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Sample records for agmatine pretreatment protects

  1. Protective mechanism of agmatine pretreatment on RGC-5 cells injured by oxidative stress

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    Y. Iizuka

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Agmatine has neuroprotective effects on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs as well as cortical and spinal neurons. It protects RGCs from oxidative stress even when it is not present at the time of injury. As agmatine has high affinity for various cellular receptors, we assessed protective mechanisms of agmatine using transformed RGCs (RGC-5 cell line. Differentiated RGC-5 cells were pretreated with 100 μM agmatine and consecutively exposed to 1.0 mM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. Cell viability was determined by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and the effects of selective alpha 2-adrenergic receptor antagonist yohimbine (0-500 nM and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA receptor agonist NMDA (0-100 µM were evaluated. Agmatine’s protective effect was compared to a selective NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801. After a 16-h exposure to H2O2, the LDH assay showed cell loss greater than 50%, which was reduced to about 30% when agmatine was pretreated before injury. Yohimbine almost completely inhibited agmatine’s protective effect, but NMDA did not. In addition, MK-801 (0-100 µM did not significantly attenuate the H2O2-induced cytotoxicity. Our results suggest that neuroprotective effects of agmatine on RGCs under oxidative stress may be mainly attributed to the alpha 2-adrenergic receptor signaling pathway.

  2. The Protective Effect of Agmatine Against Intracerebroventricular Streptozotocin-Induced Memory Impairment in Male Rats

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    Farbood Yaghoub

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin leads to learning and memory impairment. Different mechanisms such as oxidative stress and insulin signaling disruption has been proposed for streptozocin induced learning and memory deterioration. As these changes occur in Alzheimer's disease, this model is widely used to assess Alzheimer's disease. Agmatine is a polyamine derived from L-arginine decarboxylation. Agmatine is shown to have various effects such as neuroprotective role. Therefore, the present study was aimed to assess the plausible protective effect of agmatine against streptozocin induced memory impairment. Methods: Male sprague-dawely rats weighing 200-250 g were used in this study. Within surgery the canules were implanted bilaterally into lateral ventricle. Streptozocin was injected on days 1 and 3 (3 mg/kg in divided doses. Agmatine administration (40 and 80 mg/kg was started from day 4 and continued in an alternate manner till day 14. The animal’s learning and memory capability was assessed on days 15-18 using morris water maze. The animals were trained during 3 days, and on day 4, the probe test was done. In order to assess the effect of drugs on motivation and sensorimotor coordination, a visible platform test was performed after the probe trial. Results: While streptozocin injection led to learning and memory disability, agmatine treatment in dose 80 mg/kg but not 40 mg/kg restored this memory impairment. Conclusion: It seems that agmatine might be beneficial for memory impairment caused by Alzheimer’s disease.

  3. Agmatine protects retinal ganglion cells from hypoxia-induced apoptosis in transformed rat retinal ganglion cell line

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    Kim Chan

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agmatine is an endogenous polyamine formed by the decarboxylation of L-arginine. We investigated the protective effects of agmatine against hypoxia-induced apoptosis of immortalized rat retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5. RGC-5 cells were cultured in a closed hypoxic chamber (5% O2 with or without agmatine. Cell viability was determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH assay and apoptosis was examined by annexin V and caspase-3 assays. Expression and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs; JNK, ERK p44/42, and p38 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB were investigated by Western immunoblot analysis. The effects of agmatine were compared to those of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, a well-known protective neurotrophin for retinal ganglion cells. Results After 48 hours of hypoxic culture, the LDH assay showed 52.3% cell loss, which was reduced to 25.6% and 30.1% when agmatine and BDNF were administered, respectively. This observed cell loss was due to apoptotic cell death, as established by annexin V and caspase-3 assays. Although total expression of MAPKs and NF-κB was not influenced by hypoxic injury, phosphorylation of these two proteins was increased. Agmatine reduced phosphorylation of JNK and NF-κB, while BDNF suppressed phosphorylation of ERK and p38. Conclusion Our results show that agmatine has neuroprotective effects against hypoxia-induced retinal ganglion cell damage in RGC-5 cells and that its effects may act through the JNK and NF-κB signaling pathways. Our data suggest that agmatine may lead to a novel therapeutic strategy to reduce retinal ganglion cell injury related to hypoxia.

  4. Agmatine protection against chlorpromazine-induced forebrain cortex injury in rats.

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    Dejanovic, Bratislav; Stevanovic, Ivana; Ninkovic, Milica; Stojanovic, Ivana; Lavrnja, Irena; Radicevic, Tatjana; Pavlovic, Milos

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate whether agmatine (AGM) provides protection against oxidative stress induced by treatment with chlorpromazine (CPZ) in Wistar rats. In addition, the role of reactive oxygen species and efficiency of antioxidant protection in the brain homogenates of forebrain cortexes prepared 48 h after treatment were investigated. Chlorpromazine was applied intraperitoneally (i.p.) in single dose of 38.7 mg/kg body weight (BW) The second group was treated with both CPZ and AGM (75 mg/kg BW). The control group was treated with 0.9% saline solution in the same manner. All tested compounds were administered i.p. in a single dose. Rats were sacrificed by decapitation 48 h after treatment Treatment with AGM significantly attenuated the oxidative stress parameters and restored antioxidant capacity in the forebrain cortex. The data indicated that i.p. administered AGM exerted antioxidant action in CPZ-treated animals. Moreover, reactive astrocytes and microglia may contribute to secondary nerve-cell damage and participate in the balance of destructive vs. protective actions involved in the pathogenesis after poisoning. PMID:27051340

  5. Protective Effects of Agmatine against Chlorpromazine- Induced Toxicity in the Liver of Wistar Rats

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    Dejanović Bratislav; Stevanović Ivana; Ninković Milica; Stojanović Ivana; Lavrnja Irena; Radičević Tatjana

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic pathways of chlorpromazine (CPZ) toxicity were tracked by assessing oxidative/nitrosative stress markers. The main objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that agmatine (AGM) prevents oxidative/nitrosative stress in the liver of Wistar rats 15 days after administration of CPZ. All tested substances were administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) for 15 consecutive days. The rats were divided into four groups: the control group (C, 0.9 % saline solution), the CPZ group (CPZ,...

  6. Protective Effects of Agmatine against Chlorpromazine- Induced Toxicity in the Liver of Wistar Rats

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    Dejanović Bratislav

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic pathways of chlorpromazine (CPZ toxicity were tracked by assessing oxidative/nitrosative stress markers. The main objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that agmatine (AGM prevents oxidative/nitrosative stress in the liver of Wistar rats 15 days after administration of CPZ. All tested substances were administered intraperitoneally (i.p. for 15 consecutive days. The rats were divided into four groups: the control group (C, 0.9 % saline solution, the CPZ group (CPZ, 38.7 mg/kg b.w., the CPZ+AGM group (AGM, 75 mg/kg b.w. immediately after CPZ, 38.7 mg/kg b.w. i.p. and the AGM group (AGM, 75 mg/kg b.w..

  7. Agmatine induces gastric protection against ischemic injury by reducing vascular permeability in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abeer A Al Masri; Eman El Eter

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effect of administration of agmarine (AGM) on gastric protection against ischemia reperfusion (I/R)injury.METHODS:Three groups of rats (6/group); sham,gastric I/R injury,and gastric I/R + AGM (100 mg/kg,i.p.given 15 min prior to gastric ischemia) were recruited.Gastric injury was conducted by ligating celiac artery for 30 rmin and reperfusion for another 30 min.Gastric tissues were histologically studied and immunostained with angiopoietin 1 (Ang-1) and Ang-2.Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were measured in gastric tissue homogenate.To assess whether AKt/phosphatidyl inositol-3-kinase (PI3K) mediated the effect of AGM,an additional group was pretreated with Wortmannin (WM) (inhibitor of Akt/PI3K,15 μg/kg,i.p.),prior to ischemic injury and AGM treatment,and examined histologically and immunostained.Another set of experiments was run to study vascular permeability of the stomach using Evan's blue dye.RESULTS:AGM markedly reduced Evan's blue dye extravasation (3.58 ± 0.975 μg/stomach vs 1.175 ±0.374 μg/stomach,P < 0.05),and VEGF (36.87 ± 2.71 pg/100 mg protein vs 48.4 ± 6.53 pg/100 mg protein,P < 0.05) and MCP-1 tissue level (29.5 ± 7 pg/100 mg protein vs 41.17 ± 10.4 pg/100 mg protein,P < 0.01).It preserved gastric histology and reduced congestion.Ang-1 and Ang-2 immunostaining were reduced in stomach sections of AGM-treated animals.The administration of WM abolished the protective effects of AGM and extensive hemorrhage and ulcerations were seen.CONCLUSION:AGM protects the stomach against I/R injury by reducing vascular permeability and inflammation.This protection is possibly mediated by Akt/PI3K.

  8. Evidences for the agmatine involvement in antidepressant like effect of bupropion in mouse forced swim test.

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    Kotagale, Nandkishor R; Tripathi, Sunil J; Aglawe, Manish M; Chopde, Chandrabhan T; Umekar, Milind J; Taksande, Brijesh G

    2013-06-01

    Although bupropion has been widely used in the treatment of depression, the precise mechanism of its therapeutic actions is not fully understood. The present study investigated the role of agmatine in an antidepressant like effect of bupropion in mouse forced swim test. The antidepressant like effect of bupropion was potentiated by pretreatment with agmatine (10-20mg/kg, ip) and by the drugs known to increase endogenous agmatine levels in brain viz., l-arginine (40 μg/mouse, icv), an agmatine biosynthetic precursor, ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor, dl-α-difluoromethyl ornithine hydrochloride, DFMO (12.5 μg/mouse, icv), diamine oxidase inhibitor, aminoguanidine (6.5 μg/mouse, icv) and agmatinase inhibitor, arcaine (50 μg/mouse, icv) as well as imidazoline I1 receptor agonists, moxonidine (0.25mg/kg, ip) and clonidine (0.015 mg/kg, ip) and imidazoline I2 receptor agonist, 2-(2-benzofuranyl)-2-imidazoline hydrochloride, 2-BFI (5mg/kg, ip). Conversely, prior administration of I1 receptor antagonist, efaroxan (1mg/kg, ip) and I2 receptor antagonist, idazoxan (0.25mg/kg, ip) blocked the antidepressant like effect of bupropion and its synergistic combination with agmatine. These results demonstrate involvement of agmatine in the antidepressant like effect of bupropion and suggest agmatine and imidazoline receptors as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of depressive disorders.

  9. Antidepressant-like effect of agmatine is not mediated by serotonin

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    Krass, Maarja; Wegener, Gregers; Vasar, Eero;

    2008-01-01

    tested (50mg/kg) decreased immobility of mice in the forced swimming test. The magnitude of the effect was slightly smaller than that of the tricyclic antidepressant imipramine (15mg/kg). Agmatine did not change the locomotion of mice in the open field. Pretreatment with the tryptophane hydroxylase...

  10. Agmatine, by Improving Neuroplasticity Markers and Inducing Nrf2, Prevents Corticosterone-Induced Depressive-Like Behavior in Mice.

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    Freitas, Andiara E; Egea, Javier; Buendia, Izaskun; Gómez-Rangel, Vanessa; Parada, Esther; Navarro, Elisa; Casas, Ana Isabel; Wojnicz, Aneta; Ortiz, José Avendaño; Cuadrado, Antonio; Ruiz-Nuño, Ana; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; Lopez, Manuela G

    2016-07-01

    Agmatine, an endogenous neuromodulator, is a potential candidate to constitute an adjuvant/monotherapy for the management of depression. A recent study by our group demonstrated that agmatine induces Nrf2 and protects against corticosterone effects in a hippocampal neuronal cell line. The present study is an extension of this previous study by assessing the antidepressant-like effect of agmatine in an animal model of depression induced by corticosterone in mice. Swiss mice were treated simultaneously with agmatine or imipramine at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg/day (p.o.) and corticosterone for 21 days and the daily administrations of experimental drugs were given immediately prior to corticosterone (20 mg/kg/day, p.o.) administrations. Wild-type C57BL/6 mice (Nrf2 (+/+)) and Nrf2 KO (Nrf2 (-/-)) were treated during 21 days with agmatine (0.1 mg/kg/day, p.o.) or vehicle. Twenty-four hours after the last treatments, the behavioral tests and biochemical assays were performed. Agmatine treatment for 21 days was able to abolish the corticosterone-induced depressive-like behavior and the alterations in the immunocontent of mature BDNF and synaptotagmin I, and in the serotonin and glutamate levels. Agmatine also abolished the corticosterone-induced changes in the morphology of astrocytes and microglia in CA1 region of hippocampus. In addition, agmatine treatment in control mice increased noradrenaline, serotonin, and dopamine levels, CREB phosphorylation, mature BDNF and synaptotagmin I immunocontents, and reduced pro-BDNF immunocontent in the hippocampus. Agmatine's ability to produce an antidepressant-like effect was abolished in Nrf2 (-/-) mice. The present results reinforce the participation of Nrf2 in the antidepressant-like effect produced by agmatine and expand literature data concerning its mechanisms of action. PMID:25966970

  11. Agmatine improves renal function in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

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    El-Kashef, Dalia H; El-Kenawi, Asmaa E; Abdel Rahim, Mona; Suddek, Ghada M; Salem, Hatem A

    2016-03-01

    The present study was designed to explore the possible protective effects of agmatine, a known nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. For this purpose, we quantitatively evaluated gentamicin-induced renal structural and functional alterations using histopathological and biochemical approaches. Furthermore, the effect of agmatine on gentamicin-induced hypersensitivity of urinary bladder rings to acetylcholine (ACh) was evaluated. Twenty-four male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into 3 groups, namely control, gentamicin (100 mg/kg, i.p.), and gentamicin plus agmatine (40 mg/kg, orally). At the end of the study, all rats were sacrificed and then blood and urine samples and kidneys were taken. Administration of agmatine significantly decreased kidney/body mass ratio, serum creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), renal malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), NO, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) while it significantly increased creatinine clearance and renal superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity when compared with the gentamicin-treated group. Additionally, agmatine ameliorated tissue morphology as evidenced by histological evaluation and reduced the responses of isolated bladder rings to ACh. Our study indicates that agmatine administration with gentamicin attenuates oxidative-stress associated renal injury by reducing oxygen free radicals and lipid peroxidation, restoring NO level and inhibiting inflammatory mediators such as TNF-α. PMID:26641937

  12. Agmatine ameliorates lipopolysaccharide induced depressive-like behaviour in mice by targeting the underlying inflammatory and oxido-nitrosative mediators.

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    Gawali, Nitin B; Bulani, Vipin D; Chowdhury, Amrita A; Deshpande, Padmini S; Nagmoti, Dnyaneshwar M; Juvekar, Archana R

    2016-10-01

    Experimental and clinical evidence indicates that pro-inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signalling mechanisms play a role in the pathophysiology of depression. Agmatine is a neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator that has emerged as a potential agent to manage diverse central nervous system disorders. Agmatine has been shown to exert antidepressant-like effect. The present study investigated ability of agmatine to abolish the depressive-like behaviour induced by the administration of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice. Agmatine (20 and 40mg/kg) was administered daily for 7days, then the mice were challenged with saline or LPS (0.83mg/kg; i.p.) on the 7th day. After 24h of LPS administration we tested mice for depressive-like behaviour. LPS treated animals presented an increase in immobility time in the forced-swim test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) which was reversed by agmatine pre-treatment (20 and 40mg/kg). Oxidative/nitrosative stress evoked by LPS was ameliorated by both doses of agmatine in hippocampus (HC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Administration of LPS caused an increase in interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), whereas BDNF was down regulated in the HC. Agmatine pre-treatment at 40mg/kg ameliorated LPS-induced neuroinflammation by attenuating brain IL-1β and TNF-α level. In addition, agmatine pre-treatment also up-regulated the BDNF level in the HC. The present study shows that pre-treatment of agmatine is able to abolish the behavioural responses in the FST and TST elicited by the LPS-induced model of depression that may depend on the inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators, reduction of oxidative stress as well as activation neuroplasticity-related signalling in mice, suggesting that agmatine may constitute an monotherapy/adjuvant for the management of depression associated with inflammation. PMID:27453424

  13. Agmatine attenuates reserpine-induced oral dyskinesia in mice: Role of oxidative stress, nitric oxide and glutamate NMDA receptors.

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    Cunha, Andréia S; Matheus, Filipe C; Moretti, Morgana; Sampaio, Tuane B; Poli, Anicleto; Santos, Danúbia B; Colle, Dirleise; Cunha, Mauricio P; Blum-Silva, Carlos H; Sandjo, Louis P; Reginatto, Flávio H; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; Farina, Marcelo; Prediger, Rui D

    2016-10-01

    Dyskinesia consists in a series of trunk, limbs and orofacial involuntary movements that can be observed following long-term pharmacological treatment in some psychotic and neurological disorders such as schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease, respectively. Agmatine is an endogenous arginine metabolite that emerges as neuromodulator and a promising agent to manage diverse central nervous system disorders by modulating nitric oxide (NO) pathway, glutamate NMDA receptors and oxidative stress. Herein, we investigated the effects of a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of different agmatine doses (10, 30 or 100mg/kg) against the orofacial dyskinesia induced by reserpine (1mg/kg,s.c.) in mice by measuring the vacuous chewing movements and tongue protusion frequencies, and the duration of facial twitching. The results showed an orofacial antidyskinetic effect of agmatine (30mg/kg, i.p.) or the combined administration of sub-effective doses of agmatine (10mg/kg, i.p.) with the NMDA receptor antagonists amantadine (1mg/kg, i.p.) and MK801 (0.01mg/kg, i.p.) or the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (7-NI; 0.1mg/kg, i.p.). Reserpine-treated mice displayed locomotor activity deficits in the open field and agmatine had no effect on this response. Reserpine increased nitrite and nitrate levels in cerebral cortex, but agmatine did not reverse it. Remarkably, agmatine reversed the decrease of dopamine and non-protein thiols (NPSH) levels caused by reserpine in the striatum. However, no changes were observed in striatal immunocontent of proteins related to the dopaminergic system including tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine transporter, vesicular monoamine transporter type 2, pDARPP-32[Thr75], dopamine D1 and D2 receptors. These results indicate that the blockade of NO pathway, NMDAR and oxidative stress are possible mechanisms associated with the protective effects of agmatine against the orofacial dyskinesia induced by reserpine in mice. PMID

  14. Protection of intestinal damage by pretreatment with cytarabine (cytosine arabinoside)

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    Phelps, T.A.; Blackett, N.M.

    1979-09-01

    The circumstances in which cytarabine (cytosine arabinoside) ''protects'' intestinal epithelial stem cells against radiation have been investigated. Special attention has been given to this protective effect with radiation doses in the clinically used range in order to determine whether the protective effect might be of use in radiotherapy. It has been shown that 12 hours after cytarabine the D/sub 0/ and extrapolation number are increased when large single doses of radiation are used. To determine the effect of cytarabine at lower doses, it is necessary to use a second irradiation as an ''assay'' dose. By this means it is shown that there is more protection than can be accounted for by the change in D/sub 0/ and extrapolation number at the time of the first dose. Evidence is presented indicating that the rate of stem cell regeneration is not increased by cytarabine pretreatment. Finally, the relation between intestinal protection, bone marrow stem cell enhanced recovery and improved animal survival as a result of cytarabine pretreatment is discussed.

  15. Characterization and inactivation of an agmatine deiminase from Helicobacter pylori

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    Jones, Justin E.; Causey, Corey P.; Lovelace, Leslie; Knuckley, Bryan; Flick, Heather; Lebioda, Lukasz; Thompson, Paul R. (SC)

    2010-11-12

    Helicobacter pylori encodes a potential virulence factor, agmatine deiminase (HpAgD), which catalyzes the conversion of agmatine to N-carbamoyl putrescine (NCP) and ammonia - agmatine is decarboxylated arginine. Agmatine is an endogenous human cell signaling molecule that triggers the innate immune response in humans. Unlike H. pylori, humans do not encode an AgD; it is hypothesized that inhibition of this enzyme would increase the levels of agmatine, and thereby enhance the innate immune response. Taken together, these facts suggest that HpAgD is a potential drug target. Herein we describe the optimized expression, isolation, and purification of HpAgD (10-30 mg/L media). The initial kinetic characterization of this enzyme has also been performed. Additionally, the crystal structure of wild-type HpAgD has been determined at 2.1 {angstrom} resolution. This structure provides a molecular basis for the preferential deimination of agmatine, and identifies Asp198 as a key residue responsible for agmatine recognition, which has been confirmed experimentally. Information gathered from these studies led to the development and characterization of a novel class of haloacetamidine-based HpAgD inactivators. These compounds are the most potent AgD inhibitors ever described.

  16. Agmatine reversed mechanical allodynia in a rat model of neuropathic pain

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    YANGHong-Ju; ZhAONan; GONGZheng-Hua; YUANWei-Xiou; LIYunFeng; LI-Jin; LUOZhi-Pu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Agmatine is an endogenous neuromodulator present in the brain and spinal cord, agmatine has both NMDA receptor antagonist and NOS inhibitor activities, which may participate the pathological process in the neuropathic pain. The effect of agmatine on the mechanical allodynia in a rat model of the neuropathic pain was investigated in this experiment.

  17. Protection Against Hepatic Ischemia-reperfusion Injury in Rats by Oral Pretreatment With Quercetin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the possible protection provided by oral quercetin pretreatment against hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Methods The quercetin (0.13 mmol/kg) was orally administrated in 50 min prior to hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury. Ascorbic acid was also similarly administered. The hepatic content of quercetin was assayed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Plasma glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration were measured as markers of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury. Meanwhile, hepatic content of glutathione (GSH), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and xanthine oxidase (XO), total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), contents of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and MDA, DNA fragmentation were also determined. Results Hepatic content of quercetin after intragastric administration of quercetin was increased significantly. The increases in plasma GPT, GOT activities and MDA concentration after hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury were reduced significantly by pretreatment with quercetin. Hepatic content of GSH and activities of SOD, GSH-Px and TAOC were restored remarkably while the ROS and MDA contents were significantly diminished by quercetin pretreatment after ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, quercetin pretreatment did not reduce significantly hepatic XO activity and DNA fragmentation. Ascorbic acid pretreatment had also protective effects against hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury by restoring hepatic content of GSH, TAOC and diminishing ROS and MDA formation and DNA fragmentation. Conclusion It is indicated that quercetin can protect the liver against ischemia-reperfusion injury after oral pretreatment and the underlying mechanism is associated with improved hepatic antioxidant capacity.

  18. Focused Review: Agmatine in fermented foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda eGalgano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Polyamines (PAs are ubiquitous substances considered as bioregulators of numerous cell functions, being involved in cell growth, division and differentiation. These biogenic amines are also involved in tissue repairing and in intracellular signaling; in fact, because of their polycationic character, they interact strongly with membrane phospholipids and may play an important role in the regulation of membrane-linked enzymes. The intracellular polyamines content derives from the simultaneous regulation of their synthesis, catabolism, uptake and elimination; furthermore, PAs are present in all cell types at variable concentrations, but the highest levels are found in rapid-turnover tissues. In addition to spermidine, spermine and putrescine, also agmatine (AGM, deriving from arginine and identified in mammals in the 1990s, belongs to PAs and several studies have reported its possible positive role in secretagogues, neuronal, vascular, metabolic and therapeutic functions. Because of the low arginine decarboxylase activity (ADC in mammalians, the amounts of AGM found in their tissues can be only minimally ascribed to an endogenous de novo synthesis by the ADC, while a substantial AGM portion can be of dietary origin. Several food products contain only small amounts of polyamines, while higher concentrations can be found in fermented foods. PAs could also be considered as indicators of freshness in fish and meat products, being these moieties produced during food storage, thus confirming the main role of microorganisms in their synthesis. Although many biological functions have been attributed to polyamines, high levels of these compounds in foodstuffs can have toxicological effects; however, the safe level of dietary polyamines intake has not yet been established. In this paper the presence of AGM in different foodstuffs is discussed, taking also into account the various factors affecting its presence and concentration.

  19. Novel Route for Agmatine Catabolism in Aspergillus niger Involves 4-Guanidinobutyrase.

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    Kumar, Sunil; Saragadam, Tejaswani; Punekar, Narayan S

    2015-08-15

    Agmatine, a significant polyamine in bacteria and plants, mostly arises from the decarboxylation of arginine. The functional importance of agmatine in fungi is poorly understood. The metabolism of agmatine and related guanidinium group-containing compounds in Aspergillus niger was explored through growth, metabolite, and enzyme studies. The fungus was able to metabolize and grow on l-arginine, agmatine, or 4-guanidinobutyrate as the sole nitrogen source. Whereas arginase defined the only route for arginine catabolism, biochemical and bioinformatics approaches suggested the absence of arginine decarboxylase in A. niger. Efficient utilization by the parent strain and also by its arginase knockout implied an arginase-independent catabolic route for agmatine. Urea and 4-guanidinobutyrate were detected in the spent medium during growth on agmatine. The agmatine-grown A. niger mycelia contained significant levels of amine oxidase, 4-guanidinobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase, 4-guanidinobutyrase (GBase), and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase, but no agmatinase activity was detected. Taken together, the results support a novel route for agmatine utilization in A. niger. The catabolism of agmatine by way of 4-guanidinobutyrate to 4-aminobutyrate into the Krebs cycle is the first report of such a pathway in any organism. A. niger GBase peptide fragments were identified by tandem mass spectrometry analysis. The corresponding open reading frame from the A. niger NCIM 565 genome was located and cloned. Subsequent expression of GBase in both Escherichia coli and A. niger along with its disruption in A. niger functionally defined the GBase locus (gbu) in the A. niger genome.

  20. Protective Effect of Pretreatment with Acenocoumarol in Cerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis

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    Warzecha, Zygmunt; Sendur, Paweł; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Dembiński, Marcin; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata; Olszanecki, Rafał; Tomaszewska, Romana; Ambroży, Tadeusz; Dembiński, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Coagulation is recognized as a key player in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The aim of the current research was to examine the effect of pretreatment with acenocoumarol on the development of acute pancreatitis (AP) evoked by cerulein. Methods: AP was induced in rats by cerulein administered intraperitoneally. Acenocoumarol (50, 100 or 150 µg/kg/dose/day) or saline were given once daily for seven days before AP induction. Results: In rats with AP, pretreatment with acenocoumarol administered at the dose of 50 or 100 µg/kg/dose/day improved pancreatic histology, reducing the degree of edema and inflammatory infiltration, and vacuolization of acinar cells. Moreover, pretreatment with acenocoumarol given at the dose of 50 or 100 µg/kg/dose/day reduced the AP-evoked increase in pancreatic weight, serum activity of amylase and lipase, and serum concentration of pro-inflammatory interleukin-1β, as well as ameliorated pancreatic DNA synthesis and pancreatic blood flow. In contrast, acenocoumarol given at the dose of 150 μg/kg/dose did not exhibit any protective effect against cerulein-induced pancreatitis. Conclusion: Low doses of acenocoumarol, given before induction of AP by cerulein, inhibit the development of that inflammation. PMID:27754317

  1. Protection effect of Emodin pretreatment on intestinal I - RI damage of intestinal mucosa in ratsa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Jie Zhao; Shi-Ji Wang; Hong-Xiang Li; Li-Hua Dong; Huai-Jiang He; Zhong-Min Liu; Yu-Shan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To tinvestigate the protective effect and mechanism of emodin pretreatment on intestinal mucosa of rats with intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury.Methods:A total of50 SD rats were randomly divided into control group, model group, emodin groups of low, medium and high dose, with10 in each group.Ischemia-reperfusion injury(I-RI) mode was established by using noninvasive clamp on superior mesentericartery(SMA).Control group and model group were pretreated with0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose solution lavage2 h before operation, emodin groups of low, medium and high dose were given emodin lavage with20,40,60 mg/kg pretreatment, femoral venous blood before the lavage pretreatment(T0) and1 h ischemia(T1) , and inferior vena venous blood after1 h of reperfusion(T2) were extracted from each group of rats for detection of serum level of intestinal fatty acid binding protein(I-FABP), tumor necrosis factor(TNF-α), endotoxin, interleukin6(IL-6), and the content of diamine oxidase(DAO);After model establishment, the rats were sacrificed, intestine homogenate was prepared by using blind intestinal tissue to detect intestinal tissue myeloperoxidase(MPO), malondialdehyde(MDA) and superoxide dismutase(SOD) levels.And upper small intestine tissue was retrieved, followed by fixation and conventionalHE staining to observe intestinal tissue morphology under light microscopy.Results:In emodin groups of low, medium and high dose atT1 andT2,I -FABP, TNF-α, endotoxin,IL-6 andDAO level were significantly lower than that of model group(P<0.05); in emodin group of low,medium and high dose,MPO andMDA content in intestinal tissue homogenate was significantly lower than that in model group(P<0.05),SOD level was significantly higher than that of model group(P<0.05).Intestinal damage of emodin low, medium and high dose groups were significantly lighter than model group.Conclusions:Emodin pretreatment has certain protective effect on intestinal mucosa in ischemia reperfusion injury.

  2. Systemic phosphatidylcholine pretreatment protects canine esophageal mucosa during acute experimental biliary reflux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gabor Eros; Jozsef Kaszaki; Miklos Czobel; Mihaly Boros

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To characterize the consequences of short-term exposure to luminal bile on mucosal mast cell reactions in a canine model, and to determine the effects of systemic phosphatidylcholine pretreatment in this condition.METHODS: Twenty mongrel dogs were used for experiments. Group 1 (n = 5) served as a salinetreated control, while in group 2 (n=5) the esophagus was exposed to bile for 3 h. In group 3 (n=5) the animals were pretreated with 7-nitroindazole to inhibit the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase.In group 4 (n = 5) phosphatidylcholine solution (50 mg/kg) was administered iv before the biliary challenge. Mucosal microcirculation was observed by intravital videomicroscopy. Myeloperoxidase and nitric oxide synthase activities, the degrees of mast cell degranulation and mucosal damage were evaluated via tissue biopsies.RESULTS: Exposure to bile evoked significant mast cell degranulation and leukocyte accumulation. The red blood cell velocity and the diameter of the postcapillary venules increased significantly. The tissue ATP content and constitutive nitric oxide synthase activity decreased,while the inducible nitric oxide synthase activity increased significantly as compared to the control values.7-nitroindazole treatment significantly exacerbated the mucosal mast cell degranulation and tissue damage. In contrast, phosphatidylcholine pretreatment prevented the bile-induced ATP depletion, the inducible nitric oxide synthase and myeloperoxidase activity and the mast cell degranulation increased.CONCLUSION: The neuronal nitric oxide synthase -mast cell axis plays an important role in the esophageal mucosal defense system. Systemic phosphatidylcholine pretreatment affords effective protection through ameliorating the bile-induced ATP depletion and secondary inflammatory reaction.

  3. Protective effects of erythropoietin pretreatment on myocardium with hypoxia/reoxygenation injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Chuan; XIAO Ying-bin; ZHONG Qan-jin; CHEN Lin; WANG Xue-feng

    2004-01-01

    To establish the rat model with myocardial hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury, and investigatethe protective effect of EPO pretreatment on the myocardium. Methods: Sixty male adult Wistar rats were randomly divided in-to 3 groups: control group, H/R group, and EPO group, 20 in each group. The rats in EPO group accepted injection of 5 000U/kg recombinant human erythropoietin (RHuEPO) through vein, and the other rats accepted the injection of the same volumeof saline. Twenty-four hours after the injection, rats in the EPO and H/R groups were put into the hypoxia environment for 12h and then returned to the normoxic environment for 2 h, and then the samples of blood and myocardium were collected. Serummyocardial enzyme activity, apoptosis, ultrastructure, myocardial MDA contents, EPO receptor (EPOR) expression in cardiacmyocytes and cardiac functions were tested. Results: EPOR expression was positive in cardiac myocytes of adult rat according to the result of immunohistochemitry assaying. Compared to those in H/R group, rats in EPO group presented lighter injury ofmyocardial ultrastructure, the reduction of serum myocardial enzyme activity, inhibition of apoptosis, the better recovery ofcardiac functions, and the Ness production of oxygen-derived free radicals. Conclusion: Adult rat cardiac myocytes could ex-press EPOR, and EPO pretreatment produced protective effects on myocardium with H/R injury.

  4. A study of Corrosion Protection of Aluminum Metal by Tetraethoxysilane Plasma Polymerized Coatings -Influence of Aluminum Surface Pretreatments-

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshihiro Momose; Tatsuya Yabuki

    2004-01-01

    The corrosion-protective performance of plasma-polymerized (PP) coatings on pretreated aluminum substrates has been investigated by cathodic polarization curve measurement. The surface composition and electronic properties of the pretreated and PP film coated metal surfaces were also characterized by XPS and the temperature-programmed photoelectron emission (TPPE). A PP coating was prepared on the pretreated surfaces by plasma polymerization of a mixture of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) monomer vapor and oxygen using a 13.56MHz radiofrequency generator. The polarization curve of PP film coated samples was measured in NaCl aqueous solution. The weight loss rate calculated from the value of the corrosion current of the curve was used to estimate the protective performance of the PP film coated samples. Argon plasma treatment of the metal surface gave much better corrosion-protective performance than pretreatments such as oxidation by heating in air and diamond scratching. The XPS analysis indicated that the silicon oxide assigned to SiO2 was formed on the PP film coated surface. The TPPE analysis revealed that the electron emission characteristics for the metal surfaces pretreated only were strongly influenced by the pretreatments, while all the PP film coated samples exhibited nearly the same electron emission trend with a much decreased intensity.

  5. A study of Corrosion Protection of Aluminum Metal by Tetraethoxysilane Plasma Polymerized Coatings-Influence of Aluminum Surface Pretreatments-

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YoshihiroMomose; TatsuyaYabuki

    2004-01-01

    The corrosion-protective performance of plasma-polymerized (PP) coatings on pretreated aluminum substrates has been investigated by cathodic polarization curve measurement. The surface composition and electronic properties of the pretreated and PP film coated metal surfaces were also characterized by XPS and the temperature-programmed photoelectron emission (TPPE). A PP coating was prepared on the pretreated surfaces by plasma polymerization of a mixture of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) monomer vapor and oxygen using a 13.56MHz radiofrequency generator. The polarization curve of PP film coated samples was measured in NaC1 aqueous solution. The weight loss rate calculated from the value of the corrosion current of the curve was used to estimate the protective performance of the PP film coated samples. Argon plasma treatment of the metal surface gave much better corrosion-protective performance than pretreatments such as oxidation by heating in air and diamond scratching. The XPS analysis indicated that the silicon oxide assigned to SiO2 was formed on the PP film coated surface. The TPPE analysis revealed that the electron emission characteristics for the metal surfaces pretreated only were strongly influenced by the pretreatments, while all the PP film coated samples exhibited nearly the same electron emission trend with a much decreased intensity.

  6. Pre-treatment with amifostine protects against cyclophosphamide-induced disruption of taste in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabanita Mukherjee

    Full Text Available Cyclophosphamide (CYP, a commonly prescribed chemotherapy drug, has multiple adverse side effects including alteration of taste. The effects on taste are a cause of concern for patients as changes in taste are often associated with loss of appetite, malnutrition, poor recovery and reduced quality of life. Amifostine is a cytoprotective agent that was previously shown to be effective in preventing chemotherapy-induced mucositis and nephrotoxicity. Here we determined its ability to protect against chemotherapy-induced damage to taste buds using a mouse model of CYP injury. We conducted detection threshold tests to measure changes in sucrose taste sensitivity and found that administration of amifostine 30 mins prior to CYP injection protected against CYP-induced loss in taste sensitivity. Morphological studies showed that pre-treatment with amifostine prevented CYP-induced reduction in the number of fungiform taste papillae and increased the number of taste buds. Immunohistochemical assays for markers of the cell cycle showed that amifostine administration prevented CYP-induced inhibition of cell proliferation and also protected against loss of mature taste cells after CYP exposure. Our results indicate that treatment of cancer patients with amifostine prior to chemotherapy may improve their sensitivity for taste stimuli and protect the taste system from the detrimental effects of chemotherapy.

  7. Pretreatment with Danhong injection protects the brain against ischemia-reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaoxia Wang; Hong Guo; Xumei Wang; Lijuan Chai; Limin Hu; Tao Zhao; Buchang Zhao; Xiaoxu Tan; Feifei Jia

    2014-01-01

    Danhong injection (DHI), a Chinese Materia Medica standardized product extracted from Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae and Flos Carthami tinctorii, is widely used in China for treating acute isch-emic stroke. In the present study, we explored the neuroprotective efifcacy of DHI in a rat model of temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion, and evaluated the potential mechanisms under-lying its effects. Pretreatment with DHI (0.9 and 1.8 mL/kg) resulted in a signiifcantly smaller infarct volume and better neurological scores than pretreatment with saline. Furthermore, DHI significantly reduced the permeability of the blood-brain barrier, increased occludin protein expression and decreased neutrophil inifltration, as well as profoundly suppressing the upreg-ulation of matrix metallopeptidase-9 expression seen in rats that had received vehicle. Matrix metallopeptidase-2 expression was not affected by ischemia or DHI. Moreover, DHI (1.8 mL/kg) administered 3 hours after the onset of ischemia also improved neurological scores and reduced infarct size. Our results indicate that the neuroprotective efifcacy of DHI in a rat model of ce-rebral ischemia-reperfusion injury is mediated by a protective effect on the blood-brain barrier and the reversal of neutrophil inifltration.

  8. Pretreatment with Danhong injection protects the brain against ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaoxia; Guo, Hong; Wang, Xumei; Chai, Lijuan; Hu, Limin; Zhao, Tao; Zhao, Buchang; Tan, Xiaoxu; Jia, Feifei

    2014-08-01

    Danhong injection (DHI), a Chinese Materia Medica standardized product extracted from Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae and Flos Carthami tinctorii, is widely used in China for treating acute ischemic stroke. In the present study, we explored the neuroprotective efficacy of DHI in a rat model of temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion, and evaluated the potential mechanisms underlying its effects. Pretreatment with DHI (0.9 and 1.8 mL/kg) resulted in a significantly smaller infarct volume and better neurological scores than pretreatment with saline. Furthermore, DHI significantly reduced the permeability of the blood-brain barrier, increased occludin protein expression and decreased neutrophil infiltration, as well as profoundly suppressing the upregulation of matrix metallopeptidase-9 expression seen in rats that had received vehicle. Matrix metallopeptidase-2 expression was not affected by ischemia or DHI. Moreover, DHI (1.8 mL/kg) administered 3 hours after the onset of ischemia also improved neurological scores and reduced infarct size. Our results indicate that the neuroprotective efficacy of DHI in a rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury is mediated by a protective effect on the blood-brain barrier and the reversal of neutrophil infiltration.

  9. Mechanism underlying blockade of voltage-gated calcium channels by agmatine in cultured rat hippocampal neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-quan ZHENG; Xie-chuan WENG; Xiao-dan GAI; Jin LI; Wen-bin XIAO

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether agmatine could selectively block a given type of the voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC) and whether related receptors are involved in the blocking effect of agmatine on VGCC. METHODS: The whole-cell patch recording technique was performed to record VGCC currents in the cultured neonatal rat hippocampal neurons. RESULTS: Verapamil (100 μmol/L), a selective blocker of L-type calcium channel, significantly inhibited VGCC current by 80 %± 7 %. Agmatine (100 μmol/L) could further depress the remained currents by 25 %±6 %. The α2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine (10 μmol/L) and the I2 imidazoline receptor antagonist idazoxon (10 and 40 μmol/L) had no significant effect on VGCC currents when used respectively. When the mixture of yohimbine and agmatine was applied, VGCC currents were still depressed remarkably. However, the blocking effect of agmatine was decreased by 29 %± 8 % in the presence of idazoxon (10 μmol/L). The effect of idazoxon did not increase at a higher concentration (40 μmol/L). CONCLUSION: Agmatine could block the L- and other types of VGCC currents in the cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Blocking effect of agmatine on VGCC was partially related to I2 imidazoline receptor and had no relationship with α2-adrenoceptors.

  10. Transcriptome profiling of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666 in response to agmatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rio, Beatriz; Redruello, Begoña; Martin, M Cruz; Fernandez, Maria; de Jong, Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P; Ladero, Victor; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2016-03-01

    The dairy strain Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666 (formerly GE2-14) synthesizes the biogenic amine putrescine from agmatine via the agmatine deiminase (AGDI) pathway [1]. The AGDI cluster of L. lactis is composed by five genes aguR, aguB, aguD, aguA and aguC. The last four genes are co-transcribed as a single policistronic mRNA forming the catabolic operon aguBDAC, which encodes the proteins necessary for agmatine uptake and its conversion into putrescine [1], [2]. The first gene of the cluster, aguR, encodes a transmembrane protein that functions as a one-component signal transduction system that senses the agmatine concentration of the medium and accordingly regulates the transcription of aguBDAC[2]. The catabolic operon aguBDAC is transcriptionally activated by agmatine [2] and transcriptionally regulated by carbon catabolite repression (CCR) via glucose, but not by other sugars such as lactose or galactose [1], [3]. On the contrary, the transcription of the aguR regulatory gene is not subject to CCR regulation [1], [3] nor is regulated by agmatine [2]. In this study we report the transcriptional profiling of L. lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666 grown in M17 medium with galactose (GalM17) as carbon source and supplemented with agmatine, compared to that of the strain grown in the same culture medium without agmatine. The transcriptional profiling data of agmatine-regulated genes were deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database under Accession no. GSE74808. PMID:26981381

  11. Transcriptome profiling of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666 in response to agmatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rio, Beatriz; Redruello, Begoña; Martin, M Cruz; Fernandez, Maria; de Jong, Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P; Ladero, Victor; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2016-03-01

    The dairy strain Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666 (formerly GE2-14) synthesizes the biogenic amine putrescine from agmatine via the agmatine deiminase (AGDI) pathway [1]. The AGDI cluster of L. lactis is composed by five genes aguR, aguB, aguD, aguA and aguC. The last four genes are co-transcribed as a single policistronic mRNA forming the catabolic operon aguBDAC, which encodes the proteins necessary for agmatine uptake and its conversion into putrescine [1], [2]. The first gene of the cluster, aguR, encodes a transmembrane protein that functions as a one-component signal transduction system that senses the agmatine concentration of the medium and accordingly regulates the transcription of aguBDAC[2]. The catabolic operon aguBDAC is transcriptionally activated by agmatine [2] and transcriptionally regulated by carbon catabolite repression (CCR) via glucose, but not by other sugars such as lactose or galactose [1], [3]. On the contrary, the transcription of the aguR regulatory gene is not subject to CCR regulation [1], [3] nor is regulated by agmatine [2]. In this study we report the transcriptional profiling of L. lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666 grown in M17 medium with galactose (GalM17) as carbon source and supplemented with agmatine, compared to that of the strain grown in the same culture medium without agmatine. The transcriptional profiling data of agmatine-regulated genes were deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database under Accession no. GSE74808.

  12. Transcriptome profiling of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666 in response to agmatine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz del Rio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The dairy strain Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666 (formerly GE2-14 synthesizes the biogenic amine putrescine from agmatine via the agmatine deiminase (AGDI pathway [1]. The AGDI cluster of L. lactis is composed by five genes aguR, aguB, aguD, aguA and aguC. The last four genes are co-transcribed as a single policistronic mRNA forming the catabolic operon aguBDAC, which encodes the proteins necessary for agmatine uptake and its conversion into putrescine [1,2]. The first gene of the cluster, aguR, encodes a transmembrane protein that functions as a one-component signal transduction system that senses the agmatine concentration of the medium and accordingly regulates the transcription of aguBDAC [2]. The catabolic operon aguBDAC is transcriptionally activated by agmatine [2] and transcriptionally regulated by carbon catabolite repression (CCR via glucose, but not by other sugars such as lactose or galactose [1,3]. On the contrary, the transcription of the aguR regulatory gene is not subject to CCR regulation [1,3] nor is regulated by agmatine [2]. In this study we report the transcriptional profiling of L. lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666 grown in M17 medium with galactose (GalM17 as carbon source and supplemented with agmatine, compared to that of the strain grown in the same culture medium without agmatine. The transcriptional profiling data of agmatine-regulated genes were deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database under Accession no. GSE74808.

  13. Protective effects of pretreatment with Radix Paeoniae Rubra on acute lung injury induced by intestinal ischemia/ reperfusion in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chang; ZHANG Fan; XIA Zhong-yuan; LIN Hui; MO An-sheng

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of pretreatment with Radix Paeoniae Rubra (RPR) on acute lung injury induced by intestinal ischemia/reperfusion in rats and its protective mechanism.Methods:n lung tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry and morphometry computer image analysis. Arterial blood gas analysis, lung permeability index, malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) contents in lungs were measured. The histological changes of lung tissue were observed under light microscope.Results:The expression of HO-1 in RPR-pretreatment group and hemin group was obviously higher than that in sham-operation group and I/R group (P < 0.01). The level of MDA and lung permeability index in RPR-pretreatment and hemin group were significantly lower than those in I/R group (P<0.01 or P<0.05), while the activity of SOD in RPR-pretreatment and hemin group was obviously higher than that in I/R group (P<0.01 ). Under light microscope, the pathologic changes induced by I/R were significantly attenuated by RPR.Conclusion : Intestinal ischemia/reperfusion may result in acute lung injury and pretreatment with RPR injection can attenuate the injury. The protective effect of RPR on the acute lung injury is related to its property of inducing HO-1 expression and inhibiting lipid peroxidation.

  14. Protective effect and mechanism of lithium chloride pretreatment on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang-Jiang Li; Tao Hsu; Hui-Xian Li; Jin-Zheng Shi; Mei-Ling Du; Xiao-Yuan Wang; Wen-Ting Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the protective effect and mechanism of lithium chloride pretreatment on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury(I-RI) in rats.Methods:A total of60SD rats were randomly divided into control group, model group, lithium chloride intervention group and L-arginine methyl ester+ lithium chloride intervention group with15 in each.TheI-RI model was established in model group, the lithium chloride intervention group andL-arginine methyl ester+ lithium chloride intervention group by method of seaming along left anterior descending coronary artery myocardial, control group was only opened the chest without seaming,ST-elevation within2 min was regarded as modeling success.Model group did not adopted any intervention, lithium chloride intervention group was treated with lithium chloride injection 15 mg/kg by jugular venipuncture preoperatively,L-arginine methyl ester+ lithium chloride intervention group was treated with intraperitoneal injection of30 mg•kg-1•d-1L-arginine methyl ester7 d before the test, and intravenous catheter of15 mg/kg lithium chloride preoperatively. The hydroxybutyric acid dehydrogenase(HBDH), creatine kinase isoenzyme(CK-MB), superoxide dismutase(SOD), malondialdehyde(MDA) level and nitric oxide synthase(NOS) activites were tested.Each large area of myocardial ischemia tissue was extracted for determination of the MDA content,SOD activity in tissue and serum, and morphological changes of myocardial tissue.Results:SOD activity was highest in lithium chloride intervention group, followed by L-arginine methyl ester+ lithium chloride intervention group, control group and model group (P0.05);HBDH andCK-MB of plasma were highest in model group, followed byL-arginine methyl ester+ lithium chloride intervention group, lithium chloride intervention group and control group(P<0.05).A significantly lighter myocardial damage was observed microscopically in lithium chloride intervention group than that inL-arginine methyl ester+ lithium

  15. Agmatine attenuates brain edema through reducing the expression of aquaporin-1 after cerebral ischemia

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jae Hwan; Lee, Yong Woo; Park, Kyung Ah; Lee, Won Taek; Jong Eun LEE

    2009-01-01

    Brain edema is frequently shown after cerebral ischemia. It is an expansion of brain volume because of increasing water content in brain. It causes to increase mortality after stroke. Agmatine, formed by the decarboxylation of -arginine by arginine decarboxylase, has been shown to be neuroprotective in trauma and ischemia models. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of agmatine for brain edema in ischemic brain damage and to evaluate the expression of aquaporins (AQPs). Res...

  16. Pretreatment with scutellaria baicalensis stem-leaf total lfavonoid protects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injur y in hippocampal neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangyu Kong; Wei Kong; Guangxin Miao; Shumin Zhao; Meng Chen; Xiaoying Zheng; Jiangtao Bai

    2014-01-01

    Previous experimental studies have shown that cerebral infarction can be effectively reduced following treatment with scutellaria baicalensis stem-leaf total lfavonoid (SSTF). However, the mechanism of action of SSTF as a preventive drug to treat cerebral infarction remains unclear. In this study, Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with 50, 100, 200 mg/kg SSTF via intragastric ad-ministration for 1 week prior to the establishment of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. The results showed that pretreatment with SSTF effectively improved neurological function, re-duced brain water content and the permeability of blood vessels, ameliorated ischemia-induced morphology changes in hippocampal microvessels, down-regulated Fas and FasL protein expres-sion, elevated the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, and decreased malondialdehyde content. In contrast to low-dose SSTF pretreatment, the above changes were most obvious after pretreatment with moderate-and high-doses of SSTF. Experimental ifndings indicate that SSTF pretreatment can exert protective effects on the brain against cerebral isch-emia/reperfusion injury. The underlying mechanisms may involve reducing brain water content, increasing microvascular recanalization, inhibiting the apoptosis of hippocampal neurons, and attenuating free radical damage.

  17. Effect of agmatine on experimental vascular endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, M A; Gamiel, N M; El-Kashef, H; Zaghloul, M S

    2016-05-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of agmatine sulfate (AG, CAS2482-00-0) in nicotine (NIC)-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) in rabbits. NIC was administered to produce VED in rabbits with or without AG for 6 weeks. Serum lipid profile, serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase generation, serum nitrite/nitrate, serum vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and aortic nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) levels were analyzed.Treatment with AG markedly improves lipid profile and prevented NIC-induced VED and oxidative stress. The mechanism of AG in improving NIC-induced VED may be due to the significant reduction in serum VCAM-1 levels and aortic NF-κB. Thus, it may be concluded that AG reduces the oxidative stress, nitric oxide production, VCAM-1 levels, and aortic NF-κB expression, thereby consequently improving the integrity of vascular endothelium.

  18. Antioxidative Peptides Derived from Enzyme Hydrolysis of Bone Collagen after Microwave Assisted Acid Pre-Treatment and Nitrogen Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Sun

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the preparation method of antioxidant peptides by enzymatic hydrolysis of bone collagen after microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection. Phosphoric acid showed the highest ability of hydrolysis among the four other acids tested (hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and/or citric acid. The highest degree of hydrolysis (DH was 9.5% using 4 mol/L phosphoric acid with a ratio of 1:6 under a microwave intensity of 510 W for 240 s. Neutral proteinase gave higher DH among the four protease tested (Acid protease, neutral protease, Alcalase and papain, with an optimum condition of: (1 ratio of enzyme and substrate, 4760 U/g; (2 concentration of substrate, 4%; (3 reaction temperature, 55 °C and (4 pH 7.0. At 4 h, DH increased significantly (P < 0.01 under nitrogen protection compared with normal microwave assisted acid pre-treatment hydrolysis conditions. The antioxidant ability of the hydrolysate increased and reached its maximum value at 3 h; however DH decreased dramatically after 3 h. Microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection could be a quick preparatory method for hydrolyzing bone collagen.

  19. Protective effect of glutamine pretreatment on ischemia-reperfusion injury of spinal cord in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shou-ping Gong; Da-lin Zhong; Jian Lü; Wen-tao Wang; Gang Xu; Qian Song; Feng Wu; Jin Che; Zhi-yuan Seng; Xi-jing He

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of glutamine (Gln) on the content of reduced glutathione hormone (GSH) and aminoglutaminic acid (Glu) of spinal cord following ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods Totally 40 healthy adult male rabbits were randomly divided into five groups: sham-operation group (S group), ischemia-reperfusion injury group (I/R group), low-dose glutamine group (L Gln group), median-dose glutamine group (M Gln group) and high-dose glutamine group (H Gln group). After glutamine preconditioning, the model of spinal cord ischemia-reporfasion injury was established according to Zivin's method. The general status of animals was observed and the changes of Jacobs scoring were recorded in each group. Malondialdehydes (MDA), GSH, Glu and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in lumbar spinal cord tissues were determined using chemical colorimetry. The neuron number and deviation rate in spinal cord anterior horn were observed histopathologically. Results There was no significant difference between L Gin group and I/R group in behavior scoring, SOD activity, content of MDA and Glu, neuron number and deviation rate of spinal cord (P>0.05); however, there was a significant difference in GSH content of spinal cord (P0.05), whereas there was a significant difference in SOD activity and Giu content (P<0.05). Conclusion Pretreatment with medium-dose glutamine has a protective effect on spinal cord ischemia-reporfasion injury in rabbits, which may be related to the maintenance of GSH content, increase of SOD activity and reduction of MDA.

  20. Chronic treatment with glucocorticoids alters rat hippocampal and prefrontal cortical morphology in parallel with endogenous agmatine and arginine decarboxylase levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Meng-Yang; Wang, Wei-Ping; Huang, Jingjing; Regunathan, Soundar

    2007-12-01

    In the present study, we examined the possible effect of chronic treatment with glucocorticoids on the morphology of the rat brain and levels of endogenous agmatine and arginine decarboxylase (ADC) protein, the enzyme essential for agmatine synthesis. Seven-day treatment with dexamethasone, at a dose (10 and 50 mug/kg/day) associated to stress effects contributed by glucocorticoids, did not result in obvious morphologic changes in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, as measured by immunocytochemical staining with beta-tubulin III. However, 21-day treatment (50 mug/kg/day) produced noticeable structural changes such as the diminution and disarrangement of dendrites and neurons in these areas. Simultaneous treatment with agmatine (50 mg/kg/day) prevented these morphological changes. Further measurement with HPLC showed that endogenous agmatine levels in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were significantly increased after 7-day treatments with dexamethasone in a dose-dependent manner. On the contrary, 21-day treatment with glucocorticoids robustly reduced agmatine levels in these regions. The treatment-caused biphasic alterations of endogenous agmatine levels were also seen in the striatum and hypothalamus. Interestingly, treatment with glucocorticoids resulted in a similar change of ADC protein levels in most brain areas to endogenous agmatine levels: an increase after 7-day treatment versus a reduction after 21-day treatment. These results demonstrated that agmatine has neuroprotective effects against structural alterations caused by glucocorticoids in vivo. The parallel alterations in the endogenous agmatine levels and ADC expression in the brain after treatment with glucocorticoids indicate the possible regulatory effect of these stress hormones on the synthesis and metabolism of agmatine in vivo.

  1. Antimalarial effect of agmatine on Plasmodium berghei K173 strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SURui-Bin; WEIXiao-Li; LIUYin; LIJin

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study the antimalarial effect of agmatine (Agm) on chloroquine-susceptible Plasmodium berghei K173strain (S strain) and the P berghei K173 resistant strain (R strain). METHODS: The antimalarial effects of Agm onP berghei K173 S strain and R strain were evaluated by Peters 4-d suppression test in mice. RESULTS: Agm(12.5-200 mg/kg,ig,daily) decreased the parasitemia for both P berghei K173 S strain (IC50=139 mg/kg) and Rstrain (IC50=126mg/kg) in mice. Subcutaneous injection (sc) of Agm (5-40mg/kg,tid) showed relatively strongerantimalarial effect than intragastric gavage (IC50=30 mg/kg) in P berghei K 173 S strain. Spermidine antagonized theantimalarial effect of Agm for P berghei K173 S strain and R strain. Agm did not reverse the chloroquine resistanceof P berghei K173 S strain, dl-α-Difluoromethylornithine (DFMO, sc) decreased the parasitemia of P BergheiK173 S strain and this effect was antagonized by spermidine. CONCLUSION: Agm has an antimalarial effect andthe mechanism is related to its inhibition of polyamine synthesis.

  2. Agmatine induced NO dependent rat mesenteric artery relaxation and its impairment in salt-sensitive hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadkari, Tushar V; Cortes, Natalie; Madrasi, Kumpal; Tsoukias, Nikolaos M; Joshi, Mahesh S

    2013-11-30

    l-Arginine and its decarboxylated product, agmatine are important mediators of NO production and vascular relaxation. However, the underlying mechanisms of their action are not understood. We have investigated the role of arginine and agmatine in resistance vessel relaxation of Sprague-Dawley (SD) and Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats. Second or 3rd-order mesenteric arterioles were cannulated in an organ chamber, pressurized and equilibrated before perfusing intraluminally with agonists. The vessel diameters were measured after mounting on the stage of a microscope fitted with a video camera. The gene expression in Dahl rat vessel homogenates was ascertained by real-time PCR. l-Arginine initiated relaxations (EC50, 5.8±0.7mM; n=9) were inhibited by arginine decarboxylase (ADC) inhibitor, difluoromethylarginine (DFMA) (EC50, 18.3±1.3mM; n=5) suggesting that arginine-induced vessel relaxation was mediated by agmatine formation. Agmatine relaxed the SD rat vessels at significantly lower concentrations (EC50, 138.7±12.1μM; n=22), which was compromised by l-NAME (l-N(G)-nitroarginine methyl ester, an eNOS inhibitor), RX821002 (α-2 AR antagonist) and pertussis toxin (G-protein inhibitor). The agmatine-mediated vessel relaxation from high salt Dahl rats was abolished as compared to that from normal salt rats (EC50, 143.9±23.4μM; n=5). The α-2A AR, α-2B AR and eNOS mRNA expression was downregulated in mesenteric arterioles of high-salt treated Dahl hypertensive rats. These findings demonstrate that agmatine facilitated the relaxation via activation of α-2 adrenergic G-protein coupled receptor and NO synthesis, and this pathway is compromised in salt-sensitive hypertension.

  3. Agmatine increases proliferation of cultured hippocampal progenitor cells and hippocampal neurogenesis in chronically stressed mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-feng LI; Hong-xia CHEN; Ying LIU; You-zhi ZHANG; Yan-qin LIU; Jin LI

    2006-01-01

    Aim:To explore the mechanism of agmatine's antidepressant action.Methods: Male mice were subjected to a variety of unpredictable stressors on a daily basis over a 24-d period.The open-field behaviors of the mice were displayed and recorded using a Videomex-V image analytic system automatically.For bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU;thymidine analog as a marker for dividing cells) labeling,the mice were injected with BrdU (100 mg/kg,ip,twice per d for 2 d),and the hippocampal neurogenesis in stressed mice was measured by immunohistochemistry.The proliferation of cultured hippocampal progenitor cells from neonatal rats was determined by colorimetric assay (cell counting kit-8) and 3H-thymidine incorporation assay.Results:After the onset of chronic stress,the locomotor activity of the mice in the open field significantly decreased,while coadministration of agmatine 10 mg/kg (po) blocked it.Furthermore,the number of BrdU-labeled cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus significantly decreased in chronically stressed mice, which was also blocked by chronic coadministration with agmatine 10 mg/kg (po). Four weeks after the BrdU injection, some of the new born cells matured and became neurons, as determined by double labeling for BrdU and neuron specific enolase (NSE), a marker for mature neurons.In vitro treatment with agmatine 0.1-10 μmo1/L for 3 d significantly increased the proliferation of the cultured hippocampal progenitor cells in a dose-dependent manner.Conclusion:We have found that agmatine increases proliferation of hippocampal progenitor cells in vitro and the hippocampal neurogenesis in vivo in chronically stressed mice.This may be one of the important mechanisms involved in agmatine's antidepressant action.

  4. Adolescent pre-treatment with oxytocin protects against adult methamphetamine-seeking behavior in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Callum; Cornish, Jennifer L; Baracz, Sarah J; Suraev, Anastasia; McGregor, Iain S

    2016-03-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT), given acutely, reduces self-administration of the psychostimulant drug methamphetamine (METH). Additionally, chronic OT administration to adolescent rats reduces levels of alcohol consumption in adulthood, suggesting developmental neuroplasticity in the OT system relevant to addiction-related behaviors. Here, we examined whether OT exposure during adolescence might subsequently inhibit METH self-administration in adulthood. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered vehicle or OT (1 mg/kg, i.p.) once daily from postnatal days (PND) 28 to 37 (adolescence). At PND 62 (adulthood), rats were trained to self-administer METH (intravenous, i.v.) in daily 2-hour sessions for 10 days under a fixed ratio 1 (FR1) reinforcement schedule, followed by determination of dose-response functions (0.01-0.3 mg/kg/infusion, i.v.) under both FR1 and progressive ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement. Responding was then extinguished, and relapse to METH-seeking behavior assessed following priming doses of non-contingent METH (0.1-1 mg/kg, i.p.). Finally, plasma was collected to determine pre-treatment effects on OT and corticosterone levels. Results showed that OT pre-treatment did not significantly inhibit the acquisition of METH self-administration or FR1 responding. However, rats pre-treated with OT responded significantly less for METH under a PR reinforcement schedule, and showed reduced METH-primed reinstatement with the 1 mg/kg prime. Plasma OT levels were also significantly higher in OT pre-treated rats. These results confirm earlier observations that adolescent OT exposure can subtly, yet significantly, inhibit addiction-relevant behaviors in adulthood.

  5. Agmatine promotes expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in brainstem facial nucleus in the rat facial nerve injury model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Fang; Wenlong Luo

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that agmatine can reduce inhibition of neuronal regeneration by increasing cyclic adenosine monophosphate and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus of morphine-dependent rats. The hypothesis that agmatine exerts similar effects on facial nerve injury deserves further analysis.OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of peritoneal agmatine injection on BDNF levels in the rat brainstem after facial nerve injury.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A controlled animal experiment was performed at the Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery at the Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing University of Medical Sciences (Chongqing, China), between October and December in 2007.MATERIALS: Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control, a lesion, and an agmatine treatment group, with eight rats in each group. Bilateral facial nerve anastomosis was induced in the lesion and agmatine treatment groups, while the control group remained untreated. A rat BDNF Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit was used to measure BDNF levels in the brainstem facial nucleus.METHODS: Starting on the day of lesion, the agmatine group received a peritoneal injection of 100 mg/kg agmatine, once per day, for a week, whereas rats in the lesion group received saline injections.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: BDNF levels in the brainstem containing facial nucleus were measured by ELISA.RESULTS: Twenty-four rats were included in the final analysis without any loss. Two weeks after lesion, BDNF levels were significantly higher in the lesion group than in the control group (P<0.01). A significant increase was noted in the agmatine group compared to the lesion group (P<0.01).CONCLUSION: Agmatine can substantially increase BDNF levels in the rat brainstem after facial nerve injury.

  6. Enzymatic Synthesis of Agmatine by Immobilized Escherichia coli Cells with Arginine Decarboxylase Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei-guo; ZHAO Gen-hai; LIU Jun-zhong; LIU Qian; JIAO Qing-cai

    2011-01-01

    A new method for the enzymatic synthesis of agmatine by immobilized Escherichia coli cells with arginine decarboxylase(ADC)activity was established and a series of optimal reaction conditions was set down.The arginine decarboxylase showed the maximum activity when the pyridoxal phosphate(PLP)concentration was 50 mmol/L,pH=7 and 45 ℃.The arginine decarboxylase exhibited the maximum production efficiency when the substrate concentration was 100 mmol/L and the reaction time was 15 h.It was also observed that the appropriate concentration of Mg2+,especially at 0.5 mmol/L promoted the arginine decarboxylase activity; Mn2+ had little effect on the arginine decarboxylase activity.The inhibition of Cu2+ and Zn2+ to the arginine decarboxylase activity was significant.The immobilized cells were continuously used 6 times and the average conversion rate during the six-time usage was 55.6%.The immobilized cells exhibited favourable operational stability.After optimization,the maximally cumulative amount of agmatine could be up to 20 g/L.In addition,this method can also catalyze D,L-arginine to agmatine,leaving the pure optically D-arginine simultaneously.The method has a very important guiding significance to the enzymatic preparation of agmatine.

  7. Rosiglitazone pretreatment protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced fetal demise through inhibiting placental inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Qing-Li; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Yu, Zhen; Fu, Lin; Zhou, Yan; Zhang, Gui-Bin; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Xu, De-Xiang

    2016-03-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ is highly expressed in human and rodent placentas. Nevertheless, its function remains obscure. The present study investigated the effects of rosiglitazone, a PPAR-γ agonist, on LPS-induced fetal death. All pregnant mice except controls were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (150 μg/kg) daily from gestational day (GD)15 to GD17. As expected, maternal LPS injection caused placental inflammation and resulted in 63.6% fetal death in dams that completed the pregnancy. Interestingly, LPS-induced fetal mortality was reduced to 16.0% when pregnant mice were pretreated with RSG. Additional experiment showed that rosiglitazone pretreatment inhibited LPS-induced expressions of tumor necrosis factor (Tnf)-α, interleukin (Il)-1β, Il-6, macrophage inflammatory protein (Mip)-2 and keratinocyte-derived chemokine (Kc) in mouse placenta. Although rosiglitazone had little effect on LPS-evoked elevation of IL-10 in amniotic fluid, it alleviated LPS-evoked release of TNF-α and MIP-2 in amniotic fluid. Further analysis showed that pretreatment with rosiglitazone, which activated placental PPAR-γ signaling, simultaneously suppressed LPS-evoked nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation and blocked nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 and p50 subunits in trophoblast giant cells of the labyrinth layer. These results provide a mechanistic explanation for PPAR-γ-mediated anti-inflammatory activity in the placentas. Overall, the present study provides additional evidence for roles of PPAR-γ as an important regulator of placental inflammation. PMID:26773728

  8. Agmatine abolishes restraint stress-induced depressive-like behavior and hippocampal antioxidant imbalance in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Andiara E; Bettio, Luis E B; Neis, Vivian B; Santos, Danúbia B; Ribeiro, Camille M; Rosa, Priscila B; Farina, Marcelo; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2014-04-01

    Agmatine has been recently emerged as a novel candidate to assist the conventional pharmacotherapy of depression. The acute restraint stress (ARS) is an unavoidable stress situation that may cause depressive-like behavior in rodents. In this study, we investigated the potential antidepressant-like effect of agmatine (10mg/kg, administered acutely by oral route) in the forced swimming test (FST) in non-stressed mice, as well as its ability to abolish the depressive-like behavior and hippocampal antioxidant imbalance induced by ARS. Agmatine reduced the immobility time in the mouse FST (1-100mg/kg) in non-stressed mice. ARS caused an increase in the immobility time in the FST, indicative of a depressive-like behavior, as well as hippocampal lipid peroxidation, and an increase in the activity of hippocampal superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities, reduced catalase (CAT) activity and increased SOD/CAT ratio, an index of pro-oxidative conditions. Agmatine was effective to abolish the depressive-like behavior induced by ARS and to prevent the ARS-induced lipid peroxidation and changes in SOD, GR and CAT activities and in SOD/CAT activity ratio. Hippocampal levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) were not altered by any experimental condition. In conclusion, the present study shows that agmatine was able to abrogate the ARS-induced depressive-like behavior and the associated redox hippocampal imbalance observed in stressed restraint mice, suggesting that its antidepressant-like effect may be dependent on its ability to maintain the pro-/anti-oxidative homeostasis in the hippocampus.

  9. Agmatine produces antidepressant-like effects by activating AMPA receptors and mTOR signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neis, Vivian Binder; Moretti, Morgana; Bettio, Luis Eduardo B; Ribeiro, Camille M; Rosa, Priscila Batista; Gonçalves, Filipe Marques; Lopes, Mark William; Leal, Rodrigo Bainy; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2016-06-01

    The activation of AMPA receptors and mTOR signaling has been reported as mechanisms underlying the antidepressant effects of fast-acting agents, specially the NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine. In the present study, oral administration of agmatine (0.1mg/kg), a neuromodulator that has been reported to modulate NMDA receptors, caused a significant reduction in the immobility time of mice submitted to the tail suspension test (TST), an effect prevented by the administration of DNQX (AMPA receptor antagonist, 2.5μg/site, i.c.v.), BDNF antibody (1μg/site, i.c.v.), K-252a (TrkB receptor antagonist, 1μg/site, i.c.v.), LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor, 10nmol/site, i.c.v.) or rapamycin (selective mTOR inhibitor, 0.2nmol/site, i.c.v.). Moreover, the administration of lithium chloride (non-selective GSK-3β inhibitor, 10mg/kg, p.o.) or AR-A014418 (selective GSK-3β inhibitor, 0.01μg/site, i.c.v.) in combination with a sub-effective dose of agmatine (0.0001mg/kg, p.o.) reduced the immobility time in the TST when compared with either drug alone. Furthermore, increased immunocontents of BDNF, PSD-95 and GluA1 were found in the prefrontal cortex of mice just 1h after agmatine administration. These results indicate that the antidepressant-like effect of agmatine in the TST may be dependent on the activation of AMPA and TrkB receptors, PI3K and mTOR signaling as well as inhibition of GSK-3β, and increase in synaptic proteins. The results contribute to elucidate the complex signaling pathways involved in the antidepressant effect of agmatine and reinforce the pivotal role of these molecular targets for antidepressant responses. PMID:27061850

  10. Impact of Sn/F Pre-Treatments on the Durability of Protective Coatings against Dentine Erosion/Abrasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Ganss

    Full Text Available For preventing erosive wear in dentine, coating with adhesives has been suggested as an alternative to fluoridation. However, clinical studies have revealed limited efficacy. As there is first evidence that Sn(2+ increases bond strength of the adhesive Clearfil SE (Kuraray, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether pre-treatment with different Sn(2+/F(- solutions improves the durability of Clearfil SE coatings. Dentine samples (eight groups, n=16/group were freed of smear layer (0.5% citric acid, 10 s, treated (15 s either with no solution (control, aminefluoride (AmF, 500 ppm F(-, pH 4.5, SnCl2 (800/1600 ppm Sn(2+; pH 1.5, SnCl2/AmF (500 ppm F(-, 800 ppm Sn(2+, pH 1.5/3.0/4.5, or Elmex Erosion Protection Rinse (EP, 500 ppm F-, 800 ppm Sn(2+, pH 4.5; GABA International, then rinsed with water (15 s and individually covered with Clearfil SE. Subsequently the specimens were subjected to an erosion/abrasion protocol consisting of 1320 cycles of immersion in 0.5% citric acid (5 °C/55 °C; 2 min and automated brushing (15 s, 200 g, NaF-toothpaste, RDA 80. As the coatings proved stable up to 1320 cycles, 60 modified cycles (brushing time 30 min/cycle were added. Wear was measured profilometrically. After SnCl2/AmF, pH 4.5 or EP pre-treatment all except one coating survived. In the other groups, almost all coatings were lost and there was no significant difference to the control group. Pre-treatment with a Sn(2+/F(- solution at pH 4.5 seems able to improve the durability of adhesive coatings, rendering these an attractive option in preventing erosive wear in dentine.

  11. Using ToF-SIMS and EIS to evaluate green pretreatment reagent: Corrosion protection of aluminum alloy by silica/zirconium/cerium hybrid coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C.-C. [Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital and Digestive Disease Research Center, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Wang, C.-C. [Department of Chemistry, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Wu, C.-W.; Liu, S.-C. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Chung-Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Mai, F.-D. [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: fordmai@tmu.edu.tw

    2008-12-15

    Increasing environmental concern has led to the restrictive use of chromate conversion coatings to protect Al-alloys from corrosion. Our research is under way to find environmentally compliant substitute coating such as Si/Zr/Ce hybrid coating. The corrosion protection effect of green pretreatment reagent consisted of Si-containing base solution, Ce- and Zr-containing sealing solutions on the corrosion protection of Al-alloys was studied with a 3.5% NaCl aqueous testing solution. The correlation between the corrosion resistance measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and surface chemical composition of the hybrid coating measured by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) was studied. The proposed green pretreatment reagent was found improve the corrosion protection of Al-alloys, presumably due to the formation of protective oxide film acting as an oxygen barrier.

  12. No Protection against DSS-induced Colitis by Short-term Pretreatment with Seal or Fish Oils in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülen Arslan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Omega-3 (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs have modulating effects in several chronic inflammatory conditions. The aim of the present study was to test whether prior short-term dietary supplementation with n-3 (fish or seal oil or n-6 (soy oil PUFA rich oils would protect the development of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis in rats.Methods: Forty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups: no intervention, sham, DSS, seal oil + DSS, fi sh oil +DSS and soy oil + DSS. Following 7 days of acclimatisation, 1 mL oil (seal, fish or soy or distilled water (sham was administered by gavage day 8 to 14. Colitis was induced by 5% DSS in drinking water from day 15 to 21. Rats were sacrificed on day 23. Histological colitis (crypt and inflammation scores, faecal granulocyte marker protein (GMP and quantitative fatty acid composition in red blood cells were measured.Results: Pretreatment with fish or seal oils did not significantly influence DSS induced inflammation. In fact, all the oils tended to exacerbate the inflammation. Soy oil increased the mean crypt score (P < 0.04, but not the inflammation score or GMP. The ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids (FAs was 11 to 1 and 10 to 1 in standard diet and in red blood cells of control rats, respectively. Following administration of DSS, the ratio fell in all treatment groups (P < 0.001. The lowest ratios were seen in the groups receiving DSS + fi sh or seal oils (around 6 to 1.Conclusion: Short-term pretreatment with fish or seal oils did not protect against subsequent induction of colitis by DSS in this rat model. Whether the high ratio of n-6 to n-3 FAs in the standard diet concealed effects of n-3 FA supplementation should be further investigated.

  13. Corrosion protection of aluminium pretreated by vinyltriethoxysilane in sodium chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion protection of vinyltriethoxysilane (VTES) films on aluminium during exposure to 3% NaCl was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potential-time measurements and optical microscopy coupled with image analysis. Composition and thickness of films were analyzed using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) combined with depth profiling. It was shown that films deposited from 5% solution were significantly thicker and exhibited lower porosity and better corrosion stability, as compared to films deposited from 2 vol.% solution. VTES films deposited from 5 vol.% solutions and cured for 30 min exhibited better protection properties than other investigated films.

  14. Nanoparticulate sol-gel pretreatments as barrier coatings and adhesion promoters for metallic corrosion protection

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Morales, Antonia

    2008-01-01

    The Spanish University Carlos III de Madrid has developed sol-gel coatings for the corrosion protection of alloys. Sol-gel coatings represent a physical barrier between the metallic substrate and the aggressive environment of exposition and act as adhesion promoters through interfacial bonding. Optimization of the coating’s properties may be easily achivied by changing the processing parameters and formulation of the layer. Interest in licensing the applied patent or technical cooperation wit...

  15. Pre-Treatment with Amifostine Protects against Cyclophosphamide-Induced Disruption of Taste in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Nabanita Mukherjee; Carroll, Brittany L.; Spees, Jeffrey L.; Delay, Eugene R.

    2013-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CYP), a commonly prescribed chemotherapy drug, has multiple adverse side effects including alteration of taste. The effects on taste are a cause of concern for patients as changes in taste are often associated with loss of appetite, malnutrition, poor recovery and reduced quality of life. Amifostine is a cytoprotective agent that was previously shown to be effective in preventing chemotherapy-induced mucositis and nephrotoxicity. Here we determined its ability to protect aga...

  16. Agmatine Improves Cognitive Dysfunction and Prevents Cell Death in a Streptozotocin-Induced Alzheimer Rat Model

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Juhyun; Hur, Bo Eun; Bokara, Kiran Kumar; Yang, Wonsuk; Cho, Hyun Jin; Park, Kyung Ah; Lee, Won Taek; Lee, Kyoung Min; Lee, Jong Eun

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Alzheimer's disease (AD) results in memory impairment and neuronal cell death in the brain. Previous studies demonstrated that intracerebroventricular administration of streptozotocin (STZ) induces pathological and behavioral alterations similar to those observed in AD. Agmatine (Agm) has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects in central nervous system disorders. In this study, we investigated whether Agm treatment could attenuate apoptosis and improve cognitive decline in a STZ-...

  17. Protective effect of pretreatment with thymoquinone against Aflatoxin B1 induced liver toxicity in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nili-Ahmadabadi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available "n  Background and the purpose of the study: Thymoquinone (TQ is one of the active components of Nigella sativa. The plant has been used in herbal medicine for treatment of many diseases including liver complications. The present study aimed to investigate protective effects of TQ on Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 induced liver toxicity in mice. "n  Methods: Animals were divided into six groups and treated intraperitoneally. Group 1 (blank served as vehicle, group 2 (positive control received AFB1, Group 3 was treated with 9 mg/kg of TQ, Groups 4, 5 and 6 were treated with 4.5, 9 and 18 mg/kg of TQ, respectively. After three consecutive days, except for groups 1 and 3, animals were administered with a single dose of AFB1 (2 mg/kg. All the animals were killed 24 hrs following the AFB1 administration under ether anesthesia. Biochemical parameters including AST, ALT and ALP in serum samples and glutathione (GSH and malondialdehyde (MDA contents in liver homogenates were determined. Liver sections were collected for histopathological examination. "n  Results: Findings of this study showed that AST, ALT, ALP and MDA levels were significantly lower in the TQ treated animals as compared to AFB1 group (group 2. Furthermore, TQ was able to recover glutathione content (GSH of liver tissue. The best response, however, was observed with the dose of 9 mg/kg. Liver sections of AFB1 intoxicated mice showed inflammation, necrosis, hyperplasia of kupffer and infiltration of mononuclear cells, dilation of sinusoids and disruption of hepatocytes, while treatment with TQ helped to normalize liver architecture in accordance to biochemical findings. "n  Conclusion: Taken collectively, TQ has a protective role with optimum dose of 9 mg/kg in AFB1 hepatotoxicity.

  18. Myocardial protection during elective coronary artery bypasses grafting by pretreatment with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljović Milić

    2013-01-01

    PUFAs group was statistically significantly higher compared to the control group after 10, 20 and 30 min of reperfusion (35.5% vs 50.4%, p < 0.0004; 25.8 % vs 48.7%, p < 0.0001 and 25.8% vs 45.6%, p < 0.0002, respectively. The level of TnT, 4 and 24 h after CPB, was significantly higher in the control group compared to PUFAs group, with statistically significant differences (11.4 vs 6.6, p < 0.009 and 12.7 vs 5.9, p < 0.008, respectively. The level of CK-MB, 4 h after CPB, was significantly higher in the control group compared to PUFAs group (61.9 vs 37.7, p < 0.008, but its level, 24 h after CPB, was not statistically different between the two groups (58.9 vs 40.6, p < 0.051. Conclusion. Treatment with omega-3 PUFAs administered preoperatively promoted early metabolic recovery of the heart after elective CABG and improved myocardial protection. This study showed that omega-3 emulsion should not be considered only as a nutritional supplement but also as a clinically safe and potent cardioprotective adjunct during CPB.

  19. Pretreatment by low-dose fibrates protects against acute free fatty acid-induced renal tubule toxicity by counteracting PPARα deterioration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of a preventive strategy against tubular damage associated with proteinuria is of great importance. Recently, free fatty acid (FFA) toxicities accompanying proteinuria were found to be a main cause of tubular damage, which was aggravated by insufficiency of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), suggesting the benefit of PPARα activation. However, an earlier study using a murine acute tubular injury model, FFA-overload nephropathy, demonstrated that high-dose treatment of PPARα agonist (0.5% clofibrate diet) aggravated the tubular damage as a consequence of excess serum accumulation of clofibrate metabolites due to decreased kidney elimination. To induce the renoprotective effects of PPARα agonists without drug accumulation, we tried a pretreatment study using low-dose clofibrate (0.1% clofibrate diet) using the same murine model. Low-dose clofibrate pretreatment prevented acute tubular injuries without accumulation of its metabolites. The tubular protective effects appeared to be associated with the counteraction of PPARα deterioration, resulting in the decrease of FFAs influx to the kidney, maintenance of fatty acid oxidation, diminution of intracellular accumulation of undigested FFAs, and attenuation of disease developmental factors including oxidative stress, apoptosis, and NFκB activation. These effects are common to other fibrates and dependent on PPARα function. Interestingly, however, clofibrate pretreatment also exerted PPARα-independent tubular toxicities in PPARα-null mice with FFA-overload nephropathy. The favorable properties of fibrates are evident when PPARα-dependent tubular protective effects outweigh their PPARα-independent tubular toxicities. This delicate balance seems to be easily affected by the drug dose. It will be important to establish the appropriate dosage of fibrates for treatment against kidney disease and to develop a novel PPARα activator that has a steady serum concentration regardless of

  20. Identification of functional amino acid residues involved in polyamine and agmatine transport by human organic cation transporter 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyohei Higashi

    Full Text Available Polyamine (putrescine, spermidine and spermine and agmatine uptake by the human organic cation transporter 2 (hOCT2 was studied using HEK293 cells transfected with pCMV6-XL4/hOCT2. The Km values for putrescine and spermidine were 7.50 and 6.76 mM, and the Vmax values were 4.71 and 2.34 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively. Spermine uptake by hOCT2 was not observed at pH 7.4, although it inhibited both putrescine and spermidine uptake. Agmatine was also taken up by hOCT2, with Km value: 3.27 mM and a Vmax value of 3.14 nmol/min/mg protein. Amino acid residues involved in putrescine, agmatine and spermidine uptake by hOCT2 were Asp427, Glu448, Glu456, Asp475, and Glu516. In addition, Glu524 and Glu530 were involved in putrescine and spermidine uptake activity, and Glu528 and Glu540 were weakly involved in putrescine uptake activity. Furthermore, Asp551 was also involved in the recognition of spermidine. These results indicate that the recognition sites for putrescine, agmatine and spermidine on hOCT2 strongly overlap, consistent with the observation that the three amines are transported with similar affinity and velocity. A model of spermidine binding to hOCT2 was constructed based on the functional amino acid residues.

  1. Agmatine block voltage-gated calcium channels and acid sensing ion channels in the cultured hippocampal neuron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WENGXie-Chuan; ZHENGJian-Quan; GAIXiao-Dan; LIJin; XiaoWen-Bin

    2004-01-01

    Agrnatine was first identified and characterized as a candidate for CDS (clonidine displacing substance) in the bovine brain in 1994. The following researches demonstrated that agmatine was a widely distributed endogenous substance and performed a lot of biological functions in the central nervous system. The evidence revealed its targets were diverse and its

  2. Involvement of nitric oxide in anticompulsive-like effect of agmatine on marble-burying behaviour in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawali, Nitin B; Chowdhury, Amrita A; Kothavade, Pankaj S; Bulani, Vipin D; Nagmoti, Dnyaneshwar M; Juvekar, Archana R

    2016-01-01

    In view of the reports that nitric oxide modulates the neurotransmitters implicated in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), patients with OCD exhibit higher plasma nitrate levels, and drugs useful in OCD influence nitric oxide. Agmatine is a polyamine and widely distributed in mammalian brain which interacts with nitrergic systems. Hence, the present study was carried out to understand the involvement of nitrergic systems in the anticompulsive-like effect of agmatine. We used marble-burying behaviour (MBB) of mice as the animal model of OCD, and nitric oxide levels in hippocampus (HC) and cortex homogenate were measured. Results revealed that, agmatine (20 and 40mg/kg, i.p) significantly inhibited the MBB. Intraperitoneal administration of nitric oxide enhancers viz. nitric oxide precursor - l-arginine (l-ARG) (400mg/kg and 800mg/kg) increased MBB as well as brain nitrites levels, whereas treatment with N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (30mg/kg and 50mg/kg, i.p.) and 7-nitroindazole (7-NI) (20mg/kg and 40mg/kg) attenuated MBB and nitrites levels in brain. Further, in combination studies, the anticompulsive-like effect of agmatine (20mg/kg, ip) was exacerbated by prior administration of l-ARG (400mg/kg) and conversely l-NAME (15mg/kg) or 7-NI (10.0mg/kg) attenuated OCD-like behaviour with HC and cortex changes in the levels of NO. None of the above treatment had any significant influence on locomotor activity. In conclusion, Agmatine is effective in ameliorating the compulsive-like behaviour in mice which appears to be related to nitric oxide in brain.

  3. Selection of hemicellulosic hydrolysate pretreatments and fermentation conditions to stimulate xylitol protection by ethanol-producing yeasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Converti, A. [Ist. di Ingegneria Chimica e di Processo `G.B. Bonino`, Facolta di Ingegneria, Univ. degli Studi di Genova (Italy); Del Borghi, M. [Ist. di Ingegneria Chimica e di Processo `G.B. Bonino`, Facolta di Ingegneria, Univ. degli Studi di Genova (Italy)

    1996-12-31

    Xylitol production from hardwood hemicellulosic hydrolysates by well-known ethanol-producing yeasts was stimulated through an experimental schedule including pretreatments of the hydrolysate, the choice of the best xylitol producer and the selection of the optimum fermentation conditions. The xylitol or ethanol yields obtained on consumed xylose demonstrated that their production was stimulated under completely different conditions, as to be expected by the fact that these catabolites are the final products of different metabolic pathways. In particular, the catabolism of Pachysolen tannophilus, that is the best ethanol producer from this natural substrate, could be targeted towards xylitol rather than towards ethanol production by ensuring a strongly reducing environment through a suitable pretreatment of the hydrolysate. The final removal of fermentation inhibitors by adsorption onto highly adsorbing substances allowed a further 20% xylitol yield increase. (orig.)

  4. Comparative transcriptome analyses indicate enhanced cellular protection against FMDV in PK15 cells pretreated with IFN-γ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yin; Zhu, Zesen; Chang, Huiyun; Liu, Zaixin; Liu, Jing; Chen, Huiyong

    2016-07-25

    Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) can induce a host antiviral response to foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) in vivo and in vitro. To elucidate the mechanism of IFN-γ anti FMDV infection in host cells, high-throughput RNA sequencing was analyzed for systemic changes in gene expression profiles in PK15 cells infected by FMDV with or without IFN-γ pretreatment. More than 25 million reads, covering 1.2-1.5 Gb, were analyzed from each experiment panel. FMDV challenge altered the transcription of genes involved in positively and negatively regulating cell death or apoptosis; however, the expected immune suppression response was not obvious. IFN-γ pretreatment combined with FMDV infection normalized the increase in apoptosis. Furthermore, the transcription factors required for IFN-γ functioning, STAT1 and IRF1 were up-regulated by IFN-γ pretreatment and stimulated downstream IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). These induced ISGs are mainly responsible for antigen processing, antigen presentation or antiviral defense. Interestingly, a synergistic effect on some ISGs, including OAS1, OAS2, MX1, MX2, RIG-I and IFIT1, was observed in the combined treatment compared to the IFN-γ treatment alone. The suggested effects identified by RNA sequencing were consistent with cellular morphology changes and confirmed by related protein markers. This is the first report exploring transcriptome alterations introduced by FMDV infection with or without IFN-γ pretreatment. The identified key host genes that control cell survival in vitro broaden our comprehensive understanding of how IFN-γ inhibits FMDV infection and may shed light on developing improved FMD control approaches. PMID:27018244

  5. Captopril pretreatment protects the lung against severe acute pancreatitis induced injury via inhibiting angiotensin II production and suppressing Rho/ROCK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qi-Hong; Guo, Jie-Fang; Chen, Yan; Guo, Xiao-Rong; Du, Yi-Qi; Li, Zhao-Shen

    2016-09-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) usually causes acute lung injury, which is also known as acute pancreatitis associated lung injury (APALI). This study aimed to investigate whether captopril pretreatment was able to protect lung against APALI via inhibiting angiotensin II (Ang II) production and suppressing Rho/ROCK (Rho kinase) pathway in rats. Severe AP (SAP) was introduced to rats by bile-pancreatic duct retrograde injection of 5% sodium taurocholate. Rats were randomly divided into three groups. In the sham group, sham operation was performed; in the SAP group, SAP was introduced; in the pre-cpl + SAP group, rats were intragastrically injected with 5 mg/kg captopril 1 hour prior to SAP induction. Pathological examination of the lung and pancreas, evaluation of pulmonary vascular permeability by wet/dry ratio and Evans Blue staining, detection of serum amylase, Western blot assay for Ang II receptor type 1 (AT1), RhoA, ROCK (Rho kinase), and MLCK (myosin light chain kinase) were performed after the animals were sacrificed at 24 hours. After the surgery, characteristic findings of pancreatitis were observed, accompanied by lung injury. The serum amylase, Ang II, and lung expression of AT1, RhoA, ROCK, and MLCK increased dramatically in SAP rats. However, captopril pretreatment improved the histological changes, reduced the pathological score of the pancreas and lung, inhibited serum amylase and Ang II production, and decreased expression of AT1, RhoA, ROCK, and MLCK in the lung. These findings suggest that captopril pretreatment is able to protect the lung against APALI, which is, at least partially, related to the inhibition of Ang II production and the suppression of the Rho/ROCK pathway. PMID:27638402

  6. Biomass pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

    2013-05-21

    A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

  7. Improved method for HPLC analysis of polyamines, agmatine and aromatic monoamines in plant tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, R. D.; Flores, H. E.; Galston, A. W.; Weinstein, L. H.

    1989-01-01

    The high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method of Flores and Galston (1982 Plant Physiol 69: 701) for the separation and quantitation of benzoylated polyamines in plant tissues has been widely adopted by other workers. However, due to previously unrecognized problems associated with the derivatization of agmatine, this important intermediate in plant polyamine metabolism cannot be quantitated using this method. Also, two polyamines, putrescine and diaminopropane, also are not well resolved using this method. A simple modification of the original HPLC procedure greatly improves the separation and quantitation of these amines, and further allows the simulation analysis of phenethylamine and tyramine, which are major monoamine constituents of tobacco and other plant tissues. We have used this modified HPLC method to characterize amine titers in suspension cultured carrot (Daucas carota L.) cells and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaf tissues.

  8. Pre-treatment with cardamonin protects against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats: Impact on NOX-1, inflammation and apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cisplatin is an effective anti-cancer drug; however, its clinical use is usually associated with nephrotoxicity as a dose-limiting side effect. Several molecular mechanisms have been found to be involved in this nephrotoxicity such as oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to explore the potential nephroprotective effect of cardamonin, a flavone found in Alpinia plant, in a rat model of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. The possible mechanisms underlying this nephroprotective effect were investigated. Cardamonin was given at two different doses; 10 and 30 mg/kg orally for two weeks, starting one week before giving a single nephrotoxic dose of cisplatin (7 mg/kg). Acute nephrtoxicity was evident by significantly increased blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels. Also, cisplatin increased lipid peroxidation and depleted reduced glutathione level and superoxide dismutase. Additionally, cisplatin showed a marked pro-inflammatory response as evidenced by significant increase in tissue levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, NF-kB, iNOS, ICAM-1 and MCP-1. Pre-treatment with cardamonin significantly attenuated the nephrotoxic effects, oxidative stress and inflammation induced by cisplatin, in a dose-dependent manner. Also, cardamonin decreased caspase-3 expression and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio as compared to cisplatin group. Besides, cradamonin reversed cisplatin-induced decrease in EGF. Furthermore, up-regulation of NOX-1 was found to be involved in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and its expression was significantly reduced by cardamonin. Histopathological examination further confirmed the nephroprotective effect of cardamonin. Moreover, pre-treatment with subtoxic concentration of cardamonin has significantly enhanced cisplatin cytotoxic activity in four different human cancer cell lines; hela, hepG2, PC3 and HCT116 cancer cell lines. In conclusion, these findings suggest that cardamonin improves therapeutic index of cisplatin and that NOX-1 is

  9. Pre-treatment with cardamonin protects against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats: Impact on NOX-1, inflammation and apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Naga, Reem N., E-mail: reemelnaga@hotmail.com

    2014-01-01

    Cisplatin is an effective anti-cancer drug; however, its clinical use is usually associated with nephrotoxicity as a dose-limiting side effect. Several molecular mechanisms have been found to be involved in this nephrotoxicity such as oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to explore the potential nephroprotective effect of cardamonin, a flavone found in Alpinia plant, in a rat model of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. The possible mechanisms underlying this nephroprotective effect were investigated. Cardamonin was given at two different doses; 10 and 30 mg/kg orally for two weeks, starting one week before giving a single nephrotoxic dose of cisplatin (7 mg/kg). Acute nephrtoxicity was evident by significantly increased blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels. Also, cisplatin increased lipid peroxidation and depleted reduced glutathione level and superoxide dismutase. Additionally, cisplatin showed a marked pro-inflammatory response as evidenced by significant increase in tissue levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, NF-kB, iNOS, ICAM-1 and MCP-1. Pre-treatment with cardamonin significantly attenuated the nephrotoxic effects, oxidative stress and inflammation induced by cisplatin, in a dose-dependent manner. Also, cardamonin decreased caspase-3 expression and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio as compared to cisplatin group. Besides, cradamonin reversed cisplatin-induced decrease in EGF. Furthermore, up-regulation of NOX-1 was found to be involved in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and its expression was significantly reduced by cardamonin. Histopathological examination further confirmed the nephroprotective effect of cardamonin. Moreover, pre-treatment with subtoxic concentration of cardamonin has significantly enhanced cisplatin cytotoxic activity in four different human cancer cell lines; hela, hepG2, PC3 and HCT116 cancer cell lines. In conclusion, these findings suggest that cardamonin improves therapeutic index of cisplatin and that NOX-1 is

  10. Pretreatment with adenosine and adenosine A1 receptor agonist protects against intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V Haktan Ozacmak; Hale Sayan

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To examine the effects of adenosine and A1 receptor activation on reperfusion-induced small intestinal injury.METHODS: Rats were randomized into groups with sham operation, ischemia and reperfusion, and systemic treatments with either adenosine or 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine, A1 receptor agonist or 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, A1 receptor antagonist, plus adenosine before ischemia. Following reperfusion, contractions of ileum segments in response to KCl, carbachol and substance P were recorded. Tissue myeloperoxidase,malondialdehyde, and reduced glutathione levels were measured.RESULTS: Ischemia significantly decreased both contraction and reduced glutathione level which were ameliorated by adenosine and agonist administration. Treatment also decreased neutrophil infiltration and membrane lipid peroxidation. Beneficial effects of adenosine were abolished by pretreatment with A1 receptor antagonist.CONCLUSION: The data suggest that adenosine and A1 receptor stimulation attenuate ischemic intestinal injury via decreasing oxidative stress, lowering neutrophil infiltration, and increasing reduced glutathione content.

  11. Pretreatment with Tongxinluo protects porcine myocardium from ischaemia/reperfusion injury through a nitric oxide related mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Yu-tong; YANG Yue-jin; ZHANG Hai-tao; QIAN Hai-yan; ZHAO Jing-lin; MENG Xian-min; LUO Fu-liang; WU Yi-ling

    2009-01-01

    Background The traditional Chinese medicine Tongxinluo can protect myocardium against ischaemia/reperfusion injury, but the mechanism of its action is not well documented. We examined the involvement of nitric oxide in the protective role of Tongxinluo. Methods Miniswine were randomized to four groups of seven: sham, control, Tongxinluo and Tongxinluo coadministration with a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor Nω-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA, 10 mg/kg i.v.). Three hours after administration of Tongxinluo, the animals were anaesthetised and the left anterior descending coronary artery ligated and maintained in situ for 90 minutes followed by 3 hours of reperfusion before death. Area of no reflow and necrosis and risk region were determined pathologically by planimetry. The degree of neutrophil accumulation in myocardium was obtained by measuring myeloperoxidase activity and histological analysis. Myocardial endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity and vascular endothelial cadherin content were measured by colorimetric method and immunoblotting analysis respectively.Results Tongxinluo significantly increased the local blood flow and limited the infarct and size of no reflow. Tongxinluo also attenuated myeloperoxidase activity and neutrophil accumulation in histological sections and maintained the level of vascular endothelial cadherin and endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity in the reflow region when compared with control group. The protection of Tongxinluo was counteracted by coadministration with L-NNA. Conclusions Tongxinluo may limit myocardial ischaemia and protect the heart against reperfusion injury. Tongxinluo regulates synthesis of nitric oxide by altering activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

  12. Pretreatment with remifentanil protects against the reduced-intestinal contractility related to the ischemia and reperfusion injury in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale Sayan-Ozacmak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Serious functional and structural alterations of gastrointestinal tract are observed in failure of blood supply, leading to gastrointestinal dismotility. Activation of opioid receptors provides cardioprotective effect against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury. The aim of the present study was to determine whether or not remifentanil could reduce I/R injury of small intestine. METHODS: Male Wistar Albino rats were subjected to mesenteric ischemia (30 min followed by reperfusion (3 h. Four groups were designed: sham control; remifentanil alone; I/R control; and remifentanil + I/R. Animals in remifentanil + I/R group were subjected to infusion of remifentanil (2 ug kg-1 min-1 for 60 min, half of which started before inducing ischemia. Collecting the ileum tissues, evaluation of damage was based on contractile responses to carbachol, levels of lipid peroxidation and neutrophil infiltration, and observation of histopathological features in intestinal tissue. RESULTS: Following reperfusion, a significant decrease in carbachol-induced contractile response, a remarkable increase in both lipid peroxidation and neutrophil infiltration, and a significant injury in mucosa were observed. An average contractile response of remifentanil + I/R group was significantly different from that of the I/R group. Lipid peroxidation and neutrophil infiltration were also significantly suppressed by the treatment. The tissue samples of the I/R group were grade 4 in histopathological evaluation. In remifentanil + I/R group, on the other hand, the mucosal damage was moderate, staging as grade 1. CONCLUSIONS: The pretreatment with remifentanil can attenuate the intestinal I/R injury at a remarkable degree possibly by lowering lipid peroxidation and leukocyte infiltration.

  13. Influence of the surface pre-treatment of aluminum on the processes of formation of cerium oxides protective films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, R.; Stoyanova, E.; Tsanev, A.; Stoychev, D.

    2016-03-01

    It is known that there is special interest in the contemporary investigations on conversion treatment of aluminum aimed at promoting its corrosion stability, which is focused on electrolytes on the basis of salts of metals belonging to the group of rare-earth elements. Their application is especially attractive, as it enables a successful substitution of the presently applied highly efficient, but at the same time toxic Cr6+-containing electrolytes. The present paper presents a study on the influence of the preliminary alkaline activation and acidic de-oxidation of the aluminum surface on the processes of immersion formation of protective cerium oxides films on Al 1050. The results obtained show that their deposition from simple electrolytes (containing only salts of Ce3+ ions) on the Al surface, treated only in alkaline solution, occurs at a higher rate, which leads to preparing thicker oxide films having a better protective ability. In the cases when the formation of oxide films is realized in a complex electrolyte (containing salts of Ce3+ and Cu2+ ions), better results are obtained with respect to the morphology and protective action of cerium oxides film on samples that have been consecutively activated in alkaline solution and deoxidized in acidic solution. Electrochemical investigations were carried out in a model corrosion medium (0.1 M NaCl); it was shown that the cerium protective films, deposited by immersion, have a cathodic character with regard to the aluminum support and inhibit the occurrence of the depolarizing corrosion process -- the reaction of oxygen reduction.

  14. Poly(Amido Amine)s Containing Agmatine and Butanol Side Chains as Efficient Gene Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Young-Wook; Ankoné, Marc; Engbersen, Johan F J; Feijen, Jan; Kim, Sung Wan

    2016-04-01

    A new type of bioreducible poly(amido amine) copolymer is synthesized by the Michael addition polymerization of cystamine bisacrylamide (CBA) with 4-aminobutylguanidine (agmatine, AGM) and 4-aminobutanol (ABOL). Since the positively charged guanidinium groups of AGM and the hydroxybutyl groups of ABOL in the side chains have shown to improve the overall transfection efficiency of poly(amido amine)s, it is hypothesized that poly(CBA-ABOL/AGM) synthesized at the optimal ratio of both components would result in high transfection efficiency and minimal toxicity. In this study, a series of the poly(CBA-ABOL/AGM) copolymers is synthesized as gene carriers. The polymers are characterized and luciferase transfection efficiencies of the polymers in various cell lines are investigated to select the ideal ratio between AGM and ABOL. The poly(CBA-ABOL/AGM) containing 80% AGM and 20% ABOL has shown the best transfection efficiency with the lowest cytotoxicity, indicating that this polymer is very promising as a potent and nontoxic gene carrier. PMID:26663734

  15. The Use of Agmatine Provides the New Insight in an Experimental Model of Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninkovic, Milica; Stevanovic, Ivana; Stojanovic, Ivana; Ljubisavljevic, Srdjan; Basic, Jelena; Peric, Predrag

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the hypothesis that agmatine (AGM) enhances blood brain barrier (BBB) compounds properties in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), which is an established animal model for studying multiple sclerosis (MS). Wild-type (WT) and knockout (KO) CBA/H iNOS-/- mice, 3 months old (15 ± 5 g) were used for EAE induction by myelin basic protein (MBP) dissolved in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). The animals were divided into control, CFA, EAE, EAE + AGM and AGM groups. After the development of full clinical remission, the animals were sacrificed and the immunohistochemical and biochemical examinations were performed in brain homogenates. We had noticed the increased expressions of occludin in WT and KO mice with EAE + AGM, compared to EAE groups in which these expressions were significantly decreased compared to the controls. The significant elevations of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-MMP-3 and MMP-9 in WT and KO EAE animals were decreased during AGM treatment in both groups. AGM application post EAE in WT and KO mice caused decreased level of Iba-1 stain, compared to EAE groups. The obtained results suggest beneficial AGM effects in EAE on BBB components, which might be useful for novel therapeutic strategies in MS. PMID:26141226

  16. Effect of pre-treatment of the substrate surface by energetic C+ ion bombardment on structure and nano-tribological characteristics of ultra-thin tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) protective coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rismani, E.; Sinha, S. K.; Tripathy, S.; Yang, H.; Bhatia, C. S.

    2011-03-01

    Depositing an ultra-thin tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) protective coating on the surface of the recording heads in magnetic tape drives can improve the tribological problems at the head/tape interface. In this work the effect of pre-treatment of the surface of AlTiC substrate (main bearing surface of head in contact with tape) by C+ ions of moderate energy (smaller than 400 eV) on the structural and tribo-mechanical behaviours of the coated surfaces is studied. Sample preparation consisted of two separate stages of surface pre-treatment and deposition of the protective film, and was done by means of filtered cathodic vacuum arc. Structure of the ta-C film and its interface with the substrate were studied by transmission electron microscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry depth profiling. The results revealed the formation of a broader, dense atomically mixed layer at the ta-C film-substrate interface of the pre-treated samples comparing with that of the samples without pre-treatment. Chemical characterization of thin diamond-like carbon coatings was conducted by means of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the surface pre-treatment was found to have a remarkable effect on increasing the sp3 hybridization fraction in the ta-C overcoat. Nano-tribological properties of the treated surfaces were examined using ball-on-flat wear test at very low load (20 mN). There was a good correlation between the surface and structure characteristics of the film, and the tribological results and the pre-treated surfaces presented a very low coefficient of friction and higher wear life. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of bombardment of the surface with C+ ions of moderate ion energy to improve the structural and tribo-mechanical properties of the protective ta-C films on the magnetic head substrate material.

  17. Effect of pre-treatment of the substrate surface by energetic C+ ion bombardment on structure and nano-tribological characteristics of ultra-thin tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) protective coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depositing an ultra-thin tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) protective coating on the surface of the recording heads in magnetic tape drives can improve the tribological problems at the head/tape interface. In this work the effect of pre-treatment of the surface of AlTiC substrate (main bearing surface of head in contact with tape) by C+ ions of moderate energy (smaller than 400 eV) on the structural and tribo-mechanical behaviours of the coated surfaces is studied. Sample preparation consisted of two separate stages of surface pre-treatment and deposition of the protective film, and was done by means of filtered cathodic vacuum arc. Structure of the ta-C film and its interface with the substrate were studied by transmission electron microscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry depth profiling. The results revealed the formation of a broader, dense atomically mixed layer at the ta-C film-substrate interface of the pre-treated samples comparing with that of the samples without pre-treatment. Chemical characterization of thin diamond-like carbon coatings was conducted by means of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the surface pre-treatment was found to have a remarkable effect on increasing the sp3 hybridization fraction in the ta-C overcoat. Nano-tribological properties of the treated surfaces were examined using ball-on-flat wear test at very low load (20 mN). There was a good correlation between the surface and structure characteristics of the film, and the tribological results and the pre-treated surfaces presented a very low coefficient of friction and higher wear life. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of bombardment of the surface with C+ ions of moderate ion energy to improve the structural and tribo-mechanical properties of the protective ta-C films on the magnetic head substrate material.

  18. Effect of pre-treatment of the substrate surface by energetic C{sup +} ion bombardment on structure and nano-tribological characteristics of ultra-thin tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) protective coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rismani, E; Sinha, S K [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Block EA, 07-08, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Tripathy, S [Institute of Material Research and Engineering (IMRE), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Yang, H; Bhatia, C S, E-mail: elebcs@nus.edu.sg [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Block E4, Level 5, Room 45, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2011-03-23

    Depositing an ultra-thin tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) protective coating on the surface of the recording heads in magnetic tape drives can improve the tribological problems at the head/tape interface. In this work the effect of pre-treatment of the surface of AlTiC substrate (main bearing surface of head in contact with tape) by C{sup +} ions of moderate energy (smaller than 400 eV) on the structural and tribo-mechanical behaviours of the coated surfaces is studied. Sample preparation consisted of two separate stages of surface pre-treatment and deposition of the protective film, and was done by means of filtered cathodic vacuum arc. Structure of the ta-C film and its interface with the substrate were studied by transmission electron microscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry depth profiling. The results revealed the formation of a broader, dense atomically mixed layer at the ta-C film-substrate interface of the pre-treated samples comparing with that of the samples without pre-treatment. Chemical characterization of thin diamond-like carbon coatings was conducted by means of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the surface pre-treatment was found to have a remarkable effect on increasing the sp{sup 3} hybridization fraction in the ta-C overcoat. Nano-tribological properties of the treated surfaces were examined using ball-on-flat wear test at very low load (20 mN). There was a good correlation between the surface and structure characteristics of the film, and the tribological results and the pre-treated surfaces presented a very low coefficient of friction and higher wear life. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of bombardment of the surface with C{sup +} ions of moderate ion energy to improve the structural and tribo-mechanical properties of the protective ta-C films on the magnetic head substrate material.

  19. Protective effect of cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin pretreatment against hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative damage in ram sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseer, Zahid; Ahmad, Ejaz; Aksoy, Melih; Küçük, Niyazi; Serin, İlker; Ceylan, Ahmet; Boyacıoğlu, Murat; Kum, Cavit

    2015-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the protective effect of cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin (CLC) against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or cryo-induced damage in ram sperm. In Experiment 1, the fresh ejaculates were either treated with CLC or remained untreated. Both CLC treated and untreated samples were then incubated with 0, 250 or 500 μM H2O2 at 35°C for 12 h. After incubation period of 12 h, the motility, viability and membrane integrity remained higher in CLC treated sperm even in the presence of 250 or 500 μM H2O2. The H2O2 treatment affected all the sperm parameters adversely (P0.05) in MDA level was observed among the groups at any stage of incubation. In conclusion, the CLC incorporation in ram sperm membrane may protects it against H2O2 or cryo-induced oxidative damage. The cryoprotective influence of CLC on ram sperm might be resulted from, at least partly, its antioxidative property.

  20. Lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment using AFEX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Venkatesh; Bals, Bryan; Chundawat, Shishir P S; Marshall, Derek; Dale, Bruce E

    2009-01-01

    Although cellulose is the most abundant organic molecule, its susceptibility to hydrolysis is restricted due to the rigid lignin and hemicellulose protection surrounding the cellulose micro fibrils. Therefore, an effective pretreatment is necessary to liberate the cellulose from the lignin-hemicellulose seal and also reduce cellulosic crystallinity. Some of the available pretreatment techniques include acid hydrolysis, steam explosion, ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), alkaline wet oxidation, and hot water pretreatment. Besides reducing lignocellulosic recalcitrance, an ideal pretreatment must also minimize formation of degradation products that inhibit subsequent hydrolysis and fermentation. AFEX is an important pretreatment technology that utilizes both physical (high temperature and pressure) and chemical (ammonia) processes to achieve effective pretreatment. Besides increasing the surface accessibility for hydrolysis, AFEX promotes cellulose decrystallization and partial hemicellulose depolymerization and reduces the lignin recalcitrance in the treated biomass. Theoretical glucose yield upon optimal enzymatic hydrolysis on AFEX-treated corn stover is approximately 98%. Furthermore, AFEX offers several unique advantages over other pretreatments, which include near complete recovery of the pretreatment chemical (ammonia), nutrient addition for microbial growth through the remaining ammonia on pretreated biomass, and not requiring a washing step during the process which facilitates high solid loading hydrolysis. This chapter provides a detailed practical procedure to perform AFEX, design the reactor, determine the mass balances, and conduct the process safely.

  1. ASIC3 Channels Integrate Agmatine and Multiple Inflammatory Signals through the Nonproton Ligand Sensing Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Hui

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs have long been known to sense extracellular protons and contribute to sensory perception. Peripheral ASIC3 channels represent natural sensors of acidic and inflammatory pain. We recently reported the use of a synthetic compound, 2-guanidine-4-methylquinazoline (GMQ, to identify a novel nonproton sensing domain in the ASIC3 channel, and proposed that, based on its structural similarity with GMQ, the arginine metabolite agmatine (AGM may be an endogenous nonproton ligand for ASIC3 channels. Results Here, we present further evidence for the physiological correlation between AGM and ASIC3. Among arginine metabolites, only AGM and its analog arcaine (ARC activated ASIC3 channels at neutral pH in a sustained manner similar to GMQ. In addition to the homomeric ASIC3 channels, AGM also activated heteromeric ASIC3 plus ASIC1b channels, extending its potential physiological relevance. Importantly, the process of activation by AGM was highly sensitive to mild acidosis, hyperosmolarity, arachidonic acid (AA, lactic acid and reduced extracellular Ca2+. AGM-induced ASIC3 channel activation was not through the chelation of extracellular Ca2+ as occurs with increased lactate, but rather through a direct interaction with the newly identified nonproton ligand sensing domain. Finally, AGM cooperated with the multiple inflammatory signals to cause pain-related behaviors in an ASIC3-dependent manner. Conclusions Nonproton ligand sensing domain might represent a novel mechanism for activation or sensitization of ASIC3 channels underlying inflammatory pain-sensing under in vivo conditions.

  2. The multifaceted effects of agmatine on functional recovery after spinal cord injury through Modulations of BMP-2/4/7 expressions in neurons and glial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Mi Park

    Full Text Available Presently, few treatments for spinal cord injury (SCI are available and none have facilitated neural regeneration and/or significant functional improvement. Agmatine (Agm, a guanidinium compound formed from decarboxylation of L-arginine by arginine decarboxylase, is a neurotransmitter/neuromodulator and been reported to exert neuroprotective effects in central nervous system injury models including SCI. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the multifaceted effects of Agm on functional recovery and remyelinating events following SCI. Compression SCI in mice was produced by placing a 15 g/mm(2 weight for 1 min at thoracic vertebra (Th 9 segment. Mice that received an intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of Agm (100 mg/kg/day within 1 hour after SCI until 35 days showed improvement in locomotor recovery and bladder function. Emphasis was made on the analysis of remyelination events, neuronal cell preservation and ablation of glial scar area following SCI. Agm treatment significantly inhibited the demyelination events, neuronal loss and glial scar around the lesion site. In light of recent findings that expressions of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs are modulated in the neuronal and glial cell population after SCI, we hypothesized whether Agm could modulate BMP- 2/4/7 expressions in neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and play key role in promoting the neuronal and glial cell survival in the injured spinal cord. The results from computer assisted stereological toolbox analysis (CAST demonstrate that Agm treatment dramatically increased BMP- 2/7 expressions in neurons and oligodendrocytes. On the other hand, BMP- 4 expressions were significantly decreased in astrocytes and oligodendrocytes around the lesion site. Together, our results reveal that Agm treatment improved neurological and histological outcomes, induced oligodendrogenesis, protected neurons, and decreased glial scar formation through modulating the BMP- 2/4/7 expressions following

  3. A biphasic opioid function modulator: agmatine%双向阿片功能调节剂:胍丁胺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏瑞斌; 李锦; 秦伯益

    2003-01-01

    近年研究表明某些药物尽管不能与阿片受体发生相互作用,但能对阿片药理作用产生重要的调节.特别是有些药物能对阿片功能产生双向调节作用,即增强阿片镇痛,对抗阿片耐受和躯体依赖.我们将这些不与阿片受体发生作用,但具有双向调节阿片功能的药物称之为双向阿片功能调节剂(biphasic opioid function modulator,BOFM).基于我们的研究工作,可以认定胍丁胺就是一个典型的双向阿片功能调节剂.胍丁胺本身有弱的镇痛作用,它能增强吗啡镇痛,对抗吗啡耐受和依赖;胍丁胺产生上述作用的主要机制与抑制阿片长期作用下在阿片受体信号转导系统产生的代偿性适应过程相关.%Recently it has been revealed that some agents that are not able to interact with opioid receptors play animportant role in regulating the pharmacological actions of opioids. Especially, some of them show biphasicmodulation on opioid functions, which enhance opioid analgesia, but inhibit tolerance to and substance dependenceon opioids. We would like to call these agents which do not interact with opioid receptors, but do have biphasicmodulation on opioid functions as biphasic opioid function modulator (BOFM). Mainly based on our results,agmatine is a typical BOFM. Agmatine itself was a weak analgesic which enhanced analgesic action of morphineand inhibited tolerance to and dependence on opioid. The main mechanisms of agmatine were related to inhibitionof the adaptation of opioid receptor signal transduction induced by chronic treatment of opioid.

  4. 40 CFR 405.76 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... comply with 40 CFR part 403. ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 405.76 Section 405.76 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  5. 40 CFR 405.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or quality of... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for existing sources. 405.24 Section 405.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  6. Mutagenic and morphologic impacts of 1.8 GHz radiofrequency radiation on human peripheral blood lymphocytes (hPBLs) and possible protective role of pre-treatment with Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esmekaya, Meric Arda, E-mail: mericarda@yahoo.com [Department of Biophysics, Gazi University, Faculty of Medicine and Gazi Non-ionizing Radiation, Protection (GNRP) Center, Ankara (Turkey); Aytekin, Ebru [Department of Medical Genetics, Gazi University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Ozgur, Elcin; Gueler, Goeknur [Department of Biophysics, Gazi University, Faculty of Medicine and Gazi Non-ionizing Radiation, Protection (GNRP) Center, Ankara (Turkey); Ergun, Mehmet Ali [Department of Medical Genetics, Gazi University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Oemeroglu, Suna [Department of Histology and Embryology, Gazi University, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Seyhan, Nesrin [Department of Biophysics, Gazi University, Faculty of Medicine and Gazi Non-ionizing Radiation, Protection (GNRP) Center, Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-12-01

    The mutagenic and morphologic effects of 1.8 GHz Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) modulated RF (radiofrequency) radiation alone and in combination with Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) pre-treatment in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (hPBLs) were investigated in this study using Sister Chromatid Exchange (SCE) and electron microscopy. Cell viability was assessed with 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay. The lymphocyte cultures were exposed to GSM modulated RF radiation at 1.8 GHz for 6, 8, 24 and 48 h with and without EGb 761. We observed morphological changes in pulse-modulated RF radiated lymphocytes. Longer exposure periods led to destruction of organelle and nucleus structures. Chromatin change and the loss of mitochondrial crista occurred in cells exposed to RF for 8 h and 24 h and were more pronounced in cells exposed for 48 h. Cytoplasmic lysis and destruction of membrane integrity of cells and nuclei were also seen in 48 h RF exposed cells. There was a significant increase (p < 0.05) in SCE frequency in RF exposed lymphocytes compared to sham controls. EGb 761 pre-treatment significantly decreased SCE from RF radiation. RF radiation also inhibited cell viability in a time dependent manner. The inhibitory effects of RF radiation on the growth of lymphoctes were marked in longer exposure periods. EGb 761 pre-treatment significantly increased cell viability in RF + EGb 761 treated groups at 8 and 24 h when compared to RF exposed groups alone. The results of our study showed that RF radiation affects cell morphology, increases SCE and inhibits cell proliferation. However, EGb 761 has a protective role against RF induced mutagenity. We concluded that RF radiation induces chromosomal damage in hPBLs but this damage may be reduced by EGb 761 pre-treatment. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RF Radiation inhibits cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RF radiation induces chromosomal damage

  7. Mutagenic and morphologic impacts of 1.8 GHz radiofrequency radiation on human peripheral blood lymphocytes (hPBLs) and possible protective role of pre-treatment with Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mutagenic and morphologic effects of 1.8 GHz Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) modulated RF (radiofrequency) radiation alone and in combination with Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) pre-treatment in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (hPBLs) were investigated in this study using Sister Chromatid Exchange (SCE) and electron microscopy. Cell viability was assessed with 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay. The lymphocyte cultures were exposed to GSM modulated RF radiation at 1.8 GHz for 6, 8, 24 and 48 h with and without EGb 761. We observed morphological changes in pulse-modulated RF radiated lymphocytes. Longer exposure periods led to destruction of organelle and nucleus structures. Chromatin change and the loss of mitochondrial crista occurred in cells exposed to RF for 8 h and 24 h and were more pronounced in cells exposed for 48 h. Cytoplasmic lysis and destruction of membrane integrity of cells and nuclei were also seen in 48 h RF exposed cells. There was a significant increase (p < 0.05) in SCE frequency in RF exposed lymphocytes compared to sham controls. EGb 761 pre-treatment significantly decreased SCE from RF radiation. RF radiation also inhibited cell viability in a time dependent manner. The inhibitory effects of RF radiation on the growth of lymphoctes were marked in longer exposure periods. EGb 761 pre-treatment significantly increased cell viability in RF + EGb 761 treated groups at 8 and 24 h when compared to RF exposed groups alone. The results of our study showed that RF radiation affects cell morphology, increases SCE and inhibits cell proliferation. However, EGb 761 has a protective role against RF induced mutagenity. We concluded that RF radiation induces chromosomal damage in hPBLs but this damage may be reduced by EGb 761 pre-treatment. - Highlights: ► RF Radiation inhibits cell proliferation. ► RF radiation induces chromosomal damage in hPBLs. ► Ginkgo Biloba (EGb 761) has a

  8. Novel agmatine analogue, γ-guanidinooxypropylamine (GAPA) efficiently inhibits proliferation of Leishmania donovani by depletion of intracellular polyamine levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficacy of γ-guanidinooxypropylamine (GAPA), a novel agmatine analogue against protozoan parasite, Leishmaniadonovani was evaluated. Wild-type and ornithine decarboxylase-overexpressors of L. donovani were used to study the effect and mode of action of this inhibitor. GAPA inhibited the growth of both promastigotes and amastigotes. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and polyamine levels were markedly lower in cells treated with GAPA and proliferation was rescued by addition of putrescine or spermidine. GAPA inhibited L. donovani recombinant ODC with Ki value of ∼60 μM. The ODC-overexpressors showed significant resistance to GAPA. GAPA has pKa 6.71 and at physiological pH the analogue can mimic protonated state of putrescine and can probably use putrescine transport system. Transport of putrescine in wild-type L. donovani promastigotes was inhibited by GAPA. We for the first time report that GAPA is a potential antileishmanial lead compound and it possibly inhibits L. donovani growth by depletion of intracellular polyamine levels

  9. 胍丁胺抑制大鼠颈动脉窦压力感受器活动%Agmatine inhibits the afferent activity of carotid baroreceptor in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦晓梅; 范振中; 何瑞荣

    2001-01-01

    在麻醉大鼠隔离灌流颈动脉窦区条件下, 记录窦神经传入放电, 观察胍丁胺(agmatine, Agm)对动脉压力感受器活动的影响。结果如下: (1) 以1 mmol/L Agm隔离灌流大鼠颈动脉窦区时, 窦内压-窦神经传入放电积分(ISP-ISNA)关系曲线向右下方移位, 曲线的最大斜率(PS)降低, 窦神经传入放电最大积分值(PIV)减小。再分别以5、10 mmol/L Agm灌流时, 机能曲线向右下方移位更为明显, PS及PIV降低更加明显, 从而表明Agm抑制压力感受器活动且呈剂量依赖性。(2) α2-肾上腺素受体(α2-adrenoceptor, α2-AR)和咪唑啉受体(IR)的阻断剂咪唑克生(0.1 mmol/L)可阻断Agm的上述效应。(3) 预先灌流α2-AR阻断剂育亨宾(15 μmol/L)可部分阻断Agm的抑制效应。(4) 预先灌流Ca2+通道激动剂Bay K 8644 (500 nmol/L)亦可取消Agm对窦神经传入放电的影响。以上结果表明, Agm对颈动脉窦压力感受器活动有抑制作用, 此作用由IR和α2-AR介导, 并与颈动脉窦压力感受器活动时Ca2+内流减少有关。%The effect of agmatine (Agm) on the carotid baroreceptor activity was examined in 24 anesthetized rats with perfused isolated carotid sinus by recording sinus nerve afferent discharges. The results are as follows. (1) By perfusing with 1 mmol/L Agm, the functional curve for the intrasinus pressure (ISP)integral of sinus nerve activiy (ISNA) relation was shifted to the right and downward with decreases in peak slope (PS) and peak integral value of carotid sinus afferent discharge (PIV). By perfusing with high concentrations of Agm (5 and 10 mmol/L), the curves were shifted to the right and downward further with marked decreases of PS and PIV. These results showed that Agm exerted an inhibitory action on the baroreceptor activity in a dose-dependent manner. (2) The Agm-induced decrease in sinus nerve afferent activity was eliminated by pretreatment with IR and α2-AR blocker idazoxan (0.1 mmol/L). (3) Selective

  10. Action of agmatine on tension of isolated aortic artery and its receptor mechanism in rats%胍丁胺对离体大鼠主动脉张力的影响及其受体机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李清; 何瑞荣

    2001-01-01

    The effect of agmatine (Agm) on vascular tension and the underlying receptor mechanism were investigated in the isolated aortic artery of rats. The results are as follows. (1) Agm (10-7~10-2mol/L) relaxed aortic rings in a concentration-dependent manner under the condition of precontraction induced by phenylephrine (PE) at a concentration of 10-6 mol/L. (2) Either in the intact or the endothelium-denuded rings, pretreatment with NOS inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 0.5 mmol/L) did not affect the vascular relaxant action of Agm, implying that the concentration-dependent vasorelaxation caused by Agm is not endothelium-dependent and NO is not involved. (3) Agm also relaxed aortic rings in a concentration-dependent manner under the condition of precontraction induced by CaCl2 at a concentration of 3 mmol/L. (4) Idazoxan (10-4 mol/L), an α2-adrenergic receptor (α2-AR) and imidazoline receptor (IR) antagonist, abolished the Agm-induced vasorelaxation completely under the condition of CaCl2-induced precontraction. (5) Yohimbine (10-4 mol/L), a selective α2-AR antagonist, could partially block the vascular relaxant action of Agm. It is suggested that the vascular relaxant effect of Agm on the rat aortic artery may be mediated by α2-AR and IR.%采用离体血管环灌流方法, 观察了胍丁胺(agmatine, Agm)对大鼠胸主动脉张力的影响, 并探讨其受体机制。实验结果如下: (1) 在苯肾上腺素(PE, 10-6 mol/L)引起血管预收缩的基础上, Agm (10-7~10-2 mol/L) 剂量依赖性地舒张大鼠胸主动脉。(2) 上述舒张反应在去除内皮和应用NOS 抑制剂NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 0.5 mmol/L) 后依然存在, 提示Agm的舒血管作用为非内皮依赖性, 并无NO的参与。(3) 在高Ca2+ (3 mmol/L)引起血管预收缩的基础上, Agm也可剂量依赖性地舒张大鼠主动脉。(4)预先应用α2-肾上腺素能受体(α2-adrenergic receptor, α2-AR)和

  11. Protective effects of sericine pretreatment on germ cells of type 2 diabetes mellitus rats%丝胶预处理对2型糖尿病大鼠睾丸生殖细胞的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋成军; 付文亮; 陈志宏

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the protective effects of sericine pretreatment on germ cells in testes of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats by observing the changes of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and proto-oncogene c-fos expression. Methods 36 male SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups ( n = 12): normal control, model and sericine pretreatment groups. T2DM model rats were made by continuous intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Rats in sericine pretreatment group were lavaged with sericine (2. 4 g ·kg-1 · d - 1 ) for 35 days before injecting STZ. ELISA was used to detect the testosterone level in serum. lmmunohistochemical staining and RTPCR were respectively used to detect the expression of PCNA and c-fos protein and mRNA in testes. Results The testosterone level in sermn,the PCNA and c-fos expression in testes of T2DM model rats were obviously lower than those of normal control rats (P <0. 01 ). The testosterone level in serum,the PCNA and c-fos expression in testes of rats in sericine pretreatment group were significantly higher than those of T2DM model rats ( P < 0. 01, P < 0. 05 ). Conclusions Sericine pretreatment can increase the reproductive activity of spermatogenic cells and advance spermatogenesis and secretion of testosterone by up regulating PCNA and c-fos expression in testes. So sericine pretreatment can prevent decreasing of reproductive function and has preventive effects on reproductive dysfunction of diabetes mellitus rats.%目的 研究丝胶预处理对2型糖尿病大鼠睾丸生殖细胞的保护作用.方法 36只雄性SD大鼠随机分为正常对照组、糖尿病模型组和丝胶预处理组,每组12只.链脲佐菌素(STZ)连续腹腔注射建立2型糖尿病大鼠模型;丝胶预处理组大鼠于注射STZ前给予丝胶(2.4 g·kg-1·d-1)灌胃35 d.采用ELISA法检测大鼠血清睾酮水平;分别采用免疫组化染色和RT-PCR法检测睾丸增殖细胞核抗原(PCNA)、c

  12. Attenuation of insulin resistance in rats by agmatine: role of SREBP-1c, mTOR and GLUT-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharawy, Maha H; El-Awady, Mohammed S; Megahed, Nirmeen; Gameil, Nariman M

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a serious health condition worldwide; however, its exact mechanisms are still unclear. This study investigates agmatine (AGM; an endogenous metabolite of L-arginine) effects on insulin resistance induced by high fructose diet (HFD) in rats and the possible involved mechanisms. Sprague Dawley rats were fed 60% HFD for 12 weeks, and AGM (10 mg/kg/day, orally) was given from week 9 to 12. AGM significantly reduced HFD-induced elevation in fasting insulin level, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index and liver glycogen content from 3.44-, 3.62- and 2.07- to 2.59-, 2.78- and 1.3-fold, respectively, compared to the control group, while it increased HFD-induced reduction in glucose tolerance. Additionally, AGM significantly decreased HFD-induced elevation in serum triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels from 3.18-, 2.97- and 4.75- to 1.25-, 1.25- and 1.07-fold, respectively, compared to control group. Conversely, AGM had no significant effect on HFD-induced changes in fasting glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin tolerance and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Furthermore, AGM significantly reduced HFD-induced elevation in mRNA expression of glucose transporter type-2 (GLUT-2), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) without affecting that of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α) in the liver. Additionally, AGM enhanced ACh-induced aortic relaxation and attenuated liver steatosis induced by HFD. In conclusion, AGM may have a therapeutic potential in insulin resistance through suppressing SREBP-1c, mTOR and GLUT-2 in liver. PMID:26449613

  13. Attenuation of insulin resistance in rats by agmatine: role of SREBP-1c, mTOR and GLUT-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharawy, Maha H; El-Awady, Mohammed S; Megahed, Nirmeen; Gameil, Nariman M

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a serious health condition worldwide; however, its exact mechanisms are still unclear. This study investigates agmatine (AGM; an endogenous metabolite of L-arginine) effects on insulin resistance induced by high fructose diet (HFD) in rats and the possible involved mechanisms. Sprague Dawley rats were fed 60% HFD for 12 weeks, and AGM (10 mg/kg/day, orally) was given from week 9 to 12. AGM significantly reduced HFD-induced elevation in fasting insulin level, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index and liver glycogen content from 3.44-, 3.62- and 2.07- to 2.59-, 2.78- and 1.3-fold, respectively, compared to the control group, while it increased HFD-induced reduction in glucose tolerance. Additionally, AGM significantly decreased HFD-induced elevation in serum triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels from 3.18-, 2.97- and 4.75- to 1.25-, 1.25- and 1.07-fold, respectively, compared to control group. Conversely, AGM had no significant effect on HFD-induced changes in fasting glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin tolerance and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Furthermore, AGM significantly reduced HFD-induced elevation in mRNA expression of glucose transporter type-2 (GLUT-2), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) without affecting that of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α) in the liver. Additionally, AGM enhanced ACh-induced aortic relaxation and attenuated liver steatosis induced by HFD. In conclusion, AGM may have a therapeutic potential in insulin resistance through suppressing SREBP-1c, mTOR and GLUT-2 in liver.

  14. 点按瘢痕灸预处理对大鼠脑缺血再灌注损伤的保护作用%Protective effect of pretreatment with scarring moxibustion in rats with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵华; 赵百孝; 徐佳; 徐鸣曙; 刘智艳

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the protective effect of pretreatment with scarring moxibustion with incense stick in rats with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods SD rats ( n = 40) were randomly divided into control group, model group, pretreatment group with scarring moxibustion with moxa cone ( moxa cone group) and pretreatment group with scarring moxibustion with incense stick (incense stick group). The rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and reperfusion was established by using thread approach. The moxa cone group and incense stick group were given the pretreatment of scarring moxibustion with moxa cone or incense stick on Zusanli ( ST36) 3 days before ischemia-reperfusion. The rats were sacrificed after ischemia for 3 hours and reperfusion for 24 hours. The control group and model group were not given the pretreatment. The content changes of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) , nitric oxide (NO) and lactic acid (LD) were observed in all groups. Results The content of NO, LD and MDA decreased significantly, and content of SOD increased significantly in incense stick group compared with model group ( P 0. 05 ). Conclusion The pretreatment of scarring moxibustion with incense stick and that with moxa cone can promote antioxidation in cells, reduce neurotoxicity mediated by NO and improve the energy metabolism in brain cells, and have significant protective effect in rats with cerebral ischemia - reperfusion. The effect of pretreatment of scarring moxibustion with incense stick is better than that of pretreatment of scarring moxibustion with moxa cone.%目的 探讨线香点按瘢痕灸预处理对脑缺血再灌注损伤的保护作用.方法 SD大鼠40只,随机分为对照组、模型组、艾炷灸组、线香点按灸组.采用线栓法制备大鼠大脑中动脉闭塞(MCAO)及再灌注模型,艾炷灸组、线香点按灸组于缺血再灌注前3d以艾炷、线香点按瘢痕灸足三里预处理,缺血3h再灌注24h后

  15. Effects of laser pretreatment on cells of broad bean in UV-B-induced damage protection%激光预处理可保护蚕豆细胞免受UV-B辐射的损伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐智; 岳明; 王勋陵

    2000-01-01

    The embryos of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) were irradiated for 5 min by a He-Ne laser (632.8 nm,1.63 J·mm-2) or for 1 min by a CO2 laser (1,060 nm,2.53 J·mm-2).Afterwards they were cultivated in Petri dish in the constant temperature incubator in Knop until the length of epicotyl of broad bean was perhaply 3 cm that could be treated by ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation.The epicotyl of broad bean was irradiated for 7 h by 1.02,3.03,4.52 kJ·m-2 UV-B respectively in the ambient condition of 70 μmol·m-2·s-1 photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in the growth cabinet.According to the changes of content of MDA,ascorbate acid (AsA) and UV-B absorbing compounds (absorbance at 300 nm),the effects of protecting of laser to the epicotyl of broad bean from UV-B radiation were tested.The results showed that laser pretreatment on the embryos could enhance the resistance of UV-B stress in epicotyl.Comparing with the control (without UV-B or laser radiation) and UV-B radiation alone,the MDA content was decreased significantly while AsA content was increased in the condition of laser pretreatment.It was also found that laser pretreatment alone could improve the content of UV-B absorbing compounds.If laser pretreatment followed UV-B radiation,the content of UV-B absorbing compounds was improved higher than laser treatment and UV-B treatment respectively.We suppose that laser pretreatment could enhance stress resistance in plant by a pathway of increasing the content of AsA and UV-B absorbing compounds while decreasing the MDA concentration.%当蚕豆的胚被He-Ne激光(632.8 nm,1.63 J·mm-2)照射5 min或被CO2激光(1060 nm,2.53 J·mm-2) 照射1 min后,将其置入Knop营养液中进行恒温培养.当蚕豆的上胚轴长到大约3 cm时,在光背景(PAR)为70 μmol·m-2·s-1条件下,分别用1.02、3.03、4.52 kJ·m-2的UV-B 辐射蚕豆的上胚轴7 h.根据蚕豆丙二醛(MDA)、抗坏血酸(AsA)和UV-B吸收物的含量变化,来测试激光对UV-B照射蚕豆的上

  16. Potent In Vitro Protection Against PM[Formula: see text]-Caused ROS Generation and Vascular Permeability by Long-Term Pretreatment with Ganoderma tsugae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chia-Yi; Chung, Meng-Chi; Wang, Jhih-Syuan; Chang, Yu-Jung; Chang, Jing-Fen; Lin, Chin-Hung; Hseu, Ruey-Shyang; Chao, Ming-Wei

    2016-04-01

    Epidemiological studies show increased particulate matter (PM[Formula: see text]) particles in ambient air are correlated with increased myocardial infarctions. Given the close association of capillaries and alveoli, the dysfunction is caused when inhaled PM[Formula: see text] particles come in close proximity to capillary endothelial cells. We previously suggested that the inhalation of PM[Formula: see text] diesel exhaust particles (DEP) induces oxidative stress and upregulates the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, inducing vascular permeability factor VEGFA secretion, which results in cell-cell adherens junction disruption and PM[Formula: see text] transmigratation into circulation. Here, we minimized the level that PM[Formula: see text] traveled in the bloodstream by pre-supplementing with a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Ganoderma tsugae DMSO extract (GTDE) prior to PM[Formula: see text] exposure. Our results show that PM[Formula: see text] caused alterations in enzyme activities and cellular anti-oxidant balance. We found decreased glutathione levels, a reduced cellular redox ratio, increased ROS generation and cytotoxicity in the cellular fractions. The oxidative stress caused DNA damage and apoptosis, likely causing downstream molecular events that trigger vasculature permeabilization and, eventually, cardiovascular disorders. Our results show long-term GTDE treatment increased endogenous glutathione level, while PM[Formula: see text]-reduced glutathione levels and the cellular redox ratio. GTDE was protective against the genotoxic and apoptotic effects initiated by PM[Formula: see text] oxidative stress. Vascular permeability revealed that PM[Formula: see text] only accumulated on the surface of cells after GTDE treatment; no penetration was detected. After two weeks of GTDE treatment, VEGFA secretion was significantly reduced in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and endothelial cell migration was blocked. Our results suggest GTDE prevents PM

  17. 40 CFR 403.5 - National pretreatment standards: Prohibited discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... purposes of this part and section 307(d) of the Act. (d) Local limits. Where specific prohibitions or... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true National pretreatment standards... SOURCES OF POLLUTION § 403.5 National pretreatment standards: Prohibited discharges. (a)(1)...

  18. GREET Pretreatment Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adom, Felix K.; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Han, Jeongwoo

    2014-09-01

    A wide range of biofuels and biochemicals can be produced from biomass via different pretreatment technologies that yield sugars. This report documents the material and energy flows that occur when fermentable sugars from four lignocellulosic feedstocks (corn stover, miscanthus, switchgrass, and poplar) are produced via dilute acid pretreatment and ammonia fiber expansion. These flows are documented for inclusion in the pretreatment module of the Greenhouses Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model. Process simulations of each pretreatment technology were developed in Aspen Plus. Material and energy consumption data from Aspen Plus were then compiled in the GREET pretreatment module. The module estimates the cradle-to-gate fossil energy consumption (FEC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with producing fermentable sugars. This report documents the data and methodology used to develop this module and the cradle-to-gate FEC and GHG emissions that result from producing fermentable sugars.

  19. Protective effects of different dose of ulinastatin pretreatment on traumatic brain edema in mice%不同剂量乌司他丁预处理对小鼠创伤性脑水肿的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶维; 张磊; 曹宝萍; 马选鹏; 苏宁; 王凯; 张强; 费舟; 李兵

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the potential therapeutic effect and the related mechanism of ulinaslatin (UTI) on traumatic brain edema in mice. Methods Thirty-eight BALB/c mice were randomly divided into two groups: isotonic Na chloride control group (control group) and UTI pretreatment group (UTI group). The wet-dry weighing method was performed to measure the brain water content of mice. The expression of aquaporin4 (AQP4) was detected by Western blot. Results Compared with control group, UTI significantly inhibited (he neurological dysfunction of mice in a concentration-dependent manner and reduced brain water content. It is suggested that UTI could down-regulate the expression of AQP4 (P<0. 05). Conclusion Pretreatment of UTI can effectively protect traumatic brain edema, which may be associated with the regulation of AQP4 expression.%目的 探讨乌司他丁(UTI)预处理对小鼠创伤性脑水肿潜在的治疗作用及其机制.方法 BALB/c小鼠38只,随机分为生理盐水对照组(control组)和乌司他丁预处理组(UTI组).采用测干湿重法检测不同剂量UTI预处理对小鼠脑组织含水量的影响和Western -blot检测脑组织中水通道蛋白4(AQP4)蛋白表达情况.结果 与生理盐水对照组比较,UTI能明显减轻神经功能障碍,干湿重法检测结果显示,随着UTI剂量的增大小鼠脑组织含水量明显降低,Western-blot结果提示UTI下调AQP4蛋白的表达,不同组间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 乌司他丁预处理能减轻创伤性脑水肿,具有显著的神经保护作用,可能是通过调控AQP4而减轻脑组织水肿.

  20. Solids Control in Sludge Pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beahm, E.C., Weber, C.F., Hunt, R.D., Dillow, T.A.

    1997-12-31

    Sludge pretreatment will likely involve washing, followed by caustic or acidic leaching and washing of sludge residues after leaching. The principal goal of pretreatment is to obtain a low-volume high-activity waste stream and a high-volume low-activity waste stream. Also, some waste constituents such as chromium and phosphate can be included in glass formulations only at very low concentrations; therefore, it is desirable to remove them from high-level waste streams. Two aspects of sludge treatment and subsequent separations should be well delineated and predictable: (1) the distribution of chemical species between aqueous solutions and solids and (2) potential problems due to chemical interactions that could result in process difficulties or safety concerns.Before any treatment technology is adopted, it must be demonstrated that the process can be carried out as planned. Three pretreatment methods were considered in the Tri-Party (Washington State Ecology, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Department of Energy) negotiations: (1) sludge washing with corrosion- inhibiting water, (2) Enhanced Sludge Washing, and (3)acidic dissolution with separations processes. Enhanced Sludge Washing is the baseline process. In Enhanced Sludge Washing, sludge is first washed with corrosion-inhibiting water; it is then leached with caustic (sodium hydroxide solution) and washed again with corrosion- inhibiting water. The initial concern is whether a pretreatment technique is effective in separating sludge components. This can be evaluated by bench-scale tests with sludge specimens from underground storage tanks. The results give data on the distribution of important species such as aluminum, phosphate, and radionuclides between wash and leach solutions and solid sludge residues.

  1. Solids Control in Sludge Pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sludge pretreatment will likely involve washing, followed by caustic or acidic leaching and washing of sludge residues after leaching. The principal goal of pretreatment is to obtain a low-volume high-activity waste stream and a high-volume low-activity waste stream. Also, some waste constituents such as chromium and phosphate can be included in glass formulations only at very low concentrations; therefore, it is desirable to remove them from high-level waste streams. Two aspects of sludge treatment and subsequent separations should be well delineated and predictable: (1) the distribution of chemical species between aqueous solutions and solids and (2) potential problems due to chemical interactions that could result in process difficulties or safety concerns.Before any treatment technology is adopted, it must be demonstrated that the process can be carried out as planned. Three pretreatment methods were considered in the Tri-Party (Washington State Ecology, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Department of Energy) negotiations: (1) sludge washing with corrosion- inhibiting water, (2) Enhanced Sludge Washing, and (3)acidic dissolution with separations processes. Enhanced Sludge Washing is the baseline process. In Enhanced Sludge Washing, sludge is first washed with corrosion-inhibiting water; it is then leached with caustic (sodium hydroxide solution) and washed again with corrosion- inhibiting water. The initial concern is whether a pretreatment technique is effective in separating sludge components. This can be evaluated by bench-scale tests with sludge specimens from underground storage tanks. The results give data on the distribution of important species such as aluminum, phosphate, and radionuclides between wash and leach solutions and solid sludge residues

  2. 40 CFR 425.86 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). 425.86 Section 425.86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pigskin Subcategory § 425.86 Pretreatment standards for...

  3. 40 CFR 425.85 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES). 425.85 Section 425.85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pigskin Subcategory § 425.85 Pretreatment standards...

  4. 40 CFR 425.55 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES). 425.55 Section 425.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY No Beamhouse Subcategory § 425.55 Pretreatment...

  5. 40 CFR 425.66 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). 425.66 Section 425.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Through-the-Blue Subcategory § 425.66 Pretreatment...

  6. 40 CFR 425.56 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). 425.56 Section 425.56 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY No Beamhouse Subcategory § 425.56 Pretreatment standards...

  7. 40 CFR 425.76 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). 425.76 Section 425.76 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Shearling Subcategory § 425.76 Pretreatment standards for...

  8. 40 CFR 425.75 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES). 425.75 Section 425.75 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Shearling Subcategory § 425.75 Pretreatment standards...

  9. 40 CFR 428.66 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources. 428.66 Section 428.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Medium-Sized General Molded,...

  10. 40 CFR 405.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Pretreatment standards for new sources. 405.26 Section 405.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  11. 40 CFR 425.04 - Applicability of sulfide pretreatment standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability of sulfide pretreatment standards. 425.04 Section 425.04 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY General Provisions § 425.04 Applicability of...

  12. Zinc-induced protection against cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Early, J.L.; Schnell, R.C.

    1978-02-01

    Pretreatment of male rats with cadmium acetate potentiates the duration of hexobarbital hypnosis and inhibits the rate of hepatic microsomal drug metabolism. Pretreatment of rats with zinc acetate protects against these alterations in drug action elicited by cadmium.

  13. 内毒素预处理对内毒素血症大鼠肝损伤的保护作用%Protective effects of endotoxin pretreatment on hepatic tissue in rats with endotoxemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈华文; 祝伟; 李树生; 杨光田

    2009-01-01

    ),LPS pretreated group(P,n=24).Each group was divid-ed into four subgroups:saline control and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated 2 h,4 h,6 h,12 h groups and LPS-pretreated 2 h,4 h,6 h,12 h groups.Rats in group P were first administered with introperitoneal injection of 0.25 mg/kg LPS,and after 24 hours,the rats were injected with 0.5 mg/kg LPS.Rats in group N and group L received with an equivalent amount of saline.After 72 hours,rats in group L and group P were intravenonsly injected with 10 mg/kg LPS,and rats in group N received with an equivalent amount of saline.Six rats were killed at 2,4,6 and 12 hours after injection of LPS in group L and P.The hvers were removed for detecting Toll like receptor-4 (TLR-4),nuclear factor-кB(NF-кB),tumor Necrosis Factor-apha(TNF-α)and malondialdehyde(MDA).The blood was drawn for detecting Alamine aminotmnsferose (ALT) and Aspartate aminotransferose (AST).The patho-logical changes of liver were also examined.Software SPSS13.0 was utilized to do ANOVA for statistical analysis.Results The rats exposed to LPS alone demonstrated an increase in TLR-4.NF-кB and TNF-α activity of the liver tissue.Incontrast.the rats exporsed 10 LPS prelreatment exhibited a significant decrease in TLT-4,NF-кB and TNF-α activity.The contents of TLR-4,NF-кB and TNF-α of LPS-treated 4 h groupwere,(38.76±0.67),170.82 ±31.40),293.16±49.49)and(6.263±0.351),significantly higher than those of the saline control group.The administration of endotoxin pretreatment reduced the indexes to(22.35±1.35),(135.55±26.44)and(234.23±44.96),respectively(P<0.05).Conclusions TLR-4,NF-кB and TNF-α take part in the progress of hepatic injury in rats with endotoxemia.Endotoxin pretreatment can eliminate hepatic injury and protect the hepatic tissue by downmgulating the levels of TLR-4.NF-кB and TNF-α.

  14. Pretreatment methods for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhaoyang; Huang, Fang

    2014-09-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass, such as wood, grass, agricultural, and forest residues, are potential resources for the production of bioethanol. The current biochemical process of converting biomass to bioethanol typically consists of three main steps: pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation. For this process, pretreatment is probably the most crucial step since it has a large impact on the efficiency of the overall bioconversion. The aim of pretreatment is to disrupt recalcitrant structures of cellulosic biomass to make cellulose more accessible to the enzymes that convert carbohydrate polymers into fermentable sugars. This paper reviews several leading acidic, neutral, and alkaline pretreatments technologies. Different pretreatment methods, including dilute acid pretreatment (DAP), steam explosion pretreatment (SEP), organosolv, liquid hot water (LHW), ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA), sodium hydroxide/lime pretreatments, and ozonolysis are intensively introduced and discussed. In this minireview, the key points are focused on the structural changes primarily in cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin during the above leading pretreatment technologies.

  15. Advances in aluminum pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudour, Michel; Maintier, Philippe [PPG Industries France, 3 Z.A.E. Les Dix Muids, B.P. 89, F-59583 Marly (France); Simpson, Mark [PPG Industries Inc., 1200 Piedmont Troy, Michigan 48083 (United States); Quaglia, Paolo [PPG Industries Italia, Via Garavelli 21, I-15028 Quattordio (Italy)

    2004-07-01

    As automotive manufacturers continue to look for ways to reduce vehicle weight, aluminum is finding more utility as a body panel component. The substitution of cold-rolled steel and zinc-coated substrates with aluminum has led to new challenges in vehicle pretreatment. As a result, changes to traditional pretreatment chemistries and operating practices are necessary in order to produce an acceptable coating on aluminum body panels. These changes result in increased sludging and other undesirable characteristics. In addition to the chemistry changes, there are also process-related problems to consider. Many existing automotive pretreatment lines simply were not designed to handle aluminum and its increased demands on filtration and circulation equipment. To retrofit such a system is capital intensive and in addition to requiring a significant amount of downtime, may not be totally effective. Thus, the complexities of pre-treating aluminum body panels have actually had a negative effect on efforts to introduce more aluminum into new vehicle design programs. Recent research into ways of reducing the negative effects has led to a new understanding of the nature of zinc phosphate bath -aluminum interactions. Many of the issues associated with the pretreatment of aluminum have been identified and can be mitigated with only minor changes to the zinc phosphate bath chemistry. The use of low levels of soluble Fe ions, together with free fluoride, has been shown to dramatically improve the efficiency of a zinc phosphate system processing aluminum. Appearance of zinc phosphate coatings, coating weights and sludge are all benefited by this chemistry change. (authors)

  16. 40 CFR 406.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 406.64 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source subject to this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part... sources. 406.64 Section 406.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  17. 40 CFR 406.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 406.34 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source subject to this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part... sources. 406.34 Section 406.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  18. 40 CFR 406.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 406.44 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing source subject to this subpart that introduces process wastewater pollutants into a publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part... sources. 406.44 Section 406.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  19. PROJECT W-551 INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM PRECONCEPTUAL CANDIDATE TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAY TH

    2008-08-12

    The Office of River Protection (ORP) has authorized a study to recommend and select options for interim pretreatment of tank waste and support Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) low activity waste (LAW) operations prior to startup of all the WTP facilities. The Interim Pretreatment System (IPS) is to be a moderately sized system which separates entrained solids and 137Cs from tank waste for an interim time period while WTP high level waste vitrification and pretreatment facilities are completed. This study's objective is to prepare pre-conceptual technology descriptions that expand the technical detail for selected solid and cesium separation technologies. This revision includes information on additional feed tanks.

  20. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.

    2012-01-01

    A method combines solid phase acidification with two non-toxic biocides to prevent ammonia volatilization and microbial proliferation. The safe, non-oxidizing biocide combination consists of a quaternary amine and a food preservative. This combination has exhibited excellent stabilization of both acidified and unacidified urine. During pretreatment tests, composite urine collected from donors was challenged with a microorganism known to proliferate in urine, and then was processed using the nonhazardous urine pre-treatment method. The challenge microorganisms included Escherichia coli, a common gram-negative bacteria; Enterococcus faecalis, a ureolytic gram-positive bacteria; Candida albicans, a yeast commonly found in urine; and Aspergillus niger, a problematic mold that resists urine pre-treatment. Urine processed in this manner remained microbially stable for over 57 days. Such effective urine stabilization was achieved using non-toxic, non-oxidizing biocides at higher pH (3.6 to 5.8) than previous methods in use or projected for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). ISS urine pretreatment methods employ strong oxidants including ozone and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a carcinogenic material, under very acidic conditions (pH = 1.8 to 2.4). The method described here offers a much more benign chemical environment than previous pretreatment methods, and will lower equivalent system mass (ESM) by reducing containment volume and mass, system complexity, and crew time needed to handle pre-treatment chemicals. The biocides, being non-oxidizing, minimize the potential for chemical reactions with urine constituents to produce volatile, airborne contaminants such as cyanogen chloride. Additionally, the biocides are active under significantly less acidic conditions than those used in the current system, thereby reducing the degree of required acidification. A simple flow-through solid phase acidification (SPA) bed is employed to overcome the natural buffering

  1. Biomass shock pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.

    2014-07-01

    Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

  2. Radioprotection of mice following garlic pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freshly prepared aqueous extract of garlic was tested in mice for its possible in vivo protective effect against gamma-radiation-induced chromosomal damage. In the same animals, the changes in the sulphydryl content and glutathione S-transferase activity were evaluated. Three doses of garlic extract [125, 250 and 500 mg kg-1 body weight (bw)] were administered orally for five consecutive days and the animals were exposed to 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 Gy gamma-radiation 2 h after the final feeding. The results of the bone marrow micronucleus test revealed that pretreatment with garlic extract was effective in reducing gamma-radiation-induced chromosomal damage. Against 0.25 Gy gamma-radiation, a high dose of 500 mg kg-1 bw garlic extract was required to significantly reduce the chromosomal damage. All the three doses of garlic extract were effective in exerting a protective effect against 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 Gy gamma-radiation. However a dose-related effect was observed only against 2.0 Gy. The sulphydryl content and glutathione S-transferase activity registered a significant increase after either pretreatment with garlic with extract or irradiation. In the garlic extract pretreated irradiated animals, a significant reduction was observed in the sulphydryl content and glutathione S-transferase activity

  3. Efficiency of single stage- and two stage pretreatment in biomass with different lignin content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärcher, M A; Iqbal, Y; Lewandowski, I; Senn, T

    2016-07-01

    In current study the enzymatic glucose yields of miscanthus and wheat straw were compared after single stage- and two stage pretreatment with dilute sulfuric acid at different pretreatment severities. Glucose yields after two stage pretreatment were higher than after single stage pretreatment in miscanthus. Whereas wheat straw had higher glucose yields after single stage pretreatment. The study shows that two stage pretreatment has a negative effect on glucose yield in biomass with low not-acid-degradable lignin content and a positive one in biomass with high not-acid-degradable lignin content. The not-acid-degradable lignin fraction offers a higher degree of protection of the whole lignin structure against chemical attacks by mineral acids. More severe pretreatment conditions were needed to achieve a sufficient breakup of the lignin structure. But more severe conditions enhance resin formation, leading to lower enzyme activity and reduced carbohydrate yields. PMID:27067673

  4. 40 CFR 403.9 - POTW pretreatment programs and/or authorization to revise pretreatment standards: Submission for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... with any approved water quality management plan developed in accordance with 40 CFR parts 130, 131, as... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PRE-TREAT... applied to individual Industrial Users (e.g., by order, permit, ordinance, etc.); and, (iii) Identify...

  5. 40 CFR 432.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). 432.16 Section 432.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Simple...

  6. 40 CFR 432.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES). [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES). 432.14 Section 432.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Simple...

  7. 40 CFR 432.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). 432.26 Section 432.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Complex...

  8. 40 CFR 432.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES). [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES). 432.24 Section 432.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Complex...

  9. 40 CFR 425.65 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES). 425.65 Section 425.65 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Through-the-Blue Subcategory § 425.65...

  10. 40 CFR 425.35 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES). 425.35 Section 425.35 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hair Save or Pulp, Non-Chrome Tan, Retan-Wet...

  11. 40 CFR 425.15 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES). 425.15 Section 425.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hair Pulp, Chrome Tan, Retan-Wet Finish Subcategory...

  12. 40 CFR 425.45 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES). 425.45 Section 425.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Retan-Wet Finish-Sides Subcategory § 425.45...

  13. 40 CFR 425.25 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES). 425.25 Section 425.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hair Save, Chrome Tan, Retan-Wet Finish Subcategory...

  14. 40 CFR 425.46 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). 425.46 Section 425.46 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Retan-Wet Finish-Sides Subcategory § 425.46...

  15. 40 CFR 425.96 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). 425.96 Section 425.96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Retan-Wet Finish-Splits Subcategory § 425.96...

  16. 40 CFR 425.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS) 425.26 Section 425.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hair Save, Chrome Tan, Retan-Wet Finish Subcategory §...

  17. 40 CFR 425.95 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES). 425.95 Section 425.95 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Retan-Wet Finish-Splits Subcategory § 425.95...

  18. 40 CFR 425.36 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). 425.36 Section 425.36 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hair Save or Pulp, Non-Chrome Tan, Retan-Wet Finish...

  19. 40 CFR 425.16 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). 425.16 Section 425.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hair Pulp, Chrome Tan, Retan-Wet Finish Subcategory §...

  20. Processes for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, J D

    1992-11-01

    This paper reviews existing and proposed pretreatment processes for biomass. The focus is on the mechanisms by which the various pretreatments act and the influence of biomass structure and composition on the efficacy of particular pretreatment techniques. This analysis is used to identify pretreatment technologies and issues that warrant further research.

  1. Research on Technology of Pressure Pretreatment with Oxygen for Refractory Gold Ores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Shengming; Sun Tichang; Chen Jinghe; Wang Dianzuo

    2007-01-01

    An combined technology of pressure pretreatment with oxygen on refractory gold ores is pointed out and discussed on this paper, according to the experiments included the test in 1kg grade batch pressure pretreatment with oxygen of the concentrate from the refractory gold ores of Dongbeizhai in Sichuan province, which is called the most refractory gold ores in China. It is shown that gold recovery reach 91.73% in the combined process which is described as follows: The flotation of the sulphide gold ores is under controlled conditions, producing the concentrate for pressure pretreatment with oxygen in acidic medium and the middling for the pressure pretreatment with oxygen in alkaline medium. The thickening and washing process substitute the pressure filtration process of the pulp after pressure pretreatment. The thick slimes of the two kinds of pressure pretreatment were mixed and then enter the CIL process for simplifying the flowsheet. The possible superabundance of acid of pressure pretreatment with oxygen in acidic medium was neutralized by the tailings of flotation and the cost of neutralization will be lower. The combined technology of pressure pretreatment with oxygen has the same advantages as the normal technology of pressure pretreatment and both is helpful for environment protection.

  2. Study on the Mechanism of mTOR-Mediated Autophagy during Electroacupuncture Pretreatment against Cerebral Ischemic Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhou-Quan; Cui, Su-yang; Zhu, Liang

    2016-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating the association between the electroacupuncture (EA) pretreatment-induced protective effect against early cerebral ischemic injury and autophagy. EA pretreatment can protect cerebral ischemic and reperfusion injuries, but whether the attenuation of early cerebral ischemic injury by EA pretreatment was associated with autophagy is not yet clear. This study used the middle cerebral artery occlusion model to monitor the process of ischemic injury. For rats in the EA pretreatment group, EA pretreatment was conducted at Baihui acupoint before ischemia for 30 min for 5 consecutive days. The results suggested that EA pretreatment significantly increased the expression of autophagy in the cerebral cortical area on the ischemic side of rats. But the EA pretreatment-induced protective effects on the brain could be reversed by the specific inhibitor 3-methyladenine of autophagy. Additionally, the Pearson correlation analysis indicated that the impact of EA pretreatment on p-mTOR (2481) was negatively correlated with its impact on autophagy. In conclusion, the mechanism of EA pretreatment at Baihui acupoint against cerebral ischemic injury is mainly associated with the upregulation of autophagy expression, and its regulation of autophagy may depend on mTOR-mediated signaling pathways. PMID:27547233

  3. Thermochemical behavior of pretreated biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Amit Kumar

    2011-07-01

    Mankind has to provide a sustainable alternative to its energy related problems. Bioenergy is considered as one of the potential renewable energy resources and as a result bioenergy market is also expected to grow dramatically in future. However, logistic issues are of serious concern while considering biomass as an alternative to fossil fuel. It can be improved by introducing pretreated wood pellet. The main objective of this thesis is to address thermochemical behaviour of steam exploded pretreated biomass. Additionally, process aspects of torrefaction were also considered in this thesis. Steam explosion (SE) was performed in a laboratory scale reactor using Salix wood chips. Afterwards, fuel and thermochemical aspects of SE residue were investigated. It was found that Steam explosion pretreatment improved both fuel and pellet quality. Pyrolysis of SE residue reveals that alerted biomass composition significantly affects its pyrolysis behaviour. Contribution from depolymerized components (hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin) of biomass was observed explicitly during pyrolysis. When devolatilization experiment was performed on pellet produced from SE residue, effect of those altered components was observed. In summary, pretreated biomass fuel characteristics is significantly different in comparison with untreated biomass. On the other hand, Process efficiency of torrefaction was found to be governed by the choice of appropriate operating conditions and the type of biomass.

  4. Carbonic Acid Pretreatment of Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Peter van Walsum; Kemantha Jayawardhana; Damon Yourchisin; Robert McWilliams; Vanessa Castleberry

    2003-05-31

    This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. 1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO2/H2O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. 2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. 3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. 4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. 5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic

  5. Lime pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shushien

    Lignocellulose is a valuable alternative energy source. The susceptibility of lignocellulosic biomass to enzymatic hydrolysis is constrained due to its structural features, so pretreatment is essential to enhance enzymatic digestibility. Of the chemicals used as pretreatment agents, it has been reported that alkalis improve biomass digestibility significantly. In comparison with other alkalis such as NaOH and ammonia, lime (calcium hydroxide) has many advantages; it is very inexpensive, is safe, and can be recovered by carbonating wash water. The effects of lime pretreatment were explored on switchgrass and poplar wood, representing herbaceous and woody biomass, respectively. The effects of pretreatment conditions (time, temperature, lime loading, water loading, particle size, and oxygen pressure) have been systematically studies. Lime alone enhances the digestibility of switchgrass significantly; under the recommended conditions, the 3-d total sugar (glucose + xylose) yields of lime-treated switchgrass were 7 times that of untreated sample. When treating poplar wood, lime must be combined with oxygen to achieve high digestibility; oxidative lime pretreatment increased the 3-d total sugar yield of poplar wood to 12 times that of untreated sample. In a fundamental study, to determine why lime pretreatment is effective, the effects of three structural features on enzymatic digestibility were studied: lignin content, acetyl content, and crystallinity index (CrI). Poplar wood was treated with peracetic acid, potassium hydroxide, and ball milling to produce model lignocelluloses with a broad spectrum of lignin contents, acetyl contents, and CrI, respectively. Enzymatic hydrolysis was performed on the model lignocelluloses to determine the digestibility. Correlations between lignin/carbohydrate ratio, acetyl/carbohydrate ratio, CrI and digestibility were developed. The 95% prediction intervals show that the correlations predict the 1-h and 3-d total sugar conversions of

  6. 胍基丁胺在离体豚鼠乳头肌的电生理效应%ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF AGMATINE ON GUINEA PIG PAPILLARY MUSCLES IN VITRO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓滔; 何瑞荣

    1999-01-01

    应用细胞内微电极技术,观察了胍基丁胺(agmatine,AGM)对豚鼠乳头肌细胞的电生理效应.结果表明:(1)AGM浓度依赖地缩短正常乳头肌动作电位的时程; (2)对部分去极化的乳头肌,AGM (1mmol/L)除缩短动作电位时程外,还抑制动作电位零相最大上升速度,并降低其幅值和超射值; (3)预先应用一氧化氮合酶抑制剂L-NAME (0.5mmol/L),不能影响AGM (1mmol/L)的电生理效应; (4)预先应用咪唑啉受体 (imidazoline receptor,IR)和α2-肾上腺素能受体 (alpha 2-adrenergic receptor,α2-AR)拮抗剂idazoxan (0.1mmol/L),则可完全阻断AGM (1mmol/L)的电生理效应.以上结果提示,AGM对乳头肌的电生理效应似由α2-AR和IR介导,并与胞浆内Ca2+减少有关.

  7. Pretreatment Engineering Platform Phase 1 Final Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurath, Dean E.; Hanson, Brady D.; Minette, Michael J.; Baldwin, David L.; Rapko, Brian M.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Daniel, Richard C.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Huckaby, James L.; Billing, Justin M.; Sundar, Parameshwaran S.; Josephson, Gary B.; Toth, James J.; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Baer, Ellen BK; Barnes, Steven M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Rassat, Scot D.; Brown, Christopher F.; Geeting, John GH; Sevigny, Gary J.; Casella, Amanda J.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Aker, Pamela M.; Guzman-Leong, Consuelo E.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Sundaram, S. K.; Pires, Richard P.; Wells, Beric E.; Bredt, Ofelia P.

    2009-12-23

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project, Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to conduct testing to demonstrate the performance of the WTP Pretreatment Facility (PTF) leaching and ultrafiltration processes at an engineering-scale. In addition to the demonstration, the testing was to address specific technical issues identified in Issue Response Plan for Implementation of External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) Recommendations - M12, Undemonstrated Leaching Processes.( ) Testing was conducted in a 1/4.5-scale mock-up of the PTF ultrafiltration system, the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP). Parallel laboratory testing was conducted in various PNNL laboratories to allow direct comparison of process performance at an engineering-scale and a laboratory-scale. This report presents and discusses the results of those tests.

  8. Method for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb M.; Brown, Robert C.; Dalluge, Dustin Lee

    2015-08-18

    The present invention relates to a method for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass containing alkali and/or alkaline earth metal (AAEM). The method comprises providing a lignocellulosic biomass containing AAEM; determining the amount of the AAEM present in the lignocellulosic biomass; identifying, based on said determining, the amount of a mineral acid sufficient to completely convert the AAEM in the lignocellulosic biomass to thermally-stable, catalytically-inert salts; and treating the lignocellulosic biomass with the identified amount of the mineral acid, wherein the treated lignocellulosic biomass contains thermally-stable, catalytically inert AAEM salts.

  9. Pretreatment of the macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum for the production of bioethanol - Comparison of five pretreatment technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Thygesen, Anders; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe;

    2013-01-01

    A qualified estimate for pretreatment of the macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum for ethanol production was given, based on the experience of pretreatment of land-based biomass. C. linum was subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment (HTT), wet oxidation (WO), steam explosion (STEX), plasma-assisted pretre......A qualified estimate for pretreatment of the macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum for ethanol production was given, based on the experience of pretreatment of land-based biomass. C. linum was subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment (HTT), wet oxidation (WO), steam explosion (STEX), plasma...... yield of 57. g ethanol/100. g glucan. A 64% higher ethanol yield, based on raw material, was reached after pretreatment with WO and BM compared with unpretreated C. linum, however 50% of the biomass was lost during WO. Results indicated that the right combination of pretreatment and marine macroalgae...

  10. Protective Effect of Microwave Pretreatment on Wheat Seedlings Lipid Peroxidation under Cadmium Stress%微波预处理对镉胁迫引起小麦幼苗脂质过氧化伤害的防护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱宗波; 毕真真; 张曼曼; 李振林

    2012-01-01

    A hydroponic experiment was conducted to study the changes of growth and physiological reaction of wheat seedlings exposed to 150 μmol/L Cd2+ stress, which was pretreated by microwave (wave length 125 mm, power density 126 mW/cm2, 2 450MHz). The results showed that Cd2+ stress inhibited the growth of wheat seedlings, and increased the malon dialdehyde (MDA)、 H2O2 content and the production rate of ·O-2, while decreased the antioxidative enzymes, antioxidative compounds and photosynthetic pigment content in leaves of wheat seedlings. Microwave pretreatment of 5 s, 10 s had positive effect on wheat seedlings subjected to cadmium stress, such as decreasing the concentration of MDA、 H2O2 and the production rate of ·O-2; increasing the activity of SOD, POD, CAT, concentration of AsA, GSH, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotinoid, chlorophyll (a+b), plant height and root length. It was suggested that those changes in MDA, H2O2, -0"2, antioxidative enzymes, antioxidative compounds and photosynthetic pigment were responsible for protecting wheat against cadmium induced oxidative damage.%采用水培试验在150 μmol/L Cd2+溶液胁迫下研究外源微波预处理对小麦幼苗生长和生理特性的影响.试验结果表明:①镉胁迫下,小麦幼苗生长受到抑制,叶片丙二醛(MDA)含量、过氧化氢(H2O2)含量及超氧自由基(·O2-)产生速率显著增加(P<0.05),抗氧化酶活性、抗氧化物质含量及叶绿素含量显著降低.②微波预处理5s和10s均能显著提高镉胁迫下小麦幼苗的生长;同时抑制镉胁迫下小麦幼苗叶片MDA含量、H2O2含量及超氧自由基(·O2-)产生速率的上升,显著提高(P<0.05)超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)及过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性,增加谷胱甘肽(GSH)、抗坏血酸(AsA)、叶绿素a、叶绿素b、类胡萝卜素及叶绿素(a+b)含量.表明外源微波预处理可缓解镉胁迫对小麦幼苗生长的抑制作用,缓解镉胁迫引起的膜脂过

  11. Neuroprotective effect of pretreatment with ganoderma lucidum in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wangxin; Zhang, Quiling; Deng, Wen; Li, Yalu; Xing, Guoqing; Shi, Xinjun; Du, Yifeng

    2014-08-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a traditional Chinese medicine, which has been shown to have both anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, and noticeably decreases both the infarct area and neuronal apoptosis of the ischemic cortex. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects and mechanisms of pretreatment with ganoderma lucidum (by intragastric administration) in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Our results showed that pretreatment with ganoderma lucidum for 3 and 7 days reduced neuronal loss in the hippocampus, diminished the content of malondialdehyde in the hippocampus and serum, decreased the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-8 in the hippocampus, and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase in the hippocampus and serum. These results suggest that pretreatment with ganoderma lucidum was protective against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury through its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory actions.

  12. Wash water waste pretreatment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Investigations were completed on wash waters based on each candidate personal cleansing agent. Evaluations of coagulants, antifoam agents, and the effect of promising antifoams on the chemical precipitation were included. Based on these evaluations two candidate soaps as well as their companion antifoam agents were selected for further work. Operating parameters included the effect of soap concentration, ferric chloride concentration, duration of mixing, and pore size of depth filters on the degree of soap removal. The effect of pressure on water flow through filter cartridges and on the rate of decline of water flow was also investigated. The culmination of the program was the recommendation of a pretreatment concept based on chemical precipitation followed by pressure filtration.

  13. 骨髓间充质干细胞预处理脑死亡供鼠对移植肾的保护作用%The protective effects on the renal allografts from brain dead donor rats pretreated with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洁; 张智; 曾慧兰; 苏泽轩; 余钧雷; 吴永璐; 袁博翔

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨骨髓间充质干细胞(MSC)预处理脑死亡(BD)供鼠对移植肾的保护作用.方法 实验分正常移植组、脑死亡供肾移植组(BD移植组)和输注MSC+脑死亡供肾移植组(MSC处理组),雄性F344大鼠为供者,雄性Lewis大鼠为受者,正常移植组为常规移植;BD移植组为脑死亡F344大鼠供肾;MSC处理组在移植前输注预先制备的来自F344大鼠的MSC,然后接受脑死亡F344大鼠供肾移植.移植后给予环孢素A,连用10天.术后第10天切除其右肾.测定术后第14、21、28和35天血肌酐水平.术后35 d获取移植肾标本,行病理学观察;免疫组化检测移植肾组织中白细胞介素(IL)-1β和肿瘤坏死因子α(TNF-α)表达情况.结果 BD移植组术后各检测时点的血肌酐水平均高于其余两组(P<0.05),而MSC处理组和正常移植组间除第21天的血清肌酐值外,其余时间段的差异没有统计学意义.BD移植组移植肾组织中可见单核细胞浸润,其肾小管上皮炎症明显重于其他两组,MSC处理组与正常移植组的差异不大.BD移植组移植肾肾小球上皮细胞、肾小管上皮细胞、间质细胞的IL-1β和TNF-α的表达均呈阳性,染色程度较强,明显强于其他两组(H=7.210,P=0.027),而MSC处理组和正常移植组间的差异无统计学意义.结论MSC预处理脑死亡供鼠,可能通过减少移植肾炎症细胞浸润,降低TNF-α和IL-1β表达来减轻移植肾损伤.%Objective To investigate the protective effects on the renal allografts from brain dead (BD) donor rats pretreated with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs).Method Three groups [normal transplant group (G1).BD transplant group (G2),and MSCs pretreated + BD transplant group (G3)] were set up.Male F344 rats served as donors and male Lewis rats as recipients.In G1,kidneys from F344 donor rats were implanted into Lewis recipients.In G2,kidneys from F344 BD donor rats were engrafted into Lewis recipients.In G3,after BD was

  14. The protective effects on the renal allografts from brain dead donor rats pretreated with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells%骨髓间充质干细胞预处理脑死亡供鼠对移植肾的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洁; 张智; 曾慧兰; 苏泽轩; 余钧雷; 吴永璐; 袁博翔

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the protective effects on the renal allografts from brain dead (BD) donor rats pretreated with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs).Method Three groups [normal transplant group (G1).BD transplant group (G2),and MSCs pretreated + BD transplant group (G3)] were set up.Male F344 rats served as donors and male Lewis rats as recipients.In G1,kidneys from F344 donor rats were implanted into Lewis recipients.In G2,kidneys from F344 BD donor rats were engrafted into Lewis recipients.In G3,after BD was established in F344 rats,MSCs were given intravenously to the rats.The kidneys harvested 6 h later were transplanted to Lewis recipients.Cyclosporine was intromuscularly given daily to the recipient rats for 10 days.Right kidneys were resected from recipients on day 10.Creatinine level was examined on day 14,21,28,and 35.Renal allografts harvested on day 35 were pathologically detected.The irnmunochemistry expression of interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrotic factor (TNF)-α in renal allograft tissue was tested.Result Serum creatinine levels in G2 were remarkably higher than those in G1 and G3 (P<0.01) on day 14,21,28,and 35 postoperatively.The creatinine levels on the above mentioned time points had no statistically significant difference between G3 and G1 except on day 21.Postoperative pathological changes in G2 of both pronounced infiltration of mononuclear cells and tubular epithelia[inflammation were notably increased in renal allografts as compared with those in G1 and G3.There was no obvious difference between G1 and G3 in infiltrated mononuclear cells and tubular epithelial inflammation.Positive expression levels of both IL-1β and TNF-α in glomerular,tubular and interstitial epithelial cells were statistically enhanced in G2 as compared with those in G1 and G3 (H =7.210,P =0.027),while there was no statistically significant difference in the expression of both IL-1[β and TNF-α between G1 and G3.Conclusion Brain dead donor rats

  15. Summary of DOEL-2 exposure studies with various surface pretreatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past several years, a cooperative program between the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Belgian utility operating the Doel plants has been underway to study various surface pretreatment techniques for reducing out-of-core radiation level buildup. The program involves exposure of pretreated coupons made from material similar to those used in the construction of pressurized water reactor (PWR) systems. After exposure in the plant for a fuel cycle, the coupons are analyzed to determine the level of deposited activated corrosion products. A multitude of pretreatment processes can be tested as eight coupons can be placed on both the hot leg and cold leg manway diaphragm plates in the Doel-2 reactor. Early test results showed a distinct advantage in first electropolishing a surface to reduce the true surface area and leave it in a clean, microscopically smooth state. After electropolishing, prefilming the electropolished surfaces further reduces corrosion and deposition on the surface. prefilming methods involved applying thin films of inert materials (e.g., palladium) and preoxidation (passivation) of the base metal itself. The electropolished and preoxidized surface greatly reduces the activity buildup in the boiling water reactor primary systems and the initial test showed similar benefits were possible in the PWR systems. The main reason for the corrosion and deposition resistance is believed to be due to the chromium enrichment of the grown oxide film. A technique of first applying a very thin chromium film and incorporating this chromium into the protective oxide coating proved very successful in early testing at Doel with better than five-fold reductions in activity buildup on the surfaces. Cycle 15 was the first fuel cycle wherein the new stabilized chromium film was tested. For all the surface pretreatment techniques tested at Doel, the stabilized chromium film was the most encouraging

  16. Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Wastes to Improve Ethanol and Biogas Production: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keikhosro Karimi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Lignocelluloses are often a major or sometimes the sole components of different waste streams from various industries, forestry, agriculture and municipalities. Hydrolysis of these materials is the first step for either digestion to biogas (methane or fermentation to ethanol. However, enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocelluloses with no pretreatment is usually not so effective because of high stability of the materials to enzymatic or bacterial attacks. The present work is dedicated to reviewing the methods that have been studied for pretreatment of lignocellulosic wastes for conversion to ethanol or biogas. Effective parameters in pretreatment of lignocelluloses, such as crystallinity, accessible surface area, and protection by lignin and hemicellulose are described first. Then, several pretreatment methods are discussed and their effects on improvement in ethanol and/or biogas production are described. They include milling, irradiation, microwave, steam explosion, ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX, supercritical CO2 and its explosion, alkaline hydrolysis, liquid hot-water pretreatment, organosolv processes, wet oxidation, ozonolysis, dilute- and concentrated-acid hydrolyses, and biological pretreatments.

  17. Study on the effect and mechanism of agmatine on blood brain barrier with cerebral ischemic reperfusion injury rats%胍丁胺对脑缺血再灌注损伤大鼠血脑屏障的作用机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑立霞; 徐鑫淼; 郎现波; 张秀丽; 杨美子

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究胍丁胺对血脑屏障( BBB )通透性的影响及其与水通道蛋白( AQP)的相关性。方法将大鼠随机分为假手术组、实验组和模型组。大脑中动脉栓塞2 h后,实验组和模型组分别腹腔注射胍丁胺(50 mg · kg-1)和等量0.9%NaCl。通过测定脑水含量、BBB通透性,考察BBB的损害程度,用2,3,5-氯化三苯基四氮唑(TTC)染色法比较梗死灶大小,苏木精-伊红(HE)染色和电镜观察神经元形态学变化,Western-blotting法检测AQP4、AQP9的表达。结果实验组BBB通透性显著下降,变性神经元数明显减少,同时, AQP4与AQP9的表达较模型组显著降低。结论胍丁胺通过降低AQP4、AQP9的表达来改善BBB通透性,从而减轻脑水肿引起的神经元损伤。%Objective To observe the effect of agmatine on brain ede-ma and examine the relation between blood brain barrier ( BBB) per-meability and aquaporin 4 ( AQP4 ) and aquaporin 9 ( AQP9 ) in rats with cerebral ischemic reperfusion.Methods Health male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham group , model group and test ( agmatine ) group.And 2 h after middle cerebral artery occlusion, giving agmatine ( 50 mg · kg -1 ) in test group or 0.9%NaCl in sham and model groups by intraperitoneal injection, respec-tively.Brain edema and the size of the brain infarct were assayed by brain water content and BBB permeability and 2,3,5 -triphenyltet-razoliumchloridstaining( TTC).The morphological changes of neurons were observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy.And the expression of AQP4 and AQP9 were assessed by Western -blotting.Results The BBB permeability de-creased significantly and the morphological changes of neurons were reduced significantly and the expression of AQP4 and AQP9 decreased significantly in rats with agmatine.Conclusion Agmatine reduce the injury of the BBB by decreasing the expression of AQP4 and

  18. Temperature Modelling of the Biomass Pretreatment Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prunescu, Remus Mihail; Blanke, Mogens; Jensen, Jakob M.;

    2012-01-01

    In a second generation biorefinery, the biomass pretreatment stage has an important contribution to the efficiency of the downstream processing units involved in biofuel production. Most of the pretreatment process occurs in a large pressurized thermal reactor that presents an irregular temperature...... distribution. Therefore, an accurate temperature model is critical for observing the biomass pretreatment. More than that, the biomass is also pushed with a constant horizontal speed along the reactor in order to ensure a continuous throughput. The goal of this paper is to derive a temperature model...

  19. Extrusion Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zheng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to bioethanol has shown environmental, economic and energetic advantages in comparison to bioethanol produced from sugar or starch. However, the pretreatment process for increasing the enzymatic accessibility and improving the digestibility of cellulose is hindered by many physical-chemical, structural and compositional factors, which make these materials difficult to be used as feedstocks for ethanol production. A wide range of pretreatment methods has been developed to alter or remove structural and compositional impediments to (enzymatic hydrolysis over the last few decades; however, only a few of them can be used at commercial scale due to economic feasibility. This paper will give an overview of extrusion pretreatment for bioethanol production with a special focus on twin-screw extruders. An economic assessment of this pretreatment is also discussed to determine its feasibility for future industrial cellulosic ethanol plant designs.

  20. Understanding Ionic Liquid Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretreatment of biomass is essential for breaking apart highly ordered and crystalline plant cell walls and loosening the lignin and hemicellulose conjugation to cellulose microfibrills, thereby facilitating enzyme accessibility and adsorption and reducing costs of downstream saccharification proces...

  1. Pretreatment techniques for biofuels and biorefineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Zhen (ed.) [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, YN (China). Xishuangbanna Tropical Botonical Garden

    2013-02-01

    The first book focused on pretreatment techniques for biofuels contributed by the world's leading experts. Extensively covers the different types of biomass, various pretreatment approaches and methods that show the subsequent production of biofuels and chemicals. In addition to traditional pretreatment methods, novel techniques are also introduced and discussed. An accessible reference work for students, researchers, academicians and industrialists in biorefineries. This book includes 19 chapters contributed by the world's leading experts on pretreatment methods for biomass. It extensively covers the different types of biomass (e.g. molasses, sugar beet pulp, cheese whey, sugarcane residues, palm waste, vegetable oil, straws, stalks and wood), various pretreatment approaches (e.g. physical, thermal, chemical, physicochemical and biological) and methods that show the subsequent production of biofuels and chemicals such as sugars, ethanol, extracellular polysaccharides, biodiesel, gas and oil. In addition to traditional methods such as steam, hot-water, hydrothermal, diluted-acid, organosolv, ozonolysis, sulfite, milling, fungal and bacterial, microwave, ultrasonic, plasma, torrefaction, pelletization, gasification (including biogas) and liquefaction pretreatments, it also introduces and discusses novel techniques such as nano and solid catalysts, organic electrolyte solutions and ionic liquids. This book offers a review of state-of-the-art research and provides guidance for the future paths of developing pretreatment techniques of biomass for biofuels, especially in the fields of biotechnology, microbiology, chemistry, materials science and engineering. It intends to provide a systematic introduction of pretreatment techniques. It is an accessible reference work for students, researchers, academicians and industrialists in biorefineries.

  2. Relaxin Protects Astrocytes from Hypoxia In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Willcox, Jordan M.; Alastair J S Summerlee

    2014-01-01

    The peptide relaxin has recently been shown to protect brain tissues from the detrimental effects of ischemia. To date, the mechanisms for this remain unclear. In order to investigate the neuroprotective mechanisms by which relaxin may protect the brain, we investigated the possibility that relaxin protects astrocytes from hypoxia or oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD). Cultured astrocytes were pre-treated with either relaxin-2 or relaxin-3 and exposed to OGD for 24 or 48 hours. Following OGD ex...

  3. Pretreatment with scutellaria baicalensis stem-leaf total flavonoid prevents cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shumin Zhao; Wei Kong; Shufeng Zhang; Meng Chen; Xiaoying Zheng; Xiangyu Kong

    2013-01-01

    Pretreatment with scutel aria baicalensis stem-leaf total flavonoid has protective effects against ischemia and attenuates myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. In this study, rats were given scu-tel aria baicalensis stem-leaf total flavonoid intragastrical y at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg per day for 7 days before focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury models were established using the suture method. We then determined the protective effects of scutel aria baicalensis stem-leaf total flavo-noid pretreatment on focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Results showed that neurological deficit scores increased, infarct volumes enlarged, apoptosis increased and Bcl-2 and Bax protein expression were upregulated at 24 hours after reperfusion. Pretreatment with scutel aria baicalensis stem-leaf total flavonoid at any dose lowered the neurological deficit scores, reduced the infarct volume, prevented apoptosis in hippocampal cells, attenuated neuronal and blood-brain barrier damage and upregulated Bcl-2 protein expression but inhibited Bax protein expression. Doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg were the most efficacious. Our findings indicate that pretreatment with scutel a-ria baicalensis stem-leaf total flavonoid at 100 and 200 mg/kg can improve the neurological func-tions and have preventive and protective roles after focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  4. Bench-Scale Filtration Testing in Support of the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billing, Justin M.; Daniel, Richard C.; Kurath, Dean E.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2009-09-28

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes.” The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP testing program specifies that bench-scale testing is to be performed in support of specific operations, including filtration, caustic leaching, and oxidative leaching.

  5. Pretreat: a graphical user interface-based spreadsheet model for Hanford tank waste pretreatment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A spreadsheet model, PRETREAT, was developed for mass-balance calculations of pretreatment processes proposed for the immobilization of Hanford nuclear wastes. In PRETREAT, a graphical user interface is implemented for convenient navigation through the large number of worksheets used in the model, for data input, modification of process parameters, and viewing model results. PRETREAT can be used to estimate radionuclide and chemical species concentrations in the waste streams at each stage of the pretreatment flowsheet, and to help in assessments of potential radiological, chemical, and criticality hazards and in identification of mitigation strategies. The model can also be used to evaluate the sensitivity of model results to uncertainties in model parameters such as decontamination or separation factors. Copyright (2001) Material Research Society

  6. Microwave pretreatment of switchgrass for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshwani, Deepak Radhakrishin

    Lignocellulosic materials are promising alternative feedstocks for bioethanol production. These materials include agricultural residues, cellulosic waste such as newsprint and office paper, logging residues, and herbaceous and woody crops. However, the recalcitrant nature of lignocellulosic biomass necessitates a pretreatment step to improve the yield of fermentable sugars. The overall goal of this dissertation is to expand the current state of knowledge on microwave-based pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Existing research on bioenergy and value-added applications of switchgrass is reviewed in Chapter 2. Switchgrass is an herbaceous energy crop native to North America and has high biomass productivity, potentially low requirements for agricultural inputs and positive environmental impacts. Based on results from test plots, yields in excess of 20 Mg/ha have been reported. Environmental benefits associated with switchgrass include the potential for carbon sequestration, nutrient recovery from run-off, soil remediation and provision of habitats for grassland birds. Published research on pretreatment of switchgrass reported glucose yields ranging from 70-90% and xylose yields ranging from 70-100% after hydrolysis and ethanol yields ranging from 72-92% after fermentation. Other potential value-added uses of switchgrass include gasification, bio-oil production, newsprint production and fiber reinforcement in thermoplastic composites. Research on microwave-based pretreatment of switchgrass and coastal bermudagrass is presented in Chapter 3. Pretreatments were carried out by immersing the biomass in dilute chemical reagents and exposing the slurry to microwave radiation at 250 watts for residence times ranging from 5 to 20 minutes. Preliminary experiments identified alkalis as suitable chemical reagents for microwave-based pretreatment. An evaluation of different alkalis identified sodium hydroxide as the most effective alkali reagent. Under optimum pretreatment

  7. Microwave pretreatment of switchgrass for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshwani, Deepak Radhakrishin

    Lignocellulosic materials are promising alternative feedstocks for bioethanol production. These materials include agricultural residues, cellulosic waste such as newsprint and office paper, logging residues, and herbaceous and woody crops. However, the recalcitrant nature of lignocellulosic biomass necessitates a pretreatment step to improve the yield of fermentable sugars. The overall goal of this dissertation is to expand the current state of knowledge on microwave-based pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Existing research on bioenergy and value-added applications of switchgrass is reviewed in Chapter 2. Switchgrass is an herbaceous energy crop native to North America and has high biomass productivity, potentially low requirements for agricultural inputs and positive environmental impacts. Based on results from test plots, yields in excess of 20 Mg/ha have been reported. Environmental benefits associated with switchgrass include the potential for carbon sequestration, nutrient recovery from run-off, soil remediation and provision of habitats for grassland birds. Published research on pretreatment of switchgrass reported glucose yields ranging from 70-90% and xylose yields ranging from 70-100% after hydrolysis and ethanol yields ranging from 72-92% after fermentation. Other potential value-added uses of switchgrass include gasification, bio-oil production, newsprint production and fiber reinforcement in thermoplastic composites. Research on microwave-based pretreatment of switchgrass and coastal bermudagrass is presented in Chapter 3. Pretreatments were carried out by immersing the biomass in dilute chemical reagents and exposing the slurry to microwave radiation at 250 watts for residence times ranging from 5 to 20 minutes. Preliminary experiments identified alkalis as suitable chemical reagents for microwave-based pretreatment. An evaluation of different alkalis identified sodium hydroxide as the most effective alkali reagent. Under optimum pretreatment

  8. Assessing Pretreatment Reactor Scaling Through Empirical Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lischeske, James J.; Crawford, Nathan C.; Kuhn, Erik; Nagle, Nicholas J.; Schell, Daniel J.; Tucker, Melvin P.; McMillan, James D.; Wolfrum, Edward J.

    2016-12-01

    Pretreatment is a critical step in the biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. Due to the complexity of the physicochemical transformations involved, predictively scaling up technology from bench- to pilot-scale is difficult. This study examines how pretreatment effectiveness under nominally similar reaction conditions is influenced by pretreatment reactor design and scale using four different pretreatment reaction systems ranging from a 3 g batch reactor to a 10 dry-ton/d continuous reactor. The reactor systems examined were an Automated Solvent Extractor (ASE), Steam Explosion Reactor (SER), ZipperClave(R) reactor (ZCR), and Large Continuous Horizontal-Screw Reactor (LHR). To our knowledge, this is the first such study performed on pretreatment reactors across a range of reaction conditions (time and temperature) and at different reactor scales. The comparative pretreatment performance results obtained for each reactor system were used to develop response surface models for total xylose yield after pretreatment and total sugar yield after pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. Near- and very-near-optimal regions were defined as the set of conditions that the model identified as producing yields within one and two standard deviations of the optimum yield. Optimal conditions identified in the smallest-scale system (the ASE) were within the near-optimal region of the largest scale reactor system evaluated. A reaction severity factor modeling approach was shown to inadequately describe the optimal conditions in the ASE, incorrectly identifying a large set of sub-optimal conditions (as defined by the RSM) as optimal. The maximum total sugar yields for the ASE and LHR were 95%, while 89% was the optimum observed in the ZipperClave. The optimum condition identified using the automated and less costly to operate ASE system was within the very-near-optimal space for the total xylose yield of both the ZCR and the LHR, and was

  9. Effects of various pretreatments on biohydrogen production from sewage sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO BenYi; LIU JunXin

    2009-01-01

    The sewage sludge of wastewater treatment plant is a kind of biomass which contains many organics,mainly carbohydrates and proteins. Four pretreatments, acid pretreatment, alkaline pretreatment,thermal pretreatment and ultrasonic pretreatment, were used to enhance biohydrogen production from sewage sludge. The experimental results showed that the four pretreatments could all increase the soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) of sludge and decrease the dry solid (DS) and volatile solid(VS) because the pretreatments could disrupt the floc structure and even the microbial cells of sludge.The results of batch anaerobic fermentation experiments demonstrated that all of the four pretreat-ments could select hydrogen-producing microorganisms from the microflora of sludge and enhance the hydrogen production. The hydrogen yield of the alkaline pretreated sludge at initial pH of 11.5 was the maximal (11.68 mL H2/g VS) and that of the thermal pretreated sludge was the next (8.62 mL H2/g VS).The result showed that the hydrogen yield of pretreated sludge was correlative with its SCOD. The hydrogen yields of acid pretreated sludge and alkaline pretreated sludge were also influenced by their initial pH. No methane could be detected in the anaerobic fermentation of alkaline pretreated sludge and thermal pretreated sludge, which suggested that these pretreatments could fully inhibit the activity of methanogens. The volatile fatty acids (VFA) production in anaerobic fermentation of alkaline pretreated sludge was the maximum and the next is that of thermal pretreated sludge.

  10. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated soybean straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to produce lactic acid, from agricultural residues such as soybean straw, which is a raw material for biodegradable plastic production, it is necessary to decompose the soybean straw into soluble sugars. Enzymatic hydrolysis is one of the methods in common use, while pretreatment is the effective way to increase the hydrolysis rate. The optimal conditions of pretreatment using ammonia and enzymatic hydrolysis of soybean straw were determined. Compared with the untreated straw, cellulose in straw pretreated by ammonia liquor (10%) soaking for 24 h at room temperature increased 70.27%, whereas hemicellulose and lignin in pretreated straw decreased to 41.45% and 30.16%, respectively. The results of infrared spectra (IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis also showed that the structure and the surface of the straw were changed through pretreatment that is in favor of the following enzymatic hydrolysis. maximum enzymatic hydrolysis rate of 51.22% was achieved at a substrate concentration of 5% (w/v) at 50 deg. C and pH 4.8 using cellulase (50 fpu/g of substrate) for 36 h

  11. Thermal Pretreatment Improves Viability of Cryopreserved Human Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Nicola; Sun, Huan; Chatterjee, Anamika; Saha, Debapriya; Glasmacher, Birgit

    2015-10-01

    A high survival rate of cryopreserved cells requires optimal cooling and thawing rates in the presence of a cryoprotective agent (CPA) or a combination of CPAs in adequate concentrations. One of the most widely used CPAs, dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO), however is toxic at high concentrations and has detrimental effects on cellular functions. Additional processing steps are necessary to remove the CPA after thawing, which make the process expensive and time consuming. Therefore it is of great interest to develop new cryoprotective strategies to replace the currently used CPAs or to reduce their concentration. The aim of this study was to investigate if thermal activation of human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMEC ST-1.6R), prior to cryopreservation, could improve their post-thaw viability since the resulting heat shock protein expression acts as an intrinsic cellular protection mechanism. The results of this study suggest that both heat and cold shock pretreatments improve cryopreservation outcome of the HPMEC ST-1.6R cells. By re-cultivating cells after heat shock treatment before cryopreservation, a significant increase in cellular membrane integrity and adherence capacity could be achieved. However a combination of thermal activation and cryopreservation with alternative CPAs such as ectoine and L-proline could not further enhance the cell viability. The results of this study showed that pretreatment of endothelial cells with thermal activation could be used to reduce the Me2SO concentration required in order to preserve cell viability after cryopreservation. PMID:26419006

  12. Pretreatment of Corn Stalk by Steam Explosion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵自强; 田永生; 谭惠民

    2003-01-01

    A steam explosion pretreatment, which is one of the best ways of pretreating plant stalk, is applied at various severities to corn stalk. It could effectively modify the super-molecular structure of corn stalk and defibrating corn stalk into individual components. The relationship between yield of reducing sugar and the operating conditions, including temperature, pressure of steam explosion pretreatment and acidity, is also established. Experimental results prove that the steam explosion substantially increases the yield of reducing sugar, and the optimal condition for steam explosion is as follows: the pressure is 2.0 MPa, the pressure-retaining time 300 s, the initial acid concentration 1% and the acid treatment time 24 h.

  13. Pretreatment imaging of peripheral vascular malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson JB

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Joshua B Johnson, Petrice M Cogswell, Michael A McKusick, Larry A Binkovitz, Stephen J Riederer, Phillip M Young Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Abstract: Peripheral vascular malformations (VMs are complex and diverse vascular lesions which require individualized pretreatment planning. Pretreatment imaging using various modalities, especially magnetic resonance imaging and time-resolved magnetic resonance angiography, is a valuable tool for classifying peripheral VMs to allow proper diagnosis, demonstrate complete extent, identify the nidus, and distinguish between low-flow and high-flow dynamics that determines the treatment approach. We discuss pretreatment imaging findings in four patients with peripheral VMs and how diagnostic imaging helped guide management. Keywords: time-resolved MRA, cartesian acquisition with projection-like reconstruction, endovascular treatment, magnetic resonance angiography

  14. Simulation of the ozone pretreatment of wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Sujala; Bottenus, Danny; Ivory, Cornelius F; Gao, Allan Haiming; Bule, Mahesh; Garcia-Perez, Manuel; Chen, Shulin

    2015-11-01

    Wheat straw is a potential feedstock in biorefinery for sugar production. However, the cellulose, which is the major source of sugar, is protected by lignin. Ozonolysis deconstructs the lignin and makes cellulose accessible to enzymatic digestion. In this study, the change in lignin concentration with different ozonolysis times (0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 30, 60min) was fit to two different kinetic models: one using the model developed by Garcia-Cubero et al. (2012) and another including an outer mass transfer barrier or "cuticle" region where ozone mass transport is reduced in proportion to the mass of unreacted insoluble lignin in the cuticle. The kinetic parameters of two mathematical models for predicting the soluble and insoluble lignin at different pretreatment time were determined. The results showed that parameters derived from the cuticle-based model provided a better fit to experimental results compared to a model without a cuticle layer.

  15. Simulation of the ozone pretreatment of wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Sujala; Bottenus, Danny; Ivory, Cornelius F; Gao, Allan Haiming; Bule, Mahesh; Garcia-Perez, Manuel; Chen, Shulin

    2015-11-01

    Wheat straw is a potential feedstock in biorefinery for sugar production. However, the cellulose, which is the major source of sugar, is protected by lignin. Ozonolysis deconstructs the lignin and makes cellulose accessible to enzymatic digestion. In this study, the change in lignin concentration with different ozonolysis times (0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 30, 60min) was fit to two different kinetic models: one using the model developed by Garcia-Cubero et al. (2012) and another including an outer mass transfer barrier or "cuticle" region where ozone mass transport is reduced in proportion to the mass of unreacted insoluble lignin in the cuticle. The kinetic parameters of two mathematical models for predicting the soluble and insoluble lignin at different pretreatment time were determined. The results showed that parameters derived from the cuticle-based model provided a better fit to experimental results compared to a model without a cuticle layer. PMID:26231127

  16. Neuroprotective effect of pretreatment with ganoderma lucidum in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injur y in rat hippocampus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wangxin Zhang; Qiuling Zhang; Wen Deng; Yalu Li; Guoqing Xing; Xianjun Shi; Yifeng Du

    2014-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a traditional Chinese medicine, which has been shown to have both an-ti-oxidative and anti-inlfammatory effects, and noticeably decreases both the infarct area and neuronal apoptosis of the ischemic cortex. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects and mechanisms of pretreatment with ganoderma lucidum (by intragastric administration) in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Our results showed that pretreatment with ganoder-ma lucidum for 3 and 7 days reduced neuronal loss in the hippocampus, diminished the content of malondialdehyde in the hippocampus and serum, decreased the levels of tumor necrosis fac-tor-αand interleukin-8 in the hippocampus, and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase in the hippocampus and serum. hTese results suggest that pretreatment with ganoderma lucidum was protective against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury through its anti-oxidative and an-ti-inlfammatory actions.

  17. Evaluation of the Antidepressant Effect of Agmatine in Pharmacological Depression Models%胍丁胺在药物诱发抑郁模型上的药效评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚正华; 李云峰; 罗质璞; 李锦

    2005-01-01

    目的在药物诱发抑郁模型上观察胍丁胺(Agmatine,AG)的抗抑郁作用及可能的作用机制.方法采用小鼠5-羟色胺酸(5-hydroxytryptophan,5-HTP)增强实验,小鼠育亨宾(yohimbine,YOH)毒性增强实验,小鼠阿朴吗啡(apomorphine,APO)诱导体温下降和利血平(reserpine,RES)诱导体温下降实验探讨AG抗抑郁作用及可能的作用环节.用VIDEOMEX-V型图像运动解析仪检测小鼠自发活动行为.结果在小鼠5-HTP增强实验模型上,单次ig给予AG 10~20mg*kg-1剂量,或多次ig给予AG 10~80mg*kg-1(qd,连续3d),对5-HTP诱导的小鼠甩头行为均具有显著增强作用.在小鼠YOH毒性增强实验模型上,多次ig给予AG 10~160mg*kg-1(qd,连续3d),均未见增强YOH毒性作用.在小鼠APO诱导体温下降实验模型上,ig给予AG 10~80mg*kg-1(qd,连续7d),对APO 16mg*kg-1诱导的降温和AUC0~30均未见显著性的拮抗作用.在小鼠RES诱导体温下降实验模型上,ig给予AG 10~80mg*kg-1(qd,连续7d),对RES 1mg*kg-1诱导的降温和AUC0~6均有显著的拮抗作用.小鼠ig给予AG 10~80mg*kg-1(qd,连续3d)对自发活动无显著性改变.结论 AG在药理学抑郁模型有显著的抗抑郁活性.并且其抗抑郁活性与增强5-羟色胺(5-HT)神经系统功能有关,而与去甲肾上腺素能(NE)神经功能无关.AG在抗抑郁有效剂量范围内无中枢兴奋或抑制性作用.

  18. Pb2+ Biosorption by Pretreated Fungal Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    ÇABUK, Ahmet; İLHAN, Semra; FİLİK, Cansu; ÇALIŞKAN, Figen

    2005-01-01

    The effect of pretreatment on the Pb2+ biosorption capacity of fungal biomasses, Aspergillus versicolor, Metarrhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae, and Penicillium verrucosum, was investigated. For this purpose, the biomasses were subjected to physical treatments such as heat and autoclaving, and chemical treatments such as sodium hydroxide, formaldehyde, gluteraldehyde, acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, commercial laundry detergent, orthophosphoric acid and dimethyl sulfoxide. Dimethyl sulfoxid...

  19. Electrolytic pretreatment unit gaseous effluent conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, G. V.; Putnam, D. F.

    1976-01-01

    The electrolytic pretreatment of urine is an advanced process that eliminates the need for handling and storing the highly corrosive chemicals that are normally used in water reclamation systems. The electrolytic pretreatment process also converts the organic materials in urine to gases (N2 and O2) that can be used to replenish those lost to space by leakage, venting, and air lock operations. The electrolytic process is more than a pretreatment, since it decreases the urine solids content by approximately one third, thus reducing the load and eventual solids storage requirements of the urine processing system. The evolved gases from the pretreatment step cannot, however, be returned directly to the atmosphere of a spacecraft without first removing several impurities including hydrogen, chlorine, and certain organic compounds. A treatment concept was developed that would decrease the impurities in the gas stream that emanates from an electrolysis unit to levels sufficiently low to allow the conditioned gas stream to be safely discharged to a spacecraft atmosphere. Two methods were experimentally demonstrated that can accomplish the desired cleanup. The bases of the two methods are, repectively: (1) raw urine scrubbing and (2) silica gel sorption.

  20. The fate of lignin during hydrothermal pretreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Trajano, Heather L.; Engle, Nancy L.; Foston, Marcus; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Wyman, Charles E

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Effective enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass benefits from lignin removal, relocation, and/or modification during hydrothermal pretreatment. Phase transition, depolymerization/repolymerization, and solubility effects may all influence these lignin changes. To better understand how lignin is altered, Populus trichocarpa x P. deltoides wood samples and cellulolytic enzyme lignin (CEL) isolated from P. trichocarpa x P. de...

  1. Physico-chemical pretreatment and fungal biotreatment for park wastes and cattle dung for biogas production

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Sameh S.; Sun, Jianzhong

    2015-01-01

    With the rising demand for renewable energy and environmental protection, anaerobic digestion of biogas technology has attracted considerable attention within the scientific community. The effect of physico-chemical pretreatment on cellulose degradation followed by fungal treatment by Aspergillus terreus and Trichoderma viride to treat cellulosic biomass for enhancing its digestibility was investigated. The tested substrate was digested with and without physical, chemical, and biological trea...

  2. Pretreatment And Enzymatic Hydrolysis Of Miscanthus x giganteus: Influence Of Process Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderghem, Caroline; Brostaux, Yves; Jacquet, Nicolas; Blecker, Christophe; Paquot, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Miscanthus x giganteus is a perennial grass which grows rapidly and gives high yields of biomass per hectare. It can be grown in poor quality soil and is non invasive. Due to its high cellulose and hemicellulose content, it has attracted considerable attention as a possible energy crop to produce bioethanol. Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is a key step to unlocking the protective structures so that the enzymatic hydrolysis of the carbohydrate fraction to monosugars can be...

  3. 40 CFR 405.74 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... and Other Frozen Desserts Subcategory § 405.74 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  4. 40 CFR 405.84 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Desserts, Novelties and Other Dairy Desserts Subcategory § 405.84 Pretreatment standards for...

  5. NON-POLLUTING METAL SURFACE FINISHING PRETREATMENT AND PRETREATMENT/CONVERSION COATING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picklex, a proprietary formulation, is an alterantive to conventional metal surface pretreatments and is claimed not to produce waste or lower production or lower performance. A laboratory program was designed to evaluate Picklex in common, large scale, polluting surface finishin...

  6. STUDY OF ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF MILD PRETREATED LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASSES

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Ioelovich; Ely Morag

    2012-01-01

    The effect of mild acidic and alkaline pretreatments of various plant biomasses on their enzymatic hydrolysis has been studied. The yield of reducing sugars and utilization rate of the biomass were used as reliable characteristics of enzymatic digestibility of the biomasses. The experiments showed that alkaline pretreatment was more efficient than acidic pretreatment. As a result of alkaline pretreatment, a more efficient delignification of the biomasses and considerable improvement of the di...

  7. The impacts of pretreatment on the fermentability of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass: a comparative evaluation between ammonia fiber expansion and dilute acid pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale Bruce E

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pretreatment chemistry is of central importance due to its impacts on cellulosic biomass processing and biofuels conversion. Ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX and dilute acid are two promising pretreatments using alkaline and acidic pH that have distinctive differences in pretreatment chemistries. Results Comparative evaluation on these two pretreatments reveal that (i AFEX-pretreated corn stover is significantly more fermentable with respect to cell growth and sugar consumption, (ii both pretreatments can achieve more than 80% of total sugar yield in the enzymatic hydrolysis of washed pretreated solids, and (iii while AFEX completely preserves plant carbohydrates, dilute acid pretreatment at 5% solids loading degrades 13% of xylose to byproducts. Conclusion The selection of pretreatment will determine the biomass-processing configuration, requirements for hydrolysate conditioning (if any and fermentation strategy. Through dilute acid pretreatment, the need for hemicellulase in biomass processing is negligible. AFEX-centered cellulosic technology can alleviate fermentation costs through reducing inoculum size and practically eliminating nutrient costs during bioconversion. However, AFEX requires supplemental xylanases as well as cellulase activity. As for long-term sustainability, AFEX has greater potential to diversify products from a cellulosic biorefinery due to lower levels of inhibitor generation and lignin loss.

  8. Sun Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emitting Products Radiation-Emitting Products and Procedures Tanning Sun Protection Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... for integrating sun protection into your daily routine. Sun Protection Tips Avoid overexposure to UV rays from ...

  9. Influence of surfactant-free ionic liquid microemulsions pretreatment on the composition, structure and enzymatic hydrolysis of water hyacinth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fan; Chen, Li; Wang, Aili; Yan, Zongcheng

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the pretreatment performance of surfactant-free ionic liquid microemulsions (ILMs) on water hyacinth. Pretreatment effects were evaluated in terms of lignocellulosic composition, structure and enzymatic hydrolysis. Analysis of the regenerated water hyacinth indicated that the content of the lignocellulosic composition changed, and the surface became more porous. After being pretreated with ILM(a) (mass ratio of toluene: ethanol: 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([Emim]Ac)=0.35:0.3:0.35) at 70°C for 12h, the maximum delignification of 63.6% was observed. The cellulose of the water hyacinth was well protected and retained during the pretreatment process. After being enzymatically hydrolyzed for 48 h, the reducing sugar yield of the water hyacinth pretreated with ILM(a) at 70°C for 6 h was 563.7 mg/g, and its hydrolysis yield (86.1%) was nearly four and a half times of that of the untreated one (20.2%). In conclusion, the designed surfactant-free ILMs exhibit promising potential application in biomass pretreatment. PMID:26913644

  10. Pretreatment on Corn Stover with Low Concentration of Formic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2009-01-01

    pretreatment without formic acid. Toxicity tests of liquor parts showed that there were no inhibitions found for both pretreatment conditions. After simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of the pretreated corn stover with Baker's yeast, the highest ethanol yield of 76.5% of the theoretical...

  11. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopic investigation of the role of alkaline pre-treatment in corrosion resistance of a silane coating on magnesium alloy, ZE41

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty Banerjee, P. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC-3800 (Australia); CAST Cooperative Research Centre, Hawthorn, VIC-3122 (Australia); Singh Raman, R.K., E-mail: raman.singh@eng.monash.edu.a [Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC-3800 (Australia); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC-3800 (Australia)

    2011-04-15

    The protective performance of the coatings of bis-1,2-(triethoxysilyl) ethane (BTSE) on ZE41 magnesium alloy with different surface pre-treatments were evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 0.1 M sodium chloride solution. Electrical equivalent circuits were developed based upon hypothetical corrosion mechanisms and simulated to correspond to the experimental data. The morphology and cross section of the alloy subjected to different pre-treatments and coatings were characterized using scanning electron microscope. A specific alkaline pre-treatment of the substrate prior to the coating has been found to improve the corrosion resistance of the alloy.

  12. Hydrogen–argon plasma pre-treatment for improving the anti-corrosion properties of thin Al2O3 films deposited using atomic layer deposition on steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of H2–Ar plasma pre-treatment prior to thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) and plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) of Al2O3 films on steel for corrosion protection was investigated. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy were used to observe the changes in the interface. The electrochemical properties of the samples were studied with polarization measurements, and the coating porosities were calculated from the polarization results for easier comparison of the coatings. Prior to thermal ALD the plasma pre-treatment was observed to reduce the amount of impurities at the interface and coating porosity by 1–3 orders of magnitude. The anti-corrosion properties of the PEALD coatings could also be improved by the pre-treatment. However, exposure of the pre-treatment plasma activated steel surface to oxygen plasma species in PEALD led to facile oxide layer formation in the interface. The oxide layer formed this way was thicker than the native oxide layer and appeared to be detrimental to the protective properties of the coating. The best performance for PEALD Al2O3 coatings was achieved when, after the plasma pre-treatment, the surface was given time to regrow a thin protective interfacial oxide prior to exposure to the oxygen plasma. The different effects that thermal and plasma-enhanced ALD have on the substrate-coating interface were compared. The reactivity of the oxygen precursor was shown to have a significant influence on substrate surface in the early stages of film growth and thereafter also on the overall quality of the protective film. - Highlights: • Influence of H2–Ar plasma pre-treatment to ALD coatings on steel was studied. • The pre-treatment modified the coating–substrate interface composition and thickness. • The pre-treatment improved the barrier properties of the coatings

  13. Modification of radiation effects on barley seeds by a pretreatment with some flavonoglycosides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, N.K.; Kaul, B.L.

    1985-11-05

    Studies were undertaken to find out the effect of rutin and quercetin pretreatment against various doses of gamma irradiation on barley seeds. It was found that both chemicals provide protection against gamma irradiation. In the case of rutin 0.5 mM gave maximum protection without being toxic both in terms of seedling injury and chromosomal aberrations whereas in the case of quercetin similar effects were produced by 5 mM treatment. Rutin was more effective than quercetin. The dose reduction factor varied between 1.1 and 1.5. (author).

  14. New degradation compounds from lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment: routes for formation of potent oligophenolic enzyme inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, H.; Tanner, David Ackland; Sørensen, H. R.;

    2016-01-01

    -condensation reactions involving aldol condensations, 1,4 additions to α,β unsaturated carbonyl compounds, 3-keto acid decarboxylations and oxidations. Furthermore, pentose reactions with phenolic lignin components are suggested. The identification of the central role of xylose in the reaction routes for oligophenolic...... inhibitor formation led to the solution to protect the reactive anomeric center in xylose. It is shown that protection of the anomeric center in in situ generated xylose with ethylene glycol monobutyl ether, during pretreatment of wheat straw, reduces the level of oligophenols by 73%. The results pave...

  15. Biological pretreatment of Yellow River water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Shu-guang; TANG Xiao-yan; WU Wei-zhong; WEN Dong-hui; WANG Zhan-sheng

    2005-01-01

    Bio-ceramic filter(BF) and moving-bed biofilm reactor(MBBR) were used for biological pretreatment of Yellow River water in this study. The BF only had slight advantage over MBBR for TOC and ammonia removal. However, like UV254, the average removal rate of THMFP in the BF was much higher than that in the MBBR. UV254 removal did not show obvious correlation with trihalomethane formation potential(THMFP) removal. Hexachlorocyclohexane could be effectively removed in both BF and MBBR. As for diatom and cyanobateria removal the MBBR had better performance than the BF, which was contrary to the average chlorophyll-a (Chi-a) removal rate. The proposal was made in this study that biological flocculation and sedimentation of sloughed biofilm should play a more important role on algae removal in the MBBR than in the BF. The BF and MBBR could effectively remove microcystins. Moreover, MBBR could be a promising technology for biological pretreatment.

  16. Pretreatment of Dioscorea zingiberensis for Microbial Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianxiang Zheng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The influences of five pretreatments on fungal growth and enzyme production during microbial transformation of Dioscorea zingiberensis (DZW were studied. The biomass, α-rhamnase and β-glucosidase activities in the fermentation system were employed in the study to determine how each method affected the efficiency of microbial transformation. The fungal strain grew better on the substrate which contained easily utilized carbon source. While lack of carbon source induced the strain produce more glucosidase. Among five pretreatment methods, complex enzymatic hydrolyzation can remove 84.3% starch and 76.5% fibre from DZW in form of sugar, which resulted in high α-rhamnase activity of 2.89 IU/mL and β-glucosidase activity of 8.17 IU/mL in fermentation broth.

  17. Pretreatment of neutralized cladding removal waste sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the status of process development for pretreating Hanford neutralized cladding removal waste (NCRW) sludge, of which ∼ 3.3 x 106 L is stored in Tanks 103-AW and 105-AW at the Hanford Site. The initial baseline process chosen for pretreating NCRW sludge is to dissolve the sludge in nitric acid and extract the -transuranic (MU) elements from the dissolved sludge solution with octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoyl methyl phosphine oxide (CNWO). This process converts the NCRW sludge into a relatively large volume of low-level waste (LLW) to be disposed of as grout, leaving only a small volume of high-level waste (HLW) requiring vitrification in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP)

  18. Hydrothermal pretreatments of macroalgal biomass for biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz, Héctor A.; Rodríguez-Jasso, Rosa M.; Aguedo, Mario;

    2015-01-01

    in accordance with the integrated biorefineries. Furthermore, biorefinery concept requires processes that allow efficient utilization of all components of the biomass. The pretreatment step in a biorefinery is often based on hydrothermal principles of high temperatures in aqueous solution. Therefore......ecently, macroalgal biomass is gaining wide attention as an alternative in the production of biofuels (as bioetanol and biogas) and compounds with high added value with specific properties (antioxidants, anticoagulants, anti–inflammatories) for applications in food, medical and energy industries...

  19. Waste Separations and Pretreatment Workshop report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides the minutes from the Waste Separations and Pretreatment Workshop sponsored by the Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration in Salt Lake City, Utah, February 3--5, 1993. The Efficient Separations and Processing-Integrated Program and the Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System were joint participants. This document provides the detailed minutes, including responses to questions asked, an attendance list, reproductions of the workshop presentations, and a revised chart showing technology development activities

  20. Hemicellulose biorefineries: a review on biomass pretreatments

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalheiro, Florbela; Duarte, Luís C.; Gírio, Francisco M.

    2008-01-01

    Biomass pretreatment (BP) plays a crucial role in a lignocellulose feedstock-based biorefinery (LCFBR) for processing of three major output streams (cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin) into chemicals and biofuels. BP includes processing of lignocellulosic material (LCM) under aqueous, dilute acid or alkaline media to obtain a cellulosic fraction, which is then fermented to produce bioethanol. Hemicellulose is usually treated as a secondary stream due to lack of efficient fermentation of hem...

  1. Hydrolyzabilities of different corn stover fractions after aqueous ammonia pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zongping; Ge, Xiaoyan; Xin, Donglin; Zhang, Junhua

    2014-02-01

    The effect of aqueous ammonia pretreatment on the hydrolysis of different corn stover fractions (rind, husk, leaf, and pith) by xylanase (XYL) with cellulases (CELs) was evaluated. The aqueous ammonia pretreatment had excellent delignification ability (above 66%) for different corn stover fractions. The corn rind exhibited the lowest susceptibility to aqueous ammonia pretreatment. The pretreated rind showed the lowest hydrolyzability by CEL and XYL, which was supported by a high content of crystalline cellulose in the hydrolyzed residues of rind, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). With the addition of 1 mg XYL/g dry matter, a high glucose yield (above 90%) could be obtained from the pretreated rind by CEL. The results revealed that a high hydrolyzate yield of corn rind after aqueous ammonia pretreatment could be obtained with 1 mg xylanase/g dry matter, showing that aqueous ammonia pretreatment and xylanase addition to cellulases have great potential for the efficient hydrolysis of corn stover without previous fractionation.

  2. Recyclability of an ionic liquid for biomass pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerachanchai, Piyarat; Lee, Jong-Min

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the possibility of reusing an ionic liquid for the pretreatment of biomass. The effects of lignin and water content in a pretreatment solvent on pretreatment products were examined, along with the recyclability of an ionic liquid for pretreatment. It was discovered that the presence of lignin and water within a pretreatment solvent resulted in a far less effective pretreatment process. 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate/ethanolamine (60/40 vol%) presents more promising properties than EMIM-AC, providing a small decrease in sugar conversion and also a small increase of lignin deposition with an increasing lignin amount in the pretreatment solvent. Deteriorations of the ionic liquid were observed from considerably low sugar conversions and lignin extraction after using the 5th and 7th batch, respectively. Furthermore, the changes of ionic liquid properties and lignin accumulation in ionic liquid were determined by analyzing their thermal decomposition behavior (TGA) and chemical functional groups (FTIR and (1)H NMR).

  3. The protective effect of endotoxin pretreatment on lung injury induced by hepatic ischemia reperfusion in rabbits%内毒素预处理对兔肝脏缺血-再灌注后肺损伤的保护效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛云洁; 王野; 张淑立; 赵伟业; 鲁德忱; 玛黎清

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investite the effect of endotoxin pretreatment on lung injury induced by hepatic ischemia reperfusion in rabbits and its mechanism. Method Forty-eight New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into4 groups with 12 rabbits each group:routine control group,pretreatment control group,ischemia reperfusion group (IR group), and preperfusion group( LPS + IR group). Rabbits of routine control group received operative dissector only, and those of pretreatment control group received pretratment of daily intraabdominal injection of lipopo|ysaccharide(O.5,0.5,and 1.0 mg/kg,respectively)in the 3 days before operative dissector.Livers of IR group were rendered and ischeraic for 30 minutes, and repeffused for up to 4 hours. Rabbits of LPS +IR group received the preueaunent before heretic ischemia repeffusion. Four hours after reperfusion, serum endotoxin,tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), wet/dry ratio and broncho-alveolar lavage fluid protein content of lung,malondialdehyde(MDA) and mpenrxide dismutase(SOD) in lung homogenate, lung injury ratio, and activity of Nuclear factor-kB(NF-kB) in alveolar macrophage wene examined. Differences within the groups were analyzed using One way ANOVA. Results Between the two control groups,there were no significant differences in all indexes(P>0.05). The TNF-α[ (48.31±5.31)pg/ml vs.(56.47±5.09)pg/ml, P0.05).LPS+IR组血清TNF-α[(48.31±5.31)pg/ml vs.(56.47±5.09)pg/ml,P<0.01]、肺湿干比[(4.98±0.33)vs.(5.22±0.31),P=0.03]、灌洗液蛋白含量[(0.68±0.11)g/L vs.(0.76±0.10)g/L,P:0.04]、MDA[(0.86±0.06)mnol/mg vs.(0.93±0.07)nmoL/mg,P=0.02]、肺损伤率[(13.4±4.3)%vs.(17.4±4.1)%,P=0.03]及肺泡巨噬细胞NF-kB活性[(5.82±1.12)OD/m2 vs.(7.40±1.26)OD/mm2,P<0.01]明显低于IR组;同时LPS+IR组SOD[(90.30±7.38)U/mg vs.(84.44±7.90)U/mg,P=0.04]明显高于IR组.结论 内毒素预处理可以减轻肝脏缺血.再灌注后肺损伤,其机制与降低了血清TNF-α产生及抑制肺泡巨噬细胞中NF-kB活化有关.

  4. Pretreatment of the macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum for the production of bioethanol--comparison of five pretreatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Thygesen, Anders; Leipold, Frank; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe; Roslander, Christian; Lilholt, Hans; Bjerre, Anne Belinda

    2013-07-01

    A qualified estimate for pretreatment of the macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum for ethanol production was given, based on the experience of pretreatment of land-based biomass. C. linum was subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment (HTT), wet oxidation (WO), steam explosion (STEX), plasma-assisted pretreatment (PAP) and ball milling (BM), to determine effects of the pretreatment methods on the conversion of C. linum into ethanol by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). WO and BM showed the highest ethanol yield of 44 g ethanol/100g glucan, which was close to the theoretical ethanol yield of 57 g ethanol/100g glucan. A 64% higher ethanol yield, based on raw material, was reached after pretreatment with WO and BM compared with unpretreated C. linum, however 50% of the biomass was lost during WO. Results indicated that the right combination of pretreatment and marine macroalgae, containing high amounts of glucan and cleaned from salts, enhanced the ethanol yield significantly.

  5. CORROSION RESISTANCE OF HOT DIP GALVANIZED STEEL PRETREATED WITH BIS-FUNCTIONAL SILANES MODIFIED WITH NANOALUMINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.J.Shan; C.S.Liu; S.H.Wang; G.C.Qi

    2008-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of hot dip galvanized steel pretreated with bis-[triethoxy-silylpropyl]tetrasulfide (BTESPT) modified with alumina particles was studied.The corrosion resistance of the passiving films was evaluated by Tafel polarization curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.The films formed on the galvanized steel substrate were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry.The surface morphology of the treated hot dip galva-nized steel samples was observed by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope. The results show that the pretreatments on the basis of silane films modified with nanoalumina particles have reduced both anodic and cathodic current densities,and increased total impedance in the measured frequency,consequently,improving cor-rosion protection for hot dip galvanized steel during immersion in NaCl solutions compared to chromate films and silane films.

  6. Rheological evaluation of pretreated cladding removal waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, D.; Chan, M.K.C.; Lokken, R.O.

    1986-01-01

    Cladding removal waste (CRW) contains concentrations of transuranic (TRU) elements in the 80 to 350 nCi/g range. This waste will require pretreatment before it can be disposed of as glass or grout at Hanford. The CRW will be pretreated with a rare earth strike and solids removal by centrifugation to segregate the TRU fraction from the non-TRU fraction of the waste. The centrifuge centrate will be neutralized with sodium hydroxide. This neutralized cladding removal waste (NCRW) is expected to be suitable for grouting. The TRU solids removed by centrifugation will be vitrified. The goal of the Rheological Evaluation of Pretreated Cladding Removal Waste Program was to evaluate those rheological and transport properties critical to assuring successful handling of the NCRW and TRU solids streams and to demonstrate transfers in a semi-prototypic pumping environment. This goal was achieved by a combination of laboratory and pilot-scale evaluations. The results obtained during these evaluations were correlated with classical rheological models and scaled-up to predict the performance that is likely to occur in the full-scale system. The Program used simulated NCRW and TRU solid slurries. Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) provided 150 gallons of simulated CRW and 5 gallons of simulated TRU solid slurry. The simulated CRW was neutralized by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The physical and rheological properties of the NCRW and TRU solid slurries were evaluated in the laboratory. The properties displayed by NCRW allowed it to be classified as a pseudoplastic or yield-pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid. The TRU solids slurry contained very few solids. This slurry exhibited the properties associated with a pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid.

  7. Surface pretreatments for medical application of adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Michael

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Medical implants and prostheses (artificial hips, tendono- and ligament plasties usually are multi-component systems that may be machined from one of three material classes: metals, plastics and ceramics. Typically, the body-sided bonding element is bone. The purpose of this contribution is to describe developments carried out to optimize the techniques , connecting prosthesis to bone, to be joined by an adhesive bone cement at their interface. Although bonding of organic polymers to inorganic or organic surfaces and to bone has a long history, there remains a serious obstacle in realizing long-term high-bonding strengths in the in vivo body environment of ever present high humidity. Therefore, different pretreatments, individually adapted to the actual combination of materials, are needed to assure long term adhesive strength and stability against hydrolysis. This pretreatment for metal alloys may be silica layering; for PE-plastics, a specific plasma activation; and for bone, amphiphilic layering systems such that the hydrophilic properties of bone become better adapted to the hydrophobic properties of the bone cement. Amphiphilic layering systems are related to those developed in dentistry for dentine bonding. Specific pretreatment can significantly increase bond strengths, particularly after long term immersion in water under conditions similar to those in the human body. The bond strength between bone and plastic for example can be increased by a factor approaching 50 (pealing work increasing from 30 N/m to 1500 N/m. This review article summarizes the multi-disciplined subject of adhesion and adhesives, considering the technology involved in the formation and mechanical performance of adhesives joints inside the human body.

  8. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Alkaline Pretreated Coconut Coir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbarningrum Fatmawati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to study the effect of concentration and temperature on the cellulose and lignin content, and the reducing sugars produced in the enzymatic hydrolysis of coconut coir. In this research, the coconut coir is pretreated using 3%, 7%, and 11% NaOH solution at 60oC, 80oC, and 100oC. The pretreated coir were assayed by measuring the amount of cellulose and lignin and then hydrolysed using Celluclast and Novozyme 188 under various temperature (30oC, 40oC, 50oC and pH (3, 4, 5. The hydrolysis results were assayed for the reducing sugar content. The results showed that the alkaline delignification was effective to reduce lignin and to increase the cellulose content of the coir. The best delignification condition was observed at 11% NaOH solution and 100oC which removed 14,53% of lignin and increased the cellulose content up to 50,23%. The best condition of the enzymatic hydrolysis was obtained at 50oC and pH 4 which produced 7,57 gr/L reducing sugar. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 2nd October 2012; Revised: 31st January 2013; Accepted: 6th February 2013[How to Cite: Fatmawati, A., Agustriyanto, R., Liasari, Y. (2013. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Alkaline Pre-treated Coconut Coir. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 8 (1: 34-39 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4048.34-39[Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4048.34-39] | View in  |

  9. Rheological evaluation of pretreated cladding removal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cladding removal waste (CRW) contains concentrations of transuranic (TRU) elements in the 80 to 350 nCi/g range. This waste will require pretreatment before it can be disposed of as glass or grout at Hanford. The CRW will be pretreated with a rare earth strike and solids removal by centrifugation to segregate the TRU fraction from the non-TRU fraction of the waste. The centrifuge centrate will be neutralized with sodium hydroxide. This neutralized cladding removal waste (NCRW) is expected to be suitable for grouting. The TRU solids removed by centrifugation will be vitrified. The goal of the Rheological Evaluation of Pretreated Cladding Removal Waste Program was to evaluate those rheological and transport properties critical to assuring successful handling of the NCRW and TRU solids streams and to demonstrate transfers in a semi-prototypic pumping environment. This goal was achieved by a combination of laboratory and pilot-scale evaluations. The results obtained during these evaluations were correlated with classical rheological models and scaled-up to predict the performance that is likely to occur in the full-scale system. The Program used simulated NCRW and TRU solid slurries. Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) provided 150 gallons of simulated CRW and 5 gallons of simulated TRU solid slurry. The simulated CRW was neutralized by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The physical and rheological properties of the NCRW and TRU solid slurries were evaluated in the laboratory. The properties displayed by NCRW allowed it to be classified as a pseudoplastic or yield-pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid. The TRU solids slurry contained very few solids. This slurry exhibited the properties associated with a pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid

  10. Optimization of alkaline sulfite pretreatment and comparative study with sodium hydroxide pretreatment for improving enzymatic digestibility of corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Pang, Bo; Wang, Haisong; Li, Haiming; Lu, Jie; Niu, Meihong

    2015-04-01

    In this study, alkaline sulfite pretreatment of corn stover was optimized. The influences of pretreatments on solid yield, delignification, and carbohydrate recovery under different pretreatment conditions and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis were investigated. The effect of pretreatment was evaluated by enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency and the total sugar yield. The optimum pretreatment conditions were obtained, as follows: the total titratable alkali (TTA) of 12%, liquid/solid ratio of 6:1, temperature of 140 °C, and holding time of 20 min. Under those conditions, the solid yield was 55.24%, and the removal of lignin was 82.68%. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates of glucan and xylan for pretreated corn stover were 85.38% and 70.36%, and the total sugar yield was 74.73% at cellulase loading of 20 FPU/g and β-glucosidase loading of 10 IU/g for 48 h. Compared with sodium hydroxide pretreatment with the same amount of total titratable alkali, the total sugar yield was raised by about 10.43%. Additionally, the corn stover pretreated under the optimum pretreatment conditions was beaten by PFI at 1500 revolutions. After beating, enzymatic hydrolysis rates of glucan and xylan were 89.74% and 74.06%, and the total sugar yield was 78.58% at the same enzymatic hydrolysis conditions. Compared with 1500 rpm of PFI beating after sodium pretreatment with the same amount of total titratable alkali, the total sugar yield was raised by about 14.05%.

  11. Pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredor, Deisy Y.

    The performance of soybean hulls and forage sorghum as feedstocks for ethanol production was studied. The main goal of this research was to increase fermentable sugars' yield through high-efficiency pretreatment technology. Soybean hulls are a potential feedstock for production of bio-ethanol due to their high carbohydrate content (≈50%) of nearly 37% cellulose. Soybean hulls could be the ideal feedstock for fuel ethanol production, because they are abundant and require no special harvesting and additional transportation costs as they are already in the plant. Dilute acid and modified steam-explosion were used as pretreatment technologies to increase fermentable sugars yields. Effects of reaction time, temperature, acid concentration and type of acid on hydrolysis of hemicellulose in soybean hulls and total sugar yields were studied. Optimum pretreatment parameters and enzymatic hydrolysis conditions for converting soybean hulls into fermentable sugars were identified. The combination of acid (H2SO4, 2% w/v) and steam (140°C, 30 min) efficiently solubilized the hemicellulose, giving a pentose yield of 96%. Sorghum is a tropical grass grown primarily in semiarid and dry parts of the world, especially in areas too dry for corn. The production of sorghum results in about 30 million tons of byproducts mainly composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Forage sorghum such as brown midrib (BMR) sorghum for ethanol production has generated much interest since this trait is characterized genetically by lower lignin concentrations in the plant compared with conventional types. Three varieties of forage sorghum and one variety of regular sorghum were characterized and evaluated as feedstock for fermentable sugar production. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-Ray diffraction were used to determine changes in structure and chemical composition of forage sorghum before and after pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis

  12. Comprehensive utilization of glycerol from sugarcane bagasse pretreatment to fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liqun; Zheng, Anqing; Zhao, Zengli; He, Fang; Li, Haibin

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the effects of glycerol pretreatment on subsequent glycerol fermentation and biomass fast pyrolysis were investigated. The liquid fraction from the pretreatment process was evaluated to be feasible for fermentation by Paenibacillus polymyxa and could be an economic substrate. The pretreated biomass was further utilized to obtain levoglucosan by fast pyrolysis. The pretreated sugarcane bagasse exhibited significantly higher levoglucosan yield (47.70%) than that of un-pretreated sample (11.25%). The promotion could likely be attributed to the effective removal of alkali and alkaline earth metals by glycerol pretreatment. This research developed an economically viable manufacturing paradigm to utilize glycerol comprehensively and enhance the formation of levoglucosan effectively from lignocellulose. PMID:26241838

  13. Hydrothermal pretreatment conditions to enhance ethanol production from poplar biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negro, Maria José; Manzanares, Paloma; Ballesteros, Ignacio; Oliva, Jose Miguel; Cabañas, Araceli; Ballesteros, Mercedes

    2003-01-01

    Pretreatment has been recognized as a key step in enzyme-based conversion processes of lignocellulose biomass to ethanol. The aim of this study is to evaluate two hydrothermal pretreatments (steam explosion and liquid hot water) to enhance ethanol production from poplar (Populus nigra) biomass by a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. The composition of liquid and solid fractions obtained after pretreatment, enzymatic digestibility, and ethanol production of poplar biomass pretreated at different experimental conditions was analyzed. The best results were obtained in steam explosion pretreatment at 210 C and 4 min, taking into account cellulose recovery above 95%, enzymatic hydrolysis yield of about 60%, SSF yield of 60% of theoretical, and 41% xylose recovery in the liquid fraction. Large particles can be used for poplar biomass in both pretreatments, since no significant effect of particle size on enzymatic hydrolysis and SSF was obtained.

  14. Pretreatment of Reed by Wet Oxidation and Subsequent Utilization of the Pretreated Fibers for Ethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szijarto, Nora; Kádár, Zsófia; Varga, Eniko;

    2009-01-01

    Common reed (Phragmites australis) is often recognized as a promising source of renewable energy. However, it is among the least characterized crops from the bioethanol perspective. Although one third of reed dry matter is cellulose, without pretreatment, it resists enzymatic hydrolysis like lign...

  15. EFFECT OF AQUEOUS PRETREATMENT ON PYROLYSIS CHARACTERISTICS OF NAPIER GRASS

    OpenAIRE

    ISAH YAKUB MOHAMMED; YOUSIF ABDALLA ABAKR; FEROZ KABIR; SUZANA YUSUP

    2015-01-01

    Effect of non-catalytic aqueous pretretment on pyrolysis characteristics of Napier grass was investigated using thermogravimetric analyser. Increasing pretreatment severity (0.0-2.0) improved pyrolysis process. The residual mass at the end of pyrolysis for the pretreated sample was about 50% less compared to the untreated sample. Kinetics of the process was evaluated using order based model and both pretreated and untreated samples followed first order reaction. The activation energy of the p...

  16. Value added liquid products from waste biomass pyrolysis using pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K

    2015-12-15

    Douglas fir wood, a forestry waste, was attempted to be converted into value added products by pretreatments followed by pyrolysis. Four different types of pretreatments were employed, namely, hot water treatment, torrefaction, sulphuric acid and ammonium phosphate doping. Subsequently, pyrolysis was done at 500°C and the resulting bio-oils were analysed for their chemical composition using Karl Fischer titration, thermogravimetry, ion exchange, and gas chromatography. Pretreatment with acid resulted in the highest yield of bio-oil (~60%). The acid and salt pretreatments were responsible for drastic reduction in the lignin oligomers and enhancement of water content in the pyrolytic liquid. The quantity of xylose/mannose reduced as a result of pretreatments. Although, the content of fermentable sugars remained similar across all the pretreatments, the yield of levoglucosan increased. Pretreatment of the biomass with acid yielded the highest amount of levoglucosan in the bio-oil (13.21%). The acid and salt pretreatments also elevated the amount of acetic acid in the bio-oils. Addition of acid and salt to the biomass altered the interaction of cellulose-lignin in the pyrolysis regime. Application of pretreatments should be based on the intended end use of the liquid product having a desired chemical composition. PMID:26298257

  17. Value added liquid products from waste biomass pyrolysis using pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K

    2015-12-15

    Douglas fir wood, a forestry waste, was attempted to be converted into value added products by pretreatments followed by pyrolysis. Four different types of pretreatments were employed, namely, hot water treatment, torrefaction, sulphuric acid and ammonium phosphate doping. Subsequently, pyrolysis was done at 500°C and the resulting bio-oils were analysed for their chemical composition using Karl Fischer titration, thermogravimetry, ion exchange, and gas chromatography. Pretreatment with acid resulted in the highest yield of bio-oil (~60%). The acid and salt pretreatments were responsible for drastic reduction in the lignin oligomers and enhancement of water content in the pyrolytic liquid. The quantity of xylose/mannose reduced as a result of pretreatments. Although, the content of fermentable sugars remained similar across all the pretreatments, the yield of levoglucosan increased. Pretreatment of the biomass with acid yielded the highest amount of levoglucosan in the bio-oil (13.21%). The acid and salt pretreatments also elevated the amount of acetic acid in the bio-oils. Addition of acid and salt to the biomass altered the interaction of cellulose-lignin in the pyrolysis regime. Application of pretreatments should be based on the intended end use of the liquid product having a desired chemical composition.

  18. 40 CFR 427.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Pipe... CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or quality...

  19. 40 CFR 427.24 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Sheet... CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the quantity or quality...

  20. EFFECT OF SCREW EXTRUSION PRETREATMENT ON PULPS FROM CHEMICAL PULPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuihua Dong,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of compressive pretreatment before chemical pulping on the properties of poplar kraft and soda-AQ pulp was evaluated. Compressive pretreatment not only resulted in the dissolution of hemicellulose, but also leached extractives. Pulps made from compressive pretreated wood chips required lower beating energy than the untreated pulps to achieve the same beating degree of 45°SR, and the brightness of the handsheets was improved by 2% ISO. Compressive pretreatment allowed for efficient delignification and saved about 6% alkali consumption to achieve similar pulp screen yield. Furthermore, a higher content of fines and slightly lower mechanical properties were observed after the compressive treatment.

  1. Evaluation of high solids alkaline pretreatment of rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Shen; Zheng, Yi; Yu, Chao Wei; Dooley, Todd M; Jenkins, Bryan M; VanderGheynst, Jean S

    2010-11-01

    Fresh-harvested, air-dried rice straw was pretreated at a water content of 5 g H(2)O/g straw using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and compared to pretreatment at 10 g H(2)O/g straw by hydrated lime (Ca(OH)(2)). Full factorial experiments including parallel wash-only treatments were completed with both sources of alkali. The experiments were designed to measure the effects of alkaline loading and pretreatment time on delignification and sugar yield upon enzymatic hydrolysis. Reaction temperature was held constant at 95 degrees C for lime pretreatment and 55 degrees C for NaOH pretreatment. The range of delignification was 13.1% to 27.0% for lime pretreatments and was 8.6% to 23.1% for NaOH pretreatments. Both alkaline loading and reaction time had significant positive effects (p lime-pretreated and unwashed biomass and were 142.3 mg/g dried biomass (39.2% conversion efficiency of total glucose) in NaOH-pretreated and unwashed biomass. PMID:20440580

  2. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method for Future Exploration Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel urine pretreatment that will prevent biological growth or chemical instabilities in urine without using hazardous chemicals is proposed. Untreated urine...

  3. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method for Future Exploration Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A nonhazardous urine pretreatment system prototype is proposed that will stabilize urine against biological growth or chemical instabilities without using hazardous...

  4. K basins sludge removal sludge pretreatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Spent Nuclear Fuels Program is in the process of planning activities to remove spent nuclear fuel and other materials from the 100-K Basins as a remediation effort for clean closure. The 105 K- East and K-West Basins store spent fuel, sludge, and debris. Sludge has accumulated in the 1 00 K Basins as a result of fuel oxidation and a slight amount of general debris being deposited, by settling, in the basin water. The ultimate intent in removing the sludge and fuel is to eliminate the environmental risk posed by storing fuel at the K Basins. The task for this project is to disposition specific constituents of sludge (metallic fuel) to produce a product stream through a pretreatment process that will meet the requirements, including a final particle size acceptable to the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). The purpose of this task is to develop a preconceptual design package for the K Basin sludge pretreatment system. The process equipment/system is at a preconceptual stage, as shown in sketch ES-SNF-01 , while a more refined process system and material/energy balances are ongoing (all sketches are shown in Appendix C). Thus, the overall process and 0535 associated equipment have been conservatively selected and sized, respectively, to establish the cost basis and equipment layout as shown in sketches ES- SNF-02 through 08

  5. Protective effects of ascorbic acid pretreatment in a rat model of intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury: a histomorphometric study Efeito protetor do pré-tratamento com ácido ascóbico em modelo experimental de isquemia-reperfusão intestinal: um estudo histomorfométrico

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Haruo Higa; Edwin Roger Parra; Alexandre Muxfeldt Ab'Saber; Cecilia Farhat; Rita Higa; Vera Luiza Capelozzi

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ascorbic acid has shown promise in attenuation of intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. The aim of this study was to determine the protective effects of ascorbic acid on intestinal morphology during IR injury in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined morphological changes in the small intestine of Wistar rats after (i) 40 minutes of ischemia (I), (ii) ischemia followed by 30 min of reperfusion (IR), (iii) ischemia with ascorbic acid (IA), (iv) ischemia followed by reperf...

  6. Understanding of alkaline pretreatment parameters for corn stover enzymatic saccharification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research on alkaline pretreatment has mainly focused on optimization of the process parameters to improve substrate digestibility. To achieve satisfactory sugar yield, extremely high chemical loading and enzyme dosages were typically used. Relatively little attention has been paid to reduction of chemical consumption and process waste management, which has proven to be an indispensable component of the bio-refineries. To indicate alkali strength, both alkali concentration in pretreatment solution (g alkali/g pretreatment liquor or g alkali/L pretreatment liquor and alkali loading based on biomass solids (g alkali/g dry biomass have been widely used. The dual approaches make it difficult to compare the chemical consumption in different process scenarios while evaluating the cost effectiveness of this pretreatment technology. The current work addresses these issues through pretreatment of corn stover at various combinations of pretreatment conditions. Enzymatic hydrolysis with different enzyme blends was subsequently performed to identify the effects of pretreatment parameters on substrate digestibility as well as process operational and capital costs. Results The results showed that sodium hydroxide loading is the most dominant variable for enzymatic digestibility. To reach 70% glucan conversion while avoiding extensive degradation of hemicellulose, approximately 0.08 g NaOH/g corn stover was required. It was also concluded that alkali loading based on total solids (g NaOH/g dry biomass governs the pretreatment efficiency. Supplementing cellulase with accessory enzymes such as α-arabinofuranosidase and β-xylosidase significantly improved the conversion of the hemicellulose by 6–17%. Conclusions The current work presents the impact of alkaline pretreatment parameters on the enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover as well as the process operational and capital investment costs. The high chemical consumption for alkaline

  7. Estradiol pretreatment attenuated nicotine-induced endothelial cell apoptosis via estradiol functional membrane receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-li; Zhao, Jian-li; Lau, Wayne-Bond; Zhang, Yan-qing; Qiao, Zhong-dong; Wang, Ya-jing

    2011-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is highly associated with increased cardiovascular disease complications. The female population, however, manifests reduced cardiovascular morbidity. We define nicotine's effect upon human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), determine whether estradiol might ameliorate endothelial dysfunction via its membrane estrogen receptor (mER), and attempt to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Endothelial cells were pretreated with estradiol-BSA and measured resultant ion flux across the cells via the patch clamp technique to assess mER is functionality. Estradiol-BSA administration was associated with 30% decreased nicotine-induced apoptosis and also attenuated nicotine-activated phosphorylation of p38 and ERK. Pretreatment of estradiol-BSA triggered a low calcium influx, suggesting ahead low influx calcium played a critical role in the underlying protective mechanisms of estradiol. Furthermore, this estradiol-BSA protection against apoptosis remained effective in the presence of tamoxifen, an intracellular estrogen receptor (iER) inhibitor. Additionally, tamoxifen did not abolish estradiol-BSA's inhibitory effect upon p38 and ERK's activation, giving evidence to the obligatory role of p38 and ERK signaling in the estradiol-BSA's anti-apoptotic action via mER. Our study provides evidence that nicotine enhances endothelial cell apoptosis, but estrogen exerts anti-apoptotic effect through its functional membrane estrogen receptor. Clinically, the nicotine in cigarettes might contribute to endothelial dysfunction, whereas ambient estradiol may provide cellular protection against nicotine-induced injury through its functional membrane receptor via MAPK pathway downregulation.

  8. Polaprezinc Protects Mice against Endotoxin Shock

    OpenAIRE

    Ohata, Shuzo; Moriyama, Chihiro; Yamashita, Atsushi; Nishida, Tadashi; Kusumoto, Chiaki; Mochida, Shinsuke; Minami, Yukari; Nakada, Junya; Shomori, Kohei; Inagaki, Yoshimi; Ohta, Yoshiji; Matsura, Tatsuya

    2010-01-01

    Polaprezinc (PZ), a chelate compound consisting of zinc and l-carnosine (Car), is an anti-ulcer drug developed in Japan. In the present study, we investigated whether PZ suppresses mortality, pulmonary inflammation, and plasma nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels in endotoxin shock mice after peritoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and how PZ protects against LPS-induced endotoxin shock. PZ pretreatment inhibited the decrease in the survival rate of mice after ...

  9. 40 CFR 421.275 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Metals Subcategory § 421.275 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Except as provided in 40 CFR... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403 and achieve the following pretreatment... wastewater introduced into a POTW must not exceed the following values: (a) Dryer vent water quench...

  10. Optimization of the dilute maleic acid pretreatment of wheat straw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, A.M.J.; Beeftink, H.H.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background - In this study, the dilute maleic acid pretreatment of wheat straw is optimized, using pretreatment time, temperature and maleic acid concentration as design variables. A central composite design was applied to the experimental set up. The response factors used in this study are: (1) glu

  11. Structural changes of corn stover lignin during acid pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxley, Geoffrey; Gaspar, Armindo Ribeiro; Higgins, Don; Xu, Hui

    2012-09-01

    In this study, raw corn stover was subjected to dilute acid pretreatments over a range of severities under conditions similar to those identified by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in their techno-economic analysis of biochemical conversion of corn stover to ethanol. The pretreated corn stover then underwent enzymatic hydrolysis with yields above 70 % at moderate enzyme loading conditions. The enzyme exhausted lignin residues were characterized by ³¹P NMR spectroscopy and functional moieties quantified and correlated to enzymatic hydrolysis yields. Results from this study indicated that both xylan solubilization and lignin degradation are important for improving the enzyme accessibility and digestibility of dilute acid pretreated corn stover. At lower pretreatment temperatures, there is a good correlation between xylan solubilization and cellulose accessibility. At higher pretreatment temperatures, lignin degradation correlated better with cellulose accessibility, represented by the increase in phenolic groups. During acid pretreatment, the ratio of syringyl/guaiacyl functional groups also gradually changed from less than 1 to greater than 1 with the increase in pretreatment temperature. This implies that more syringyl units are released from lignin depolymerization of aryl ether linkages than guaiacyl units. The condensed phenolic units are also correlated with the increase in pretreatment temperature up to 180 °C, beyond which point condensation reactions may overtake the hydrolysis of aryl ether linkages as the dominant reactions of lignin, thus leading to decreased cellulose accessibility.

  12. Bioconversion of lime pretreated wheat straw to fuel ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lime pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification methods were evaluated for conversion of wheat straw cellulose and hemicellulose to fermentable sugars. The maximum yield of monomeric sugars from wheat straw (8.6%, w/v) by lime pretreatment (100 mg/g straw, 121 deg C, 1 h) and enzymatic hydrolysis ...

  13. 40 CFR 417.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the.... Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard pH No limitation. BOD5 Do. TSS Do. Oil and grease...

  14. 40 CFR 417.34 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... subpart. Pollutant or pollutant property Pretreatment standard pH No limitation. BOD5 Do. TSS Do. Oil...

  15. 40 CFR 421.126 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 421.126 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7, any new source... 40 CFR part 403 and achieve the following pretreatment standards for new sources. The mass of... for monthly average mg/troy ounce of silver produced from leaching Copper .110 .053 Zinc .088...

  16. 40 CFR 421.85 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Subcategory § 421.85 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7 and 403... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403 and achieve the following pretreatment standards for... Maximum for monthly average mg/kg (pounds per million pounds) of zinc processed through leaching...

  17. 40 CFR 421.125 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Subcategory § 421.125 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7 and 403... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403 and achieve the following pretreatment standards for..., smelted, or dried Copper .000 .000 Zinc .000 .000 Ammonia (as N) .000 .000 (h) Subpart L—Leaching....

  18. 40 CFR 421.86 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....86 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7, any new source subject... CFR part 403 and achieve the following pretreatment standards for new sources. The mass of wastewater... leached Cadmium .180 .072 Zinc .919 .378 (c) Subpart H—Leaching Wet Air Pollution Control. PSNS...

  19. 40 CFR 421.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Subcategory § 421.26 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7, any new... comply with 40 CFR part 403 and achieve the following pretreatment standards for new sources. The mass of... .077 Fluoride 12.440 5.518 (c) Subpart B—Anode Bake Plant Wet Air Pollution Control. PSNS Pollutant...

  20. 40 CFR 421.326 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 421.326 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7, any new source... 40 CFR part 403 and achieve the following pretreatment standards for new sources. The mass of....885 Nickel 3.503 2.357 Fluoride 222.900 126.700 (d) Digestion wet air pollution control. PSNS for...

  1. 40 CFR 421.115 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-Tantalum Subcategory § 421.115 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Except as provided in 40 CFR... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403 and achieve the following pretreatment... Fluoride 324.000 185.100 (c) Subpart K—Solvent Extraction Wet Air Pollution Control. PSES Pollutant...

  2. 40 CFR 421.265 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Metals Subcategory § 421.265 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Except as provided in 40 CFR... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403 and achieve the following pretreatment... alkaline wet air pollution control scrubbers. If both acid and alkaline wet air pollution control...

  3. Chemical characterization and hydrothermal pretreatment of Salicornia bigelovii straw for enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis and bioethanol potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cybulska, Iwona; Chaturvedi, Tanmay; Brudecki, Grzegorz P.;

    2014-01-01

    Salicornia bigelovii straw was characterized and evaluated as a potential lignocellulosic bioethanol feedstock. S. bigelovii used in the study was grown in the United Arab Emirates using saltwater (40. ppt) for irrigation. Salt removal was performed prior to pretreatment to protect the processing...... equipment and avoid inhibition of enzymes and yeast. Composition of the washed biomass was comparable to traditional lignocellulosic biomasses with relatively high glucan and xylan content (26 and 22. g/100. gDM, respectively) but with lower lignin content (7. g/100. gDM). The washed feedstock was subjected...

  4. Hydrothermal pretreatment of biomass for pellet production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tooyserkani, Z. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Clean Energy Research Centre, Biomass and Bioenergy Research Group

    2010-07-01

    This presentation discussed innovative technologies for the production of wood pellets using the hydrothermal pre-treatment of biomass. Conventional techniques use low-cost mill residues, such as saw dust and shavings, as feedstock to produce durable, low-ash pellets. However, mill residues are becoming less available as a result of fewer saw mills, increased pellet production, and increased competition for saw dust. Advanced techniques use mixed biomass such as logging residue as feedstock, creating pellets that are durable for handling and long-term storage, of a higher energy density for transport and mixing with coal for co-firing, and a choice feedstock for biofuels. Advanced pellet production uses steam explosion/pre-treatment in which biomass receives a short-term high-pressure steam treatment followed by sudden decompression. Mild torrefaction seems to have positive feedback, and steam-treated pellets are durable with superior hydrophobicity. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Plasma-Assisted Pretreatment of Wheat Straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Leipold, Frank; Bindslev, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    and milled particle size (the extent to which the wheat straw was milled) were investigated and optimized. The developed methodology offered the advantage of a simple and relatively fast (0.5–2 h) pretreatment allowing a dry matter concentration of 45–60%. FTIR measurements did not suggest any structural...... straw with desired lignin content because of the online analysis. The O3 consumption of wheat straw and its polymeric components, i.e., cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, as well as a mixture of these, dry as well as with 50% water, were studied. Furthermore, the process parameters dry matter content...... effects on cellulose and hemicellulose by the O3 treatment. The cost and the energy consumption for lignin degradation of 100 g of wheat straw were calculated....

  6. Laboratory Tests on Post-Filtration Precipitation in the WTP Pretreatment Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Renee L.; Peterson, Reid A.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Crum, Jarrod V.

    2009-11-20

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, "Undemonstrated Leaching Processes," of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan (Barnes et al. 2006). The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. A simplified flow diagram of the PEP system is shown in Figure 1.1. Two operating scenarios are currently being evaluated for the ultrafiltration process (UFP) and leaching operations. The first scenario has caustic leaching performed in the UFP-2 ultrafiltration feed vessels (i.e., vessel UFP-VSL-T02A in the PEP; and vessels UFP-VSL-00002A and B in the WTP PTF). The second scenario has caustic leaching conducted in the UFP-1 ultrafiltration feed preparation vessels (i.e., vessels UFP-VSL-T01A and B in the PEP; vessels UFP-VSL-00001A and B in the WTP PTF).

  7. Optimization of steam explosion pretreatment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foody, P.

    1980-04-01

    Different operating conditions are required to optimize the yield from each of the various fractions in the substrate. Xylose recovery is maximized at short cooking times whereas maximum lignin recovery requires much longer cooking times. Peak glucose yield and rumen digestibility occur at intermediate times. If process conditions are set for maximum glucose yield we have achieved a yield of 68% of the theoretical, based on an average of a dozen substrates tested. Individual results ranged from 46 to 87%. If the process is optimized for maximum total sugars (i.e. glucose plus xylose) we have obtained an average yield of 60%, with a range of 31 to 75%. With rumen microflora, the average value of the in-vitro cellulose digestibility was 82%, with a range of 41 to 90%. The optimum operating conditions for total sugars are a pressure of 500 to 550 psig with a cooking time of 40 to 50 seconds and 35% starting moisture content. Particle size is not a significant factor, nor is pre-steaming or use of a constricting die in the gun nozzle. High quality lignin can be extracted with 80% yield. The Iotech lignin is very soluble, has a low molecular weight and is reactive. The unique properties of the lignin derive from the explosion at the end of the pretreatment. A lignin formaldehyde resin has been successfully formulated and tested. It represents a high value utilization of the lignin byproduct with immediate market potential. A detailed engineering design of the process gives an estimated operating cost of $7.50/OD ton of biomass. At this low cost, the Iotech process achieves many important pretreatment goals in a single step. The substrate has been sterilized; it has been pulverized into a powder; the cellulose has been accessible; and a highly reactive lignin fraction can be recovered and utilized.

  8. Evaluation of wet oxidation pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis of softwood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palonen, H.; Thomsen, A.B.; Tenkanen, M.;

    2004-01-01

    The wet oxidation pretreatment (water, oxygen, elevated temperature, and pressure) of softwood (Picea abies) was investigated for enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis. The pretreatment was preliminarily optimized. Six different combinations of reaction time, temperature, and pH were applied, and the...... compositions of solid and liquid fractions were analyzed. The solid fraction after wet oxidation contained 58-64% cellulose, 2-16% hemicellulose, and 24-30% lignin. The pretreatment series gave information about the roles of lignin and hemicellulose in the enzymatic hydrolysis. The temperature of the...... pretreatment, the residual hemicellulose content of the substrate, and the type of the commercial cellulase preparation used were the most important factors affecting the enzymatic hydrolysis. The highest sugar yield in a 72-h hydrolysis, 79% of theoretical, was obtained using a pretreatment of 200degreesC for...

  9. Pretreatment of Biomass by Aqueous Ammonia for Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Gupta, Rajesh; Lee, Y. Y.

    The methods of pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass using aqueous ammonia are described. The main effect of ammonia treatment of biomass is delignification without significantly affecting the carbohydrate contents. It is a very effective pretreatment method especially for substrates that have low lignin contents such as agricultural residues and herbaceous feedstock. The ammonia-based pretreatment is well suited for simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) because the treated biomass retains cellulose as well as hemicellulose. It has been demonstrated that overall ethanol yield above 75% of the theoretical maximum on the basis of total carbohydrate is achievable from corn stover pretreated with aqueous ammonia by way of SSCF. There are two different types of pretreatment methods based on aqueous ammonia: (1) high severity, low contact time process (ammonia recycle percolation; ARP), (2) low severity, high treatment time process (soaking in aqueous ammonia; SAA). Both of these methods are described and discussed for their features and effectiveness.

  10. Ozonolysis: An advantageous pretreatment for lignocellulosic biomass revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travaini, Rodolfo; Martín-Juárez, Judit; Lorenzo-Hernando, Ana; Bolado-Rodríguez, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Ozonolysis, as a lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment, goes back to 80s; however, in the last years it is becoming widespread again owing to its efficiency and mild operation conditions. Ozone reacts preferably with lignin than carbohydrates, promoting biomass destructuration and delignification, and so the sugar release by enzymatic hydrolysis. The hydrolysate from pretreated biomass has being used as sugars source for second-generation fuels production, mainly ethanol, methane and hydrogen. Short-chain carboxylic acids are the main inhibitory compounds generated, being properly removed by water washing. The most common inhibitory compounds reported for other pretreatments, furfural and HMF (5-hydroxymethylfurfural), are not found in ozone-pretreated hydrolysates. Composition of pretreated biomass and ozone consumption depends on several process parameters: reactor design, moisture content, particle size, pH, reaction time, ozone/air flow and ozone concentration. Additional studies are necessary to clarify process parameters effect and to optimize the process to achieve high yields with economic feasibility. PMID:26409859

  11. Matrine pretreatment improves cardiac function in rats with diabetic cardiomyopathy via suppressing ROS/TLR-4 signaling pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhong-Wei; Wang, Jun-kui; Qiu, Chuan; Guan, Gong-chang; Liu, Xin-hong; Li, Shang-jian; Deng, Zheng-rong

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Matrine is an alkaloid from Sophora alopecuroides L, which has shown a variety of pharmacological activities and potential therapeutic value in cardiovascular diseases. In this study we examined the protective effects of matrine against diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) in rats. Methods: Male SD rats were injected with streptozotocin (STZ) to induce DCM. One group of DCM rats was pretreated with matrine (200 mg·kg−1·d−1, po) for 10 consecutive days before STZ injection. Left ventricular func...

  12. Environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question of environment protection related to the use of nuclear energy aiming to power generation, based on the harmonic concept of economic and industrial development, preserving the environment, is discussed. A brief study of environmental impacts for some energy sources, including nuclear energy, to present the systems of a nuclear power plant which aim at environmental protection, is done. (M.C.K.)

  13. Comparison of pre-treatment and post-treatment use of selenium in retinal ischemia reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alper; Yazici; Hasan; Aksit; Esin; Sogutlu; Sari; Arzu; Yay; Haydar; Ali; Erken; Dilek; Aksit; Harun; Cakmak; Kamil; Seyrek; Sitki; Samet; Ermis

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of selenium in rat retinal ischemia reperfusion(IR) model and compare pretreatment and post-treatment use.METHODS: Selenium pre-treatment group(n =8) was treated with intraperitoneal(i.p.) selenium 0.5 mg/kg for7 d and terminated 24 h after the IR injury. Selenium posttreatment group( n = 8) was treated with i. p. selenium0.5 mg/kg for 7d after the IR injury with termination at the end of the 7d period. Sham group(n =8) received i.p.saline injections identical to the selenium volume for 7d with termination 24 h after the IR injury. Control group(n =8) received no intervention. Main outcome measures were retina superoxide dismutase(SOD), glutathione(GSH),total antioxidant status(TAS), malondialdehyde(MDA),DNA fragmentation levels, and immunohistological apoptosis evaluation.RESULTS: Compared to the Sham group, selenium pre-treatment had a statistical difference in all parameters except SOD. Post-treatment selenium also resulted in statistical differences in all parameters except the MDA levels. When comparing selenium groups, the pre-treatment selenium group had a statistically higher success in reduction of markers of cell damage such as MDA and DNA fragmentation. In contrast, the post-selenium treatment group had resulted in statisticallyhigher levels of GSH. Histologically both selenium groups succeeded to limit retinal thickening and apoptosis. Pre-treatment use was statistically more successful in decreasing apoptosis in ganglion cell layer compared to post-treatment use.CONCLUSION: Selenium was successful in retinal protection in IR injuries. Pre-treatment efficacy was superior in terms of prevention of tissue damage and apoptosis.

  14. Berberine Pretreatment Confers Cardioprotection Against Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in a Rat Model of Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wenguang; Li, Kun; Guan, Fengying; Yao, Fan; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Ming; Hatch, Grant M; Chen, Li

    2016-09-01

    Preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated that berberine (BBR) improves diabetic complications and reduces mortality of patients with congestive heart failure. The therapeutic effects of BBR have been reported to be mediated by its regulation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK). We previously reported that BBR protects against ischemia-reperfusion injury via regulating AMPK activity in both ischemic and nonischemic areas of the rat heart. Since diabetic hearts are more sensitive to ischemia-reperfusion injury, we examined whether BBR treatment exhibited cardioprotective effects in the diabetic heart. Type 2 diabetic rats were pretreated plus or minus BBR for 7 days and subjected to 30-minute ischemia followed by 120-minute reperfusion. Pretreatment of type 2 diabetic rats with BBR reduced ischemia-reperfusion injury infarct size and attenuated arrhythmia compared to untreated diabetic controls. Subsequent to ischemia-reperfusion, serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, and malondialdehyde levels were reduced by pretreatment of type 2 diabetic rats with BBR compared to untreated diabetic controls. In contrast, serum glucose and superoxide dismutase levels were unaltered. The mechanism for the BBR-mediated cardioprotective effect was examined. Pretreatment with BBR did not alter AMPK activity in ischemic areas at risk but increased AMPK activity in nonischemic areas compared to untreated diabetic controls. The increased AMPK activity in nonischemic areas was due an elevated ratio of AMP to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate to ATP. In addition, pretreatment with BBR increased protein kinase B (AKT) phosphorylation and reduced glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) activity in nonischemic areas compared to untreated diabetic controls. These findings indicate that BBR protects the diabetic heart from ischemia-reperfusion injury. In addition, BBR may mediate this cardioprotective effect through AMPK activation, AKT

  15. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A NRPB leaflet in the 'At-a-Glance' series explains in a simple but scientifically accurate way what radiation is, the biological effects and the relative sensitivity of different parts of the human body. The leaflet then discusses radiation protection principles, radiation protection in the UK and finally the effectiveness of this radiation protection as judged by a breakdown of the total dose received by an average person in the UK, a heavy consumer of Cumbrian seafood, an average nuclear industry worker and an average person in Cornwall. (UK)

  16. Enhanced enzymatic conversion with freeze pretreatment of rice straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ken-Lin; Thitikorn-amorn, Jitladda; Ou, Bay-Ming; Chen, Shan-He; Huang, Po-Jung [Institute of Biological Chemistry and Genomics Research Center Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 115 (China); Hsieh, Jung-Feng [Department of Food Science, Fu Jen Catholic University, Xin Zhuang, Taipei 242 (China); Ratanakhanokchai, Khanok [School of Bioresources and Technology, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10150 (Thailand); Chen, Shui-Tein [Institute of Biological Chemistry and Genomics Research Center Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 115 (China); Institute of Biochemical Sciences, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Production of bioethanol by the conversion of lignocellulosic waste has attracted much interest in recent years, because of its low cost and great potential availability. The pretreatment process is important for increasing the enzymatic digestibility of lignocellulosic materials. Enzymatic conversion with freeze pretreatment of rice straw was evaluated in this study. The freeze pretreatment was found to significantly increase the enzyme digestibility of rice straw from 48% to 84%. According to the results, enzymatic hydrolysis of unpretreated rice straw with 150 U cellulase and 100 U xylanase for 48 h yielded 226.77 g kg{sup -1} and 93.84 g kg{sup -1} substrate-reducing sugars respectively. However, the reducing sugar yields from freeze pretreatment under the same conditions were 417.27 g kg{sup -1} and 138.77 g kg{sup -1} substrate, respectively. In addition, hydrolyzates analysis showed that the highest glucose yield obtained during the enzymatic hydrolysis step in the present study was 371.91 g kg{sup -1} of dry rice straw, following pretreatment. Therefore, the enhanced enzymatic conversion with freeze pretreatment of rice straw was observed in this study. This indicated that freeze pretreatment was highly effective for enzymatic hydrolysis and low environmental impact. (author)

  17. Breakdown of hierarchical architecture in cellulose during dilute acid pretreatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yan [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Inouye, Hideyo [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Yang, Lin [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Himmel, Michael E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tucker, Melvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Makowski, Lee [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-02-28

    Cellulose can work as a feedstock for sustainable bioenergy because of its global abundance. Pretreatment of biomass has significant influence on the chemical availability of cellulose locked in recalcitrant microfibrils. Optimizing pretreatment depends on an understanding of its impact on the microscale and nanoscale molecular architecture. X-ray scattering experiments have been performed on native and pre-treated maize stover and models of cellulose architecture have been derived from these data. Ultra small-angle, very small-angle and small-angle X-ray scattering (USAXS, VSAXS and SAXS) probe three different levels of architectural scale. USAXS and SAXS have been used to study cellulose at two distinct length scales, modeling the fibrils as ~30 Å diameter rods packed into ~0.14 μm diameter bundles. VSAXS is sensitive to structural features at length scales between these two extremes. Detailed analysis of diffraction patterns from untreated and pretreated maize using cylindrical Guinier plots and the derivatives of these plots reveals the presence of substructures within the ~0.14 μm diameter bundles that correspond to grouping of cellulose approximately 30 nm in diameter. These sub-structures are resilient to dilute acid pretreatments but are sensitive to pretreatment when iron sulfate is added. Our results provide evidence of the hierarchical arrangement of cellulose at three length scales and the evolution of these arrangements during pre-treatments.

  18. Effects of Pretreatment Methods on Electrodes and SOFC Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Bin Jung

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Commercially available tapes (anode, electrolyte and paste (cathode were choosen to prepare anode-supported cells for solid oxide fuel cell applications. For both anode-supported cells or electrolyte-supported cells, the anode needs pretreatment to reduce NiO/YSZ to Ni/YSZ to increase its conductivity as well as its catalytic characteristics. In this study, the effects of different pretreatments (open-circuit, closed-circuit on cathode and anodes as well as SOFC performance are investigated. To investigate the influence of closed-circuit pretreatment on the NiO/YSZ anode alone, a Pt cathode is utilized as reference for comparison with the LSM cathode. The characterization of the electrical resistance, AC impedance, and SOFC performance of the resulting electrodes and/or anode-supported cell were carried out. It’s found that the influence of open-circuit pretreatment on the LSM cathode is limited. However, the influence of closed-circuit pretreatment on both the LSM cathode and NiO/YSZ anode and the resulting SOFC performance is profound. The effect of closed-circuit pretreatment on the NiO/YSZ anode is attributed to its change of electronic/pore structure as well as catalytic characteristics. With closed-circuit pretreatment, the SOFC performance improved greatly from the change of LSM cathode (and Pt reference compared to the Ni/YSZ anode.

  19. Negotiating Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel

    This thesis examines protection against risks as material and social phenomena among the Ammarin tribe in Petra - a settled Bedouin community in southern Jordan. By examining the active role of material culture that is often disregarded in risk studies, the thesis discusses how protective...... of architecture, the social use of luminosity, prophylactic items, saint veneration, Qur'anic items, and heritage production. The thesis challenges the preoccupation with "meaning" in material culture studies, by focusing on conceptualizations of "presence" and "absence" as equally important to protective...... strategies are confirming their efficacy, and act as material anchors for negotiating Bedouin identities in response to a rapid transformation from nomadic pastoralists to sedentary wageworkers. The tensions surrounding the materiality of protection, along with the role of the past in the present is further...

  20. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work define procedures and controls about ionizing radiations. Between some definitions it found the following topics: radiation dose, risk, biological effects, international radioprotection bodies, workers exposure, accidental exposure, emergencies and radiation protection

  1. Environmental Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Regina; Diewald, Martin

    2003-01-01

    Nature protection and conservation are fundamental elements of environmental protection as this is an important part of the human existence; it is a vital component of the present and future harmonious socio economic development. The ecosystems and the organisms, like the marine and atmospheric terrestrial resources used by humankind, must be administrated in such a way that their optimum and continuous productivity may be assured and maintained. It is necessary to take rigorous measures agai...

  2. Corrosion protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Donald W.; Wagh, Arun S.

    2003-05-27

    There has been invented a chemically bonded phosphate corrosion protection material and process for application of the corrosion protection material for corrosion prevention. A slurry of iron oxide and phosphoric acid is used to contact a warm surface of iron, steel or other metal to be treated. In the presence of ferrous ions from the iron, steel or other metal, the slurry reacts to form iron phosphates which form grains chemically bonded onto the surface of the steel.

  3. Ondansetron Pretreatment Reduces Pain on Injection of Propofol

    OpenAIRE

    Anahid Maleki; Hamid Zahedi

    2012-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of ondansetron pretreatment in alleviating propofol injection pain, 135 patients were randomly assigned to one of following three groups. Group 1 who received up to 2 mL pretreatment 50 mg tramadol in the saline, group 2 cases who received up to 2 mL pretreatment 4 mg ondansetron in saline, and group 3 who received up to 2 mL solution saline. A 20 gauge cannula was placed into the largest vein on the dorsum of the hand. Tourniquet was closed to the arm above the ca...

  4. Pretreatment of phosphoric acid of Annaba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most important step in the process of uranium recovery from phosphoric acid is the pretreatment operation. In this study, the adsorption of organic matters on activated carbon was carried out in a batch process and in a fixed bed column. First, the chemical and physical characterization of phosphoric acid, activated carbon and gypsum were performed. In addition, the organic matters were qualitatively analysed and a new and original quantitative method was experimented. Next, the various operating parameters such as agitation speed, granulometry, temperature, solid/liquid ratio, initial concentration, acid flowrate, and bed height were optimized. The experimental equilibrium isotherm was compared to the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Redlich-Peterson theoretical isotherms. It was noticed that the three models did not fit the experimental isotherm in the total concentration range. Thus, an original bilinear model was proposed. The influence of the operating conditions on the adsorption kinetics was also investigated. As a result of that, a new mathematical model was proposed to determine both the liquid and solid phases mass transfer and the solid phase diffusion coefficient. Finally, adsorption of organic matters on a fixed bed process allowed computation of the number of transfer units (NTU), the height of adsorption zone and the degree of saturation of activated carbon

  5. Efficiency of hepatocyte pretreatment with coenzyme Q10 against statin toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghbal, Mohammad Ali; Abdoli, Narges; Azarmi, Yadollah

    2014-03-01

    Statins are potent cholesterol-lowering drugs that can have serious adverse effects on the muscles and liver. The aim of our in vitro study was to establish the protective effect of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, in its optimal dose of 200 μmol L⁻¹) against cytotoxicity induced by atorvastatin, simvastatin, and lovastatin in isolated rat hepatocytes by observing parameters such as cell death, reactive oxygen species formation, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial membrane potential, and cellular reduced and oxidised glutathione content. Our findings have shown that pretreatment with CoQ10 was effective in reducing the toxic effects of statins in rat hepatocytes. This work demonstrates that the addition of CoQ10 to statin treatment regimens may protect hepatocytes (and also other types of cells) from statin-induced injuries and alleviate their side effects.

  6. Comparison of organosolv and hydrotropic pretreatments of eucalyptus for enhancing enzymatic saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Hongyan; Wu, Shubin

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of organosolv and hydrotropic pretreatments on improving enzymatic hydrolysis of eucalyptus. The chemical composition of the fiber surface was analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to determine the surface characteristics of pretreated eucalyptus. Other than the significant decrease of surface coverage by lignin, hydrotropic pretreatment was more effective in removing the lignin and xylose from fiber cell walls than organosolv pretreatment. The restriction of acetyl and phenolic groups in pretreated substrates was typically eliminated by hydrotropic pretreatments. Moreover, fiber structure and morphology after pretreatments were more suitable for enzymatic hydrolysis. Cellulase adsorption capacity was notably improved by hydrotropic pretreatment, which indicating the better enzyme accessibility of cellulose in pretreated substrates. Eventually, higher glucose yield was obtained with hydrotropic pretreatment. In addition, the precipitated lignin as an important by-product of pretreatments was characterized by Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) also. PMID:27590575

  7. Enteral glutamine pretreatment does not decrease plasma endotoxin level induced by ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arda Demirkan; Erkin Orazakunov; Berna Savas; M Ayhan Kuzu; Mehmet Melli

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether oral glutamine pretreatment prevents impairment of intestinal mucosal integrity during ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) in rats. METHODS: The study was performed as two series with 40 rats in each. Each series of animals was divided into four groups. The first group was used as a control. Animals in the second group were only pretreated with oral glutamine, 1 g/kg for 4 d. The third group received a normal diet, and underwent intestinal I/R, while the fourth group was pretreated with oral glutamine in the same way, and underwent intestinal I/R. Intestinal mucosal permeability to 51Cr-labeled EDTA was measured in urine in the first series of animals. In the second series, histopathological changes in intestinal tissue and plasma endotoxin levels were evaluated. RESULTS: Intestinal I/R produced a significant increase in intestinal permeability, plasma endotoxin level and worsened histopathological alterations. After intestinal I/R, permeability was significantly lower in glutamine- treated rats compared to those which received a normal diet. However, no significant change was observed in plasma endotoxin levels or histopathological findings. CONCLUSION: Although glutamine pretreatment seems to be protective of intestinal integrity, upon I/R injury, such an effect was not observable in the histopathological changes or plasma endotoxin level.

  8. Effect of Pre-treatment with Moringa oleifera (Drumstick Leaves on Diabetogenesis Produced by Alloxan in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsun Nahar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medicinal plants constitute an important source of potential therapeutic agents for diabetes. Objective: In the study, we aimed to investigate the pre-treatment effect or preventive effects of Moringa oleifera (MO leaves on blood sugar of rats. Materials and method: This experimental study was carried out in the department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics of Sir Salimullah Medical College in collaboration with Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR, Dhaka. A total 24 long Evans rats were included in this study and divided in to four groups. Hyperglycemia was induced on rats using alloxan (100 mg/kg body weight, intraperitioneally. Blood sample was collected from tail vein by tail tipping method. Pre-treatment effect or preventive role of Moringa oleifera (drumstick leaf powder on diabetogenesis produced by Alloxan in rats was tested by giving 50 mg/rat/day Moringa oleifera leaf powder for 14 days orally as pre-treatment along with standard rat feed. Then alloxan was administered intraperitoneally on 15th day of the experiment and 50mg/rat/day Moringa oleifera leaf powder was given for 7 days as post-treatment. Results: No significant effect of MO on blood glucose level was observed on normal rats and non significant hypoglycaemic effect was found in rats that were pretreated with MO. Conclusion: The present study suggests that Moringa oleifera leaf powder did not produce any significant protective effect in diabetogenesis produced by alloxan though it has hypoglycaemic effect.

  9. Protected Areas - Protected Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Federal Lands data consists of land areas that are run and maintained by U.S. Governmental authorities and are considered protected.The Department of Natural...

  10. Optimization of microwave pretreatment on wheat straw for ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Hongzhang; Kádár, Zsófia;

    2011-01-01

    An orthogonal design (L9(34)) was used to optimize the microwave pretreatment on wheat straw for ethanol production. The orthogonal analysis was done based on the results obtained from the nine pretreatments. The effect of four factors including the ratio of biomass to NaOH solution, pretreatment...... time, microwave power, and the concentration of NaOH solution with three different levels on the chemical composition, cellulose/hemicellulose recoveries and ethanol concentration was investigated. According to the orthogonal analysis, pretreatment with the ratio of biomass to liquid at 80 g kg−1......, the NaOH concentration of 10 kg m−3, the microwave power of 1000 W for 15 min was confirmed to be the optimal condition. The ethanol yield was 148.93 g kg−1 wheat straw at this condition, much higher than that from the untreated material which was only 26.78 g kg−1....

  11. 40 CFR 405.86 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ice Cream, Frozen Desserts, Novelties and Other Dairy Desserts Subcategory § 405.86 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any...

  12. Effect of ultrasonic pretreatment on emulsion polymerization of styrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatomo, Daichi; Horie, Takafumi; Hongo, Chizuru; Ohmura, Naoto

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of pretreatment of ultrasonic irradiation on emulsion polymerization of styrene to propose a process intensification method which gives high conversion, high reaction rate, and high energy efficiency. The solution containing styrene monomer was irradiated by a horn mounted on the ultrasonic transducer with the diameter of 5mm diameter and the frequency of 28 kHz before starting polymerization. The pretreatment of ultrasound irradiation as short as 1 min drastically improved monomer dispersion and increased reaction rate even under the agitation condition with low rotational speed of impeller. Furthermore, the ultrasonic pretreatment resulted in higher monomer concentration in polymer particles and produced larger polymer particles than conventional polymerization without ultrasonic pretreatment.

  13. Effect of ultrasonic pretreatment on emulsion polymerization of styrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatomo, Daichi; Horie, Takafumi; Hongo, Chizuru; Ohmura, Naoto

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of pretreatment of ultrasonic irradiation on emulsion polymerization of styrene to propose a process intensification method which gives high conversion, high reaction rate, and high energy efficiency. The solution containing styrene monomer was irradiated by a horn mounted on the ultrasonic transducer with the diameter of 5mm diameter and the frequency of 28 kHz before starting polymerization. The pretreatment of ultrasound irradiation as short as 1 min drastically improved monomer dispersion and increased reaction rate even under the agitation condition with low rotational speed of impeller. Furthermore, the ultrasonic pretreatment resulted in higher monomer concentration in polymer particles and produced larger polymer particles than conventional polymerization without ultrasonic pretreatment. PMID:26964957

  14. Effect of chip size on steam explosion pretreatment of softwood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, I; Oliva, J M; Navarro, A A; González, A; Carrasco, J; Ballesteros, M

    2000-01-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in technology for converting lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol, substantial opportunities still exist to reduce production costs. In biomass pretreatment, reducing milling power is a technological improvement that will substantially lower production costs for ethanol. Improving sugar yield from hemicellulose hydrolysis would also reduce ethanol production costs. Thus, it would be desirable to test innovative pretreatment conditions to improve the economics by reducing electrical power of the milling stage and by optimizing pretreatment recovery of hemicellulose, as well as to enhance cellulose hydrolysis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of chip size (2-5, 5-8, and 8-12 mm) on steam-explosion pretreatment (190 and 210 degrees C, 4 and 8 min) of softwood (Pinus pinaster).

  15. Effect of surface pretreatments on resin composite bonding to PEEK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silthampitag, Patcharawan; Chaijareenont, Pisaisit; Tattakorn, Kittipong; Banjongprasert, Chaiyasit; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Arksornnukit, Mansuang

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of surface pretreatments on resin composite bonding to polyetheretherketone (PEEK). Four groups of surface pretreatment (no pretreatment, etched with 98% sulfuric acid, etched with piranha solution and sandblasting with 50 µm alumina) were performed on PEEK. Surface roughness, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis were examined. Shear bond strength (SBS) and interface characteristics were also evaluated after the specimens were bonded with resin materials. Two-way ANOVA analysis revealed significance on two main effects and interactions. Tukey's multiple comparisons test showed that the SBS of resin composite on PEEK were the highest in the group etched with 98% sulfuric acid and bonded with Heliobond(®) (p<0.05). All pretreatments produced similar spectra of FTIR patterns. SEM demonstrated porosities and pitting from chemical etching, which suggested a significant influence on the adhesion between PEEK and resin materials. PMID:27477234

  16. Deep eutectic solvent pretreatment and subsequent saccharification of corncob.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procentese, Alessandra; Johnson, Erin; Orr, Valerie; Garruto Campanile, Anna; Wood, Jeffery A; Marzocchella, Antonio; Rehmann, Lars

    2015-09-01

    Ionic liquid (ILs) pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass has attracted broad scientific interest, despite high costs, possible toxicity and energy intensive recycling. An alternative group of ionic solvents with similar physicochemical properties are deep eutectic solvents (DESs). Corncob residues were pretreated with three different DES systems: choline chloride and glycerol, choline chloride and imidazole, choline chloride and urea. The pretreated biomass was characterised in terms of lignin content, sugars concentration, enzymatic digestibility and crystallinity index. A reduction of lignin and hemicellulose content resulted in increased crystallinity of the pretreated biomass while the crystallinity of the cellulose fraction could be reduced, depending on DES system and operating conditions. The subsequent enzymatic saccharification was enhanced in terms of rate and extent. A total of 41 g fermentable sugars (27 g glucose and 14 g xylose) could be recovered from 100g corncob, representing 76% (86% and 63%) of the initially available carbohydrates. PMID:26005926

  17. Pretreatment of Miscanthus for hydrogen production by Thermotoga elfii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrije, de T.; Haas, de G.G.; Tan, G.B.; Keijsers, E.R.P.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Pretreatment methods for the production of fermentable substrates from Miscanthus, a lignocellulosic biomass, were investigated. Results demonstrated an inverse relationship between lignin content and the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of polysaccharides. High delignification values were obtaine

  18. Effects of Pretreatments in Convective Dehydration of Rosehip (Rosa eglanteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Mabellini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to experimentally determine drying curves for thin layer and bed drying of rosehip fruits, with and without pretreatments, to reduce processing times as a function of drying air operating variables, to propose dehydration kinetics of fruits and to determine its kinetic parameters for further use within drying simulation software. Fruits were pre-treated both chemically and mechanically, which included dipping the fruits in NaOH and ethyl oleate solutions; and cutting or perforating the fruit cuticle, respectively. Simulation models were then adopted to fit the kinetics drying data considering fruit volume shrinkage. These simple models minimized the calculation time during the simulation of deep-bed driers. Results show that pre-treatments reduced processing times up to 57%, and evaluated models satisfactorily predicted the drying of rosehip fruit. Effective mass diffusion coefficients were up to 4-fold greater when fruit was submitted to mechanical pretreatments.

  19. Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, R

    2014-01-01

    The protection of accelerator equipment is as old as accelerator technology and was for many years related to high-power equipment. Examples are the protection of powering equipment from overheating (magnets, power converters, high-current cables), of superconducting magnets from damage after a quench and of klystrons. The protection of equipment from beam accidents is more recent. It is related to the increasing beam power of high-power proton accelerators such as ISIS, SNS, ESS and the PSI cyclotron, to the emission of synchrotron light by electron–positron accelerators and FELs, and to the increase of energy stored in the beam (in particular for hadron colliders such as LHC). Designing a machine protection system requires an excellent understanding of accelerator physics and operation to anticipate possible failures that could lead to damage. Machine protection includes beam and equipment monitoring, a system to safely stop beam operation (e.g. dumping the beam or stopping the beam at low energy) and an ...

  20. Micronutrient dynamics after thermal pretreatment of olive mill solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almansa, Ana R; Rodriguez-Galan, Monica; Borja, Rafael; Fermoso, Fernando G

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated metal dynamics, and their bioavailability, before and after thermal pretreatment of olive mill solid waste (OMSW), using a sequential metal extraction scheme. The 11.5% increase of cobalt in the most available fraction after the pretreatment coupled to the increase of methane production rate have been a good indicator that the OMSW anaerobic digestion might be metal limited due to the lack of cobalt.

  1. Alkali pretreated of wheat straw and its enzymatic hydrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lirong Han; Juntao Feng; Shuangxi Zhang; Zhiqing Ma; Yonghong Wang; Xing Zhang

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose can be improved by various pretreatments of the substrate. In order to increase the efficiency of enzymatic saccharification of the wheat straw, we determined the effect of different pretreatments on the physical structure, chemical components and enzymatic saccharification of wheat straw. Our results showed that combination of grinding and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) treatment had high effect on the enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straws. The opt...

  2. Wet oxidation pretreatment of rape straw for ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rape straw can be used for production of second generation bioethanol. In this paper we optimized the pretreatment of rape straw for this purpose using Wet oxidation (WO). The effect of reaction temperature, reaction time, and oxygen gas pressure was investigated for maximum ethanol yield via Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF). To reduce the water use and increase the energy efficiency in WO pretreatment features like recycling liquid (filtrate), presoaking of rape straw in water or recycled filtrate before WO, skip washing pretreated solids (filter cake) after WO, or use of whole slurry (Filter cake + filtrate) in SSF were also tested. Except ethanol yields, pretreatment methods were evaluated based on achieved glucose yields, amount of water used, recovery of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The highest ethanol yield obtained was 67% after fermenting the whole slurry produced by WO at 205 °C for 3 min with 12 bar of oxygen gas pressure and featured with presoaking in water. At these conditions after pre-treatment, cellulose and hemicellulose was recovered quantitatively (100%) together with 86% of the lignin. WO treatments of 2–3 min at 205–210 °C with 12 bar of oxygen gas produced higher ethanol yields and cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin recoveries, than 15 min WO treatment at 195 °C. Also, recycling filtrate and use of higher oxygen gas pressure reduced recovery of materials. The use of filtrate could be inhibitory for the yeast, but also reduced lactic acid formation in SSF. -- Highlights: ► Wet Oxidation pretreatment on rape straw for sugar and ethanol production. ► Variables were reaction time, temperature, and oxygen gas pressure. ► Also, other configurations for increase of water and energy efficiency. ► Short Wet oxidation pretreatment (2–3 min) produced highest ethanol yield. ► After these pretreatment conditions recovery of lignin in solids was 86%.

  3. 40 CFR 421.316 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pounds) of tungsten carbide produced Copper 10.670 5.083 Nickel 4.583 3.083 Ammonia (as N) 1,111.000 488... Subcategory § 421.316 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7, any new... comply with 40 CFR part 403 and achieve the following pretreatment standards for new sources. The mass...

  4. 40 CFR 421.156 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 421.156 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7, any new source... 40 CFR part 403 and achieve the following pretreatment standards for new sources. The mass of... (total) 46.0 18.4 Ammonia (as N) 30,660.0 13,480.0 Flouride 160,308.0 71,201.0 (g) Process water....

  5. Effect of Ethanol Pretreatment on Skin Permeation of Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    堀田,大介; 藤堂, 浩明; 杉林, 堅次

    2012-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that ethanol (EtOH) can enhance skin permeation of drugs when simultaneously applied with drugs. However, only a few studies have reported on the pretreatment effect of EtOH on skin permeations. In this study, the pretreatment effects of EtOH on skin permeation of drugs were investigated by measuring changes in skin permeation and electrical skin resistance. Permeabilities of deuterium oxide (D2O), isosorbide mononitrate (ISMN), isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN), calcein so...

  6. Effects of Pretreatments in Convective Dehydration of Rosehip (Rosa eglanteria)

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandra Mabellini; Elizabeth Ohaco; Carlos Alberto Márquez; Antonio De Michelis; Jorge Enrique Lozano

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to experimentally determine drying curves for thin layer and bed drying of rosehip fruits, with and without pretreatments, to reduce processing times as a function of drying air operating variables, to propose dehydration kinetics of fruits and to determine its kinetic parameters for further use within drying simulation software. Fruits were pre-treated both chemically and mechanically, which included dipping the fruits in NaOH and ethyl oleate solutions; and cutting ...

  7. Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Zerlauth, Markus; Wenninger, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    The present architecture of the machine protection system is being recalled and the performance of the associated systems during the 2011 run will be briefly summarized. An analysis of the causes of beam dumps as well as an assessment of the dependability of the machine protection systems (MPS) itself is being presented. Emphasis will be given to events that risked exposing parts of the machine to damage. Further improvements and mitigations of potential holes in the protection systems will be evaluated along with their impact on the 2012 run. The role of rMPP during the various operational phases (commissioning, intensity ramp up, MDs...) will be discussed along with a proposal for the intensity ramp up for the start of beam operation in 2012.

  8. Long-wave UVA offers partial protection against UVB-induced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, L.; Villadsen, L.; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær;

    2000-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UVB, 280–320 nm) interferes with the generation of cell-mediated immunity to contact allergens applied epicutaneously on the irradiated site. To investigate whether pretreatment with UVA-1 (340–400 nm) protects against the UVB-induced immune suppression we sensitized human volunteers...... with diphenylcyclopropenone (DPCP) on normal buttock skin (n=12), on UVB-irradiated buttock skin (n=21), on buttock skin pretreated with UVA-1 (n=12), and on buttock skin pretreated with UVA-1 and thereafter irradiated with UVB (n=22). Sensitization on UVB-irradiated skin reduced the immunization rate...

  9. Combined alkaline and ultrasonic pretreatment of sludge before aerobic digestion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yiying; LI Huan; MAHAR Rasool Bux; WANG Zhiyu; NIE Yongfeng

    2009-01-01

    Alkaline and ultrasonic sludge disintegration can both be used as pretreatments of waste activated sludge (WAS) for improving the subsequent anaerobic or aerobic digestion. The pretreatment has been carried out using different combination of these two methods in this study. The effect was evaluated based on the quantity of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) in the pretreated sludge as well as the degradation of organic matter in the following aerobic digestion. For WAS samples with combined pretreatment, the released COD was in high level than those with ultrasonic or alkaline treatment. When combined with the same ultrasonic treatment, NaOH treatment resulted in more solubilization of WAS than Ca(OH)2. For combined NaOH and ultrasonic treatments with different sequences, the released COD were in the order: simultaneous treatment > ultrasonic treatment following NaOH treatment > NaOH treatment following ultrasonic treatment. For simultaneous treatment, low NaOH dosage (100 g/kg dry solid), short duration (30 min) of NaOH treatment, and low ultrasonic specific energy (7 500 kJ/kg dry solid) were beneficial for sludge disintegration. Using combined NaOH and ultrasonic pretreatment with the optimium parameters, the degradation efficiency of organic matter was increased from 38.0% to 50.7%, which is much higher than with ultrasonic (42.5%) or with NaOH pretreatment (43.5%) in the subsequent aerobic digestion at the same retention time.

  10. Optimization and evaluation of alkaline potassium permanganate pretreatment of corncob.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lijuan; Cui, Youzhi; Cai, Rui; Liu, Xueqiang; Zhang, Cuiying; Xiao, Dongguang

    2015-03-01

    Alkaline potassium permanganate solution (APP) was applied to the pretreatment of corncob with a simple and effective optimization of APP concentration, reaction time, temperature and solid to liquid ratio (SLR). The optimized pretreatment conditions were at 2% (w/v) potassium permanganate with SLR of 1:10 treating for 6h at 50°C. This simple one-step treatment resulted in significant 94.56% of the cellulose and 81.47% of the hemicellulose recoveries and 46.79% of the lignin removal of corncob. The reducing sugar in the hydrolysate from APP-pretreated corncob was 8.39g/L after 12h enzymatic hydrolysis, which was 1.44 and 1.29 folds higher than those from raw and acid pretreated corncobs. Physical characteristics, crystallinity and structure of the pretreated corncob were analyzed and assessed by SEM, XRD and FTIR. The APP pretreatment process was novel and enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose by affecting composition and structural features. PMID:25585256

  11. Physical protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myre, W.C.; DeMontmollin, J.M. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1989-07-01

    Serious concern about physical protection of nuclear facilities began around 1972. R and D was initiated at Sandia National Laboratories which had developed techniques to protect weapons for many years. Special vehicles, convoy procedures, and a communications system previously developed for weapons shipments were improved and extended for shipments of other sensitive materials. Barriers, perimeter alarms, portal and internal control systems were developed, tested, and published in handbooks and presented at symposia. Training programs were initiated for U.S. and foreign personnel. Containment and surveillance techniques were developed for the IAEA. Presently emphasis is on computer security, active barriers, and techniques to prevent theft or sabotage by insiders .

  12. Techniques and practices for pretreatment of low and intermediate level solid and liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overall waste management strategy generally includes several components: pretreatment, treatment, conditioning, transport and disposal. Benefits of pretreatment are improved safety, lower radiation exposures and significantly lower costs in subsequent waste management operations. This publication reviews current practices in the pretreatment of wastes in different countries and may assist the specialist in selection of appropriate pretreatment techniques

  13. Comparison the effects of nitric oxide and spermidin pretreatment on alleviation of salt stress in chamomile plant (Matricaria recutita L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazelian Nasrin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress is an important environmental stress that produces reactive oxygen species in plants and causes oxidative injuries. In this investigation, salt stress reduced the shoot and root length, while increased the content of malondealdehyde, Hydrogen peroxide, and the activity of Ascorbate peroxidase andguaiacol peroxidase. Pretreatment of chamomile plants under salt stress with sodium nitroprussideand Spermidin caused enhancement of growth parameters and reduction of malondealdehyde and Hydrogen peroxide content. Pretreatment of plants with sodium nitroprusside remarkably increased Ascorbate peroxidase activity, while Spermidin pre-treatment significantly increased guaiacol peroxidase activity. Application of sodium nitroprusside or Spermidin with Methylene blue which is known to block cyclic guanosine monophosphate signaling pathway, reduced the protective effects of sodium nitroprussideand Spermidin in plants under salinity condition. The result of this study indicated that Methylene blue could partially and entirely abolish the protective effect of Nitric oxide on some physiological parameter. Methylene blue also has could reduce the alleviation effect of Spermidin on some of parameters in chamomile plant under salt stress, so with comparing the results of this study it seems that Spermidin probably acts through Nitric oxide pathway, but the use of 2-4- carboxyphenyl- 4,4,5,5- tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide is better to prove.

  14. Pretreatments of lignocellulosic feedstock for bioethanol production

    OpenAIRE

    Predojević Zlatica J.

    2010-01-01

    The use of renewable energy sources (biofuels), either as a component in the conventional fossil fuels, gasoline and diesel, or as a pure biofuel, contributes to energy saving and decrease of total CO2 emission. The use of bioethanol mixed with gasoline significantly decreases gasoline consumption and contributes to environment protection. One of the problems in the production of bioethanol is the availability of sugar and starch based feedstock used for its production. However, lignocellulos...

  15. Protection Myopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld; Salter, Ammon; Li, Cher

    from having an orientation towards legal appropriability, we conjecture that protection myopia may lead some firms to allocate too much attention to legal appropriability, in particular when the behavioral and structural contingencies are unfavorable. Examining a panel of three successive waves...

  16. Biomass pretreatment affects Ustilago maydis in producing itaconic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klement Tobias

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last years, the biotechnological production of platform chemicals for fuel components has become a major focus of interest. Although ligno-cellulosic material is considered as suitable feedstock, the almost inevitable pretreatment of this recalcitrant material may interfere with the subsequent fermentation steps. In this study, the fungus Ustilago maydis was used to produce itaconic acid as platform chemical for the synthesis of potential biofuels such as 3-methyltetrahydrofuran. No studies, however, have investigated how pretreatment of ligno-cellulosic biomass precisely influences the subsequent fermentation by U. maydis. Thus, this current study aims to first characterize U. maydis in shake flasks and then to evaluate the influence of three exemplary pretreatment methods on the cultivation and itaconic acid production of this fungus. Cellulose enzymatically hydrolysed in seawater and salt-assisted organic-acid catalysed cellulose were investigated as substrates. Lastly, hydrolysed hemicellulose from fractionated beech wood was applied as substrate. Results U. maydis was characterized on shake flask level regarding its itaconic acid production on glucose. Nitrogen limitation was shown to be a crucial condition for the production of itaconic acid. For itaconic acid concentrations above 25 g/L, a significant product inhibition was observed. Performing experiments that simulated influences of possible pretreatment methods, U. maydis was only slightly affected by high osmolarities up to 3.5 osmol/L as well as of 0.1 M oxalic acid. The production of itaconic acid was achieved on pretreated cellulose in seawater and on the hydrolysed hemicellulosic fraction of pretreated beech wood. Conclusion The fungus U. maydis is a promising producer of itaconic acid, since it grows as single cells (yeast-like in submerged cultivations and it is extremely robust in high osmotic media and real seawater. Moreover, U. maydis can grow on

  17. Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) Integrated Test B Run Report--Caustic and Oxidative Leaching in UFP-VSL-T02A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geeting, John GH; Bredt, Ofelia P.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Guzman-Leong, Consuelo E.; Josephson, Gary B.; Kurath, Dean E.; Sevigny, Gary J.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.

    2009-12-10

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes” of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing.

  18. Study of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Dilute Acid Pretreated Coconut Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Agustriyanto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Coconut husk is classified as complex lignocellulosic material that contains cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and some other extractive compounds. Cellulose from coconut husk can be used as fermentation substrate after enzymatic hydrolysis. In contrary, lignin content from the coconut husk will act as an inhibitor in this hydrolysis process. Therefore, a pretreatment process is needed to enhance the hydrolysis of cellulose. The objective of this research is to investigate the production of the glucose through dilute acid pretreatment and to obtain its optimum operating conditions. In this study, the pretreatment was done using dilute sulfuric acid in an autoclave reactor. The pretreatment condition were varied at 80°C, 100°C, 120°C and 0.9%, 1.2%, 1.5% for temperature and acid concentration respectively. The acid pretreated coconut husk was then hydrolyzed using commercial cellulase (celluclast and β-glucosidase (Novozyme 188. The hydrolysis time was 72 hours and the operating conditions were varied at several temperature and pH. From the experimental results it can be concluded that the delignification temperature variation has greater influence than the acid concentration. The optimum operating condition was obtained at pH 4 and 50°C which was pretreated at 100°C using 1.5% acid concentration. Copyright © 2012 by BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved. (Selected Paper from International Conference on Chemical and Material Engineering (ICCME 2012Received: 28th September 2012, Revised: 2nd October 2012, Accepted: 4th October 2012[How to Cite: R. Agustriyanto, A. Fatmawati, Y. Liasari. (2012. Study of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Dilute Acid Pretreated Coconut Husk. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7(2: 137-141. doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.2.4046.137-141] [How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.2.4046.137-141 ] | View in 

  19. Alkali Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cattails from Constructed Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: To date, production of liquid fuel, particularly ethanol, has only been economically feasible from food crops that are high in sugar and starch. However, the use of arable land for fuel rather than for food production and the use of a food source for fuel rather than as food have created issues in prices and availability of traditional foods and feed. The use of cattails to produce biofuel will add value to land and will also reduce emissions of greenhouse gases by replacing petroleum products. Approach: In order to investigate the feasibility of converting cattails into cellulosic ethanol, an alkali (NaOH pretreatment process was studied using cattails from constructed wetlands on a North Carolina A and T Farm based on NaOH concentration and enzyme loading. Results: The alkali pretreatment method was able to effectively increase enzymatic digestibility of cattail cellulose; nearly 78% of the cellulose from raw cattails was converted to fermentable glucose in 48 h using a cellulase loading of 60 FPU g-1 glucan. About 25.5, 37.4, 38.4, 42.4 and 55.9% of the lignin was removed with pretreatment in 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4% NaOH, respectively. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ATCC 24858 was able to ferment the sugars released by cattail cellulose. Conclusion: The overall effectiveness of alkali pretreatment was a function of NaOH concentration and enzyme loading. NaOH concentrations in the range of 1-2% are recommended for the pretreatment of cattails. For cattails pretreated with 4% NaOH, no significant change in digestibility occurred when enzyme loading was increased beyond 15 FPU g-1 glucan. It is recommended that further studies be carried out using cattails as a feedstock for biofuels, especially to optimize the economics of pretreatment processes for cattails in terms of energy input, enzyme loading, glucose yield and xylose yield.

  20. CrN/NbN superlattice structured coatings with enhanced corrosion resistance achieved by high power impulse magnetron sputtering interface pre-treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhard, C. [Nanotechnology Centre for PVD Research, Materials and Engineering Research Institute, Sheffield Hallam University, Howard Street, Sheffield, S1 1WB (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: C.Reinhard@shu.ac.uk; Ehiasarian, A.P. [Nanotechnology Centre for PVD Research, Materials and Engineering Research Institute, Sheffield Hallam University, Howard Street, Sheffield, S1 1WB (United Kingdom); Hovsepian, P.Eh. [Nanotechnology Centre for PVD Research, Materials and Engineering Research Institute, Sheffield Hallam University, Howard Street, Sheffield, S1 1WB (United Kingdom)

    2007-02-26

    In physical vapour deposition the ion etching pre-treatment prior to thin film deposition strongly influences the substrate/coating interface structure and chemistry and consequently properties such as adhesion and corrosion performance. This study compares CrN/NbN superlattice coatings grown by unbalanced magnetron sputtering on 304L stainless steel (SS) and M2 high speed steel (HSS) pre-treated with Nb ions at bias voltages of - 600 V with three different methods: (1) high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS), (2) HIPIMS with subsequent Nb HIPIMS interlayer deposition and (3) steered cathodic arc (Canada) metal ion etching with CA interlayer deposition. The discharge during the pre-treatment step was analysed by optical emission spectroscopy of the Nb plasma, revealing a HIPIMS plasma dominated by singly charged Nb{sup 1+} ions. Two-fold charged Nb{sup 2+} ions were also present. HIPIMS pre-treatment promoted the formation of a clean and droplet-free interface and growth-defect free and dense coatings. Localized epitaxial growth of the films, as examined by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, resulted in significantly improved coating adhesion (L {sub C} = 56 N) compared to CA pre-treatment (L {sub C} = 45 N). The introduction of a 30 nm thick Nb metal interlayer resulted in clearly defined and sharp interfaces with coherent base layer growth further improving the adhesion (L {sub C} = 65 N). Furthermore, the corrosion performance was studied by potentiodynamic polarisation in 3% NaCl solution. Results show superior corrosion performance for the HIPIMS pre-treated coatings. The HIPIMS pre-treatment prior to coating deposition provided passivation up to + 1000 mV on 304 stainless steel (SS) substrates. An additional Nb interlayer significantly enhanced the corrosion performance with lower current densities of 4 x 10{sup -5} A cm{sup -2}. CrN/NbN superlattice structured coatings were also sufficient to effectively protect non-noble M2 high

  1. Radiation protection

    CERN Multimedia

    Radioactive Shipping Service

    2005-01-01

    The section of the radiation protection group in charge of shipping radioactive material would like to remind users that all radioactive material leaving CERN must be checked for radioactivity and must be shipped according to the procedure given at http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Do not hesitate to contact us for any question or control. Radioactive Shipping Service: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch Tél. 73171

  2. Radiation protection

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The section of the Radiation Protection Group in charge of shipping radioactive material would like to remind users that all radioactive material leaving CERN must be checked for radioactivity and must be shipped according to the procedure given at http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Do not hesitate to contact us for any question or control. Radioactive Shipping Service: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch Tél. 73171

  3. Radiation protection

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The section of the Radiation Protection Group in charge of shipping radioactive material would like to remind users that all radioactive material leaving CERN must be checked for radioactivity and must be shipped according to the procedure given at http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Do not hesitate to contact us for any question or control. Radioactive Shipping Service: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch Tel. 73171

  4. Corrosion protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention describes a corrosion protection device for long-term storage containers of radioactive matter, in particular of irradiated fuel elements stored in geological formations apt for the purpose. This device prevents corrosion of the containers even if water emerges unexpectedly, or, in any case, inhibits and minimizes corrosion. The device comprehends reactive anodes that are connected to the containers by means of conductive connections. (orig.)

  5. Protecting Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galster, Kjeld

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT Galster, Kjeld Hald. Doctoral Student (History). Saxo Institute. May 2007. Protecting Democracy: Danish Defence Debate in Times of Change. Supervisor: Professor, Dr. Gunner Lind. Democratic debate on defence and democratic organisation of the forces are as central to the life of a democr......ABSTRACT Galster, Kjeld Hald. Doctoral Student (History). Saxo Institute. May 2007. Protecting Democracy: Danish Defence Debate in Times of Change. Supervisor: Professor, Dr. Gunner Lind. Democratic debate on defence and democratic organisation of the forces are as central to the life....... The dissertation addresses two essential problems of the correlation of democracy, the debate, and the current defence policy. Firstly, is democratic society capable of pursuing constantly a defence policy reflecting the classic, realist logic, or does this happen only sporadically, because the debate is being.......d.-studerende (historie). Saxo-Instituttet, maj 2007. Protecting Democracy: Danish Defence Debate in Times of Change. Vejleder: Professor, dr. phil. Gunner Lind. En forsvarsdebat hvilende på demokratisk debat og en demokratisk indretning af forsvaret er lige så selvfølgeligt for den demokratiske stat som forsvar i det...

  6. Effect of pretreating of host oil on coprocessing. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wender, I.; Tierney, J.W.

    1995-10-01

    A petroleum vacuum resid (1,000 F+) was pretreated by catalytic hydrogenation and hydrocracking reactions and the pretreated resids (host oils) were then coprocessed with coal. The fraction of coal converted to soluble products and the yield of pentane-soluble oils were determined after coprocessing. The phenolic oxygen concentration of the oil product provided a means for estimating the fraction of coal liquids in the products; oils originating from coal had much higher concentrations of phenolic oxygen than those originating from petroleum. Resids that were pretreated by mild temperature hydrogenation reactions, where cracking was suppressed, became better host oils; when these pretreated resids were coprocessed with coal, more of the mixture was converted to tetrahydrofuran-soluble products. Depending on the pretreatment, the pentane-soluble oil yields following thermal coprocessing were either significantly lower or slightly higher than the oil yields obtained with untreated resid. The yield of oils was strongly affected by the concentration of coal in the feed. The presence of small amounts, less than 33% of coal, enhanced the conversion of petroleum resid to oils during coprocessing, although the increases were small. 91 refs.

  7. Specific pretreatments reduce curing period of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia) beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedhar, R V; Roohie, K; Venkatachalam, L; Narayan, M S; Bhagyalakshmi, N

    2007-04-18

    With the aiming of reducing the curing period, effects of pretreatments on flavor formation in vanilla beans during accelerated curing at 38 degrees C for 40 days were studied. Moisture loss, change in texture, levels of flavoring compounds, and activities of relevant enzymes were compared among various pretreatments as well as the commercial sample. Use of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA; 5 mg/L) or Ethrel (1%) with blanching pretreatment resulted in 3-fold higher vanillin on the 10th day. Other flavoring compounds-vanillic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde-fluctuated greatly, showing no correlation with the pretreatments. Scarification of beans resulted in nearly 4- and 3.6-fold higher vanillin formations on the 10th day in NAA- and Ethrel-treated beans, respectively, as compared to control with a significant change in texture. When activities of major relevant enzymes were followed, addition of NAA or Ethrel helped to retain higher levels of cellulase throughout the curing period and higher levels of beta-glucosidase on the 20th day that correlated with higher vanillin content during curing and subsequent periods. Peroxidase, being highest throughout, did not correlate with the change in levels of major flavoring compounds. The pretreatment methods of the present study may find importance for realizing higher flavor formation in a shorter period because the major quality parameters were found to be comparable to those of a commercial sample.

  8. Screening of ligninolytic fungi for biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chunyan; Singh, Deepak; Dorgan, Kathleen M; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Chen, Shulin

    2015-10-01

    To identify white rot fungi with high potential in biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass, preliminary screening was carried out on plates by testing different strains for their ability to oxidize guaiacol and decolorize the dyes azure B and Poly R-478. Of the 86 strains screened, 16 were selected for secondary screening for their ligninolytic ability; however, low manganese peroxidase activity and no lignin peroxidase activity were detected. Strain BBEL0970 proved to be the most efficient in laccase production and was subsequently identified as Trametes versicolor by analysis of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer gene sequence. In combining laccase production with biological pretreatment, the replacement of glucose with barley straw significantly improved the laccase activity by up to 10.3 U/mL, which provided evidence toward potential utilization of barley straw in laccase production by BBEL0970. Simultaneously, comparison by thermogravimetric analysis of the untreated and pretreated barley straw in liquid fermentation of laccase also demonstrated the high potential of BBEL0970 in biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. This work sheds light on further exploration on the integrated process of low-cost laccase production and efficient biological pretreatment of barley straw by T. versicolor BBEL0970. PMID:26286682

  9. Compounds inhibiting the bioconversion of hydrothermally pretreated lignocellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ja Kyong; Um, Youngsoon; Park, Yong-Cheol; Seo, Jin-Ho; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2015-05-01

    Hydrothermal pretreatment using liquid hot water, steam explosion, or dilute acids enhances the enzymatic digestibility of cellulose by altering the chemical and/or physical structures of lignocellulosic biomass. However, compounds that inhibit both enzymes and microbial activity, including lignin-derived phenolics, soluble sugars, furan aldehydes, and weak acids, are also generated during pretreatment. Insoluble lignin, which predominantly remains within the pretreated solids, also acts as a significant inhibitor of cellulases during hydrolysis of cellulose. Exposed lignin, which is modified to be more recalcitrant to enzymes during pretreatment, adsorbs cellulase nonproductively and reduces the availability of active cellulase for hydrolysis of cellulose. Similarly, lignin-derived phenolics inhibit or deactivate cellulase and β-glucosidase via irreversible binding or precipitation. Meanwhile, the performance of fermenting microorganisms is negatively affected by phenolics, sugar degradation products, and weak acids. This review describes the current knowledge regarding the contributions of inhibitors present in whole pretreatment slurries to the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and fermentation. Furthermore, we discuss various biological strategies to mitigate the effects of these inhibitors on enzymatic and microbial activity to improve the lignocellulose-to-biofuel process robustness. While the inhibitory effect of lignin on enzymes can be relieved through the use of lignin blockers and by genetically engineering the structure of lignin or of cellulase itself, soluble inhibitors, including phenolics, furan aldehydes, and weak acids, can be detoxified by microorganisms or laccase.

  10. Urine Pretreatment Configuration and Test Results for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Stanley G.; Hutchens, Cindy F.; Rethke, Donald W.; Swartley, Vernon L.; Marsh, Robert W.

    1998-01-01

    Pretreatment of urine using Oxone and sulfuric acid is baselined in the International Space Station (ISS) waste water reclamation system to control odors, fix urea and control microbial growth. In addition, pretreatment is recommended for long term flight use of urine collection and two phase separation to reduce or eliminate fouling of the associated hardware and plumbing with urine precipitates. This is important for ISS application because the amount of maintenance time for cleaning and repairing hardware must be minimized. This paper describes the development of a chemical pretreatment system based on solid tablet shapes which are positioned in the urine collection hose and are dissolved by the intrained urine at the proper ratio of pretreatment to urine. Building upon the prior success of the developed and tested solid Oxone tablet a trade study was completed to confirm if a similar approach, or alternative, would be appropriate for the sulfuric acid injection method. In addition, a recommended handling and packaging approach of the solid tablets for long term, safe and convenient use on ISS was addressed. Consequently, the solid tablet concept with suitable packaging was identified as the Urine Pretreat / Prefilter Assembly (UPPA). Testing of the UPPA configuration confirmed the disolution rates and ratios required by ISS were achieved. This testing included laboratory controlled methods as well as a 'real world' test evaluation that occurred during the 150 day Stage 10 Water Recovery Test (WRT) conducted at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  11. Pretreatment Methods of Ligno - Cellulosic Biomass: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aritra Das

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Present work primarily deals with the exhaustive investigations of rapid de-lignification processes from source-sorted organic fractions that are recalcitrant in nature. Organic solid wastes (OSW belongs to the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (MSW and they act as enormous potential substrate for alternative source of energy in the form of bio-fuels. Nevertheless, these substrates are not easily biodegradable and the degree of biodegradability is solely dependent on the composition & characteristic of organic solid wastes in municipal solid wastes. The component responsible for recalcitrance of organic solid wastes is lignin that occurs in variable amounts in different plant residues. In order to remove the recalcitrance from organic fraction municipal solid wastes and to make it more easily degradable by microbial consortia, certain pretreatment techniques have been adopted and they are applied either individually or in combined way for enhancement of bio-methanation i.e anaerobic digestion (AD process. The goal of pretreatment method is to make the cellulose in micro-fibrils available for hydrolysis and improve the rate of hydrolysis. This paper reviews pretreatment techniques including physical, physico-chemical, chemical, biological methods respectively. The various effects of pretreatment on organic solid wastes are discussed separately and pretreatment methods have been compared on the basis of cost, efficiency and suitability to substrate.

  12. Activation of glassy carbon electrodes by photocatalytic pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumanli, Onur [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Art, Ondokuz Mayis University, Kurupelit, 55139 Samsun (Turkey); Onar, A. Nur [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Art, Ondokuz Mayis University, Kurupelit, 55139 Samsun (Turkey)], E-mail: nonar@omu.edu.tr

    2009-11-01

    This paper describes a simple and rapid photocatalytic pretreatment procedure that removes contaminants from glassy carbon (GC) surfaces. The effectiveness of TiO{sub 2} mediated photocatalytic pretreatment procedure was compared to commonly used alumina polishing procedure. Cyclic voltammetric and chronocoulometric measurements were carried out to assess the changes in electrode reactivity by using four redox systems. Electrochemical measurements obtained on photocatalytically treated GC electrodes showed a more active surface relative to polished GC. In cyclic voltammograms of epinephrine, Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-/4-} and ferrocene redox systems, higher oxidation and reduction currents were observed. The heterogeneous electron transfer rate constants (k{sup o}) were calculated for Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-/4-} and ferrocene which were greater for photocatalytic pretreatment. Chronocoulometry was performed in order to find the amount of adsorbed methylene blue onto the electrode and was calculated as 0.34 pmol cm{sup -2} for photocatalytically pretreated GC. The proposed photocatalytic GC electrode cleansing and activating pretreatment procedure was more effective than classical alumina polishing.

  13. Intensification of biogas production using pretreatment based on hydrodynamic cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Pankaj N; Gogate, Parag R; Csoka, Levente; Dregelyi-Kiss, Agota; Horvath, Miklos

    2016-05-01

    The present work investigates the application of hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) for the pretreatment of wheat straw with an objective of enhancing the biogas production. The hydrodynamic cavitation reactor is based on a stator and rotor assembly. The effect of three different speeds of rotor (2300, 2500, 2700 rpm), wheat straw to water ratios (0.5%, 1% and 1.5% wt/wt) and also treatment times as 2, 4 and 6 min have been investigated in the work using the design of experiments (DOE) approach. It was observed that the methane yield of 31.8 ml was obtained with untreated wheat straw whereas 77.9 ml was obtained with HC pre-treated wheat straw confirming the favourable changes during the pre-treatment. The combined pre-treatment using KOH and HC gave maximum yield of biogas as 172.3 ml. Overall, it has been established that significant enhancement in the biogas production can be obtained due to the pretreatment using HC which can also be further intensified by combination with chemical treatment. PMID:26639635

  14. Enhancing biogas production of corn stover by fast pyrolysis pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Zhang, Deli; Wu, Houkai; Yi, Weiming; Fu, Peng; Li, Yongjun; Li, Zhihe

    2016-10-01

    A new thermo-chemical pretreatment by a lower temperature fast pyrolysis (LTFP) was applied to promote anaerobic digestion (AD) efficiency of corn stover (CS). The pretreatment experiment was performed by a fluidized bed pyrolysis reactor at 180, 200 and 220°C with a carrier gas flow rate of 4 and 3m(3)/h. The components characteristics, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images and Crystal Intensity (CrI) of the pretreated CS were tested to explore effectiveness of the pretreatment. The results showed that the cumulative methane production at 180°C for 4 and 3m(3)/h were 199.8 and 200.3mL/g TS, respectively. As compared to the untreated CS, the LTFP pretreatment significantly (amethane production by 18.07% and 18.33%, respectively. Methane production was well fitted by the Gompertz models, and the maximum methane potential and AD efficiency was obtained at 180°C for 3m(3)/h. PMID:27420161

  15. Intensification of biogas production using pretreatment based on hydrodynamic cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Pankaj N; Gogate, Parag R; Csoka, Levente; Dregelyi-Kiss, Agota; Horvath, Miklos

    2016-05-01

    The present work investigates the application of hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) for the pretreatment of wheat straw with an objective of enhancing the biogas production. The hydrodynamic cavitation reactor is based on a stator and rotor assembly. The effect of three different speeds of rotor (2300, 2500, 2700 rpm), wheat straw to water ratios (0.5%, 1% and 1.5% wt/wt) and also treatment times as 2, 4 and 6 min have been investigated in the work using the design of experiments (DOE) approach. It was observed that the methane yield of 31.8 ml was obtained with untreated wheat straw whereas 77.9 ml was obtained with HC pre-treated wheat straw confirming the favourable changes during the pre-treatment. The combined pre-treatment using KOH and HC gave maximum yield of biogas as 172.3 ml. Overall, it has been established that significant enhancement in the biogas production can be obtained due to the pretreatment using HC which can also be further intensified by combination with chemical treatment.

  16. Effect of pretreating of host oil on coprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajdu, P.E.; Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The principal objective of this research was to determine if coprocessing performance (i.e., coal conversion and oil yield) could be significantly improved by pretreating the heavy resid prior to reacting it with coal. For this purpose, two petroleum vacuum resids (1000{degrees}F+), one from the Amoco Co. and another from the Citgo Co., were used as such and after they had been pretreated by catalytic hydrogenation and hydrocracking reactions. The pretreatments were aimed at improving the host oil by; (1) converting any aromatic structures in the petroleum to hydroaromatic compounds capable of donating hydrogen, (2) cracking the heavy oil to lower molecular weight material that might serve as a better solvent, (3) reducing the coking propensity of the heavy oil through the hydrogenation of polynuclear aromatic compounds, and (4) removing metals and heteroatoms that might poison a coprocessing catalyst. Highly dispersed catalysts, including fine particle Fe- and Mo-based, and dicobalt octacarbonyl, Co{sub 2}(CO){sub 8}, were used in this study. The untreated and pretreated resids were extensively characterized in order to determine chemical changes brought about by the pretreatments. The modified heavy oils were then coprocessed with an Illinois No. 6 coal as well as with a Wyodak coal, and compared to coprocessing with untreated resids under the same hydroliquefaction conditions. The amount of oil derived from coal was estimated by measuring the level of phenolic oxygen (derived mainly from coal) present in the oil products. Results are presented and discussed.

  17. ALA Pretreatment Improves Waterlogging Tolerance of Fig Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyan An

    Full Text Available 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA, a natural and environmentally friendly plant growth regulator, can improve plant tolerance to various environmental stresses. However, whether ALA can improve plant waterlogging tolerance is unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of ALA pretreatment on the waterlogging-induced damage of fig (Ficus carica Linn. plants, which often suffer from waterlogging stress. ALA pretreatment significantly alleviated stress-induced morphological damage, increased leaf relative water content (RWC, and reduced leaf superoxide anion ([Formula: see text] production rate and malonaldehyde (MDA content in fig leaves, indicating ALA mitigates waterlogging stress of fig plants. We further demonstrated that ALA pretreatment largely promoted leaf chlorophyll content, photosynthetic electron transfer ability, and photosynthetic performance index, indicating ALA significantly improves plant photosynthetic efficiency under waterlogging stress. Moreover, ALA pretreatment significantly increased activities of leaf superoxide dismutase (SOD and peroxidase (POD, root vigor, and activities of root alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, indicating ALA also significantly improves antioxidant ability and root function of fig plants under waterlogging stress. Taken together, ALA pretreatment improves waterlogging tolerance of fig plants significantly, and the promoted root respiration, leaf photosynthesis, and antioxidant ability may contribute greatly to this improvement. Our data firstly shows that ALA can improve plant waterlogging tolerance.

  18. Pretreatment with mangafodipir improves liver graft tolerance to ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Ben Mosbah

    Full Text Available Ischemia/reperfusion injury occurring during liver transplantation is mainly due to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS upon revascularization. Thus, delivery of antioxidant enzymes might reduce the deleterious effects of ROS and improve liver graft initial function. Mangafodipir trisodium (MnDPDP, a contrast agent currently used in magnetic resonance imaging of the liver, has been shown to be endowed with powerful antioxidant properties. We hypothesized that MnDPDP could have a protective effect against liver ischemia reperfusion injury when administrated to the donor prior to harvesting. Livers from Sprague Dawley rats pretreated or not with MnDPDP were harvested and subsequently preserved for 24 h in Celsior® solution at 4°C. Organs were then perfused ex vivo for 120 min at 37°C with Krebs Henseleit solution. In MnDPDP (5 µmol/kg group, we observed that ATP content was significantly higher at the end of the cold preservation period relative to untreated group. After reperfusion, livers from MnDPDP-treated rats showed better tissue integrity, less hepatocellular and endothelial cell injury. This was accompanied by larger amounts of bile production and higher ATP recovery as compared to untreated livers. The protective effect of MnDPDP was associated with a significant decrease of lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial damage, and apoptosis. Interestingly, MnDPDP-pretreated livers exhibited activation of Nfr2 and HIF-1α pathways resulting in a higher catalase and HO-1 activities. MnDPDP also increased total nitric oxide (NO production which derived from higher expression of constitutive NO synthase and lower expression of inducible NO synthase. In conclusion, our results show that donor pretreatment with MnDPDP protects the rat liver graft from cold ischemia/reperfusion injury and demonstrate for the first time the potential interest of this molecule in the field of organ preservation. Since MnDPDP is safely used in liver imaging

  19. Pretreatment with nitric oxide reduces lead toxicity in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] walp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghipour Omid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb is one of the most important toxic heavy metals that reduce plant growth and development. Therefore, finding compounds that can alleviate the toxic effects of Pb is necessary. Nitric oxide (NO is a signaling molecule that plays important roles in different physiological processes in plants, such as the response to biotic and abiotic stresses. A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of exogenously applied NO on Pb stress tolerance in cowpea. Seeds were soaked at various concentrations of sodium nitroprusside (SNP; NO donor (0, 0.5 and 1 mM for 20 h, and then sown in pots containing 0 or 200 mg kg-1 Pb (NO32. The obtained results showed that Pb stress significantly reduced the chlorophyll value, relative water content (RWC and net photosynthetic rate, but increased lipid peroxidation, proline content and superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX and glutathione reductase (GR activities. Nonetheless, different levels of NO significantly lowered Pb toxicity by further increasing SOD, CAT, APX and GR activities as well as proline accumulation. NO pretreatment also raised the chlorophyll value, RWC and net photosynthetic rate but reduced lipid peroxidation. Both NO levels (0.5 and 1 mM were effective in Pb stress tolerance; however, 0.5 mM was more effective. These results indicate that NO pretreatment plays an important role in protecting cowpea plants against Pb toxicity by enhancing antioxidant enzyme activities and proline accumulation.

  20. Pretreatment of rats with increased bioavailable berberine attenuates cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury via down regulation of adenosine-5'monophosphate kinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weijia; Wei, Shengnan; Yu, Yang; Xue, Huan; Yao, Fan; Zhang, Ming; Xiao, Jun; Hatch, Grant M; Chen, Li

    2016-05-15

    Berberine (BBR) exhibits multiple beneficial biological effects. However, poor bioavailability of BBR has limited its clinical application. We previously demonstrated that solid dispersion of BBR with sodium caprate (HGSD) remarkably improves its bioavailability. We examined whether this increased bioavailability of BBR could protect the brain from ischemia-reperfusion (IR) induced injury. Rats treated with HGSD, SC and saline for 7 days then subjected to cerebral ischemia reperfusion by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2h followed 12h reperfusion. Neurological deficit scores, infarct size, SOD, MDA and NO levels were examined. P-AMPK, Bax, cleaved-Caspase-3 in brain was determined. To further probe for the mechanism of beneficial effect of HGSD, PC12 cells were incubated with serum from control or HGSD pretreated animals, incubated with 300μM H2O2 to induce apoptosis. Caspase-3 activity and cell apoptosis was evaluated. HGSD pretreatment significantly attenuated neurological deficit scores, reduced infarct size, increased SOD and decreased MDA and NO after cerebral IR injury compared to controls. Meanwhile, HGSD pretreatment significantly reduced expression of p-AMPK, Bax, cleaved-Caspase-3 after cerebral IR injury. Sodium caprate (100mg/kg/d) pretreatment alone did not exhibit any of these beneficial effects. PC12 cell apoptosis was attenuated when cells were cultured with HGSD serum compared to control. The presence of AMPK activator (AICAR) attenuated whereas AMPK inhibitor (Compound C) augmented the protective effect of HGSD serum on PC12 cell apoptosis.The results indicate that HGSD-pretreatment of rats protects the brain from ischemia-reperfusion injury and the mechanism is due to its anti-apoptotic effect mediated by decreased activation of AMPK. PMID:26957053

  1. ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF SWITCHGRASS AND COASTAL BERMUDA GRASS PRETREATED USING DIFFERENT CHEMICAL METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiele Xu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of biomass feedstock and pretreatment method on the enzyme requirement during hydrolysis, swichgrass and coastal Bermuda grass pretreated using H2SO4, NaOH, and Ca(OH2 at the optimal conditions were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis using two enzyme combinations: NS 50013 + NS 50010 and Cellic CTec + Cellic HTec. The enzyme loadings were optimized, and correlations between feedstock property, pretreatment strategy, and enzyme usage were evaluated. The results show that pretreatment methods resulting in greater lignin contents in the pretreated biomass were generally associated with higher enzyme requirements. More sugars could be recovered from alkaline-pretreated biomass during enzymatic hydrolysis due to the better carbohydrate preservation achieved at mild pretreatment temperatures. The cellulase enzyme, Cellic CTec, was more efficient in catalyzing the hydrolysis of coastal Bermuda grass, a feedstock more digestible than the pretreated swichgrass, following pretreatment with NaOH or Ca(OH2.

  2. Hazard Analysis for the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Robin S.; Geeting, John GH; Lawrence, Wesley E.; Young, Jonathan

    2008-07-10

    The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) is designed to perform a demonstration on an engineering scale to confirm the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Pretreatment Facility (PTF) leaching and filtration process equipment design and sludge treatment process. The system will use scaled prototypic equipment to demonstrate sludge water wash, caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, and filtration. Unit operations to be tested include pumping, solids washing, chemical reagent addition and blending, heating, cooling, leaching, filtration, and filter cleaning. In addition, the PEP will evaluate potential design changes to the ultrafiltration process system equipment to potentially enhance leaching and filtration performance as well as overall pretreatment throughput. The skid-mounted system will be installed and operated in the Processing Development Laboratory-West at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington.

  3. Plasma-Assisted Pretreatment of Wheat Straw for Ethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Kádár, Zsófia; Thomsen, Anne Belinda;

    2011-01-01

    The potential of wheat straw for ethanol production after pretreatment with O3 generated in a plasma at atmospheric pressure and room temperature followed by fermentation was investigated. We found that cellulose and hemicellulose remained unaltered after ozonisation and a subsequent washing step...... (0–7 h), e.g., oxalic acid and acetovanillon. Interestingly, washing had no effect on the ethanol production with pretreatment times up to 1 h. Washing improved the glucose availability with pretreatment times of more than 2 h. One hour of ozonisation was found to be optimal for the use of washed...... and unwashed wheat straw for ethanol production (maximum ethanol yield, 52%). O3 cost estimations were made for the production of ethanol at standard conditions....

  4. Mandarin peel wastes pretreatment with steam explosion for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boluda-Aguilar, María; García-Vidal, Lidia; González-Castañeda, Fayiny Del Pilar; López-Gómez, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    The mandarin (Citrus reticulata L.) citrus peel wastes (MCPW) were studied for bioethanol production, obtaining also as co-products: d-limonene, galacturonic acid, and citrus pulp pellets (CPP). The steam explosion pretreatment was analysed at pilot plant level to decrease the hydrolytic enzymes requirements and to separate and recover the d-limonene. The effect of steam explosion on MCPW lignocellulosic composition was analyzed by means thermogravimetric analysis. The d-limonene contents and their influence on ethanol production have been also studied, while concentration of sugars, galacturonic acid and ethanol have been analysed to measure the saccharification and fermentation (HF and SSF) processes efficiency obtained by MCPW steam explosion pretreatment. Ethanol contents of 50-60L/1000kg raw MCPW can be obtained and CPP yields can be regulated by means the control of enzymes dose and the steam explosion pretreatment which can significantly reduce the enzymes requirements. PMID:20093022

  5. Enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse pretreated with acid or alkali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Cristina Pietrobon

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of enzymatic hydrolysis of acid or alkali pretreated sugarcane bagasse for the production of fermentable sugars. The first step consisted of selection of commercial enzymes presenting the highest cellulolytic activities. After selection of four enzymes: HPL, CL, P1 and P4, their performances were tested in the bagasse pretreated with acid and alkali. The sugar content of the hydrolysates was analyzed by anion exchange liquid chromatography. Data showed that the joint action of 0.5% acid pretreatment, 121ºC, 30 minutes and enzyme CL provides the best results, 67.25 g of hexose and 148.13g of pentose per kg of dry bagasse.

  6. Urine pretreatment for waste water processing systems. [for space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, H. E.; Verostko, C. E.; Dehner, G. F.

    1983-01-01

    Recovery of high quality water from urine is an essential part of life support on a Space Station to avoid costly launch and resupply penalties. Water can be effectively recovered from urine by distillation following pretreatment by a chemical agent to inhibit microorganism contamination and fix volatile ammonia constituents. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of several pretreatment chemicals which were tested at several concentration levels in combination with sulfuric acid in urine. The optimum pretreatment formulation was then evaluated with urine in the Hamilton Standard Thermoelectric Integrated Membrane Evaporation Subsystem (TIMES). Over 2600 hours of test time was accumulated. Results of these laboratory and system tests are presented in this paper.

  7. Complex concentrate pretreatment FY 1986 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After of the transuranic elements are removed from complex concentrate waste by the TRUEX process, the remaining waste will be grouted for final storage. The purpose of this project, conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), is to support a future decision to grout the complexant waste without destroying the organic contents. In work performed this year, it has been demonstrated that grouts with acceptable parameters for the Transportable Grout Facility can be made using actual waste. The acceptability of these grouts from a regulatory view seems to be less of a problem than was thought at this time last year. None of the organics found in the waste are included on the US Environmental Protection Agency's Hazardous Chemicals List. 7 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Protective effect of glutamine pretreatment on ischemia-reperfusion injury of spinal cord in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of glutamine(Gln)on the content of reduced glutathione hormone(GSH)and aminoglutaminic acid(Glu)of spinal cord following ischemia-reperfusion injury.Methods Totally 40 healthy adult male rabbits were randomly divided into five groups:sham-operation group(S group),ischemia-reperfusion injury group(I/R group),low-dose glutamine group(L Gln group),median-dose glutamine group(M Gln group)and high-dose glutamine group(H Gln group).After glutamine preconditioning,the model of s...

  9. Protecting Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    House Science Committee Chairman Robert Walker (R-Pa.) has introduced a bill into Congress to give the United States the legislative authority to implement the 1991 Environmental Protocol to the Antarctic Treaty. That protocol established rules and principles to shield the Antarctic environment from human spoilage—placing limits on the discharge of pollutants, protecting plant and animal life, and requiring environmental impact assessments before new activities and programs are launched. The protocol also forbids prospecting or developing of mineral resources except for scientific research.

  10. Environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental Studies and Internal Dosimetry projects include: Environmental Protection; 1977 Environmental Monitoring Report; Sewage Sludge Disposal on the Sanitary Landfill; Radiological Analyses of Marshall Islands Environmental Samples, 1974 to 1976; External Radiation Survey and Dose Predictions for Rongelap, Utirik, Rongerik, Ailuk, and Wotje Atolls; Marshall Islands - Diet and Life Style Study; Dose Reassessment for Populations on Rongelap and Utirik Following Exposure to Fallout from BRAVO Incident (March 1, 1954); Whole Body Counting Results from 1974 to 1979 for Bikini Island Residents; Dietary Radioactivity Intake from Bioassay Data, a Model Applied to 137Cs Intake by Bikini Island Residents; and External Exposure Measurements at Bikini Atoll

  11. Effect of nitrogen oxide pretreatments on enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrevik, R.K.; Wilke, C.R.; Brink, D.L.

    1978-09-01

    This work considers the effect of nitrogen oxide pretreatments on the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis by Trichoderma viride cellulase of the cellulose occurring in wheat straw; Triticum Aestivum-L, em. Thell. In the pretreatment scheme the straw is first reacted with nitric oxide and air, and then extracted in aqueous solution. In this way, overall sugar yields increased from 17% for the case of no pretreatment to 70%. The glucose yield increased from 20 to 60%. The yield of glucose during enzymatic hydrolysis is dependent on the reaction time of the gas phase reaction. For a 24 hour reaction the yield is 60%, but drops to 45% for a reaction time of 2 hours. Xylose, a potentially valuable side product of the pretreatment, is obtained by dilute acid hydrolysis during the extraction stage in yields of 90 to 96%. In acidic media, the kinetics of both the rate of formation and destruction of xylose were found to follow the first-order rate laws reported in the literature. These were determined to be 4.5 (liter/gmole)(hr./sup -1/) and 0.03 hr./sup -1/, respectively. However, the rate of formation is much greater (20.4 (liter/gmole) (hr./sup -1/)) when the extraction liquor is recycled. The most likely explanation for this is that the increased total acidity of the recycled liquor compensates for diffusional limitations. A preliminary design and cost analysis of the pretreatment-hydrolysis scheme indicates that glucose can be produced at 10.86 cents per pound, exclusive of straw cost. The corresponding cost per pound of total sugars produced is 5.0 cents. Sensitivity analyses indicate that 42% of the pretreatment cost (excluding hydrolysis) can be attributed to nitric oxide production, and the high yield of sugar obtained is advantageous when considering the cost of straw.

  12. Bioethanol production: Pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of softwood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tengborg, Charlotte

    2000-05-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis process can be used to produce bioethanol from softwood, which are the dominating raw material in the Northern hemisphere. This thesis deals with the development of the process focusing on the pretreatment and the enzymatic hydrolysis stages. The influence of pretreatment conditions on sugar yield, and the effect of inhibitors on the ethanol yield, were investigated for spruce and pine. The maximum yields of hemicellulose sugars and glucose were obtained under different pretreatment conditions. This indicates that two-stage pretreatment may be preferable. The added catalysts, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and SO{sub 2}, resulted in similar total sugar yields about 40 g/100 g dry raw material. However, the fermentability of SO{sub 2}-impregnated material was better. This pretreatment resulted in the formation of inhibitors to the subsequent process steps, e.g. sugar and lignin degradation products. The glucose yield in the enzymatic hydrolysis stage was affected by various parameters such as enzyme loading, temperature, pH, residence time, substrate concentration, and agitation. To decrease the amount of fresh water used and thereby waste water produced, the sugar-rich prehydrolysate from the pretreatment step was included in the enzymatic hydrolysis of the solid fraction, resulting in a reduction in the cellulose conversion of up to 36%. Different prehydrolysate detoxification methods, such as treatment with Ca(OH){sub 2}, laccase, and fermentation using yeast, were investigated. The latter was shown to be very efficient. The amount of fresh water used can be further reduced by recycling various process streams. This was simulated experimentally in a bench-scale process. A reduction in fresh water demand of 50% was obtained without any further negative effects on either hydrolysis or fermentation.

  13. Pre-treating Seed to Enhance Germination of Desert Shrubs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. K. Ostler; D. C. Anderson; D. J. Hansen

    2002-06-01

    Creosotebush [Larrea tridentata (D.C.) Cav.] and white bursage [Ambrosia dumosa (A. Gray) W.W. Payne] seeds were subjected to pre-treatments of rinsing and soaking in water and thiourea to enhance germination in laboratory experiments. The effects of darkness, temperature, seed source, and soil moisture were also evaluated in the laboratory. The best pre-treatment from the laboratory experiments, rinsing with water for 36 hours followed by drying, was field-tested at Fort Irwin, California. Two sites and two seeding dates (early March and mid April) were determined for each site. Five mulch treatments (no mulch, straw, gravel, chemical stabilizer, and plastic) were evaluated in combination with the seed pre-treatments. Field emergence was greatly enhanced with the seed pre-treatment for white bursage during the March (18-42% increase in germination) and April seedings (16-23% increase in germination). Creosotebush showed poor germination during March (2-5%) when soil temperatures averaged 15 C, but germination increased during the April trials (6-43%) when soil temperatures averaged 23 C. The seed pre-treatment during the April trials increased germination from 16-23%. The plastic mulch treatment increased germination dramatically during both the March and April trials. The plastic mulch increased soil temperatures (8-10 C)and maintained high humidity during germination. Both the chemical stabilizer and the gravel mulches improved germination over the control while the straw mulch decreased germination. These results suggest that seed pre-treatments combined with irrigation and mulch are effective techniques to establish these two dominant Mojave Desert species from seed.

  14. Fungal pretreatment of straw for enhanced biogas yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Xinmei; Pilar Castillo, Maria del; Schnuerer, Anna

    2013-07-01

    Among lignocellulosic materials from the agricultural sector, straw is considered to have the biggest potential as a biofuel and therefore also represents a big potential for biogas production. However, the degradation of lignocellulosic materials is somewhat restricted due to the high content of lignin that binds cellulose and hemicellulose and makes them unavailable for microbial degradation. Consequently, low methane yields are achieved. The biodegradability of the lignocellulosic material can be increased by a pretreatment. Optimally the pre-treatment should give an increase in the formation of sugars while avoiding the degradation or loss of carbohydrates and the formation of inhibitory by-products. The treatment should also be cost-effective. Different methods for pre-treatment of lignocellulosic material have been explored, for example thermal, acid, alkaline and oxidative pretreatments. However, they often have a high energy demand. Biological treatment with fungi represents an alternative method for pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials that could be comparably more environmentally friendly, easier to operate and with low energy input. The fungal groups of interest for lignocellulose degradation are the wood decaying fungi, such as the white-, brown-rot and cellulose degraders. The purpose with this work was to increase the biogas potential of straw by using a pretreatment with fungi. Straw was incubated with fungi at aerobic conditions under certain periods of time. The growth and colonization of the straw by the fungi was expected to increase the availability of the lignocellulosic structure of the straw and thus positively affect the biogas potential. In addition also, the spent lignocellulosic material from the cultivation of edible fungi was investigated. We hypothesized that also growth of edible fungi could give a more accessible material and thus give higher biogas potential compared to the substrate before fungal growth.

  15. Effect of Surface Pretreatment on Adhesive Properties of Aluminum Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinsheng ZHANG; Xuhui ZHAO; Yu ZUO; Jinping XIONG; Xiaofeng ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    The lap-shear strength and durability of adhesive bonded AI alloy joints with different pretreatments were studied by the lap-shear test and wedge test. The results indicate that the maximum lap-shear strength and durability of the bonding joints pretreated by different processes are influenced by the grade of abrasive papers and can be obviously improved by phosphoric acid anodizing. Alkali etching can obviously improve the durability of bonding joints although it slightly influences the maximum lap-shear strength. The process which is composed of grit-finishing, acetone degreasing, alkali etching and phosphoric acid anodizing, provides a better adhesive bonding property of AI alloy.

  16. Design of pretreatment unit for Kr-85 recovery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pretreatment process to remove the undesirable gases such as hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen oxides in the Kr-85 catch process has been installed on a bench scale. The pretreatment process consists of six sub-unit.: (1) Platinum converter for oxydation of hydrocarbon, (2) Palladium converter for reduction of oxygen and nitrogen oxides, (3) Copper converter for removal of oxygen unreduced, (4) Caustic scrubber for absorption of carbon dioxide, (5) Acid scrubber for absorption of ammonia, and (6) A pair of molecular sieve drier for removal of water. (auth.)

  17. CHARACTERISATION OF BIOLOGICALLY PRETREATED RAW MATERIALS FOR BIOPULPING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susy Albert

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Biopulping, the treatment of wood chips by white rot fungi and subsequent chip refining is envisioned as a method for saving energy and making a stronger paper product. The present study aims to find suitability of two fungal isolates Phellinus pectinatus and Daedaleopsis confragosa for the process of biopulping and the characteristion of the biologically pretreated raw materials for biopulping. Two combinations of raw samples, Bamboo: wood shavings and Bamboo: wood shavings: Sorghum halepense culm were prepared and subjected to four different pretreatment. Daedaleopsis confragosa was found to be effective in biopulping with a supplement of Potato dextrose broth medium to the raw material.

  18. Study on the Pretreating Approaches for the Potato Straws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Yumin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an approach to pretreat the potato straws. Specifically, potato straws are handled using various kinds of chemical solutions, including HCI, H2SO4, NaOH and NaOH+H2O2, under different concentrations. For each kind of solution, particular indicators, such as the cellulose content as well as scarification ratio of the treated straws, are studied in the paper. Based on orthogonal experiments, the best pretreatment effect is obtained by using the solution of 4% NaOH under temperature of 60º Celsius, solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:10, and processing time of 6d.

  19. Study on the Pretreating Approaches for the Potato Straws

    OpenAIRE

    An Yumin; Wang Jukui; Huang Ye; Xu Xiaomei

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach to pretreat the potato straws. Specifically, potato straws are handled using various kinds of chemical solutions, including HCI, H2SO4, NaOH and NaOH+H2O2, under different concentrations. For each kind of solution, particular indicators, such as the cellulose content as well as scarification ratio of the treated straws, are studied in the paper. Based on orthogonal experiments, the best pretreatment effect is obtained by using the solution of 4% NaOH under temp...

  20. Conceptual design of pretreatment process for SIES using membrane process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During operation process of SIES(Selective Ion Exchange System) at Kori Unit 2, it was impossible to remove radionuclides such as ion form and Ag-110m, etc., because activated carbon and ion exchange resin of this system are fouled easily by suspended solids and oils in liquid radwaste that was flowed in this system. In this study, an experiment to improve quality of water which was flowed in SIES was performed and design data of scale-up pretreatment process were secured. Also, each module design for microfiltration and nanofiltration unit of the pretreatment process for SIES was performed

  1. GSDO Program Hexavalent Chrome Alternatives: Final Pretreatments Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Hexavalent chrome free pretreatments should be considered for use on Ground Support Equipment (OSE) and Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EOSE). Both of the hexavalent chrome free pretreatments (Metalast TCP HF and SurTec 650C) evaluated by this project met, and in some instances exceeded, the requirements ofMIL-DTL-5541 "Chemical Conversion Coatings on Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys". For DC resistance measurements, both Metalast TCP HF and SurTec (!50C met initial requirements following assembly and in many cases continued to maintain passing readings for the duration of testing.

  2. Fungal cellulase/xylanase production and corresponding hydrolysis using pretreated corn stover as substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Wang, Xiaoqing; Ruan, Zhenhua; Liu, Ying; Niu, Xiaorui; Yue, Zhengbo; Li, Zhimin; Liao, Wei; Liu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Three pretreated corn stover (ammonia fiber expansion, dilute acid, and dilute alkali) were used as carbon source to culture Trichoderma reesei Rut C-30 for cellulase and xylanase production. The results indicated that the cultures on ammonia fiber expansion and alkali pretreated corn stover had better enzyme production than the acid pretreated ones. The consequent enzymatic hydrolysis was performed applying fungal enzymes on pretreated corn stover samples. Tukey's statistical comparisons exhibited that there were significant differences on enzymatic hydrolysis among different combination of fungal enzymes and pretreated corn stover. The higher sugar yields were achieved by the enzymatic hydrolysis of dilute alkali pretreated corn stover.

  3. Enhanced thermophilic fermentative hydrogen production from cassava stillage by chemical pretreatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wen; Luo, Gang; Xie, Li;

    2013-01-01

    Acid and alkaline pretreatments for enhanced hydrogen production from cassava stillage were investigated in the present study. The result showed that acid pretreatment was suitable for enhancement of soluble carbohydrate while alkaline pretreatment stimulated more soluble total organic carbon...... production from cassava stillage. Acid pretreatment thereby has higher capacity to promote hydrogen production compared with alkaline pretreatment. Effects of pretreatment temperature, time and acid concentration on hydrogen production were also revealed by response surface methodology. The results showed...... production of 434 mL, 67% higher than raw cassava stillage....

  4. An assessment of acid wash and bioleaching pre-treating options to remove mercury from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laura C. Dronen; April E. Moore; Evguenii I. Kozliak; Wayne S. Seames [University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (USA). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2004-01-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency is expected to begin regulating the release of vapor-phase mercury from coal-fired power plants in the year 2007. Chemical pre-treatment methods were investigated for mercury removal effectiveness from pulverized low-sulfur North Dakota lignite coal. More limited results were obtained for a pulverized high-sulfur Blacksville bituminous coal. A two-step acid wash treatment showed removal rates of 60 90%, compared to one-step treatments with concentrated HCl, which yielded removals of 30 38%. Removal effectiveness is similar for first step solvents of water, pH 5.0 acid, or pH 2.0 acid followed by concentrated HCl as the second step solvent, and is independent of first step incubation time. Neither of two bacterial strains, Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and T. thiooxidans, was found effective for mercury removal. 23 refs., 5 tabs.

  5. Neuroprotective effects of osthole pretreatment against traumatic brain injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yalong; Qu, Shuoyao; Wang, Jiang; He, Xiaosheng; Lin, Wei; Zhen, Haining; Zhang, Xiang

    2012-01-18

    Osthole, a coumarin compound isolated from the plant-derived herb Cnidium monnieri, has been the subject of considerable interest because of its broad spectrum of pharmacological properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential protective effects of osthole in adult rats in the setting of traumatic brain injury (TBI). We employed Feeney's weight-drop model to ascertain whether intraperitoneal administration of osthole (10mg/kg, 20mg/kg and 40 mg/kg) 30 min before TBI could reduce the severity of neurological deficits, cerebral edema, and hippocampal neuron loss. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH), the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), the expressions of Bcl-2, Bax, and active caspase-3, and the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive apoptotic cells were also measured to characterize the antioxidative and antiapoptotic properties. A significant reduction of neurological deficits, cerebral edema and hippocampal neuron loss was observed in the osthole pretreatment groups (20mg/kg and 40 mg/kg, but not 10mg/kg) by 24h after TBI compared with the TBI group. Furthermore, pretreatment with osthole (40 mg/kg) significantly increased the activity of SOD, the level of GSH, and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, and also reduced the level of MDA, the expression of active caspase-3, and the number of apoptotic cells at 24h after TBI. In summary, these results suggested that osthole had a neuroprotective effect against TBI, and the protection may be associated with its antioxidative and antiapoptotic functions. PMID:22153917

  6. Offspring Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric T. Steiner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Parental aggression, that is, offspring protection aggression, can be viewed as a type of parental investment. Most mammalian males do not exhibit parental investment and therefore exhibit little, if any, parental aggression. Men demonstrate parental investment, and are typically more physically aggressive than women, but parental physical aggression in humans has been largely unexplored. The current study examined potential sex differences in estimates of parental physical aggression involving hypothetical situations, while controlling for general physical aggression. A self-report measure was administered to 217 students from a western U.S. university (55 male nonparents, 50 female nonparents, 54 fathers, and 58 mothers. Male nonparents reported higher parental physical aggression than female nonparents, but there was no difference between mothers and fathers. The results are interpreted in light of ancestral effects of sexual selection and proximal effects of sex differences in testosterone, risk taking, and fear aversion.

  7. Protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A protective suit used for isolating its wearer from radioactively contaminated areas is described in three parts. The first part includes the covering for the wearer's head, arms and upper body and at the waist is releasably fitted around an opening into the contaminated area. The second part includes the legs of the suit and is releasably connectible to the first part of the suit to enclose the wearer who is then supplied with air through an umbilical pipe. A further part surrounds the second part and is releasably connectible to it, enclosing a space between the parts. This further part is also releasably connectible to the opening at the waist to prevent egress from the contaminated area. The releasable connections between the parts may be bayonet type fittings or may be rotating T-shaped projections which engage in T-shaped grooves. (author)

  8. Effect of moisture on pretreatment efficiency for anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, M; Astals, S; Mata-Alvarez, J

    2015-12-01

    The present study evaluates the effect of moisture in low-temperature and ultrasound pretreatment on lignocellulosic substrates anaerobic biodegradability, where brewer's spent grain was used as model substrate. Besides moisture content, low-temperature pretreatment was also evaluated in terms of temperature (60-80°C) and exposure time (12-72 h). Likewise, ultrasonication was also evaluated in terms of specific energy (1000-50,000 kJ kg TS(-1)). In addition, the effect of substrate particle size reduction by milling pretreatment was also considered. The results clearly demonstrated that substrate moisture (total solid concentration) is a significant parameter for pretreatment performance, although it has been rarely considered in pretreatment optimisation. Specifically, moisture optimisation increased the methane yield of brewer's spent grain by 6% for low-temperature pretreatment (60°C), and by 14% for ultrasound pretreatment (1000 kJ kg TS(-1)) towards the control (without pretreatment). In both pretreatments, the experimental optimum total solid concentration was 100 gTS kg(-1). Thus, lowering substrate moisture, a strategy suggested attaining energetic pretreatment feasibility, needs to be analysed as another pretreatment variable since it might have limited correlation. Finally, a preliminary energetic balance of the pretreatments under study showed that the extra methane production could not cover the energetic pretreatment expenses.

  9. Effects of Ultrasonic and Acid Pretreatment on Food Waste Disintegration and Volatile Fatty Acid Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qinglian Wu; Wanqian Guo∗; Shanshan Yang; Haichao Luo; Simai Peng; Nanqi Ren

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the effects of ultrasonic and acid pretreatment on food waste ( FW) disintegration and volatile fatty acid ( VFA ) production. Single⁃factor experiments are carried out to obtain optimal conditions of individual ultrasonic and acid pretreatment, and response surface method ( RSM ) is applied to optimize the conditions of the combination of ultrasonic and acid ( UA) pretreatment. Results show that the optimal acid, ultrasonic and UA pretreatments conditions are individual pH 2, individual ultrasonic energy density of 1�0 W/mL and the combination of ultrasonic energy density1�11 W/mL and pH 1�43, respectively. Correspondingly, the maximum disintegration degrees ( DD) of 46�90%, 57�38% and68�83%are obtained by acid, ultrasonic and UA pretreatments, respectively. After optimizing pretreatment conditions, batch experiments are operated to produce VFA from raw and pretreated FW under anaerobic fermentation process. Both the maximum VFA production ( 976�17 mg COD/gVS) and VFA/SCOD ( 72�89%) are obtained with ultrasonic pretreatment, followed by UA pretreatment, non⁃pretreatment and acid pretreatment, respectively. This observation demonstrates that a higher acidity on acid and UA pretreatments inhibits the generation of VFA. Results suggest that ultrasonic pretreatment is preferable to promote the disintegration degree of FW and VFA production.

  10. Pretreatments to enhance the digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, A.T.W.M.; Zeeman, G.

    2009-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass represents a rather unused source for biogas and ethanol production. Many factors, like lignin content, crystallinity of cellulose, and particle size, limit the digestibility of the hemicellulose and cellulose present in the lignocellulosic biomass. Pretreatments have as a go

  11. Fermentative hydrogen production from pretreated biomass: A comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Bakker, R.R.; Budde, M.A.W.; Vrije, de G.J.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Koukios, E.G.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of employing biomass resources from different origin as feedstocks for fermentative hydrogen production. Mild-acid pretreated and hydrolysed barley straw (BS) and corn stalk (CS), hydrolysed barley grains (BG) and corn grains (CG), and sugar beet ex

  12. Low-liquid pretreatment of corn stover with aqueous ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuan; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2011-04-01

    A low-liquid pretreatment method of corn stover using aqueous ammonia was studied to reduce the severity and liquid throughput associated with the pretreatment step for ethanol production. Corn stover was treated at 0.5-50.0 wt.% of ammonia loading, 1:0.2-5.0 (w/w) of solid-to-liquid ratio, 30 °C for 4-12 weeks. The effects of these conditions on the composition and enzyme digestibility of pretreated corn stover were investigated. Pretreatment of corn stover at 30°C for four weeks using 50 wt.% of ammonia loading and 1:5 solid-to-liquid ratio resulted in 55% delignification and 86.5% glucan digestibility with 15 FPU cellulase+30 CBU β-glucosidase/g-glucan. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of corn stover treated at 30 °C for four weeks using 50 wt.% ammonia loading and 1:2 solid-to-liquid ratio gave an ethanol yield of 73% of the theoretical maximum based on total carbohydrates (glucan+xylan) present in the untreated material.

  13. Separations/pretreatment considerations for Hanford privatization phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tank Focus Area is funded to develop, demonstrate, and deploy technologies that will assist in the treatment and closure of its nuclear waste tanks. Pretreatment technologies developed to support the privatization effort by the Department of Energy are reviewed. Advancements in evaporation, solid-liquid separation, sludge treatment, solids controls, sodium management, and radionuclide removal are considered

  14. Thermochemical Pretreatment for Anaerobic Digestion of Sorted Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, W.; Hongtao, W.

    2008-02-01

    The effect of alkaline hydrothermal pre-treatment for anaerobic digestion of mechanically-sorted municipal solid waste (MSW) and source-sorted waste was studied. Waste was hydrothermally pre-treated in dilute alkali solution. Hydrolysis product was incubated in 500 ml saline bottle to determine methane potential (MP) under mesospheric anaerobic conditions. Optimum reaction condition obtained in the study is 170 °C at the dose of 4 g NaOH/100 g solid for one hour. Soluble COD was 13936 mg/L and methane yield was 164 ml/g VS for 6 days incubation at optimum conditions. More than 50% biogas increase was achieved over the control, and methane conversion ratio on carbon basis was enhanced to 30.6%. The digestion period was less than 6 days when pre-treatment temperature was above 130 °C. The organic part of sorted waste is mainly constituted of kitchen garbage and leaf. Model kitchen garbage was completely liquidized at 130 °C for one hour and the methane yield was 276 ml/g VS. Addition of alkali enhance hydroxylation rate and methane yield slightly. The biogas potential of leaf could be observed by pre-treatment above 150 °C under alkaline condition.

  15. Effect of particle size on enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated Miscanthus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particle size reduction is a crucial factor in transportation logistics as well as cellulosic conversion. The effect of particle size on enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated Miscanthus x giganteus was determined. Miscanthus was ground using a hammer mill equipped with screens having 0.08, 2.0 or 6.0...

  16. 40 CFR 403.6 - National pretreatment standards: Categorical standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) The Control Authority may convert the mass limits of the categorical Pretreatment Standards at 40 CFR... limits, the Control Authority must use the concentrations listed in the applicable subparts of 40 CFR... limit. EC15NO91.012 where CT=the alternative concentration limit for the combined wastestream....

  17. 40 CFR 421.315 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... average mg/kg (pounds per million pounds) of tungsten carbide produced Copper 10.670 5.083 Nickel 4.583 3... CFR 403.7, any existing source subject to this subpart which introduces polutants into a publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403 and achieve the following pretreatment...

  18. Separations/pretreatment considerations for Hanford privatization phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, R.D.; McGinnis, C.P.; Welch, T.D.

    1998-05-01

    The Tank Focus Area is funded to develop, demonstrate, and deploy technologies that will assist in the treatment and closure of its nuclear waste tanks. Pretreatment technologies developed to support the privatization effort by the Department of Energy are reviewed. Advancements in evaporation, solid-liquid separation, sludge treatment, solids controls, sodium management, and radionuclide removal are considered.

  19. Ethanol production from steam-explosion pretreated wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Ignacio; Negro, Ma José; Oliva, José Miguel; Cabañas, Araceli; Manzanares, Paloma; Ballesteros, Mercedes

    2006-01-01

    Bioconversion of cereal straw to bioethanol is becoming an attractive alternative to conventional fuel ethanol production from grains. In this work, the best operational conditions for steam-explosion pretreatment of wheat straw for ethanol production by a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process were studied, using diluted acid [H2SO4 0.9% (w/w)] and water as preimpregnation agents. Acid- or water-impregnated biomass was steam-exploded at different temperatures (160-200 degrees C) and residence times (5, 10, and 20 min). Composition of solid and filtrate obtained after pretreatment, enzymatic digestibility and ethanol production of pretreated wheat straw at different experimental conditions was analyzed. The best pretreatment conditions to obtain high conversion yield to ethanol (approx 80% of theoretical) of cellulose-rich residue after steam-explosion were 190 degrees C and 10 min or 200 degrees C and 5 min, in acid-impregnated straw. However, 180 degrees C for 10 min in acid-impregnated biomass provided the highest ethanol yield referred to raw material (140 L/t wheat straw), and sugars recovery yield in the filtrate (300 g/kg wheat straw).

  20. Fast pyrolysis of biomass thermally pretreated by torrefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrefied biomass samples were produced from hardwood and switchgrass pellets using the biochar experimenter’s kit (BEK) reactor and analyzed for their utility as pretreated feedstock for biofuels production via fast pyrolysis. The energy efficiency for the BEK torrefaction process with propane gas ...

  1. Anaerobic digestion of yard waste with hydrothermal pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wangliang; Zhang, Guangyi; Zhang, Zhikai; Xu, Guangwen

    2014-03-01

    The digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass is limited by its high content of refractory components. The objective of this study is to investigate hydrothermal pretreatment and its effects on anaerobic digestion of sorted organic waste with submerged fermentation. Hydrothermal pretreatment (HT) was performed prior to anaerobic digestion, and three agents were examined for the HT: hot compressed water, alkaline solution, and acidic solution. The concentrations of glucose and xylose were the highest in the sample pretreated in acidic solution. Compared with that of the untreated sample, the biogas yields from digesting the samples pretreated in alkaline solution, acidic solution, and hot water increased by 364, 107, and 79%, respectively. The decrease of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in liquid phase followed the same order as for the biogas yield. The initial ammonia content of the treated samples followed the order sample treated in acidic solution > sample treated in alkaline solution > sample treated in hot water. The concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were low, indicating that the anaerobic digestion process was running at continuously stable conditions.

  2. Gadolinium chloride pretreatment ameliorates acute cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakou, Loukas G; Tzirogiannis, Konstantinos N; Demonakou, Maria D; Kourentzi, Kalliopi T; Mykoniatis, Michael G; Panoutsopoulos, Georgios I

    2013-08-01

    Cadmium is a known industrial and environmental pollutant. It causes hepatotoxicity upon acute administration. Features of cadmium-induced acute hepatoxicity encompass necrosis, apoptosis, peliosis and inflammatory infiltration. Gadolinium chloride (GdCl3) may prevent cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity by suppressing Kupffer cells. The effect of GdCl3 pretreatment on a model of acute cadmium-induced liver injury was investigated. Male Wistar rats 4-5 months old were injected intraperitoneally with normal saline followed by cadmium chloride (CdCl2; 6.5 mg/kg) or GdCl3 (10 mg/kg) followed by CdCl2 (6.5 mg/kg; groups I and II, respectively). Rats of both the groups were killed at 9, 12, 16, 24, 48 and 60 h after cadmium intoxication. Liver sections were analyzed for necrosis, apoptosis, peliosis and mitoses. Liver regeneration was also evaluated by tritiated thymidine incorporation into hepatic DNA. Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were also determined. Hepatic necrosis, hepatocyte and nonparenchymal cell apoptosis and macroscopic and microscopic types of peliosis hepatis were minimized by gadolinium pretreatment. Serum levels of AST and ALT were also greatly diminished in rats of group II. Tritiated thymidine incorporation into hepatic DNA was increased in gadolinium pretreatment rats. Kupffer cell activation was minimal in both the groups of rats. Gadolinium pretreatment attenuates acute cadmium-induced liver injury in young Wistar rats, with mechanisms other than Kupffer cell elimination.

  3. Ondansetron Pretreatment Reduces Pain on Injection of Propofol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahid Maleki

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available To assess the effectiveness of ondansetron pretreatment in alleviating propofol injection pain, 135 patients were randomly assigned to one of following three groups. Group 1 who received up to 2 mL pretreatment 50 mg tramadol in the saline, group 2 cases who received up to 2 mL pretreatment 4 mg ondansetron in saline, and group 3 who received up to 2 mL solution saline. A 20 gauge cannula was placed into the largest vein on the dorsum of the hand. Tourniquet was closed to the arm above the cannula and inflates to 70 mmHg, and then drug was injected. After 20 seconds, the tourniquet deflated, and propofol 2mg/kg injected over 10 seconds and pain assessment was made. Results: Tramadol and ondansetron significantly reduced the incidence and severity of propofol injection pain more than placebo (P=0.001. The efficacy of ondansetron in alleviating the pain on injection of propofol was no different from tramadol (P=0.330. Ondansetron pretreatment may be used to reduce the incidence of pain on injection of propofol, an advantage added to the useful prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting.

  4. Optimization of Fenton pretreatment for 2-chlorophenol solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺仲兵; 刘云国; 肖玉

    2013-01-01

    Fenton oxidation was used as the pretreatment of 2-chlorophenol wastewater with the objective of dechlorination, as it was considered that after breakage of aryl—Cl bond, the generated intermediates may be easily biodegraded. Hence, the optimization of pH and the low Fenton reagent doses for dechlorination was investigated. More than 99% dechlorination is obtained at the optimal pH 4 and the Fenton reagent doses of 86 mmol/L H2 O2 and 2.87 mmol/L Fe2+. The corresponding 2-chlorophenol is degraded completely, 80.02% COD is also removed, and the biodegradability, evaluated in terms of the BOD5 /COD ratio, is increased up to 0.41. To test the effect of this pretreatment, the pretreated 2-chlorophenol wastewater was fed to a sequencing batch reactor(SBR). The results show that complete mineralization is achieved. It is demonstrated that, for the treatment of recalcitrant compounds like 2-chlorophenol, the Fenton pretreatment could be quite effective and economical for enhancing the biodegradability in a Fenton-biological coupled system.

  5. EVALUATION OF NANOFILTRATION PRETREATMENTS FOR FLUX LOSS CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Differing nanofiltration pretreatment approaches for Ohio River water were evaluated withthe intent of producing systems with varying degrees of biological fouling. The membrane feed water was alum-coagulated, settled, and filtered Ohio River water (SF-ORW). Five 1.8" x 12" N...

  6. Bromine pretreated chitosan for adsorption of lead (II) from water

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajendra Dongre; Minakshi Thakur; Dinesh Ghugal; Jostna Meshram

    2012-10-01

    Pollution by heavy metals like lead (II) is responsible for health hazards and environmental degradation. Adsorption is a prevalent method applied for removal of heavy metal pollutants from water. This study explored adsorption performances of 30% bromine pretreated chitosan for lead (II) abatement from water. Bromine pretreatment alters porosity and specific surface area of chitosan by means of physicochemical interaction with cationic sites of chitosan skeleton, besides imparting anionic alteration at amino linkages of chitosan, to remove lead (II) by chemical interactions on superfluous active sites as characterized by FTIR, SEM, DTA and elemental analysis. Lead adsorptions were studied in batch mode by varying parameters viz. pH, bromine loading, sorbent dosage, initial lead concentration, contact time and temperature. The adsorption equilibrium data was well fitted to Freundlich isotherm and maximum sorption capacity of 30% bromine pretreated chitosan sorbent was 1.755 g/kg with 85–90% lead removal efficiency. Though cost and applicability of sorbent is unproven, yet contrast to raw chitosan derivatives, activated carbons and some resins, 30% bromine pretreated chitosan endow benign and efficient lead abatement technique.

  7. Fuel ethanol production from alkaline peroxide pretreated corn stover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn stover (CS) has the potential to serve as an abundant low-cost feedstock for production of fuel ethanol. Due to heterogeneous complexity and recalcitrance of lignocellulosic feedstocks, pretreatment is required to break the lignin seal and/or disrupt the structure of crystalline cellulose to in...

  8. Coagulation and ultrafiltration in seawater reverse osmosis pretreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabatabai, S.A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Seawater desalination is a globally expanding coastal industry with an installed capacity of over 80 million m3/day. Algal blooms pose a challenge to the operation of seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) membranes and pre-treatment systems due to high concentrations of algal cells and algal organic matte

  9. Pretreatment of lignocellulose with biological acid recycling (the Biosulfurol process)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenestijn, van J.; Hazewinkel, O.; Bakker, R.R.C.

    2006-01-01

    A biomass pretreatment process is being developed based on contacting lignocellulosic biomass with 70% sulfuric acid and subsequent hydrolysis by adding water. In this process, the hydrolysate can be fermented yielding ethanol, while the sulfuric acid is partly recovered by anion-selective membranes

  10. Wet explosion pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse for enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biswas, Rajib; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2014-01-01

    .7% of the theoretical maximum value. Pretreatment at 200 C with oxygen exhibited enhanced enzymatic efficiency but lower xylose recovery and formation of the degradation products such as acetate, furfural and HMF of 7.6, 3.3 and 1.0 g/L, respectively. In the hydrolysis, the total sugars (glucose + xylose) yielded...

  11. Tank Focus Area Pretreatment Program. FY 1995 Program Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, M.I. [Midwest Technical Inc., Oak Ridge, Tennessee (United States); McGinnis, C.P.; Wilkenson, W.T.; Hunt, R.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-02-01

    This program management plan (PMP) describes the FY 1995 project plans for the Pretreatment Program of the Tank Focus Area. The Tank Focus Area is one of five areas of environmental concerns originally identified by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Technology Development (EM-50). Projects in the Tank Focus Area relate to the remediation of liquid waste stored in underground storage tanks at various US Department of Energy sites. The Pretreatment Program is an organizational unit performing work within the Tank Focus Area. The function of the Pretreatment Program is to develop, test, evaluate, and demonstrate new technologies, with emphasis on separations. The 11 Pretreatment Program projects for FY 1995 are (1) Cesium Extraction Testing, (2) Comprehensive Supernate Treatment, (3) Hot Cell Studies, (4) Cesium Removal Demonstration, (5) Out-of-Tank Evaporator Demonstration, (6) Crossflow Filtration, (7) Technical Interchange with CEA, (8) TRUEX Applications, (9) NAC/NAG Process Studies (conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory), (10) NAC/NAG Process and Waste Form Studies (conducted at Florida International University), and (11) Program Management. Section 2 of this PMP contains a separate subsection for each FY 1995 project. A brief description of the project, a schedule of major milestones, and a breakdown of costs are provided for each project. The PMP also contains sections that describe the project controls that are in place. Quality assurance, document control, the project management system, and the management organization are described in these sections.

  12. Coumarin pretreatment alleviates salinity stress in wheat seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Ahmed Mahmoud; Madany, M M Y

    2015-03-01

    The potentiality of COU to improve plant tolerance to salinity was investigated. Wheat grains were primed with COU (50 ppm) and then grown under different levels of NaCl (50, 100, 150 mM) for two weeks. COU pretreatment improved the growth of wheat seedling under salinity, relative to COU-untreated seedlings, due to the accumulation of osmolytes such as soluble sugars and proline. Moreover, COU treatment significantly improved K(+)/Na(+) ratio in the shoots of both salt stressed and un-stressed seedlings. However, in the roots, this ratio increased only under non-salinity. In consistent with phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), phenolics and flavonoids were accumulated in COU-pretreated seedlings under the higher doses of salinity, relative to COU-untreated seedlings. COU primed seedlings showed higher content of the coumarin derivative, scopoletin, and salicylic, chlorogenic, syringic, vanillic, gallic and ferulic acids, under both salinity and non-salinity conditions. Salinity stress significantly improved the activity of peroxidase (POD) in COU-pretreated seedlings. However, the effect of COU on the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was only obtained at the highest dose of NaCl (150 mM). The present results suggest that COU pretreatment could alleviate the adverse effect of salinity on the growth of wheat seedlings through enhancing, at least partly, the osmoregulation process and antioxidant defense system.

  13. Thermochemical pretreatment of underutilized woody biomass for manufacturing wood composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelaez Samaniego, Manuel Raul

    Prescribed fires, one method for reducing hazardous fuel loads from forest lands in the US, are limited by geographical, environmental, and social impacts. Mechanical operations are an alternative type of fuel treatment but these processes are constrained by the difficulty of economically harvesting and/or using large amounts of low-value woody biomass. Adoption and integration of new technologies into existing wood composite facilities offer better utilization of this material. A pretreatment that enables integration of technologies in a typical composite facility will aid with diversification of product portfolio (e.g. wood composites, fuel pellets, liquid fuels, chemicals). Hot water extraction (HWE) is an option for wood pretreatment. This work provides a fundamental understanding of the physicochemical changes to wood resulting from HWE, and how these changes impact processing and performance of composites. Specific objectives were to: 1) review literature on studies related to the manufacture of composites produced with thermally pretreated wood, 2) manufacture wood plastic composites (WPC) and particleboard using HWE wood and evaluate the impacts of pretreatment on product properties, 3) develop an understanding of the effect of HWE on lignin properties, specifically lignin at the cells surface level after migration from cell walls and middle lamella, 4) discern the influence of lignin on the fiber surface on processing WPCs, and, 5) investigate the effect of changing the pretreatment environment (inert gas instead of water) on lignin behavior. Results show that HWE enhances the resistance of both WPCs and particleboard to water with positive or no effect on mechanical properties. Reduction of hemicelluloses and lignin property changes are suggested as the main reasons for enhancing interaction between wood fiber and resins during composite processing. Lignin on the surface of particles after HWE interacts with thermoplastics during WPCs compounding, thus

  14. Autohydrolysis Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qiang

    Autohydrolysis, a simple and environmental friendly process, has long been studied but often abandoned as a financially viable pretreatment for bioethanol production due to the low yields of fermentable sugars at economic enzyme dosages. The introduction of mechanical refining can generate substantial improvements for autohydrolysis process, making it an attractive pretreatment technology for bioethanol commercialization. In this study, several lignocellulosic biomass including wheat straw, switchgrass, corn stover, waste wheat straw have been subjected to autohydrolysis pretreatment followed by mechanical refining to evaluate the total sugar recovery at affordable enzyme dosages. Encouraging results have been found that using autohydrolysis plus refining strategy, the total sugar recovery of most feedstock can be as high as 76% at 4 FPU/g enzymes dosages. The mechanical refining contributed to the improvement of enzymatic sugar yield by as much as 30%. Three non-woody biomass (sugarcane bagasse, wheat straw, and switchgrass) and three woody biomass (maple, sweet gum, and nitens) have been subjected to autohydrolysis pretreatment to acquire a fundamental understanding of biomass characteristics that affect the autohydrolysis and the following enzymatic hydrolysis. It is of interest to note that the nonwoody biomass went through substantial delignification during autohydrolysis compared to woody biomass due to a significant amount of p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid. It has been found that hardwood which has a higher S/V ratio in the lignin structure tends to have a higher total sugar recovery from autohydrolysis pretreatment. The economics of bioethanol production from autohydrolysis of different feedstocks have been investigated. Regardless of different feedstocks, in the conventional design, producing bioethanol and co-producing steam and power, the minimum ethanol revenues (MER) required to generate a 12% internal rate of return (IRR) are high enough to

  15. Pretreatment of Human Cervicovaginal Mucus with Pluronic F127 Enhances Nanoparticle Penetration without Compromising Mucus Barrier Properties to Herpes Simplex Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Ensign, Laura M.; Lai, Samuel K.; Wang, Ying-Ying; Yang, Ming; Mert, Olcay; Hanes, Justin; Cone, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Mucosal drug delivery nanotechnologies are limited by the mucus barrier that protects nearly all epithelial surfaces not covered with skin. Most polymeric nanoparticles, including polystyrene nanoparticles (PS), strongly adhere to mucus, thereby limiting penetration and facilitating rapid clearance from the body. Here, we demonstrate that PS rapidly penetrate human cervicovaginal mucus (CVM), if the CVM has been pretreated with sufficient concentrations of Pluronic F127. Importantly, the diff...

  16. Biomass Pretreatment using Ionic Liquid and Glycerol Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Joan Goerss

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a renewable, sustainable resource that can replace or supplement fossil fuels use for liquid fuels and chemicals. However, its recalcitrant structure including interwoven cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin biomacromolecules is challenging to deconstruct. Pretreating biomass so that it can be converted to useful liquids dominates process economics. Many pretreatment methods exist, but most require hazardous chemicals or processing conditions. Many ionic liquids (ILs), salts molten below 100°C, can be used to deconstruct lignocellulosic biomass and are less hazardous than the volatile organic compounds typically used. While effective, relatively safe, and recyclable, ILs are expensive. To reduce costs, dilution with other safe compounds is desirable, if there is no impact on deconstruction efficiency. Glycerol, a food additive, is inexpensive and becoming even more so since it is a by-product of the burgeoning biodiesel industry. Use of glycerol as an additive or diluent for ILs is extensively evaluated in this work. Rice hulls are an abundant biomass, with over 100 million tons produced per year, but with little practical use. The IL 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium formate ([C2mim][O2CH] or EMIM Form) when mixed with an equal amount of glycerol has been shown to be effective in pretreating rice hulls. Ambient pressure, a pretreatment temperature of 110°C, and a reaction time of three hours produced rice hulls that could be enzymatically hydrolyzed to give reasonably good glucose and xylose yields considering the recalcitrance of this silica-armored biomass. The IL [C2mim][O2CH] was also effective when mixed with an equal amount of glycerol to pretreat loblolly pine, a fast-growing softwood. Loblolly pine was pretreated at 140°C for three hours to produce a solid rich in cellulose and hemicelluloses, while a lignin-rich product could be precipitated from the IL. Similar products were obtained from pretreatment with a mixture of 75% 1

  17. Subcellular targets of cadmium nephrotoxicity: cadmium binding to renal membrane proteins in animals with or without protective metallothionein synthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Nordberg, G F; Jin, T; Nordberg, M.

    1994-01-01

    Nephrotoxic effects of cadmium exposure are well established in humans and experimental animals. An early manifestation of such toxicity is calciuria a few hours after injection of CdMT in rats. Protection against calciuria and other adverse effects such as proteinuria (occurring later) is offered by pretreatment with Cd, which effectively induces metallothionein synthesis. In the present experiment, one group of animals was given pretreatment with CdCl2 to induce metallothionein synthesis. T...

  18. Lignocellulose pretreatment severity – relating pH to biomatrix opening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads; Meyer, Anne S.

    2010-01-01

    different pH values, temperatures, types of catalysts, and holding times. The consequences of the pretreatment on lignocellulosic biomass are described with special emphasis on the chemical alterations of the biomass during pretreatment, especially highlighting the significance of the pretreatment pH. We...... present a new illustration of the pretreatment effects encompassing the differential responses to the pH and temperature. A detailed evaluation of the use of severity factor calculations for pretreatment comparisons signifies that the multiple effects of different pretreatment factors on the subsequent...... the hydrolysis yields (glucose, xylose) and the pretreatment pH, but no correlation with the pretreatment temperature (90–200 °C). A better recognition and understanding of the factors affecting biomatrix opening, and use of more standardized evaluation protocols, will allow for the identification of new...

  19. Comparison of dilute mineral and organic acid pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, A.M.J.; Beeftink, H.H.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    The efficiencies of fumaric, maleic, and sulfuric acid in wheat straw pretreatment were compared. As a measure for pretreatment efficiency, enzymatic digestibility of the lignocellulose was determined. Monomeric glucose and xylose concentrations were measured after subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis, a

  20. Examining the Potential of Plasma-Assisted Pretreated Wheat Straw for Enzyme Production by Trichoderma reesei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez Gómez, Divanery; Lehmann, Linda Olkjær; Schultz-Jensen, Nadja;

    2012-01-01

    Plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw was investigated for cellulase and xylanase production by Trichoderma reesei fermentation. Fermentations were conducted with media containing washed and unwashed plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw as carbon source which was sterilized by autoclavation...

  1. Literature review of physical and chemical pretreatment processes for lignocellulosic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, P.F.H.; Huijgen, W.; Bermudez, L.; Bakker, R.

    2010-01-01

    Different pretreatment technologies published in public literature are described in terms of the mechanisms involved, advantages and disadvantages, and economic assessment. Pretreatment technologies for lignocellulosic biomass include biological, mechanical, chemical methods and various combinations

  2. Effects of thermo-chemical pre-treatment on anaerobic biodegradability and hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, T V; Bos, G J Klaasse; Zeeman, G; Sanders, J P M; van Lier, J B

    2009-05-01

    The effects of different thermo-chemical pre-treatment methods were determined on the biodegradability and hydrolysis rate of lignocellulosic biomass. Three plant species, hay, straw and bracken were thermo-chemically pre-treated with calcium hydroxide, ammonium carbonate and maleic acid. After pre-treatment, the plant material was anaerobically digested in batch bottles under mesophilic conditions for 40 days. From the pre-treatment and subsequent anaerobic digestion experiments, it was concluded that when the lignin content of the plant material is high, thermo-chemical pre-treatments have a positive effect on the biodegradability of the substrate. Calcium hydroxide pre-treatment improves the biodegradability of lignocellulosic biomass, especially for high lignin content substrates, like bracken. Maleic acid generates the highest percentage of dissolved COD during pre-treatment. Ammonium pre-treatment only showed a clear effect on biodegradability for straw. PMID:19144515

  3. Acute hepatotoxicity of ethylene and halogenated ethylenes after PCB pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conolly, R B; Jaeger, R J

    1977-12-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that ethylene, vinyl fluoride monomer (VFM), vinyl chloride monomer (VCM), and vinyl bromide monomer (VBM) are all acutely hepatotoxic in rats pretreated with polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB). The time course of hepatic injury development after exposure and several parameters, environmental and chemical, affecting this toxicity were evaluated in the work reported here. Liver injury, as measured by serum alanine-alpha-ketoglutarate transaminase (SAKT) or sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), develops progressively over a 24-hr period following a 4-hr inhalation exposure of PCB-pretreated rats to ethylene or VCM. Environmental temperature during exposure to VCM does not affect hepatotoxicity or mortality below 30.3 degrees C. At 33.8 degrees C, however, mortality and SAKT are dramatically increased. Overnight fasting, which depletes hepatic glutathione (GSH) of PCB-pretreated rats before exposure to ethylene or VCM, significantly increases the hepatotoxicity of these compounds as measured by SDH. The combined effects of fasting and of trichloropropane epoxide (TCPE), an inhibitor of epoxide hydrase (EH), were also examined. TCPE treatment of fasted PCB-pretreated rats immediately before exposure was synergistic in increasing the acute toxicity of ethylene and VCM. TCPE increased mortality in fed or fasted rats exposed to VFM, but there was no effect of fasting alone. Both fasting and TCPE increased the sensitivity of PCB-pretreated rats to VBM, but there was not a clearly synergistic effect of fasting plus TCPE. These data suggest that the acute toxicity of these compounds is mediated through epoxide intermediates. PMID:417916

  4. Pretreating wheat straw by the concentrated phosphoric acid plus hydrogen peroxide (PHP): Investigations on pretreatment conditions and structure changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Hu, Jinguang; Shen, Fei; Mei, Zili; Yang, Gang; Zhang, Yanzong; Hu, Yaodong; Zhang, Jing; Deng, Shihuai

    2016-01-01

    Wheat straw was pretreated by PHP (the concentrated H3PO4 plus H2O2) to clarify effects of temperature, time and H3PO4 proportion on hemicellulose removal, delignification, cellulose recovery and enzymatic digestibility. Overall, hemicellulose removal was intensified by PHP comparing to the concentrated H3PO4. Moreover, efficient delignification specially happened in PHP pretreatment. Hemicellulose removal and delignification by PHP positively responded to temperature and time. Increasing H3PO4 proportion in PHP can promote hemicellulose removal, however, decrease the delignification. Maximum hemicellulose removal and delignification were achieved at 100% and 83.7% by PHP. Enzymatic digestibility of PHP-pretreated wheat straw was greatly improved by increasing temperature, time and H3PO4 proportion, and complete hydrolysis can be achieved consequently. As temperature of 30-40°C, time of 2.0 h and H3PO4 proportion of 60% were employed, more than 92% cellulose was retained in the pretreated wheat straw, and 29.1-32.6g glucose can be harvested from 100g wheat straw.

  5. Biological pretreatment of corn stover with white-rot fungus for improved enzymatic hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass by white-rot fungus can represent a low-cost and eco-friendly alternative to harsh physical, chemical or physico-chemical pretreatment methods to facilitate enzymatic hydrolysis. However, fungal pretreatment can cause carbohydrate loss and it is, th...

  6. Comparative Study of SPORL and Dilute Acid Pretreatments of Spruce for Cellulosic Ethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The performance of two pretreatment methods, Sulfite Pretreatment to Overcome Recalcitrance of Lignocellulose (SPORL) and Dilute Acid (DA), was compared in pretreating softwood (spruce) for fuel ethanol production under the same conditions of temperature (180°C), time (30 min), sulfuric acid loading...

  7. The design of a novel, environmentally improved, industrial cotton pre-treatment process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwhuis, Gerhard Herman

    2011-01-01

    The scope of this thesis is the development of a new industrial applicable pre-treatment process for cotton based on catalysis. The pre-treatment generally consists of desizing, scouring and bleaching. These processes can be continuous or batch wise. Advances in the science of biocatalytic pre-treat

  8. The influence of pretreatment with ghrelin on the development of acetic-acid-induced colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduzia, D; Matuszyk, A; Ceranowicz, D; Warzecha, Z; Ceranowicz, P; Fyderek, K; Galazka, K; Dembinski, A

    2015-12-01

    Ghrelin has been primarily shown to exhibit protective and therapeutic effect in the gut. Pretreatment with ghrelin inhibits the development of acute pancreatitis and accelerates pancreatic recovery in the course of this disease. In the stomach, ghrelin reduces gastric mucosal damage induced by ethanol, stress or alendronate, as well as accelerates the healing of acetic acid-induced gastric and duodenal ulcer. The aim of present studies was to investigate the effect of pretreatment with ghrelin on the development of acetic acid-induced colitis. Studies have been performed on male Wistar rats. Animals were treated intraperitoneally with saline (control) or ghrelin (4, 8 or 16 nmol/kg/dose). Saline or ghrelin was given twice: 8 and 1 h before induction of colitis. Colitis was induced by a rectal enema with 1 ml of 4% solution of acetic acid and the severity of colitis was assessed 1 or 24 hours after induction of inflammation. Rectal administration of acetic acid induced colitis in all animals. Damage of colonic wall was seen at the macroscopic and microscopic level. This effect was accompanied by a reduction in colonic blood flow and mucosal DNA synthesis. Moreover, induction of colitis significantly increased mucosal concentration of pro-inflammatory interleukin-1β (IL-1β), activity of myeloperoxidase and concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA). Mucosal activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was reduced. Pretreatment with ghrelin reduced the area and grade of mucosal damage. This effect was accompanied by an improvement of blood flow, DNA synthesis and SOD activity in colonic mucosa. Moreover, ghrelin administration reduced mucosal concentration of IL-1β and MDA, as well as decreased mucosal activity of myeloperoxidase. Administration of ghrelin protects the large bowel against the development of the acetic acid-induced colitis and this effect seems to be related to the ghrelin-evoked anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects.

  9. Effects of glutamine pretreatment on learning and memory in heat-exposed rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shenghao Zhao; Lei Wang; Qin Wang; Siyi Wang; Chundi Deng; Xianfei Xie; Youe Yan; Hui Wang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Glutamine (Gln) pretreatment can protect neural cells from injuries due to heat, ischemia, hypoxia, endotoxemia, and inflammatory factors.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of Gln pretreatment on learning and memory, survival time, and rectal temperature in heat-exposed rats.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The present randomized grouping, neurobehavioral experiment was performed at the Laboratory of Department of Pharmacology, Basic School of Medicine, Wuhan University between March and September 2007.MATERIALS: Twenty-four healthy, Wistar rats were included in this study. SPX-160B biochemistry incubator (Shanghai Experimental Equipment Co., Ltd., China), probe electronic thermometer (11000 type, Maikepai Science and Technology Co., Ltd., China), Y-type maze box used in conjunction with MG-2 maze stimulator (Zhangjiagang Biomedical Instrument Factory, China), L-Gin (Batch No. 061218, 5 g/bottle, prepared into 10% aqueous solution, Amresco Company, USA) were used.METHODS: Twenty-four rats were randomly and evenly divided into 3 groups: heat-exposed, Gln low-lose, and Gln high-dose. Following learning and memory testing with the Y-maze, rats in the heat-exposed group were subjected to heat injury (40.5-41.5℃) in a biochemistry incubator. Rectal temperature was measured every 5 minutes. Thirty-five minutes after heat exposure, rats were removed and placed in the Y-type maze to test learning and memory again. Subsequently, the rats were returned to the same environment of thermal stimulation until they died. Rat survival time was recorded. Subsequent to learning and memory testing, rats in the Gln low-dose and high-dose groups received an i.p. injection of Gln (0.4 g/kg and 0.8 g/kg, respectively), and were exposed to heat injury. The remaining experimental procedures remained the same as for the heat-exposed group.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rat learning and memory, rectal temperature, and survival time in heat exposure environment.RESULTS: (1) In the Y

  10. Pretreatment Hepatoprotective Effect of the Marine Fungus Derived from Sponge on Hepatic Toxicity Induced by Heavy Metals in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehad M. Abdel-Monem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the pretreatment hepatoprotective effect of the extract of marine-derived fungus Trichurus spiralis Hasselbr (TS isolated from Hippospongia communis sponge on hepatotoxicity. Twenty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups (n=7. Group I served as −ve control, group II served as the induced group receiving subcutaneously for seven days 0.25 mg heavy metal mixtures, group III received (i.p. TS extract of dose 40 mg for seven days, and group IV served as the protected group pretreated with TS extract for seven days as a protection dose, and then treated with the heavy metal-mixture. The main pathological changes within the liver after heavy-metal mixtures administrations marked hepatic damage evidenced by foci of lobular necrosis with neutrophilic infiltration, adjacent to dysplastic hepatocytes. ALT and AST measurements show a significant increase in group II by 46.20% and 45.12%, respectively. Total protein, elevated by about 38.9% in induction group compared to the −ve control group, in contrast to albumin, decreased as a consequence of metal administration with significant elevation on bilirubin level. The results prove that TS extract possesses a hepatoprotective property due to its proven antioxidant and free-radical scavenging properties.

  11. Effects of an Agaricus blazei Aqueous Extract Pretreatment on Paracetamol-Induced Brain and Liver Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia A. Soares

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The action of an Agaricus blazei aqueous extract pretreatment on paracetamol injury in rats was examined not only in terms of the classical indicators (e.g., levels of hepatic enzymes in the plasma but also in terms of functional and metabolic parameters (e.g., gluconeogenesis. Considering solely the classical indicators for tissue damage, the results can be regarded as an indication that the A. blazei extract is able to provide a reasonable degree of protection against the paracetamol injury in both the hepatic and brain tissues. The A. blazei pretreatment largely prevented the increased levels of hepatic enzymes in the plasma (ASP, ALT, LDH, and ALP and practically normalized the TBARS levels in both liver and brain tissues. With respect to the functional and metabolic parameters of the liver, however, the extract provided little or no protection. This includes morphological signs of inflammation and the especially important functional parameter gluconeogenesis, which was impaired by paracetamol. Considering these results and the long list of extracts and substances that are said to have hepatoprotective effects, it would be useful to incorporate evaluations of functional parameters into the experimental protocols of studies aiming to attribute or refute effective hepatoprotective actions to natural products.

  12. Pretreatment of human cervicovaginal mucus with pluronic F127 enhances nanoparticle penetration without compromising mucus barrier properties to herpes simplex virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensign, Laura M; Lai, Samuel K; Wang, Ying-Ying; Yang, Ming; Mert, Olcay; Hanes, Justin; Cone, Richard

    2014-12-01

    Mucosal drug delivery nanotechnologies are limited by the mucus barrier that protects nearly all epithelial surfaces not covered with skin. Most polymeric nanoparticles, including polystyrene nanoparticles (PS), strongly adhere to mucus, thereby limiting penetration and facilitating rapid clearance from the body. Here, we demonstrate that PS rapidly penetrate human cervicovaginal mucus (CVM), if the CVM has been pretreated with sufficient concentrations of Pluronic F127. Importantly, the diffusion rate of large polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated, nonmucoadhesive nanoparticles (PS-PEG) did not change in F127-pretreated CVM, implying that F127 did not significantly alter the native pore structure of CVM. Additionally, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) remains adherent in F127-pretreated CVM, indicating that the presence of F127 did not reduce adhesive interactions between CVM and the virions. In contrast to treatment with a surfactant that has been approved for vaginal use as a spermicide (nonoxynol-9 or N9), there was no increase in inflammatory cytokine release in the vaginal tract of mice after daily application of 1% F127 for 1 week. Pluronic F127 pretreatment holds potential as a method to safely improve the distribution, retention, and efficacy of nanoparticle formulations without compromising CVM barrier properties to pathogens. PMID:25347518

  13. Improving methane production from digested manure biofibers by mechanical and thermal alkaline pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsapekos, Panagiotis; Kougias, Panagiotis; Frison, A.;

    2016-01-01

    the effluent stream of biogas reactors. Batch and continuous experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of these pretreatments. In batch experiments, the mechanical pretreatment improved the degradability up to 45%. Even higher efficiency was shown by applying thermal alkaline pretreatments......, enhancing fibers degradability by more than 4-fold. In continuous experiments, the thermal alkaline pretreatment, using 6% NaOH at 55 °C was proven to be the most efficient pretreatment method as the methane production was increased by 26%. The findings demonstrated that the methane production of the biogas...

  14. Pretreatments employed in lignocellulosic materials for bioethanol production: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danay Carrillo-Nieves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic materials are raw materials with high cellulose content and they constitute the most abun- dant sources of biomass on planet. They are attractive for their low cost and high availability in diverse climates and places for the bioethanol production, however, the main impediment for its use is the appro- priate selection from the technological and economic point of view of the stages of pretreatments and hydrolysis, that allow the breaking down of the lignocellulosic matrix to obtain the necessary substrates in the processes of fermentation. Pretreatment is an essential step in the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass and subsequent production of bioethanol, which have been divided in three groups for its study in: physi- cal-chemical, hydrothermal and biological. The aim of this paper is to analyze the potential of several pre- treatment methods for bioethanol production from lignocellulosic materials.

  15. Feasibilities of consolidated bioprocessing microbes: from pretreatment to biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisutham, Vinuselvi; Kim, Tae Hyun; Lee, Sung Kuk

    2014-06-01

    Lignocelluloses are rich sugar treasures, which can be converted to useful commodities such as biofuel with the help of efficient combination of enzymes and microbes. Although several bioprocessing approaches have been proposed, biofuel production from lignocelluloses is limited because of economically infeasible technologies for pretreatment, saccharification and fermentation. Use of consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) microbes is the most promising method for the cost-effective production of biofuels. However, lignocelluloses are obtained from highly diverse environment and hence are heterogeneous in nature. Therefore, it is necessary to develop and integrate tailor-designed pretreatment processes and efficient microbes that can thrive on many different kinds of biomass. In this review, the progress towards the construction of consolidated bioprocessing microbes, which can efficiently convert heterogeneous lignocellulosic biomass to bioenergy, has been discussed; in addition, the potential and constraints of current bioprocessing technologies for cellulosic biofuel production have been discussed.

  16. Wet oxidation pretreatment of rape straw for ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvaniti, Efthalia; Bjerre, Anne Belinda; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2012-01-01

    Rape straw can be used for production of second generation bioethanol. In this paper we optimized the pretreatment of rape straw for this purpose using Wet oxidation (WO). The effect of reaction temperature, reaction time, and oxygen gas pressure was investigated for maximum ethanol yield via...... slurry (Filter cake + filtrate) in SSF were also tested. Except ethanol yields, pretreatment methods were evaluated based on achieved glucose yields, amount of water used, recovery of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin.The highest ethanol yield obtained was 67% after fermenting the whole slurry...... gas produced higher ethanol yields and cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin recoveries, than 15 min WO treatment at 195 °C. Also, recycling filtrate and use of higher oxygen gas pressure reduced recovery of materials. The use of filtrate could be inhibitory for the yeast, but also reduced lactic acid...

  17. Mechanical pretreatment for improved adhesion of diamond coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond coatings are mainly used in cutting processes due to their tribological characteristics. They show a high hardness, low friction coefficient, high wear resistance and good chemical inertness. In relation to polycrystalline diamond (PCD)-tipped cutting inserts, especially the advantageous chemical stability of diamond coatings is superior as no binder phases between diamond grains are used. However, the deposition of adherent high-quality diamond coatings has been found difficult. Thus, substrate pretreatment is utilised to improve film adhesion. This investigation is based on water peening of the substrate material before coating. The investigation revealed best results for diamond film adhesion on pretreated substrates compared to conventional diamond coatings on cemented carbide tools applied with the CVD hot-filament process. In final cutting tests with increased film adhesion trough water peened cutting tools an improved wear behavior was detected. (orig.)

  18. Novel pre-treatments to control bromate formation during ozonation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoniou, Maria; Sichel, Cosima; Andre, Klaus;

    2016-01-01

    is of high interest. This study tested improvements to conventional ozonation that reduce the formation of the oxidation-by-product bromate, while maintaining the effectiveness for removal emerging contaminants (atrazine). MnO4−, ClO2−, ClO2, ClO−, CH3COOO−, HSO5− or S2O8−2 with NH4+ were tested as pre......−-NH4+, ClO2−-NH4+ and ClO2-NH4+. MnO4−-NH4+ was the only pre-treatment that didn’t inhibit atrazine removal. When compared with the previously proposed Cl2/NH4+ pre-treatment, MnO4− + NH4+ was found as effective for preventing BrO3− formation, while atrazine removal was higher. In addition, MnO4− + NH...

  19. PRETREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES IN BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Janušić

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol is today most commonly produced from corn grain and sugar cane. It is expected that there will be limits to the supply of these raw materials in the near future. Therefore, lignocellulosic biomass, namely agricultural and forest waste, is seen as an attractive feedstock for future supplies of ethanol. Lignocellulosic biomass consists of lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose. Indeed, complexicity of the lignocellulosic biomass structure causes a pretreatment to be applied prior to cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysis into fermentable sugars. Pretreatment technologies can be physical (mechanical comminution, pyrolysis, physico-chemical (steam explosion, ammonia fiber explosion, CO2 explosion, chemical (ozonolysis, acid hydrolysis, alkaline hydrolysis, oxidative delignification, organosolvent process and biological ones.

  20. Ensiling as pretreatment of grass for lignocellulosic biomass conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten

    an efficient production of ethanol. Lastly, the conversion of xylan was extremely low in both grass and grass silage. Optimization of the enzymatic saccharification of grass was attempted through improvement of the hemicellulase content in the enzyme blend. However, neither additional xylanases (Cellic HTec2......® and ß-xylosidase) nor hemicellulose degrading esterases (acetyl xylan esterase and ferulic acid esterase) showed any improvements of xylan or glucan convertibility. Furthermore, hemicellulases were added before ensiling in order to assist and improve the pretreatment effect. This resulted in, however.......3. Furthermore, the HTT pretreatment of both grass and grass silage gave considerably lower xylan convertibility than HTT of wheat straw and wheat straw silage. The reason for the inaccessible xylan in grass is believed to be found in a high complexity of branching and cross linkages creating a heterogeneous...

  1. Effect of ozone pretreatment on hydrogen production from barley straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiangning; Ein-Mozaffari, Farhad; Upreti, Simant

    2013-09-01

    Application of ozone technology to lignocellulosic biohydrogen production was explored with a barley straw. Ozone pretreatment effectively degraded the straw lignin and increased reducing sugar yield. A simultaneous enzyme hydrolysis and dark fermentation experiment was conducted using a mixed anaerobic consortium together with saccharification enzymes. Both untreated and ozonated samples produced hydrogen. Compared to the untreated group, hydrogen produced by the groups ozonated for 15, 30, 45 and 90 min increased 99%, 133%, 166% and 94%, respectively. Some inhibitory effect on hydrogen production was observed with the samples ozonated for 90 min, and the inhibition was on the fermentative microorganisms, not the saccharification enzymes. These results demonstrate that production of biohydrogen from barley straw, a lignocellulosic biomass, can be significantly enhanced by ozone pretreatment.

  2. Feasibility of Hydrothermal Pretreatment on Maize Silage for Bioethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2010-01-01

    the liquors from the five conditions were not toxic to the Baker’s yeast. Pretreatment under 195°C for 7 min had the similar PSF with that of 185°C for 15 min, and both gave the higher ethanol concentration of 19.92 and 19.98 g/L, respectively. The ethanol concentration from untreated maize silage was only 7...

  3. A thermomechanical pretreatment to improve enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw

    OpenAIRE

    Maache-Rezzoug, Zoulikha; Maugard, Thierry; Nouviaire, Armelle; Goude, Romain; Geoffroy, Stanley; Rezzoug, Sid-Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    International audience Wheat straw was pretreated with a thermomechanical process developed in our laboratory to increase the enzymatic hydrolysis extent of potentially fermentable sugars. This process involves subjecting the lignocellulosic biomass for a short time to saturated steam pressure, followed by an instantaneous decompression to vacuum at 50 mbar. Increasing of the heat induced by the saturated steam result in intensive vapour formation in the capillary porous structure of the p...

  4. Microwave Pretreatment of Coal Prior to Magnetic Separation

    OpenAIRE

    Butcher, D. A.; Rowson, N. A.

    1995-01-01

    New methods to reduce the total sulphur content of coals are being developed since the introduction of legislation requiring cuts in sulphur emissions to the atmosphere. It is known that weakly paramagnetic pyrite (FeS2) particles are difficult to remove from clean coal by standard magnetic separation techniques. Data is presented here comparing standard magnetic separation tests to results achieved when the coal is subjected to a caustic microwave leach pretreatment, prior to conventional dr...

  5. Pretreatment of citrus peel press liquor before anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, A.G.

    1983-02-01

    Centrifugation and aeration were unsuitable pretreatments before anaerobic digestion of press liquors from citrus peel. Non-aerated fermentation without pH control resulted in conversion of sugars to acids and ethyl alcohol with reduction in pH to 2.8 - 3.5. These acidified liquors had a pleasant smell, were stable on storage and were satisfactory feedstock for anaerobic digestion. (Refs. 7).

  6. Hydrolytic pretreatment of oily wastewater by immobilized lipase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hydrolysis of wastewater with high oil and grease (O and G) concentration from a pet food industry using immobilized lipase (IL) as a pretreatment step for anaerobic treatment through batch and continuous-flow experiments. The intrinsic Michaelis constant (K m) and maximum reaction rate (V max) were estimated experimentally and the K m value of IL (22.5 g O and G/L) was six-folds higher than that of the free lipase (FL) (3.6 g O and G/L), whereas V max of both FL (31.3 mM/g min) and IL (33.1 mM/g min) were similar. Preliminary batch anaerobic respirometric experiments showed that chemical oxygen demand (COD) and O and G reduction were 49 and 45% without pretreatment and 65 and 64% with IL pretreatment respectively, while the maximum growth rate (μ max) for pretreated wastewater (0.17 d-1) was 3.4-folds higher than that of raw wastewater (0.05 d-1) with similar Monod half-saturation constants (K s ∼ 2.7 g COD/L). The continuous-flow experimental study showed the feasibility of employing the hybrid packed bed reactor (PBR)-upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) system for the treatment of high-strength oily wastewater, as reflected by its ability to operate at an oil loading rate (LR) of 4.9 kg O and G/m3 d (to the PBR) without any problems for a period of 100 days. During pseudo-steady-state conditions, the hybrid UASB produced relatively higher biogas compared to the control UASB, The effluent COD and O and G concentrations of hybrid system were 100 mg/L lower than that of the control UASB reactor and no foam production was observed in the hybrid UASB compared to the control UASB reactor

  7. 40 CFR 421.186 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR 403.7, any new source subject to this subpart which introduces pollutants into a publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403 and achieve the following pretreatment standards for new....70 58.59 Lead 26.46 12.60 Zinc 91.98 38.43 Fluoride 2,205.00 1,254.00 (b) Chlorinator Wet...

  8. Effect of pretreatments on electrodeposited epoxy coatings for electronic industries

    OpenAIRE

    Sironmani Palraj; Muthaiah Selvaraj; Sundarajan Muthukrishnan

    2016-01-01

    Waterborne epoxy coatings were prepared on aluminium (Al) surfaces by cathodic electro-deposition on the pretreated surface of pickling, phosphating, chromating and anodizing. The electro-deposition experiments were done at two different voltages, 15 V and 25 V at room temperature in 10% epoxy coating formulations. Corrosion and thermal behavior of these coatings were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). The coating exhibits be...

  9. Pretreatments employed in lignocellulosic materials for bioethanol production: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Danay Carrillo-Nieves; Lourdes Zumalacárregui-de Cárdenas; Olga Sánchez-Collazo; Georgina Michelena-Alvarez; Hector Yznaga-Blanco; José Luis Martínez-Hernández; Cristóbal Noé-Aguilar

    2014-01-01

    Lignocellulosic materials are raw materials with high cellulose content and they constitute the most abun- dant sources of biomass on planet. They are attractive for their low cost and high availability in diverse climates and places for the bioethanol production, however, the main impediment for its use is the appro- priate selection from the technological and economic point of view of the stages of pretreatments and hydrolysis, that allow the breaking down of the lignocellulosic matrix to o...

  10. Coagulation and ultrafiltration in seawater reverse osmosis pretreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Tabatabai, S.A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Seawater desalination is a globally expanding coastal industry with an installed capacity of over 80 million m3/day. Algal blooms pose a challenge to the operation of seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) membranes and pre-treatment systems due to high concentrations of algal cells and algal organic matter (AOM) present in the seawater. During such periods, operators must ensure continuous production of high quality feed water for SWRO membranes while maintaining stable hydraulic operation of the p...

  11. PRETREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES IN BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS

    OpenAIRE

    Vanja Janušić; Duška Ćurić; Tajana Krička; Neven Voća; Ana Matin

    2008-01-01

    Bioethanol is today most commonly produced from corn grain and sugar cane. It is expected that there will be limits to the supply of these raw materials in the near future. Therefore, lignocellulosic biomass, namely agricultural and forest waste, is seen as an attractive feedstock for future supplies of ethanol.Lignocellulosic biomass consists of lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose. Indeed, complexicity of the lignocellulosic biomass structure causes a pretreatment to be applied prior to cel...

  12. Tracking Hemicellulose and Lignin Deconstruction During Hydrothermal Pretreatment of Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    McKenzie, Heather Lorelei

    2012-01-01

    The development of transportation fuels with low greenhouse gas emissions is imperative due to growing demand for transportation fuels, decreasing conventional petroleum supplies, and global warming. Ethanol from cellulosic biomass could address all of these challenges but current conversion technologies are not commercially feasible. Expensive pretreatments and enzymes are needed to recover fermentable sugars from cellulose and hemicellulose. Lignin represents an additional barrier to sugar ...

  13. CHARACTERISATION OF BIOLOGICALLY PRETREATED RAW MATERIALS FOR BIOPULPING PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Susy Albert; Amee Padhiar

    2012-01-01

    Biopulping, the treatment of wood chips by white rot fungi and subsequent chip refining is envisioned as a method for saving energy and making a stronger paper product. The present study aims to find suitability of two fungal isolates Phellinus pectinatus and Daedaleopsis confragosa for the process of biopulping and the characteristion of the biologically pretreated raw materials for biopulping. Two combinations of raw samples, Bamboo: wood shavings and Bamboo: wood shavings: Sorghum halepens...

  14. Prognostic Effect of Pretreatment Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen Level

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Chang Hyun; Lee, Soo Young; Kim, Hyeong Rok; Kim, Young Jin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Many studies have reported the prognostic value of pretreatment serum carcinoembryonic antigen (pre-CEA) levels on colorectal cancer outcomes. However, controversy remains concerning the significance of pre-CEA levels in patients with rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Our aim in this study was to investigate the prognostic role of the pre-CEA level in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer undergoing neoadjuvant CRT followed by total mesorectal exc...

  15. Effects of Moxibustion Pretreating on SOD and MDA in the Rat of Global Brain Ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUA Jin-shuang; LI Li-ping; ZHU Xian-min

    2008-01-01

    objective;To probe into the mechanism of moxibustion preconditioning in preventive brain-protecting effect.Methods;The global brain ischemia rat model was developed by blocking 4 artenes.Seventy-eight Wistarmale rats were randomly divided into 5 groups;a nomal control group,a sham-operation group,a brain ischemia group,a brain ischemia preconditioning group,a moxibustion pretreating group.The brains in the 5groups were taken at 24 h,48h,and 72h after operation respectively Superoxide dismulase(SOD)activity was determined with xanthine oxidase method and malondialdehyde(MDA)content with thiobarbituric acid method.Results;After the operation,in the moxibustion preconditioning group,SOD activity significantly increased,especially 24h after moxibustion preconditioning;and MDA content decreased,with a very significant difference as compared with that of the cerebral ischemia group(P<0.01).Conclusion;Moxibustion preconditioning protects the ischemic and anoxic brain tissue by increasing the activity of endogenous antioxidase.

  16. Effects of pretreatment with anti-inflammatory drugs on ozone-induced lung damage in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giri, S.N.; Benson, J.; Siegel, D.M.; Rice, S.A.; Schiedt, M.

    1975-12-01

    The effects of pretreatment with acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), hydrocortisone, indomethacine, and heparin administered ip against the pulmonary edema produced by O/sub 3/-exposure (4 ppm for 4 hr) were studied in rats. These anti-inflammatory drugs were found to alter the injurious effect of O/sub 3/ on lung differently. First, aspirin at the high dose (125 mg/kg) accentuated O/sub 3/-induced lung injury, and had no effect at the low dose (10 mg/kg); second, hydrocortisone (50 mg/kg) failed to have any effect; third, indomethacin at a high dose (20 mg/kg) offered a significant degree of protection, but had no effect at the low dose (2.5 mg/kg); and fourth, heparin (1000 units/kg) also offered a significant degree of protection against the lung damage normally induced by O/sub 3/-exposure. Several mechanisms for the favorable and unfavorable interactions of anti-inflammatory drugs with O/sub 3/-exposure were discussed.

  17. Woody biomass pretreatment for cellulosic ethanol production: Technology and energy consumption evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J Y; Pan, X J

    2010-07-01

    This review presents a comprehensive discussion of the key technical issues in woody biomass pretreatment: barriers to efficient cellulose saccharification, pretreatment energy consumption, in particular energy consumed for wood-size reduction, and criteria to evaluate the performance of a pretreatment. A post-chemical pretreatment size-reduction approach is proposed to significantly reduce mechanical energy consumption. Because the ultimate goal of biofuel production is net energy output, a concept of pretreatment energy efficiency (kg/MJ) based on the total sugar recovery (kg/kg wood) divided by the energy consumption in pretreatment (MJ/kg wood) is defined. It is then used to evaluate the performances of three of the most promising pretreatment technologies: steam explosion, organosolv, and sulfite pretreatment to overcome lignocelluloses recalcitrance (SPORL) for softwood pretreatment. The present study found that SPORL is the most efficient process and produced highest sugar yield. Other important issues, such as the effects of lignin on substrate saccharification and the effects of pretreatment on high-value lignin utilization in woody biomass pretreatment, are also discussed.

  18. A novel surfactant-assisted ultrasound pretreatment of sugarcane tops for improved enzymatic release of sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhu, Raveendran; Kuttiraja, Mathiyazhakan; Preeti, Varghese Elizabeth; Vani, Sankar; Sukumaran, Rajeev K; Binod, Parameswaran

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a novel surfactant-assisted ultrasound pretreatment of sugarcane tops as well as to optimize the effect of various operational parameters on pretreatment and hydrolysis. A novel surfactant-assisted ultrasound pretreatment was developed which could effectively remove hemicelluloses and lignin and improve the reducing sugar yield from sugarcane tops. Operational parameters for pretreatment and hydrolysis were studied and optimized. Under optimal hydrolysis conditions, 0.661 g of reducing sugar was produced per gram of pretreated biomass. The structural changes of native and pretreated biomass were investigated by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared analysis (FTIR). The results indicate that surfactant-assisted ultrasound pretreated sugarcane tops can be used as a potential feed stock for bioethanol production. PMID:23069605

  19. Biological pretreatment of corn stover with ligninolytic enzyme for high efficient enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng-Qin; Xie, Hui; Chen, Wei; Wang, En-Tao; Du, Feng-Guang; Song, An-Dong

    2013-09-01

    Aiming at increasing the efficiency of transferring corn stover into sugars, a biological pretreatment was developed and investigated in this study. The protocol was characterized by the pretreatment with crude ligninolytic enzymes from Phanerochete chrysosporium and Coridus versicolor to break the lignin structure in corn stover, followed by a washing procedure to eliminate the inhibition of ligninolytic enzyme on cellulase. By a 2 d-pretreatment, sugar yield from corn stover hydrolysis could be increased by 50.2% (up to 323 mg/g) compared with that of the control. X-ray diffractometry and FT-IR analysis revealed that biological pretreatment could partially remove the lignin of corn stover, and consequently enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of cellulose and hemeicellulose. In addition, the amount of microbial inhibitors, such as acetic acid and furfural, were much lower in biological pretreatment than that in acid pretreatment. This study provided a promising pretreatment method for biotransformation of corn stovers.

  20. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentability of corn stover pretreated by lactic acid and/or acetic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2009-01-01

    Four different pretreatments with and without addition of low concentration organic acids were carried out on corn stover at 195 °C for 15 min. The highest xylan recovery of 81.08% was obtained after pretreatment without acid catalyst and the lowest of 58.78% after pretreatment with both acetic...... and lactic acid. Glucan recovery was less sensitive to the pretreatment conditions than xylan recovery. The pretreatment with acetic and lactic acid yielded the highest glucan recovery of 95.66%. The glucan recoveries of the other three pretreatments varied between 83.92% and 94.28%. Fermentability tests...... material was obtained following pretreatment at 195 °C for 15 min with acetic acid employed. The estimated total ethanol production was 241.1 kg/ton raw material by assuming fermentation of both C-6 and C-5, and 0.51 g ethanol/g sugar....

  1. Effect of Microwave Pretreatment on Extraction Yield and Quality of Catfish Oil in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chimsook Thitiphan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of microwave pretreatment of catfish processing waste on oil recovery and quality was investigated. Fish oil was extracted using the enzymatic hydrolysis using alcalase enzyme after the microwave pretreatment. The effect of microwave power and microwave pretreatment times was evaluated. The results revealed that a highest yield of 9.25% when catfish waste was treated at 110 W for 60 s. This condition was found as the most appropriate condition of microwave pretreatment since it decreased the extraction time from 150 min to up to 30 min. Analysis of oil quality indices (e.g. acid value, p-anisidine value, peroxide value extracted by microwave pretreatment and non-pretreatment indicated that catfish oil from both processes has comparatively similar fatty acids composition. In addition, catfish oil was extracted by microwave pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis had lower lipid oxidation compared to several standards.

  2. Biogas production and saccharification of Salix pretreated at different steam explosion conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Svein J; Estevez, Maria M; Nielsen, Henrik K; Linjordet, Roar; Eijsink, Vincent G H

    2011-09-01

    Different steam explosion conditions were applied to Salix chips and the effect of this pretreatment was evaluated by running both enzymatic hydrolysis and biogas tests. Total enzymatic release of glucose and xylose increased with pretreatment harshness, with maximum values being obtained after pretreatment for 10 min at 210°C. Harsher pretreatment conditions did not increase glucose release, led to degradation of xylose and to formation of furfurals. Samples pretreated at 220 and 230°C initially showed low production of biogas, probably because of inhibitors produced during the pretreatment, but the microbial community was able to adapt and showed high final biogas production. Interestingly, final biogas yields correlated well with sugar yields after enzymatic hydrolysis, suggesting that at least in some cases a 24h enzymatic assay may be developed as a quick method to predict the effects of pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass on biogas yields.

  3. Impact of thermal pretreatment on the fast pyrolysis conversion of Southern Pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler L. Westover; Manunya Phanphanich; Micael L. Clark; Sharna R. Rowe; Steven E. Egan; Christopher T Wright; Richard D. Boardman; Alan H. Zacher

    2013-01-01

    Background: Thermal pretreatment of biomass ranges from simple (nondestructive) drying to more severe treatments that cause devolatization, depolymerization and carbonization. These pretreatments have demonstrated promise for transforming raw biomass into feedstock material that has improved milling, handling, storage and conversion properties. In this work, southern pine material was pretreated at 120, 180, 230 and 270 degrees C, and then subjected to pyrolysis tests in a continuous-feed bubbling-fluid bed pyrolysis system. Results: High pretreatment temperatures were associated with lower specific grinding energies, higher grinding rates and lower hydrogen and oxygen contents. Higher pretreatment temperatures were also correlated with increased char production, decreased total acid number and slight decrease in the oxygen content of the pyrolysis liquid fraction. Conclusion: Thermal pretreatment has both beneficial and detrimental impacts on fast pyrolysis conversion of pine material to bio-oil, and the effect of thermal pretreatment on upgrading of pyrolysis bio-oil requires further attention.

  4. ETHANOL ORGANOSOLV PRETREATMENT OF BAMBOO FOR EFFICIENT ENZYMATIC SACCHARIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Li,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is a potential lignocellulosic biomass for the production of bioethanol because of its high cellulose and hemicelluloses content. In this research, ethanol organosolv pretreatment with dilute sulfuric acid as the catalyst was studied in order to enhance enzymatic saccharification of moso bamboo. The addition of 2% (w/w bamboo dilute sulfuric acid in 75% ethanol had a particularly strong effect on fractionation of bamboo. It yielded a solids fraction containing 83.4% cellulose in the treated substrate. The cellulose conversion to glucose yield reached 77.1 to 83.4% after enzymatic hydrolysis of the solids fraction for 48 h at an enzyme loading of 15 FPU cellulase/g cellulose and 30 IU β-glucosidase/g cellulose. The enzymatic hydrolysis rate was significantly accelerated as the ethanol organosolv pretreatment time increased, reaching the highest enzymatic glucose yield of 83.4% after 48 h at 50 °C. The concentrations of fermentation inhibitors such as HMF (5-hydroxy-2-methyl furfural and furfural were 0.96 g/L and 4.38 g/L in the spent liquor after the ethanol organosolv pretreatment, which were slightly lower than the concentrations quantified during H2SO4-water treatment. Spent liquor was diluted with water, and more than 87.2% of lignin in raw bamboo was recovered as ethanol organosolv lignin through the filtration process.

  5. Technological pretreatment of the synchysite non-oxidized ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkhtsetseg, B.; Burmaa, G.

    2013-06-01

    Mongolia has rich deposits of rare, precious, and poly-metallic ores. Nowadays, it is important to research separation of rare earth elements oxides concentrates from the ores, analyze their unique physical chemical characteristics, and purified it. Our investigation on raw materials focuses on rare earth non-oxidized ores. Main mineral in this rock sample is Synchysite (LnCa(CO3)2F. We did technological and thermal pretreatment: direct sulphurization (H2SO4), sulphurization with subsequent roasting (800°C+H2SO4), sulphurization prior to roasting (H2SO4+650°C). Sulphurization method based on dissolution of rare earth mineral into sulfuric acid (93%) according to the reaction. The amount of rare earth element oxides is almost 10 times greater (29.16%) after direct sulphurization process, almost 8 times greater (21.14%) after sulphurization with subsequent roasting, and almost 20 times greater (44.62%) after sulphurization prior to roasting process. After those technological pretreatment raw material's micro elements Thorium and Uranium contents are reduced as follows: H2SO4>800°C+H2SO4>H2SO4+650°C. These results show that cerium group rare earth elements have very good solubility in water at +2°C temperature and decreasing micro elements content uranium and thorium good pretreatment condition is prior to roasting (H2SO4+650°C) of synchysite non-oxidized ore.

  6. Description of waste pretreatment and interfacing systems dynamic simulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbrick, D.J.; Zimmerman, B.D.

    1995-05-01

    The Waste Pretreatment and Interfacing Systems Dynamic Simulation Model was created to investigate the required pretreatment facility processing rates for both high level and low level waste so that the vitrification of tank waste can be completed according to the milestones defined in the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA). In order to achieve this objective, the processes upstream and downstream of the pretreatment facilities must also be included. The simulation model starts with retrieval of tank waste and ends with vitrification for both low level and high level wastes. This report describes the results of three simulation cases: one based on suggested average facility processing rates, one with facility rates determined so that approximately 6 new DSTs are required, and one with facility rates determined so that approximately no new DSTs are required. It appears, based on the simulation results, that reasonable facility processing rates can be selected so that no new DSTs are required by the TWRS program. However, this conclusion must be viewed with respect to the modeling assumptions, described in detail in the report. Also included in the report, in an appendix, are results of two sensitivity cases: one with glass plant water recycle steams recycled versus not recycled, and one employing the TPA SST retrieval schedule versus a more uniform SST retrieval schedule. Both recycling and retrieval schedule appear to have a significant impact on overall tank usage.

  7. Digestibility Improvement of Sorted Waste with Alkaline Hydrothermai Pretreatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hao; WANG Hongtao; LU Wenjing; ZHAO Yan

    2009-01-01

    The digestibility of sorted municipal solid waste (MSW) is often limited by the high content of structured green waste. The objectives of this study are to investigate the effect of alkaline hydrothermal pretreatment on the anaerobic digestion of sorted waste and to analyze the biogas production of different parts of the waste. The waste was hydrothermally pretreated in a dilute alkali solution. The hydrolysis product was then incubated in a 500 mL saline bottle to determine the biochemical methane potential (BMP) under mesophilic anaerobic conditions. The optimum hydrothermal condition was 170℃ at 4 g NaOH/100 g solid for one hour. The concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was 13 936 mg/L and the methane yield was 164 mL/g volatile solid (VS) for 6 days incubation at the optimum conditions. The biogas production was increased more than 50% over the control, with the methane conversion ratio on a carbon basis enhanced to 30.6%. The organic part of the sorted waste was mainly kitchen garbage and leaves. Model kitchen garbage completely liquified at 130℃ for one hour had a methane yield of 276 mL/g VS. The alkali addition slightly enhanced the hydrolyzation rate and methane yield. The biogas potential of leaves was improved by pre-treatment at above 150℃ under alkaline conditions.

  8. Enhanced biomethanation of kitchen waste by different pre-treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jingxing; Duong, Thu Hang; Smits, Marianne; Verstraete, Willy; Carballa, Marta

    2011-01-01

    Five different pre-treatments were investigated to enhance the solubilisation and anaerobic biodegradability of kitchen waste (KW) in thermophilic batch and continuous tests. In the batch solubilisation tests, the highest and the lowest solubilisation efficiency were achieved with the thermo-acid and the pressure-depressure pre-treatments, respectively. However, in the batch biodegradability tests, the highest cumulative biogas production was obtained with the pressure-depressure method. In the continuous tests, the best performance in terms of an acceptable biogas production efficiency of 60% and stable in-reactor CODs and VFA concentrations corresponded to the pressure-depressure reactor, followed by freeze-thaw, acid, thermo-acid, thermo and control. The maximum OLR (5 g COD L(-1) d(-1)) applied in the pressure-depressure and freeze-thaw reactors almost doubled the control reactor. From the overall analysis, the freeze-thaw pre-treatment was the most profitable process with a net potential profit of around 11.5 € ton(-1) KW.

  9. Microstructural study of pre-treated and enzymatic hydrolyzed bamboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funsho O. KOLAWOLE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo was used as biomass feedstock which was pre-treated using dilute acid hydrolysis followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. The bamboo was mechanical ground to particle sizes 212–500µm, followed by pre-treatment with dilute sulfuric acid at a concentration of 0.5 and 1.0 (%v/v at temperatures of 25, 110, 120, 150 and 200°C with time intervals of 2 and 4 hours. Pre-hydrolyzate was later analyzed for reducing sugar using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Under the above conditions, a maximum glucose yield of 153.1 mg/g was obtained at 200°C and acid concentrations of 1% for 4 hours. Water insoluble solids obtained were subsequently hydrolyzed with Celluclast (Trichoderma reesi and β-glucosidase (Novozyme 188 for 72 hours. Optical Microscope and ESEM images of bamboo samples were obtained at various stages of pre-treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Result reveals a breakdown in the ligno-cellulosic structure of the bamboo during exposure to dilute acid and enzymatic hydrolysis.

  10. Calcium pretreatment increases thermotolerance of Laminaria japonica sporophytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You Wang; Qingyun Yu; Xuexi Tang; Lili Wang

    2009-01-01

    Calcium is a secondary messenger in plant signaling,and its concentration changes spatially and temporally during the course of heat stress.In the present study,potassium antimonate was used to visualize calcium localization in blades of a marine macroalga,the juvenile Laminariajaponica sporophytes under heat stress (25 ℃).Result showed that loosely bound calcium was mainly distributed on the cell wall under normal conditions (10 ℃),and flowed into the cytoplasm when exposed to heat.The simutaneous assay on the antioxidant system changes was performed.Oxidative damage,as measured by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) malondialdehyde (MDA) content,increased significantly during heat stress,and calcium pretreatment alleviated oxidative damage.The assay on the activities of six antioxidant enzymes demonstrated that their enzymatic activities were inhibited when exposed to heat stress,but Ca2+ pretreatment effectively attenuated the inhibition.Results in the present study inferred that calcium homeostasis plays an essential role in L.japonica sporophyte when exposed to heat,and calcium pretreatment could improve its thermo-tolerance.

  11. EFFECT OF PRETREATMENT OF ALGAL BIOMASS ON BIOADSORPTION OF MANGANESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mane P. C

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of heavy metals in aquatic environment is known to cause severe damage to aquatic life. Most of the heavy metals are soluble in water and form aqueous solutions and consequently cannot be separated by ordinary physical and chemical means of separation. Biological methods such as biosorption/ bioaccumulation for the removal of heavy metal ions may provide an attractive alternative to physico-chemical methods. The biomass is capable of absorbing and adsorbing metal ions from aqueous solution. In this study the effect of pretreatment of Algal biomasses like Spirogyra on the Mn biosorption capacity were investigated under laboratory conditions. For this purpose, the biomasses were subjected to physical treatments such as heat and autoclaving and chemical treatments such as sodium hydroxide and acetic acid. Under laboratory condition, all the pretreated biomass increased biosorption of Mn in comparison with live biomass (spirogyra - 37.75%; Nostoc – 41.73%. The maximum metal removal efficiency was observed under autoclaved biomass (spirogyra - 89.91%; Nostoc – 91.73% followed by acetic acid treatment (spirogyra - 82.90%; Nostoc – 87.83%. Among the pretreatments the oven driedbiomass (spirogyra - 57.23%; Nostoc – 61.81% and NaOH treated cells (spirogyra - 49.90%; Nostoc – 51.54% adsorbed least amount of metal.

  12. Ultrasound as pre-treatment for drying of pineapple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Fabiano A N; Linhares, Francisco E; Rodrigues, Sueli

    2008-09-01

    Dehydration of fruits is an alternative to reduce post-harvest loss of fruits and also a process to produce dried fruits, which can be directly consumed or become part of foodstuffs like cakes, pastries and many others. The effect of ultrasonic pre-treatment and ultrasound-assisted osmotic dehydration, before air-drying, on dehydration of pineapple (Ananas comosus) was investigated. This study allowed estimating the water diffusivity in the air-drying process for pineapples submitted to ultrasound. Results showed that the water diffusivity increased after application of ultrasound and that the overall drying time was reduced by 8% (over 1h of air-drying time). During the ultrasonic treatment in distilled water the pineapples lost sugar (23.2% in 30 min), so in this condition the ultrasonic pre-treatment can be an interesting process to produce dried fruits with low sugar content. Results showed that the water loss increased with increasing soluble solids content of the osmotic solution and that the ultrasound-assisted osmotic dehydration incorporated more sugar than conventional osmotic dehydration. The water effective diffusivity of the pineapples during the air-drying process was influenced by the pre-treatment, increasing the water effective diffusivity when ultrasound was applied. PMID:18462985

  13. Nanofiltration based water reclamation from tannery effluent following coagulation pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, J; Mondal, D; Chakraborty, S; Sikder, J; Curcio, S; Arafat, H A

    2015-11-01

    Coagulation-nanofiltration based integrated treatment scheme was employed in the present study to maximize the removal of toxic Cr(VI) species from tannery effluents. The coagulation pretreatment step using aluminium sulphate hexadecahydrate (alum) was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). A nanofiltration unit was integrated with this coagulation pre-treatment unit and the resulting flux decline and permeate quality were investigated. Herein, the coagulation was conducted under response surface-optimized operating conditions. The hybrid process demonstrated high chromium(VI) removal efficiency over 98%. Besides, fouling of two of the tested nanofiltration membranes (NF1 and NF3) was relatively mitigated after feed pretreatment. Nanofiltration permeation fluxes as high as 80-100L/m(2)h were thereby obtained. The resulting permeate stream quality post nanofiltration (NF3) was found to be suitable for effective reuse in tanneries, keeping the Cr(VI) concentration (0.13mg/L), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) (65mg/L), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) (142mg/L), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) (108mg/L), Total Solids (TS) (86mg/L) and conductivity levels (14mho/cm) in perspective. The process water reclaiming ability of nanofiltration was thereby substantiated and the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid system was thus affirmed.

  14. The pretreatment cost of a pyroprocess facility in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. K.; Youn, S. R.; Lee, S. H.; Lee, H. J.; Ko, W. I. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Shale gas still has many disadvantages such as significant technological difficulties and high costs even when the fracking technology is used to extract shale gas since shale gas is dispersed widely. Moreover, it is estimated that the shale gas can be used for about 60 years, which is comparable to the period estimated for oil deposits. Another concern is that the climate may change due to the discharge of harmful gas produced during the gas extraction process. PRIDE facility producing 10 ton/year uranium ingot was set as the cost object for the cost estimation, and it was possible to increase cost calculation's accuracy level since labor cost and expenses incurred in this facility were the costs incurred in actuality. In the end, First-In, First Out process costing method was used to calculate the pretreatment cost of pyroprocess. According to the cost calculation results, the pretreatment cost was estimated as $195/kgHM and the cost share of the pretreatment of pyroprocess was calculated as 20%. Accordingly, electrochemical reduction process is the process requires most cost, followed by the cost of electro-winning process.

  15. Gasification performance of switchgrass pretreated with torrefaction and densification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Various

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate gasification performance of four switchgrass pretreatments (torrefaction at 230 and 270 °C, densification, and combined torrefaction and densification) and three gasification temperatures (700, 800 and 900 °C). Gasification was performed in a fixed-bed externally heated reactor with air as an oxidizing agent. Switchgrass pretreatment and gasification temperature had significant effects on gasification performance such as gas yields, syngas lower heating value (LHV), and carbon conversion and cold gas efficiencies. With an increase in the gasification temperature, yields of H2 and CO, syngas LHV, and gasifier efficiencies increased whereas CH4, CO2 and N2 yields decreased. Among all switchgrass pretreatments, gasification performance of switchgrass with combined torrefaction and densification was the best followed by that of densified, raw and torrefied switchgrass. Gasification of combined torrefied and densified switchgrass resulted in the highest yields of H2 (0.03 kg/kg biomass) and CO (0.72 kg/kg biomass), highest syngas LHV (5.08 MJ m-3), CCE (92.53%), and CGE (68.40%) at the gasification temperature of 900 °C.

  16. Tow steps biohydrogen production: biomass pretreatment and fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, C.; Yang, H. H.; Guo, L. J.

    2010-03-01

    This paper investigated the pretreatment of cornstalk and integrated dark-photo fermentation for hydrogen production. Five parameters of the pretreatment experiments, including NaOH concentration, temperature, residence time, and dosage of cellulase and xylanase, were optimized through the L25 (5≙5) orthogonal test. The optimal NaOH concentration, temperature, residence time, and dosage of cellulase and xylanase were 0.5wt%, 115 °C, 3 h, 0.08g/g cornstalk, 0.08g/g cornstalk, respectively. Under the optimal conditions, 0.31g glucose/g cornstalk was obtained. The two-step fermentation consisted of dark fermentation and photo fermentation. The pretreated cornstalk was used as the substrate for dark fermentation, with cow dung as the inoculum. Then the effluents of dark fermentation were employed as the substrate for photo fermentation by photosynthetic bacteria. H2 yield of dark fermentation was 116.7 mL/g cornstalk, with H2 concentration of 41%. After photo fermentation, the total H2 yield increased to 294 mL/g cornstalk.

  17. Pretreatment of coking wastewater using anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bing; SUN Ying-lan; LI Yu-ying

    2005-01-01

    A laboratory-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) was used to pretreat coking wastewater. Inoculated anaerobic granular biomass was acclimated for 225 d to the coking wastewater, and then the biochemical methane potential (BMP)of the coking wastewater in the acclimated granular biomass was measured. At the same time, some fundamental technological factors, such as the filling time and the reacting time ratio (tf/tr), the mixing intensity and the intermittent mixing mode, that affect anaerobic pretreatment of coking wastewater with ASBR, were evaluated through orthogonal tests. The COD removal efficiency reached 38%~50% in the stable operation period with the organic loading rate of 0.37~0.54 kg COD/(m3.d) at the optimum conditions of tf/tr, the mixing intensity and the intermittent mixing mode. In addition, the biodegradability of coking wastewater distinctly increased after the pretreatment using ASBR. At the end of the experiment, the microorganism forms on the granulated sludge in the ASBR were observed using SEM (scanning electron microscope) and fluoroscope. The results showed that the dominant microorganism on the granular sludge was Methanosaeta instead of Methanosarcina dominated on the inoculated sludge.

  18. Nanofiltration based water reclamation from tannery effluent following coagulation pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, J; Mondal, D; Chakraborty, S; Sikder, J; Curcio, S; Arafat, H A

    2015-11-01

    Coagulation-nanofiltration based integrated treatment scheme was employed in the present study to maximize the removal of toxic Cr(VI) species from tannery effluents. The coagulation pretreatment step using aluminium sulphate hexadecahydrate (alum) was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). A nanofiltration unit was integrated with this coagulation pre-treatment unit and the resulting flux decline and permeate quality were investigated. Herein, the coagulation was conducted under response surface-optimized operating conditions. The hybrid process demonstrated high chromium(VI) removal efficiency over 98%. Besides, fouling of two of the tested nanofiltration membranes (NF1 and NF3) was relatively mitigated after feed pretreatment. Nanofiltration permeation fluxes as high as 80-100L/m(2)h were thereby obtained. The resulting permeate stream quality post nanofiltration (NF3) was found to be suitable for effective reuse in tanneries, keeping the Cr(VI) concentration (0.13mg/L), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) (65mg/L), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) (142mg/L), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) (108mg/L), Total Solids (TS) (86mg/L) and conductivity levels (14mho/cm) in perspective. The process water reclaiming ability of nanofiltration was thereby substantiated and the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid system was thus affirmed. PMID:26188702

  19. The pretreatment cost of a pyroprocess facility in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shale gas still has many disadvantages such as significant technological difficulties and high costs even when the fracking technology is used to extract shale gas since shale gas is dispersed widely. Moreover, it is estimated that the shale gas can be used for about 60 years, which is comparable to the period estimated for oil deposits. Another concern is that the climate may change due to the discharge of harmful gas produced during the gas extraction process. PRIDE facility producing 10 ton/year uranium ingot was set as the cost object for the cost estimation, and it was possible to increase cost calculation's accuracy level since labor cost and expenses incurred in this facility were the costs incurred in actuality. In the end, First-In, First Out process costing method was used to calculate the pretreatment cost of pyroprocess. According to the cost calculation results, the pretreatment cost was estimated as $195/kgHM and the cost share of the pretreatment of pyroprocess was calculated as 20%. Accordingly, electrochemical reduction process is the process requires most cost, followed by the cost of electro-winning process

  20. Long-wave UVA offers partial protection against UVB-induced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, L.; Villadsen, L.; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær;

    2000-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UVB, 280–320 nm) interferes with the generation of cell-mediated immunity to contact allergens applied epicutaneously on the irradiated site. To investigate whether pretreatment with UVA-1 (340–400 nm) protects against the UVB-induced immune suppression we sensitized human volunteers...

  1. Impacts of Greening Materials and Seed Pretreatment on Vegetation Development at an initial stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obriejetan, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Slope protection using greening measures as an integral part of soil-bioengineering is characterized by an increasing demand in research and practice. However, successful greening is a very complex issue due to the vast variety in specific slope characteristics such as morphology, soil properties and environmental factors. Because of practical experience in the greening of slopes and the results of further investigations in small-scale tests, it can be stated that the use of appropriate planting techniques, the quality of the materials used and the proper implementation of potential needed auxiliary materials at difficult locations are seen as key success criteria for sustainable vegetation development. Within this framework small-scale testing series were conducted regarding the influence of specific soil-properties, the use of auxiliary greening materials (fertilizer, mycorrhiza fungi, Bonded fiber matrix (BFM)…), application of different seed-pretreatment methods and influences of specific environmental factors (inclination, seeding depth) on vegetational development in an early phase. The aim of the series is to quantitatively and thus economically optimize the use of different greening-components and seed mixtures for practical application, while ensuring optimal development of vegetation. To quantify the influence of the treatment systems, vegetation cover ratio, biomass production (aboveground and belowground) and the germination of plant seeds served as main criteria for assessing the development in an initial stage. Selected findings for instance show that the admixture of mycorrhiza fungi can increase the cover ratio up to 23 % compared to untreated plots. In addition, pretreatment of seeds showed distinct effects too by shortening germination phase and increasing the capability of producing a higher amount of healthy sprouts. From a bioengineering perspective the results will serve as potential decisive advantage for successful implementation of

  2. Yohimbine Enhances Protection of Berberine against LPS-Induced Mouse Lethality through Multiple Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Li; Yiyang Wang; Haoqing Zhang; Baoyin Jia; Daan Wang; Hongmei Li; Daxiang Lu; Renbin Qi; Yuxia Yan; Huadong Wang

    2012-01-01

    Sepsis remains a major cause of mortality in intensive care units, better therapies are urgently needed. Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an important trigger of sepsis. We have demonstrated that berberine (Ber) protects against lethality induced by LPS, which is enhanced by yohimbine (Y) pretreatment, and Ber combined with Y also improves survival in septic mice. However, the precise mechanisms by which Y enhances protection of Ber against LPS - induced lethality remain un...

  3. Protection of in-vitro grown Arabidopsis seedlings against abiotic stresses

    OpenAIRE

    Klerk, de, G.J.M.; Pumisutapon, P.

    2008-01-01

    Severe abiotic stresses may cause permanent damage leading to death. In Arabidopsis seedlings germinating in vitro, we examined whether stress-related damage could be reduced by addition of protective low-molecular-weight compounds (trehalose and putrescine), addition of a specific signal molecule (acetylsalicylic acid), culture in the dark before and/or after the stress, and hardening mild-stress pretreatments. All four tested protective procedures increased survival after exposure to drough...

  4. Pretreating lignocellulosic biomass by the concentrated phosphoric acid plus hydrogen peroxide (PHP) for enzymatic hydrolysis: evaluating the pretreatment flexibility on feedstocks and particle sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Wang, Zhanghong; Shen, Fei; Hu, Jinguang; Sun, Fubao; Lin, Lili; Yang, Gang; Zhang, Yanzong; Deng, Shihuai

    2014-08-01

    In order to seek a high-efficient pretreatment path for converting lignocellulosic feedstocks to fermentable sugars by enzymatic hydrolysis, the concentrated H₃PO₄ plus H₂O₂ (PHP) was attempted to pretreat different lignocellulosic biomass for evaluating the pretreatment flexibility on feedstocks. Meanwhile, the responses of pretreatment to particle sizes were also evaluated. When the PHP-pretreatment was employed (final H₂O₂ and H₃PO₄ concentration of 1.77% and 80.0%), 71-96% lignin and more than 95% hemicellulose in various feedstocks (agricultural residues, hardwood, softwood, bamboo, and their mixture, and garden wastes mixture) can be removed. Consequently, more than 90% glucose conversion was uniformly achieved indicating PHP greatly improved the pretreatment flexibility to different feedstocks. Moreover, when wheat straw and oak chips were PHP-pretreated with different sizes, the average glucose conversion reached 94.9% and 100% with lower coefficient of variation (7.9% and 0.0%), which implied PHP-pretreatment can significantly weaken the negative effects of feedstock sizes on subsequent conversion.

  5. Enzymatic protein hydrolysates from high pressure-pretreated isolated pea proteins have better antioxidant properties than similar hydrolysates produced from heat pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgih, Abraham T; Chao, Dongfang; Lin, Lin; He, Rong; Jung, Stephanie; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2015-12-01

    Isolated pea protein (IPP) dispersions (1%, w/v) were pretreated with high pressure (HP) of 200, 400, or 600 MPa for 5 min at 24 °C or high temperature (HT) for 30 min at 100 °C prior to hydrolysis with 1% (w/w) Alcalase. HP pretreatment of IPP at 400 and 600 MPa levels led to significantly (P40%) oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC) of hydrolysates. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of pea protein hydrolysates were also significantly (P<0.05) improved (25%, 20%, and 40%, respectively) by HP pretreatment of IPP. Protein hydrolysates from HT IPP showed no ORAC, superoxide or hydroxyl scavenging activity but had significantly (P<0.05) improved (80%) ferric reducing antioxidant power. The protein hydrolysates had weaker antioxidant properties than glutathione but overall, the HP pretreatment was superior to HT pretreatment in facilitating enzymatic release of antioxidant peptides from IPP. PMID:26041225

  6. Effects of microwave power and microwave irradiation time on pretreatment efficiency and characteristics of corn stover using combination of steam explosion and microwave irradiation (SE-MI) pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Feng; Xue, Shulin; Yu, Shengshuan; Zhang, Chao; Li, Bing; Kang, Yong

    2012-08-01

    The effects of microwave power and microwave irradiation time on pretreatment efficiency and characteristics of corn stover were investigated based on a new process named combination of steam explosion and microwave irradiation (SE-MI) pretreatment. Results showed that with microwave power and microwave irradiation time increasing, glucose and xylose that released into hydrolyzate, as well as enzymatic hydrolysis yields and sugar yields of glucose and xylose were all slightly increased after SE-MI pretreatment. The maximum sugar yield was 72.1 g per 100 g glucose and xylose in feedstock, achieved at 540 W microwave power and 5 min microwave irradiation time. XRD analysis showed that the crystallinity of biomass was 15.6-19.9% lower for SE-MI pretreatment with microwave effect than that without microwave effect. However, low microwave power and short microwave irradiation time were favorable for SE-MI pretreatment considering energy consumption.

  7. Enzymatic protein hydrolysates from high pressure-pretreated isolated pea proteins have better antioxidant properties than similar hydrolysates produced from heat pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgih, Abraham T; Chao, Dongfang; Lin, Lin; He, Rong; Jung, Stephanie; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2015-12-01

    Isolated pea protein (IPP) dispersions (1%, w/v) were pretreated with high pressure (HP) of 200, 400, or 600 MPa for 5 min at 24 °C or high temperature (HT) for 30 min at 100 °C prior to hydrolysis with 1% (w/w) Alcalase. HP pretreatment of IPP at 400 and 600 MPa levels led to significantly (P40%) oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC) of hydrolysates. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of pea protein hydrolysates were also significantly (P<0.05) improved (25%, 20%, and 40%, respectively) by HP pretreatment of IPP. Protein hydrolysates from HT IPP showed no ORAC, superoxide or hydroxyl scavenging activity but had significantly (P<0.05) improved (80%) ferric reducing antioxidant power. The protein hydrolysates had weaker antioxidant properties than glutathione but overall, the HP pretreatment was superior to HT pretreatment in facilitating enzymatic release of antioxidant peptides from IPP.

  8. Pretreatment on Anaerobic Sludge for Enhancement of Biohydrogen Production from Cassava Processing Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele do Carmo Lamaison

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Methods for the enrichment of an anaerobic sludge with H2-producing bacteria have been compared by using cassava processing wastewater as substrate.The sludge was submitted to three different pretreatments: 1 heat pretreatment by boiling at 98 °C for 15 min., 2 heat pretreatment followed by sludge washout in a Continuous Stirring Tank Reactor (CSTR operated at a dilution rate (D of 0.021 h-1, and 3 sludge washout as the sole enrichment method. The pretreated sludge and the sludge without pretreatment (control were employed in the seeding of 4 batch bioreactors, in order to verify the volume and composition of the generated biogas. Maximum H2 production rates (Rm from the pretreated sludges, were estimated by the modified Gompertz model. Compared to the control, H2 production was ca. 4 times higher for the sludge submitted to the heat pretreatment only and for the sludge subjected to heat pretreatment combined with washout, and 10 times higher for washout. These findings demonstrated that the use of sludge washout as the sole sludge pretreatment method was the most effective in terms of H2 production, as compared to the heat and to the combined heat and washout pretreatments.

  9. Regional social protection mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Alekseevna Morozova; Arina Yur'evna Dobrynina

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the importance and essence of social protection mechanisms, describes their legal, economical and organizational components. Social protection mechanisms are important elements of the social protection system. Social protection mechanisms are understood as a complex of economical, organizational and legal measures aiming at smoothing social inequality of population.The legal foundations of the social protection mechanism consist in the fact that the protective a...

  10. Physical and chemical characterizations of corn stover and poplar solids resulting from leading pretreatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Mago, Gaurav; Balan, Venkatesh; Wyman, Charles E

    2009-09-01

    In order to investigate changes in substrate chemical and physical features after pretreatment, several characterizations were performed on untreated (UT) corn stover and poplar and their solids resulting pretreatments by ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), ammonia recycled percolation (ARP), controlled pH, dilute acid, flowthrough, lime, and SO(2) technologies. In addition to measuring the chemical compositions including acetyl content, physical attributes determined were biomass crystallinity, cellulose degree of polymerization, cellulase adsorption capacity of pretreated solids and enzymatically extracted lignin, copper number, FT-IR responses, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) visualizations, and surface atomic composition by electron spectroscopy of chemical analysis (ESCA). Lime pretreatment removed the most acetyl groups from both corn stover and poplar, while AFEX removed the least. Low pH pretreatments depolymerized cellulose and enhanced biomass crystallinity much more than higher pH approaches. Lime pretreated corn stover solids and flowthrough pretreated poplar solids had the highest cellulase adsorption capacity, while dilute acid pretreated corn stover solids and controlled pH pretreated poplar solids had the least. Furthermore, enzymatically extracted AFEX lignin preparations for both corn stover and poplar had the lowest cellulase adsorption capacity. ESCA results showed that SO(2) pretreated solids had the highest surface O/C ratio for poplar, but for corn stover, the highest value was observed for dilute acid pretreatment with a Parr reactor. Although dependent on pretreatment and substrate, FT-IR data showed that along with changes in cross linking and chemical changes, pretreatments may also decrystallize cellulose and change the ratio of crystalline cellulose polymorphs (Ialpha/Ibeta).

  11. Controllable hydrothermal synthesis of rutile TiO{sub 2} hollow nanorod arrays on TiCl{sub 4} pretreated Ti foil for DSSC application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Min [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhang, Yulan; Long, Lizhen [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Xinjun, E-mail: lixj@ms.giec.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Rutile TiO{sub 2} nanorod arrays (TNRs) were achieved by hydrothermal process on TiCl{sub 4} pretreated Ti foil. Subsequently, TNRs were hydrothermally etched in HCl solution to form hollow TiO{sub 2} nanorod arrays (H-TNRs). The TiCl{sub 4} pretreatment plays key roles in enhancement of Ti foil corrosion resistance ability and crystal nucleation introduction for TNRs growth. TNRs with desired morphology can be obtained by controlling TiCl{sub 4} concentration and the amount of tetrabutyl titanate (TTB) accordingly. TNRs with the length of ∼1.5 μm and diameter of ∼200 nm, obtained on 0.15 M TiCl{sub 4} pretreated Ti foil with 0.6 mL TTB, exhibits relatively higher photocurrent. The increased pore volume of the H-TNRs has contributed to the increased surface area which is benefit for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC) application. And the 180 °C-H-TNRs photoanode obtained from the 0.15-TiCl{sub 4}-TNRs sample demonstrated 128.9% enhancement of photoelectric efficiency of DSSC compared to that of the original TNR photoanode. - Graphical abstract: Rutile hollow TiO{sub 2} nanorod array photoanode obtained from original TiO{sub 2} nanorod array photoanode by hydrothermal etching demonstrates enhanced photoelectric efficiency of DSSC. - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} nanorods are prepared via hydrothermal process on TiCl{sub 4}-pretreated Ti foil. • Hollow TiO{sub 2} nanorods are obtained by hydrothermal etching of TiO{sub 2} nanorods. • TiCl{sub 4} pretreatment plays a key role in protecting Ti foil from chemical corrosion. • Hollow TiO{sub 2} nanorods photoanode shows enhanced photoelectric efficiency for DSSC.

  12. Pramipexole protects dopaminergic neurons through paraplegin against 6-hydroxydopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mun Ki; Park, Hyeon Soo; Cho, Jea Hyeon; Kim, Gon Sup; Won, Chungkil

    2015-01-21

    The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) regulates various physiological and psychological functions, such as movement, motivation, behavior, and learning. DA exerts its function through DA receptors and a series of studies have reported the role of DAergic receptors in preventing DAergic neuronal degeneration. Here, we studied the DA receptor-mediated neuroprotective effect of the D2-like receptor agonists against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced DAergic neurodegeneration. D2-like receptor agonists were administered in the substantia nigra in vivo and to primary cultured neurons. Treatment of 6-OHDA decreased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and paraplegin (mitochondrial regulation protein) immunoreactivity, whereas pretreatment with quinpirole (a full D2-like receptor agonist) preserved TH and paraplegin reactivity. This led us to test which DA receptors were necessary for the neuroprotective effect and whether paraplegin can be regulated by D2 or D3 receptor agonists. Pretreatment with the D2 receptor selective agonist, sumanirole, did not preserve TH and paraplegin reactivity from 6-OHDA. However, the D3 receptor agonist, pramipexole, protected TH reactivity and restored paraplegin expression to the control level in the presence of 6-OHDA. Interestingly, pretreatment with the D3 receptor antagonist GR103691 reduced TH and paraplegin expression levels. These results suggest that the D3 receptor agonist may protect DA neurons from the effect of 6-OHDA through the modulation of the mitochondrial regulation protein paraplegin. PMID:25514384

  13. Effects of Temperature Acclimation Pretreatment on the Ultrastructure of Mesophyll Cells in Young Grape Plants (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Jingxiu) Under Cross-Temperature Stresses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Huan ZHANG; Wei-Dong HUANG; Yue-Ping LIU; Qiu-Hong PAN

    2005-01-01

    Leaves from annual young grape plants (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Jingxiu) were used as experimentalmaterials. The ultrastructural characteristics of mesophyll cells in chilling-treated plants after heat acclima-tion (HA) and in heat-treated plants after cold acclimation (CA) were observed and compared using trans-mission electron microscopy. The results showed that slight injury appeared in the ultrastructure of meso-phyll cells after either HA (38℃ for 10 h) or CA (8℃ for 2.5 d), but the tolerance to subsequent extremetemperature stress was remarkably improved by HA or CA pretreatment. The increases in membrane perme-ability and malondialdehyde concentration under chilling (0℃) or heat (45℃) stress were markedly inhib-ited by HA or CA pretreatment. The mesophyll cells of plants not pretreated with HA were markedly dam-aged following chilling stress. The chloroplasts appeared irregular in shape, the arrangement of the stromalamellae was disordered, and no starch granules were present. The cristae of the mitochondria were dis-rupted and became empty. The nucleus became irregular in shape and the nuclear membrane was digested.In contrast, the mesophyll cells of HA-pretreated plants maintained an intact ultrastructure under chillingstress. The mesophyll cells of control plants were also severely damaged under heat stress. The chloroplastbecame round in shape, the stroma lamellae became swollen, and the contents of vacuoles formed clumps.In the case of mitochondria of control plants subjected to heat stress, the outer envelope was digested andthe cristae were disrupted and became many small vesicles. Compared with cellular organelles in controlplants, those in CA plant cells always maintained an integrated state during whole heat stress, except for thechloroplasts, which became round in shape after 10 h heat stress. From these data, we suggest that thestability of mesophyll cells under chilling stress can be increased by HA pretreatment. Similarly, CA pretreat-ment

  14. Influence of seeding pre-treatments on mechanical properties of ultrananocrystalline diamond films on silicon and Si3N4 substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films on silicon and Si3N4 substrate were prepared by microwave plasma chemistry vapor deposition method using argon-rich CH4/H2/Ar plasmas. The influence of the nucleation density on the development of morphology of UNCD films and their mechanical properties has been investigated by varying pretreatments. Their morphology and topography have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy and surface profilometer. The influences of pretreatments on mechanical properties of the deposited UNCD films are investigated by using nano-indentation and nano-scratch tests. It was found that grain size, hardness, and elastic modulus are less dependent on nucleation density change, which is caused by different pre-treatments. Changes in grain size are more dependent on deposition temperature and plasma atmosphere. As compared to the nucleation density pretreated by the suspension of diamond (0.25 μm) powder mixed with nano-diamond (3–5 nm), nucleation density is obviously enhanced by pretreatments with W powder (0.25 μm) or Ti powder (0.25 μm) mixed with nano-diamond (3–5 nm). It was also observed that there is no difference in nanohardness and elastic modulus with different substrates (Si and Si3N4 substrates). But the UNCD's adhesion on Si3N4 substrate is obviously higher than that on Si substrate. The determined hardness was about 54–58 GPa for all samples under investigation, the elastic modulus 542–667 GPa, and the elastic recovery 74–81%. The scratch tests proved a strong adhesion of the UNCD coatings and their protective effect on silicon substrates and Si3N4 substrates. Detailed experimental results and mechanisms for UNCD film deposition in argon-rich plasma are discussed. - Highlights: • Pretreatment affected the nucleation density of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD). • Grain size, hardness and elastic modulus depend less on nucleation density. • The enhanced adhesion are owing to the seeding

  15. Effect of ulinastatin donor-pretreatment on liver graft during cold preservation in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Jie; ZHANG Lin; SONG Ai-lin; CHEN Xiao; ZHANG You-cheng

    2011-01-01

    the T group was higher than in the C group with the mean difference between two groups significant at 2 hours (P <0.05). The T group had increased lactic acid levels at 0 hour (P <0.01) and 2 hours (P <0.05) compared with the C group, but there was no influence on the LDH activity at the same time. There were no obvious differences in the levels of malondialdehyde between the two groups at any time point. A linear correlation between Na+-K+-ATPase activity and lactic acid levels (r=0.295, P <0.05) was found.Conclusions Donor-pretreatment with ulinastatin may protect the cells in a liver graft from ischemia injury during cold preservation; the mechanism may be due to its promotion for cell glycolysis and its preservation of ATPase activity.

  16. PEI detoxification of pretreated spruce for high solids ethanol fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannella, David; Sveding, Per Viktor; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    ethanol production from spruce performing the whole process, from pretreatment to hydrolysis and fermentation, at 30% dry matter (equivalent to similar to 20% WIS). Hydrolysis and fermentation was performed in a horizontal free fall mixing reactor enabling efficient mixing at high solids loadings....... In batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), up to 76% cellulose to ethanol conversion was achieved resulting in a concentration of 51 g/kg of ethanol. Key to obtaining this high ethanol yield at these conditions was the use of a detoxification technology based on applying a soluble...

  17. BIOCHEMICAL PULPING OF REED PRETREATED BY WHITE ROT FUNGI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShiyuFu; AniwarApiz; HuaiyuZhan

    2004-01-01

    The Soda-AQ pulps were made from reed pretreated by white rot fungi Panus conchatus. Cyathus stercoreus and Pleurotus florida respectively. It was found that kappa number decreased and the brightness increased for Soda-AQ pulps from the reed treated by Pleurotus florida and Panus conchatus, but it was reverse for the pulp from reed treated by Cyathus stercoreus. The result indicated that white rot fungi Pleurotus .florida and Panus conchatus were selective to degrade lignin inreed, which were good for biopulping, but Cyathus stercoreus was preferential to degrade cellulose, which was not good for biopulping.

  18. BIOCHEMICAL PULPING OF REED PRETREATED BY WHITE ROT FUNGI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiyu Fu; Aniwar Apiz; Huaiyu Zhan

    2004-01-01

    The Soda-AQ pulps were made from reed pretreated by white rot fungi Panus conchatus,Cyathus stercoreus and Pleurotus florida respectively. It was found that kappa number decreased and the brightness increased for Soda-AQ pulps from the reed treated by Pleurotus florida and Panus conchatus, but it was reverse for the pulp from reed treated by Cyathus stercoreus. The result indicated that white rot fungi Pleurotus florida and Panus conchatus were selective to degrade lignin in reed, which were good for biopulping, but Cyathus stercoreus was preferential to degrade cellulose,which was not good for biopulping.

  19. Effect of pretreatments on electrodeposited epoxy coatings for electronic industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sironmani Palraj

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Waterborne epoxy coatings were prepared on aluminium (Al surfaces by cathodic electro-deposition on the pretreated surface of pickling, phosphating, chromating and anodizing. The electro-deposition experiments were done at two different voltages, 15 V and 25 V at room temperature in 10% epoxy coating formulations. Corrosion and thermal behavior of these coatings were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA. The coating exhibits better corrosion resistance in anodized Al surface than the other. But, TGA studies show that the thermal stability is higher in anodized and chromated Al surfaces. The surface morphology of these coatings were analyzed by SEM and AFM studies.

  20. Removal of micropollutants during physicochemical pretreatment of Hospital Wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, S.; Omil, F.; Lema, J. M.

    2009-07-01

    The fate and occurrence of micro-pollutants, such as pharmaceuticals, hormones or cosmetic ingredients, has attracted an increasing attention in environmental research. The main sources for such compounds in the environment include domestic sewage. hospital effluents and discharges from the pharmaceutical manufacturing industry. The aim of the presented work was to analyse the efficiency of coagulation-flocculation and flotation processes for the pre-treatment of hospital wastewaters, focusing on the removal of 12 Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs), including musk fragrances, anti-epileptics, tranquillisers, anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics and one iodinated contras media. (Author)

  1. Removal of micropollutants during physicochemical pretreatment of Hospital Wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fate and occurrence of micro-pollutants, such as pharmaceuticals, hormones or cosmetic ingredients, has attracted an increasing attention in environmental research. The main sources for such compounds in the environment include domestic sewage. hospital effluents and discharges from the pharmaceutical manufacturing industry. The aim of the presented work was to analyse the efficiency of coagulation-flocculation and flotation processes for the pre-treatment of hospital wastewaters, focusing on the removal of 12 Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs), including musk fragrances, anti-epileptics, tranquillisers, anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics and one iodinated contras media. (Author)

  2. Ultrasound pretreatment for enhanced biogas production from olive mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oz, Nilgun Ayman; Uzun, Alev Cagla

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates applicability of low frequency ultrasound technology to olive mill wastewaters (OMWs) as a pretreatment step prior to anaerobic batch reactors to improve biogas production and methane yield. OMWs originating from three phase processes are characterized with high organic content and complex nature. The treatment of the wastewater is problematic and alternative treatment options should be investigated. In the first part of the study, OMW samples were subjected to ultrasound at a frequency of 20kHz with applied powers varying between 50 and 100W under temperature controlled conditions for different time periods in order to determine the most effective sonication conditions. The level of organic matter solubilization at ultrasound experiments was assessed by calculating the ratio of soluble chemical oxygen demand/total chemical oxygen demand (SCOD/TCOD). The results revealed that the optimum ultrasonic condition for diluted OMW is 20kHz, 0.4W/mL for 10min. The application of ultrasound to OMW increased SCOD/TCOD ratio from 0.59 to 0.79. Statistical analysis (Friedman's tests) show that ultrasound was significantly effective on diluted OMW (p0.05). For raw OMW, this increase has been found to be limited due to high concentration of suspended solids (SS). In the second part of the study, biogas and methane production rates of anaerobic batch reactor fed with the ultrasound pretreated OMW samples were compared with the results of control reactor fed with untreated OMW in order to determine the effect of sonication. A nonparametric statistical procedure, Mann-Whitney U test, was used to compare biogas and methane production from anaerobic batch reactors for control and ultrasound pretreated samples. Results showed that application of low frequency ultrasound to OMW significantly improved both biogas and methane production in anaerobic batch reactor fed with the wastewater (pbiogas and methane compared with the untreated one (control reactor). The

  3. Pretreatment of Corn Stover Using Supercritical CO2 with Water-Ethanol as Co-solvent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Huisheng; REN Miaomiao; ZHANG Minhua; CHEN Ying

    2013-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide,with water-ethanol as co-solvent,was applied to pretreat corn stover to enhance its enzymatic hydrolysis.The efficiency of pretreatment was evaluated by the final reducing sugar yield obtained from the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose.Under the operation conditions of pretreatment pressure 15 MPa,temperature 180 ℃ and time 1 h,the optimal sugar yield of 77.8% was obtained.Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and chemical composition analysis were applied to the pretreated corn stover.The results showed that the surface morphology and microscopic structure of pretreated corn stover were greatly changed.After the pretreatment,the contents of hemicellulose and lignin were reduced obviously.Thus more cellulose was exposed,increasing the sugar yield.

  4. Comparison of Ultrasonic and CO2 Laser Pretreatment Methods on Enzyme Digestibility of Corn Stover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Li Zuo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available To decrease the cost of bioethanol production, biomass recalcitrance needs to be overcome so that the conversion of biomass to bioethanol becomes more efficient. CO2 laser irradiation can disrupt the lignocellulosic physical structure and reduce the average size of fiber. Analyses with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, specific surface area, and the microstructure of corn stover were used to elucidate the enhancement mechanism of the pretreatment process by CO2 laser irradiation. The present work demonstrated that the CO2 laser had potential to enhance the bioconversion efficiency of lignocellulosic waste to renewable bioethanol. The saccharification rate of the CO2 laser pretreatment was significantly higher than ultrasonic pretreatment, and reached 27.75% which was 1.34-fold of that of ultrasonic pretreatment. The results showed the impact of CO2 laser pretreatment on corn stover to be more effective than ultrasonic pretreatment.

  5. Screw extrude steam explosion: a promising pretreatment of corn stover to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingwen; Zhang, Wengui; Zhang, Hongman; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Huang, He

    2014-06-01

    A screw extrude steam explosion (SESE) apparatus was designed and introduced to pretreat corn stover continuously for its following enzymatic hydrolysis. SESE parameters temperature (100, 120, 150°C) and residence time (1, 2, 3min) were investigated. The enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover pretreated by SESE and steam explosion (SE) process was carried out and analyzed systematically. A serial of analysis methods were established, and the corn stover before/after the pretreatment were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Thermal Gravity/Derivative Thermal Gravity Analysis (TG/DTG). After treated by SESE pretreatment at the optimum condition (150°C, 2min), the pretreated corn stover exhibited highest enzymatic hydrolysis yield (89%), and rare fermentation inhibitors formed. Characterization results indicated that the highest yield could be attributed to the effective removal of lignin/hemicellulose and destruction of cellulose structure by SESE pretreatment.

  6. Pretreatment combining ultrasound and sodium percarbonate under mild conditions for efficient degradation of corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Kazunori; Ebi, Yuuki; Kubo, Masaki; Shibasaki-Kitakawa, Naomi; Yonemoto, Toshikuni

    2016-03-01

    Ultrasound (US) can be used to disrupt microcrystalline cellulose to give nanofibers via ultrasonic cavitation. Sodium percarbonate (SP), consisting of sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide, generates highly reactive radicals, which cause oxidative delignification. Here, we describe a novel pretreatment technique using a combination of US and SP (US-SP) for the efficient saccharification of cellulose and hemicellulose in lignocellulosic corn stover. Although US-SP pretreatment was conducted under mild condition (i.e., at room temperature and atmospheric pressure), the pretreatment greatly increased lignin removal and cellulose digestibility. We also determined the optimum US-SP treatment conditions, such as ultrasonic power output, pretreatment time, pretreatment temperature, and SP concentration for an efficient cellulose saccharification. Moreover, xylose could be effectively recovered from US-SP pretreated biomass without the formation of microbial inhibitor furfural.

  7. Improving methane production from digested manure biofibers by mechanical and thermal alkaline pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsapekos, P; Kougias, Panagiotis G; Frison, A; Raga, R; Angelidaki, I

    2016-09-01

    Animal manure digestion is associated with limited methane production, due to the high content in fibers, which are hardly degradable lignocellulosic compounds. In this study, different mechanical and thermal alkaline pretreatment methods were applied to partially degradable fibers, separated from the effluent stream of biogas reactors. Batch and continuous experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of these pretreatments. In batch experiments, the mechanical pretreatment improved the degradability up to 45%. Even higher efficiency was shown by applying thermal alkaline pretreatments, enhancing fibers degradability by more than 4-fold. In continuous experiments, the thermal alkaline pretreatment, using 6% NaOH at 55°C was proven to be the most efficient pretreatment method as the methane production was increased by 26%. The findings demonstrated that the methane production of the biogas plants can be increased by further exploiting the fraction of the digested manure fibers which are discarded in the post-storage tank.

  8. Enhancing solubilisation and methane production kinetic of switchgrass by microwave pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackowiak, D; Frigon, J C; Ribeiro, T; Pauss, A; Guiot, S

    2011-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of microwave pretreatment of switchgrass in order to enhance its anaerobic digestibility. Response surface analysis was applied to screen the effects of temperature and time of microwave pretreatment on matter solubilisation. The composite design showed that only temperature had a significant effect on solubilisation level. Then the effects of the microwave pretreatment were correlated to the pretreatment temperature. The sCOD/tCOD ratio was equal to 9.4% at 90°C and increased until 13.8% at 180°C. The BMP assays of 42 days showed that microwave pretreatment induced no change on the ultimate volume of methane but had an interesting effect on the reaction kinetic. Indeed, the time required to reach 80% of ultimate volume CH(4) is reduced by 4.5 days at 150°C using the microwave pretreatment.

  9. Sequential acid-/alkali-pretreatment of empty palm fruit bunch fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seonghun; Park, Jang Min; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Chul Ho

    2012-04-01

    Pretreatment processes are key technologies for generating fermentable sugars based on lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, we developed a novel method for empty palm fruit bunch fiber (EPFBF) using sequential pretreatment with dilute acid and then alkali. Dilute sulfuric acid was used in the first step, which removed 90% of the hemicellulose and 32% of the lignin, but left most of the cellulose under the optimum pretreatment condition. Sodium hydroxide was then applied in the second step, which extracted lignin effectively with a 70% delignification yield, partially disrupting the ordered fibrils of the EPFBF and thus enhancing the enzyme digestibility of the cellulose. The sequentially pretreated biomass consisted of 82% cellulose, less than 1% hemicellulose, and 30% lignin content afterward. The pretreated biomasses morphologically revealed rough, porous, and irregularly ordered surfaces for enhancing enzyme digestibility. These results indicate that the sequentially acid/alkali-pretreated EPFBF could be broadly useful as a novel biomass. PMID:22306078

  10. Improving methane production from digested manure biofibers by mechanical and thermal alkaline pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsapekos, P; Kougias, Panagiotis G; Frison, A; Raga, R; Angelidaki, I

    2016-09-01

    Animal manure digestion is associated with limited methane production, due to the high content in fibers, which are hardly degradable lignocellulosic compounds. In this study, different mechanical and thermal alkaline pretreatment methods were applied to partially degradable fibers, separated from the effluent stream of biogas reactors. Batch and continuous experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of these pretreatments. In batch experiments, the mechanical pretreatment improved the degradability up to 45%. Even higher efficiency was shown by applying thermal alkaline pretreatments, enhancing fibers degradability by more than 4-fold. In continuous experiments, the thermal alkaline pretreatment, using 6% NaOH at 55°C was proven to be the most efficient pretreatment method as the methane production was increased by 26%. The findings demonstrated that the methane production of the biogas plants can be increased by further exploiting the fraction of the digested manure fibers which are discarded in the post-storage tank. PMID:27268439

  11. Comparative data on effects of leading pretreatments and enzyme loadings and formulations on sugar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyman, Charles [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Balan, Venkatech [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Dale, Bruce E. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Elander, Richard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Falls, Matthew [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Hames, Bonnie [Ceres Corporation, Thousand Oaks, CA (United States); Holtzapple, Mark [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Ladisch, Michael R. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Lee, Y. Y. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Mosier, Nathan [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Pallapolu, Venkata R. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Shi, Jian [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Warner, Ryan E. [Genencor, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2011-06-16

    Dilute sulfuric acid (DA), sulfur dioxide (SO2), liquid hot water (LHW), soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA), ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), and lime pretreatments were applied to Alamo, Dacotah, and Shawnee switchgrass. Application of the same analytical methods and material balance approaches facil-itated meaningful comparisons of glucose and xylose yields from combined pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Use of a common supply of cellulase, beta-glucosidase, and xylanase also eased comparisons. All pretreatments enhanced sugar recovery from pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis substantially compared to untreated switchgrass. Adding beta-glucosidase was effective early in enzy-matic hydrolysis while cellobiose levels were high but had limited effect on longer term yields at the enzyme loadings applied. Adding xylanase improved yields most for higher pH pretreatments where more xylan was left in the solids. Harvest time had more impact on performance than switchgrass variety, and microscopy showed changes in different features could impact performance by different pretreatments.

  12. Ethanol production from industrial hemp: effect of combined dilute acid/steam pretreatment and economic aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi; Svensson, Sven-Erik; Prade, Thomas;

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, combined steam (140-180 °C) and dilute-acid pre-hydrolysis (0.0-2.0%) were applied to industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), as pretreatment for lignocellulosic bioethanol production. The influence of the pretreatment conditions and cultivation type on the hydrolysis and etha......In the present study, combined steam (140-180 °C) and dilute-acid pre-hydrolysis (0.0-2.0%) were applied to industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), as pretreatment for lignocellulosic bioethanol production. The influence of the pretreatment conditions and cultivation type on the hydrolysis...... pretreated at the optimal conditions showed positive economic results. The type of hemp cultivation (organic or conventional) did not influence significantly the effectiveness of the pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation....

  13. Comparison of Microwave and Ozonolysis Effect as Pretreatment on Sugarcane Bagasse Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Eqra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol production from agricultural residues is one of the promising methods. Pretreatment is the most important step in this type of bioethanol production. In this study, the saccharification percentage of sugarcane bagasse was investigated after two types of pretreatments including ozone steaming and microwave. Microwave pretreatment was studied with two factors of microwave radiation (170, 450, and 850 w and microwave duration (2, 6, and 10 min. The ozonolysis (ozone steaming pretreatment was surveyed with two factors of moisture content of bagasse (30, 40, and 50% and ozonolysis time (1.5, 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5 hr. After hydrolysis, the Saccharification percentage of sugarcane bagasse increased to 57.2% and 67.06% with microwave and ozonolysis pretreatments, respectively; compare to 20.85% in non-ozonated bagasse. It can be concluded that the ozonolysis is the most effective pretreatment regarding to saccharification percentage of sugarcane bagasse.

  14. Anaerobic fermentation of biogas liquid pretreated maize straw by rumen microorganisms in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wenyao; Xu, Xiaochen; Gao, Yang; Yang, Fenglin; Wang, Gang

    2014-02-01

    This study intended to investigate the effect of pretreatment of maize straw with biogas liquid on followed fermentation by rumen microorganisms in vitro. The multiple effects including treated time, temperature and dosage of biogas liquid in pretreatment on the followed fermentation performance were analyzed by orthogonal array. The optimum conditions of pretreatment were 9days, 25°C and 50% (v/w) dosage of biogas liquid, which were indicated by the corresponding crystallinity index, dry matter digestibility (DMD) and acetate limiting-step concentration were 57.5%, 73.76% and 1756mg/L, respectively. The ordering sequence of the influential factors for pretreatment was treated time > temperature > dosage of biogas liquid. The results of fermentation showed that the maize straw pretreated by biogas liquid was an efficient and economic pretreatment method of maize straw.

  15. Acute effect of insulin on guinea pig airways and its amelioration by pre-treatment with salbutamol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the magnitude of insulin-mediated airway hyper-reactivity and to explore the protective effects of salbutamol in inhibiting the insulin-induced airway hyper-responsiveness on tracheal smooth muscle of guinea pigs in vitro. Methods: The quasi-experimental study was conducted at the Pharmacology Department of Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, in collaboration with the Centre for Research in Experimental and Applied Medicine from December 2011 to July 2012. It used 18 healthy Dunkin Hartely guinea pigs of either gender. Effects of increasing concentrations of histamine (10-8-10-3M), insulin (10-8-10-3 M) and insulin pre-treated with salbutamol (10-6 M) were observed on isolated tracheal strip of guinea pig in vitro by constructing cumulative concentration response curves. The tracheal smooth muscle contractions were recorded with Transducer on Four Channel Oscillograph. Mean and standard error of mean were calculated. SPSS 16 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Histamine and insulin produced a concentration-dependent reversible contraction of isolated tracheal muscle of guinea pig. The mean of maximum amplitudes of contraction with histamine, insulin and insulin pre-treated with salbutamol were 92. 1.20 mm, 35+-1.13 mm and 14.55+-0.62 mm respectively. Salbutamol shifted the concentration response curve of insulin to the right and downwards. Conclusions: Salbutamol significantly reduced the insulin mediated airway hyper-reactivity in guinea pigs, suggesting that pre-treatment of inhaled insulin with salbutamol may have clinical implication in the amelioration of its potential respiratory adverse effects such as bronchoconstriction. (author)

  16. Neuroprotective effects of intravenous transplantation of bone marrow mononuclear cells from 5-fluorouracil pre-treated rats on ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Mao, W W; Zhang, C G; Wan, L; Jing, C H; Hua, X M; Li, S T; Cheng, J

    2016-03-15

    Our previous findings showed bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) from 5- fluorouracil (5-FU) pre-treated rats (named BMRMNCs) had a better therapeutic efficacy in ischemia/reperfusion rats as compared to BMMNCs from untreated rats. This study was undertaken to explore the potential mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of BMRMNCs in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rat model. Rats were intravenously pre-treated with 5-FU and BMRMNCs were collected at different time points. The contents of growth factors in the supernatant and CXCR4 expression were detected by ELISA and flow cytometry, respectively. MCAO was introduced to rats, and BMMNCs and BMRMNCs collected at 7 days after 5-FU pre-treatment were independently transplanted via the tail vein 24h later. The neurological function was evaluated before cell transplantation and at 24h, 7d and 14d after cell transplantation. Rats were sacrificed at 14d after cell transplantation, the brains were collected for TTC staining, infarct volume detection, NISSL staining, counting of viable cells in the CA1 region, and observation of transplanted cells. BMRMNCs had elevated expressions of growth factors as well as CXCR4 expression. Our results confirmed the better therapeutic effects of BMRMNCs in MCAO rats, demonstrated by reduction in infarct volume, improvement of neurological function and more viable cells in the hippocampus. In addition, more transplanted cells were found after BMRMNCs transplantation at 7 days and 14 days although there was no marked difference at 14 days. These findings indicate that BMRMNCs transplantation may protect ischemic stroke, at least partially, via increasing the secretion of growth factors and migration to the injured site.

  17. Polaprezinc Protects Mice against Endotoxin Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohata, Shuzo; Moriyama, Chihiro; Yamashita, Atsushi; Nishida, Tadashi; Kusumoto, Chiaki; Mochida, Shinsuke; Minami, Yukari; Nakada, Junya; Shomori, Kohei; Inagaki, Yoshimi; Ohta, Yoshiji; Matsura, Tatsuya

    2010-05-01

    Polaprezinc (PZ), a chelate compound consisting of zinc and l-carnosine (Car), is an anti-ulcer drug developed in Japan. In the present study, we investigated whether PZ suppresses mortality, pulmonary inflammation, and plasma nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha levels in endotoxin shock mice after peritoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and how PZ protects against LPS-induced endotoxin shock. PZ pretreatment inhibited the decrease in the survival rate of mice after LPS injection. PZ inhibited the increases in plasma NO as well as TNF-alpha after LPS. Compatibly, PZ suppressed LPS-induced inducible NO synthase mRNA transcription in the mouse lungs. PZ also improved LPS-induced lung injury. However, PZ did not enhance the induction of heat shock protein (HSP) 70 in the mouse lungs after LPS. Pretreatment of RAW264 cells with PZ suppressed the production of NO and TNF-alpha after LPS addition. This inhibition likely resulted from the inhibitory effect of PZ on LPS-mediated nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation. Zinc sulfate, but not Car, suppressed NO production after LPS. These results indicate that PZ, in particular its zinc subcomponent, inhibits LPS-induced endotoxin shock via the inhibition of NF-kappaB activation and subsequent induction of proinflammatory products such as NO and TNF-alpha, but not HSP induction. PMID:20490319

  18. Protective effects of pogostone from Pogostemonis Herba against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiming; Liao, Huijun; Liu, Yuhong; Zheng, Yifeng; Wu, Xiaoli; Su, Zuqing; Zhang, Xie; Lai, Zhengquan; Lai, Xiaoping; Lin, Zhi-Xiu; Su, Ziren

    2015-01-01

    We examined the protective effect of pogostone (PO), a chemical constituent isolated from Pogostemonis Herba, on the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Administration of PO at doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg body weight prior to ethanol ingestion effectively protected the stomach from ulceration. The gastric lesions were significantly ameliorated by all doses of PO as compared to the vehicle group. Pre-treatment with PO prevented the oxidative damage and the decrease of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) content. In addition, PO pretreatment markedly increased the mucosa levels of glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and decreased gastric malonaldehyde (MDA), relative to the vehicle group. In the mechanistic study, significant elevation of non-protein-sulfhydryl (NP-SH) was observed in the gastric mucosa pretreated by PO. Analysis of serum cytokines indicated that PO pretreatment obviously elevated the decrease of interleukin-10 (IL-10) level, while markedly mitigated the increment of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) secretions in ethanol-induced rats. Taken together, these results strongly indicate that PO could exert a gastro-protective effect against gastric ulceration, and the underlying mechanism might be associated with the stimulation of PGE2, improvement of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory status, as well as preservation of NP-SH.

  19. Hepato and reno protective action of Calendula officinalis L. flower extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preethi, Korengath Chandran; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2009-03-01

    Flower extract of C. officinalis L. was evaluated for its protective effect against CCl4 induced acute hepatotoxicity and cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity. The activities of serum marker enzymes of liver injury like glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) which were increased by CCl4 injection was found to be significantly reduced by the pretreatment of the flower extract at 100 and 250 mg/kg body weight. The lipid peroxidation in liver, the marker of membrane damage and the total bilirubin content in serum were also found to be at significantly low level in the extract pretreated group, indicating its protective role. The kidney function markers like urea and creatinine were significantly increased in cisplatin treated animals. However, their levels were found to be lowered in the extract pretreated groups (100 and 250 mg/kg body weight). Moreover, cisplatin induced myelosuppression was ameliorated by the extract pretreatment. Treatment with the extract produced enhancement of antioxidant enzymes--superoxide dismutase and catalase and glutathione. Results suggest a protective role of the flower extract of C. officinalis against CCl4 induced acute hepatotoxicity and cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity. Extract has been found to contain several carotenoids of which lutein, zeaxanthin and lycopene predominates. Possible mechanism of action of the flower extract may be due to its antioxidant activity and reduction of oxygen radicals. PMID:19405380

  20. Exogenous salicylic acid protects phospholipids against cadmium stress in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkadhi, Aïcha; De Haro, Antonio; Obregon, Sara; Chaïbi, Wided; Djebali, Wahbi

    2015-10-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) promotes plant defense responses against toxic metal stresses. The present study addressed the hypothesis that 8-h SA pretreatment, would alter membrane lipids in a way that would protect against Cd toxicity. Flax seeds were pre-soaked for 8h in SA (0, 250 and 1000µM) and then subjected, at seedling stage, to cadmium (Cd) stress. At 100µM CdCl2, significant decreases in the percentages of phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and changes in their relative fatty acid composition were observed in Cd-treated roots in comparison with controls. However, in roots of 8-h SA pretreated plantlets, results showed that the amounts of PC and PE were significantly higher as compared to non-pretreated plantlets. Additionally, in both lipid classes, the proportion of linolenic acid (18:3) increased upon the pretreatment with SA. This resulted in a significant increase in the fatty acid unsaturation ratio of the root PC and PE classes. As the exogenous application of SA was found to be protective of flax lipid metabolism, the possible mechanisms of protection against Cd stress in flax roots were discussed.

  1. Protection against acetaminophen-induced liver injury by allopurinol is dependent on aldehyde oxidase-mediated liver preconditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, C. David; McGill, Mitchell R.; Lebofsky, Margitta; Bajt, Mary Lynn; Jaeschke, Hartmut, E-mail: hjaeschke@kumc.edu

    2014-02-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose causes severe and occasionally fatal liver injury. Numerous drugs that attenuate APAP toxicity have been described. However these compounds frequently protect by cytochrome P450 inhibition, thereby preventing the initiating step of toxicity. We have previously shown that pretreatment with allopurinol can effectively protect against APAP toxicity, but the mechanism remains unclear. In the current study, C3HeB/FeJ mice were administered allopurinol 18 h or 1 h prior to an APAP overdose. Administration of allopurinol 18 h prior to APAP overdose resulted in an 88% reduction in liver injury (serum ALT) 6 h after APAP; however, 1 h pretreatment offered no protection. APAP-cysteine adducts and glutathione depletion kinetics were similar with or without allopurinol pretreatment. The phosphorylation and mitochondrial translocation of c-jun-N-terminal-kinase (JNK) have been implicated in the progression of APAP toxicity. In our study we showed equivalent early JNK activation (2 h) however late JNK activation (6 h) was attenuated in allopurinol treated mice, which suggests that later JNK activation is more critical for the toxicity. Additional mice were administered oxypurinol (primary metabolite of allopurinol) 18 h or 1 h pre-APAP, but neither treatment protected. This finding implicated an aldehyde oxidase (AO)-mediated metabolism of allopurinol, so mice were treated with hydralazine to inhibit AO prior to allopurinol/APAP administration, which eliminated the protective effects of allopurinol. We evaluated potential targets of AO-mediated preconditioning and found increased hepatic metallothionein 18 h post-allopurinol. These data show metabolism of allopurinol occurring independent of P450 isoenzymes preconditions the liver and renders the animal less susceptible to an APAP overdose. - Highlights: • 18 h allopurinol pretreatment protects against acetaminophen-induced liver injury. • 1 h allopurinol pretreatment does not protect from APAP

  2. The pretreatment of corn stover with Gloeophyllum trabeum KU-41 for enzymatic hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Ziqing

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pretreatment is an essential step in the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass for bio-ethanol production. The dominant concern in this step is how to decrease the high cost of pretreatment while achieving a high sugar yield. Fungal pretreatment of biomass was previously reported to be effective, with the advantage of having a low energy requirement and requiring no application of additional chemicals. In this work, Gloeophyllum trabeum KU-41 was chosen for corn stover pretreatment through screening with 40 strains of wood-rot fungi. The objective of the current work is to find out which characteristics of corn stover pretreated with G. trabeum KU-41 determine the pretreatment method to be successful and worthwhile to apply. This will be done by determining the lignin content, structural carbohydrate, cellulose crystallinity, initial adsorption capacity of cellulase and specific surface area of pretreated corn stover. Results The content of xylan in pretreated corn stover was decreased by 43% in comparison to the untreated corn stover. The initial cellulase adsorption capacity and the specific surface area of corn stover pretreated with G. trabeum were increased by 7.0- and 2.5-fold, respectively. Also there was little increase in the cellulose crystallinity of pretreated corn stover. Conclusion G. trabeum has an efficient degradation system, and the results indicated that the conversion of cellulose to glucose increases as the accessibility of cellulose increases due to the partial removal of xylan and the structure breakage of the cell wall. This pretreatment method can be further explored as an alternative to the thermochemical pretreatment method.

  3. Novel pre-treatment and fractionation method for lignocellulosic biomass using ionic liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Sara P. Magalhães da; Lopes, André; Roseiro, Luísa; Bogel-Lukasik, R.

    2013-01-01

    An efficient lignocellulosic biomass pre-treatment is a crucial step for the valorization of these kind of raw materials. Lignocellulosic biomass is a potentially valuable resource for transformation into biofuels and bio-based products. The use of ionic liquids as media for the biomass pre-treatment is an alternative method that follows the green chemistry concept. This work proposes a new methodology for wheat straw pre-treatment with the ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazoliu...

  4. Structural Variation of Bamboo Lignin before and after Ethanol Organosolv Pretreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, Yuan-Yuan; Xiao, Ling-Ping; Shi, Zheng-Jun; Sun, Run-cang

    2013-01-01

    In order to make better use of lignocellulosic biomass for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals, it is necessary to disrupt its recalcitrant structure through pretreatment. Specifically, organosolv pretreatment is a feasible method. The main advantage of this method compared to other lignocellulosic pretreatment technologies is the extraction of high-quality lignin for the production of value-added products. In this study, bamboo was treated in a batch reactor with 70% ethanol at 1...

  5. Biological Pretreatment of Rubberwood with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora for Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Bioethanol Production

    OpenAIRE

    Forough Nazarpour; Dzulkefly Kuang Abdullah; Norhafizah Abdullah; Nazila Motedayen; Reza Zamiri

    2013-01-01

    Rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis), a potential raw material for bioethanol production due to its high cellulose content, was used as a novel feedstock for enzymatic hydrolysis and bioethanol production using biological pretreatment. To improve ethanol production, rubberwood was pretreated with white rot fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora to increase fermentation efficiency. The effects of particle size of rubberwood (1 mm, 0.5 mm, and 0.25 mm) and pretreatment time on the biological pretreatmen...

  6. Twin screw extrusion pre-treatment of wheat straw for biofuel and lignin biorefinery applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Thian Hong

    2013-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Pre-treatment of wheat straw(lignocellulosic) biomass is a crucial step as it has direct impact on the subsequent yield of enzymatic saccharification and alcohol fermentation processes in the production of biofuel. Twin screw extrusion is a highly feasible pretreatment method and has been received great interest in the recent year pre-treatment studies. Twin screw extrusion is a continuous pr...

  7. Effect of lignin content on changes occurring in poplar cellulose ultrastructure during dilute acid pretreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Qining; Foston, Marcus; Meng, Xianzhi; Sawada, Daisuke; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; O’Neill, Hugh M; Li, Hongjia; Wyman, Charles E; Langan, Paul; Art J. Ragauskas; Kumar, Rajeev

    2014-01-01

    Background Obtaining a better understanding of the complex mechanisms occurring during lignocellulosic deconstruction is critical to the continued growth of renewable biofuel production. A key step in bioethanol production is thermochemical pretreatment to reduce plant cell wall recalcitrance for downstream processes. Previous studies of dilute acid pretreatment (DAP) have shown significant changes in cellulose ultrastructure that occur during pretreatment, but there is still a substantial kn...

  8. Methods for producing and using densified biomass products containing pretreated biomass fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, Bruce E.; Ritchie, Bryan; Marshall, Derek

    2015-05-26

    A process is provided comprising subjecting a quantity of plant biomass fibers to a pretreatment to cause at least a portion of lignin contained within each fiber to move to an outer surface of said fiber, wherein a quantity of pretreated tacky plant biomass fibers is produced; and densifying the quantity of pretreated tacky plant biomass fibers to produce one or more densified biomass particulates, wherein said biomass fibers are densified without using added binder.

  9. Ethylenediamine pretreatment changes cellulose allomorph and lignin structure of lignocellulose at ambient pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Lei QIN; Li, Wen-Chao; Zhu, Jia-Qing; Liang, Jing-Nan; Li, Bing-Zhi; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Background Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is essential to increase the cellulase accessibility for bioconversion of lignocelluloses by breaking down the biomass recalcitrance. In this work, a novel pretreatment method using ethylenediamine (EDA) was presented as a simple process to achieve high enzymatic digestibility of corn stover (CS) by heating the biomass–EDA mixture with high solid-to-liquid ratio at ambient pressure. The effect of EDA pretreatment on lignocellulose was further...

  10. Cell-wall structural changes in wheat straw pretreated for bioethanol production

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen Henning; Felby Claus; Thygesen Lisbeth G; Kristensen Jan B; Elder Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Pretreatment is an essential step in the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass and subsequent production of bioethanol. Recent results indicate that only a mild pretreatment is necessary in an industrial, economically feasible system. The Integrated Biomass Utilisation System hydrothermal pretreatment process has previously been shown to be effective in preparing wheat straw for these processes without the application of additional chemicals. In the current work, the effect of t...

  11. Effect of thermal pre-treatments on biogas production potential of solid slaughterhouse wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Abalde, Ángela; Fernández García, Belén; Flotats Ripoll, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    The anaerobic bioavailability of two types of solid slaughterhouse waste (poultry and pig wastes) was studied after the application of thermal pretreatment. Both wastes were characterized by different proportions between fats, proteins and carbohydrates. The thermal pretreatments selected (70ºC for 60 min, and 133ºC and 3 bars for 20 min) were included in the European regulations 1774/2002 & 92/2005 for higienization purposes. These pretreatments had a remarkable effect on the sol...

  12. Optimization of glycerol-organosolv pretreatment for improving enzymatic saccharification of Eucalyptus wood

    OpenAIRE

    Romaní, Aloia; Ruíz, Héctor A.; Pereira, Francisco B.; J.A. Teixeira; Domingues, Lucília

    2014-01-01

    This work contributes to the improvement of biomass pretreatment technologies and shows an efficient pretreatment by glycerol -water with a good lignocellulose biomass fractionation and an enhanced enzymatic susceptibility of pretreated solid. The results show that solubilized wood fraction after glycerol treatment is composed by 15.9 and 13.2 g of lignin and xylose / 100 g of raw material in the liquid phase, respectively, whereas the solid phase was hydrolyzed by enzymes (achieving up to 90...

  13. The Application of Microwave Low Temperature Plasma in Pretreatment of Cotton Fabric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xiao-guang; CUI Gui-xin; GU Zhen-ya

    2005-01-01

    The effect of microwave low temperature plasma pretreatment on desizing and removing natural impurity of cellulose fiber was studied. The influencing factors of pretreatment such as treating power, gas pressures and time were discussed in detail and the final effect had been compared with that of traditional pretreating process of cotton fabric. The results showed that better capillary effect, strength, whiteness and dyeing K/S value could be given by means of microwave low temperature plasma treatment.

  14. The design of a novel, environmentally improved, industrial cotton pre-treatment process

    OpenAIRE

    Bouwhuis, Gerhard Herman

    2011-01-01

    The scope of this thesis is the development of a new industrial applicable pre-treatment process for cotton based on catalysis. The pre-treatment generally consists of desizing, scouring and bleaching. These processes can be continuous or batch wise. Advances in the science of biocatalytic pre-treatment of cotton and catalytic bleaching formed the scientific basis for this work. The work of Agrawal on enzymes for bio-scouring and of Topalovic on catalytic bleaching led to the conclusion that ...

  15. INTEGRATION OF KRAFT PULPING ON A FOREST BIOREFINERY BY THE ADDITION OF A STEAM EXPLOSION PRETREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Martin-Sampedro; Maria E. Eugenio; Esteban Revilla; Juan A. Martin; J. Carlos Villar

    2011-01-01

    Steam explosion has been proposed for a wide range of lignocellulosic applications, including fractionation of biomass, pre-treatment of biomass for ethanol production, or as an alternative to conventional mechanical pulping. Nevertheless, a steam explosion process could also be used as pretreatment before chemical pulping, expecting a reduction in cooking time due to the open structure of the exploded chips. Thus, to evaluate the effect of steam explosion as a pretreatment in the kraft pulpi...

  16. Impact of ozone pre-treatment on the performance of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket treating pre-treated grain distillery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, L; Britz, T J; Sigge, G O

    2014-01-01

    Two 2 L laboratory-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors were operated for 277 days. The substrate of the control reactor (Rc) contained grain distillery wastewater (GDWW) that had undergone coagulant pre-treatment, and the substrate of the second UASB reactor consisted of GDWW that had undergone coagulant pre-treatment and ozone pre-treatment (Ro). Both reactors treated pre-treated GDWW successfully at ca. 9 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1). Chemical oxygen demand (COD) reductions of ca. 96% for Rc and 93% for Ro were achieved. Fats, oils and grease (FOG) reductions (%) showed variations throughout the study, and reductions of ca. 88 and 92% were achieved for Rc and Ro, respectively. Rc produced more biogas, and the methane percentage was similar in both reactors. UASB granule washout in Rc suggested possible toxicity of unsaturated fatty acids present in non-ozonated substrate. The feasibility of FOG removal was demonstrated as both reactors successfully treated pre-treated GDWW. Better results were obtained for Ro effluent during post-ozonation. The ozone pre-treatment possibly led to easier degradable wastewater, and better results could potentially be obtained when other post-treatment steps are applied. Ozone pre-treatment did not, however, show an added benefit in the reactor performance results. PMID:25429461

  17. Protective effect of butyrate against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in mice by promoting the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and mucosal defense mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiaming; Wang, Fangyan; Luo, Haihua; Liu, Aihua; Li, Kangxin; Li, Cui; Jiang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Gastric ulcers (GUs) are a common type of peptic ulcer. Alcohol overdose is one of the main causes of GU, which is difficult to prevent. Although the protective effect of butyrate on inflammation-related diseases is well understood, its effect on GUs has not been reported. We investigated the protective effects of butyrate against ethanol-induced lesions to the gastric mucosa in mice and the underlying mechanisms. BALB/c mice were orally pretreated with butyrate for 30min prior to the establishment of the GU model by challenge with absolute ethanol. Ethanol administration produced apparent mucosal injuries with morphological and histological damage, whereas butyrate pretreatment reduced the gastric mucosal injuries in a dose-dependent manner. Butyrate pretreatment also significantly ameliorated contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonyl proteins, and decreased levels of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6. The Western blot results consistently demonstrated that butyrate pretreatment attenuated the phosphorylation of NF-κB p65, p38 MAPK and ERKs in the gastric tissues. Additionally, gastric wall mucus (GWM), a parameter reflecting mucosal defense, was clearly increased by butyrate pretreatment. Butyrate pretreatment protects the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced lesions by strengthening the mucosal defense and anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. As a necessary substance for the body, butyrate may be applied to the prevention and treatment of GUs.

  18. Enhanced enzymatic saccharification of sugarcane bagasse pretreated by combining O2 and NaOH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Shuaizhu; Peng, Lincai; Chen, Keli; Zhu, Zhengliang

    2016-08-01

    Sugarcane bagasse pretreated by combining O2 and NaOH with different variables was conducted to improve its enzymatic digestibility and sugar recovery, and the results were compared with sole NaOH pretreatment. Lignin removal for O2-NaOH pretreatment was around 10% higher than that for sole NaOH pretreatment under the same conditions, and O2-NaOH pretreatment resulted in higher glucan recovery in the solid remain. Subsequently, O2-NaOH pretreated sugarcane bagasse presented more efficient enzymatic digestibility than sole NaOH pretreatment. Under the moderate pretreatment conditions of combining 1% NaOH and 0.5MPa O2 at 80°C for 120min, a high glucan conversion of 95% was achieved after 48h enzymatic hydrolysis. Coupled with the operations of pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis, an admirable total sugar recovery of 89% (glucose recovery of 93% and xylose recovery of 84%) was obtained. The susceptibility of the substrates to enzymatic digestibility was explained by their physical and chemical characteristics. PMID:27208740

  19. Effect of microbial pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of cotton stalks for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Jian; Sharma-Shivappa, Ratna R.; Chinn, Mari [Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Campus Box 7625, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7625 (United States); Howell, Noura [North Carolina School of Science and Mathematics, Durham, NC 27715 (United States)

    2009-01-15

    The potential of microbial pretreatment of cotton stalks by Phanerochaete chrysosporium to degrade lignin and facilitate fuel ethanol production was investigated under two culture conditions: submerged cultivation (SmC) and solid state (SSC) cultivation. Although microbial pretreatments showed significant lignin degradation (LD) (19.38% and 35.53% for SmC and SSC, respectively), a study on hydrolysis and fermentation of the microbial-pretreated cotton stalks showed no increase in cellulose conversion (10.98% and 3.04% for SmC and SSC pretreated samples, respectively) compared to untreated cotton stalks (17.93%). Solid state cultivation demonstrated better selectivity of 0.82 than 0.70 with submerged pretreatment. Washing of pretreated cotton stalks did not significantly increase cellulose conversion. However, heating and washing remarkably improved (P<0.05) cellulose conversion to 14.94% and 17.81% for SmC and SSC 14 day pretreatment, respectively. Ethanol yields, up to 0.027 g ethanol g{sup -1} initial cotton stalks, were low for all untreated and pretreated samples mainly due to the low cellulose conversion. Although potential and some critical aspects of fungal pretreatment using P. chrysosporium have been explored in this study, additional investigation is still required especially to improve the selectivity for preferential LD and to optimize hydrolysis efficiency. The mechanism of catalytic binding of cellulolytic enzymes to cotton stalks as affected by the presence of fungal mycelia also warrants further study. (author)

  20. Steam explosion and its combinatorial pretreatment refining technology of plant biomass to bio-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Zhang; Liu, Zhi-Hua

    2015-06-01

    Pretreatment is a key unit operation affecting the refinery efficiency of plant biomass. However, the poor efficiency of pretreatment and the lack of basic theory are the main challenges to the industrial implementation of the plant biomass refinery. The purpose of this work is to review steam explosion and its combinatorial pretreatment as a means of overcoming the intrinsic characteristics of plant biomass, including recalcitrance, heterogeneity, multi-composition, and diversity. The main advantages of the selective use of steam explosion and other combinatorial pretreatments across the diversity of raw materials are introduced. Combinatorial pretreatment integrated with other unit operations is proposed as a means to exploit the high-efficiency production of bio-based products from plant biomass. Finally, several pilot- and demonstration-scale operations of the plant biomass refinery are described. Based on the principle of selective function and structure fractionation, and multi-level and directional composition conversion, an integrated process with the combinatorial pretreatments of steam explosion and other pretreatments as the core should be feasible and conform to the plant biomass refinery concept. Combinatorial pretreatments of steam explosion and other pretreatments should be further exploited based on the type and intrinsic characteristics of the plant biomass used, the bio-based products to be made, and the complementarity of the processes.