AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leauthaud, Alexie; Benson, Andrew; Civano, Francesca M.; Coil, Alison L.; Bundy, Kevin; Massey, Richard; Schramm, Malte; Schulze, Andreas; Capak, Peter L.; Elvis, Martin; Kulier, Andrea; Rhodes, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between galaxies hosting active galactic nuclei (AGN) and the dark matter halos in which they reside is key to constraining how black-hole fueling is triggered and regulated. Previous efforts have relied on simple halo mass estimates inferred from clustering, weak gravitational lensing, or halo occupation distribution modeling. In practice, these approaches remain uncertain because AGN, no matter how they are identified, potentially live a wide range of halo masses with an occupation function whose general shape and normalization are poorly known. Instead, in this work, we use host mass as a prior to derive halo masses for moderate luminosity AGN. Using 382 moderate luminosity X-ray AGN at zlive in group-scale dark matter halos---nearly half reside in halos with Mhalo ~ 10^12.5 Msun. By highlighting the relatively ``normal'' way in which moderate luminosity X-ray AGN hosts occupy halos, our results suggest that the environmental signature of distinct fueling modes for luminous QSOs compared to moderate luminosity X-ray AGN is less obvious than previously claimed.

  17. Upper Limits from HESS AGN Observations in 2005-2007

    CERN Document Server

    Aharonian, F; Barresde Almeida, U; Bazer-Bachi, A R; Behera, B; Beilicke, M; Benbow, W; Bernlöhr, K; Boisson, C; Bolz, O; Borrel, V; Braun, I; Brion, E; Brown, A M; Buhler, R; Bulik, T; Büsching, I; Boutelier, T; Carrigan, S; Chadwick, P M; Chounet, L M; Clapson, A C; Coignet, G; Cornils, R; Costamante, L; Dalton, M; Degrange, B; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Ata, A; Domainko, W; O'Connor-Drury, L; Dubois, F; Dubus, G; Dyks, J; Egberts, K; Emmanoulopoulos, D; Espigat, P; Farnier, C; Feinstein, F; Fiasson, A; Frster, A; Fontaine, G; Funk, Seb; Fuling, M; Gallant, Y A; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Glück, B; Goret, P; Hadjichristidis, C; Hauser, D; Hauser, M; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hinton, J A; Hoffmann, A; Hofmann, W; Holleran, M; Hoppe, S; Horns, D; Jacholkowska, A; De Jager, O C; Jung, I; Katarzynski, K; Kendziorra, E; Kerschhaggl, M; Khlifi, B; Keogh, D; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Lamanna, G; Latham, I J; Lemi`re, A; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lenain, J P; Lohse, T; Martin, J M; Martineau-Huynh, O; Marcowith, A; Masterson, C; Maurin, D; Maurin, G; McComb, T J L; Moderski, R; Moulin, E; De Naurois, Mathieu; Nedbal, D; Nolan, S J; Ohm, S; Olive, J P; de Ona Wilhelmi, E; Orford, K J; Osborne, J L; Ostrowski, M; Panter, M; Pedaletti, G; Pelletier, G; Petrucci, P O; Pita, S; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Ranchon, S; Raubenheimer, B C; Raue, M; Rayner, S M; Renaud, M; Ripken, J; Rob, L; Rolland, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Ruppel, J; Sahakian, V V; Santangelo, A; Schlickeiser, R; Schock, F; Schroder, R; Schwanke, U; Schwarzburg, S; Schwemmer, S; Sol, H; Spangler, D; Stawarz, L; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Superina, G; Tam, A Shalchi P H; Tavernet, J P; Terrier, R; Van Eldik, C; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Vialle, J P; Vincent, P; Vivier, M; Vlk, H J; Volpe, F; Wagner, S J; Ward, M; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: Very high energy (VHE; E>100 GeV) gamma-ray studies were performed for 18 active galactic nuclei (AGN) from a variety of AGN classes. METHODS: VHE observations of a sample of 14 AGN, considered candidate VHE emitters, were made with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) between January 2005 and July 2007. Large-zenith-angle observations of three northern AGN (Mkn 421, Mkn 501, 1ES 1218+304), known to emit VHE gamma rays, were also performed in order to sample their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) above 1 TeV. In addition, the VHE flux from 1ES 1101-232, previously detected by HESS in 2004-2005, was monitored during 2006 and 2007. RESULTS: As significant detections from the HESS observation program are reported elsewhere, the results reported here are primarily integral flux upper limits. The average exposure for each of the 14 VHE-candidate AGN is ~7 h live time, and the observations have an average energy threshold between 230 GeV and 590 GeV. Upper limits for these 14 AGN range from <0.9%...

  18. YOUNG AGN OUTBURST RUNNING OVER OLDER X-RAY CAVITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the energetic feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is believed to have a profound effect on the evolution of galaxies and clusters of galaxies, details of AGN heating remain elusive. Here, we study NGC 193—a nearby lenticular galaxy—based on X-ray (Chandra) and radio (Very Large Array and Giant Meter-wave Radio Telescope) observations. These data reveal the complex AGN outburst history of the galaxy: we detect a pair of inner X-ray cavities, an outer X-ray cavity, a shock front, and radio lobes extending beyond the inner cavities. We suggest that the inner cavities were produced ∼78 Myr ago by a weaker AGN outburst, while the outer cavity, the radio lobes, and the shock front are due to a younger (13-26 Myr) and 4-8 times more powerful outburst. Combining this with the observed morphology of NGC 193, we conclude that NGC 193 likely represents the first example of a second, more powerful, AGN outburst overrunning an older, weaker outburst. These results help us to understand how the outburst energy is dissipated uniformly in the core of galaxies, and therefore may play a crucial role in resolving how AGN outbursts suppress the formation of large cooling flows at cluster centers

  19. The Effects of Case-Based Team Learning on Students’ Learning, Self Regulation and Self Direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, Rita; Mosalanejad, Leili

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The application of the best approaches to teach adults in medical education is important in the process of training learners to become and remain effective health care providers. This research aims at designing and integrating two approaches, namely team teaching and case study and tries to examine the consequences of these approaches on learning, self regulation and self direction of nursing students. Material & Methods: This is aquasi experimental study of 40 students who were taking a course on mental health. The lessons were designed by using two educational techniques: short case based study and team based learning. Data gathering was based on two valid and reliablequestionnaires: Self-Directed Readiness Scale (SDLRS) and the self-regulating questionnaire. Open ended questions were also designed for the evaluation of students’with points of view on educational methods. Results: The Results showed an increase in the students’ self directed learning based on their performance on the post-test. The results showed that the students’ self-directed learning increased after the intervention. The mean difference before and after intervention self management was statistically significant (p=0.0001). Also, self-regulated learning increased with the mean difference after intervention (p=0.001). Other results suggested that case based team learning can have significant effects on increasing students’ learning (p=0.003). Conclusion: This article may be of value to medical educators who wish to replace traditional learning with informal learning (student-centered-active learning), so as to enhance not only the students’ ’knowledge, but also the advancement of long- life learning skills. PMID:25946918

  20. AGN and their host galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinborn, L. K.; Dolag, K.; Hirschmann, M.; Remus, R.-S.; Teklu, A. F.

    2016-06-01

    Large scale cosmological hydrodynamic simulations are an important tool to study the co-evolution between black holes (BHs) and their host galaxies. However, in order to model the accretion onto BHs and AGN feedback we need sub-grid models which contain several free parameters. The choice of these parameters has a significant impact on the properties of the BHs and their host galaxies. Therefore, we improve the accretion model and the AGN feedback model based on both theory and observations to eliminate most free parameters. In that way, the slope of the observed relation between BH mass and stellar mass is reproduced self-consistently. We performed a few extremely large simulation runs as part of the Magneticum Pathfinder simulation set, combining a high resolution with very large cosmological volumes, enabling us to study for example dual AGN, the role of galaxy mergers and AGN clustering properties.

  1. The role of self-regulation in voice therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinney, Lisa A; Turkstra, Lyn S

    2013-05-01

    Self-regulation (SR) is the ability to voluntarily control one's thinking and behavior and is a core construct in research on learning and behavior. SR plays a significant role in mastering and generalizing new skills, including skills such as those taught in voice therapy. The ability to self-regulate thoughts and behaviors varies widely across adults, changes in response to factors such as the cognitive load of the task, and predicts the likelihood of pursuing goals and maintaining behavior change over time. We propose that self-regulatory capacity should be considered both in determining candidacy for voice therapy and also in treatment planning. Thus, the goals of this article are to (1) introduce concepts and models of SR; (2) apply these concepts to voice therapy from a motor learning framework; (3) discuss considerations regarding the effects of SR failure on short- and long-term outcomes; and (4) suggest strategies to improve SR and better facilitate vocal behavior change. PMID:23639733

  2. A new cosmological distance measure using AGN X-ray variability

    OpenAIRE

    La Franca, Fabio; Bianchi, Stefano; Ponti, Gabriele; Branchini, Enzo; Matt, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of a luminosity distance estimator using Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). We combine the correlation between the X-ray variability amplitude and the Black Hole (BH) mass with the single epoch spectra BH mass estimates which depend on the AGN luminosity and the line width emitted by the broad line region. We demonstrate that significant correlations do exist which allows one to predict the AGN (optical or X-ray) luminosity as a function of the AGN X-ray variability and eit...

  3. Obscured flat spectrum radio AGN as sources of high-energy neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Maggi, G.; Buitink, S.; Correa, P; De Vries, K. D.; Gentile, G.; Tavares, J. Leon; Scholten, O.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vereecken, M.; Winchen, T.

    2016-01-01

    Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are believed to be one of the main source candidates for the high-energy (TeV-PeV) cosmic neutrino flux recently discovered by the IceCube neutrino observatory. Nevertheless, several correlation studies between AGN and the cosmic neutrinos detected by IceCube show no significance. Therefore, in this article we consider a specific sub-class of AGN for which an increased neutrino production is expected. This sub-class contains AGN for which their high-energy jet is ...

  4. The First INTEGRAL AGN Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Beckmann, V; Shrader, C R; Soldi, S

    2006-01-01

    We present the first INTEGRAL AGN catalog, based on observations performed from launch of the mission in October 2002 until January 2004. The catalog includes 42 AGN, of which 10 are Seyfert 1, 17 are Seyfert 2, and 9 are intermediate Seyfert 1.5. The fraction of blazars is rather small with 5 detected objects, and only one galaxy cluster and no star-burst galaxies have been detected so far. A complete subset consists of 32 AGN with a significance limit of 7 sigma in the INTEGRAL/ISGRI 20-40 keV data. Although the sample is not flux limited, the distribution of sources shows a ratio of obscured to unobscured AGN of 1.5 - 2.0, consistent with luminosity dependent unified models for AGN. Only four Compton-thick AGN are found in the sample. Based on the INTEGRAL data presented here, the Seyfert 2 spectra are slightly harder (Gamma = 1.95 +- 0.01) than Seyfert 1.5 (Gamma = 2.10 +- 0.02) and Seyfert 1 (Gamma = 2.11 +- 0.05).

  5. Effects of AGN feedback on LCDM galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Lagos, Claudia del P; Padilla, Nelson D

    2008-01-01

    We study the effects of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) feedback on the formation and evolution of galaxies in a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation. This model is an improved version of the one described by Cora (2006), which now considers the growth of black holes (BHs) as driven by (i) gas accretion during merger-driven starbursts and mergers with other BHs, (ii) accretion during starbursts triggered by disc instabilities, and (iii) accretion of gas cooled from quasi-hydrostatic hot gas haloes. It is assumed that feedback from AGN operates in the later case. The model has been calibrated in order to reproduce observational correlations between BH mass and mass, velocity dispersion, and absolute magnitudes of the galaxy bulge. AGN feedback has a strong impact on reducing or even suppressing gas cooling, an effect that becomes important at lower redshifts. This phenomenon helps to reproduce the observed galaxy luminosity function (LF) in the optical and near IR bands at z=0, and the cosmic star formation ra...

  6. Use Your Words: The Role of Language in the Development of Toddlers' Self-Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallotton, Claire; Ayoub, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Self-regulation emerges throughout early childhood, and predicts later success in socially and cognitively challenging situations. Vygotsky proposed that symbols, particularly words, serve as mental tools to be used in service of self-regulation. Cross-sectional research indicates a positive but inconsistent association between language and self-regulation skills throughout toddlerhood, but research has not accounted for general cognitive development, nor gender differences in these domains. We used growth modeling of longitudinal data for 120 toddlers collected when children were 14, 24, and 36 months to test the impact of two expressive language skills - spoken vocabulary and talkativeness - on the growth of toddlers' self-regulation, and to determine whether associations between these domains exist when controlling for cognitive development. Results reveal gender differences in self-regulation trajectories, and in the impact of language on self-regulation. Vocabulary is a better predictor of self-regulation than talkativeness, and both concurrent and prior vocabulary positively predicted children's levels of self-regulation. When cognitive development was controlled, 24-month vocabulary still predicted the trajectory of self-regulation. Results reveal that, even in early development, words are tools that can be applied to the task of self-regulation, and may be a more necessary tool for boys than for girls at this age. PMID:21969766

  7. The Spitzer mid-infrared AGN survey. I - optical and near-infrared spectroscopy of candidate obscured and normal AGN selected in the mid-infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Lacy, M; Gates, E L; Nielsen, D M; Petric, A O; Sajina, A; Urrutia, T; Drews, S Cox; Harrison, C; Seymour, N; Storrie-Lombardi, L J

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of a program of optical and near-infrared spectroscopic follow-up of candidate Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) selected in the mid-infrared. This survey selects both normal and obscured AGN closely matched in luminosity across a wide range, from Seyfert galaxies with bolometric luminosities L_bol~10^10L_sun, to highly luminous quasars (L_bol~10^14L_sun), and with redshifts from 0-4.3. Samples of candidate AGN were selected through mid-infrared color cuts at several different 24 micron flux density limits to ensure a range of luminosities at a given redshift. The survey consists of 786 candidate AGN and quasars, of which 672 have spectroscopic redshifts and classifications. Of these, 137 (20%) are type-1 AGN with blue continua, 294 (44%) are type-2 objects with extinctions A_V>~5 towards their AGN, 96 (14%) are AGN with lower extinctions (A_V~1) and 145 (22%) have redshifts, but no clear signs of AGN activity in their spectra. 50% of the survey objects have L_bol >10^12L_sun, in the quasar ...

  8. What Teachers Think about Self-Regulated Learning: Investigating Teacher Beliefs and Teacher Behavior of Enhancing Students’ Self-Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Dignath-van Ewijk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to foster self-regulated learning (SRL, teachers should provide students with learning strategies, as well as with constructivist learning environments that allow them to self-regulate their learning. These two components complement each other. When investigating teachers’ promotion of SRL, not only teacher behavior, but also teachers’ beliefs as well as their knowledge about SRL are relevant aspects to consider. Therefore, this study seeks to examine teachers’ knowledge and beliefs on promoting SRL, as well as their predictive value on teachers’ promotion of SRL in the classroom. Forty-seven primary school teachers completed questionnaires on knowledge and beliefs towards both components of the promotion of SRL: strategy instruction and a constructivist learning environment. In addition, teachers had to answer open-ended questions on their understanding of SRL, as well as their implementation of SRL in their classroom. The results show that teachers are more positive towards constructivist than towards SRL (teacher beliefs, and most teachers mentioned characteristics of constructivist learning environments, while only few teachers addressed strategy instruction when being asked about their understanding of SRL (teacher knowledge. Moreover, teacher beliefs are the only predictor for teacher behavior. The results indicate how teacher education could support teachers to learn how to promote SRL effectively.

  9. PRIMUS: INFRARED AND X-RAY AGN SELECTION TECHNIQUES AT 0.2 < z < 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a study of Spitzer/IRAC and X-ray active galactic nucleus (AGN) selection techniques in order to quantify the overlap, uniqueness, contamination, and completeness of each. We investigate how the overlap and possible contamination of the samples depend on the depth of both the IR and X-ray data. We use Spitzer/IRAC imaging, Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray imaging, and spectroscopic redshifts from the PRism MUlti-object Survey to construct galaxy and AGN samples at 0.2 2. We construct samples over a wide range of IRAC flux limits (SWIRE to GOODS depth) and X-ray flux limits (10 ks to 2 Ms). We compare IR-AGN samples defined using both the IRAC color selection of Stern et al. and Donley et al. with X-ray-detected AGN samples. For roughly similar depth IR and X-ray surveys, we find that ∼75% of IR-selected AGNs are also identified as X-ray AGNs. This fraction increases to ∼90% when comparing against the deepest X-ray data, indicating that at most ∼10% of IR-selected AGNs may be heavily obscured. The IR-AGN selection proposed by Stern et al. suffers from contamination by star-forming galaxies at various redshifts when using deeper IR data, though the selection technique works well for shallow IR data. While similar overall, the IR-AGN samples preferentially contain more luminous AGNs, while the X-ray AGN samples identify a wider range of AGN accretion rates including low specific accretion rate AGNs, where the host galaxy light dominates at IR wavelengths. The host galaxy populations of the IR and X-ray AGN samples have similar rest-frame colors and stellar masses; both selections identify AGNs in blue, star-forming and red, quiescent galaxies.

  10. Perbedaan Self Regulated Learning Pada Siswa Etnis Batak dan Siswa Etnis India Tamil di SMK Swasta Raksana 2

    OpenAIRE

    Mias, Puspita Melia

    2013-01-01

    Self regulated learning merupakan aspek penting dari perfomansi siswa berprestasi (Zimmerman & Schunk, 1998). Self regulated learning adalah suatu proses pengaturan diri dan strategi yang melibatkan metakognisi, motivasional, dan behavioral dalam mengoptimalkan proses pembelajaran (Zimmerman, 1990). Self regulated learning dipengaruhi oleh faktor lingkungan yaitu budaya. Adanya harapan sosial, nilai-nilai, dan keyakinan akan pendidikan dapat mendasari keterampilan self regul...

  11. LORETA Neurofeedback in the Precuneus: Operant Conditioning in Basic Mechanisms of Self-Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Rex L; Baldwin, Debora R; Diloreto, Dominic J; Phillips, Sherman T; Shaw, Tiffany L; Levy, Jacob J

    2014-03-01

    Low-resolution brain electomagnetic tomography (LORETA) neurofeedback provides a mechanism to influence the electrical activity of the brain in intracranial space. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of LORETA neurofeedback (LNFB) in the precuneus as a mechanism for improving self-regulation in controls and a heterogeneous diagnostic group (DX). Thirteen participants completed between 10 and 20 sessions of LNFB training in a 3-voxel cluster in the left precuneus. The participants included 5 nonclinical university students, and 8 adults with heterogeneous psychiatric diagnoses. We assessed the effects of LNFB with neurophysiological measures as well as pre- and post-Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) subscales and selected subtests from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (DKEFS). There was a significant total relative power increase at the precuneus for baseline contrasts for the control group. The DX group did not reach significant levels. All participants showed improvements in executive functions and tended to report significantly less psychopathology. The basic neural mechanisms of self-regulation are poorly understood. The data obtained in this study demonstrate that LNFB in a heterogeneous population enhances executive functions while concordantly decreasing endorsement of psychological symptoms. The alpha frequency in the brain may represent integrative functioning relative to operant efficiency and self-regulatory mechanisms. PMID:24590872

  12. Semipermeable Capsules Wrapping a Multifunctional and Self-regulated Co-culture Microenvironment for Osteogenic Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Clara R.; Pirraco, Rogério P.; Cerqueira, Mariana T.; Marques, Alexandra P.; Reis, Rui L.; Mano, João F.

    2016-02-01

    A new concept of semipermeable reservoirs containing co-cultures of cells and supporting microparticles is presented, inspired by the multi-phenotypic cellular environment of bone. Based on the deconstruction of the “stem cell niche”, the developed capsules are designed to drive a self-regulated osteogenesis. PLLA microparticles functionalized with collagen I, and a co-culture of adipose stem (ASCs) and endothelial (ECs) cells are immobilized in spherical liquified capsules. The capsules are coated with multilayers of poly(L-lysine), alginate, and chitosan nano-assembled through layer-by-layer. Capsules encapsulating ASCs alone or in a co-culture with ECs are cultured in endothelial medium with or without osteogenic differentiation factors. Results show that osteogenesis is enhanced by the co-encapsulation, which occurs even in the absence of differentiation factors. These findings are supported by an increased ALP activity and matrix mineralization, osteopontin detection, and the up regulation of BMP-2, RUNX2 and BSP. The liquified co-capsules also act as a VEGF and BMP-2 cytokines release system. The proposed liquified capsules might be a valuable injectable self-regulated system for bone regeneration employing highly translational cell sources.

  13. X-Ray Absorption, Nuclear Infrared Emission, and Dust Covering Factors of AGNs: Testing Unification Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, S.; Carrera, F. J.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Hernán-Caballero, A.; Barcons, X.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Watson, M. G.; Blain, A.; Caccianiga, A.; Ballo, L.; Braito, V.; Ramos Almeida, C.

    2016-03-01

    We present the distributions of the geometrical covering factors of the dusty tori (f2) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) using an X-ray selected complete sample of 227 AGNs drawn from the Bright Ultra-hard XMM-Newton Survey. The AGNs have z from 0.05 to 1.7, 2-10 keV luminosities between 1042 and 1046 erg s-1, and Compton-thin X-ray absorption. Employing data from UKIDSS, 2MASS, and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer in a previous work, we determined the rest-frame 1-20 μm continuum emission from the torus, which we model here with the clumpy torus models of Nenkova et al. Optically classified type 1 and type 2 AGNs are intrinsically different, with type 2 AGNs having, on average, tori with higher f2 than type 1 AGNs. Nevertheless, ˜20% of type 1 AGNs have tori with large covering factors, while ˜23%-28% of type 2 AGNs have tori with small covering factors. Low f2 are preferred at high AGN luminosities, as postulated by simple receding torus models, although for type 2 AGNs the effect is certainly small. f2 increases with the X-ray column density, which implies that dust extinction and X-ray absorption take place in material that share an overall geometry and most likely belong to the same structure, the putative torus. Based on our results, the viewing angle, AGN luminosity, and also f2 determine the optical appearance of an AGN and control the shape of the rest-frame ˜1-20 μm nuclear continuum emission. Thus, the torus geometrical covering factor is a key ingredient of unification schemes.

  14. AGN Observations with STACEE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramel, D. A.; Boone, L. M.; Carson, J.; Chae, E.; Covault, C. E.; Fortin, P.; Gingrich, D. M.; Hanna, D. S.; Hinton, J. A.; Mukherjee, R.; Mueller, C.; Ong, R. A.; Ragan, K.; Scalzo, R. A.; Schuette, D. R.; Theoret, C. G.; Williams, D. A.; Wong, J.; Zweerink, J.

    2003-03-01

    The Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) is a gamma-ray detector designed to study astrophysical sources at energies between 50 and 500 GeV. It uses 64 large, steerable mirrors at the National Solar Tower Test Facility near Albuquerque, NM, USA to collect Cherenkov light from extended air showers and concentrate it onto an array of photomultiplier tubes. The large light-collection area gives it a lower energy threshold than imaging-type Cherenkov detectors. STACEE is now fully operational, and we report here on the performance of the complete STACEE instrument, as well as preliminary results of recent observations of several AGN targets. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation (under Grant Numbers PHY-9983836, PHY-0070927, and PHY-0070953), the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council, Le Fond Quebecois de la Recherche sur la Nature et les Technologies (FQRNT), the Research Corporation, and the California Space Institute. CEC is a Cottrell Scholar of the Research Corporation.

  15. AGN and Star Formation in HerMES-IRS sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltre, Anna; Hatziminaoglou, Evanthia; Hernán-Caballero, Antonio; Fritz, Jacopo; Franceschini, Alberto

    2014-07-01

    One of the remaining open issues in the context of the analysis of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) is the evidence that nuclear gravitational accretion is often accompanied by a concurrent starburst activity. We developed a spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting technique to derive simultaneously the physical properties of active galaxies and coexisting starbursts making the best use of Spitzer and Herschel IR observations. We apply the SED fitting procedure to a large sample of extragalactic sources representing the HerMES (Herschel/Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey) population with IRS spectra with a plethora of multi-wavelength data in order to study the impact of a possible presence of an AGN on the host galaxy's properties. We analyze the star formation rate (SFR) in conncetion to the presence of an AGN and compared the properties of the hot (AGN) and cold (starburst) dust component. Our findings are consistent with no evidence for the presence of an AGN affecting the star formation processes of the host galaxies.

  16. Self-Regulation Behaviors in Underprepared (Developmental) and Regular Admission College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley; Young

    1998-01-01

    Although there is evidence that self-regulated learning processes, such as self-efficacy and goal setting, are significantly related to academic success most studies have not included participants from the one third of the entering college students who must take remedial college courses. The purpose of our research was to examine the differences between the self regulation reported by regular admission students and by underprepared students. We hypothesized that self regulating behaviors could predict developmental, that is underprepared, status or regular admission status among postsecondary students. Self regulation processes in randomly selected developmental and regular admission college students were identified using a structured interview. A discriminant function analysis tested the predictive ability of three measures of self regulating behavior. Developmental and regular admission students differed significantly in their self regulatory strategy deployment. The results suggest that self regulation may be a distinguishing characteristic between some developmental and regular admission students. Copyright 1998 Academic Press. PMID:9514688

  17. Self-regulated learning in students of pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janete Aparecida da Silva Marini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Self-regulated learning is the process by which students plan, monitor and regulate their own learning. The aim of this study was to investigate relationships between motivation to learn, implicit theories of intelligence and self-handicapping strategies, and to examine the association of these variables in the prediction of the use of learning strategies in students of Pedagogy. The sample consisted of 107 Pedagogy students of two private universities of a city of São Paulo state. Data were collected using four Likert-type scales. Multivariate linear regression analyses revealed that participants with higher scores in the Learning Strategies Scale also presented significantly higher scores in intrinsic motivation and fewer reports of use of self-handicapping strategies. Higher scores in metacognitive strategies were significantly associated with both intrinsic an extrinsic motivation and with fewer reports of use of self-handicapping strategies. Results are discussed in terms of the contribution of Psychology to teacher education.

  18. Developing academic literacy through self-regulated online learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmaline Lear

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the self-regulated learning (SRL experiences of international students in developing English language academic literacy essential for successful transition to university. The participants in this study were a small, diverse group of first year undergraduate students who sought academic support from the Academic Skills Centre at an Australian university. They were given the opportunity to independently access an online program, Study Skills Success, over the duration of one semester to develop their academic literacy in English. Data for this study were collected from a pre- and post-program questionnaire, interviews, a focus group discussion, and reflective online learning logs. These sources gathered information regarding the participants’ motivation and attitudes, their online learning experiences and strategy use, and the perceived benefits of SRL online. The findings from this study have implications for supporting the transition of first year students to university by developing essential academic skills through independent online learning.

  19. AGN counts at 15um. XMM observations of the ELAIS-S1-5 sample

    CERN Document Server

    La Franca, F; Sacchi, N; Feruglio, C; Fiore, F; Gruppioni, C; Lamastra, A; Matute, I; Melini, G; Pozzi, F

    2007-01-01

    Context: The counts of galaxies and AGN in the mid infra-red (MIR) bands are important instruments for studying their cosmological evolution. However, the classic spectral line ratios techniques can become misleading when trying to properly separate AGN from starbursts or even from apparently normal galaxies. Aims: We use X-ray band observations to discriminate AGN activity in previously classified MIR-selected starburst galaxies and to derive updated AGN1 and (Compton thin) AGN2 counts at 15 um. Methods: XMM observations of the ELAIS-S1 15um sample down to flux limits ~2x10^-15 erg cm^-2 s^-1 (2-10 keV band) were used. We classified as AGN all those MIR sources with a unabsorbed 2-10 keV X-ray luminosity higher that ~10^42 erg/s. Results: We find that at least about 13(+/-6) per cent of the previously classified starburst galaxies harbor an AGN. According to these figures, we provide an updated estimate of the counts of AGN1 and (Compton thin) AGN2 at 15 um. It turns out that at least 24% of the extragalacti...

  20. EFL Learners’ Use of ICT for Self-Regulated Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Çelik

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: The notions of autonomy and independence possess an increasingly important role in language pedagogy by raising issues such as learners’ responsibility for their own learning, and their right to determine the direction of their own learning, the skills which can be learned and applied in self-directed learning and capacity for independent learning and the extents to which this can be suppressed by institutional education.Purpose of Study: This study attempted to enrich our understanding of language learners’ self-initiated use of information and communication technologies (ICT from the language learning perspective.Methods: The participants were 399 language learners who were attending the intensive English language preparatory program at the Eastern Mediterranean University, North Cyprus. The study was based on a survey which consisted of demographic and language learning backgrounds of the participants, and likert-scale questions on participants’ self-initiated use of ICT for language learning. The data collected were validated through factor analyses. Beside descriptive analyses, chi-square and t-test were also used to reveal the associations between demographic variables and different dimensions of ICT use in selfregulated language learning.Findings and Results: An obvious finding to emerge from this study is that there are no statistically significant differences regarding the male and female participants’ use of ICT for self-regulated learning, and between language levels of the learners. Considering the responses, the learners mostly use ICT to practice listening, vocabulary and writing skills.Conclusions and Recommendations: The overall outcome of the study points to the need for learner training, teacher support and guidance for an effective use of ICT for self regulation of language learning.

  1. Medical students' attitudes towards group and self-regulated learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje L umma-Sellenthin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study is aimed at exploring the association between beginning students' attitudes towards group learning and their awareness of learning strategies, to demographic variables and their exposure to problem-based or mixed curricula. Methods: The descriptive cross-sectional design included students (N = 351 from two medical schools with lecture-based and two with problem-based curricula from Germany and Sweden. Gender, age, personal and parents' practice experience within health care were assessed. A questionnaire was designed for measuring attitudes towards group and individual learning, awareness of learning strategies was assessed with the Metacognitive Awareness Inventory. The t-test for independent groups was applied to compare dependent variables between personal factors, and multivariate statistics to compare medical schools. Results: Students' personal work experience correlated with self-regulation (t[sub](333[/sub] = -3.307; p = 0.001 and group learning experience (t[sub](341[/sub] = -2.971; p = 0.003. Students from the German problem-based curriculum reported most experience with group learning (largest mean difference compared to the German lecture-based curriculum = 1.45 on a Likert scale from 1 to 7; SE = 0.181; p < 0.001, and were better at regulating their learning strategies than students from the Swedish lecture-based school (mean difference 0.18; SE = 0.181; p = 0.034. Conclusions: Students' clinical experience seemed to benefit self-regulation skills. Problem-based teaching methods and early interprofessional education appear to be favorable learning conditions for the development of professional skills.

  2. SELF-REGULATED SHOCKS IN MASSIVE STAR BINARY SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an early-type, massive star binary system, X-ray bright shocks result from the powerful collision of stellar winds driven by radiation pressure on spectral line transitions. We examine the influence of the X-rays from the wind-wind collision shocks on the radiative driving of the stellar winds using steady-state models that include a parameterized line force with X-ray ionization dependence. Our primary result is that X-ray radiation from the shocks inhibits wind acceleration and can lead to a lower pre-shock velocity, and a correspondingly lower shocked plasma temperature, yet the intrinsic X-ray luminosity of the shocks, LX, remains largely unaltered, with the exception of a modest increase at small binary separations. Due to the feedback loop between the ionizing X-rays from the shocks and the wind driving, we term this scenario as self-regulated shocks. This effect is found to greatly increase the range of binary separations at which a wind-photosphere collision is likely to occur in systems where the momenta of the two winds are significantly different. Furthermore, the excessive levels of X-ray ionization close to the shocks completely suppress the line force, and we suggest that this may render radiative braking less effective. Comparisons of model results against observations reveal reasonable agreement in terms of log (LX/Lbol). The inclusion of self-regulated shocks improves the match for kT values in roughly equal wind momenta systems, but there is a systematic offset for systems with unequal wind momenta (if considered to be a wind-photosphere collision).

  3. Executive function and self-regulated exergaming adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cay eAnderson-Hanley

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The rise in dementia and the evidence of cognitive benefits of exercise for the older adult population together make salient the research into variables affecting cognitive benefit and exercise behavior. One promising avenue for increasing exercise participation has been the introduction of exergaming, a type of exercise that works in combination with virtual reality to enhance both the exercise experience and health outcomes. Past research has revealed that executive function (EF was related to greater use of self-regulatory strategies, which in turn was related to greater adherence to exercise following an intervention (McAuley et al., 2011. Best et al. (2014 found improvement in EF related to adherence to exercise post- intervention. Anderson-Hanley et al. (2012 found that for older adults aerobic exergaming yielded greater cognitive benefit than traditional exercise alone; however, questions remain as to the possible impact of greater cognitive benefit and other factors on participants’ involvement in exercise following the end of an intervention. The current study presents follow-up data exploring the relationship between change in EF, self-regulation, and exercise adherence in the post-intervention (naturalistic period. Herein, it was predicted that improvement in EF during an exercise intervention, would predict subsequent exercise with an exergame during the naturalistic window. Contrary to expectations, results suggest that those with EF decline during the intervention used the exergame more frequently. The results of this study contradict previous literature, but suggest an interesting relationship between change in executive function, self-regulation, and exercise behaviors when exergaming is employed, particularly with older adults with some cognitive decline. We hypothesize that other factors may be at work; perhaps expectation of cognitive benefit might act as a unique motivator or caregivers may be instrumental in adherence.

  4. The genesis and evolution of CSR self-regulation with special refer-ence to the case of financial institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Michał Jurek

    2014-01-01

    The paper creates a background for the analysis of the prerequisites of a sustainable finan-cial institution, whose activity is fully consistent with the requirements of sustainable devel-opment and contributes to its implementation. The primary aim of the paper is the analysis of CSR self-regulation with special reference to the case of financial institutions. The specif-ic target is the analysis of: * the linkages between global financial crisis and the evolution of CSR issues in financial ...

  5. Exercise Self-Regulation Among Older Women Participating in a Heart Disease-Management Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Janevic, Mary R.; Janz, Nancy K.; Kaciroti, Niko; Dodge, Julia A.; Keteyian, Steven J.; Mosca, Lori; Clark, Noreen M.

    2010-01-01

    Using behavioral self-regulation processes may facilitate exercise among older women with heart disease. Data from women in a heart disease-management program (n = 658, mean 73 years), was used to explore associations among exercise self-regulation components (i.e., choosing to improve exercise and observing, judging, and reacting to one’s behavior) and exercise capacity. General linear models showed that choosing exercise predicted higher exercise self-regulation scores postprogram and 8 mon...

  6. Bimbingan Kesulitan Belajar Berbasis Self Regulating Learning dalam Meningkatkan Prestasi Belajar Siswa

    OpenAIRE

    - Sunawan; Dwi Yuwono Puji Sugiharto; Catharina Tri Anni

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Self-regulated Learning as a Learning Guidance Model to Improve Learning Achievement. This study aims at developing a guidance model to deal with students’ learning problems and examining the effectiveness of its implementation. The development of self-regulated learning as the learning model involved senior high school students, advisory teachers, subject-matter teachers, and the headmaster. This learning model is geared toward encouraging the students to utilize self-regulated lea...

  7. Using tablets to support self-regulated learning in a longitudinal integrated clerkship

    OpenAIRE

    Alegría, Dylan Archbold Hufty; Boscardin, Christy; Poncelet, Ann; Mayfield, Chandler; Wamsley, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The need to train physicians committed to learning throughout their careers has prompted medical schools to encourage the development and practice of self-regulated learning by students. Longitudinal integrated clerkships (LICs) require students to exercise self-regulated learning skills. As mobile tools, tablets can potentially support self-regulation among LIC students.Methods: We provided 15 LIC students with tablet computers with access to the electronic health record (EHR),...

  8. Using Self-Regulated Learning Strategies in Enhancing Language Proficiency with a Focus on Reading Comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Gholam-Reza Abbasian; Anahid Hartoonian

    2014-01-01

    Self-regulated learning strategies have recently received a remarkable attention by researchers. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between self-regulated learning strategies and students’ language proficiency as well as their reading comprehension. To do so, 115 Iranian EFL university students were selected. First, a TOEFL test was given to the participants so as to determine their language proficiency and reading comprehension. Then, they were asked to fill out Self-Regul...

  9. Cocaine Exposure and Children's Self-Regulation: Indirect Association via Maternal Harshness

    OpenAIRE

    RinaEiden; PamelaSchuetze; ElizabethCox

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined the association between prenatal cocaine exposure and children’s self-regulation at 3 years of child age. In addition to direct effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on children’s self-regulation, we hypothesized there would be indirect associations between cocaine exposure and self-regulation via higher maternal harshness and poor autonomic regulation in infancy. Methods: The sample consisted of 216 mother–infant dyads recruited at delivery from local area hosp...

  10. Self-Regulation, Emotion Understanding and Aggressive Behaviour in Preschool Boys

    OpenAIRE

    BRAJŠA-ŽGANEC, Andreja; Hanzec, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that children with greater self-regulation exhibit less aggressive behaviour in their everyday interactions with peers. Boys are usually more aggressive than girls, have lower self-regulation and understand primary emotions less. However, those who understand emotions better behave more prosocially. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the relationship of self-regulation and emotion understanding  with regard to aggressive behaviour in preschool b...

  11. The problem of the development of voluntary self-regulation in children

    OpenAIRE

    Savina E.A.

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews main approaches to the development of self-regulation in children in contemporary Western psychology. It further discusses the core neurocognitive processes involved in voluntary self-regulation including inhibition, working memory, and executive attention. Readers will learn about the paradigms and methods used to measure voluntary self-regulation such as Stroop test, stop-signal and flanker tests as well as tests to measure delayed gratification. The developmental traje...

  12. Factors affecting self-regulated learning in medical students: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    JOUHARI, ZAHRA; HAGHANI, FARIBA; Changiz, Tahereh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Clinical courses are required of all medical students and means that they must develop the key skill of self-regulation during learning. The ability to self-regulate learning strategies is affected by different factors. This study determined the views of medical students on the factors affecting self-regulated learning (SRL).Method: This study uses a qualitative approach and the content analysis method. Nineteen medical students in their fourth, fifth, and sixth years of study a...

  13. Three Essays on Moral Self-Regulation of Honesty and Impression Management

    OpenAIRE

    Nagel, Volker (Diplom-Volkswirt)

    2015-01-01

    In study 1 an introduction to the research on moral self-regulation is provided alongside with an explanation of the two manifestations of moral self-regulation: moral licensing and moral cleansing. At the core of the first study is an experiment which was designed to identify moral licensing and cleansing in the domain of honesty. The experiment merges relevant studies from social psychology and experimental economics. It assesses the question if moral self-regulation exists within the domai...

  14. Emotional and attentional predictors of self-regulation in early childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Stępień-Nycz Małgorzata; Rostek Irmina; Byczewska-Konieczny Karolina; Kosno Magdalena; Białecka-Pikul Marta; Białek Arkadiusz

    2015-01-01

    The development of self-regulation in early childhood is related to development of emotional regulation and attention, in particular executive attention (Feldman, 2009; Posner & Rothbart, 1998). As the ability to self-regulate is crucial in life (Casey et al., 2011), it is important to reveal early predictors of self-regulation. The aim of the paper is to present the results of longitudinal studies on the relationships between the functioning of attention, regulation of emotion and later self...

  15. The Relationship between EFL Learners' Self-Regulation and Their Listening Comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ali Fatemi; Maral Alishahi; Maryam Noori Khorasani; Monir Seifi

    2014-01-01

    Self-regulated EFL students can comprehend better what they listen. The present study sought to investigate the relationship between EFL learners' listening comprehension and their self-regulation. To achieve the goals of this study, 103 intermediate EFL learners were selected in Torbat-e- Heydarieh, Iran. Two instruments were employed and the participants were to complete; first, Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) to assess their Self-Regulation; and second, Standard List...

  16. PRIMUS + DEEP2: Clustering of X-Ray, Radio, and IR-AGNs at z~0.7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Alexander J.; Coil, Alison L.; Aird, James; Skibba, Ramin A.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Moustakas, John; Blanton, Michael R.; Cool, Richard J.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Wong, Kenneth C.; Zhu, Guangtun

    2016-04-01

    We measure the clustering of X-ray, radio, and mid-IR-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at 0.2\\lt z\\lt 1.2 using multi-wavelength imaging and spectroscopic redshifts from the PRIMUS and DEEP2 redshift surveys, covering seven separate fields spanning ∼10 deg 2 . Using the cross-correlation of AGNs with dense galaxy samples, we measure the clustering scale length and slope, as well as the bias, of AGNs selected at different wavelengths. Similar to previous studies, we find that X-ray and radio AGNs are more clustered than mid-IR-selected AGNs. We further compare the clustering of each AGN sample with matched galaxy samples designed to have the same stellar mass, star-formation rate (SFR), and redshift distributions as the AGN host galaxies and find no significant differences between their clustering properties. The observed differences in the clustering of AGNs selected at different wavelengths can therefore be explained by the clustering differences of their host populations, which have different distributions in both stellar mass and SFR. Selection biases inherent in AGN selection therefore determine the clustering of observed AGN samples. We further find no significant difference between the clustering of obscured and unobscured AGNs, using IRAC or Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer colors or X-ray hardness ratio.

  17. Quenching the X-ray spectrum of hot halos with AGN outflows and turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspari, M.

    2016-06-01

    I highlight recent advancements in the astrophysics of AGN outflow feedback and diffuse hot gas. Thanks to XMM RGS resolution, we know that the X-ray cores of clusters, groups, and massive galaxies have a strong deficit of soft X-ray emission compared with the classic cooling flow prediction: dL_{x}/dT ∝ (T/T_{hot})^{2±1}. Using 3D hydrodynamic simulations, I show that such deficit arises from the tight self-regulation between thermal instability condensation and AGN outflow feedback. Multiphase filaments condense out of the hot plasma, they rain onto the central SMBH, and boost the AGN outflows via chaotic cold accretion. The sub-relativistic outflows thermalize in the core via shocks and turbulence, releasing more heat in the inner cooler phase, thus inducing the observed soft X-ray decline. I discuss how we can leverage XMM capabilities in the next decade by probing turbulence, conduction, AGN accretion and outflows via the information contained in X-ray spectra and surface brightness. I focus on the importance of selecting a few objects with Ms exposure and how we can unveil multiphase halos through the synergy between simulations and multiwavelength observations.

  18. The cosmic evolution of massive black holes in the Horizon-AGN simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Volonteri, Marta; Pichon, Christophe; Devriendt, Julien

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the demographics of black holes (BHs) in the large-volume cosmological hydrodynamical simulation Horizon-AGN. This simulation statistically models how much gas is accreted onto BHs, traces the energy deposited into their environment and, consequently, the back-reaction of the ambient medium on BH growth. The synthetic BHs reproduce a variety of observational constraints such as the redshift evolution of the BH mass density and the mass function. Yet there seem to be too many BHs with mass~ 1e7 Msun at high redshift, and too few BHs with similar mass at z=0 in intermediate-mass galaxies. Strong self-regulation via AGN feedback, weak supernova feedback, and unresolved internal process are likely to be responsible for this, and for a tight BH-galaxy mass correlation. Starting at z~2, tidal stripping creates a small population of BHs over-massive with respect to the halo. The fraction of galaxies hosting a central BH or an AGN increases with stellar mass. The AGN fraction agrees better with multi-wavel...

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF A SAMPLE OF INTERMEDIATE-TYPE AGNs. I. SPECTROSCOPIC PROPERTIES AND SERENDIPITOUS DISCOVERY OF NEW DUAL AGNs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benitez, Erika; Cruz-Gonzalez, Irene; Martinez, Benoni; Jimenez-Bailon, Elena [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 70-264, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Mendez-Abreu, Jairo; Lopez-Martin, Luis [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Fuentes-Carrera, Isaura [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional (ESFM-IPN), U.P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Mexico D.F. 07730 (Mexico); Leon-Tavares, Jonathan [Aalto University Metsaehovi Radio Observatory, Metsaehovintie 114, FI-02540, Kylmaelae (Finland); Chavushyan, Vahram H., E-mail: erika@astro.unam.mx [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Apdo. Postal 51-216, 72000 Puebla (Mexico)

    2013-01-20

    A sample of 10 nearby intermediate-type active galactic nuclei (AGNs) drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey is presented. The aim of this work is to provide estimations of the black hole (BH) mass for the sample galaxies from the dynamics of the broad-line region. For this purpose, a detailed spectroscopic analysis of the objects was done. Using Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich diagnostic diagrams, we have carefully classified the objects as true intermediate-type AGNs and found that 80%{sup +7.2%} {sub -17.3%} are composite AGNs. The BH mass estimated for the sample is within 6.54 {+-} 0.16 < log M {sub BH} < 7.81 {+-} 0.14. Profile analysis shows that five objects (J120655.63+501737.1, J121607.08+504930.0, J141238.14+391836.5, J143031.18+524225.8, and J162952.88+242638.3) have narrow double-peaked emission lines in both the red (H{alpha}, [N II] {lambda}{lambda}6548,6583 and [S II] {lambda}{lambda}6716, 6731) and the blue (H{beta} and [O III] {lambda}{lambda}4959, 5007) regions of the spectra, with velocity differences ({Delta}V) between the double peaks within 114 km s{sup -1} < {Delta}V < 256 km s{sup -1}. Two of them, J121607.08+504930.0 and J141238.14+391836.5, are candidates for dual AGNs since their double-peaked emission lines are dominated by AGN activity. In searches of dual AGNs, type 1, type II, and intermediate-type AGNs should be carefully separated, due to the high serendipitous number of narrow double-peaked sources (50% {+-} 14.4%) found in our sample.

  20. Toward Self-Regulated Learning in Vocational Education: Difficulties and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Jossberger, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Jossberger, H. (2011). Toward Self-Regulated Learning in Vocational Education: Difficulties and Opportunities. Doctoral Thesis. June, 24, 2011, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open Universiteit in the Netherlands.

  1. The effect of self-regulated learning strategy instruction on strategy use and academic achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cekolin, Catherine Helen

    This study investigated the effects of self-regulated learning strategy instruction on strategy use and academic achievement in middle school science classes. Gender differences in strategy use and academic achievement were evaluated. The research questions focused on the development of instructional strategies to help students become self-regulated learners. Groups of students were given the opportunity to use self-regulated learning strategies with and without prompting. Gender differences within instructional group and strategy use were evaluated. According to these research findings, prompting appears to be a critical component of self-regulated learning strategy instruction with all groups. Selected groups showed greater increases in both academic achievement and self-regulated learning strategy use when prompting was a component of self-regulated learning strategy instruction. Students who demonstrated either below average self-regulated learning strategy skills, or lower GPAs showed the greatest gain from prompting plus instruction. Gender differences were demonstrated, with females showing greater self-regulated learning strategy use compared to males. The findings from this study emphasize the importance of self-regulated learning strategy instruction, especially for middle school students.

  2. The Second INTEGRAL AGN Catalogue

    CERN Document Server

    Beckmann, V; Ricci, C; Alfonso-Garzón, J; Courvoisier, T J -L; Domingo, A; Gehrels, N; Lubinski, P; Mas-Hesse, J M; Zdziarski, A A

    2009-01-01

    The INTEGRAL mission provides a large data set for studying the hard X-ray properties of AGN and allows to test the unified scheme for AGN. We present analysis of INTEGRAL IBIS/ISGRI, JEM-X, and OMC data for 199 AGN that have been reported to be detected by INTEGRAL above 20 keV. The data analysed here allow a significant spectral extraction on 148 objects and optical variability study of 57 AGN. The slopes of the hard X-ray spectra of Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 galaxies are found to be consistent within the uncertainties, whereas lower luminosities are measured for the more absorbed / type 2 AGN. The intermediate Seyfert 1.5 objects exhibit hard X-ray spectra consistent with those of Seyfert 1. When applying a Compton reflection model, the underlying continua appear still the same in Seyfert 1 and 2 with photon index 2, and the reflection strength is about R = 1, when assuming different inclination angles. A significant correlation is found between the hard X-ray and optical luminosity and the mass of the centr...

  3. Lessons learnt from INTEGRAL AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Beckmann, V; Soldi, S; Alfonso-Garzon, J; Courvoisier, T J -L; Domingo, A; Gehrels, N; Lubinski, P; Mas-Hesse, J M; Zdziarski, A A

    2010-01-01

    The INTEGRAL mission provides a large data set for studying the hard X-ray properties of AGN and allows to test the unified scheme for AGN. We present results based on the analysis of 199 AGN. A difference between the Seyfert types is detected in slightly flatter spectra with higher cut-off energies and lower luminosities for the more absorbed/type 2 AGN. When applying a Compton reflection model, the underlying continua (photon index 1.95) appear the same in Seyfert 1 and 2, and the reflection strength is R=1 in both cases, with differences in the inclination angle only. A difference is seen in the sense that Seyfert 1 are on average twice as luminous in hard X-rays than the Seyfert 2 galaxies. The unified model for Seyfert galaxies seems to hold, showing in hard X-rays that the central engine is the same in Seyfert 1 and 2 galaxies, seen under different inclination angle and absorption. Based on our knowledge of AGN from INTEGRAL data, we briefly outline open questions and investigations to answer them. In t...

  4. AGN coronal emission models - I. The predicted radio emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raginski, I.; Laor, Ari

    2016-06-01

    Accretion discs in active galactic nucleus (AGN) may be associated with coronal gas, as suggested by their X-ray emission. Stellar coronal emission includes radio emission, and AGN corona may also be a significant source for radio emission in radio quiet (RQ) AGN. We calculate the coronal properties required to produce the observed radio emission in RQ AGN, either from synchrotron emission of power-law (PL) electrons, or from cyclosynchrotron emission of hot mildly relativistic thermal electrons. We find that a flat spectrum, as observed in about half of RQ AGN, can be produced by corona with a disc or a spherical configuration, which extends from the innermost regions out to a pc scale. A spectral break to an optically thin power-law emission is expected around 300-1000 GHz, as the innermost corona becomes optically thin. In the case of thermal electrons, a sharp spectral cut-off is expected above the break. The position of the break can be measured with very long baseline interferometry observations, which exclude the cold dust emission, and it can be used to probe the properties of the innermost corona. Assuming equipartition of the coronal thermal energy density, the PL electrons energy density, and the magnetic field, we find that the energy density in a disc corona should scale as ˜R-1.3, to get a flat spectrum. In the spherical case the energy density scales as ˜R-2, and is ˜4 × 10-4 of the AGN radiation energy density. In Paper II we derive additional constraints on the coronal parameters from the Gudel-Benz relation, Lradio/LX-ray ˜ 10- 5, which RQ AGN follow.

  5. The QUEST-La Silla AGN Variability Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartier, R.; Lira, P.; Coppi, P.; Sánchez, P.; Arévalo, P.; Bauer, F. E.; Muñoz, R. R.

    2016-03-01

    It is widely believed that supermassive black holes reside at the centres of every massive galaxy. When actively accreting they are known as Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs). Most commonly, their presence is exposed by the radiation generated by the accretion of matter toward their centres. This radiation can show dramatic flux variations on timescales from minutes to years that can be observed across the full electromagnetic spectrum from X-ray to radio wavelengths. Although the exact origin of AGN variability remains unclear, such variability can be used as an efficient tool to find them and to understand the origin and demographics of flux variations. To this end, we have undertaken an AGN variability survey using the QUEST camera on the ESO 1.0-metre Schmidt Telescope at La Silla. The QUEST-La Silla AGN Variability Survey aims to discover thousands of new AGNs, and provide highly sampled light curves to study the ultraviolet/optical flux variations to a limiting magnitude of r ~ 21.5 mag.

  6. PAHS AS TRACERS OF LOCAL AGN-STARBURST CONNECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario-A. Higuera-G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to investigate how energetic processes associated with active galactic nuclei (AGN are related to those due to nuclear or circumnuclear star formation activity. Photometric and spectroscopic data were used to discriminate between these processes in a sample of starburst, infrared galaxies and AGNs. Here, we propose new diagnostic diagrams based on the 7.7 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission band, the L(MIR,FIR infrared ratio and the q parameter. The diagnostic diagrams allow us to discriminate the behavior of quasars and Seyfert 1-Seyfert 2 galaxies from starbursts and LIRGs-ULIRGs objects.

  7. AGN models: problems and modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This workshop comes at a crucial time in the study of AGN. On one hand there is better understanding of line and continuum emissing processes, with the hope of improving the modeling of the BLR. On the other hand, the newly reported line variability observations may force us to completely change our view of the BLR size and density, maybe even to abandon the idea of photoionization as the sole energy input source to the line emitting region. This review discusses several new developments related to the ionizing source and the inner structure of AGN. The following topics are addressed: The ''FeII problem''; the energy budget and the shape of the EUV continuum; evidences for massive accretion disks; angle dependent photoionization models; the L/M relationship in AGN. (author)

  8. AGN host galaxy mass function in COSMOS. Is AGN feedback responsible for the mass-quenching of galaxies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiorno, A.; Schulze, A.; Merloni, A.; Zamorani, G.; Ilbert, O.; La Franca, F.; Peng, Y.; Piconcelli, E.; Mainieri, V.; Silverman, J. D.; Brusa, M.; Fiore, F.; Salvato, M.; Scoville, N.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the role of supermassive black holes in the global context of galaxy evolution by measuring the host galaxy stellar mass function (HGMF) and the specific accretion rate, that is, λSAR, the distribution function (SARDF), up to z ~ 2.5 with ~1000 X-ray selected AGN from XMM-COSMOS. Using a maximum likelihood approach, we jointly fit the stellar mass function and specific accretion rate distribution function, with the X-ray luminosity function as an additional constraint. Our best-fit model characterizes the SARDF as a double power-law with mass-dependent but redshift-independent break, whose low λSAR slope flattens with increasing redshift while the normalization increases. This implies that for a given stellar mass, higher λSAR objects have a peak in their space density at earlier epoch than the lower λSAR objects, following and mimicking the well-known AGN cosmic downsizing as observed in the AGN luminosity function. The mass function of active galaxies is described by a Schechter function with an almost constant M∗⋆ and a low-mass slope α that flattens with redshift. Compared to the stellar mass function, we find that the HGMF has a similar shape and that up to log (M⋆/M⊙) ~ 11.5, the ratio of AGN host galaxies to star-forming galaxies is basically constant (~10%). Finally, the comparison of the AGN HGMF for different luminosity and specific accretion rate subclasses with a previously published phenomenological model prediction for the "transient" population, which are galaxies in the process of being mass-quenched, reveals that low-luminosity AGN do not appear to be able to contribute significantly to the quenching and that at least at high masses, that is, M⋆ > 1010.7 M⊙, feedback from luminous AGN (log Lbol ≳ 46 [erg/s]) may be responsible for the quenching of star formation in the host galaxy.

  9. One-Class FMRI-Inspired EEG Model for Self-Regulation Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meir-Hasson, Yehudit; Keynan, Jackob N; Kinreich, Sivan; Jackont, Gilan; Cohen, Avihay; Podlipsky-Klovatch, Ilana; Hendler, Talma; Intrator, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that learned self-regulation of localized brain activity in deep limbic areas such as the amygdala, may alleviate symptoms of affective disturbances. Thus far self-regulation of amygdala activity could be obtained only via fMRI guided neurofeedback, an expensive and immobile procedure. EEG on the other hand is relatively inexpensive and can be easily implemented in any location. However the clinical utility of EEG neurofeedback for affective disturbances remains limited due to low spatial resolution, which hampers the targeting of deep limbic areas such as the amygdala. We introduce an EEG prediction model of amygdala activity from a single electrode. The gold standard used for training is the fMRI-BOLD signal in the amygdala during simultaneous EEG/fMRI recording. The suggested model is based on a time/frequency representation of the EEG data with varying time-delay. Previous work has shown a strong inhomogeneity among subjects as is reflected by the models created to predict the amygdala BOLD response from EEG data. In that work, different models were constructed for different subjects. In this work, we carefully analyzed the inhomogeneity among subjects and were able to construct a single model for the majority of the subjects. We introduce a method for inhomogeneity assessment. This enables us to demonstrate a choice of subjects for which a single model could be derived. We further demonstrate the ability to modulate brain-activity in a neurofeedback setting using feedback generated by the model. We tested the effect of the neurofeedback training by showing that new subjects can learn to down-regulate the signal amplitude compared to a sham group, which received a feedback obtained by a different participant. This EEG based model can overcome substantial limitations of fMRI-NF. It can enable investigation of NF training using multiple sessions and large samples in various locations. PMID:27163677

  10. One-Class FMRI-Inspired EEG Model for Self-Regulation Training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehudit Meir-Hasson

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that learned self-regulation of localized brain activity in deep limbic areas such as the amygdala, may alleviate symptoms of affective disturbances. Thus far self-regulation of amygdala activity could be obtained only via fMRI guided neurofeedback, an expensive and immobile procedure. EEG on the other hand is relatively inexpensive and can be easily implemented in any location. However the clinical utility of EEG neurofeedback for affective disturbances remains limited due to low spatial resolution, which hampers the targeting of deep limbic areas such as the amygdala. We introduce an EEG prediction model of amygdala activity from a single electrode. The gold standard used for training is the fMRI-BOLD signal in the amygdala during simultaneous EEG/fMRI recording. The suggested model is based on a time/frequency representation of the EEG data with varying time-delay. Previous work has shown a strong inhomogeneity among subjects as is reflected by the models created to predict the amygdala BOLD response from EEG data. In that work, different models were constructed for different subjects. In this work, we carefully analyzed the inhomogeneity among subjects and were able to construct a single model for the majority of the subjects. We introduce a method for inhomogeneity assessment. This enables us to demonstrate a choice of subjects for which a single model could be derived. We further demonstrate the ability to modulate brain-activity in a neurofeedback setting using feedback generated by the model. We tested the effect of the neurofeedback training by showing that new subjects can learn to down-regulate the signal amplitude compared to a sham group, which received a feedback obtained by a different participant. This EEG based model can overcome substantial limitations of fMRI-NF. It can enable investigation of NF training using multiple sessions and large samples in various locations.

  11. Suzaku View of the Swift/BAT Active Galactic Nuclei. III. Application of Numerical Torus Models to Two Nearly Compton Thick AGNs (NGC 612 and NGC 3081)

    CERN Document Server

    Eguchi, Satoshi; Awaki, Hisamitsu; Aird, James; Terashima, Yuichi; Mushotzky, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The broad band spectra of two Swift/BAT AGNs obtained from Suzaku follow-up observations are studied: NGC 612 and NGC 3081. Fitting with standard models, we find that both sources show similar spectra characterized by a heavy absorption with $N_{\\rm{H}} \\simeq 10^{24} \\ \\rm{cm}^{-2}$, the fraction of scattered light is $f_{\\rm{scat}} = 0.5-0.8%$, and the solid angle of the reflection component is $\\Omega/2\\pi = 0.4-1.1$. To investigate the geometry of the torus, we apply numerical spectral models utilizing Monte Carlo simulations by Ikeda et al. (2009) to the Suzaku spectra. We find our data are well explained by this torus model, which has four geometrical parameters. The fit results suggest that NGC 612 has the torus half opening-angle of $\\simeq 60^{\\circ}-70^{\\circ}$ and is observed from a nearly edge-on angle with a small amount of scattering gas, while NGC 3081 has a very small opening angle $\\simeq 15^\\circ$ and is observed on a face-on geometry, more like the deeply buried "new type" AGNs found by Ued...

  12. Relations of self-regulation and self-efficacy for exercise and eating and BMI change: A field investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annesi James J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This study aimed to assess relations of self-regulatory skill use with self-efficacy for exercise and appropriate eating, and the resulting change in weight associated with participation in a nutrition and exercise treatment supported by cognitive-behavioral methods. Methods Adults with severe obesity (N = 95; mean BMI = 40.5 ± 3.9 kg/m2 participated in a 6-month exercise and nutrition treatment emphasizing self-regulatory skills. Changes in self-regulatory skills usage, self-efficacy, overall mood, and BMI were measured. Relations of changes in self-regulatory skill use and self-efficacy, for both physical activity and appropriate eating, were assessed, as was the possibility of mood change being a mediator of these relationships. Indirect effects of the variables associated with the present treatment on BMI change were then estimated. Results For both exercise and appropriate eating, changes in self-regulation were associated with self-efficacy change. Mood change partially mediated the relationship between changes in self-regulation for appropriate eating and self-efficacy for appropriate eating. Self-efficacy changes for physical activity and controlled eating, together, explained a significant portion of the variance in BMI change (R2 = 0.26, p Conclusion Findings suggest that training in self-regulation for exercise and eating may benefit self-efficacy and weight-loss outcomes. Thus, these variables should be considered in both the theory and behavioral treatment of obesity.

  13. Assessing self-regulation strategies: development and validation of the tempest self-regulation questionnaire for eating (TESQ-E) in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Vet, van der, Paul E.; Ridder, de, René M.; Stok, M.; Brunso, K.; Baban, A.; Gaspar, T

    2014-01-01

    Background: Applying self-regulation strategies have proven important in eating behaviors, but it remains subject to investigation what strategies adolescents report to use to ensure healthy eating, and adequate measures are lacking. Therefore, we developed and validated a self-regulation questionnaire applied to eating (TESQ-E) for adolescents. Methods: Study 1 reports a four-step approach to develop the TESQ-E questionnaire (n = 1097). Study 2 was a cross-sectional survey among adolescents ...

  14. Hard X-ray Variability of AGN

    OpenAIRE

    Beckmann, V.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Courvoisier, T. J. -L.; Gehrels, N.; Soldi, S.; Tueller, J.; Wendt, G.

    2007-01-01

    Aims: Active Galactic Nuclei are known to be variable throughout the electromagnetic spectrum. An energy domain poorly studied in this respect is the hard X-ray range above 20 keV. Methods: The first 9 months of the Swift/BAT all-sky survey are used to study the 14 - 195 keV variability of the 44 brightest AGN. The sources have been selected due to their detection significance of >10 sigma. We tested the variability using a maximum likelihood estimator and by analysing the structure function....

  15. AGN outflow feedback: Constraints from variability

    CERN Document Server

    Detmers, R G

    2009-01-01

    We present an overview on how variability can be used to constrain the location of the ionized outflow in nearby Active Galactic Nuclei using high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy. Without these constraints on the location of the outflow, the kinetic luminosity and mass loss rate can not be determined. We focus on the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548, which is arguably the best studied AGN on a timescale of 10 years. Our results show that frequent observations combined with long term monitoring, such as with the \\textit{Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE)} satellite, are crucial to investigate the effects of these outflows on their surroundings.

  16. AGN with extreme X-ray amplitude variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallo L.C.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We present active galactic nuclei (AGNs that have shown extreme amplitude variability in X-rays. These AGN appear as bright for long periods, but then suddenly become extremely X-ray weak sources. Most likely this behavior is due to strong absorption along the line of sight or by relativistically blurred reflection. Two extreme examples are the Narrow Line Seyfert 1 (NLS1 galaxies WPVS 007 and Mkn 335. WPVS 007 is a peculiar AGN because it combines the properties of a normal NLS1 with those of a broad-absorption line (BAL quasar, which typically only appear in high-luminousity, high black hole mass systems. Mkn 335 has appeared an an X-ray bright AGN for most of the past few decades, but was caught by Swift in a deep X-ray flux minimum state in 2007, and has remained in that state for most of the time since. One potential explanation for this low state is absorption. Several Other AGN have been in deep minimum X-ray flux states, including PG 0844+349 and 1H 0707–495, for which the dramatic drops in X-ray flux have been explained by blurred X-ray reflection.

  17. Anti-hierarchical evolution of the AGN space density in a hierarchical universe

    CERN Document Server

    Enoki, Motohiro; Kobayashi, Masakazu A R; Nagashima, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations show that the space density of luminous active galactic nuclei (AGN) peaks at higher redshifts than that of faint AGN. This downsizing trend in the AGN evolution seems to be contradictory to the hierarchical structure formation scenario. In this study, we present the AGN space density evolution predicted by a semi-analytic model of galaxy and AGN formation based on the hierarchical structure formation scenario. We demonstrate that our model can reproduce the downsizing trend of the AGN space density evolution. The reason for the downsizing trend in our model is a combination of the cold gas depletion as a consequence of star formation, the gas cooling suppression in massive halos and the AGN life time scaling with the dynamical time scale. We assume that a major merger of galaxies causes a starburst, spheroid formation, and cold gas accretion onto a supermassive black hole (SMBH). We also assume that this cold gas accretion triggers AGN activity. Since the cold gas is mainly depleted by st...

  18. Are Compton-thick AGNs the Missing Link between Mergers and Black Hole Growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocevski, Dale D.; Brightman, Murray; Nandra, Kirpal; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Salvato, Mara; Aird, James; Bell, Eric F.; Hsu, Li-Ting; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Koo, David C.; Lotz, Jennifer M.; McIntosh, Daniel H.; Mozena, Mark; Rosario, David; Trump, Jonathan R.

    2015-12-01

    We examine the host morphologies of heavily obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at z∼ 1 to test whether obscured super-massive black hole growth at this epoch is preferentially linked to galaxy mergers. Our sample consists of 154 obscured AGNs with {N}{{H}}\\gt {10}23.5 {{cm}}-2 and z\\lt 1.5. Using visual classifications, we compare the morphologies of these AGNs to control samples of moderately obscured (1022 cm{}-2\\lt {N}{{H}}\\lt {10}23.5 {{cm}}-2) and unobscured ({N}{{H}}\\lt {10}22 {{cm}}-2) AGN. These control AGNs have similar redshifts and intrinsic X-ray luminosities to our heavily obscured AGN. We find that heavily obscured AGNs are twice as likely to be hosted by late-type galaxies relative to unobscured AGNs ({65.3}-4.6+4.1% versus {34.5}-2.7+2.9%) and three times as likely to exhibit merger or interaction signatures ({21.5}-3.3+4.2% versus {7.8}-1.3+1.9%). The increased merger fraction is significant at the 3.8σ level. If we exclude all point sources and consider only extended hosts, we find that the correlation between the merger fraction and obscuration is still evident, although at a reduced statistical significance (2.5σ ). The fact that we observe a different disk/spheroid fraction versus obscuration indicates that the viewing angle cannot be the only thing differentiating our three AGN samples, as a simple unification model would suggest. The increased fraction of disturbed morphologies with obscuration supports an evolutionary scenario, in which Compton-thick AGNs are a distinct phase of obscured super-massive black hole (SMBH) growth following a merger/interaction event. Our findings also suggest that some of the merger-triggered SMBH growth predicted by recent AGN fueling models may be hidden among the heavily obscured, Compton-thick population.

  19. Understanding and Predicting Student Self-Regulated Learning Strategies in Game-Based Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabourin, Jennifer L.; Shores, Lucy R.; Mott, Bradford W.; Lester, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Self-regulated learning behaviors such as goal setting and monitoring have been found to be crucial to students' success in computer-based learning environments. Consequently, understanding students' self-regulated learning behavior has been the subject of increasing attention. Unfortunately, monitoring these behaviors in real-time has…

  20. Early Behavioral Self-Regulation, Academic Achievement, and Gender: Longitudinal Findings from France, Germany, and Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gestsdottir, Steinunn; von Suchodoletz, Antje; Wanless, Shannon B.; Hubert, Blandine; Guimard, Philippe; Birgisdottir, Freyja; Gunzenhauser, Catherine; McClelland, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that behavioral self-regulation skills are critical for early school success, but few studies have explored such links among young children in Europe. This study examined the contribution of early self-regulation to academic achievement gains among children in France, Germany, and Iceland. Gender differences in behavioral…

  1. Associations between Private Speech, Behavioral Self-Regulation, and Cognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aro, Tuija; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Laakso, Marja-Leena; Tolvanen, Asko; Ahonen, Timo

    2015-01-01

    We examined the associations between 5-year-old children's private speech, behavioural self-regulation, and cognitive abilities. Behavioural self-regulation was assessed using parental and preschool teacher questionnaires. Cognitive abilities (i.e., language, inhibition, planning and fluency, and memory) were assessed with neurocognitive tests,…

  2. Theoretical and practical aspects of self-regulated learning in technology enhanced preschools and primary classrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Mooij, Ton

    2012-01-01

    Mooij, T. (2012, 20 September). Theoretical and practical aspects of self-regulated learning in technology enhanced preschools and primary classrooms. Invited presentation for the symposion Self-regulated learning in technology enhanced learning environments at the ‘European Conference on Educational Research’ (ECER) of the ‘European Educational Research Association’ (EERA), Cádiz, Spain.

  3. Theoretical and practical aspects of self-regulated learning in technology enhanced preschools and primary classrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton

    2012-01-01

    Mooij, T. (2012, 20 September). Theoretical and practical aspects of self-regulated learning in technology enhanced preschools and primary classrooms. Invited presentation for the symposion Self-regulated learning in technology enhanced learning environments at the ‘European Conference on Educationa

  4. Longitudinal Study of Self-Regulation, Positive Parenting, and Adjustment Problems among Physically Abused Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen.; Haskett, Mary E.; Longo, Gregory S.; Nice, Rachel.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research using normative and high-risk samples indicates a significant link between problems with self-regulation and child maladjustment. Nevertheless, little is known about the processes that may modify the link between self-regulation and maladjustment. This longitudinal study examined the joint contributions of child self-regulation…

  5. Mind-Sets Matter: A Meta-Analytic Review of Implicit Theories and Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnette, Jeni L.; O'Boyle, Ernest H.; VanEpps, Eric M.; Pollack, Jeffrey M.; Finkel, Eli J.

    2013-01-01

    This review builds on self-control theory (Carver & Scheier, 1998) to develop a theoretical framework for investigating associations of implicit theories with self-regulation. This framework conceptualizes self-regulation in terms of 3 crucial processes: goal setting, goal operating, and goal monitoring. In this meta-analysis, we included articles…

  6. The Educational Psychology of Self-Regulation: A Conceptual and Critical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jack; McLellan, Ann-Marie

    2008-01-01

    The multiplicity of definitions and conceptions of self-regulation that typifies contemporary research on self-regulation in psychology and educational psychology is examined. This examination is followed by critical analyses of theory and research in educational psychology that reveal not only conceptual confusions, but misunderstandings of…

  7. Employment and First-Year College Achievement: The Role of Self-Regulation and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huie, Faye C.; Winsler, Adam; Kitsantas, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    Students often work in order to meet monetary requirements for college. However, employment reduces the time students can devote to their studies, which can hinder performance. This study examined whether motivation (self-efficacy goal orientation) and self-regulated learning (help-seeking, metacognitive self-regulation, time management and effort…

  8. "Do as I say!" : parenting and the biology of child self-regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Rianne

    2013-01-01

    The development of self-regulation is one of the major challenges of a child’s healthy development. In the current thesis, the contribution and interplay of parental and biological factors in the development of self-regulation in preschoolers are studied in a large population-based cohort, the Gener

  9. Why Is Externally-Facilitated Regulated Learning More Effective than Self-Regulated Learning with Hypermedia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Roger; Moos, Daniel C.; Greene, Jeffrey A.; Winters, Fielding I.; Cromley, Jennifer G.

    2008-01-01

    We examined how self-regulated learning (SRL) and externally-facilitated self-regulated learning (ERL) differentially affected adolescents' learning about the circulatory system while using hypermedia. A total of 128 middle-school and high school students with little prior knowledge of the topic were randomly assigned to either the SRL or ERL…

  10. Using Self-Regulated Learning Strategies in Enhancing Language Proficiency with a Focus on Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasian, Gholam-Reza; Hartoonian, Anahid

    2014-01-01

    Self-regulated learning strategies have recently received a remarkable attention by researchers. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between self-regulated learning strategies and students' language proficiency as well as their reading comprehension. To do so, 115 Iranian EFL university students were selected. First, a TOEFL test…

  11. Self-Regulation of Practice Behavior Among Elite Youth Soccer Players : An Exploratory Observation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toering, Tynke; Elferink-Gemser, Marije; Jordet, Geir; Jorna, Casper; Pepping, Gert-Jan; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to measure behavioral correlates of self-regulation in elite youth soccer players. Behaviors regarded as indicative of self-regulated learning were identified by interviewing six expert youth soccer coaches. These behaviors were observed during practice of eight elite youth soccer p

  12. An Investigation of the Self-Regulation Components Students Employ in the Physical Education Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermarrec, Gilles; Todorovich, John; Fleming, David

    2004-01-01

    Research in educational psychology and sport psychology indicates that school achievement depends on students' capacity to self-regulate their own learning processes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the self-regulation components employed by students in a natural physical education setting. Twenty-three French students, 14 and 15…

  13. Self-Regulated Strategy Development Revisited: Teaching Writing Strategies to Struggling Writers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Steve; Harris, Karen R.; Troia, Gary A.

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the development of the Self-Regulated Strategy Development Model for teaching writing strategies and self-regulation procedures to students with writing difficulties. It describes how the model operates, and examines its effectiveness. It also highlights how the model has been used to respond to variations in settings and…

  14. Using Self-Regulation as a Framework for Implementing Strategy Instruction to Foster Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souvignier, Elmar; Mokhlesgerami, Judith

    2006-01-01

    Research on the implementation of reading strategies suggests that self-regulated learning might be a powerful framework to optimize effects on reading comprehension. Models of self-regulation emphasize that the teaching of strategy knowledge (Strat) has to be complemented by offering skills of cognitive (CSR) and motivational (MSR) aspects of…

  15. Maternal-Related Predictors of Self-Regulation among Low-Income Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Isabelle A.; Buckner, John C.

    2012-01-01

    The association between self-regulation and various adaptive outcomes has become a topic of growing interest to researchers. Yet, there is not much research on predictors of self-regulation in children. Using a cross-sectional design and an array of psychometrically sound scales and measures from multiple informants, this study examined whether…

  16. Self-Regulation and Learning-Related Social Skills: Intervention Ideas for Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelco, Lynn E.; Reed-Victor, Evelyn

    2007-01-01

    Individual differences in the ability to self-regulate emotions, attention, and behavior are evident in infancy, and children who experience difficulty in learning to regulate their own emotions, attention, and behavior are at risk for later social and academic problems. Within the school setting, self-regulation of learning related social skills,…

  17. A Framework for Implementing Individualized Self-Regulated Learning Strategies in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Bryan M.; Middleton, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Self-regulated learning (SRL) is a conceptual model that can be used to design and implement individualized learning strategies for students with learning disabilities. Students who self-regulate their learning engage in planning, performance, and self-evaluation during academic tasks. This article highlights one approach for teaching SRL skills…

  18. Self-Regulated Learning Strategies and Pre-University Math Performance of International Students in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loong, Tang Eng

    2012-01-01

    This study is an attempt to compare the use of self-regulated learning strategies and their math performance between home and international students in the Monash University Foundation Year (MUFY) and determine the self-regulated learning strategies that are significantly associated with their math performance. The participants of the study were…

  19. A Historical Examination of Self-Regulation: Helping Children Now and in the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Yesman; Boyer, Wanda; Brett, Laura

    2006-01-01

    Using content and archival analysis as a mixed method research design, this study addresses the broad issue of self-regulation since this subject area first appeared in the developmental psychology journals, addressing the question of whether each historical period had its own particular perspective on self-regulation, or was there, in fact, a …

  20. The Effects of ePortfolio-Based Learning Model on Student Self-Regulated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Lap Trung; Ikeda, Mitsuru

    2015-01-01

    Self-regulated learners are aware of their knowledge and skills and proactive in learning. They view learning as a controllable process and accept more responsibility for the results of this process. The research described in this article proposes, implements, and evaluates an ePortfolio-based self-regulated learning model. An ePortfolio system…

  1. Religion, Self-Regulation, and Self-Control: Associations, Explanations, and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Michael E.; Willoughby, Brian L. B.

    2009-01-01

    Many of the links of religiousness with health, well-being, and social behavior may be due to religion's influences on self-control or self-regulation. Using Carver and Scheier's (1998) theory of self-regulation as a framework for organizing the empirical research, the authors review evidence relevant to 6 propositions: (a) that religion can…

  2. The Relationship between the Big-Five Model of Personality and Self-Regulated Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidjerano, Temi; Dai, David Yun

    2007-01-01

    The study examined the relationship between the big-five model of personality and the use of self-regulated learning strategies. Measures of self-regulated learning strategies and big-five personality traits were administered to a sample of undergraduate students. Results from canonical correlation analysis indicated an overlap between the…

  3. The Development of a Self-Regulation in a Collaborative Context Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Victor; Ge, Xun; Eseryel, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulation has been shown as a critical factor in learning in a regular classroom environment (e.g. Wolters and Pintrich in "Instr Sci" 26(1):27-47, 1998. doi: 10.1023/A:1003035929216). However, little research has been conducted to understand self-regulation in the context of collaboration (Dinsmore et al. in "Educ Psychol…

  4. Learning Arithmetic Outdoors in Junior High School--Influence on Performance and Self-Regulating Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fägerstam, Emilia; Samuelsson, Joakim

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore the influence of outdoor teaching among students, aged 13, on arithmetic performance and self-regulation skills as previous research concerning outdoor mathematics learning is limited. This study had a quasi-experimental design. An outdoor and a traditional group answered a test and a self-regulation skills questionnaire…

  5. Self-Regulation, Language Skills, and Emotion Knowledge in Young Children from Northern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Salisch, Maria; Haenel, Martha; Denham, Susanne Ayers

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: In order to examine the explanatory power of behavioral self-regulation in the domain of emotion knowledge, especially in a non-U.S. culture, 365 German 4- and 5-year-olds were individually tested on these constructs. Path analyses revealed that children's behavioral self-regulation explained their emotion knowledge in the…

  6. The Relationship between Self-Regulation and Online Learning in a Blended Learning Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Richard; Dembo, Myron

    2004-01-01

    This study reviewed the distance education and self-regulation literatures to identify learner self-regulation skills predictive of academic success in a blended education context. Five self-regulatory attributes were judged likely to be predictive of academic performance: intrinsic goal orientation, self-efficacy for learning and performance,…

  7. How Do Different Aspects of Self-Regulation Predict Successful Adaptation to School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, Regula; Rothlisberger, Marianne; Cimeli, Patrizia; Roebers, Claudia M.

    2012-01-01

    Self-regulation plays an important role in successful adaptation to preschool and school contexts as well as in later academic achievement. The current study relates different aspects of self-regulation such as temperamental effortful control and executive functions (updating, inhibition, and shifting) to different aspects of adaptation to school…

  8. Motivational and emotional components affecting male's and female's self-regulated learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnaert, A

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between self-referenced feelings and cognitions and self-regulated learning has become an important area of research. But to what extent can differences in self-regulation be explained by differences in motivation and emotion? And how facilitating or debilitating is the effect of mo

  9. A social cognitive view of self-regulated learning about health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Noreen M; Zimmerman, Barry J

    2014-10-01

    Researchers interested in health-related learning have recently begun to study processes people use to self-regulate their health and their ability to prevent or control chronic disease. This paper represents a social cognitive view of self-regulation that involves three classes of influence on self-regulating behavior: personal, behavioral, and environmental. This triadic model assumes that people self-regulate their health through the use of self-care strategies, setting reasonable health goals, and monitoring feedback concerning the effectiveness of strategies in meeting their goals. People's perceptions of self-efficacy are also assumed to play a major role in motivating them to self-regulate their health functioning. According to social cognitive theory, processes entailed in regulating one's health can be taught through social modeling, supports, and feedback; gradually these external supports are withdrawn as one is able to self-regulate. This paper will analyze self-regulation processes related to controlling or preventing lung disease, specifically management of asthma and eliminating smoking. The educational implications of the triadic model of self-regulation for promoting health and related behavioral functioning will be discussed. PMID:25270173

  10. Critical Pedagogy and Neoliberalism: Concerns with Teaching Self-Regulated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassallo, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    In the educational psychology literature, self-regulated learning is associated with empowerment, agency, and democratic participation. Therefore, researchers are dedicated to developing and improving self-regulated learning pedagogy in order to make it widespread. However, drawing from the educational philosophy of Paulo Freire, teaching students…

  11. Self-Regulated Learning in Higher Education: Identifying Key Component Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Simon

    2011-01-01

    The concept of self-regulated learning is becoming increasingly relevant in the study of learning and academic achievement, especially in higher education, where quite distinctive demands are placed on students. Though several key theoretical perspectives have been advanced for self-regulated learning, there is consensus regarding the central role…

  12. Bimbingan Kesulitan Belajar Berbasis Self Regulating Learning dalam Meningkatkan Prestasi Belajar Siswa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Sunawan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Self-regulated Learning as a Learning Guidance Model to Improve Learning Achievement. This study aims at developing a guidance model to deal with students’ learning problems and examining the effectiveness of its implementation. The development of self-regulated learning as the learning model involved senior high school students, advisory teachers, subject-matter teachers, and the headmaster. This learning model is geared toward encouraging the students to utilize self-regulated learning. This model appeared to be able to improve the students’ learning achievement. Abstrak: Bimbingan Kesulitan Belajar Berbasis Self Regulating Learning dalam Meningkatkan Prestasi Belajar Siswa. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan dan menguji efektivitas model bimbingan kesulitan belajar bagi siswa SMA berbasis self regulated learning. Desain penelitian pengembangan digunakan untuk pengembangan model dengan melibatkan subjek dari siswa SMA, guru pembimbing, guru bidang studi dan kepala sekolah. Model bimbingan belajar berbasis self regulated learning diarahkan untuk mendorong siswa untuk menerapkan prinsip self regulated learning dalam be­lajarnya. Terbukti bahwa model ini dapat meningkatkan pola belajar siswa selaras dengan prinsip self regulated learning dan prestasi belajar.

  13. A Latent Profile Analysis of University Students' Self-Regulated Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Hoi Kwan; Downing, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Based on self-reported cognitive, metacognitive, and behavioural strategy measures obtained from 828 final-year students from a university in Hong Kong, latent profile analysis (LPA) identified four distinct types of students with differential self-regulated learning strategy orientations: "competent self-regulated learners",…

  14. From Self-Regulation to Learning to Learn: Observations on the Construction of Self and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoutenhoofd, Ernst D.; Pirrie, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to clarify the epistemological basis of self-regulated learning. The authors note that learning to learn, a term that has pervaded education policy at EU and national levels in recent years is often conflated with self-regulated learning. As a result, there has been insufficient attention paid to learning as social…

  15. Observations of a Working Class Family: Implications for Self-Regulated Learning Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassallo, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Guardians have been implicated in the development of children's academic self-regulation. In this case study, which involved naturalistic observations and interviews, the everyday practices of a working class family were considered in the context of self-regulated learning development. The family's practices, beliefs, dispositions and home…

  16. Gender and Ethnicity Differences Manifested in Chemistry Achievement and Self-Regulated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Hong, Lee Hooi; Lee, Seung Chun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine whether gender and ethnicity differences are manifested in chemistry achievement and self-regulated learning among a matriculation programme students in Malaysia. The result of students' midterm chemistry exam was used as the measure of chemistry achievement. The information of self-regulated learning was…

  17. Resistance to Self-Regulated Learning Pedagogy in an Urban Classroom: A Critique of Neoliberalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasallo, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    It is often taken for granted that teaching self-regulated learning pedagogy supports student empowerment and individual human agency. As a result, researchers are almost exclusively focused on improving self-regulated learning pedagogical interventions. There is little consideration of the ethical and ideological implications of such instruction.…

  18. Supporting Self-Regulated Learning in Web 2.0 Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong-Ming; Huang, Yueh-Min; Wang, Chia-Sui; Liu, Chien-Hung; Sandnes, Frode Eika

    2012-01-01

    Web-based self-learning (WBSL) provides learners with a powerful means of acquiring knowledge. However, WBSL may disorient learners, especially when their skills are inadequate for regulating their learning. In this paper, a Web 2.0 self-regulated learning (Web2SRL) system based on the theory of self-regulated learning is proposed. Learners use…

  19. Persuasive Writing and Self-Regulation Training for Writers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaro-Saddler, Kristie; Bak, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    In this single-subject study, we examined the effects of a persuasive writing and self-regulation strategy on the writing of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Six children with ASD worked in pairs to learn a mnemonic-based strategy for planning and writing a persuasive essay using the self-regulated strategy development (SRSD)…

  20. Implementing a Self-Regulated "WebQuest" Learning System for Chinese Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Hsien-Sheng; Tsai, Chung-Chieh; Lin, Chien-Yu; Lin, Chih-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    The rapid growth of Internet has resulted in the rise of WebQuest learning recently. Teachers encourage students to participate in the searching for knowledge on different topics. When using WebQuest, students' self-regulation is often the key to successful learning. Therefore, this study establishes a self-regulated learning system to assist…