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Sample records for aging underground reinforced

  1. Structural performance evaluation on aging underground reinforced concrete structures. Part 1. Modeling of material degradation due to reinforcing steel corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses effects of reinforcing steel corrosion on material properties of reinforced concrete and modeling of material degradation due to reinforcing steel corrosion used in a finite element method for structural analysis. First, we conducted a series of double-action tension tests on reinforced concrete specimens that were artificially corroded by stay current corrosion. We showed that the degradation ratio of yield strength of reinforcing steel agreeded well with maximum steel corrosion ratio and that tension softening of concrete became larger with the increase of corrosion degree. Second, based on these observations, reinforcement section area loss and initial tension strain due to reinforcement corrosion, a decrease in bond stress between reinforcement and concrete were employed for constructing the material model. To validate the devised modeling, the above -mentioned test results were numerically correlated. As a result, the analyzed load-strain relationships agreeded well with the experimental results under the condition of corrosion ratio 0-20%. Finally, as an application of experimental an analytical findings, we developed relationships between the parameters of modeling of material degradation and chloride induced deterioration progress as it widely accepted in maintenance practice for civil engineering reinforced concrete structures. (author)

  2. Structural performance evaluation on aging underground reinforced concrete structures. Part 4. Mechanical property of defective members under anti-symmetric bending moment distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report discusses the change of load capacity and deformation performance of reinforced concrete members arising from various kinds of defects. It is a part of research to establish the structural performance evaluation system for ageing underground structures. The following results were identified from the dynamic loading tests of members with cracks or corroded rebars. First, cracks along the core and cover concrete boundary plane had either role on increases or decrease to ultimate deformation. This difference was attributed to the relative position of initially introduced crack with concrete compressive strut. Second, the energy absorption performance was improved in the existence of corroded rebars. Dispersion of bond stress prevented the member ends from cracking. On the other hand, in one of two specimens with corroded rebars, brittle failure with an inclined crack was observed in the middle part. The progress of split between concrete and rebars caused this mode which was unlikely to appear in the sound state. The core concrete over enough length was led to the state without reinforcement. (author)

  3. Structural performance evaluation on aging underground reinforced concrete structures. Part 6. An estimation method of threshold value in performance verification taking reinforcing steel corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses applicability of material degradation model due to reinforcing steel corrosion for RC box-culverts with corroded reinforcement and an estimation method for threshold value in performance verification reflecting reinforcing steel corrosion. First, in FEM analyses, loss of reinforcement section area and initial tension strain arising from reinforcing steel corrosion, and deteriorated bond characteristics between reinforcement and concrete were considered. The full-scale loading tests using corroded RC box-culverts were numerically analyzed. As a result, the analyzed crack patterns and load-strain relationships were in close agreement with the experimental results within the maximum corrosion ratio 15% of primary reinforcement. Then, we showed that this modeling could estimate the load carrying capacity of corroded RC box-culverts. Second, a parametric study was carried out for corroded RC box culverts with various sizes, reinforcement ratios and levels of steel corrosion, etc. Furthermore, as an application of analytical results and various experimental investigations, we suggested allowable degradation ratios for a modification of the threshold value, which corresponds to the chloride induced deterioration progress that is widely accepted in maintenance practice for civil engineering reinforced concrete structures. Finally, based on these findings, we developed two estimation methods for threshold value in performance verification: 1) a structural analysis method using nonlinear FEM included modeling of material degradation, 2) a practical method using a threshold value, which is determined by structural analyses of RC box-culverts in sound condition, is multiplied by the allowable degradation ratio. (author)

  4. Structural performance evaluation on aging underground reinforced concrete structures. Part 3. Evaluation on load carrying capacity for RC box-culvert with corroded reinforcing bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to assess damage mechanism for RC box-culvert with corroded reinforcing bars and to evaluate effects of reinforcing steel corrosion on load carrying capacity based on experimental results. We conducted a series of full-scale cyclic loading tests on RC box-culvert specimens that were artificially corroded by stay current corrosion. In experimental results, maximum strength of the box-culverts with corroded reinforcing bars shows slight decrease under the condition of maximum corrosion ratio 15%, and the locally material deterioration has minor effect on ultimate strength of RC box-culverts. It was because that plastic hinges were developed if steel yielding or shear cracks occurred around the corner parts and the loads were redistributed from the damage parts to the other parts. Then, as an application of experimental results, we developed relationships between the structural performance of RC box-culverts and chloride induced deterioration progress as is widely accepted in maintenance practice for civil engineering reinforced concrete structures. As a result, the degradation ratio of deformation capacity became larger than that of maximum strength with the increase of corrosion degree. Moreover, stayed as that of in sound condition except deterioration stage, while the minimum degradation ratio of shear strength in acceleration stage to that in initiation stage was approximately 85%. (author)

  5. Optimization Design and Application of Underground Reinforced Concrete Bifurcation Pipe

    OpenAIRE

    Chao Su; Zhenxue Zhu; Yangyang Zhang; Niantang Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Underground reinforced concrete bifurcation pipe is an important part of conveyance structure. During construction, the workload of excavation and concrete pouring can be significantly decreased according to optimized pipe structure, and the engineering quality can be improved. This paper presents an optimization mathematical model of underground reinforced concrete bifurcation pipe structure according to real working status of several common pipe structures from real cases. Then, an optimiza...

  6. Optimization Design and Application of Underground Reinforced Concrete Bifurcation Pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Underground reinforced concrete bifurcation pipe is an important part of conveyance structure. During construction, the workload of excavation and concrete pouring can be significantly decreased according to optimized pipe structure, and the engineering quality can be improved. This paper presents an optimization mathematical model of underground reinforced concrete bifurcation pipe structure according to real working status of several common pipe structures from real cases. Then, an optimization design system was developed based on Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm. Furthermore, take the bifurcation pipe of one hydropower station as an example: optimization analysis was conducted, and accuracy and stability of the optimization design system were verified successfully.

  7. The electrostatic properties of Fiber-Reinforced-Plastics double wall underground storage gasoline tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present Fiber Reinforced Plastics (FRP) double wall underground storage gasoline tanks are wildly used. An FRP product with a resistance of more than 1011 Ω is a static non-conductor, so it is difficult for the static electricity in the FRP product to decay into the earth. In this paper an experimental system was built to simulate an automobile gasoline filling station. Some electrostatic parameters of the gasoline, including volume charge density, were tested when gasoline was unloaded into a FRP double wall underground storage tank. Measurements were taken to make sure the volume charge density in the oil-outlet was similar to the volume charge density in the tank. In most cases the volume charge density of the gasoline was more than 22.7 μC m−3, which is likely to cause electrostatic discharge in FRP double wall underground storage gasoline tanks. On the other hand, it would be hard to ignite the vapor by electrostatic discharge since the vapor pressure in the tanks is over the explosion limit. But when the tank is repaired or re-used, the operators must pay attention to the static electricity and some measurements should be taken to avoid electrostatic accident. Besides the relaxation time of charge in the FRP double wall gasoline storage tanks should be longer.

  8. Underground water dating and age corrections using radiocarbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describe a method that correlate underground water dating using radiocarbon and other environmental isotopes in order to estimate recharge conditions of an aquifer located in Romania. Radiocarbon ages were corrected by six correction models. Obtained data conducted to a mean transit velocity of studied aquifer of 0.55 m/year, value which is specific for this type of aquifer. Although radiocarbon measurement method proposed in this paper is a classical one, optimizations to the preparation technique allow reduction of time and financial costs and can be successfully applied to a large number of samples, common in hydrological studies. (author)

  9. Analysis of Cracking Mode of Anchor Structure of Underground Engineering Induced by Reinforcement Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wantao Ding

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on elastic theory and assumption of maximum tensile-stress failure criterion, together with construction process of anchor structure and rust expansion critical process, this study proposed a simplified reinforcement rust expansion mechanical model of anchor structure system. Elastic criterion of different initial cracking mode was rewarded under different stress ratios. According to analysis of critical cracking mode of different medium, cracking order of mortar and surrounding rock depended on their material parameters, in-situ stress and thickness of mortar cover. Critical cracking conditions of different medium without effect of in-situ stress was the same as that of considering in-situ stress while k is equal to 3 or 1/3. And engineering example shows that three different cracking modes exist under different stress ratios. The result provides a useful reference for analysis of mechanical deterioration mechanism of anchor structure and design of support structure of underground engineering.

  10. UNDERGROUND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Cossetted deep underground, sheltered from cosmic ray noise, has always been a favourite haunt of neutrino physicists. Already in the 1930s, significant limits were obtained by taking a geiger counter down in Holborn 'tube' station, one of the deepest in London's underground system. Since then, neutrino physicists have popped up in many unlikely places - gold mines, salt mines, and road tunnels deep under mountain chains. Two such locations - the 1MB (Irvine/ Michigan/Brookhaven) detector 600 metres below ground in an Ohio salt mine, and the Kamiokande apparatus 1000m underground 300 km west of Tokyo - picked up neutrinos on 23 February 1987 from the famous 1987A supernova. Purpose-built underground laboratories have made life easier, notably the Italian Gran Sasso Laboratory near Rome, 1.4 kilometres below the surface, and the Russian Baksan Neutrino Observatory under Mount Andyrchi in the Caucasus range. Gran Sasso houses ICARUS (April, page 15), Gallex, Borexino, Macro and the LVD Large Volume Detector, while Baksan is the home of the SAGE gallium-based solar neutrino experiment. Elsewhere, important ongoing underground neutrino experiments include Soudan II in the US (April, page 16), the Canadian Sudbury Neutrino Observatory with its heavy water target (January 1990, page 23), and Superkamiokande in Japan (May 1991, page 8)

  11. Report on aging of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ellingwood, B.R. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-03-01

    The Structural Aging Program provides the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service assessments of nuclear power plant safety-related concrete structures. The program was organized under four task areas: Program Management, Materials Property Data Base, Structural Component Assessment/Repair Technology, and Quantitative Methodology for Continued Service Determinations. Under these tasks, over 90 papers and reports were prepared addressing pertinent aspects associated with aging management of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures. Contained in this report is a summary of program results in the form of information related to longevity of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures, a Structural Materials Information Center presenting data and information on the time variation of concrete materials under the influence of environmental stressors and aging factors, in-service inspection and condition assessments techniques, repair materials and methods, evaluation of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures, and a reliability-based methodology for current and future condition assessments. Recommendations for future activities are also provided. 308 refs., 61 figs., 50 tabs.

  12. Report on aging of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Structural Aging Program provides the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service assessments of nuclear power plant safety-related concrete structures. The program was organized under four task areas: Program Management, Materials Property Data Base, Structural Component Assessment/Repair Technology, and Quantitative Methodology for Continued Service Determinations. Under these tasks, over 90 papers and reports were prepared addressing pertinent aspects associated with aging management of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures. Contained in this report is a summary of program results in the form of information related to longevity of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures, a Structural Materials Information Center presenting data and information on the time variation of concrete materials under the influence of environmental stressors and aging factors, in-service inspection and condition assessments techniques, repair materials and methods, evaluation of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures, and a reliability-based methodology for current and future condition assessments. Recommendations for future activities are also provided. 308 refs., 61 figs., 50 tabs

  13. Urban groundwater age modeling under unconfined condition - Impact of underground structures on groundwater age: Evidence of a piston effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attard, Guillaume; Rossier, Yvan; Eisenlohr, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, underground structures are shown to have a major influence on the groundwater mean age distribution described as a dispersive piston effect. Urban underground development does not occur without impacts on subsoil resources. In particular, groundwater resources can be vulnerable and generate disturbances when this space is exploited. Groundwater age spatial distribution data are fundamental for resource management as it can provide operational sustainability indicators. However, the application of groundwater age modeling is neglected regarding the potential effect of underground structures in urban areas. A three dimensional modeling approach was conducted to quantify the impact of two underground structures: (1) an impervious structure and (2) a draining structure. Both structures are shown to cause significant mixing processes occurring between shallow and deeper aquifers. The design technique used for draining structures is shown to have the greatest impact, generating a decrease in mean age of more than 80% under the structure. Groundwater age modeling is shown to be relevant for highlighting the role played by underground structures in advective-dispersive flows in urban areas.

  14. Damage evaluation of reinforced concrete underground structures after earthquake. Part 1. Relation between local deformation and performance as structural member

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this present series of researches is a development of damage level evaluation method for underground structures which have been subjected to large ground motion. The local deformations represented by crack width are observed in inspections after earthquakes. In the present report, a relationship between these local deformations and mechanical performance as a structural member was discussed through the image measurements for damaged reinforced concrete specimens. Based on the test results, the following two items were investigated. a) The procedure for evaluating the maximum displacement response during earthquakes was developed by using the width of residual flexural cracks, and was verified. The method, which focuses on remaining vertical displacement, is applicable to the structures subjected to reversed loading after maximum response. b) The criteria for shear failure were proposed as two deformation indices, i.e., increase of thickness and length of zone with increasing thickness. (author)

  15. Long-Term Flexural Behaviors of GFRP Reinforced Concrete Beams Exposed to Accelerated Aging Exposure Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Yeonho; Kim, Young; Lee, Swoo-Heon

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of accelerated aging conditions on the long-term flexural behavior and ductility of reinforced concrete (RC) members with glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars (RC-GFRP specimen) and steel bars (RC-steel specimen). A total of thirty six specimens were designed with different amounts of reinforcement with three types of reinforcing bars (i.e., helically wrapped GFRP, sand-coated surface GFRP and steel). Eighteen specimens were subjected to sustained load...

  16. Long-Term Flexural Behaviors of GFRP Reinforced Concrete Beams Exposed to Accelerated Aging Exposure Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Yeonho Park; Young Hoon Kim; Swoo-Heon Lee

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of accelerated aging conditions on the long-term flexural behavior and ductility of reinforced concrete (RC) members with glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars (RC-GFRP specimen) and steel bars (RC-steel specimen). A total of thirty six specimens were designed with different amounts of reinforcement with three types of reinforcing bars (i.e., helically wrapped GFRP, sand-coated surface GFRP and steel). Eighteen specimens were subjected to sustained lo...

  17. The Use of the Direct Optimized Probabilistic Calculation Method in Design of Bolt Reinforcement for Underground and Mining Workings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Krejsa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The load-carrying system of each construction should fulfill several conditions which represent reliable criteria in the assessment procedure. It is the theory of structural reliability which determines probability of keeping required properties of constructions. Using this theory, it is possible to apply probabilistic computations based on the probability theory and mathematic statistics. Development of those methods has become more and more popular; it is used, in particular, in designs of load-carrying structures with the required level or reliability when at least some input variables in the design are random. The objective of this paper is to indicate the current scope which might be covered by the new method—Direct Optimized Probabilistic Calculation (DOProC in assessments of reliability of load-carrying structures. DOProC uses a purely numerical approach without any simulation techniques. This provides more accurate solutions to probabilistic tasks, and, in some cases, such approach results in considerably faster completion of computations. DOProC can be used to solve efficiently a number of probabilistic computations. A very good sphere of application for DOProC is the assessment of the bolt reinforcement in the underground and mining workings. For the purposes above, a special software application—“Anchor”—has been developed.

  18. Work reinforcers and explanatory style for women aged 40 to 75 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, L H; Waskel, S A

    1994-07-01

    We examined the relationship between explanatory style and work reinforcers, that is, specific sources in the work environment that appear to promote job satisfaction. Our subjects were 135 employed women aged 40 to 75 years who were asked to complete the Attributional Style Questionnaire (Peterson et al., 1982) and the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (Weiss, Dawis, England, & Lofquist, 1967). Using Pearson's product-moment correlational analysis, weak but significant relationships were found between explanatory style and the work reinforcers of ability utilization, activity, and creativity. Individuals with a depressive explanatory style experienced less job satisfaction in areas related to these reinforcers. PMID:7932292

  19. Long-Term Flexural Behaviors of GFRP Reinforced Concrete Beams Exposed to Accelerated Aging Exposure Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonho Park

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of accelerated aging conditions on the long-term flexural behavior and ductility of reinforced concrete (RC members with glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP bars (RC-GFRP specimen and steel bars (RC-steel specimen. A total of thirty six specimens were designed with different amounts of reinforcement with three types of reinforcing bars (i.e., helically wrapped GFRP, sand-coated surface GFRP and steel. Eighteen specimens were subjected to sustained loads and accelerated aging conditions (i.e., 47 °C and 80% relative humidity in a chamber. The flexural behavior of specimens under 300-day exposure was compared to that of the companion specimens without experiencing accelerated aging conditions. Results indicate that the accelerated aging conditions reduced flexural capacity in not only RC-steel, but also RC-GFRP specimens, with different rates of reduction. Different types of GFRP reinforcement exhibited different rates of degradation of the flexural capacity when embedded in concrete under the same exposure conditions. Several existing models were compared with experimental results for predicting the deflection and deformability index for specimens. Bischoff and Gross’s model exhibited an excellent prediction of the time-dependent deflections. Except for the deformability index proposed by Jaeger, there was no general trend related to the aging duration. This study recommends the need for further investigation on the prediction of the deformability index.

  20. Uniaxial Tension Test of Slender Reinforced Early Age Concrete Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Zhang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to obtain the tensile properties of early age concrete based on a uniaxial tension test employing RC slender members. First, the paper shows that concrete strain is equal to the strain of rebar at the mid-span of the RC member. The tensile Young’s modulus and the strain capacity of early age concrete are estimated using strain measurements. The experiment indicated that the tensile Young’s modulus at an early age is higher than the compressive modulus. This observation was similar to one found in a previous investigation which used a direct tension test of early age concrete. Moreover, the paper describes how an empirical equation for mature concrete can be applied to the relation between uniaxial tensile strength and splitting tensile strength even in early age concrete. Based on a uniaxial tension test, the paper proposes an empirical equation for the relationship between standard bond stresses and relative slip.

  1. Uniaxial Tension Test of Slender Reinforced Early Age Concrete Members

    OpenAIRE

    Wenbo Zhang; Isamu Yoshitake; Yoichi Mimura

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to obtain the tensile properties of early age concrete based on a uniaxial tension test employing RC slender members. First, the paper shows that concrete strain is equal to the strain of rebar at the mid-span of the RC member. The tensile Young’s modulus and the strain capacity of early age concrete are estimated using strain measurements. The experiment indicated that the tensile Young’s modulus at an early age is higher than the compressive modulus. This observation ...

  2. Normal aging does not impair orbitofrontal-dependent reinforcer devaluation effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teghpal eSingh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal aging is associated with deficits in cognitive flexibility thought to depend on prefrontal regions such as the orbitofrontal cortex. Here, we used Pavlovian reinforcer devaluation to test whether normal aging might also affect the ability to use outcome expectancies to guide appropriate behavioral responding, which is also known to depend on the orbitofrontal cortex. Both young and aged rats were trained to associate a 10 second conditioned stimulus (CS+ with delivery of a sucrose pellet. After training, half of the rats in each age group received the sucrose pellets paired with illness induced by LiCl injections; the remaining rats received sucrose and illness explicitly unpaired. Subsequently, responding to the CS+ was assessed in an extinction probe test. Although aged rats displayed lower responding levels overall, both young and aged rats conditioned to the CS+ and developed a conditioned taste aversion following reinforcer devaluation. Furthermore, during the extinction probe test, both young and aged rats spontaneously attenuated conditioned responding to the cue as a result of reinforcer devaluation. These data show that normal aging does not affect the ability to use expected outcome value to appropriately guide Pavlovian responding. This result indicates that deficits in cognitive flexibility are dissociable from other known functions of prefrontal - and particularly orbitofrontal - cortex. 

  3. Jute fiber reinforced polypropylene produced by continuous extrusion compounding. Part 1. Processing and ageing properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oever, van den M.J.A.; Snijder, M.H.B.

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the processing and ageing properties of jute fiber reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites. The composite has been manufactured by a continuous extrusion process and results in free flowing composite granules, comprising up to 50 weight percent (wt %) jute fiber in PP. These

  4. 矩形钢筋混凝土地下水池的结构设计%RECTANGULAR STEEL REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURE DESIGN OF UNDERGROUND POOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓奇; 向晖

    2012-01-01

    水池是污水处理工程中常见的用人工材料修建、具有防渗作用的水处理设施。结合大连热力有限公司热电厂的设计工作,对矩形钢筋混凝土水池的结构设计进行了论述。%Underground tank is wastewater treatment engineering of common with artificial materials anti-seepage effect has built,of the water treatment facilities. Combining with the dalian thermal Co. , LTD of thermal power plant, the design work, in rectangular structure design of reinforced concrete pool are discussed in this paper

  5. Aging characteristics of short glass fiber reinforced ZA-27 alloy composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S. C.; Girish, B. M.; Satish, B. M.; Kamath, R.

    1998-12-01

    Aging characteristics of short glass fiber reinforced ZA-27 alloy composite materials have been evaluated in the present study. The liquid metallurgy technique was used to fabricate the composites, in which preheated short glass fibers were introduced into the ZA-27 alloy melt above its liquidus temperature. The aging temperature employed was 125 °C for 6, 12,18, and 24 h. The aged alloy (no fibers) reached the peak hardness after 18 h, while the composites (regardless of filler content) reached the same hardness in 12 h. It is hypothesized that the aging treatment of a composite improves the strength of the interface between the short fibers and the matrix. This is confirmed by the tensile fractograph analysis, which indicates that at a given aging temperature, the composites aged for 18 h exhibit short fibers that remain attached to the metal matrix, while those aged for 6 h undergo debonding.

  6. Damage evaluation of reinforced concrete underground structures after earthquake. Part 3. Applicability of impact elastic wave for damage detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report focuses on impact responses as a damage inspection method for underground structures subjected to large ground motion. When the loading test described in the previous report was conducted, the acceleration response to impact with a hammer was measured in each stage of damage. The followings were identified from the results; a) The ratio of acceleration amplitude at the surrounding measurement points to that near the hammering point was reduced with aggravation of damages. Because the reduction was remarkable especially in small deformation range, the acceleration amplitude ratio was useful as an index to detect light damages. b) Dissimilarity of frequency responses between sound and damaged states was evaluated using 'Spectrum Distance' which is a summation of the difference of frequency components between two Fourier amplitude spectrums. Because 'Spectrum Distance' increased according to the progress of deformation especially in small deformation range, it was also useful for light damage detecting. Finally, the randomness caused by different inspectors and different measurement positions in a structure was confirmed to be small enough through the trial inspections for a real channel. (author)

  7. Damage evaluation of reinforced concrete underground structures after earthquake. Part 2. Evaluation method based on inspection records and application example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this present series of researches is a development of damage level evaluation method for underground structures which have been subjected to large ground motion. In part 2, items for evaluating and criteria corresponding to them were embodied considering practical use. In the developed method, data of crack width remaining after earthquakes and unusual sound area by hammering test are necessary as inspection records. Check items are constituted of flexural damage focusing on compression of concrete and on tension of rebar, and shear damage focusing on the width of inclined or splitting cracks. The procedure for calculating the maximum deflection angle of member under ground motion and threshold values for shear damage were introduced from Part 1. Moreover, the charts which assist to convert the crack width into rebar strain in a close distance were prepared using the slip formula suggested by Shima. Finally, the use of the developed method was demonstrated through a case study for a real box culvert which experienced the Niigataken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake in 2007. (author)

  8. Effect of ageing on the mechanical behaviour of aluminium alloy AA2009 reinforced with SIC particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the mechanical behaviour of an aluminium matrix composite (AA2009) reinforced with 15 volume percent of SiC particles has been carried out. The ageing kinetic for this material has been evaluated at two different ageing temperatures (170 and 190 degree centigrade). The hardness peaks for the two different precipitation sequences existing in the matrix alloy have been identified. The mechanical behaviour of the composite was also evaluated for the different thermal conditions (as-received and aged). This research has been completed with the identification of the fracture mechanisms by means of observation with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) both of the fracture surface and transversal sections of them. In addition, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the treated composites has been used to determine the influence of the SiC particles on the distribution of strengthening phases precipitated in the matrix. (Author) 14 refs

  9. EFFECT OF AGING ON MECHANICAL AND WEAR PROPERTIES OF BERYL PARTICULATE REINFORCED METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. N. REDDAPPA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the study of effect of aging on mechanical and wear properties of ‘hot rolled’ Al6061-10% wt. of beryl particulate reinforced composites produced by stir casting have been examined. The result shows that hardness and tensile strength of ‘90% hot rolled and aged’ composites were increased by 10.28% and 3.78% as compared to ‘hot rolled’ composites respectively. The ‘hot rolled and aged’ composite shows significant decrease in specific wear rate when compared to that of ‘hot rolled’ composites.

  10. Drinking's Reinforcer System Among Rehabilitation Center Alcoholics. Age Differences in Drinking's Reinforcer System Among Rehabilitation Center Alcoholics: Implications for Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Robert G.; Hadley, Patricia

    The 2 papers included in this report concern personal and social effects as reasons for, and reinforcements of, continued drinking. In the first, a study is reported in which 95 indigent chronic alcoholics were interviewed about both the benefits and drawbacks which they associated with drinking. Results show that (1) a change in feeling state was…

  11. Effect of Sea Water and Natural Ageing on Residual Strength of Epoxy Laminates, Reinforced with Glass and Carbon Woven Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Komorek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of the effect of sea water, natural ageing, and cross-impact loading on flexural strength and residual flexural strength of epoxy laminates with glass woven fabrics and hybrid reinforcement with glass and carbon woven fabrics. The tests were conducted on samples with different fibre reinforcement both before and after low energy cross-impact loading. Carbon fabrics decreased residual strength of the composites.

  12. Underground nuclear waste containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the United States, about a hundred million gallons of high-level nuclear waste are stored in underground containments. Basically, these containments are of two different designs: single-shell and double-shell structures. The single-shell structures consist of reinforced concrete cylindrical walls seated on circular mats and enclosed on top with torispherical domes or circular flat roofs. The walls and the basemats are lined with carbon steel. The double-shell structures provide another layer of protection and constitute a completely enclosed steel containment within the single-shell structure leaving an annular space between the two walls. Single-shell containments are of earlier vintage and were built in the period 1945-1965. Double-shell structures were built through the 1960s and 1970s. Experience gained in building and operating the single-shell containments was used in enhancing the design and construction of the double-shell structures. Currently, there are about 250 underground single-shell and double-shell structures containing the high-level waste with an inventory of about 800 million curies. During their service lives, especially in early stages, these structures were subjected to thermal excursions of varying extents; also, they have aged in the chemical environment. Furthermore, in their remaining service lives, the structures may be subjected to loads for which they were not designed, such as larger earthquakes or chemical explosions. As a result, the demonstration of safety of these underground nuclear containments poses a challenge to structural engineers, which increases with time. Regardless of current plans for gradual retrieval of the waste and subsequent solidification for disposal, many of these structures are expected to continue to contain the waste through the next 20-40 years. In order to verify their structural capabilities in fulfilling this mission, several studies were recently performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory

  13. Study of age dependent half-life of iodine in man: a reinforcement-depletion urn model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An urn contains balls of s different colors. The problem of the reinforcement of a specified color and random depletion of balls has been considered previously by one of the authors. In this paper, the theory is applied to the biological age dependent half-life of radioactive iodine in man; the data of Cook and Snyder (1965 ORNL-3849,190-193) is used. The intake of radioactive iodine and its retention subsequently is studied. (author)

  14. The effect of silica fume and metakaolin on glass-fibre reinforced concrete (GRC ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enfedaque Díaz, A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The deterioration of the mechanical properties of glassfibre reinforced concrete (GRC over time rules out the use of this material in load-bearing structures. While one possible solution to this problem is the addition of pozzolans or metakaolin to the cement mortar, the amounts needed to ensure GRC integrity raise its price to non-competitive levels. Experimental research has been conducted to analyze whether the addition of small amounts of silica fume or metakaolin can prevent or mitigate the ageing issue. Unfortunately, the findings indicate that the addition of small proportions of metakaolin or silica fume to GRC are ineffective in improving its long-term performance.

    Para el uso del mortero de cemento reforzado con fibras de vidrio (GRC en estructuras portantes se han de solucionar los problemas de reducción de las propiedades mecánicas que aparecen con el paso del tiempo. Estos problemas pueden ser solucionados mediante la adición de puzolanas o de metacaolín, a la pasta de mortero de cemento. Sin embargo, la cantidad de metacaolín que ha de ser añadida es elevada y el precio del GRC fabricado está fuera del mercado. Se ha realizado una campaña experimental que analiza si la adición de humo de sílice o de metacaolín en proporciones reducidas consigue evitar o paliar el problema del envejecimiento, que supone un freno al uso del GRC en elementos estructurales. Desgraciadamente, los resultados experimentales muestran que proporciones bajas de metacaolín o de humo de sílice no son efectivas para reducir el problema de pérdida de propiedades mecánicas.

  15. Initial laboratory studies into the chemical and radiological aging of organic materials in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The underground storage tanks at the Hanford Complex contain wastes generated over many years from plutonium production and recovery processes, and mixed wastes from radiological degradation processes. The chemical changes of the organic materials used in the extraction processes have a direct bearing on several specific safety issues, including potential energy releases from these tanks. The major portion of organic materials that have been added to the tanks consists of tributyl phosphate, dibutyl phosphate, butyl alcohol, hexone (methyl isobutyl ketone), normal paraffin hydrocarbons (NPH), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), hydroxyethylethylenediaminetriadetic acid (HEDTA), other complexants, and lesser quantities of ion exchange polymers and minor organic compounds. A study of how thermal and radiological processes that may have changed the composition of organic tanks constituents has been initiated after a review of the open literature revealed little information was available about the rates and products of these processes under basic pH conditions. This paper will detail the initial findings as they relate to gas generation, e.g. H2, CO, NH3, CH4, and to changes in the composition of the organic and inorganic components brought about by ''Aging'' processes

  16. Undergrounding issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a general review of British Columbia Hydro's rights-of-way policies, a task group was formed to explore and assess the technical, social, environmental, and economic issues related to the provision of suitable underground rights-of-way for distribution and transmission lines. Issues considered were: evaluations of undergrounding; designation of service areas as underground areas; the BC Hydro fund to assist municipalities in beautifying selected areas by placing existing overhead lines underground; community funding of undergrounding; underground options to transmission and distribution requirements; and long-range underground row planning. Key findings are as follows. Undergrounding is technically feasible and available for all BC Hydro operating voltages, but initial construction costs of undergrounding continue to exceed equivalent overhead by a significant margin. Undergrounding can contribute to the optimization of existing rights-of-way. Public safety is improved with undergrounding and long-term benefits to BC Hydro and society are provided by undergrounding, compared to overhead options. Customers have shown some willingness to contribute to the cost of undergrounding, and it is generally agreed that those communities that want undergrounding should pay for it. Policy recommendations are made under each of the issue areas, and justifications for the recommendations are given along with implementation costs and alternative options

  17. Evaluation of a Penetration-Reinforcing Agent to Prevent the Aging of Concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concrete has three major properties after a penetration-reinforcing agent is applied on its surface. First, the durability is improved by the sol-gel process of synthesized material from the polycondensation of TEOS (tetra-ethoxyorthosilicate) and acrylate monomer. Second, the capability to absorb impact energy is reinforced through the formation of a soft and flexible layer of organic monomers by Tea (Tetra Ethyl Amin). Third, the capability to prevent deterioration is enhanced by adding isobutyl-orthosilicate and alcohol. The performance and application of an agent developed through the synthesis of organic and inorganic material in an effort to prevent concrete from deterioration and improve the durability of concrete structures were verified in diverse experiments. The results of these experiments showed that the application of the proposed penetration reinforcing agent has the effect of increasing the compressive strength by filling up the internal pores of concrete with physically and chemically stable compounds after penetrating the concrete. It also improves the durability against the deterioration factors such as salt water damage, carbonation, freezing and thawing, and compound deterioration. Therefore, it is confirmed that the penetration-reinforcing agent is a useful substance for the management and repair of concrete structures

  18. Frequent detection of latent tuberculosis infection among aged underground hard coal miners in the absence of recent tuberculosis exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix C Ringshausen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Miners are at particular risk for tuberculosis (TB infection due to exposure to silica dust and silicosis. The objectives of the present observational cohort study were to determine the prevalence of latent TB infection (LTBI among aged German underground hard coal miners with silicosis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD using two commercial interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs and to compare their performance with respect to predictors of test positivity. METHODS: Between October 2008 and June 2010, miners were consecutively recruited when routinely attending pneumoconiosis clinics for an expert opinion. Both IGRAs, the QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT and the T-SPOT®.TB (T-SPOT, were performed at baseline. A standardized clinical interview was conducted at baseline and at follow-up. The cohort was prospectively followed regarding the development of active TB for at least two years after inclusion of the last study subject. Independent predictors of IGRA positivity were calculated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Among 118 subjects (mean age 75 years, none reported recent exposure to TB. Overall, the QFT and the T-SPOT yielded similarly high rates of positive results (QFT: 46.6%; 95% confidence interval 37.6-55.6%; T-SPOT: 61.0%; 95% confidence interval 52.2-69.8%. Positive results were independently predicted by age ≥80 years and foreign country of birth for both IGRAs. In addition, radiological evidence of prior healed TB increased the chance of a positive QFT result fivefold. While 28 subjects were lost to follow-up, no cases of active TB occurred among 90 subjects during an average follow-up of >2 years. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the high prevalence of LTBI, the absence of recent TB exposure, and the currently low TB incidence in Germany, our study provides evidence for the persistence of specific interferon-gamma responses even decades after putative exposure. However, the clinical value of current IGRAs

  19. Tensile properties and translaminar fracture toughness of glass fiber reinforced unsaturated polyester resin composites aged in distilled and salt water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiman, Gozali, M. Hulaifi; Setyawan, Paryanto Dwi

    2016-03-01

    Glass fiber reinforced polymer has been widely used in chemical industry and transportation due to lightweight and cost effective manufacturing. However due to the ability to absorb water from the environment, the durability issue is of interest for up to days. This paper investigated the water uptake and the effect of absorbed water on the tensile properties and the translaminar fracture toughness of glass fiber reinforced unsaturated polyester composites (GFRP) aged in distilled and salt water up to 30 days at a temperature of 50°C. It has been shown that GFRP absorbed more water in distilled water than in salt water. In distilled water, the tensile strength of GFRP tends to decrease steeply at 7 days and then slightly recovered for further immersion time. In salt water, the tensile strength tends to decrease continually up to 30 days immersion. The translaminar fracture toughness of GFRP aged in both distilled and salt-water shows the similar behavior. The translaminar fracture toughness increases after 7 days immersion and then tends to decrease beyond that immersion time. In the existence of ionics content in salt water, it causes more detrimental effect on the mechanical properties of fiberglass/unsaturated polyester composites compared to that of distilled water.

  20. Sensitivity to reinforcement and family factors as predictors of psychological health problems in different age groups of children and teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kuznetsova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The follow-up study was designed to assess and to compare the effects of sensitivity to reward, sensitivity to punishment and family environment on internalizing and externalizing problems in a community sample of 477 children and adolescents aged 3-18 (50% female. The level of problem behavior at Time 1 in all age groups was the best predictor of corresponding type of problem level at Time 2; the residual variance in problem behavior was also predicted by sensitivity to reinforcement. Family factors contributed for change in externalizing problems and hyperactivity in preschool and middle childhood children; living in the urban environment was significant factor for peer problem. The study showed that individual differences interact with the family factors in the process of development, and family environment could strengthen or mitigate the influence of biological factors on children and adolescents’ adjustment.

  1. Development of advanced earthquake resistant performance verification on reinforced concrete underground structures. Pt. 3. Applicability of soil-structure Interaction analysis using nonlinear member model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, Jun; Ohtomo, Keizo; Kawai, Tadashi; Kanatani, Mamoru; Matsuo, Toyofumi [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Abiko, Chiba (Japan). Abiko Research Lab

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study is to obtain verification data concerning performance of RC duct-type underground structures subject to strong earth quakes. This paper presents the investigated results of numerical simulation obtained from shaking table tests of box-type structure models with a scale of about 1/2. We proposed practical nonlinear member models, by which mechanical properties of RC member and soil are defined as hysteresis models (RC: axial force dependent degrading tri-linear model, soil: modified Ramberg-Osgood model), and joint elements are used to evaluate the interaction along the interface of two materials between soil and RC structures; including the slippage and separation. Consequently, the proposed models could simulate the test results on the deformation of soil and RC structure, as well as damage of RC structures which is important in verifying their seismic performance with practical accuracy. (author)

  2. Development of advanced earthquake resistant performance verification on reinforced concrete underground structures. Pt. 3. Applicability of soil-structure Interaction analysis using nonlinear member model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to obtain verification data concerning performance of RC duct-type underground structures subject to strong earth quakes. This paper presents the investigated results of numerical simulation obtained from shaking table tests of box-type structure models with a scale of about 1/2. We proposed practical nonlinear member models, by which mechanical properties of RC member and soil are defined as hysteresis models (RC: axial force dependent degrading tri-linear model, soil: modified Ramberg-Osgood model), and joint elements are used to evaluate the interaction along the interface of two materials between soil and RC structures; including the slippage and separation. Consequently, the proposed models could simulate the test results on the deformation of soil and RC structure, as well as damage of RC structures which is important in verifying their seismic performance with practical accuracy. (author)

  3. Development of advanced earthquake resistant performance verification on reinforced concrete underground structure. Pt. 2. Verification of the ground modeling methods applied to non-linear soil-structure interaction analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawai, Tadashi; Kanatani, Mamoru; Ohtomo, Keizo; Matsui, Jun; Matsuo, Toyofumi [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Abiko, Chiba (Japan). Abiko Research Lab

    2003-01-01

    In order to develop an advanced verification method for earthquake resistant performance on reinforced concrete underground structures, the applicability of two different types of soil modeling methods in numerical analysis were verified through non-linear dynamic numerical simulations of the large shaking table tests conducted using the model comprised of free-field ground or soils and a reinforced concrete two-box culvert structure system. In these simulations, the structure was modeled by a beam type element having a tri-linear curve of the relations between curvature and flexural moment. The soil was modeled by the Ramberg-Osgood model as well as an elasto-plastic constitutive model. The former model only employs non-linearity of shear modulus regarding strain and initial stress conditions, whereas the latter can express non-linearity of shear modulus caused by changes of mean effective stress during ground excitation and dilatancy of ground soil. Therefore the elasto-plastic constitutive model could precisely simulate the vertical acceleration and displacement response on ground surface, which were produced by the soil dilations during a shaking event of a horizontal base input in the model tests. In addition, the model can explain distinctive dynamic earth pressure acting on the vertical walls of the structure which was also confirmed to be related to the soil dilations. However, since both these modeling methods could express the shear force on the upper slab surface of the model structure, which plays the predominant role on structural deformation, these modeling methods were applicable equally to the evaluation of seismic performance similar to the model structure of this study. (author)

  4. Development of advanced earthquake resistant performance verification on reinforced concrete underground structure. Pt. 2. Verification of the ground modeling methods applied to non-linear soil-structure interaction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to develop an advanced verification method for earthquake resistant performance on reinforced concrete underground structures, the applicability of two different types of soil modeling methods in numerical analysis were verified through non-linear dynamic numerical simulations of the large shaking table tests conducted using the model comprised of free-field ground or soils and a reinforced concrete two-box culvert structure system. In these simulations, the structure was modeled by a beam type element having a tri-linear curve of the relations between curvature and flexural moment. The soil was modeled by the Ramberg-Osgood model as well as an elasto-plastic constitutive model. The former model only employs non-linearity of shear modulus regarding strain and initial stress conditions, whereas the latter can express non-linearity of shear modulus caused by changes of mean effective stress during ground excitation and dilatancy of ground soil. Therefore the elasto-plastic constitutive model could precisely simulate the vertical acceleration and displacement response on ground surface, which were produced by the soil dilations during a shaking event of a horizontal base input in the model tests. In addition, the model can explain distinctive dynamic earth pressure acting on the vertical walls of the structure which was also confirmed to be related to the soil dilations. However, since both these modeling methods could express the shear force on the upper slab surface of the model structure, which plays the predominant role on structural deformation, these modeling methods were applicable equally to the evaluation of seismic performance similar to the model structure of this study. (author)

  5. Water underground

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Inge

    2015-04-01

    The world's largest assessable source of freshwater is hidden underground, but we do not know what is happening to it yet. In many places of the world groundwater is abstracted at unsustainable rates: more water is used than being recharged, leading to decreasing river discharges and declining groundwater levels. It is predicted that for many regions of the world unsustainable water use will increase, due to increasing human water use under changing climate. It would not be long before shortage causes widespread droughts and the first water war begins. Improving our knowledge about our hidden water is the first step to stop this. The world largest aquifers are mapped, but these maps do not mention how much water they contain or how fast water levels decline. If we can add a third dimension to the aquifer maps, so a thickness, and add geohydrological information we can estimate how much water is stored. Also data on groundwater age and how fast it is refilled is needed to predict the impact of human water use and climate change on the groundwater resource.

  6. Impact of structural aging on seismic risk assessment of reinforced concrete structures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Structural Aging Program is addressing the potential for degradation of concrete structural components and systems in nuclear power plants over time due to aging and aggressive environmental stressors. Structures are passive under normal operating conditions but play a key role in mitigating design-basis events, particularly those arising from external challenges such as earthquakes, extreme winds, fires and floods. Structures are plant-specific and unique, often are difficult to inspect, and are virtually impossible to replace. The importance of structural failures in accident mitigation is amplified because such failures may lead to common-cause failures of other components. Structural condition assessment and service life prediction must focus on a few critical components and systems within the plant. Components and systems that are dominant contributors to risk and that require particular attention can be identified through the mathematical formalism of a probabilistic risk assessment, or PRA. To illustrate, the role of structural degradation due to aging on plant risk is examined through the framework of a Level 1 seismic PRA of a nuclear power plant. Plausible mechanisms of structural degradation are found to increase the core damage probability by approximately a factor of two

  7. Quick Preparation of Moisture-Saturated Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Plastics and Their Accelerated Ageing Tests Using Heat and Moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Kunioka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A quick method involving the control of heat and water vapor pressure for preparing moisture-saturated carbon fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRP, 8 unidirectional prepreg layers, 1.5 mm thickness, epoxy resin has been developed. The moisture-saturated CFRP sample was obtained at 120 °C and 0.2 MPa water vapor in 72 h by this method using a sterilizer (autoclave. The bending strength and viscoelastic properties measured by a dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA remained unchanged during repetitive saturation and drying steps. No degradation and molecular structural change occurred. Furthermore an accelerated ageing test with two ageing factors, i.e., heat and moisture was developed and performed at 140–160 °C and 0.36–0.62 MPa water vapor pressure by using a sealed pressure-proof stainless steel vessel (autoclave. The bending strength of the sample decreased from 1107 to 319 MPa at 160 °C and 0.63 MPa water vapor pressure in 9 days. Degraded samples were analyzed by DMA. The degree of degradation for samples was analyzed by DMA. CFRP and degraded CFRP samples were analyzed by using a surface and interfacial cutting analysis system (SAICAS and an electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA equipped in a scanning electron microscope.

  8. Ageing of reinforced concrete pipes subjected to seawater in nuclear plants: optimization of maintenance operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaside nuclear power plants have to face the ageing of nuclear reactor cooling piping systems. In order to minimize the duration of the production unit shutdown, maintenance operations have to be planned well in advance. In a context where owners of infrastructures tend to extend the life span of their goods while having to keep the safety level maximum, it is more and more important to develop high level expertise and know-how in management of infrastructures life cycle. A patented monitoring technique based on optic fiber sensors, has been designed. This preventive maintenance enables the owner to determine criteria for network replacement based on degradation impacts. A methodology to evaluate and optimize operation budgets, depending on predictions of future functional deterioration and available maintenance solutions, has been developed and applied. (authors)

  9. Underground Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadlock, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    The movement of groundwater in underground aquifers is an ideal physical example of many important themes in mathematical modeling, ranging from general principles (like Occam's Razor) to specific techniques (such as geometry, linear equations, and the calculus). This article gives a self-contained introduction to groundwater modeling with…

  10. Double wall underground storage tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canaan, E.B. Jr.; Wiegand, J.R.; Bartlow, D.H.

    1993-07-06

    A double wall underground storage tank is described comprising: (a) a cylindrical inner wall, (b) a cylindrical outer wall comprising plastic resin and reinforcement fibers, and (c) a layer of spacer filaments wound around the inner wall, the spacer filaments separating the inner and outer walls, and the spacer filaments being at least partially surrounded by voids to enable liquids to flow along the filaments.

  11. Rokibaar Underground = Rock bar Underground

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Rokibaari Underground (Küütri 7, Tartu) sisekujundus, mis pälvis Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2007. a. eripreemia. Sisearhitekt: Margus Mänd (Tammat OÜ). Margus Männist, tema tähtsamad tööd. Plaan, 5 värv. vaadet, foto M. Männist

  12. Effect of 10 years of in vitro aging on the flexural properties of fiber-reinforced resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallittu, Pekka K

    2007-01-01

    This study determined the effect of 10 years of water immersion on the properties of fiber-reinforced resin composites (FRC). E-glass and silica fibers were used to reinforce heat-cured and autopolymerized acrylic resin polymers. Control specimens were unreinforced. Test specimens stored in water for up to 10 years were tested by the 3-point test. The flexural strength and elasticity of the specimens decreased during water immersion (P E-glass FRC were 24% and 21%, respectively; for silica FRC, reductions were 47% and 46%, respectively; and for controls, reductions were 24% and 11%, respectively. E-glass FRC showed a smaller reduction in strength than silica FRC. PMID:17319361

  13. Underground logistics

    CERN Document Server

    Foraz, K; CERN. Geneva. TS Department

    2005-01-01

    More than 80’000 tons of materials have to be transported and installed down into the LHC tunnel. The magnet assemblies which represent about 50’000 tons, will be transported according to the master schedule between March 2005 and November 2006. Considering that these about 1’800 cryo-magnets will be transported at a maximum speed of 3 km/h in a narrow tube (where installation works and hardware commissioning activities are ongoing) this duration of 21 months is a real challenge. This paper aims at describing: - the information flows between the different people involved in the logistics attached to the cryo-magnets, - the organization chosen within the Installation Coordination group, - the problems encountered so far and the solutions adopted. The coordination process with other underground transport and activities, mainly for the QRL will also be presented.

  14. Use Impact-Echo Method to Evaluate Bond of Reinforced Concrete Subjected to Early-Age Vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Keng-Tsang; Cheng, Chia-Chi; Lin, Yiching

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a non-destructive test method for evaluating the bond of reinforcing bars in concrete structure which was damaged by earthquake while still cast in the form. In the experimental design, the specimens containing a steel reinforcing bar with one end extruded outside were constructed. Different degrees of damage on the rebar-concrete interfaces were successfully created by the resonant vibration of exposed steel bar induced by the cyclic motion of the specimen. The local bond-loss of the steel bars was evaluated by both non-destructive impact-echo tests and the destructive pullout tests. To create different kinds of failure mode in the pullout test, some of the specimens contain stirrups surrounding reinforcing bar. Poor-bond was quantitatively evaluated before the pullout test by the amplitude of the peak corresponding to the multiple reflections from the steel bar in the normalized spectra derived from the impact-echo tests. As a result, two empirical formulas displaying the proportional relations between the percentage of loss of local bond-stress and loss of steel-amplitude for specimens failed by split failure and pull-out failure modes were established.

  15. Fiberglass underground petroleum storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP) products have been in use for many years in a wide variety of products and markets. The automotive, marine, military, chemical, and petroleum markets have made extensive use of FRP. Today, over 300,000 FRP tanks and over 40,000,000 feet of FRP pipe are in service in petroleum marketing as well as industrial and commercial storage applications. In the early 1960's the American Petroleum Institute invited the FRP industry to design FRP underground tanks to solve their corrosion caused underground leaker problems. The challenge was accepted and in 1965 FRP tanks were introduced to the petroleum storage marketplace. FRP pipe, specifically designed for underground petroleum use, was Underwriter's Laboratories tested and listed and introduced in 1968. These fiberglass tanks and pipe have a 25 year perfect record against both internal and external corrosion. The FRP tank and pipe performance record has been outstanding. Less than 1/2 of 1% have ever been involved in an in-ground failure. When first introduced, FRP tanks carried an initial cost premium of 50 to 100% over unprotected steel. Since all Underground Storage Tank (UST) systems must be corrosion protected, initial FRP costs are now competitive with corrosion protected steel

  16. Effect of reinforcing particle type on morphology and age-hardening behavior of Al–4.5 wt.% Cu based nanocomposites synthesized through mechanical milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of reinforcing particle type (SiC and TiC) on morphology and precipitation hardening behavior of Al–4.5%Cu based nanocomposites synthesized via mechanical milling were investigated in the current work. In order to study the microstructure and morphology of mechanically milled powder, X-ray diffraction technique, scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy were utilized. Results revealed that at the early stages of mechanical milling, when reinforcing particles are polycrystal, the alloying process is enhanced more in the case of using the TiC particles as reinforcement. But, at the final stages of mechanical milling, when reinforcing particles are single crystal, the alloying process is enhanced more in the case of using the SiC ones. Transmission electron microscopy results demonstrated that Al–4.5 wt.%Cu based nanocomposite powders were synthesized and confirmed that the mutual diffusion of aluminum and copper occurs through the interfacial plane of (200). The hardness results showed that not only does introducing 4 vol.% of reinforcing particles (SiC or TiC) considerably decrease the porosity of the bulk composite samples, but also it approximately doubles the hardness of Al–4.5 wt.%Cu alloy (53.4 HB). Finally, apart from TEM and scanning electron microscopy observation which are localized, a decline in hardness in the TiC and SiC contained samples, respectively, after 1.5 and 2 h aging time at 473 K proves the fact that the size of SiC particles is smaller than the size of the TiC ones. - Highlights: ► HRTEM results show mutual diffusion of Al and Cu occurs through the (200) planes. ► TiC particles enhance alloying process more than the SiC ones at the early stages of MM. ► SiC particles enhance alloying process more than the TiC ones at the final stages of MM

  17. Polysubstance Use Patterns in Underground Rave Attenders: A Cluster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Calderon, Fermin; Lozano, Oscar M.; Vidal, Claudio; Ortega, Josefa Gutierrez; Vergara, Esperanza; Gonzalez-Saiz, Francisco; Bilbao, Izaskun; Caluente, Marta; Cano, Tomas; Cid, Francisco; Dominguez, Celia; Izquierdo, Emcarni; Perez, Maria I.

    2011-01-01

    Drug use in mainstream rave parties has been widely documented in a large number of studies. However, not much is known about drug use in underground raves. The purpose of this study is to find out the polysubstance use patterns at underground raves. Two hundred and fifty-two young people between the ages of 18 and 30 who went to underground raves…

  18. Aging effects of diamond reinforced aluminium alloys submitted to deep space real conditions. Structural, chemical and electrical degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneli, Grigorov; Bouzekova-Penkova, Anna; Datcheva, Maria; Avdeev, George; Grushin, Valerii; Klimov, Stanislav

    2016-07-01

    An aluminium alloy (Al-Cu-Zn-Mg) reinforced with ultra-dispersed diamond powder and tungsten (W), has been prepared in form of 7 cm bars and 4 mm diameter. One part of them stayed 2 years on satellite exposed to outer space, where the Sun activity and the background radiation were monitored. After satellite return both batches has been studied. Structural test, mainly micro-hardness together with detailed X-rays analyses was performed. The satellite makes a tour around the Earth each two hours, the temperature difference being circa 300oC. The micro-hardness being measured with Agilent G200 nano-indentor shows a significant drop of 25%. The XRD patterns are consistent with the previous results, states defects incorporation, and crystalline cells deterioration.

  19. Heat pump space-heating system for a public school: energy piles, an underground reinforcing structure serving as heat storage devices; Pieux energetiques avec distribution de chaleur et de froid integree dans la structure. Centre Scolaire Vers l'Eglise, Fully

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonvin, M.; Cordonier, P.

    2002-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents a space heating and cooling installation for a public school in Switzerland that includes four heat pumps. The underground pile structure, so-called energy piles, primarily designed for mechanical reinforcement of the building also serves as a cold source for the heat pumps. The thermal energy is transported by water circulation through U-shaped tubes in the piles' concrete. The space heating system uses water circulating at low temperature through the building ceiling slabs. In the warm season the operating mode is reversed: the energy piles are directly connected to the ceiling slabs for cooling. The energy stored in the piles in the summer time is partly re-used in winter for space heating by means of the heat pumps. The authors give schematics of the installation, diagrams and figures illustrating the various energy fluxes for both operating modes as well as the results of a two-years monitoring campaign. This building meets the requirement of the Swiss 'Minergie' standard for low-energy buildings. It is also fitted with a fan-assisted balanced ventilation with heat recovery and an underground fresh-air duct to damp the inlet air temperature fluctuations.

  20. Theoretical Analysis of Reinforcement Tunnel Lining Corrosion

    OpenAIRE

    ZhiQiang Zhangand; Yousif A. Mansoor; Fan Hong Wei

    2013-01-01

    The main cause of ageing damage in reinforced concrete structures is reinforcement corrosion. Damage can be detected visually as coincident cracks along the reinforcement bar, which are significant of both reduction of the re-bar, cross-section and loss of bond strength for reinforced concrete. The reinforced concrete is one of the most widely used engineering materials as final lining of tunnels. The corrosion is common durability problems that have significant effect on the tunnel performan...

  1. Study on destructions and reinforcement measures of mined constructions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Shu; CUI Dong-mei

    2007-01-01

    Ground movement and deformation caused by underground mining would destroy the constructions located within subsidence area. Constructions would suffer different destructions with different location. The effect of ground deformation caused by underground mining to constructions was analyzed. Analyzed the destructive types of constructions in different ground movement and deformation. Taking a two-storey building for example, the walls were reinforced by computation before mining. To protect the construction,the reinforcement measures to the construction before mining were studied.

  2. Anchor reinforcements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levkovich, P.Ye.; Sal' nikov, V.K.; Savich, N.S.

    1980-11-30

    An anchor reinforcement includes an anchor shaft, an elastic jig with a separator wall having compartments placed parallely along it and filled with reinforcement material and a device for destroying the jig wall separator. To quickly put the anchor in place and increase the reliability of the reinforcement by mixing the reinforcement material components better, the device for destroying the jig separator wall was made in the shape of a shovel, fastened to the anchor shaft and the separator wall has a longitudinal hollow for holding the anchor shaft/shovel.

  3. The effect of gamma radiation on the ageing of sulfur cured nr/csm and nbr/csm rubber blends reinforced by carbon black

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Marković

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work the effect of the γ-radiation dose on ageing of carbon black reinforced elastomeric materials was studied. The compounds based on natural rubber/chlorosulfonated rubber blend (NR/CSM and butadiene acrylonitrile rubber/chlorosulfonated rubber blend (NBR/CSM (50:50, w/w with different loadings (0, 20, 40, 50, 60, 80 and 100 phr of the filler with the average particle size of 40 nm were cured by sulfur. The obtained elastomeric composites were subjected to radiation doses (100, 200, 300 and 400 kGy in the presence of oxygen. The changes of material mechanical properties were estimated after radiation accelerated ageing. By using Fourier transform infrared measurements (ATR-FTIR it was assessed that after exposure to doses of 100 kGy alcohols, ethers, lactones, anhydrides, esters and carboxylic acids are formed in materials. The formation of shorter polyene sequences and aromatic rings in aged samples are assumed on the basis of the obtained spectra.

  4. Influence of Hygrothermal Aging on Poisson’s Ratio of Thin Injection-Molded Short Glass Fiber-Reinforced PA6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Illing

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The hygrothermal aging of short glass fiber-reinforced polyamide 6 materials (PA6 GF represents a major problem, especially in thin-walled components, such as in the automotive sector. In this study, therefore, the thickness and the glass fiber content of PA6 GF materials were varied and the materials were exposed to hygrothermal aging. The temperature and relative humidity were selected in the range from −40 °C up to 85 °C, and from 10% up to 85% relative humidity (RH. In the dry-as-molded state, the determined Poisson’s ratio of the PA6 GF materials was correlated with the fiber orientation based on computer tomography (MicroCT data and shows a linear dependence with respect to the fiber orientation along and transverse to the flow direction of the injection molding process. With hygrothermal aging, the value of Poisson’s ratio increases in the flow direction in the same way as it decreases perpendicular to the flow direction due to water absorption.

  5. Study of the early age cracking of concrete massive structures: effect of the temperature decrease rate, steel reinforcement and construction joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At early-age, massive concrete structures (ex. nuclear power plant) are submitted to strains due to the hydration reaction. If they are restrained, crossing cracks can occurs. This cracking may increase significantly the concrete wall permeability. The objectives of this work was to characterize the early age concrete behavior (thermal and endogenous shrinkage, basic and thermal transient creep, mechanical characteristic evolution) as well as develop a new device to study the early age cracking of a concrete structure submitted to restrained shrinkage. The experimental campaign achieved with this new device (called thermal active ring test) and the numerical analysis of the test thanks to finite element simulations allows us to evaluate the coupling between creep and damage, to identify the tensile strength decrease due to construction joints and to quantify the effect of reinforcement on the concrete behaviour. Moreover, with this device, permeability measurements have been performed on a cracked specimen. Finally, numerical simulations of massive structures highlight the influence of boundary conditions for restrained shrinkage and the influence of the coupling between creep and damage on the damage pattern. (author)

  6. Underground pipeline corrosion

    CERN Document Server

    Orazem, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Underground pipelines transporting liquid petroleum products and natural gas are critical components of civil infrastructure, making corrosion prevention an essential part of asset-protection strategy. Underground Pipeline Corrosion provides a basic understanding of the problems associated with corrosion detection and mitigation, and of the state of the art in corrosion prevention. The topics covered in part one include: basic principles for corrosion in underground pipelines, AC-induced corrosion of underground pipelines, significance of corrosion in onshore oil and gas pipelines, n

  7. The Surface Finish of Thermally Aged Carbon Fibre Reinforced Composites Using E-glass as a Surface Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, M. L.; Fox, B. L.

    2015-10-01

    This work investigated the effect of woven E-glass mass (25 g/m2, 50 g/m2, 85 g/m2, 135 g/m2) on the painted surface finish of various thermoset (EPIKOTETM RIM935, EPIKOTETM 04434, Ultratec LpTM ES300, Ultratec LpTM SPV6035) carbon fibre composite laminates, before and after aging at 95 °C for 168 h. The as-moulded laminate surfaces were evaluated using surface profilometry techniques and the painted and aged surfaces were evaluated using a wave-scan distinctness of image (DOI) instrument. It was found that the 25 g/m2 E-glass surface layer assisted with reducing the roughness of the as-moulded surfaces and the long-term waviness of the painted surfaces due to the increase in resin-richness at the surface. The EPIKOTETM 04434 resin system that contained diglycidyl ether of bisphenol F (DGEBF) epoxy had the least change in long-term waviness with thermal aging due to the rigid fluorene-based backbone in comparison to the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) systems.

  8. Age-hardening characteristics of δ-alumina fibre reinforced aluminium-silicon LM-13 alloy metal matrix composites

    OpenAIRE

    Akbulut, H; Durman, M.; F. Yilmaz

    1993-01-01

    Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) with an aluminium-silicon based LM-13 alloy and short-staple Saffil (δ-alumina) fibres with volume fractions of 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25 and 0.30 have been produced using a pressure liquid infiltration process. The standard T6 heat treatment procedure was applied to both the unreinforced matrix alloy and the composites, and the effect of the fibres on the age-hardening characteristics of the composites has been investigated by means of hardness measurements.

  9. Stiffness of reinforced concrete walls resisting in-place shear -- Tier 2: Aging and durability of concrete used in nuclear power plants. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinforced concrete walls are commonly used in power-plant construction to resist earthquake effects. Determination of wall stiffness is of particular importance for establishing design forces on attached equipment. Available experimental data indicate differences between the measured and calculated stiffness of walls in cases where concrete mechanical properties are well defined. Additional data indicate that in-situ concrete mechanical properties may differ significantly from those specified in design. The work summarized in this report was undertaken to investigate the mechanical properties of concrete considering aging and deterioration. Existing data on mechanical properties of concrete are evaluated, and new tests are carried out on concrete cylinders batched for nuclear power plants and stored under controlled conditions for up to twenty years. It is concluded that concretes batched for nuclear power plants commonly have 28-day strength that exceeds the design value by at least 1000 psi. Under curing conditions representative of those in the interior of thick concrete elements, strength gain with time can be estimated conservatively using the expression proposed by ACI Committee 209, with strengths at 25 years being approximately 1.3 times the 28-day strength. Young's modulus can be estimated using the expression given by ACI Committee 318. Variabilities in mechanical properties are identified. A review of concrete durability identified the main causes and results of concrete deterioration that are relevant for the class of concretes and structures commonly used in nuclear power plants. Prospects for identifying the occurrence and predicting the extent of deterioration are discussed

  10. Blasting in underground mining

    OpenAIRE

    Doneva, Nikolinka; Despodov, Zoran; Mirakovski, Dejan; Hadzi-Nikolova, Marija; Mijalkovski, Stojance

    2015-01-01

    The long history of underground facilities gives us a lot of cognitions that we use in the choice of appropriate drilling and blasting parameters to obtain satisfactory results in underground facility constructions. In this paper are represent parts of those cognitions. Selection of an appropriate blast hole pattern, hole cut type, total quantity of explosives, initiation sequence and to the amount of explosive detonated per delay are crucial for successfully blasting in underground facilitie...

  11. The underground storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work are given summaries of the addresses presented at the conference on the underground storage of June 2008. The topics described are: 1)sites and legislation of the underground storage in France (Carole Mercier) 2)oil and gas underground storage in salt cavities (Patrick Renoux) 3) geothermal storages (Herve Lesueur) 4)CO2 geological storage in aquifers and exploited oil deposits (Etienne Brosse). (O.M.)

  12. Underground laboratories in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed

  13. Underground laboratories in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Shin Ted, E-mail: linst@mails.phys.sinica.edu.tw [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 China (China); Yue, Qian, E-mail: yueq@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging (Ministry of Education) and Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 China (China)

    2015-08-17

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  14. Underground openings production line 2012. Design, production and initial state of the underground openings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The Underground Openings Line Production Line report describes the design requirements, the design principles, the methods of construction and the target properties for the underground rooms required for the final repository. It is one of five Production Line reports, namely the: Underground Openings Line report, Canister report, Buffer report, Backfill report, Closure report. Together, these reports cover the lifespan of the underground phases of the final repository from the start of construction of the underground rooms to their closure. Posiva has developed reference methods for constructing the underground rooms. Tunnels will be constructed using the drill and blast technique, shafts will be constructed using raise boring and the deposition holes will be constructed by reverse down reaming. Underground openings will be made safe by reinforcement by using rock bolts, net or shotcrete, depending on which type of opening is being considered, and groundwater inflows will be limited by grouting. Posiva's requirements management system (VAHA) sets out the specifications for the enactment of the disposal concept at Olkiluoto under five Levels - 1 to 5, from the most generic to the most specific. In this report, the focus is on Level 4 and 5 requirements, which provide practical guidance for the construction of the underground openings. The design requirements are presented in Level 4 and the design specification in Level 5 In addition to the long-term safety-related requirements included in VAHA, there are additional requirements regarding the operation of underground openings, e.g. space requirements due to the equipment used and its maintenance, operational and fire safety. The current reference design for the disposal facility is presented based on the design requirements and design specifications. During the lifespan of the repository the reference design will be revised and updated according to the design principles as new information is available

  15. Underground openings production line 2012. Design, production and initial state of the underground openings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Underground Openings Line Production Line report describes the design requirements, the design principles, the methods of construction and the target properties for the underground rooms required for the final repository. It is one of five Production Line reports, namely the: Underground Openings Line report, Canister report, Buffer report, Backfill report, Closure report. Together, these reports cover the lifespan of the underground phases of the final repository from the start of construction of the underground rooms to their closure. Posiva has developed reference methods for constructing the underground rooms. Tunnels will be constructed using the drill and blast technique, shafts will be constructed using raise boring and the deposition holes will be constructed by reverse down reaming. Underground openings will be made safe by reinforcement by using rock bolts, net or shotcrete, depending on which type of opening is being considered, and groundwater inflows will be limited by grouting. Posiva's requirements management system (VAHA) sets out the specifications for the enactment of the disposal concept at Olkiluoto under five Levels - 1 to 5, from the most generic to the most specific. In this report, the focus is on Level 4 and 5 requirements, which provide practical guidance for the construction of the underground openings. The design requirements are presented in Level 4 and the design specification in Level 5 In addition to the long-term safety-related requirements included in VAHA, there are additional requirements regarding the operation of underground openings, e.g. space requirements due to the equipment used and its maintenance, operational and fire safety. The current reference design for the disposal facility is presented based on the design requirements and design specifications. During the lifespan of the repository the reference design will be revised and updated according to the design principles as new information is available. Reference

  16. HAWAII UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a point coverage of underground storage tanks(UST) for the state of Hawaii. The original database was developed and is maintained by the State of Hawaii, Dept. of Health. The point locations represent facilities where one or more underground storage tanks occur. Each fa...

  17. The underground macroeconomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Like Physics, which cannot yet explain 96% of the substance in the Universe, so is Economics, unprepared to understand and to offer a rational explicative model to the underground economy.

  18. Orpheus in the Underground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puskás Dániel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In my study I deal with descents to the underworld and hell in literature in the 20th century and in contemporary literature. I will focus on modem literary reinterpretations of the myth of Orpheus, starting with Rilke’s Orpheus. Eurydice. Hermes. In Seamus Heaney’s The Underground. in the Hungarian Istvan Baka’s Descending to the Underground of Moscow and in Czesław Miłosz’s Orpheus and Eurydice underworld appears as underground, similarly to the contemporary Hungarian János Térey’s play entitled Jeramiah. where underground will also be a metaphorical underworld which is populated with the ghosts of the famous deceased people of Debrecen, and finally, in Péter Kárpáti’s Everywoman the grave of the final scene of the medieval Everyman will be replaced with a contemporary underground station. I analyse how an underground station could be parallel with the underworld and I deal with the role of musicality and sounds in the literary works based on the myth of Orpheus.

  19. REINFORCED COMPOSITE PANEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    A composite panel having front and back faces, the panel comprising facing reinforcement, backing reinforcement and matrix material binding to the facing and backing reinforcements, the facing and backing reinforcements each independently comprising one or more reinforcing sheets, the facing...... matrix material, the facing and backing reinforcements being interconnected to resist out-of-plane relative movement. The reinforced composite panel is useful as a barrier element for shielding structures, equipment and personnel from blast and/or ballistic impact damage....

  20. Finite element analysis of ageing reinforced and prestressed concrete structures in nuclear plant - An international review of current capabilities and priorities for future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear plants contain a variety of concrete structures whose structural performance is essential to the safety of the plant. There is a requirement to demonstrate the robustness of these structures during normal operating and extreme accident conditions, throughout their life. During this time, the concrete may degrade due to the effects of ageing. This degradation must be accounted for during the assessment of their performance. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) techniques have tremendous potential for providing valuable insight into the behaviour of these aged concrete structures under a range of different loading conditions. Advanced FEA techniques currently enjoy widespread use within the nuclear industry for the non-linear analysis of concrete. Many practitioners within the nuclear industry are at the forefront of the industrial application of these methods. However, in some areas, the programs that are commercially available lag behind the best information available from research. This document is an international review of current capabilities and priorities for future development relating to non-linear finite element analysis of reinforced and prestressed concrete in the nuclear industry in the various member states. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of degraded or ageing structures. This report: 1. Summarises the needs for FEA of aged concrete nuclear structures; 2. Details the existing capabilities, not just in terms of what the software is capable of, but also in terms of the current practices employed by those in industry; 3. Looks at how engineers, within the nuclear industry, working in this field would like to see methods improved, and identifies the factors that are limiting current practice; 4. Summarises ongoing research that may provide beneficial technological advances; 5. Assigns priorities to the different development requests; 6. Selects those developments that are felt to be of greatest benefit to industry and provides a qualitative

  1. Basal Reinforced Piled Embankments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eekelen, S.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    A basal reinforced piled embankment consists of a reinforced embankment on a pile foundation. The reinforcement consists of one or more horizontal layers of geosynthetic reinforcement (GR) installed at the base of the embankment. The design of the GR is the subject of this thesis. A basal reinforce

  2. Closure report for underground storage tank 161-R1U1 and its associated underground piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underground storage tank (UST) 161-31 R at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was registered with the State Water Resources Control Board on June 27, 1984. UST 161-31R was subsequently renamed UST 161-R1U1 (Fig. A-1, Appendix A). UST 161-R1U1 was installed in 1976, and had a capacity of 383 gallons. This tank system consisted of a fiberglass reinforced plastic tank, approximately 320 feet of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) underground piping from Building 161, and approximately 40 feet of PVC underground piping from Building 160. The underground piping connected laboratory drains and sinks inside Buildings 160 and 161 to UST 161-R1U1. The wastewater collected in UST 161-R1U1, contained organic solvents, metals, inorganic acids, and radionuclides, most of which was produced within Building 161. On June 28, 1989, the UST 161-R1U1 piping system.around the perimeter of Building 161 failed a precision test performed by Gary Peters Enterprises (Appendix B). The 161-R1U1 tank system was removed from service after the precision test. In July 1989, additional hydrostatic tests and helium leak detection tests were performed (Appendix B) to determine the locations of the piping failures in the Building 161 piping system. The locations of the piping system failures are shown in Figure A-2 (Appendix A). On July 11, 1989, LLNL submitted an Unauthorized Release Report to Alameda County Department of Environmental Health (ACDEH), Appendix C

  3. Effect of ageing on the mechanical behaviour of aluminium alloy AA2009 reinforced with SIC particles; Influencia del estado de envejecimiento en el comportamiento mecanico de una aleacion de aluminio AA2009 reforzada con particulas de SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigo, P.; Poza, P.; Utrilla, M. v.; Urena, A.

    2005-07-01

    A study of the mechanical behaviour of an aluminium matrix composite (AA2009) reinforced with 15 volume percent of SiC particles has been carried out. The ageing kinetic for this material has been evaluated at two different ageing temperatures (170 and 190 degree centigree). The hardness peaks for the two different precipitation sequences existing in the matrix alloy have been identified. The mechanical behaviour of the composite was also evaluated for the different thermal conditions (as-received and aged). This research has been completed with the identification of the fracture mechanisms by means of observation with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) both of the fracture surface and transversal sections of them. In addition, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the treated composites has been used to determine the influence of the SiC particles on the distribution of strengthening phases precipitated in the matrix. (Author) 14 refs.

  4. Underground physics with DUNE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.; DUNE Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a project to design, construct and operate a next-generation long-baseline neutrino detector with a liquid argon (LAr) target capable also of searching for proton decay and supernova neutrinos. It is a merger of previous efforts of the LBNE and LBNO collaborations, as well as other interested parties to pursue a broad programme with a staged 40-kt LAr detector at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) 1300 km from Fermilab. This programme includes studies of neutrino oscillations with a powerful neutrino beam from Fermilab, as well as proton decay and supernova neutrino burst searches. In this paper we will focus on the underground physics with DUNE.

  5. Underground mineral extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    A method was developed for extracting underground minerals such as coal, which avoids the need for sending personnel underground and which enables the mining of steeply pitched seams of the mineral. The method includes the use of a narrow vehicle which moves underground along the mineral seam and which is connected by pipes or hoses to water pumps at the surface of the Earth. The vehicle hydraulically drills pilot holes during its entrances into the seam, and then directs sideward jets at the seam during its withdrawal from each pilot hole to comminute the mineral surrounding the pilot hole and combine it with water into a slurry, so that the slurried mineral can flow to a location where a pump raises the slurry to the surface.

  6. Underground physics with DUNE

    CERN Document Server

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A

    2016-01-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a project to design, construct and operate a next-generation long-baseline neutrino detector with a liquid argon (LAr) target capable also of searching for proton decay and supernova neutrinos. It is a merger of previous efforts of the LBNE and LBNO collaborations, as well as other interested parties to pursue a broad programme with a staged 40 kt LAr detector at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) 1300 km from Fermilab. This programme includes studies of neutrino oscillations with a powerful neutrino beam from Fermilab, as well as proton decay and supernova neutrino burst searches. In this paper we will focus on the underground physics with DUNE.

  7. Underground Physics with DUNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A. [Sheffield U.

    2016-01-14

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a project to design, construct and operate a next-generation long-baseline neutrino detector with a liquid argon (LAr) target capable also of searching for proton decay and supernova neutrinos. It is a merger of previous efforts of the LBNE and LBNO collaborations, as well as other interested parties to pursue a broad programme with a staged 40 kt LAr detector at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) 1300 km from Fermilab. This programme includes studies of neutrino oscillations with a powerful neutrino beam from Fermilab, as well as proton decay and supernova neutrino burst searches. In this paper we will focus on the underground physics with DUNE.

  8. Dynamic Underground Stripping Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ''Dynamic Stripping'' to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving the contaminated site in FY 92

  9. Habituation of reinforcer effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, David R; Hawk, Larry W.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose an integrative model of habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE) that links behavioral and neural based explanations of reinforcement. We argue that habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE) is a fundamental property of reinforcing stimuli. Most reinforcement models implicitly suggest that the effectiveness of a reinforcer is stable across repeated presentations. In contrast, an HRE approach predicts decreased effectiveness due to repeated presentation. We ar...

  10. Reinforcing roll type screen. [Wire mesh fastened to roof with bolts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopfgartner, J.; Schaefer, B.

    1980-07-03

    The reinforcing roller type mat is particularly intended for the extension of underground spaces in mines, tunnels or shafts. The mat consists of a narrow mesh wire weave and is reinforced with longitudinal rods running along the shaft. These are held loosely together by flexible cross-wires, which are welded on the back of the mat.

  11. Underground Storage Tanks in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Underground storage tank (UST) sites which store petroleum in Iowa. Includes sites which have been reported to DNR, and have active or removed underground storage...

  12. Transverse Reinforcement in Reinforced Concrete Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramblička, Štefan; Veróny, Peter

    2013-11-01

    In the article we are dealing with the influence of transverse reinforcement to the resistance of a cross-section of the reinforced concrete columns and also with the effective detailing of the column reinforcement. We are verifying the correctness of design guides for detailing of transverse reinforcement. We are also taking into account the diameter of stirrups and its influence over transverse deformation of column.

  13. Inflation and the underground economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ahiabu, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the optimal rate of seigniorage in an economy characterized by decentralized trade and a tax-evading underground sector. The economy has buyers, some of whom visit the formal market, while others visit the underground market. I find that the optimal rate of inflation depends on which of the two sectors, formal or underground, is more crowded/congested with buyers. If the underground sector is more crowded, the optimal inflation rate is as high as 42% per a...

  14. Underground Economy in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Švec

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is to estimate the size of underground economy in the period 2001-2007 using labour approach. Two types of data are used: administrative and survey. The main questions are: How did the activity rates move? What is the relationship between activity rates and the size of shadow economy? Is there correlation between official employment, official unemployment and unofficial employment (shadow economy and what is it like? What is the position of Croatia considering the members of the European Union? It is presumed that the increase of activity rates causes decrease of underground economy. However, this assumption is valid only for administrative data. Correlation analysis is based on regression models and given results are quite logical. If Croatian and European underground economy is compared, it can be confirmed that the position of Croatia is extremely poor. Given results are approximative and show the level of Croatian underground economy which is presumably underestimated. These phenomena occur because of available statistics and method limitations

  15. Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong Choon; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2013-09-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  16. LUNA: Nuclear astrophysics underground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underground nuclear astrophysics with LUNA at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso spans a history of 20 years. By using the rock overburden of the Gran Sasso mountain chain as a natural cosmic-ray shield very low signal rates compared to an experiment on the surface can be tolerated. The cross sectons of important astrophysical reactions directly in the stellar energy range have been successfully measured. In this proceeding we give an overview over the key accomplishments of the experiment and an outlook on its future with the expected addition of an additional accelerator to the underground facilities, enabling the coverage of a wider energy range and the measurement of previously inaccessible reactions

  17. Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    He, Miao

    2014-01-01

    The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is a multipurpose neutrino-oscillation experiment designed to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to precisely measure oscillation parameters by detecting reactor antineutrinos, observe supernova neutrinos, study the atmospheric, solar neutrinos and geo-neutrinos, and perform exotic searches, with a 20 kiloton liquid scintillator detector of unprecedented $3\\%$ energy resolution (at 1 MeV) at 700-meter deep underground and to have other rich scientific possibilities. Currently MC study shows a sensitivity of the mass hierarchy to be $\\overline{\\Delta\\chi^2}\\sim 11$ and $\\overline{\\Delta\\chi^2}\\sim 16$ in a relative and an absolute measurement, respectively. JUNO has been approved by Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2013, and an international collaboration was established in 2014. The civil construction is in preparation and the R$\\&$D of the detectors are ongoing. A new offline software framework was developed for the detector simulation, the event ...

  18. Underground Economy in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Marija Švec

    2009-01-01

    The subject of this paper is to estimate the size of underground economy in the period 2001-2007 using labour approach. Two types of data are used: administrative and survey. The main questions are: How did the activity rates move? What is the relationship between activity rates and the size of shadow economy? Is there correlation between official employment, official unemployment and unofficial employment (shadow economy) and what is it like? What is the position of Croatia considering the m...

  19. Nuclear plant undergrounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under Section 25524.3 of the Public Resources Code, the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission (CERCDC) was directed to study ''the necessity for '' and the effectiveness and economic feasibility of undergrounding and berm containment of nuclear reactors. The author discusses the basis for the study, the Sargent and Lundy (S and L) involvement in the study, and the final conclusions reached by S and L

  20. Monitoring underground movements

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    On 16 September 2015 at 22:54:33 (UTC), an 8.3-magnitude earthquake struck off the coast of Chile. 11,650 km away, at CERN, a new-generation instrument – the Precision Laser Inclinometer (PLI) – recorded the extreme event. The PLI is being tested by a JINR/CERN/ATLAS team to measure the movements of underground structures and detectors.   The Precision Laser Inclinometer during assembly. The instrument has proven very accurate when taking measurements of the movements of underground structures at CERN.    The Precision Laser Inclinometer is an extremely sensitive device capable of monitoring ground angular oscillations in a frequency range of 0.001-1 Hz with a precision of 10-10 rad/Hz1/2. The instrument is currently installed in one of the old ISR transfer tunnels (TT1) built in 1970. However, its final destination could be the ATLAS cavern, where it would measure and monitor the fine movements of the underground structures, which can affect the precise posi...

  1. Environment Of Underground Water And Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jeong Sang

    1998-02-15

    This book deals with environment of underground water and pollution, which introduces the role of underground water in hydrology, definition of related study of under water, the history of hydro-geology, basic conception of underground water such as origin of water, and hydrogeologic characteristic of aquifers, movement of underground water, hydrography of underground water and aquifer test analysis, change of an underground water level, and water balance analysis and development of underground water.

  2. Environment Of Underground Water And Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book deals with environment of underground water and pollution, which introduces the role of underground water in hydrology, definition of related study of under water, the history of hydro-geology, basic conception of underground water such as origin of water, and hydrogeologic characteristic of aquifers, movement of underground water, hydrography of underground water and aquifer test analysis, change of an underground water level, and water balance analysis and development of underground water.

  3. The underground economy in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Eugenia Ramona MARA

    2011-01-01

    The actual economic crisis has a major impact on the underground economy because of tax burden increase especially. This study realizes an analysis of the major implications of the economic crises on the size and the consequences of the underground activities. Also we try to reveal the correlation between the underground economy and the official one. The conclusion of this study is that the shadow activities have grown since the financial crisis began.

  4. Underground economy and aggregate fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Conesa Roca; Carlos Díaz Moreno; José Enrique Galdón Sánchez

    2001-01-01

    This paper explores the role of underground economic activities as an explanation of differences in registered aggregate fluctuations. In order to do so, we introduce an underground economy sector in an otherwise standard Real Business Cycle model and calibrate it to the USA economy. We find that, at low frequencies, Europe fluctuates more than the USA, while its participation rate is smaller. The existence of underground activities rationalizes the negative relationship between participation...

  5. Underground space planning in Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Ilkka Vähäaho

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives insight into the use of underground space in Helsinki, Finland. The city has an underground master plan (UMP) for its whole municipal area, not only for certain parts of the city. Further, the decision-making history of the UMP is described step-by-step. Some examples of underground space use in other cities are also given. The focus of this paper is on the sustainability issues related to urban underground space use, including its contribution to an environmentally sustainab...

  6. Regulated underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guidance package is designed to assist DOE Field operations by providing thorough guidance on the underground storage tank (UST) regulations. [40 CFR 280]. The guidance uses tables, flowcharts, and checklists to provide a ''roadmap'' for DOE staff who are responsible for supervising UST operations. This package is tailored to address the issues facing DOE facilities. DOE staff should use this guidance as: An overview of the regulations for UST installation and operation; a comprehensive step-by-step guidance for the process of owning and operating an UST, from installation to closure; and a quick, ready-reference guide for any specific topic concerning UST ownership or operation

  7. Dossier: underground storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dossier reviews the main concepts of storage in geologic formations: shape of artificial cavities; natural reservoirs: natural gas storage in aquifers, heat storage, karsts and caves; artificial reservoirs: salt dissolution cavities, salt mines, enlargement of cavities, storage of metal wastes; reservoirs in mining cavities: hydrocarbons storage (tightness, steel coated cavities), cryogenic storage; use of ancient infrastructures (mines, quarries, galleries): hydrocarbons storage, toxic wastes storage, radioactive wastes disposal, reversible radioactive wastes storage, solar neutrons trapping in underground galleries, storage of film archives etc.. (J.S.)

  8. Underground engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developments of any underground engineering application utilizing nuclear explosives involve answering the same questions one encounters in any new area of technology: What are the characteristics of the new tool? How is it applicable to the job to be done? Is it safe to use? and, most importantly, is its use economically acceptable? The many facets of the answers to these questions will be explored. The general types of application presently under consideration will also be reviewed, with particular emphasis on those specific projects actively being worked on by commercial interests and by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. (author)

  9. 30 CFR 75.343 - Underground shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground shops. 75.343 Section 75.343... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.343 Underground shops. (a) Underground...-3 through § 75.1107-16, or be enclosed in a noncombustible structure or area. (b) Underground...

  10. STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE OF DEGRADED REINFORCED CONCRETE MEMBERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the results of a study to evaluate, in probabilistic terms, the effects of age-related degradation on the structural performance of reinforced concrete members at nuclear power plants. The paper focuses on degradation of reinforced concrete flexural members and shear walls due to the loss of steel reinforcing area and loss of concrete area (cracking/spalling). Loss of steel area is typically caused by corrosion while cracking and spalling can be caused by corrosion of reinforcing steel, freeze-thaw, or aggressive chemical attack. Structural performance in the presence of uncertainties is depicted by a fragility (or conditional probability of failure). The effects of degradation on the fragility of reinforced concrete members are calculated to assess the potential significance of various levels of degradation. The fragility modeling procedures applied to degraded concrete members can be used to assess the effects of degradation on plant risk and can lead to the development of probability-based degradation acceptance limits

  11. Multinational underground nuclear parks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newcomer countries expected to develop new nuclear power programs by 2030 are being encouraged by the International Atomic Energy Agency to explore the use of shared facilities for spent fuel storage and geologic disposal. Multinational underground nuclear parks (M-UNPs) are an option for sharing such facilities. Newcomer countries with suitable bedrock conditions could volunteer to host M-UNPs. M-UNPs would include back-end fuel cycle facilities, in open or closed fuel cycle configurations, with sufficient capacity to enable M-UNP host countries to provide for-fee waste management services to partner countries, and to manage waste from the M-UNP power reactors. M-UNP potential advantages include: the option for decades of spent fuel storage; fuel-cycle policy flexibility; increased proliferation resistance; high margin of physical security against attack; and high margin of containment capability in the event of beyond-design-basis accidents, thereby reducing the risk of Fukushima-like radiological contamination of surface lands. A hypothetical M-UNP in crystalline rock with facilities for small modular reactors, spent fuel storage, reprocessing, and geologic disposal is described using a room-and-pillar reference-design cavern. Underground construction cost is judged tractable through use of modern excavation technology and careful site selection. (authors)

  12. RP delves underground

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    The LHC’s winter technical stop is rapidly approaching. As in past years, technical staff in their thousands will be flocking to the underground areas of the LHC and the Linac2, Booster, PS and SPS injectors. To make sure they are protected from ionising radiation, members of the Radiation Protection Group will perform an assessment of the levels of radioactivity in the tunnels as soon as the beams have stopped.   Members of the Radiation Protection Group with their precision instruments that measure radioactivity. At 7-00 a.m. on 8 December the LHC and all of the upstream accelerators will begin their technical stop. At 7-30 a.m., members of the Radiation Protection Group will enter the tunnel to perform a radiation mapping, necessary so that the numerous teams can do their work in complete safety. “Before we proceed underground, we always check first to make sure that the readings from the induced radioactivity monitors installed in the tunnels are all normal,&rdqu...

  13. Going Underground in Singapore

    CERN Multimedia

    John Osborne (GS/SEM)

    2010-01-01

    Singapore has plans to build a massive Underground Science City (USC) housing R&D laboratories and IT data centres. A delegation involved in the planning to build the subterranean complex visited CERN on 18 October 2010 to learn from civil engineers and safety experts about how CERN plans and constructs its underground facilities.   The delegation from Singapore. The various bodies and corporations working on the USC project are currently studying the feasibility of constructing up to 40 caverns (60 m below ground) similar in size to an LHC experiment hall, in a similar type of rock. Civil engineering and geotechnical experts are calculating the maximum size of the cavern complex that can be safely built. The complex could one day accommodate between 3000 and 5000 workers on a daily basis, so typical issues of size and number of access shafts need to be carefully studied. At first glance, you might not think the LHC has much in common with the USC project; as Rolf Heuer pointed out: &ldq...

  14. Multinational underground nuclear parks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, C.W. [Nuclear Engineering and Nonproliferation Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS F650, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Giraud, K.M. [Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation, 1550 Oxen Lane NE, P.O. Box 411, Burlington, KS 66839-0411 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Newcomer countries expected to develop new nuclear power programs by 2030 are being encouraged by the International Atomic Energy Agency to explore the use of shared facilities for spent fuel storage and geologic disposal. Multinational underground nuclear parks (M-UNPs) are an option for sharing such facilities. Newcomer countries with suitable bedrock conditions could volunteer to host M-UNPs. M-UNPs would include back-end fuel cycle facilities, in open or closed fuel cycle configurations, with sufficient capacity to enable M-UNP host countries to provide for-fee waste management services to partner countries, and to manage waste from the M-UNP power reactors. M-UNP potential advantages include: the option for decades of spent fuel storage; fuel-cycle policy flexibility; increased proliferation resistance; high margin of physical security against attack; and high margin of containment capability in the event of beyond-design-basis accidents, thereby reducing the risk of Fukushima-like radiological contamination of surface lands. A hypothetical M-UNP in crystalline rock with facilities for small modular reactors, spent fuel storage, reprocessing, and geologic disposal is described using a room-and-pillar reference-design cavern. Underground construction cost is judged tractable through use of modern excavation technology and careful site selection. (authors)

  15. Shear Reinforcements in the Reinforced Concrete Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moayyad M. Al-Nasra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available - This study focuses on the use of different types of shear reinforcement in the reinforced concrete beams. Four different types of shear reinforcement are investigated; traditional stirrups, welded swimmer bars, bolted swimmer bars, and u-link bolted swimmer bars. Beam shear strength as well as beam deflection are the main two factors considered in this study. Shear failure in reinforced concrete beams is one of the most undesirable modes of failure due to its rapid progression. This sudden type of failure made it necessary to explore more effective ways to design these beams for shear. The reinforced concrete beams show different behavior at the failure stage in shear compare to the bending, which is considered to be unsafe mode of failure. The diagonal cracks that develop due to excess shear forces are considerably wider than the flexural cracks. The cost and safety of shear reinforcement in reinforced concrete beams led to the study of other alternatives. Swimmer bar system is a new type of shear reinforcement. It is a small inclined bars, with its both ends bent horizontally for a short distance and welded or bolted to both top and bottom flexural steel reinforcement. Regardless of the number of swimmer bars used in each inclined plane, the swimmer bars form plane-crack interceptor system instead of bar-crack interceptor system when stirrups are used. Several reinforced concrete beams were carefully prepared and tested in the lab. The results of these tests will be presented and discussed. The deflection of each beam is also measured at incrementally increased applied load.

  16. Woodflour as Reinforcement of Polypropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cláudio Caraschi

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the filler content and size, as well as accelerated aging on the mechanical properties of polypropylene composites reinforced with woodflour (WF/PP were evaluated. The composites were prepared by the extrusion of polypropylene with woodflour (Pinus elliotti based on following ratios: 15, 25 and 40 wt% with two different granulometries. The specimens were injection molded according to ASTM standards. The composite properties did not show significant differences as a function of the filler granulometry. We also observed that by increasing the filler content, both the mechanical properties and the melt flow index (MFI decreased, and the elasticity modulus, hardness and density increased. Concerning the accelerated aging, the composite presented a reduction in tensile properties. The results showed that the composite properties are extremely favorable when compared to other commercial systems reinforced by inorganic fillers.

  17. Design of Reinforced Concrete Elements Under Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mihai

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fire safety regulations can have a major impact on many aspects of the overall design of a building, including layout, aesthetics, function, and cost. Rapid developments in modern building technology in the last decades often have resulted in unconventional structures and design solutions. Because the world is developed continuously, the physical size of buildings increases continually; there is a tendency to build large underground car parks, warehouses, and shopping complexes. As a result, we have a worldwide movement to replace prescriptive building codes with ones based on performance. The paper presents the basic principles for the designing process of reinforced concrete elements under fire.

  18. Management of Reinforcement Corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küter, André; Geiker, Mette Rica; Møller, Per

    Reinforcement corrosion is the most important cause for deterioration of reinforced concrete structures, both with regard to costs and consequences. Thermodynamically consistent descriptions of corrosion mechanisms are expected to allow the development of innovative concepts for the management of...... reinforcement corrosion....

  19. Modern geodesy approach in underground mining

    OpenAIRE

    Mijalkovski, Stojance; Despodov, Zoran; Gorgievski, Cvetan; Bogdanovski, Goran; Mirakovski, Dejan; Hadzi-Nikolova, Marija; Doneva, Nikolinka

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents overview of the development of modern geodesy approach in underground mining. Correct surveying measurements have great importance in mining, especially underground mining as well as a major impact on safety in the development of underground mining facilities.

  20. New Projects in Underground Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Goodman, Maury

    2003-01-01

    A large fraction of neutrino research is taking place in facilities underground. In this paper, I review the underground facilities for neutrino research. I discuss ideas for future reactor experiments being considered to measure theta_13 and the UNO proton decay project.

  1. HAWAII LEAKING UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Point coverage of leaking underground storage tanks(LUST) for the state of Hawaii. The original database was developed and is maintained by the State of Hawaii, Dept. of Health. The point locations represent facilities where one or more leaking underground storage tank exists. ...

  2. Underground space planning in Helsinki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkka Vähäaho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives insight into the use of underground space in Helsinki, Finland. The city has an underground master plan (UMP for its whole municipal area, not only for certain parts of the city. Further, the decision-making history of the UMP is described step-by-step. Some examples of underground space use in other cities are also given. The focus of this paper is on the sustainability issues related to urban underground space use, including its contribution to an environmentally sustainable and aesthetically acceptable landscape, anticipated structural longevity and maintaining the opportunity for urban development by future generations. Underground planning enhances overall safety and economy efficiency. The need for underground space use in city areas has grown rapidly since the 21st century; at the same time, the necessity to control construction work has also increased. The UMP of Helsinki reserves designated space for public and private utilities in various underground areas of bedrock over the long term. The plan also provides the framework for managing and controlling the city's underground construction work and allows suitable locations to be allocated for underground facilities. Tampere, the third most populated city in Finland and the biggest inland city in the Nordic countries, is also a good example of a city that is taking steps to utilise underground resources. Oulu, the capital city of northern Finland, has also started to ‘go underground’. An example of the possibility to combine two cities by an 80-km subsea tunnel is also discussed. A new fixed link would generate huge potential for the capital areas of Finland and Estonia to become a real Helsinki-Tallinn twin city.

  3. Underground space planning in Helsinki

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ilkka Vhaho

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives insight into the use of underground space in Helsinki, Finland. The city has an under-ground master plan (UMP) for its whole municipal area, not only for certain parts of the city. Further, the decision-making history of the UMP is described step-by-step. Some examples of underground space use in other cities are also given. The focus of this paper is on the sustainability issues related to urban underground space use, including its contribution to an environmentally sustainable and aesthetically acceptable landscape, anticipated structural longevity and maintaining the opportunity for urban development by future generations. Underground planning enhances overall safety and economy effi-ciency. The need for underground space use in city areas has grown rapidly since the 21st century;at the same time, the necessity to control construction work has also increased. The UMP of Helsinki reserves designated space for public and private utilities in various underground areas of bedrock over the long term. The plan also provides the framework for managing and controlling the city’s underground con-struction work and allows suitable locations to be allocated for underground facilities. Tampere, the third most populated city in Finland and the biggest inland city in the Nordic countries, is also a good example of a city that is taking steps to utilise underground resources. Oulu, the capital city of northern Finland, has also started to‘go underground’. An example of the possibility to combine two cities by an 80-km subsea tunnel is also discussed. A new fixed link would generate huge potential for the capital areas of Finland and Estonia to become a real Helsinki-Tallinn twin city.

  4. Underground layout tradeoff study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of a technical and economic comparative study of four alternative underground layouts for a nuclear waste geologic repository in salt. The four alternatives considered in this study are (1) separate areas for spent fuel (SF) and commercial high-level waste (CHLW); (2) panel alternation, in which SF and CHLW are emplaced in adjacent panels of rooms; (3) room alternation, in which SF and CHLW are emplaced in adjacent rooms within each panel; and (4) intimate mixture, in which SF and CHLW are emplaced in random order within each storage room. The study concludes that (1) cost is not an important factor; (2) the separate-areas and intimate-mixture alternatives appear, technically, to be more desirable than the other alternatives; and (3) the selection between the separate-areas and intimate mixture alternatives depends upon future resolution of site-specific and reprocessing questions. 5 refs., 6 figs., 12 tabs

  5. Biofuel goes underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tollinsky, Norm

    2011-09-15

    Kirkland Lake Gold, a gold producer, is switching to a blend of biofuel to power the mine's underground equipment. Kirkland Lake Gold is using a soy-based product which has several advantages: less expensive: for example, the soybean-based biofuel used by Kirkland Lake Gold is 10 cents a liter less expensive than diesel; cleaner: biofuel can reduce emissions by up to 80 per cent compared to conventional diesel; and safer: biofuel is safer than miner's diesel because it has a much higher flash point. Testing with soybean-based biofuel began in the early 90s but its price was too high at that time. The federal government's regulation of renewable fuel quotas has led to the better availability of biofuel now. The supply should be doubled to meet government quotas.

  6. Development on Anti-ageing of Unsaturated Polyester Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) Composites%以不饱和聚酯树脂为基的玻璃钢复合材料防老化研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉民; 郭振宇; 宁培森; 丁著明

    2011-01-01

    综述了不饱和聚酯树脂基玻璃钢复合材料(GFRP)防老化方面的最近研究进展,包括GFRP表面新型涂层及树脂的添加剂(紫外线吸收剂、受阻胺光稳定剂和抗氧剂等).结果表明,只使用单一的稳定剂效果不佳,必须将抗氧剂和其他添加剂(例如某些环氧化合物)并用,才能取得较好的效果.%Recent advances in anti-ageing of unsatured polyester glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) were reviewed in this paper, including novel coating of GFRP and adding various stabilizers, such as ultraviolet absorbent,hindered amine light stabilizers(HALS) and antioxidant. The results showed the effect was not good using single stabilizer. The combined use of Main and side antioxidant and other additives (e. g. some epoxy compounds) had the best Effect on maintaining anti-ageing of GFRP

  7. Development of anti - ageing of unsaturated polyester glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) composites%不饱和树脂玻璃钢复合材料防老化研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭振宇; 王玉民; 陈晓康; 宁培森; 丁著明

    2011-01-01

    综述了不饱和树脂基玻璃钢复合材料(GFRP)防老化方面的新近研究进展,包括新型GFRP表面涂层及不饱和树脂的防老化添加剂(紫外线吸收剂、受阻胺光稳定剂和抗氧剂等)及树脂的改性。将抗氧剂和其他添加剂(例如某些环氧化合物)并用,可取得较好的效果。%Recent advances in anti-ageing of unsaturated polyester resin(UPR) based glass fiber reinforced plastic(GFRP) composites including the new surface coatings of GFRP and anti-ageing additives(UV absorbent,hindered amine light stabilizers and antioxidants,etc.)and the modification of UPR were reviewed.The combination of antioxidants and other additives(for example,certain epoxy compounds) could achieve better results.

  8. Habituation of reinforcer effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Lloyd

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose an integrative model of habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE that links behavioral and neural based explanations of reinforcement. We argue that habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE is a fundamental property of reinforcing stimuli. Most reinforcement models implicitly suggest that the effectiveness of a reinforcer is stable across repeated presentations. In contrast, an HRE approach predicts decreased effectiveness due to repeated presentation. We argue that repeated presentation of reinforcing stimuli decreases their effectiveness and that these decreases are described by the behavioral characteristics of habituation (McSweeney and Murphy, 2009;Rankin et al., 2009. We describe a neural model that postulates a positive association between dopamine neurotransmission and HRE. We present evidence that stimulant drugs, which artificially increase dopamine neurotransmission, disrupt (slow normally occurring HRE and also provide evidence that stimulant drugs have differential effects on operant responding maintained by reinforcers with rapid vs. slow HRE rates. We hypothesize that abnormal HRE due to genetic and/or environmental factors may underlie some behavioral disorders. For example, recent research indicates that slow-HRE is predictive of obesity. In contrast ADHD may reflect ‘accelerated-HRE’. Consideration of HRE is important for the development of effective reinforcement based treatments. Finally, we point out that most of the reinforcing stimuli that regulate daily behavior are non-consumable environmental/social reinforcers which have rapid-HRE. The almost exclusive use of consumable reinforcers with slow-HRE in pre-clinical studies with animals may have caused the importance of HRE to be overlooked. Further study of reinforcing stimuli with rapid-HRE is needed in order to understand how habituation and reinforcement interact and regulate behavior.

  9. Ground engineering principles and practices for underground coal mining

    CERN Document Server

    Galvin, J M

    2016-01-01

    This book teaches readers ground engineering principles and related mining and risk management practices associated with underground coal mining. It establishes the basic elements of risk management and the fundamental principles of ground behaviour and then applies these to the essential building blocks of any underground coal mining system, comprising excavations, pillars, and interactions between workings. Readers will also learn about types of ground support and reinforcement systems and their operating mechanisms. These elements provide the platform whereby the principles can be applied to mining practice and risk management, directed primarily to bord and pillar mining, pillar extraction, longwall mining, sub-surface and surface subsidence, and operational hazards. The text concludes by presenting the framework of risk-based ground control management systems for achieving safe workplaces and efficient mining operations. In addition, a comprehensive reference list provides additional sources of informati...

  10. Stability analysis concerning the mining works reinforcement having rectangular profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with the stability of rock masses during underground opening construction. In mining works for ores exploitation with rectangular profile a method combined for reinforcement of rectangular profile was used. The reinforcement system, as part of the roof controls system, helps the rock mass to support itself above the entries improving their stability. The most important task for this is providing confinement. Roof control in this context means the control of the roof strata in the vicinity of the underground opening. Other components of the roof control system are control and standing support. Based on the experimental measurements, at uranium Crucea mine, and a numerical analyzing of state of stress on mining works, the rock bolting support was choose and a combined method was applied

  11. Theoretical Analysis of Reinforcement Tunnel Lining Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZhiQiang Zhangand

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The main cause of ageing damage in reinforced concrete structures is reinforcement corrosion. Damage can be detected visually as coincident cracks along the reinforcement bar, which are significant of both reduction of the re-bar, cross-section and loss of bond strength for reinforced concrete. The reinforced concrete is one of the most widely used engineering materials as final lining of tunnels. The corrosion is common durability problems that have significant effect on the tunnel performance. This study intends to analysis reinforcement concrete corrosion at the tunnel lining by applying temperature expansion theory on steel through numerical simulation process, with expansive force effect. The thickness of concrete cover and the diameter of steel bar have an impact on the stress for reinforcement concrete during propagation of corrosion process. The corrosion cracks appear at the corner of a tunnel lining then in invert and vault because the maximum stress will be in the corner then in invert and vault. The internal force in the concrete lining changes differently when the corrosion rate change.

  12. 29 CFR 1926.956 - Underground lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground lines. 1926.956 Section 1926.956 Labor... Underground lines. (a) Guarding and ventilating street opening used for access to underground lines or... underground facilities, efforts shall be made to determine the location of such facilities and work...

  13. Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-qin; Liu, Jun-hua; Yu, Li

    2002-04-01

    Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification are evaluated. The results showed that through underground coal gasification, gangue discharge is eliminated, sulfur emission is reduced, and the amount of ash, mercury, and tar discharge are decreased. Moreover, effect of underground gasification on underground water is analyzed and CO2 disposal method is put forward. PMID:12046301

  14. Underground storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An introductory survey of the underground disposal of radioactive wastes is given. Attention is paid to various types of radioactive wastes varying from low to highly active materials, as well as mining techniques and salt deposits

  15. Arrival directions of underground muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A geiger counter cosmic ray telescope has been constructed in the Holborn Underground Laboratory, London, to study the arrival directions of cosmic ray muons in the zenith angle range 70 - 900. The apparatus is described and some preliminary results presented

  16. Choice and multiple reinforcers

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Jay

    1982-01-01

    Pigeons chose between equivalent two-component mixed and multiple terminal-link schedules of reinforcement in the concurrent-chains procedure. The pigeons preferred the multiple schedule over the mixed when the components of the compound schedules were differentiated in terms of density of reinforcement, but the pigeons were indifferent when the components were differentiated in terms of number of reinforcers per cycle. Taken together, these results indicate that a local variable, the interva...

  17. ATLAS solenoid operates underground

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    A new phase for the ATLAS collaboration started with the first operation of a completed sub-system: the Central Solenoid. Teams monitoring the cooling and powering of the ATLAS solenoid in the control room. The solenoid was cooled down to 4.5 K from 17 to 23 May. The first current was established the same evening that the solenoid became cold and superconductive. 'This makes the ATLAS Central Solenoid the very first cold and superconducting magnet to be operated in the LHC underground areas!', said Takahiko Kondo, professor at KEK. Though the current was limited to 1 kA, the cool-down and powering of the solenoid was a major milestone for all of the control, cryogenic, power and vacuum systems-a milestone reached by the hard work and many long evenings invested by various teams from ATLAS, all of CERN's departments and several large and small companies. Since the Central Solenoid and the barrel liquid argon (LAr) calorimeter share the same cryostat vacuum vessel, this achievement was only possible in perfe...

  18. Underground pumped hydroelectric storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.D.; Doherty, T.J.; Kannberg, L.D.

    1984-07-01

    Underground pumped hydroelectric energy storage was conceived as a modification of surface pumped storage to eliminate dependence upon fortuitous topography, provide higher hydraulic heads, and reduce environmental concerns. A UPHS plant offers substantial savings in investment cost over coal-fired cycling plants and savings in system production costs over gas turbines. Potential location near load centers lowers transmission costs and line losses. Environmental impact is less than that for a coal-fired cycling plant. The inherent benefits include those of all pumped storage (i.e., rapid load response, emergency capacity, improvement in efficiency as pumps improve, and capacity for voltage regulation). A UPHS plant would be powered by either a coal-fired or nuclear baseload plant. The economic capacity of a UPHS plant would be in the range of 1000 to 3000 MW. This storage level is compatible with the load-leveling requirements of a greater metropolitan area with population of 1 million or more. The technical feasibility of UPHS depends upon excavation of a subterranean powerhouse cavern and reservoir caverns within a competent, impervious rock formation, and upon selection of reliable and efficient turbomachinery - pump-turbines and motor-generators - all remotely operable.

  19. Self-Shrinkage Behaviors of Waste Paper Fiber Reinforced Cement Paste considering Its Self-Curing Effect at Early-Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengwu Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to study how the early-age self-shrinkage behavior of cement paste is affected by the addition of the waste paper fibers under sealed conditions. Although the primary focus was to determine whether the waste paper fibers are suitable to mitigate self-shrinkage as an internal curing agent under different adding ways, evaluating their strength, pore structure, and hydration properties provided further insight into the self-cured behavior of cement paste. Under the wet mixing condition, the waste paper fibers could mitigate the self-shrinkage of cement paste and, at additions of 0.2% by mass of cement, the waste paper fibers were found to show significant self-shrinkage cracking control while providing some internal curing. In addition, the self-curing efficiency results were analyzed based on the strength and the self-shrinkage behaviors of cement paste. Results indicated that, under a low water cement ratio, an optimal dosage and adding ways of the waste paper fibers could enhance the self-curing efficiency of cement paste.

  20. LUNA: Nuclear Astrophysics Deep Underground

    OpenAIRE

    Broggini, Carlo; Bemmerer, Daniel; Guglielmetti, Alessandra; Menegazzo, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear astrophysics strives for a comprehensive picture of the nuclear reactions responsible for synthesizing the chemical elements and for powering the stellar evolution engine. Deep underground in the Gran Sasso laboratory the cross sections of the key reactions of the proton-proton chain and of the Carbon-Nitrogen-Oxygen (CNO) cycle have been measured right down to the energies of astrophysical interest. The salient features of underground nuclear astrophysics are summarized here. The mai...

  1. Sustainable underground space development in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xiaoxiao; 徐笑晓

    2014-01-01

    Underground space development is regarded as an effective approach to promote a quality living environment in compact city. In Hong Kong, urban underground space developed by private sectors seems not well organized. Besides, underground use in HK can be multifunctional. Thirdly, inner design in some underground spaces is not desirable and lacks vibrancy. Fourthly, underground space development in HK lacks governmental incentives. Last but not least, the regulations and legal loophole on prop...

  2. Taste and food reinforcement in non-overweight youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Leonard H; Carr, Katelyn A; Scheid, Jennifer L; Gebre, Eden; O'Brien, Alexis; Paluch, Rocco A; Temple, Jennifer L

    2015-08-01

    Food reinforcement is related to increased energy intake, cross-sectionally related to obesity and prospectively related to weight gain in children, adolescents and adults. There is very limited research on how different characteristics of food are related to food reinforcement, and none on how foods from different taste categories (sweet, savory, salty) are related to food reinforcement. We tested differences in food reinforcement for favorite foods in these categories and used a reinforcing value questionnaire to assess how food reinforcement was related to energy intake in 198 non-overweight 8- to 12-year-old children. Results showed stronger food reinforcement for sweet foods in comparison to savory or salty foods. In multiple regression models, controlling for child sex, minority status and age, average reinforcing value was related to total energy and fat intake, and reinforcing value of savory foods was related to total energy and fat intake. Factor analysis showed one factor, the motivation to eat, rather than separate factors based on different taste categories. Liking ratings were unrelated to total energy intake. These results suggest that while there are differences in the reinforcing value of food by taste groups, there are no strong differences in the relationship between reinforcing value of food by taste groups and energy or macronutrient intake. PMID:25891040

  3. 海洋环境玻璃纤维增强复合材料自然老化试验%Experimental study on natural aging of glass fiber reinforced plastic composites under marine environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖军; 朱锡; 梅志远; 李华东

    2011-01-01

    Natural cycle aging which contained marinating in seawater and insolating was used to simulate the real work situation for the composites used in the marine environment. The durability of glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) composites was determined under marine environment, and GFRP composites were fabricated by hand lay-up or vacuum assisted resin injection. The aging behavior of GFRP composites samples was studied through the variation of the mass gain and mechanical properties, including tension and in-plane shear strength. The results show that after 70 d natural cycle aging in Wuhan and Sanya, the mass gain increases with time, the residual strength of the samples in dryness state is stronger than that of the ones in wetness state, the residual strength of the samples in Wuhan is stronger than that of the samples in Sanya, and the samples made by the two techniques show different aging behavior and failure models.%采用海水浸泡-阳光暴晒循环老化的方法来模拟海洋环境中复合材料的实际工作环境,分别评价手糊和真空成型两种玻璃纤维复合材料在海洋环境中的耐久性.通过对老化前后复合材料的质量变化、轴向拉伸强度和面内剪切强度的分析,研究玻璃纤维增强复合材料的老化规律.结果表明:经过湖北武汉和海南三亚70 d的自然循环老化,增质量率随时间的增加而增加,干燥试件强度大于湿态试件剩余强度,武汉试件老化剩余强度大于三亚试件剩余强度,手糊和真空成型2种工艺的玻璃纤维增强复合材料表现出不同的老化规律和失效类型.

  4. Continuous Reinforced Concrete Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao Linh; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1996-01-01

    This report deals with stress and stiffness estimates of continuous reinforced concrete beams with different stiffnesses for negative and positive moments e.g. corresponding to different reinforcement areas in top and bottom. Such conditions are often met in practice.The moment distribution at the...

  5. Composite Intersection Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misciagna, David T. (Inventor); Fuhrer, Jessica J. (Inventor); Funk, Robert S. (Inventor); Tolotta, William S. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An assembly and method for manufacturing a composite reinforcement for unitizing a structure are provided. According to one embodiment, the assembly includes a base having a plurality of pins extending outwardly therefrom to define a structure about which a composite fiber is wound to define a composite reinforcement preform. The assembly also includes a plurality of mandrels positioned adjacent to the base and at least a portion of the composite reinforcement preform, and a cap that is positioned over at least a portion of the plurality of mandrels. The cap is configured to engage each of the mandrels to support the mandrels and the composite reinforcement preform during a curing process to form the composite reinforcement.

  6. Experimental Study on Electric Properties of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    According to the phenomenon that the physical properties have a great effect on the electric capability of carbon fiber reinforced concrete, the author researched the relationship between DC resistance of carbon fiber reinforced concrete and curing age using the two-probe method. Then the effect of insulative area,location and quantity on DC resistance of carbon fiber reinforced concrete was investigated at different curing age with analysis of hydration. The results suggest that DC resistance increases greatly with its curing age, which illustrates the relationship like Gaussian curve. In every curing ages the electric capability of carbon fiber reinforced concrete weakenes with the increase of insulative area. In same curing ages, section and insulative area, the more the quantity of insulation, the stronger the conductibility. The insulative location in optimal position can only result in optimal conductibility.

  7. Self Versus Teacher Selected Reinforcers in a Token Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karraker, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    The rate of achievement and enjoyment of 12 learning disabled pupils (ages 8-12 years) in a token economy was demonstrated to be higher when they were permitted to select their own reinforcers than when the teacher selected the reinforcers. (MH)

  8. Underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is an overview document for the series of IAEA reports dealing with underground waste disposal to be prepared in the next few years. It provides an introduction to the general considerations involved in implementing underground disposal of radioactive wastes. It suggests factors to be taken into account for developing and assessing waste disposal concepts, including the conditioned waste form, the geological containment and possible additional engineered barriers. These guidelines are general so as to cover a broad range of conditions. They are generally applicable to all types of underground disposal, but the emphasis is on disposal in deep geological formations. Some information presented here may require slight modifications when applied to shallow ground disposal or other types of underground disposal. Modifications may also be needed to reflect local conditions. In some specific cases it may be that not all the considerations dealt with in this book are necessary; on the other hand, while most major considerations are believed to be included, they are not meant to be all-inclusive. The book primarily concerns only underground disposal of the wastes from nuclear fuel cycle operations and those which arise from the use of isotopes for medical and research activities

  9. Earthquake observation at underground cavern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The earthquake observation has been examined at a cylindrical type cavern hydroelectric power station of 15 m in diameter, 22 m in depth in rock mass in purpose of evaluating the earthquake resistance of semi-underground nuclear power plants. The behavior of the cylindrical cavern has been analysed by fourty-three observed seismic waves. And following results were obtained. (1) Ratios of cavern buttom maximum accelerations to cavern top maximum accelerations are concentrated in the range from 1/2 to 1. This shows that the accelerations are declined at underground. (2) The decline ratios of on-ground spectrum amplitude to the underground at the earthquakes of less than 100 km epicentral distance with shorter predominant periods are generally larger than these at the earthquakes of more than 100 km epicentral distance with longer predominant periods. (3) The peak periods of normalized response spectrum at underground tend to be longer as the epicentral distances are longer. This phenominons of underground are similar to the on-ground. (author)

  10. Underground facility plan for Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic and most important conditions in forming plans for designing and constructing an underground research facility are ensuring the safety of the facility construction and securing an environment conductive to research. The site presently designated for construction an underground research facility is in a sedimentary soft rock (mudstone) of Neogene period, found to contain methane gas. Evaluating measures to deal with the geological characteristics, including assessment of the stability of support and handling of methane gas, is important in guaranteeing the safety of construction and operation of the research facility once completed. (author)

  11. Algorithms for Reinforcement Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Szepesvari, Csaba

    2010-01-01

    Reinforcement learning is a learning paradigm concerned with learning to control a system so as to maximize a numerical performance measure that expresses a long-term objective. What distinguishes reinforcement learning from supervised learning is that only partial feedback is given to the learner about the learner's predictions. Further, the predictions may have long term effects through influencing the future state of the controlled system. Thus, time plays a special role. The goal in reinforcement learning is to develop efficient learning algorithms, as well as to understand the algorithms'

  12. Dynamic Underground Stripping Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ''Dynamic Stripping'' to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving to the contaminated site in FY 92

  13. Mechanically reinforced glass beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Henrik; Olesen, John Forbes

    2007-01-01

    breakage without any warning or ductility, which can be catastrophic if no precautions are taken. One aspect of this issue is treated here by looking at the possibility of mechanically reinforcing glass beams in order to obtain ductile failure for such a structural component. A mechanically reinforced...... laminated float glass beam is constructed and tested in four-point bending. The beam consist of 4 layers of glass laminated together with a slack steel band glued onto the bottom face of the beam. The glass parts of the tested beams are \\SI{1700}{mm} long and \\SI{100}{mm} high, and the total width of one...... beam is \\SI{4\\times10}{mm}. It is reinforced with a \\SI{3}{mm} high steel band covering the full width of the beam. The experimental setup is described and results for this beam are presented. Furthermore, the results for three similar experiments with a \\SI{6}{mm} steel band reinforcement are briefly...

  14. Reinforcement learning an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Sutton, Richard S

    1998-01-01

    Richard Sutton and Andrew Barto provide a clear and simple account of the key ideas and algorithms of reinforcement learning. Their discussion ranges from the history of the field's intellectual foundations to the most recent developments and applications.

  15. Choice and conditioned reinforcement.

    OpenAIRE

    Fantino, E; Freed, D; Preston, R. A.; Williams, W A

    1991-01-01

    A potential weakness of one formulation of delay-reduction theory is its failure to include a term for rate of conditioned reinforcement, that is, the rate at which the terminal-link stimuli occur in concurrent-chains schedules. The present studies assessed whether or not rate of conditioned reinforcement has an independent effect upon choice. Pigeons responded on either modified concurrent-chains schedules or on comparable concurrent-tandem schedules. The initial link was shortened on only o...

  16. Reinforcement Learning: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kaelbling, L. P.; Littman, M. L.; Moore, A. W.

    1996-01-01

    This paper surveys the field of reinforcement learning from a computer-science perspective. It is written to be accessible to researchers familiar with machine learning. Both the historical basis of the field and a broad selection of current work are summarized. Reinforcement learning is the problem faced by an agent that learns behavior through trial-and-error interactions with a dynamic environment. The work described here has a resemblance to work in psychology, but differs considerably in...

  17. Reinforcement learning in scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietterich, Tom G.; Ok, Dokyeong; Zhang, Wei; Tadepalli, Prasad

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this research is to apply reinforcement learning methods to real-world problems like scheduling. In this preliminary paper, we show that learning to solve scheduling problems such as the Space Shuttle Payload Processing and the Automatic Guided Vehicle (AGV) scheduling can be usefully studied in the reinforcement learning framework. We discuss some of the special challenges posed by the scheduling domain to these methods and propose some possible solutions we plan to implement.

  18. The substitutability of reinforcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Leonard; Freed, Debra E

    1993-07-01

    Substitutability is a construct borrowed from microeconomics that describes a continuum of possible interactions among the reinforcers in a given situation. Highly substitutable reinforcers, which occupy one end of the continuum, are readily traded for each other due to their functional similarity. Complementary reinforcers, at the other end of the continuum, tend to be consumed jointly in fairly rigid proportion, and therefore cannot be traded for one another except to achieve that proportion. At the center of the continuum are reinforcers that are independent with respect to each other; consumption of one has no influence on consumption of another. Psychological research and analyses in terms of substitutability employ standard operant conditioning paradigms in which humans and nonhumans choose between alternative reinforcers. The range of reinforcer interactions found in these studies is more readily accommodated and predicted when behavior-analytic models of choice consider issues of substitutability. New insights are gained into such areas as eating and drinking, electrical brain stimulation, temporal separation of choice alternatives, behavior therapy, drug use, and addictions. Moreover, the generalized matching law (Baum, 1974) gains greater explanatory power and comprehensiveness when measures of substitutability are included. PMID:16812696

  19. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, Roger, A.

    2010-02-28

    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the world’s first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  20. Underground nuclear explosions and earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stages that have marked the ways towards the interdiction of nuclear tests are reviewed. Although seismographic equipments have been greatly improved, it is shown that a separate detection of underground nuclear explosions from natural seismic vibrations is still quite uneasy. The use of nuclear loads for civil engineering still makes it more complicate to apply a treatee of interdiction of nuclear tests

  1. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the worlds first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  2. Technological aspects of the construction of underground parking house in the center of

    OpenAIRE

    Jerič, Uroš

    2010-01-01

    In densely populated urban areas there is a lack of parking spaces for urban residents and commuters. That is why underground parking houses are being made. They allow parking of numerous vehicles and are almost invisible on the surface. The purpose of this Graduation Thesis is to present the construction of the parking house at Kongresni trg in Ljubljana. The first part describes the protection of excavation pit and construction of reinforced concrete diaphragm wall. Based on ...

  3. 30 CFR 72.630 - Drill dust control at underground areas of underground mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill dust control at underground areas of underground mines. 72.630 Section 72.630 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... dust control at underground areas of underground mines. (a) Dust resulting from drilling in rock...

  4. Simulations of Underground Structures Subjected to Synamic Loading Using the Distinct Element Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, J.P.; Glenn, L.A.; Heuze, F.E.; Blair, S.C.

    2002-04-17

    The authors present results from a parameter study investigating the stability of underground structures in response to ground shock. Direct simulation requires detailed knowledge of both the facility itself and the surrounding geology. In practice, however, key details (joint spacing, joint stiffness, reinforcement) may not be available. Thus, in order to place bounds upon the predicted behavior of a given facility, an extensive series of simulations representing different realizations may be required. They will discuss the distinct element method (DEM) with particular emphasis on techniques for achieving improved computational efficiency, including the handling of contact detection and approaches to parallelization. Some continuum approaches to the simulation of underground facilities are discussed along with results from underground explosions. Finally, their DEM code is used to simulate dynamic loading of several generic subterranean facilities in hard rock for a range of joint properties and sources, demonstrating the suitability of the DEM for this application.

  5. Urban underground resources management for sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Huanqing

    2010-01-01

    Urban problems such as congestions, land scarcity, pollutions, could be alleviated by underground solutions, which are critical underground infrastructues and buildings adaptable to subsurface. An integrated approach of urban underground management is put forward, aiming to research on the feasability of developing valuable subsurface, and to promote the sustainability of resources' multi-usage exploitation.

  6. 49 CFR 192.325 - Underground clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Underground clearance. 192.325 Section 192.325... Lines and Mains § 192.325 Underground clearance. (a) Each transmission line must be installed with at least 12 inches (305 millimeters) of clearance from any other underground structure not associated...

  7. 47 CFR 32.2422 - Underground cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Underground cable. 32.2422 Section 32.2422... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2422 Underground cable. (a) This account shall include the original cost of underground cable installed in conduit and...

  8. Deep underground intensities of high energy muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiment of the deep underground emulsion chamber has been started in order to measure the energy spectra of muons deep underground at high energies. Preliminary results based on the emulsion chamber with 0.9 ton of lead are presented. This test exposure has been performed at the vertical depth of 850 hg/cm2 underground in the road tunnel. (orig.)

  9. Fiber reinforced hybrid phenolic foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Amit

    Hybrid composites in recent times have been developed by using more than one type of fiber reinforcement to bestow synergistic properties of the chosen filler and matrix and also facilitating the design of materials with specific properties matched to end use. However, the studies for hybrid foams have been very limited because of problems related to fiber dispersion in matrix, non uniform mixing due to presence of more than one filler and partially cured foams. An effective approach to synthesize hybrid phenolic foam has been proposed and investigated here. Hybrid composite phenolic foams were reinforced with chopped glass and aramid fibers in varied proportions. On assessing mechanical properties in compression and shear several interesting facts surfaced but overall hybrid phenolic foams exhibited a more graceful failure, greater resistance to cracking and were significantly stiffer and stronger than foams with only glass and aramid fibers. The optimum fiber ratio for the reinforced hybrid phenolic foam system was found to be 1:1 ratio of glass to aramid fibers. Also, the properties of hybrid foam were found to deviate from rule of mixture (ROM) and thus the existing theories of fiber reinforcement fell short in explaining their complex behavior. In an attempt to describe and predict mechanical behavior of hybrid foams a statistical design tool using analysis of variance technique was employed. The utilization of a statistical model for predicting foam properties was found to be an appropriate tool that affords a global perspective of the influence of process variables such as fiber weight fraction, fiber length etc. on foam properties (elastic modulus and strength). Similar approach could be extended to study other fiber composite foam systems such as polyurethane, epoxy etc. and doing so will reduce the number of experimental iterations needed to optimize foam properties and identify critical process variables. Diffusivity, accelerated aging and flammability

  10. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MORBID CONDITIONS AMONGST OPENCAST AND UNDERGROUND COAL MINERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep M

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study prevalence and pattern of morbid conditions and to compare these amongst opencast and underground coal miners. METHODS: A cross sectional study was carried out at one of the coal mines having both opencast and underground mines in central India. By systemic stratified random sampling, 204 study subjects each from opencast and underground mines were selected. RESULTS: Prevalence of morbid conditions was found significantly (p < 0.05 more in underground miners (65.7% as compared to opencast miners (54.4%. A significant linear trend was observed between length of service and prevalent morbid conditions in both the groups (p<0.001. Prevalence of morbidities was significantly (p <0.001 more in underground miners as compared to opencast miners, especially chronic respiratory morbid conditions (21.6% versus 7.8% and musculoskeletal conditions (28.9% versus 12.2%. Mean values of forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume of underground miners were significantly (p<0.001 lower than in opencast miners (FVC 2.80 0.55 liters versus 2.98 0.53 liters; FEV 2.9 0.21 liters versus 3.01 0.36 liters. Multivariate analysis revealed significant role of miner’s age, place of work, past history of underground mining exposure, length of service and smoking habit in reduction of FVC and FEV. CONCLUSION: Underground miners carry more risk of developing morbidities. Chronic respiratory diseases, musculoskeletal problems, skin diseases and backache are more prevalent in underground miners than in opencast miners. Miner’s age, place of work, past history of underground mining exposure, length of service and smoking habit significantly affect FVC and FEV.

  11. Design of underground layout and their maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bok Youn; Kang, Chang Hee; Jo, Young Do; Lim, Sang Taek [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    Layout of underground structure has to be designed based on rock mechanical analysis and the concept of active support has to be adopted considering the large openings are requested to accommodate heavy duty diesel equipment in underground. Rock bolt and shotcrete will be the most applicable method to support such a large dimensional tunnels. 1) Direction: The main haulage way of the mines where diesel equipment are operating is ramp way system. For optimizing safety measures, and minimizing maintenance cost of the tunnels, it is strongly recommended that all the tunnels including ramp way, rooms and sublevels should be designed in parallel to the direction of principal stress and perpendicular to the direction of major discontinuity. 2) Inclination: Basically, the inclination of the ramp way depends on the specification of the equipment, but 10-15% is usual. The steep inclination needs less initial investment but there will be an adverse effects such as higher operating and maintenance costs. 3) Profile (Cross section): The maximum dimension of the equipment operating in local mines appeared 12.8m long, 3.705m wide and 3.68m high. Considering the dimension, the requested profile simply can be calculated to 4m x 4m, but it should be decided according to the regulated minimum clearances from the walls and roof. The minimum inner curvature radius of the tunnels should be more than 5.2m, and in this case, the tunnel width of the curved zone should be more than 5.5m. 4) Sight distance and braking distance: For the safe operation of the equipment, the sight distance must be longer than braking distance, so that the driver can hold up the equipment safely after finding the obstacles in front of him. The maximum braking distance without heating of brake shoe is 60m. 5) Support and maintenance: Due to the large dimensional tunnels where diesel equipment are operating, the conventional supporting system is not applicable. Therefore, the active support concept should be

  12. Possibility of high level waste underground disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility that the high level wastes disposed underground return to the biosphere again is the dissolution and transport of radioactive nuclides by underground water. As the strata suitable to underground disposal, rock salt strata without underground water, and granite or shale strata in which the movement of underground water is slight are enumerated as the candidates. Wastes are formed into solidified bodies like glass, moreover the technical measures such as canisters and overpacks are applied, therefore even if underground water intrudes into the places of disposal, radioactive nuclides can be contained for considerable time. At the time of selecting the most suitable stratum and designing and evaluating the place of disposal to construct the underground disposal system with high potential for high level wastes, it is necessary to predict the movement of radioactive nuclides from the dissolution into underground water to the return to the biosphere. The potential danger of high level wastes, the danger of high level wastes disposed underground, the effect of isolation distance (the thickness of strata), and the comparison of the danger due to uranium ore and slag and the places of underground disposal are explained. The danger due to uranium ore and slag occurs early and lasts long, and is 1000 times as dangerous as the high level wastes disposed underground. (Kako, I.)

  13. Underground spaces/cybernetic spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Novljan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A modern city space is a space where in the vertical and horizontal direction dynamic, non-linear processes exist, similar as in nature. Alongside the “common” city surface, cities have underground spaces as well that are increasingly affecting the functioning of the former. It is the space of material and cybernetic communication/transport. The psychophysical specifics of using underground places have an important role in their conceptualisation. The most evident facts being their limited volume and often limited connections to the surface and increased level of potential dangers of all kinds. An efficient mode for alleviating the effects of these specific features are artistic interventions, such as: shape, colour, lighting, all applications of the basic principles of fractal theory.

  14. Reinforced concrete tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we describe the technique of reinforced concrete tomography, its historical background, recent technological developments and main applications. Gamma radiation sensitive plates are imprinted with radiation going through the concrete sample under study, and then processed to reveal the presence of reinforcement and defects in the material density. The three dimensional reconstruction, or tomography, of the reinforcement out of a single gammagraphy is an original development alternative to conventional methods. Re-bar diameters and positions may be determined with an accuracy of ± 1 mm 0.5-1 cm, respectively. The non-destructive character of this technique makes it particularly attractive in cases of inhabited buildings and diagnoses of balconies. (author)

  15. Underground leaching of uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large amounts of low-grade U ore, not worth processing by conventional methods, are to be found at many sites in mine pillars, walls, and backfilling. Many proven deposits are not being mined because the geological conditions are difficult or the U ore is of relatively low grade. Factors such as radioactive emission, radon emanation, and the formation of radioactive dust give rise to health hazards. When U ores are treated above ground, enormous quantities of solid and liquid radioactive waste and mining spoil accumulate. The underground leaching of U is a fundamentally different kind of process. It is based on the selective dissolving of U at the place where it occurs by a chemical reagent; all that reaches the ground surface is a solution containing U, and after extraction of the U by sorption the reagent is used again. The main difficult and dangerous operations associated with conventional methods (excavation; extraction and crushing of the ore; storage of wastes) are avoided. Before underground leaching the ore formation has to be fractured and large ore bodies broken down into blocks by shrinkage stopping. These operations are carried out by advanced machinery and require the presence underground of only a few workers. If the ore is in seams, the only mining operation is the drilling of boreholes. The chemical reagent is introduced under pressure through one set of boreholes, while the U bearing solution is pumped out from another set. The process is monitored with the help of control boreholes. After extraction of the U by sorption, the reagent is ready to be used again. Very few operations are involved and insignificant amounts of dissolved U escape into the surrounding rock formations. Experience has shown that underground leaching reduces the final cost of the U metal, increases productivity, reduces capital expenditure, and radically improves working conditions

  16. Structural analysis of underground gunite storage tanks. Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the structural analysis of the 50-ft diameter underground gunite storage tanks constructed in 1943 and located in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) South Tank Farm, known as Facility 3507 in the 3500-3999 area. The six gunite tanks (W-5 through W-10) are spaced in a 2 x 3 matrix at 60 ft on centers with 6 ft of soil cover. Each tank (Figures 1, 2, and 3) has an inside diameter of 50 ft, a 12-ft vertical sidewall having a thickness of 6 in. (there is an additional 1.5-in. inner liner for much of the height), and a spherical domed roof (nominal thickness is 10 in.) rising another 6 ft, 3 in. at the center of the tank. The thickness of both the sidewall and the domed roof increases to 30 in. near their juncture. The tank floor is nominally 3-in. thick, except at the juncture with the wall where the thickness increases to 9 in. The tanks are constructed of gunite (a mixture of Portland cement, sand, and water in the form of a mortar) sprayed from the nozzle of a cement gun against a form or a solid surface. The floor and the dome are reinforced with one layer of welded wire mesh and reinforcing rods placed in the radial direction. The sidewall is reinforced with three layers of welded wire mesh, vertical 1/2-in. rods, and 21 horizontal rebar hoops (attached to the vertical rods) post-tensioned to 35,000 psi stress. The haunch at the sidewall/roof junction is reinforced with 17 horizontal rebar hoops post-tensioned with 35,000 to 40,000 psi stress. The yield strength of the post-tensioning steel rods is specified to be 60,000 psi, and all other steel is 40,000 psi steel. The specified 28-day design strength of the gunite is 5,000 psi

  17. Underground storage of carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Shoichi [Univ. of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    Desk studies on underground storage of CO{sub 2} were carried out from 1990 to 1991 fiscal years by two organizations under contract with New Energy and Indestrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). One group put emphasis on application of CO{sub 2} EOR (enhanced oil recovery), and the other covered various aspects of underground storage system. CO{sub 2} EOR is a popular EOR method in U.S. and some oil countries. At present, CO{sub 2} is supplied from natural CO{sub 2} reservoirs. Possible use of CO{sub 2} derived from fixed sources of industries is a main target of the study in order to increase oil recovery and storage CO{sub 2} under ground. The feasibility study of the total system estimates capacity of storage of CO{sub 2} as around 60 Gton CO{sub 2}, if worldwide application are realized. There exist huge volumes of underground aquifers which are not utilized usually because of high salinity. The deep aquifers can contain large amount of CO{sub 2} in form of compressed state, liquefied state or solution to aquifer. A preliminary technical and economical survey on the system suggests favorable results of 320 Gton CO{sub 2} potential. Technical problems are discussed through these studies, and economical aspects are also evaluated.

  18. The stress and underground environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chama, A.

    2009-04-01

    Currently,the program of prevention in occupational health needs mainly to identify occupational hazards and strategy of their prevention.Among these risks,the stress represents an important psycho-social hazard in mental health,which unfortunately does not spare no occupation.My Paper attempts to highlight and to develop this hazard in its different aspects even its regulatory side in underground environment as occupational environment.In the interest of better prevention ,we consider "the information" about the impact of stress as the second prevention efficient and no expensive to speleologists,hygienists and workers in the underground areas. In this occasion of this event in Vienna,we also highlight the scientific works on the stress of the famous viennese physician and endocrinologist Doctor Hans Selye (1907-1982),nicknamed "the father of stress" and note on relation between biological rhythms in this underground area and psychological troubles (temporal isolation) (Jurgen Aschoff’s works and experiences out-of time).

  19. First ATLAS Events Recorded Underground

    CERN Multimedia

    Teuscher, R

    As reported in the CERN Bulletin, Issue No.30-31, 25 July 2005 The ATLAS barrel Tile calorimeter has recorded its first events underground using a cosmic ray trigger, as part of the detector commissioning programme. This is not a simulation! A cosmic ray muon recorded by the barrel Tile calorimeter of ATLAS on 21 June 2005 at 18:30. The calorimeter has three layers and a pointing geometry. The light trapezoids represent the energy deposited in the tiles of the calorimeter depicted as a thick disk. On the evening of June 21, the ATLAS detector, now being installed in the underground experimental hall UX15, reached an important psychological milestone: the barrel Tile calorimeter recorded the first cosmic ray events in the underground cavern. An estimated million cosmic muons enter the ATLAS cavern every 3 minutes, and the ATLAS team decided to make good use of some of them for the commissioning of the detector. Although only 8 of the 128 calorimeter slices ('superdrawers') were included in the trigg...

  20. Turbomachine blade reinforcement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Crespo, Andres Jose

    2016-09-06

    Embodiments of the present disclosure include a system having a turbomachine blade segment including a blade and a mounting segment coupled to the blade, wherein the mounting segment has a plurality of reinforcement pins laterally extending at least partially through a neck of the mounting segment.

  1. Fibre reinforced polymer nanocomposites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlasveld, D.P.N.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis the results are described of the research on a combination of two types of composites: thermoplastic nanocomposites and continuous fibre composites. In this three-phase composite the main reinforcing phase are continuous glass or carbon fibres, and the matrix consists of a polyamide 6

  2. Reinforcement and learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Servedio, M.R.; Sæther, S.A.; Sætre, G.-P.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence has been accumulating to support the process of reinforcement as a potential mechanism in speciation. In many species, mate choice decisions are influenced by cultural factors, including learned mating preferences (sexual imprinting) or learned mate attraction signals (e.g., bird song). It

  3. Motivated Reinforcement Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Maher, Mary Lou

    2009-01-01

    Motivated learning is a research field in artificial intelligence and cognitive modelling. This book describes how motivated reinforcement learning agents can be used in computer games for the design of non-player characters that can adapt their behaviour in response to unexpected changes in their environment

  4. Effect of underground working on vitamin D levels and bone mineral densities in coal miners: a controlled study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarikaya, S.; Ozdolap, S.; Mungan, A.G.; Gumustas, S.; Koc, U.; Guven, B.; Begendik, F. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey)

    2006-07-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of underground working on 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) levels and bone mineral density (BMD) values in coal miners. Fifty coal miners working underground and 50 surface workers as controls, matched for age and body mass index, from Zonguldak, Turkey, were recruited to the study. Levels of 25-OHD, biochemical bone markers, and lumbar spine and femur BMD values were measured in all study participants. Lumbar spine and femur BMD values were significantly higher in underground workers compared with surface workers, but there was no significant difference in 25-OHD levels between the two groups. Duration of underground working, age, 25-OHD levels, cigarette consumption and dietary calcium intake were not correlated with BMD values. Underground physical working does not seem to be a significant risk factor for low 25-OHD levels or low BMD values.

  5. Short fiber reinforced thermoplastic blends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malchev, P.G.

    2008-01-01

    The present thesis investigates the potential of short fiber reinforced thermoplastic blends, a combination of an immiscible polymer blend and a short fiber reinforced composite, to integrate the easy processing solutions available for short fiber reinforced composites with the high mechanical perfo

  6. Underground siting is a nuclear option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underground siting of nuclear power plants is a concept that can be both technologically feasible and economically attractive. To meet both these criteria, however, each underground nuclear plant must be adapted to take full advantage of its location. It cannot be a unit that was designed for the surface and is then buried. Seeking to develop potential commercial programs, Underground Design Consultants (UDC)--a joint venture of Parsons, Brinckerhoff, Quade and Douglas, New York City, Vattenbyggnadsbyran (VBB), Stockholm, Sweden, and Foundation Sciences, Inc., Portland, Oregon--has been studying the siting of nuclear plants underground. UDC has made a presentation to EPRI on the potential for underground siting in the U.S. The summary presented here is based on the experiences of underground nuclear power plants in Halden, Norway; Agesta, Sweden; Chooz, France; and Lucens, Switzerland. Data from another plant in the design phase in Sweden and UDC's own considered judgment were also used

  7. Causes and consequences of underground economy

    OpenAIRE

    Mara, Eugenia-Ramona

    2011-01-01

    In this endeavor an attempt has been made to investigate the major causes and factors of influence of the underground economy. Our analysis is based on the study of tax payer behavior and taxation system pattern. The paper examines how social institutions and government policies affect underground economy. All these factors have an important impact on the level and size of underground economy and determine the consequences of this phenomenon.

  8. UNDERGROUND ECONOMY, GDP AND STOCK MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Caus Vasile Aurel

    2012-01-01

    Economic growth is affected by the size and dynamics of underground economy. Determining this size is a subject of research for many authors. In this paper we present the relationship between underground economy dynamics and the dynamics of stock markets. The observations are based on regression used by Tanzi (1983) and the relationship between GDP and stock market presented in Tudor (2008). The conclusion of this paper is that the dynamics of underground economy is influenced by dynamic of f...

  9. Transport Model of Underground Sediment in Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Sun Jichao; Wang Guangqian

    2013-01-01

    Studies about sediment erosion were mainly concentrated on the river channel sediment, the terrestrial sediment, and the underground sediment. The transport process of underground sediment is studied in the paper. The concept of the flush potential sediment is founded. The transport equation with stable saturated seepage is set up, and the relations between the flush potential sediment and water sediment are discussed. Flushing of underground sediment begins with small particles, and large pa...

  10. Evaluation of corrosion effect in reinforced concrete by chloride exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loreto, G.; Di Benedetti, M.; Iovino, R.; Nanni, A.; Gonzalez, M. A.

    2011-04-01

    Durability is generally described as the ability of a material to maintain its physical and mechanical properties over time. In reinforced concrete (RC) structures, concrete is the ideal material to protect the steel reinforcement given its high alkalinity. In environments subjected to highly aggressive conditions, mostly due to the presence of chlorides, concrete may lose its protective characteristics and allow for accelerated ageing. Concrete degradation and steel reinforcement corrosion are phenomena closely connected. The aim of this research work is the characterization of the relationship between steel reinforcement corrosion and concrete degradation under accelerated ageing in a 3% sodium chloride solution. The method of linear polarization is used for identification of the corrosion rate of the steel bar. Additionally, the values of concrete residual strength are obtained, and correlated to both the corrosion rate and width of concrete cracks. Finally, the prediction of the concrete cover useful life is estimated.

  11. The ANDES Deep Underground Laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Bertou, X

    2013-01-01

    ANDES (Agua Negra Deep Experiment Site) is a unique opportunity to build a deep underground laboratory in the southern hemisphere. It will be built in the Agua Negra tunnel planned between Argentina and Chile, and operated by the CLES, a Latin American consortium. With 1750m of rock overburden, and no close- by nuclear power plant, it will provide an extremely radiation quiet environment for neutrino and dark matter experiments. In particular, its location in the southern hemisphere should play a major role in understanding dark matter modulation signals.

  12. Third symposium on underground mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The Third Symposium on Underground Mining was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, KY, October 18--20, 1977. Thirty-one papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. The topics covered include mining system (longwall, shortwall, room and pillar, etc.), mining equipment (continuous miners, longwall equipment, supports, roof bolters, shaft excavation equipment, monitoring and control systems. Maintenance and rebuilding facilities, lighting systems, etc.), ventilation, noise abatement, economics, accidents (cost), dust control and on-line computer systems. (LTN)

  13. Underground Shocks Ground Zero Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Maurizio Bovi

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold. First, new annual data on Italian irregular sector for the period 1980-1991 are reconstructed. These data are compatible with the available 1992-2001 official data. Second, based on this self-consistent “long” sample a time series analysis of the two sides – the underground and the regular - of the Italian GDP is performed. Results from univariate and VAR models seem to suggest that there are no connections (causal relationship, feedbacks, contemporaneous cyc...

  14. 30 CFR 75.804 - Underground high-voltage cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground high-voltage cables. 75.804 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution § 75.804 Underground high-voltage cables. (a) Underground high-voltage cables used in...

  15. 30 CFR 57.8519 - Underground main fan controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground main fan controls. 57.8519 Section... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Ventilation Surface and Underground § 57.8519 Underground main fan controls. All underground main fans...

  16. Modelling reinforcement corrosion in concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, Alexander; Geiker, Mette Rica; Stang, Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    reached causing the formation of anodic and cathodic regions along the reinforcement. Critical chloride thresholds, randomly distributed along the reinforcement sur-face, link the initiation and propagation phase of reinforcement corrosion. To demonstrate the potential use of the developed model, a......A physio-chemical model for the simulation of reinforcement corrosion in concrete struc-tures was developed. The model allows for simulation of initiation and subsequent propaga-tion of reinforcement corrosion. Corrosion is assumed to be initiated once a defined critical chloride threshold is...

  17. Crack Formation During Hardening in Fibre Reinforced Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, John Forbes; Stang, Henrik

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project is to establish models for the development of cracks in the early age of fibre reinforced concrete due to restrained shrinkage and temperature variations. These models will be based on measurements of age dependant material properties including the post crack respons...

  18. Service life prediction and fibre reinforced cementitious composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoklund Larsen, E.

    , the factors affecting the pure cementitious composite are described. Different sizes and types of fibre reinforced crmentitious composites have been chosen to illustrate different ageing and deterioration mechanisms. Some ageing mechanisms can be accelerated and others cannot which is demonstrated in...

  19. Studies on the construction of underground rock cavern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underground rock cavern for pump storage power stations have reinforced concrete lining at the vault, generally. Stress of reinforcing bar in the lining was measured in many of these caverns. This report describes the mechanism of stress origination in the vault lining, which is found of investigation of the actual measurements and numerical analysis. Stress in the vault lining is caused by temperature change and deformation of cavern wall due to excavation, mainly. It needs special care to the tall or long cavern that compressive stress increases according to the reduction of the arch span on the process of cutting-down of bench. If rock mass around the cavern is igneous and jointy, compressive stress will be very large. To take the average of measured values, stress at the end part of arch is smaller than the crown part. These results obtained from actual servey will be useful to the design of the vault lining of large cavern for nuclear power station and others, from now on. (author)

  20. Nanostructured composite reinforced material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D.; Ripley, Edward B.; Ludtka, Gerard M.

    2012-07-31

    A family of materials wherein nanostructures and/or nanotubes are incorporated into a multi-component material arrangement, such as a metallic or ceramic alloy or composite/aggregate, producing a new material or metallic/ceramic alloy. The new material has significantly increased strength, up to several thousands of times normal and perhaps substantially more, as well as significantly decreased weight. The new materials may be manufactured into a component where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the bulk and/or matrix material, or as a coating where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the coating or surface of a "normal" substrate material. The nanostructures are incorporated into the material structure either randomly or aligned, within grains, or along or across grain boundaries.

  1. Underground repository for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the feasibility study for an underground repository in Argentina, the conceptual basis for the final disposal of high activity nuclear waste was set, as well as the biosphere isolation, according to the multiple barrier concept or to the engineering barrier system. As design limit, the container shall act as an engineering barrier, granting the isolation of the radionuclides for approximately 1000 years. The container for reprocessed and vitrified wastes shall have three metallic layers: a stainless steel inner layer, an external one of a metal to be selected and a thick intermediate lead layer preselected due to its good radiological protection and corrosion resistance. Therefore, the study of the lead corrosion behaviour in simulated media of an underground repository becomes necessary. Relevant parameters of the repository system such as temperature, pressure, water flux, variation in salt concentrations and oxidants supply shall be considered. At the same time, a study is necessary on the galvanic effect of lead coupled with different candidate metals for external layer of the container in the same experimental conditions. Also temporal evaluation about the engineering barrier system efficiency is presented in this thesis. It was considered the extrapolated results of corrosion rates and literature data about the other engineering barriers. Taking into account that corrosion is of a generalized type, the integrity of the lead shall be maintained for more than 1000 years and according to temporal evaluation, the multiple barrier concept shall retard the radionuclide dispersion to the biosphere for a period of time between 104 and 106 years. (Author)

  2. Underground storage tank management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Management Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems in operation at the facility, to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks, and to establish a program for the removal of unnecessary UST systems and upgrade of UST systems that continue to be needed. The program implements an integrated approach to the management of UST systems, with each system evaluated against the same requirements and regulations. A common approach is employed, in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance, when corrective action is mandated. This Management Plan outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed by the UST Management Program, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Management Plan provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. (There are no underground radioactive waste UST systems located at Y-12.) The plan is divided into four major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) implementation requirements, (3) Y-12 Plant UST Program inventory sites, and (4) UST waste management practices. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Management Program, and the procedures and guidance used for compliance with applicable regulations

  3. Earthquake damage to underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential seismic risk for an underground nuclear waste repository will be one of the considerations in evaluating its ultimate location. However, the risk to subsurface facilities cannot be judged by applying intensity ratings derived from the surface effects of an earthquake. A literature review and analysis were performed to document the damage and non-damage due to earthquakes to underground facilities. Damage from earthquakes to tunnels, s, and wells and damage (rock bursts) from mining operations were investigated. Damage from documented nuclear events was also included in the study where applicable. There are very few data on damage in the subsurface due to earthquakes. This fact itself attests to the lessened effect of earthquakes in the subsurface because mines exist in areas where strong earthquakes have done extensive surface damage. More damage is reported in shallow tunnels near the surface than in deep mines. In mines and tunnels, large displacements occur primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures or at the surface entrance to these facilities.Data indicate vertical structures such as wells and shafts are less susceptible to damage than surface facilities. More analysis is required before seismic criteria can be formulated for the siting of a nuclear waste repository

  4. Underground storage tank management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Management Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems in operation at the facility, to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks, and to establish a program for the removal of unnecessary UST systems and upgrade of UST systems that continue to be needed. The program implements an integrated approach to the management of UST systems, with each system evaluated against the same requirements and regulations. A common approach is employed, in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance, when corrective action is mandated. This Management Plan outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed by the UST Management Program, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Management Plan provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. (There are no underground radioactive waste UST systems located at Y-12.) The plan is divided into four major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) implementation requirements, (3) Y-12 Plant UST Program inventory sites, and (4) UST waste management practices. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Management Program, and the procedures and guidance used for compliance with applicable regulations.

  5. Reinforcement of ceramic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the commercial field, greater reproduceability of ceramic materials was achieved by systematic process control of the steps in manufacture. By improvement of the microstructure design, the strength and toughness against tearing of the materials were increased. The articles give a survey of theoretical and experimental results in manufacture and of the composition of ceramics with reinforced structure. Preferred materials are zirconium-, aluminium- and yttrium oxide, silicon oxide and -nitride and titanium- and silicon carbide. (DG)

  6. Fibre-reinforced thermoplastics

    OpenAIRE

    Røsand, Vegar Rydén

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents experimental tests of fibre-reinforced polypropylene, as well as calibration of material coefficients and simulations of experimental tests. The focus is on exploring the dependence on loading direction to fibre direction and rate of strain, and on validation of the material coefficient.First the material and the experimental procedure is presented together with the results from the tests.Uniaxial tension tests, cyclic loading-unloading tests and components tests is perfo...

  7. Fibre reinforced polymer nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasveld, D.P.N.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis the results are described of the research on a combination of two types of composites: thermoplastic nanocomposites and continuous fibre composites. In this three-phase composite the main reinforcing phase are continuous glass or carbon fibres, and the matrix consists of a polyamide 6 / layered silicate nanocomposite. To be able to produce and understand this new type of thermoplastic composite, the properties of the nanocomposite matrix materials have been investigated, follow...

  8. Fiber reinforced polypropylene nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Houphouet-Boigny, Chrystèle

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to assess the feasibility of integrating nanoparticles into glass fiber (GF) reinforced isotactic polypropylene (iPP) composites via existing thermoplastic processing routes, and to investigate whether this results in significant improvements in the mechanical properties of the final composites. A longer term aim will be to extend the approach to the preparation of hybrid composites with added non-structural functionality. However, the nanoparticles that have provide...

  9. Fiber reinforced polypropylene nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Houphouet-Boigny, Chrystèle; Månson, Jan-Anders E.; Plummer, John Christopher

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to assess the feasibility of integrating nanoparticles into glass fiber (GF) reinforced isotactic polypropylene (iPP) composites via existing thermoplastic processing routes, and to investigate whether this results in significant improvements in the mechanical properties of the final composites. A longer term aim will be to extend the approach to the preparation of hybrid composites with added non-structural functionality. However, the nanoparticles that have provide...

  10. Reinforced aerodynamic profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to the prevention of deformations in an aerodynamic profile caused by lack of resistance to the bending moment forces that are created when such a profile is loaded in operation. More specifically, the invention relates to a reinforcing element inside an aerodynamic ...... profile and a method for the construction thereof. The profile is intended for, but not limited to, useas a wind turbine blade, an aerofoil device or as a wing profile used in the aeronautical industry....

  11. 30 CFR 57.20031 - Blasting underground in hazardous areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting underground in hazardous areas. 57... MINES Miscellaneous § 57.20031 Blasting underground in hazardous areas. In underground areas where... removed to safe places before blasting....

  12. Technologies for placing of underground installations

    OpenAIRE

    Doneva, Nikolinka; Despodov, Zoran; Mirakovski, Dejan; Hadzi-Nikolova, Marija

    2014-01-01

    In urban communities often there is a need to change existing underground installations or placing new ones. This paper will discuss two technologies for placing underground installations including: classic and contemporary technology (technology with mechanical excavation). For each of these two technologies will be given advantages and disadvantages, as well as experiences from their application.

  13. UNDERGROUND ECONOMY, INFLUENCES ON NATIONAL ECONOMIES

    OpenAIRE

    CEAUȘESCU IONUT

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of research is to improve the understanding of nature underground economy by rational justification of the right to be enshrined a reality that, at least statistically, can no longer be neglected. So, we propose to find the answer to the question: has underground economy to stand-alone?

  14. Underground location of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan where the population is dense and the land is narrow, the conventional location of nuclear power stations on the ground will become very difficult sooner or later. At this time, it is very important to establish the new location method such as underground location, Quaternary ground location and offshore location as the method of expanding the location for nuclear power stations from the viewpoint of the long term demand and supply of electric power. As for underground location, the technology of constructing an underground cavity has been already fostered basically by the construction of large scale cavities for underground pumping-up power stations in the last 20 years. In France, Norway and Sweden, there are the examples of the construction of underground nuclear power stations. In this way, the opportunity of the underground location and construction of nuclear power stations seems to be sufficiently heightened, and the basic research has been carried out also in the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry. In this paper, as to underground nuclear power stations as one of the forms of utilizing underground space, the concept, the advantage in aseismatic capability, the safety at the time of a supposed accident, and the economical efficiency are discussed. (Kako, I.)

  15. UNDERGROUND ECONOMY, INFLUENCES ON NATIONAL ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEAUȘESCU IONUT

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is to improve the understanding of nature underground economy by rational justification of the right to be enshrined a reality that, at least statistically, can no longer be neglected. So, we propose to find the answer to the question: has underground economy to stand-alone?

  16. Thermally induced rock stress increment and rock reinforcement response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a detailed study of the effect of thermal heating by the spent nuclear fuel containers on the in situ rock stress, any potential rock failure, and associated rock reinforcement strategies for the Olkiluoto underground repository. The modelling approach and input data are presented together repository layout diagrams. The numerical codes used to establish the effects of heating on the in situ stress field are outlined, together with the rock mass parameters, in situ stress values, radiogenic temperatures and reinforcement structures. This is followed by a study of the temperature and stress evolution during the repository's operational period and the effect of the heating on the reinforcement structures. It is found that, during excavation, the maximum principal stress is concentrated at the transition areas where the profile changes and that, due to the heating from the deposition of spent nuclear fuel, the maximum principal stress rises significantly in the tunnel arch area of NW/SW oriented central tunnels. However, it is predicted that the rock's crack damage (CD, short term strength) value of 99 MPa will not be exceeded anywhere within the model. Loads onto the reinforcement structures will come from damaged and loosened rock which is assumed in the modelling as a free rock wedge - but this is very much a worst case scenario because there is no guarantee that rock cracking would form a free rock block. The structural capacity of the reinforcement structures is described and it is predicted that the current quantity of the rock reinforcement is strong enough to provide a stable tunnel opening during the peak of the long term stress state, with damage predicted on the sprayed concrete liner. However, the long term stability and safety can be improved through the implementation of the principles of the Observational Method. The effect of ventilation is also considered and an additional study of the radiogenic heating effect on the brittle

  17. Thermally induced rock stress increment and rock reinforcement response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakala, M. [KMS Hakala Oy, Nokia (Finland); Stroem, J.; Nujiten, G.; Uotinen, L. [Rockplan, Helsinki (Finland); Siren, T.; Suikkanen, J.

    2014-07-15

    This report describes a detailed study of the effect of thermal heating by the spent nuclear fuel containers on the in situ rock stress, any potential rock failure, and associated rock reinforcement strategies for the Olkiluoto underground repository. The modelling approach and input data are presented together repository layout diagrams. The numerical codes used to establish the effects of heating on the in situ stress field are outlined, together with the rock mass parameters, in situ stress values, radiogenic temperatures and reinforcement structures. This is followed by a study of the temperature and stress evolution during the repository's operational period and the effect of the heating on the reinforcement structures. It is found that, during excavation, the maximum principal stress is concentrated at the transition areas where the profile changes and that, due to the heating from the deposition of spent nuclear fuel, the maximum principal stress rises significantly in the tunnel arch area of NW/SW oriented central tunnels. However, it is predicted that the rock's crack damage (CD, short term strength) value of 99 MPa will not be exceeded anywhere within the model. Loads onto the reinforcement structures will come from damaged and loosened rock which is assumed in the modelling as a free rock wedge - but this is very much a worst case scenario because there is no guarantee that rock cracking would form a free rock block. The structural capacity of the reinforcement structures is described and it is predicted that the current quantity of the rock reinforcement is strong enough to provide a stable tunnel opening during the peak of the long term stress state, with damage predicted on the sprayed concrete liner. However, the long term stability and safety can be improved through the implementation of the principles of the Observational Method. The effect of ventilation is also considered and an additional study of the radiogenic heating effect on the

  18. Corrosion of reinforcement bars in steel ibre reinforced concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solgaard, Anders Ole Stubbe

    perpendicular to the reinforcement bar) was reduced for SFRC compared to plain concrete, whereas there was no clear impact on the slip at the concrete/steel-bar (displacement discontinuity parallel to the reinforcement bar) caused by the steel fibres. Additional experimental and numerical studies concerning......Steel fibres have been known as an alternative to traditional reinforcement bars for special applications of structural concrete for decades and the use of steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC) has gradually increased in recent years. Steel fibres lead to reduced crack widths in concrete formed......, among other reasons, due to shrinkage and/or mechanical loading. Steel fibres are nowadays also used in combination with traditional reinforcement for structural concrete, where the role of the fibres is to minimize the crack widths whereas the traditional reinforcement bars are used for structural...

  19. Overview of the European Underground Facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Pandola, L

    2011-01-01

    Deep underground laboratories are the only places where the extremely low background radiation level required for most experiments looking for rare events in physics and astroparticle physics can be achieved. Underground sites are also the most suitable location for very low background gamma-ray spectrometers, able to assay trace radioactive contaminants. Many operational infrastructures are already available worldwide for science, differing for depth, dimension and rock characteristics. Other underground sites are emerging as potential new laboratories. In this paper the European underground sites are reviewed, giving a particular emphasis on their relative strength and complementarity. A coordination and integration effort among the European Union underground infrastructures was initiated by the EU-funded ILIAS project and proved to be very effective.

  20. Slender reinforced concrete columns strengthened with fibre reinforced polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajdošová, K.; Bilčík, J.

    2011-06-01

    The requirement for a long life with relatively low maintenance costs relates to the use of building structures. Even though the structure is correctly designed, constructed and maintained, the need for extensions of its lifetime can appear. The preservation of the original structure with a higher level of resistance or reliability is enabled by strengthening. Conventional materials are replaced by progressive composites - mainly carbon fibre reinforced polymers (CFRP). They are used for strengthening reinforced concrete columns in two ways: added reinforcement in the form of CFRP strips in grooves or CFRP sheet confinement and eventually their combination. This paper presents the effect of the mentioned strengthening methods on slender reinforced concrete columns.

  1. Depleted Argon from Underground Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argon is a strong scintillator and an ideal target for Dark Matter detection; however 39Ar contamination in atmospheric argon from cosmic ray interactions limits the size of liquid argon dark matter detectors due to pile-up. Argon from deep underground is depleted in 39Ar due to the cosmic ray shielding of the earth. In Cortez, Colorado, a CO2 well has been discovered to contain approximately 600 ppm of argon as a contamination in the CO2. We first concentrate the argon locally to 3% in an Ar, N2, and He mixture, from the CO2 through chromatographic gas separation, and then the N2 and He will be removed by continuous distillation to purify the argon. We have collected 26 kg of argon from the CO2 facility and a cryogenic distillation column is under construction at Fermilab to further purify the argon.

  2. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal

  3. Toxic hazards of underground excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.; Chitnis, V.; Damasian, M.; Lemm, M.; Popplesdorf, N.; Ryan, T.; Saban, C.; Cohen, J.; Smith, C.; Ciminesi, F.

    1982-09-01

    Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards.

  4. Toxic hazards of underground excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards

  5. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, Hyun Soo

    2000-03-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal.

  6. Underground radioactive waste disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents some solutions for radioactive waste disposal. An underground disposal of radioactive waste is proposed in deep boreholes of greater diameter, fitted with containers. In northern part of Croatia, the geological data are available on numerous boreholes. The boreholes were drilled during investigations and prospecting of petroleum and gas fields. The available data may prove useful in defining safe deep layers suitable for waste repositories. The paper describes a Russian disposal design, execution and verification procedure. The aim of the paper is to discuss some earlier proposed solutions, and present a solution that has not yet been considered - lowering of containers with high level radioactive waste (HLW) to at least 500 m under the ground surface.(author)

  7. The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Grassi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is a large and high precision liquid scintillator detector under construction in the south of China. With its 20 kt target mass, it aims to achieve an unprecedented 3% energy resolution at 1 MeV. Its main goal is to study the disappearance of reactor antineutrino to determine the neutrino mass ordering, and to precisely measure the mixing parameters $\\theta_{12}$, $\\Delta m^2_{12}$, and $\\Delta m ^2_{ee}$. It also aims to detect neutrinos emitted from radioactive processes taking place within the inner layers of the Earth (geonutrinos), as well as neutrinos produced during rare supernova bursts. Neutrinos emitted in solar nuclear reactions could also be observed, if stringent radiopurity requirements on the scintillator are met. This manuscript provides some highlights of JUNO's Physics Programme, and describes the detector design, as well as the ongoing detector R&D.

  8. Waves from an underground explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krymskii, A. V.; Lyakhov, G. M.

    1984-05-01

    The problem of the propagation of a spherical detonation wave in water-saturated soil was solved in [1, 2] by using a model of a liquid porous multicomponent medium with bulk viscosity. Experiments show that soils which are not water saturated are solid porous multicomponent media having a viscosity, nonlinear bulk compression limit diagrams, and irreversible deformations. Taking account of these properties, and using the model in [2], we have solved the problem of the propagation of a spherical detonation wave from an underground explosion. The solution was obtained by computer, using the finite difference method [3]. The basic wave parameters were determined at various distances from the site of the explosion. The values obtained are in good agreement with experiment. Models of soils as viscous media which take account of the dependence of deformations on the rate of loading were proposed in [4 7] also. In [8] a model was proposed corresponding to a liquid multicomponent medium with a variable viscosity.

  9. Seismic effects on underground openings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical modeling techniques were used to determine the conditions required for seismic waves generated by an earthquake to cause instability to an underground opening or create fracturing and joint movement that would lead to an increase in the permeability of the rock mass. Three different rock types (salt, granite, and shale) were considered as host media for the repository located at a depth of 600 m. Special material models were developed to account for the nonlinear material behavior of each rock type. The sensitivity analysis included variations in the in situ stress ratio, joint geometry, and pore pressures, and the presence or absence of large fractures. Three different sets of earthquake motions were used to excite the rock mass. The methodology applied was found to be suitable for studying the effects of earthquakes on underground openings. In general, the study showed that moderate earthquakes (up to 0.41 g) did not cause instability of the tunnel or major fracturing of the rock mass; however, a tremor with accelerations up to 0.95 g was amplified around the tunnel, and fracturing occurred as a result of the seismic loading in salt and granite. In situ stress is a critical parameter in determining the subsurface effects of earthquakes but is nonexistent in evaluating the cause for surface damage. In shale with the properties assumed, even the moderate seismic load resulted in tunnel instability. These studies are all generic in nature and do not abrogate the need for site and design studies for specific facilities. 30 references, 14 figures, 8 tables

  10. Reinforcement in opinion dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volovik, Daniel

    I consider the evolution and acceptance of a new opinion in a population of unaware agents by using physics-based models of contagion spread. These models rely upon agent-based dynamics, in which an agent changes opinion by interactions with neighbors according to specific interactions. Most of these models have the feature that only a single input is required to change the opinion of an agent --- an agent has no commitment to its current opinion and accepts a new idea at the slightest provocation. These single-input models fail to account for people's confidence in their own beliefs. Thus I study the concept of social reinforcement --- that an agent adopts a new opinion only after multiple reinforcing prompts. Building on single-input models, I introduce two models of opinion spreading that incorporate a social reinforcement mechanism. (a) In the irreversible innovation and in the transient fad spreading models, a development is initially known only to a small portion of the population and subsequently spreads. An individual requires M > 1 interactions with an adopter before adopting the development. The ultimate extent of a transient fad depends critically on the characteristic time the fad keeps the attention of an adopting agent. (b) In the confident voter model, a voter can be in one of two opinion states and can additionally have two levels of commitment to an opinion: confident and vacillating. Upon interacting with an agent of a different opinion, a confident voter becomes less committed, or vacillating, but does not change opinion. However, a vacillating agent changes opinion by interacting with an agent of a different opinion. In two dimensions, the distribution of consensus times is characterized by two distinct times one that scales linearly with N and another that appears to scale as N 3/2. The longer time arises from configurations that fall into long-lived states that consist of multiple single-opinion stripes before consensus is reached.

  11. Conditioned Reinforcement and Response Strength

    OpenAIRE

    Shahan, Timothy A

    2010-01-01

    Stimuli associated with primary reinforcers appear themselves to acquire the capacity to strengthen behavior. This paper reviews research on the strengthening effects of conditioned reinforcers within the context of contemporary quantitative choice theories and behavioral momentum theory. Based partially on the finding that variations in parameters of conditioned reinforcement appear not to affect response strength as measured by resistance to change, long-standing assertions that conditioned...

  12. Negative effects of positive reinforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Perone, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Procedures classified as positive reinforcement are generally regarded as more desirable than those classified as aversive—those that involve negative reinforcement or punishment. This is a crude test of the desirability of a procedure to change or maintain behavior. The problems can be identified on the basis of theory, experimental analysis, and consideration of practical cases. Theoretically, the distinction between positive and negative reinforcement has proven difficult (some would say t...

  13. The Reinforcement Learning Competition 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrakakis, Christos; Chalmers University of Technology; Li, Guangliang; University of Amsterdam; Tziortziotis, Nikoalos; University of Ioannina

    2014-01-01

    Reinforcement learning is one of the most general problems in artificial intelligence. It has been used to model problems in automated experiment design, control, economics, game playing, scheduling and telecommunications. The aim of the reinforcement learning competition is to encourage the development of very general learning agents for arbitrary reinforcement learning problems and to provide a test-bed for the unbiased evaluation of algorithms.

  14. Developing Underground Research at DUSEL: Lessons from Other Laboratories (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doe, T. W.

    2009-12-01

    The Deep Underground and Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) should provide a significant venue for advancing our understanding of groundwater processes in fractured, basement rocks. As the planning for experimentation goes forward, it is important to recognize that underground experimentation has been going through a true golden age stimulated mainly by radioactive waste research, but also by needs in contaminant transport and oil and gas exploration. A complete discussion of the advances of fractured-rock hydrogeology is beyond the scope a short presentation. One area of investigation that has some transfer value from other test facilities is the importance of pressure and flow monitoring in the development of new areas of underground space. Each borehole and underground opening has the potential for changing the flow system. Monitoring and measuring these changes is essential for developing hydrostructural models of the significant conductors and their properties. The employment of multipoint monitoring systems has shown that fractured rock masses may be highly compartmentalized. Results of block-scale experiments at the Kamaishi Mine in Japan and the Äspö hard Rock Laboratory in Sweden have demonstrate that there can be a significant level of isolation between conducting features based on pressure, flow, and geochemical responses. Similar compartmentalization effects are well documented at the USGS’s Mirror Lake facility and the Hungarian research site at Bátaapáti (Üveghuta). The DUSEL site at the Homestake Mine is not well-characterized, other than a recognition that it is largely a dry mine. That said, there has been evidence of large inflows at deep levels that may indicate a level of isolation of the mine from conducting features. The connectivity of the mine to the large flow system will be very important to understanding how mine operations have or have not influenced the hydrogeology of the surrounding rock masses, as some of the most

  15. Recycling of Reinforced Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, R. D.; Collins, Andrew; Cooper, Duncan; Wingfield-Digby, Mark; Watts-Farmer, Archibald; Laurence, Anna; Patel, Kayur; Stevens, Mark; Watkins, Rhodri

    2014-02-01

    This work has shown is that it is possible to recycle continuous and short fibre reinforced thermosetting resins while keeping almost the whole of the original material, both fibres and matrix, within the recyclate. By splitting, crushing hot or cold, and hot forming, it is possible to create a recyclable material, which we designate a Remat, which can then be used to remanufacture other shapes, examples of plates and tubes being demonstrated. Not only can remanufacturing be done, but it has been shown that over 50 % of the original mechanical properties, such as the E modulus, tensile strength, and interlaminar shear strength, can be retained. Four different forms of composite were investigated, a random mat Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) bathroom component and boat hull, woven glass and carbon fibre cloth impregnated with an epoxy resin, and unidirectional carbon fibre pre-preg. One of the main factors found to affect composite recyclability was the type of resin matrix used in the composite. Thermoset resins tested were shown to have a temperature range around the Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) where they exhibit ductile behaviour, hence aiding reforming of the material. The high-grade carbon fibre prepreg was found to be less easy to recycle than the woven of random fibre laminates. One method of remanufacturing was by heating the Remat to above its glass transition temperature, bending it to shape, and then cooling it. However, unless precautions are taken, the geometric form may revert. This does not happen with the crushed material.

  16. Radiometric surveys in underground environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochiolo, Massimo; Chiozzi, Paolo; Verdoya, Massimo; Pasquale, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    Due to their ability to travel through the air for several metres, gamma-rays emitted from natural radioactive elements can be successfully used in surveys carried out both with airborne and ground equipments. Besides the concentration of the radio-elements contained in rocks and soils and the intrinsic characteristics of the gamma-ray detector, the detected count rate depends on the solid angle around the spectrometer. On a flat outcrop, ground spectrometry detects the radiation ideally produced by a cylindrical mass of rock of about two metres in diameter and thickness of about half a meter. Under these geometrical conditions, the natural radioactivity can be easily evaluated. With operating conditions different from the standard ones, such as at the edge of an escarpment, the count rate halves because of the missing material, whereas in the vicinity of a rock wall the count rate will increase. In underground environment, the recorded count rate may even double and the in situ assessment of the concentration of radio-elements may be rather difficult, even if the ratios between the different radio-elements may not be affected. We tested the applicability of gamma-ray spectrometry for rapid assessment of the potential hazard levels related to radon and radiation dose rate in underground environment. A mine shaft, located in a zone of uranium enrichment in Liguria (Italy), has been investigated. A preliminary ground radiometric survey was carried out to define the extent of the ore deposit. Then, the radiometric investigation was focussed on the mine shaft. Due to rock mass above the shaft vault, the background gamma radiation can be considered of negligible influence on measurements. In underground surveys, besides deviations from a flat geometry, factors controlling radon exhalation, emanation and stagnation, such as fractures, water leakage and the presence of ventilation, should be carefully examined. We attempted to evaluate these control factors and collected

  17. STUDY FOR SEISMIC BEHAVIOR OF UNDERGROUND STRUCTURE CLOSE TO PILE FOUNDATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezawa, Kenji; Suzuki, Masahiro; Anabuki, Takuya; Higuchi, Shunichi; Ito, Koji; Ejiri, Joji

    Recently, it is desirable that nonlinear responses of structures are clarified by soil-structure interaction analysis, especially for evaluating the seismic performances of underground structure or foundation, due to a severe seismic action is expected for the seismic design. In this research, centrifugal vibration tests of reinforced concrete box culvert under severe earthquake was conducted, firstly. Then, finite element analysis for the test was conducted to clarify an applicability of the analytical method. By comparing experimental results and analytical results, it is confirmed that reasonable non-linear responses of both ground and RC box culvert were reproduced by the analysis.

  18. Sisal organosolv pulp as reinforcement for cement based composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Joaquim

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes non-conventional sisal (Agave sisalana chemical (organosolv pulp from residues of cordage as reinforcement to cement based materials. Sisal organosolv pulp was produced in a 1:1 ethanol/water mixture and post chemically and physically characterized in order to compare its properties with sisal kraft pulp. Cement based composites reinforced with organosolv or kraft pulps and combined with polypropylene (PP fibres were produced by the slurry de-watering and pressing method as a crude simulation of the Hatschek process. Composites were evaluated at 28 days of age, after exposition to accelerated carbonation and after 100 soak/dry cycles. Composites containing organosolv pulp presented lower mechanical strength, water absorption and apparent porosity than composites reinforced with kraft pulp. The best mechanical performance after ageing was also achieved by samples reinforced with kraft pulp. The addition of PP fibres favoured the maintenance of toughness after ageing. Accelerated carbonation promoted the densification of the composites reinforced with sisal organosolv + PP fibres.

  19. Corrosion Inhibitors for Reinforced Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    Steel corrosion in reinforced concrete structures has been a major problem across the U.S. Steel-reinforced concrete structures are continually subject to attack by corrosion brought on by naturally occurring environmental conditions. FerroGard, a corrosion inhibitor, developed by Sika Corporation, penetrates hardened concrete to dramatically reduce corrosion by 65% and extend the structure's service life.

  20. Conditioned Reinforcement and Response Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahan, Timothy A.

    2010-01-01

    Stimuli associated with primary reinforcers appear themselves to acquire the capacity to strengthen behavior. This paper reviews research on the strengthening effects of conditioned reinforcers within the context of contemporary quantitative choice theories and behavioral momentum theory. Based partially on the finding that variations in…

  1. Delayed Reinforcement of Operant Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattal, Kennon A.

    2010-01-01

    The experimental analysis of delay of reinforcement is considered from the perspective of three questions that seem basic not only to understanding delay of reinforcement but also, by implication, the contributions of temporal relations between events to operant behavior. The first question is whether effects of the temporal relation between…

  2. Stochastic Reinforcement Benefits Skill Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Eran; Averbeck, Bruno B.; Richmond, Barry J.; Cohen, Leonardo G.

    2014-01-01

    Learning complex skills is driven by reinforcement, which facilitates both online within-session gains and retention of the acquired skills. Yet, in ecologically relevant situations, skills are often acquired when mapping between actions and rewarding outcomes is unknown to the learning agent, resulting in reinforcement schedules of a stochastic…

  3. 单甲基丙烯酸锌增强丁腈及氢化丁腈橡胶复合材料的热氧老化研究%Thermal oxidative aging behaviors of NBR and HNBR composites reinforced by hydroxyl zinc monomethyacrylate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冠中; 田帅承; 刘红天; 王增林; 孙宝全; 李再峰

    2015-01-01

    The thermal oxidative aging behaviors of the nitrile butadiene rubber(NBR)and hydrogenated ni-trile butadiene rubber (HNBR)composite materials reinforced by hydroxyl zinc mono-methyacrylate(HZMMA), HZMMA/carbon black mixture and the carbon blacks were studied in this paper. The experimental results showed that HZMMA performed good reinforcement effect on the aging behaviors of the NBR and HNBR materials. The upper limit temperature for the NBR composite materials was below 150℃. Both the tensile strength and 100%tensile strength for HNBR materials, aged for one week at 130℃,showed an extreme point due to the combined ac-tion of physical and aging chemical cross-linking, and then the mechanical properties of the materials decreased with more aging time. The elongation at break of materials decreased monotonically with an increase of the aging time. The higher the aging temperature, the better heat-resistant effect of rubber composite reinforced by HZMMA was observed. The order to the heat oxygen aging resistance ability of HZMMA, HZMMA/carbon black mixture and carbon black for HNBR composites is HZMMA>HZMMA/carbon black mixture>carbon black.%论文研究了单甲基丙烯酸锌(HZMMA)、HZMMA和炭黑混合物、炭黑增强丁腈(NBR)橡胶及氢化丁腈(HNBR)复合材料的热氧老化行为。实验结果表明:单甲基丙烯酸锌(HZMMA)对丁腈(NBR)橡胶及氢化丁腈(HNBR)均表现出良好的增强作用,丁腈橡胶复合材料的使用温度上限不能超过150℃。氢化丁腈橡胶复合材料在130℃下老化时,由于物理交联点和化学交联点的共同作用,橡胶复合材料老化1周的拉伸强度和100%定伸强度均出现极值点,随着老化时间的进一步延长,材料的力学性能逐渐下降。材料的断裂伸长率随着老化时间的延长,呈单调递减趋势。老化温度越高,HZMMA的耐热氧老化效果愈加显著。HZMMA、HZMMA和炭黑混合物、炭黑等增强

  4. 30 CFR 57.4462 - Storage of combustible liquids underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Storage of combustible liquids underground. 57... AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES... combustible liquids underground. The requirements of this standard apply to underground areas only....

  5. 30 CFR 57.4463 - Liquefied petroleum gas use underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. 57... AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES... gas use underground. Use of liquefied petroleum gases underground shall be limited to maintenance...

  6. 30 CFR 57.4460 - Storage of flammable liquids underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Storage of flammable liquids underground. 57... AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES... liquids underground. (a) Flammable liquids shall not be stored underground, except— (1) Small...

  7. 30 CFR 75.340 - Underground electrical installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground electrical installations. 75.340... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.340 Underground electrical installations. (a) Underground transformer stations, battery charging stations,...

  8. 30 CFR 57.4057 - Underground trailing cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground trailing cables. 57.4057 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control § 57.4057 Underground trailing cables. Underground trailing cables shall be accepted...

  9. Indian Country Leaking Underground Storage Tanks

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In 1986, Congress amended Subtitle I of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, directing EPA to regulate Underground Storage Tanks (USTs). EPA directly implements the UST...

  10. Radioactive waste containing vessel for underground disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A canister and an over packing vessel for containing the canister are assembled. Preceding to underground disposal, a sealing medium under a pressurized state is sealed to the space in the overpacking vessel. As the sealing medium, non-compressible medium of a liquid or a fluid such as a mineral oil, vegetable oil, cement mortar is used in an ordinary cases. Alternatively, gases such as of nitrogen or argon are applied for the purpose of increasing pressure of the space portion to more than the pressure of underground water and the like. In the state of the underground disposal, difference of pressure between the external pressure such as of underground water and a pressure of the sealed medium is applied to the wall of the over packing vessel. With such a constitution, since the wall of the over packing vessel can be reduced, the weight and the cost can be reduced. (I.N.)

  11. Leaking Underground Storage Tank Sites in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) sites where petroleum contamination has been found. There may be more than one LUST site per UST site.

  12. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. This project is composed of 6 subjects such as data production required for safety assessments, sorption properties and mechanisms, nuclide migration in the fractured rock, colloid formation and migration, nuclide speciation in deep geological environments, and total evaluation of geochemical behaviors considering multi-factors. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal

  13. Dynamic underground stripping demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation techniques for rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called dynamic stripping to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first eight months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques. Tests then began on the contaminated site in FY 1992. This report describes the work at the Clean Site, including design and performance criteria, test results, interpretations, and conclusions. We fielded 'a wide range of new designs and techniques, some successful and some not. In this document, we focus on results and performance, lessons learned, and design and operational changes recommended for work at the contaminated site. Each section focuses on a different aspect of the work and can be considered a self-contained contribution

  14. Insiders, Outsiders, and the Underground Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Anderberg, Dan

    2003-01-01

    This paper considers whether labour market rigidities lead to more underground economic activities. This is suggested by aggregate cross-country data which show that underground economic activities are more strongly correlated with a commonly used index of employment protection than with effective tax rates. A simple theoretical model is constructed to support this finding. The model, contrary to many models of equilibrium unemployment in the literature, also has the feature that a rise in a ...

  15. Overview of the European Underground Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Pandola, L.

    2011-01-01

    Deep underground laboratories are the only places where the extremely low background radiation level required for most experiments looking for rare events in physics and astroparticle physics can be achieved. Underground sites are also the most suitable location for very low background gamma-ray spectrometers, able to assay trace radioactive contaminants. Many operational infrastructures are already available worldwide for science, differing for depth, dimension and rock characteristics. Othe...

  16. Intelligent Scheduling for Underground Mobile Mining Equipment

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Zhen; Schunnesson, Håkan; Rinne, Mikael; Sturgul, John

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have been carried out and many commercial software applications have been developed to improve the performances of surface mining operations, especially for the loader-trucks cycle of surface mining. However, there have been quite few studies aiming to improve the mining process of underground mines. In underground mines, mobile mining equipment is mostly scheduled instinctively, without theoretical support for these decisions. Furthermore, in case of unexpected events, it is har...

  17. Surface underground coincidences at the Soudan mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 37 m2 surface array which has been operating in coincidence with the Soudan 1 underground experiment is described. A comparison is made between measured and expected underground-surface coincident events. The surface array is used to ''tag'' the energy of the cosmic ray primary. Distributions of event rates and multiple muon rates as a function of energy are shown. Expected rates and plans for an enhanced array and for coincidences with Soudan 2 are also discussed. 1 ref., 6 figs

  18. Underground infrastructure damage for a Chicago scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, Thomas N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bos, Rabdall J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-25

    Estimating effects due to an urban IND (improvised nuclear device) on underground structures and underground utilities is a challenging task. Nuclear effects tests performed at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during the era of nuclear weapons testing provides much information on how underground military structures respond. Transferring this knowledge to answer questions about the urban civilian environment is needed to help plan responses to IND scenarios. Explosions just above the ground surface can only couple a small fraction of the blast energy into an underground shock. The various forms of nuclear radiation have limited penetration into the ground. While the shock transmitted into the ground carries only a small fraction of the blast energy, peak stresses are generally higher and peak ground displacement is lower than in the air blast. While underground military structures are often designed to resist stresses substantially higher than due to the overlying rocks and soils (overburden), civilian structures such as subways and tunnels would generally only need to resist overburden conditions with a suitable safety factor. Just as we expect the buildings themselves to channel and shield air blast above ground, basements and other underground openings as well as changes of geology will channel and shield the underground shock wave. While a weaker shock is expected in an urban environment, small displacements on very close-by faults, and more likely, soils being displaced past building foundations where utility lines enter could readily damaged or disable these services. Immediately near an explosion, the blast can 'liquefy' a saturated soil creating a quicksand-like condition for a period of time. We extrapolate the nuclear effects experience to a Chicago-based scenario. We consider the TARP (Tunnel and Reservoir Project) and subway system and the underground lifeline (electric, gas, water, etc) system and provide guidance for planning this scenario.

  19. The Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake

    OpenAIRE

    Heise, Jaret

    2015-01-01

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota has been transformed into a dedicated facility to pursue underground research in rare-process physics, as well as offering research opportunities in other disciplines such as biology, geology and engineering. A key component of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is the Davis Campus, which is in operation at the 4850-foot level (4300 m.w.e.) and currently hosts two main physics projects: the LUX dark matter experiment and the M...

  20. Carbon allocation in underground storage organs

    OpenAIRE

    Turesson, Helle

    2014-01-01

    By increasing knowledge of carbon allocation in underground storage organs and using the knowledge to improve such crops, the competitiveness of these types of storage organs can be strengthened. Starch is the most common storage compound in tubers and roots, but some crops accumulate compounds other than starch. This thesis examined representative underground storage organs accumulating starch, oil and sugars. These were: the oil-accumulating nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus), a half-grass whic...

  1. Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced Composites for Biomedical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Wang(College of William and Mary); Yuhe Zhu; Susan Liao; Jiajia Li

    2014-01-01

    This review paper reported carbon nanotubes reinforced composites for biomedical applications. Several studies have found enhancement in the mechanical properties of CNTs-based reinforced composites by the addition of CNTs. CNTs reinforced composites have been intensively investigated for many aspects of life, especially being made for biomedical applications. The review introduced fabrication of CNTs reinforced composites (CNTs reinforced metal matrix composites, CNTs reinforced polymer matr...

  2. Non-metallic shear reinforcement for reinforced concrete beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erki, M.A. [Royal Military Coll. of Canada, Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Bakht, B. [Ontario Ministry of Transportation, Downsview, ON (Canada). Engineering Materials Office

    1996-09-01

    An alternative to using steel as a reinforcement in concrete was described. The material was a non-corroding fibre reinforced plastic (FRP), consisting of high strength fibres in an epoxy matrix. The corrosion of the steel in reinforced concrete is a major problem facing cold regions that use de-icing salts on roadways. Shear reinforcement made of FRP bars have the traditional designs for steel shear reinforcements that introduce bends in the material, such as for rectangular stirrups. The strength of a bent FRP bar is significantly reduced compared to the strength of a straight FRP bar, because of uneven sharing of stresses by the fibres at the bends. A viable alternative FRP shear reinforcement was proposed that does not require the use of a bend in the FRP bar, but instead, uses a series of FRP bars bent into planar grid sheets. It was concluded that constructing the beams with the FRP grids was more cost effective since less labour for preparation and installation of the reinforcement was required. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Sex Differences in Reinforcement and Punishment on Prime-Time Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, A. Chris; Gowan, Darryl C.

    1980-01-01

    Television programs were analyzed for frequencies of positive reinforcement and punishment exchanged among performers varying in age and sex. Females were found to more often exhibit and receive reinforcement, whereas males more often exhibited and received punishment. These findings have implications for children's learning of positive and…

  4. Reinforcer Rate Effects and Behavioral Momentum in Individuals with Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, William V.; McIlvane, William J.; Mazzitelli, Kim; McNamara, Bethany

    2003-01-01

    A study used a computer game to examine behavioral momentum in 10 individuals (ages 7-20) with developmental disabilities. Different rates of reinforcement were programmed in two alternating components signaled by distinctive cues. Resistance to disruption by an alternate source of reinforcement was greater in the component with the higher…

  5. The Role of Reinforcement Sensitivity in the Development of Childhood Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodskaya, Helena R.; Kuznetsova, Valeriya B.

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the contribution of reinforcement sensitivity to childhood personality at three levels of the hierarchical structure, mid-level traits, the Big Five and two higher-order factors, and the moderating role of sex and age in a sample of 3-18-year-olds. The canonical correlation analyses indicated that reinforcement sensitivity and…

  6. 40 CFR 280.220 - Ownership of an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system or facility or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ownership of an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system or facility or property on which an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system is located. 280.220 Section 280.220 Protection of Environment...

  7. Shear Behavior of Concrete Beams Reinforced with GFRP Shear Reinforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Heecheul Kim; Min Sook Kim; Myung Joon Ko; Young Hak Lee

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the shear capacities of concrete beams reinforced with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) plates as shear reinforcement. To examine the shear performance, we manufactured and tested a total of eight specimens. Test variables included the GFRP strip-width-to-spacing ratio and type of opening array. The specimen with a GFRP plate with a 3×2 opening array showed the highest shear strength. From the test results, the shear strength increased as the strip-width-to-strip-spac...

  8. Underground disposal facility closure design 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posiva has developed a detailed design for construction of a KSB-3 type disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel on Olkiluoto Island. The disposal facility design calls for construction of five shafts and an access tunnel that will serve to connect the disposal level to the surface. Routes to the underground disposal facility would be via the underground rock characterisation facility, ONKALO, which is currently under construction. The positioning of the underground disposal facility at Olkiluoto Island has been done by taking into account the main geological structures and available geological information on the site. Conditions actually encountered on reaching the potential disposal level will be assessed and the final layout selected at that time. The closure of the underground facility shall complete the isolation of the spent nuclear fuel and contribute to restoring and maintaining the favourable natural conditions in the bedrock. Beyond the deposition tunnels there remain underground openings associated with central and access tunnels, shafts and technical rooms or other spaces that comprise by definition the closure of the underground disposal facility. The underground disposal facility's general closure design described in this document deals specifically with the backfill and plugs installed in regions beyond the deposition tunnels and how the local geosphere may affect their performance. These tunnels, rooms and shafts represent approximately 60 % of the volume of the underground disposal facility openings and will intersect a variety of geological and hydrogeological features. Hence, backfilling and plugging of the disposal facility excavations in these regions will need to be approached in a flexible manner with the ability to modify the materials used to reflect the properties of the features intersected. Based on relevant available information the basis for flexible and general closure plan has been developed. The general closure plan takes into

  9. Studies on muon showers underground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 4 m2 spark chamber telescope array of the Mt. Cappuccini Laboratory, Torino, At 40 m w.e. underground was operated for about 830 h recording muon showers. The data were analysed with respect to the multiplicity distribution of the shower particles, adn to local interactions initiated in the chamber absorbers. Regarding the multiplicity analysis a semi-empirical expression for the likely shower size dependence of a structure function of the analytical form proposed by Vernov et al., was derived and applied with systematically varied parameters. The comparison of the observed rates of multiples with those calculated with a variety of parameters showed that a satisfactory agreement can be attained only if one admits a variation with the shower size of the parameters, and an enhanced muon/electron ratio at the lower primary energies, possibly indicative of an increased abundance of primary heavy nuclei. This would conform with the idea of a two-component primary composition in which a pulsar-produced fraction, enriched in heavy nuclei, dominated only at medium energies. The records on multiplicative interactions, and on large-angle scattering, were analysed by comparing their rates observed for shower particles with those found in single-muon check runs. The results are consistent with the assumption that all shower particle interactions are electromagnetic in nature, and that nonconventional components like mandelas are absent. Only making extreme allowances for statistical fluctuations the data can be made compatible with a mandela flux as large as that suggested by Baruch et al., provided that the mandela attenuation length is less than 1 500g/cm2 of rock

  10. Shear Behavior of Concrete Beams Reinforced with GFRP Shear Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heecheul Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the shear capacities of concrete beams reinforced with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP plates as shear reinforcement. To examine the shear performance, we manufactured and tested a total of eight specimens. Test variables included the GFRP strip-width-to-spacing ratio and type of opening array. The specimen with a GFRP plate with a 3×2 opening array showed the highest shear strength. From the test results, the shear strength increased as the strip-width-to-strip-spacing ratio increased. Also, we used the experimental results to evaluate whether the shear strength equations of ACI 318-14 and ACI 440.1R can be applied to the design of GFRP shear reinforcement. In the results, the ACI 440 equation underestimated the experimental results more than that of ACI 318.

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF HYDROGEN ON THE PLASTIC PROPERTIES OF THE REINFORCING BARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Baradyntseva

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The research carried out in laboratory of metal science on detection of hydrogen presence in reinforcement depending on period of aging and reinforcement profile and also its influence on plastic properties of reinforcing bar is described in this article. The method of glycerine tests was applied for identification of hydrogen presence in finished reinforcing bar, the essence of which is in the fact that at gas emission from metal the bubbles stay too long on the surface of cross samples under glycerin layer. The revealed regularities enable to recommend actions for providing stable mechanical properties of the heat-strengthened reinforcement by creation of conditions for lowering of steel saturation with hydrogen, preventing thereby occurrence of hydrogen embrittlement of reinforcement on JSC «BMZ» – management company of holding «BMK».

  12. Flexural reinforcement of concrete with textile reinforced mortar TRM

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Espert, Lluís; Escrig Pérez, Christian; Bernat Masó, Ernest

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a method of strengthening concrete structures based on textiles of high strength and mortars. The combination of textiles and mortars produces a new composite material of cementitic matrix. This material can be used for the reinforcement of concrete beams under bending loads. We tested several combinations of fibers: glass, PBO, steel and carbon fibers with mortar and we used them to reinforce precast concrete beams. All the specimens were tested with a four-point load test...

  13. Evolutionary computation for reinforcement learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Whiteson

    2012-01-01

    Algorithms for evolutionary computation, which simulate the process of natural selection to solve optimization problems, are an effective tool for discovering high-performing reinforcement-learning policies. Because they can automatically find good representations, handle continuous action spaces, a

  14. Reinforcement of concrete structures by fiberglass rods

    OpenAIRE

    Avdeeva Arina; Shlykova Inga; Antonova Maria; Barabanschikov Yuri; Belyaeva Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    In this article we introduced conducted experiments to determine the basic characteristics of composite reinforcement fiberglass reinforcement on the example of the same diameter, but with a different number of rovings. We have established strength along the reinforcing fiber and the corresponding class of the steel reinforcement.

  15. Reinforcement Learning via AIXI Approximation

    OpenAIRE

    Veness, Joel; Ng, Kee Siong; Hutter, Marcus; Silver, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a principled approach for the design of a scalable general reinforcement learning agent. This approach is based on a direct approximation of AIXI, a Bayesian optimality notion for general reinforcement learning agents. Previously, it has been unclear whether the theory of AIXI could motivate the design of practical algorithms. We answer this hitherto open question in the affirmative, by providing the first computationally feasible approximation to the AIXI agent. To deve...

  16. Fiber-reinforced tough hydrogels

    OpenAIRE

    Illeperuma, Widusha Ruwangi Kaushalya; Sun, Jeong-Yun; Suo, Zhigang; Vlassak, Joost J.

    2014-01-01

    Using strong fibers to reinforce a hydrogel is highly desirable but difficult. Such a composite would combine the attributes of a solid that provides strength and a liquid that transports matter. Most hydrogels, however, are brittle, allowing the fibers to cut through the hydrogel when the composite is loaded. Here we circumvent this problem by using a recently developed tough hydrogel. We fabricate a composite using an alginate-polyacrylamide hydrogel reinforced with a random network of stai...

  17. Evolutionary Algorithms for Reinforcement Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Grefenstette, J. J.; Moriarty, D. E.; Schultz, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    There are two distinct approaches to solving reinforcement learning problems, namely, searching in value function space and searching in policy space. Temporal difference methods and evolutionary algorithms are well-known examples of these approaches. Kaelbling, Littman and Moore recently provided an informative survey of temporal difference methods. This article focuses on the application of evolutionary algorithms to the reinforcement learning problem, emphasizing alternative policy represe...

  18. Comparing the reinforcement capacity of welded steel mesh and a thin spray-on liner using large scale laboratory tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenjun Shan; Porter Ian; Nemcik Jan; Baafi Ernest

    2014-01-01

    Steel mesh is used as a passive skin confinement medium to supplement the active support provided by rock bolts for roof and rib control in underground coal mines. Thin spray-on liners (TSL) are believed to have the potential to take the place of steel mesh as the skin confinement medium in underground mines. To confirm this belief, large scale laboratory experiments were conducted to compare the behaviour of welded steel mesh and a TSL, when used in conjunction with rock bolts, in reinforcing strata with weak bedding planes and strata prone to guttering, two common rock conditions which exist in coal mines. It was found that while the peak load taken by the simulated rock mass with weak bedding planes acting as the control sample (no skin confinement) was 2494 kN, the corresponding value of the sample with 5 mm thick TSL reinforcement reached 2856 kN. The peak load of the steel mesh reinforced sample was only 2321 kN, but this was attributed to the fact that one of the rock bolts broke during the test. The TSL rein-forced sample had a similar post-yield behaviour as the steel mesh reinforced one. The results of the large scale guttering test indicated that a TSL is better than steel mesh in restricting rock movement and thus inhibiting the formation of gutters in the roof.

  19. Reinforcement of osteosynthesis screws with brushite cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Landuyt, P; Peter, B; Beluze, L; Lemaître, J

    1999-08-01

    The fixation of osteosynthesis screws remains a severe problem for fracture repair among osteoporotic patients. Polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) is routinely used to improve screw fixation, but this material has well-known drawbacks such as monomer toxicity, exothermic polymerization, and nonresorbability. Calcium phosphate cements have been developed for several years. Among these new bone substitution materials, brushite cements have the advantage of being injectable and resorbable. The aim of this study is to assess the reinforcement of osteosynthesis screws with brushite cement. Polyurethane foams, whose density is close to that of cancellous bone, were used as bone model. A hole was tapped in a foam sample, then brushite cement was injected. Trabecular osteosynthesis screws were inserted. After 24 h of aging in water, the stripping force was measured by a pull-out test. Screws (4.0 and 6.5 mm diameter) and two foam densities (0.14 and 0.28 g/cm3) were compared. Cements with varying solid/liquid ratios and xanthan contents were used in order to obtain the best screw reinforcement. During the pull-out test, the stripping force first increases to a maximum, then drops to a steady-state value until complete screw extraction. Both maximum force and plateau value increase drastically in the presence of cement. The highest stripping force is observed for 6.5-mm screws reinforced with cement in low-density foams. In this case, the stripping force is multiplied by 3.3 in the presence of cement. In a second experiment, cements with solid/liquid ratio ranging from 2.0 to 3.5 g/mL were used with 6.5-mm diameter screws. In some compositions, xanthan was added to improve injectability. The best results were obtained with 2.5 g/mL cement containing xanthan and with 3.0 g/mL cements without xanthan. A 0.9-kN maximal stripping force was observed with nonreinforced screws, while 1.9 kN was reached with reinforced screws. These first results are very promising regarding screw

  20. Study of performance evaluation around a strong earthquake of important reinforced concrete structure at a nuclear power plant. Study of nonlinear behavior of a reinforced concrete structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of the deformation performance evaluation for the aseismic design of underground reinforced concrete structures, we carried out shear experiment and simulation analysis, using large-sized specimens, for important outdoor civil engineering structures of a nuclear power plant. In the experiment, a forced horizontal load to the top section of the specimen was directly applied in order to demonstrate shear deformation of the structures, and three cases, considering some of the main factors affecting nonlinear behavior of the underground structures, were performed. As a result, we concluded that this kind of structure has superior deformation performance and loading capacity was also large. By simulation analysis on the basis of nonlinear finite element method, it became possible to evaluate the behavior up to maximum loading point accurately. (author)

  1. Reinforcement contingencies and social reinforcement: some reciprocal relations between basic and applied research.

    OpenAIRE

    Vollmer, T R; Hackenberg, T D

    2001-01-01

    Reinforcement contingencies and social reinforcement are ubiquitous phenomena in applied behavior analysis. This discussion paper is divided into two sections. In the first section, reinforcement contingencies are discussed in terms of the necessary and sufficient conditions for reinforcement effects. Response-stimulus dependencies, conditional probabilities, and contiguity are discussed as possible mechanisms of, and arrangements for, reinforcement effects. In the second section, social rein...

  2. Modelling of underground geomechanical characteristics for electrophysical conversion of oil shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukharkin, A. A.; Koryashov, I. A.; Martemyanov, S. M.; Ivanov, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    Oil shale energy extraction is an urgent issue for modern science and technique. With the help of electrical discharge phenomena it is possible to create a new efficient technology for underground conversion of oil shale to shale gas and oil. This method is based on Joule heat in the rock volume. During the laboratory experiments the problem has arisen, when the significant part of a shale fragment is being heated, but the further heating is impossible due to specimen cracking. It leads to disruption in current flow and heat exchange. Evidently, in the underground conditions these failure processes will not proceed. Cement, clay and glass fiber/epoxy resin armature have been used for modelling of geomechanical underground conditions. Experiments have shown that the use of a reinforcing jacket makes it possible to convert a full rock fragment. Also, a thermal field extends radially from the centre of a tree-type structure, and it has an elliptic cross section shape. It is explained by the oil shale anisotropy connected with a rock laminar structure. Therefore, heat propagation is faster along the layers than across ones.

  3. Underground pipe inspection device and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germata, Daniel Thomas

    2009-02-24

    A method and apparatus for inspecting the walls of an underground pipe from inside the pipe in which an inspection apparatus having a circular planar platform having a plurality of lever arms having one end pivotably attached to one side of the platform, having a pipe inspection device connected to an opposite end, and having a system for pivoting the lever arms is inserted into the underground pipe, with the inspection apparatus oriented with the planar platform disposed perpendicular to the pipe axis. The plurality of lever arms are pivoted toward the inside wall of the pipe, contacting the inside wall with each inspection device as the apparatus is conveyed along a length of the underground pipe.

  4. Behaviors of radionuclides in wet underground soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental studies were made of the variations of the distribution coefficient of 65Zn, 60Co, and /sup 110 m/Ag with Ca ion contents in sand--water and resin--water systems. It is concluded that: (1) The distribution coefficient of a radionuclide is not constant but varies greatly especially with calcium ion concentration in underground water. (2) The Saturation Index I=pH-pHs can be used as a parameter to indicate such variations. (3) Some radionuclides, existing as radiocolloids like (sup 110m/Ag and 59Fe, are inactive toward ion exchange reactions as with hydroxide. In such cases, the nuclides migrate underground as fast as underground water

  5. Capital Subsidies and the Underground Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busato, Francesco; Chiarini, Bruno; Angelis, Pasquale de;

    to offset the specific costs usually stressed by literature on underground production, such as those suggested by Loayza (1994) andAnderberg et al. (2003). Investigating the effects of different fiscal policy interventions,we find that taxation is a critical parameter to define the size of capital...... allocation in the underground production. In fact, a strong and inverse relationship is found, and tax reduction is the best policy to reduce the convenience to produce underground. Wealso confirm the depressing effect on investment of taxation (see, for instance, Summers,1981), so that tax reduction has no...... this specifictypology of firm, some unexpected effects, causing, together with a positive investment process, also an increase in the share of irregularity. This finding could explain, in amicroeconomic framework, the evidence of Italian southern regions, where high incentivesare combined with high...

  6. Exploitable underground water reserves; 1 : 500 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The documents of the Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute (the State Water-Economic Balance of the SR, Water-Economic Balance for 1988 - part Underground Waters) were used as the source materials. Calculation of the exploitable underground water reserves was based on the hydrological characteristics of the individual hydro-geological zones. The obtained values of the exploitable underground water supply are expressed in dm3.s-1.km-2 for the particular hydrogeological zone. The seven-grade scale of yield from 0 to 10 dm3.s-1.km-2 and more was compiled from the obtained values. Numerical signing of hydrogeological zone, which agrees with the new Hydrogeological Zoning of the SR from 1998 is also expressed in the map. The zones are numbered from 001 to 142 and the stratigraphic indices, which characterise the stratigraphic appurtenance of the zone, were aligned to the numbers. (authors)

  7. The Mimetic Principle in the Underground Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Voicu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been in the recent years an increased preoccupation at international level for the research of the mechanism of development of the underground economy. The numerous vain attempts to measure the dimension of the underground economy persuaded us to embark on a qualitative research of this economic phenomenon. In our investigation on the roots of the underground economy we drew very close to the psychological and sociological aspects of the phenomenon itself. The process of humanizing that has at its origin components of the mimetic principle, like acquisitive mimesis, prompt us to ponder over J.M. Keynes’ words: „The avoidance of taxes is the only intellectual ambition that one feels rewarded for.”

  8. Seismometric detection of underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Processes which take place instantaneously after the detonation of the underground nuclear device are explained. Methods to discriminate between nuclear explosions and earthquakes by studying the P-waves and S-waves are described. Empirical relationships have been developed between the magnitude and yield of the explosions. The effect of tectonic strain release on seismic discrimination is mentioned. Propagation of shock waves in atmospheric explosions in compared with the propagation of waves in underground explosions. It is pointed out that underground nuclear explosions are very helpful in the studies on the structure of the interior of the earth to build up velocity models for earthquakes and also to predict earthquakes in some regions. (A.K.)

  9. Applied Implications of Reinforcement History Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Pipkin, Claire St. Peter; Vollmer, Timothy R

    2009-01-01

    Although the influence of reinforcement history is a theoretical focus of behavior analysis, the specific behavioral effects of reinforcement history have received relatively little attention in applied research and practice. We examined the potential effects of reinforcement history by reviewing nonhuman, human operant, and applied research and interpreted the findings in relation to possible applied significance. The focus is on reinforcement history effects in the context of reinforcement ...

  10. Structure and properties of textile reinforced concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Volkova, A.A.; A.V. Paykov; O.N. Stolyarov; S.G. Semenov; B.E. Melnikov

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the structure and properties of textile-reinforced concrete were investigated. Two types of high strength reinforcing fabrics made of glass and carbon rovings were used in this study. The samples of textile-reinforced concrete were produced. The mechanical properties of the developed samples were determined via a three-point bending test. The maximum flexural strength and reinforcement efficiency were calculated. It was found that the samples with textile reinforcement have high...

  11. Master plan of Mizunami underground research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In June 1994, the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan reformulated the Long-Term Programme for Research, Development and Utilisation of Nuclear Energy (LTP). The LTP (item 7, chapter 3) sets out the guidelines which apply to promoting scientific studies of the deep geological environment, with a view to providing a sound basis for research and development programmes for geological disposal projects. The Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has been conducting scientific studies of the deep geological environment as part of its Geoscientific Research Programme. The LTP also emphasised the importance of deep underground research facilities in the following terms: Deep underground research facilities play an important role in research relating to geological disposal. They allow the characteristics and features of the geological environment, which require to be considered in performance assessment of disposal systems, to be investigated in situ and the reliability of the models used for evaluating system performance to be developed and refined. They also provide opportunities for carrying out comprehensive research that will contribute to an improved overall understanding of Japan's deep geological environment. It is recommended that more than one facility should be constructed, considering the range of characteristics and features of Japan's geology and other relevant factors. It is important to plan underground research facilities on the basis of results obtained from research and development work already carried out, particularly the results of scientific studies of the deep geological environment. Such a plan for underground research facilities should be clearly separated from the development of an actual repository. JNC's Mizunami underground research laboratory (MIU) Project will be a deep underground research facility as foreseen by the above provisions of the LTP. (author)

  12. Bodacious Berry, Potency Wood and the Aging Monster: Gender and Age Relations in Anti-Aging Ads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calasanti, Toni

    2007-01-01

    This paper situates age discrimination within a broader system of age relations that intersects with other inequalities, and then uses that framework to analyze internet advertisements for the anti-aging industry. Such ads reinforce age and gender relations by positing old people as worthwhile only to the extent that they look and act like those…

  13. Radon in underground work-places

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of radon concentrations in Norwegian underground mines and hydropower stations are reported. The mean effective dose equivalent to Norwegian miners is assessed to 3.4 mSv/yr, and to 2.1 mSv/yr for workers in underground hydropower stations. In both mines and hydropower stations about 1% of the workers receive effective dose equivalents above 15 mSv/yr. In two of the hydropower stations very high radon concentrations were found. The main radon source was found to be leakage of ground water. Remedial actions are discussed

  14. Durability of waste glass flax fiber reinforced mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main concern for natural fibre reinforced mortar composites is the durability of the fibres in the alkaline environment of cement. The composites may undergo a reduction in strength as a result of weakening of the fibres by a combination of alkali attack and fibre mineralisation. In order to enhance the durability of natural fiber reinforced cement composites several approaches have been studied including fiber impregnation, sealing of the matrix pore system and reduction of matrix alkalinity through the use of pozzolanic materials. In this study waste glass powder was used as a pozzolanic additive to improve the durability performance of flax fiber reinforced mortar (FFRM). The durability of the FFRM was studied by determining the effects of ageing in water and exposure to wetting and drying cycles; on the microstructures and flexural behaviour of the composites. The mortar tests demonstrated that the waste glass powder has significant effect on improving the durability of FFRM.

  15. Assessment of condition of underground collector lines situated inside the technological complexes of underground storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of status of underground gas pipeline systems operating for several decades becomes a decisive factor of the decision making for their further safe and reliable operation. The decision becomes crucial especially in cases when piping is installed within a facility without the cathodic protection. The evaluation and inspection of underground gas manifolds requires a specific approach tailored for the respective manifolds. In 2003 NAFTA, the company initiated an extensive plan of the underground gas manifolds diagnostics and evaluation. The results were presented within the Working Committee WOC2 at the 23rd World Gas Congress in Amsterdam. (authors)

  16. Physics at the proposed National Underground Science Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scientific, technical, and financial reasons for building a National Underground Science Facility are discussed. After reviewing examples of other underground facilities, we focus on the Los Alamos proposal and the national for its choice of site

  17. 76 FR 51970 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Underground...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Underground... Drinking Water/Drinking Water Protection Division/Underground Injection Control Program, Mailcode: 4606M... owners and operators of underground injection wells, State Underground Injection Control (UIC)...

  18. Evaluation of the feasibility, economic impact, and effectiveness of underground nuclear power plants. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information on underground nuclear power plants is presented concerning underground nuclear power plant concepts; public health impacts; technical feasibility of underground concepts; economic impacts of underground construction; and evaluation of related issues

  19. Evaluation of the feasibility, economic impact, and effectiveness of underground nuclear power plants. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-05-01

    Information on underground nuclear power plants is presented concerning underground nuclear power plant concepts; public health impacts; technical feasibility of underground concepts; economic impacts of underground construction; and evaluation of related issues.

  20. NUMERICAL ANALYSES OF THE UNDERGROUND EXPLOITATION OF DIMENSION STONE

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    Underground exploitation of dimension stone is spreading lately for three main reasons; economy, organisation and environment. Moreover, underground openings can be used for many purposes. Underground exploitation is different from surface quarrying only in the first stage, the removal of top slice, descending slices are worked as in conventional quarries. In underground stone quarries, stability problems require adequate studies in order to avoid expensive artificial support measures, ...

  1. Modeling carbon monoxide spread in underground mine fires

    OpenAIRE

    YUAN, LIMING; Zhou, Lihong; Smith, Alex C.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a leading cause of mine fire fatalities in underground mines. To reduce the hazard of CO poisoning in underground mines, it is important to accurately predict the spread of CO in underground mine entries when a fire occurs. This paper presents a study on modeling CO spread in underground mine fires using both the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) and the MFIRE programs. The FDS model simulating part of the mine ventilation network was calibrated...

  2. Nõukogudemaa underground bootleg'id / Margus Paju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paju, Margus

    2008-01-01

    DVDst "Päratrusti pärand" - ENSV Riikliku Kultuurijäätmete Töötlemise Artelli "Päratrust" kultusfilmide kogumikust. Mustvalged underground-lühimängufilmid "Tsarli läheb Tallinna", "Tsaar Muhha", "Neurootiline pärastlõuna", "Kalkar", "Päratee" jt. aastatest 1980 -1983, filmid on taashelindatud 2007. aastal

  3. Historical development of underground coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olness, D.; Gregg, D.W.

    1977-06-30

    The development of underground coal gasification is traced through a discussion of the significant, early experiments with in situ gasification. Emphasized are the features of each experiment that were important in helping to alter and refine the process to its present state. Experimental details, coal characteristics, and gasification data are supplied for many of the experiments. 69 refs.

  4. Bioclimatic underground architecture: Development and principles

    OpenAIRE

    Stojić Jasmina; Stanković Danica

    2009-01-01

    The principal idea of paper lies in analyzing contemporary architectural challenges, concerning climate changes, global warming, renewable energy deficiency and population growth. The relevant examples and principles of sustainable and selfsustainable architecture development throughout history are presented. Underground structures as passive solar systems, vegetation used as insulation, ventilation and isolation are given as one of possible solutions for this global phenomenon. By studying t...

  5. Electromagnetic signals from underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electromagnetic fields and ground currents resulting from underground nuclear explosions have been observed since the first such event. A few measurements have been reported, but most have not. There also have been some speculations as to their origin; the two most generally proposed are the magnetic bubble and the seismoelectric effect. The evidence seems to favor the latter mechanism. 15 refs., 36 figs

  6. The Henderson Mine as an Underground Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Henderson Mine, operated by the Climax Molybdenum Company, is one of two sites under consideration by NSF to host a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). Henderson, in the Rocky Mountains west of Denver, is an active molybdenum mine with large access shafts and high rock processing and removal capability

  7. Proposal for a national underground science facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The idea is explored of establishing a laboratory complex shielded from the cosmic ray flux at the earth's surface for the purpose of housing and providing technical support for experiments in particle physics, astrophysics, and other scientific disciplines. The scientific motivation for such an underground science facility is described, and the questions of location and desired properties of the facility are discussed

  8. A Comprehensive Study of Underground Animals Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klokov, A. V.; Zapasnoy, A. S.; Mironchev, A. S.; Yakubov, V. P.; Shipilova, S. S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a method of studying the natural habitats of underground animals by the example of zokor. The purpose of the research is to find habitation of animals using unmanned aircraft and investigate networks of tunnels and burrows with ground penetrating radar "OKO-2". Geolocation data were processed by techniques developed by the authors.

  9. Underground construction of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the discussions about the safety of nuclear installations the question of building nuclear power stations below ground is being raised again and again. Almost all the experts in the field regard further investigations of underground construction as necessary or desirable. Although in present above-ground plant designs safety measures must ensure that the consequences of hypothetical accidents will in any case be accommodated without involving any hazard to the public, there are some question marks when it comes to ensuring protection against acts of war and sabotage. This contribution outlines the variants of underground designs of nuclear power stations and their feasibility at the present state of the art. The question is studied whether underground construction will increase the safety of the public as against present above-ground designs. Another problem considered is the question of whether the extensive protective measures required under the present licensing procedures and implemented in these plants already preclude any real hazard to the environment with a high degree of certainty, which would leave no necessity for underground constructions. (orig.)

  10. 30 CFR 57.4161 - Use of fire underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of fire underground. 57.4161 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4161 Use of fire underground. Fires shall...

  11. Underground gasification and combustion brown with the use of groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Zholudyev S.V.

    2011-01-01

    The problems of coal excavation and environement protection are priority for Ukraine. Underground coal gasification (UCG) and underground coal incineration (UCI) are combining excavation with simultaneous underground processing in entire technological process, capable to solve this problem. Using an intermediate heat carrier - ground water may optimisating of these processes.

  12. 30 CFR 57.4360 - Underground alarm systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground alarm systems. 57.4360 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4360 Underground alarm systems. (a) Fire...

  13. 30 CFR 57.4362 - Underground rescue and firefighting operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground rescue and firefighting operations... METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4362 Underground rescue...

  14. 18 CFR 157.215 - Underground storage testing and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Underground storage... of the Natural Gas Act for Certain Transactions and Abandonment § 157.215 Underground storage testing... observation wells for the testing or development of underground reservoirs for the possible storage of gas,...

  15. 30 CFR 57.4363 - Underground evacuation instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground evacuation instruction. 57.4363... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4363 Underground evacuation instruction....

  16. 30 CFR 57.14160 - Mantrip trolley wire hazards underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mantrip trolley wire hazards underground. 57... METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL... wire hazards underground. Mantrips shall be covered if there is danger of persons contacting...

  17. 30 CFR 57.4260 - Underground self-propelled equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground self-propelled equipment. 57.4260... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4260 Underground self-propelled equipment. (a)...

  18. 30 CFR 57.4263 - Underground belt conveyors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground belt conveyors. 57.4263 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4263 Underground belt conveyors. Fire protection shall...

  19. 18 CFR 157.213 - Underground storage field facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Underground storage... of the Natural Gas Act for Certain Transactions and Abandonment § 157.213 Underground storage field... operate facilities for the remediation and maintenance of an existing underground storage...

  20. 30 CFR 57.4505 - Fuel lines to underground areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel lines to underground areas. 57.4505... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4505 Fuel lines to underground areas....

  1. 47 CFR 32.6422 - Underground cable expense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Underground cable expense. 32.6422 Section 32.6422 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM... Underground cable expense. (a) This account shall include expenses associated with underground cable....

  2. 30 CFR 57.4361 - Underground evacuation drills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground evacuation drills. 57.4361 Section... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4361 Underground evacuation drills. (a)...

  3. 30 CFR 57.4561 - Stationary diesel equipment underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stationary diesel equipment underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4561 Stationary diesel equipment underground. Stationary diesel equipment underground shall be— (a) Supported on a noncombustible base; and...

  4. Underground Physics in Spain; La Fisica subterranea en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puimedon Santolaria, J.

    2005-07-01

    Underground laboratories provide the low background environment necessary to the search for extremely rare phenomena like neutrino oscillations, double deta decay or dark matter. There are only four underground infrastructures available in the Europe Union, one of them is in Spain: the Canfranc Underground Laboratory. (Author)

  5. 30 CFR 57.4461 - Gasoline use restrictions underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline use restrictions underground. 57.4461... Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4461 Gasoline use restrictions underground. If gasoline is used underground to power internal combustion engines— (a) The mine shall...

  6. Underground Storage Tanks - UST_IDEM_IN: Underground Storage Tanks in Indiana (Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — UST_IDEM_IN is a point shapefile that contains regulated underground storage tank locations (including leaking underground storage tanks) in Indiana, provided by...

  7. Organ nic pollutants in underground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many organic compounds have been diagnosed in underground and surface waters, and there are many theories that explain the source of the dangerous materials on Punic health. The source of pollution could be the underground stored fuel or the polluted water in farms saturated with agricultural insecticides and chemical fertilizers, or there could be leaks in sewage water wastes. The source of pollution could also be the water surfaces in the areas of garbage disposal or industrial and home waste discharge. Due to the fact that the underground water is separated from oxygen in the air, its ability on self-purification is very low, in that the micro-organism that will do the dismantling and decomposition of the organic materials that pollute the water are in need for oxygen. In the event that underground water is subject to pollution m there are many methods for t resting the polluted water including the chemical decomposition method by injecting the polluted areas with neutralizing or oxidizing chemicals, such as Ozone, Chlorine or Hydrogen Peroxide. The mechanical methods could be used for getting rid of the volatile organic materials. As to biological decomposition, it is done with the use of bacteria in dismantling the poisonous materials into un poisonous materials. The preliminary analysis of water samples in one of the water wells in Sar ir and Tazarbo in Great Jamahirieh indicated that the concentration of total organic compounds (TOC) exceeded the internationally allowed limits. This indicates a deterioration of quality of some of underground water resources. It is well known that some of the organic pollutants have a great role in causing dangerous diseases, such as the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and some halogenated compounds that cause cancer. Therefore, much research is required in this field for diagnosing the polluting organic compounds and determining the suitability of this water for drinking or for human consumption. (author). 21 refs., 6 figs

  8. Silica reinforced triblock copolymer gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theunissen, E.; Overbergh, N.; Reynaers, H.;

    2004-01-01

    scattering at very low q, but no structure and formfactor information. However, on heating above the viscoelastic to plastic transition, the 'typical' scattering pattern of the copolymer gel builds-up. All reinforced gels are strengthened by the addition of the reinforcing agent. The transitions from a...... viscoclastic rubber to a plastic fluid and from a plastic fluid to a viscoelastic liquid are shifted to more elevated temperatures when silica is added to the triblock copolymer gel. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.......The effect of silica and polymer coated silica particles as reinforcing agents on the structural and mechanical properties of polystyrene-poly(ethylene/butylene)-polystyrene (PS-PEB-PS) triblock gel has been investigated. Different types of chemically modified silica have been compared in order to...

  9. Quenched Reinforcement Exposed to Fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2006-01-01

    Idealized data are derived for the tensile strength of quenched and tempered prestressing steel and of quenched and self-tempered reinforcing bars for fire safety design. 0.2% stresses are derived as a function of the maximum temperature and in addition, 2.0% stresses are provided. A strain of 2.......0% is seldom found in “slack” (not prestressed) reinforcement, but 2.0% stresses might be relevant for reinforcement in T shaped cross sections and for prestressed structures, where large strains can be applied. All data are provided in a “HOT” condition during a fire and in a “COLD” condition after a...... fire. The COLD condition is relevant for analyses of residual load bearing capacity of a structure after a fire exposure. It is also relevant for analyses of concrete structures exposed to fully developed fire courses. The reason is that compression zones of concrete are always the weakest in the...

  10. Analytical Study Of Reinforced Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosam A. Dahaam

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear finite element analyses is carried out using the ANSYS11 program to predict the ultimate load for two different types of reinforced concrete continuous two-span deep beams. Results of comparing analytical with  experimental data demonstrates the accuracy of the program. The effects of longitudinal reinforcement and web openings are studied and showed that the longitudinal reinforcement at top and middle region has little effect on the ultimate load, and the effect of web opening location has  great effect on the ultimate load especially when the load path passes through the openings centerline. Web opening location also has  great effect on values and distribution of shear and normal stresses especially at opening region.   

  11. Quenched Reinforcement Exposed to Fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2006-01-01

    investigated. Therefore, two test series have been made, which are presented in the present paper. In one test series, transient properties are found in a HOT condition during a fire and in the other, residual properties are found in a COLD condition after a fully developed fire course.......Idealized data are derived for the tensile strength of quenched and tempered prestressing steel and of quenched and self-tempered reinforcing bars for fire safety design. 0.2% stresses are derived as a function of the maximum temperature and in addition, 2.0% stresses are provided. A strain of 2.......0% is seldom found in “slack” (not prestressed) reinforcement, but 2.0% stresses might be relevant for reinforcement in T shaped cross sections and for prestressed structures, where large strains can be applied. All data are provided in a “HOT” condition during a fire and in a “COLD” condition after a...

  12. The power reinforcement framework revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jeppe; Andersen, Kim Normann; Danziger, James N.

    2016-01-01

    -making and gained most benefits from mobile technology use, relative to the effects of the technology on the street-level workers who deliver services. Current mobile technology-in-use might be less likely to be power reinforcing because it is far more decentralized and individualized than the mainly expert......Whereas digital technologies are often depicted as being capable of disrupting long-standing power structures and facilitating new governance mechanisms, the power reinforcement framework suggests that information and communications technologies tend to strengthen existing power arrangements within...

  13. Reinforcer Accumulation in a Token-Reinforcement Context with Pigeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankelevitz, Rachelle L.; Bullock, Christopher E.; Hackenberg, Timothy D.

    2008-01-01

    Four pigeons were exposed to a token-reinforcement procedure with stimulus lights serving as tokens. Responses on one key (the token-production key) produced tokens that could be exchanged for food during an exchange period. Exchange periods could be produced by satisfying a ratio requirement on a second key (the exchange-production key). The…

  14. What Happens with Reinforced Concrete Structures when the Reinforcement Corrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper, corrosion of reinforced concrete structures is discussed from the point of view of corrosion products. The different types of corrosion products are presented and a detailed study of the important diffusion coefficient is performed. Stochastic modelling of corrosion initiated...

  15. Procedure for detecting underground utilities with specific shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristic, Aleksandar; Vrtunski, Milan; Govedarica, Miro; Bugarinovic, Zeljko

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays GPR technology is acknowledged as a reliable, fast, non-destructive remote sensing technology whose area of applications is wider every day. One of its most common applications is underground utility detection. Not only it is possible to detect the utility in the field, but using certain algorithms utilities which haven't been detected in the field can be detected in radargrams. There is a number of procedures for automated detection of utility in the radargrams. Further, there are procedures that can estimate certain parameters such as propagation velocity, diameter or even characteristics of the material. However, the majority of these procedures is designed to detect cylindrical shape utilities, which, in a radargram, are represented with hyperbolic reflection. According to geometry of hyperbola, utility parameters can be estimated. In this paper we present a procedure that is designed to estimate characteristics of non-cylindrical utilities. It is worth mentioning that these utilities are not so rare. Some underground tanks and sewage collectors are among them. Heat line is consisted of two insulated pipes of the same diameter, often placed in a concrete channel and covered with plates made from reinforced concrete. Therefore, it can be considered as non-cylindrical utility and such structure has characteristic signature in a radargram. The main idea of the proposed procedure is to detect this signature, and then, based on standardized parameters for the heat lines, to estimate the diameter of the pipes. The proposed procedure is based on artificial neural network. As a training set we made a number of radargrams collected on different locations which contain heat lines of various dimensions. Pipe diameters were in a range from 65 to 250 mm. 400MHz antenna was used since the depth hasn't exceeded 2m. After the network is trained it is validated using radargrams that haven't been used in the training set. Further tests were done with radargrams that

  16. NUMERICAL ANALYSES OF THE UNDERGROUND EXPLOITATION OF DIMENSION STONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Kovačević-Zelić

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Underground exploitation of dimension stone is spreading lately for three main reasons; economy, organisation and environment. Moreover, underground openings can be used for many purposes. Underground exploitation is different from surface quarrying only in the first stage, the removal of top slice, descending slices are worked as in conventional quarries. In underground stone quarries, stability problems require adequate studies in order to avoid expensive artificial support measures, The article presents numerical analyses of an underground stone quarry made using of the finite difference code FLAC (the paper is published in Croatian.

  17. Topology optimization of reinforced concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amir, Oded

    Recent advances regarding topology optimization procedures of reinforced concrete structures are presented. We discuss several approaches to the challenging problem of optimizing the distribution of concrete and steel reinforcement. In particular, the consideration of complex nonlinear constituti...

  18. Measurement and evaluation of high-rise building response to ground motion generated by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the structural response research program being conducted for ERDA, the response behavior of high-rise buildings in Las Vegas, Nevada, due to ground motion caused by underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) has been measured for the past 12 years. Results obtained include variation in dynamic response properties as a function of amplitude of motion, influence of nonstructural partitions in the building response, and comparison of calculated and measured response. These data for three reinforced concrete high-rise buildings, all designed as moment-resisting space frames are presented

  19. Ensemble algorithms in reinforcement learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiering, Marco A; van Hasselt, Hado

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes several ensemble methods that combine multiple different reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms in a single agent. The aim is to enhance learning speed and final performance by combining the chosen actions or action probabilities of different RL algorithms. We designed and imple

  20. Brucite nanoplate reinforced starch bionanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper the mechanical reinforcement in a series of bionanocomposites films based on starch and nano-sized brucite, Mg(OH)2, was investigated. Brucite nanoplates with an aspect ratio of 9.25 were synthesized by wet precipitation and incorporated into starch matrices at different concentrations...

  1. Classifying Options for Deep Reinforcement Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Arulkumaran, Kai; Dilokthanakul, Nat; Shanahan, Murray; Bharath, Anil Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Deep reinforcement learning is the learning of multiple levels of hierarchical representations for reinforcement learning. Hierarchical reinforcement learning focuses on temporal abstractions in planning and learning, allowing temporally-extended actions to be transferred between tasks. In this paper we combine one method for hierarchical reinforcement learning - the options framework - with deep Q-networks (DQNs) through the use of different "option heads" on the policy network, and a superv...

  2. Flexural Behavior of Textile-Reinforced Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Volkova Anna; Paykov Alexey; Semenov Sergey; Stolyarov Oleg; Melnikov Boris

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the flexural behaviour of textile-reinforced concrete (TRC). Two samples of TRC made of high strength reinforcing fabrics made of glass and carbon rovings were produced. Three-point bending test was carried out to examine the flexural performance of the developed samples. The maximum flexural strength and reinforcement efficiency were calculated. Experimental results showed that that all types of applied fabric reinforcement contributed to increases strength as compared ...

  3. Hybrid composite rods for concrete reinforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Fangueiro, Raúl; Pereira, Cristiana Gonilho; Jalali, Said; Araújo, Mário Duarte de; Marques, P.

    2010-01-01

    The current work is concerned with the development of braided composite rods for civil engineering applications, namely for concrete internal reinforcement, as a steel substitute. The research study aims at understanding the tensile behaviour of composite rods reinforced by a textile structure – braided structure with core reinforcement.Seven types of braided composite rods were produced, varying the type of fibres used as a core reinforcement of a polyester braided structure. ...

  4. Choice and the relative immediacy of reinforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, Roger; Fantino, Edmund

    1982-01-01

    The relative immediacy of reinforcement in concurrent-chain schedules was varied while the relative reduction in the overall average time to reinforcement associated with terminal-link entry was held constant. For each of four pigeons, choice did not vary with relative immediacy of reinforcement. Subsequently, choice by the same subjects was shown to be sensitive to relative reduction in average time to reinforcement.

  5. 49 CFR 178.345-7 - Circumferential reinforcements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... circumferential reinforcement member, whether internal or external, reinforcement must be continuous around the... tank heads. (1) Circumferential reinforcement must be located so that the thickness and tensile strength of the shell material in combination with the frame and reinforcement produces...

  6. Underground nuclear astrophysics: Why and how

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, A.; Caciolli, A.; Fülöp, Zs.; Gyürky, Gy.; Laubenstein, M.; Napolitani, E.; Rigato, V.; Roca, V.; Szücs, T.

    2016-04-01

    The goal of nuclear astrophysics is to measure cross-sections of nuclear physics reactions of interest in astrophysics. At stars temperatures, these cross-sections are very low due to the suppression of the Coulomb barrier. Cosmic-ray-induced background can seriously limit the determination of reaction cross-sections at energies relevant to astrophysical processes and experimental setups should be arranged in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Placing experiments in underground sites, however, reduces this background opening the way towards ultra low cross-section determination. LUNA (Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics) was pioneer in this sense. Two accelerators were mounted at the INFN National Laboratories of Gran Sasso (LNGS) allowing to study nuclear reactions close to stellar energies. A summary of the relevant technology used, including accelerators, target production and characterisation, and background treatment is given.

  7. The Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake

    CERN Document Server

    Heise, J

    2014-01-01

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota is being transformed into a dedicated laboratory to pursue underground research in rare-process physics, as well as offering research opportunities in other disciplines such as biology, geology and engineering. A key component of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is the Davis Campus, which is in operation at the 4850-foot level (4300 m.w.e) and currently hosts three projects: the LUX dark matter experiment, the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment and the CUBED low-background counter. Plans for possible future experiments at SURF are well underway and include long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments, future dark matter experiments as well as nuclear astrophysics accelerators. Facility upgrades to accommodate some of these future projects have already started. SURF is a dedicated facility with significant expansion capability.

  8. Neutron albedo effects of underground nuclear explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron field distribution is affected by the surrounding medium in the underground nuclear explosion. It will influence the radiation chemical diagnosis. By Monte Carlo simulation, the fuel burnup induced by device and neutron albedo was calculated. The analysis method of albedo effect on radiation chemical diagnosis result under special environment was proposed. Neutron albedo should be considered when capture reaction burnup fraction is used, and then correct analysis can be carried out on the nuclear device.The neutron field distribution is affected by the surrounding medium in the underground nuclear explosion. It will influence the radiation chemical diagnosis. By Monte Carlo simulation, the fuel burnup induced by device and neutron albedo was calculated. The analysis method of albedo effect on radiation chemical diagnosis result under special environment was proposed. Neutron albedo should be considered when capture reaction burnup fraction is used, and then correct analysis can be carried out on the nuclear device. (authors)

  9. Gel fire suppressants for controlling underground heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Sheng-gen; XUE Sheng

    2011-01-01

    One of the major safety issues in coal mining is heatings and the resultant spontaneous combustion in underground coal mines.CSIRO researchers have developed a number of polymer gels suitable for controlling heatings in coal mines.These gels were developed to meet strict selection criteria including easy preparation,no or low toxicity,controllable gelation time,adaptable to mine water chemistry,adjustable viscosity,relatively long gel life,thermally and chemically stable and low cost.The HPAM-Aluminum Citrate gel system was identified to be the most favourable gel system for fire suppression in underground coal mines.These gels can be applied to the areas undergoing coal heating or gas leakage at a controllable gelation time and impermeable gel barriers can be formed in the areas to block ingress of air.

  10. Magnitude determination for large underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is presented for determining the local magnitudes for large underground nuclear explosions. The Gutenberg-Richter nomograph is applied to the peak amplitudes for 24 large underground nuclear explosions that took place in Nevada. The amplitudes were measured at 18 California Wood-Anderson stations located 150-810 km from the explosion epicenter. The variation of the individual station magnitudes and magnitude corrections and the variation of the average and rms error estimates in the magnitude determinations are examined with respect to distance, azimuth, and event location. The magnitude prediction capability of the Gutenberg-Richter nomograph is examined on the basis of these two criteria, and certain corrections are suggested. The azimuthal dependence of the individual station magnitudes is investigated, and corrections for the California stations are calculated. Statistical weighting schemes for two-component data are employed, and the assumptions and limitations in the use of peak amplitudes are discussed. (author)

  11. Heat Transfer in Underground Rail Tunnels

    CERN Document Server

    Sadokierski, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    The transfer of heat between the air and surrounding soil in underground tunnels ins investigated, as part of the analysis of environmental conditions in underground rail systems. Using standard turbulent modelling assumptions, flow profiles are obtained in both open tunnels and in the annulus between a tunnel wall and a moving train, from which the heat transfer coefficient between the air and tunnel wall is computed. The radial conduction of heat through the surrounding soil resulting from changes in the temperature of air in the tunnel are determined. An impulse change and an oscillating tunnel air temperature are considered separately. The correlations between fluctuations in heat transfer coefficient and air temperature are found to increase the mean soil temperature. Finally, a model for the coupled evolution of the air and surrounding soil temperature along a tunnel of finite length is given.

  12. Underground nuclear astrophysics: why and how

    CERN Document Server

    Best, A; Fülöp, Zs; Gyürky, Gy; Laubenstein, M; Napolitani, E; Rigato, V; Roca, V; Szücs, T

    2016-01-01

    The goal of nuclear astrophysics is to measure cross sections of nuclear physics reactions of interest in astrophysics. At stars temperatures, these cross sections are very low due to the suppression of the Coulomb barrier. Cosmic ray induced background can seriously limit the determination of reaction cross sections at energies relevant to astrophysical processes and experimental setups should be arranged in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Placing experiments in underground sites, however, reduces this background opening the way towards ultra low cross section determination. LUNA (Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics) was pioneer in this sense. Two accelerators were mounted at the INFN National Laboratories of Gran Sasso (LNGS) allowing to study nuclear reactions close to stellar energies. A summary of the relevant technology used, including accelerators, target production and characterisation, and background treatment is given.

  13. Underground storage tanks: The environmental health role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroleum contamination of shallow aquifers resulting from antiquated underground petroleum storage systems has had a significant economical, as well as environmental impact on the nation's urban and rural communities. The cost for assessment and clean-up of a service station petroleum leak in Caliente, Nevada (population: 1,111) may go as high as $3 million. Whereas in a more urban area such as Las Vegas, Nevada, 317 petroleum clean-up operations of leaking underground storage tanks (USTs) have been initiated in a three-year period between October 1990 and October 1993. The leaking UST problem, brought to national attention during the late 1970s and early 1980s, has had such an impact that the EPA has enlisted state and local environmental and health agencies to take an important lead role to find, mitigate, and prevent petroleum leaks into the unseen subsurface environment. The 1990s will witness a national amelioration of shallow aquifers

  14. Underground nuclear astrophysics studies with CASPAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Daniel; Couder, Manoel; Greife, Uwe; Strieder, Frank; Wiescher, Michael

    2016-02-01

    The drive of low-energy nuclear astrophysics laboratories is to study the reactions of importance to stellar burning processes and elemental production through stellar nucleosynthesis, over the energy range of astrophysical interest. As laboratory measurements approach the stellar burning window, the rapid drop off of cross-sections is a significant barrier and drives the need to lower background interference. The natural background suppression of underground accelerator facilities enables the extension of current experimental data to lower energies. An example of such reactions of interest are those thought to be sources of neutrons for the s-process, the major production mechanism for elements above the iron peak. The reactions 13C(α,n)16O and 22Ne(α,n)25Mg are the proposed initial focus of the new nuclear astrophysics accelerator laboratory (CASPAR) currently under construction at the Sanford Underground Research Facility, Lead, South Dakota

  15. Conditioned Reinforcement Value and Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahan, Timothy A.; Podlesnik, Christopher A.

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments examined the effects of conditioned reinforcement value and primary reinforcement rate on resistance to change using a multiple schedule of observing-response procedures with pigeons. In the absence of observing responses in both components, unsignaled periods of variable-interval (VI) schedule food reinforcement alternated with…

  16. Examination and reinforcement technologies for masonry structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. Derkach

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article the analysis of major methods for monitoring of masonry buildings for the purpose of cracking. Also different ways of reinforcement are given. The authors focus attention on comparison of national and foreign practice in this area. Modern methods of reinforcement are depicted such as Fibre Reinforced Cementitious Matrix (FRCM and Brutt Technologies.

  17. Comparative study of reinforced nozzle connections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shell theory and finite-element method are used for the stress analysis of models of unreinforced and reinforced nozzle connections under internal pressure and external loads. Various reinforcement configurations are considered. The results of a comparative study of the effects of reinforcement on the maximum stress in radial models of the intersecting cylindrical shells are presented. (orig.)

  18. Applied Implications of Reinforcement History Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipkin, Claire St. Peter; Vollmer, Timothy R.

    2009-01-01

    Although the influence of reinforcement history is a theoretical focus of behavior analysis, the specific behavioral effects of reinforcement history have received relatively little attention in applied research and practice. We examined the potential effects of reinforcement history by reviewing nonhuman, human operant, and applied research and…

  19. Rotary steerable motor system for underground drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, William E.; Perry, Carl A.; Wassell, Mark E.; Barbely, Jason R.; Burgess, Daniel E.; Cobern, Martin E.

    2008-06-24

    A preferred embodiment of a system for rotating and guiding a drill bit in an underground bore includes a drilling motor and a drive shaft coupled to drilling motor so that drill bit can be rotated by the drilling motor. The system further includes a guidance module having an actuating arm movable between an extended position wherein the actuating arm can contact a surface of the bore and thereby exert a force on the housing of the guidance module, and a retracted position.

  20. Radio Active Waste Management: Underground Repository Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finding a solution for nuclear waste is a key issue, not only for the protection of the environment but also for the future of the nuclear industry. Ten years from now, when the first decisions for the replacement of existing nuclear power plants will have to be made, The general public will require to know the solution for nuclear waste before accepting new nuclear plants. In other words, an acceptable solution for the management of nuclear waste is a prerequisite for a renewal of nuclear power. Most existing wastes are being stored in safe conditions waiting for permanent solution, with some exceptions in the former Eastern Bloc. Temporary surface or shallow storage is a well known technique widely used all over the world. A significant research effort has been made by the author of this paper in the direction of underground repository. The underground repository appears to be a good solution. Trying to transform dangerous long lived radionuclides into less harmful short lived or stable elements is a logical idea. It is indeed possible to incinerate or transmute heavy atoms of long lived elements in fast breeder reactors or even in pressurised or boiling water reactors. There are also new types of reactors which could be used, namely accelerator driven systems. High level and long lived wastes (spent fuel and vitrified waste) contain a mixture of high activity (heat producing) short lived nuclides and low activity long lived alpha emitting nuclides. To avoid any alteration due to temperature of the engineered or geological barrier surrounding the waste underground, it is necessary to store the packages on the surface for several decades (50 years or more) to allow a sufficient temperature decrease before disposing of them underground. In all cases, surface (or shallow) storage is needed as a temporary solution. This paper gives a detailed and comprehensive view of the Deep Geological Repository, providing a pragmatic picture of the means to make this method, a

  1. Underground laboratories: Cosmic silence, loud science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underground laboratories provide the low radioactive background environment necessary to host key experiments in the field of particle and astroparticle physics, nuclear astrophysics and other disciplines that can profit of their characteristics and of their infrastructures. The cosmic silence condition existing in these laboratories allows the search for extremely rare phenomena and the exploration of the highest energy scales that cannot be reached with accelerators. I briefly describe all the facilities that are presently in operation around the world.

  2. Underground Activities and Labour Market Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Kolm, Ann-Sofie; Larsen, Birthe

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops a general equilibrium search and matching model where an underground economy co-exists along with the formal part of the economy. In analyzing how tax and punishment policies a¤ect labour market performance, we find that punishment of infor- mal sector activities induce workers and firms to reallocate towards the formal sector. However, more importantly, we find that this real- location tends to improve e¢ ciency in search, reduce the overall wage pres...

  3. Radioactivity source terms for underground engineering application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The constraints on nuclide production are usually very similar in any underground engineering application of nuclear explosives. However, in some applications the end product could be contaminated unless the proper nuclear device is used. This fact can be illustrated from two underground engineering experiments-Gasbuggy and Sloop. In the Gasbuggy experiment, appreciable tritium has been shown to be present in the gas currently being produced. However, in future gas stimulation applications (as distinct from experiments), a minimum production of tritium by the explosive is desirable since product contamination by this nuclide may place severe limitations on the use of the tritiated gas. In Sloop, where production of copper is the goal of the experiment, product contamination would not be caused by tritium but could result from other nuclides: Thus, gas stimulation could require the use of fission explosives while the lower cost per kiloton of thermonuclear explosives could make them attractive for ore-crushing applications. Because of this consideration, radionuclide production calculations must be made for both fission and for thermonuclear explosives in the underground environment. Such activation calculations materials of construction are performed in a manner similar to that described in another paper, but radionuclide production in the environment must be computed using both fission neutron and 14-MeV neutron sources in order to treat the 'source term' problem realistically. In making such computations, parameter studies including the effects of environmental temperature, neutron shielding, and rock types have been carried out. Results indicate the importance of carefully evaluating the radionuclide production for each individual underground engineering application. (author)

  4. Underground Muon Physics with the MACRO experiment

    OpenAIRE

    M. SioliUniversity and INFN, Bologna; for the MACRO Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Underground muon events detected by the MACRO experiment at Gran Sasso have been studied for different purposes. The studies include the vertical muon intensity measurement, multiplicity distribution, lateral and angular muon distribution and searches for substructures inside muon bundles. These analyses have contributed to bring new insights in cosmic ray physics, in particular in the framework of primary cosmic ray composition studies. Moreover, this activity allows the testing and tuning o...

  5. Decommissioning of underground structures, systems and components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large number of operational and shut down nuclear installations have underground systems, structures and components such as pipes, tanks or vaults. This practice of incorporating such features into the design of nuclear facilities has been in use for an extended period of time during which decommissioning was not perceived as a serious issue and was rarely considered in plant design and construction. Underground features can present formidable decontamination and/or dismantling issues, and these are addressed in this report. Decommissioning issues include, among others, difficulty of access, the possible need for remotely operated technologies, leakage of the contents and the resulting contamination of foundations and soil, as well as issues such as problematic radiological characterization. Although to date there have been more than 40 IAEA publications on decommissioning, none of them has ever addressed this subject. Although cases of decommissioning of such facilities have been described in the technical literature, no systematic treatment of relevant decommissioning strategies and technologies is currently available. It was perhaps assumed that generic decontamination and dismantling approaches would also be adequate for these 'difficult' facilities. This may be only partly true due to a number of unique physical, layout and radiological characteristics. With growing experience in the decommissioning field, it is timely to address this subject in a systematic and comprehensive fashion. Practical guidance is given in this report on relevant decommissioning strategies and technologies for underground features of facilities. Also described are alternative design and construction approaches that could facilitate a smoother path forward through the decommissioning process. The objective of this report is to highlight important points in the decommissioning of underground systems, structures or components for policy makers, operators, waste managers and other

  6. The Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota, has been transformed into a dedicated facility to pursue underground research in rare-process physics, as well as offering research opportunities in other disciplines such as biology, geology and engineering. A key component of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is the Davis Campus, which is in operation at the 4850-foot level (4300 m.w.e.) and currently hosts two main physics projects: the LUX dark matter experiment and the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment. In addition, two low-background counters currently operate at the Davis Campus in support of current and future experiments. Expansion of the underground laboratory space is underway at the 4850L Ross Campus in order to maintain and enhance low-background assay capabilities as well as to host a unique nuclear astrophysics accelerator facility. Plans to accommodate other future experiments at SURF are also underway and include the next generation of direct-search dark matter experiments and the Fermilab-led international long-baseline neutrino program. Planning to understand the infrastructure developments necessary to accommodate these future projects is well advanced and in some cases have already started. SURF is a dedicated research facility with significant expansion capability

  7. In situ vitrification of radioactive underground tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is a treatment process with great potential for remediating underground tanks previously used for storing radioactive and hazardous chemical wastes at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Tests at several scales have demonstrated the utility of ISV for these tanks. An engineering-scale test vitrified a 30-cm-diameter buried steel and concrete tank that contained simulated tank sludge. Hazardous components of the tank sludge were immobilized, or removed and captured in the off-gas treatment system, and the tank walls were melted or incorporated into the ISV block. A pilot-scale ISV test vitrified a 1-m simulated underground tank than contained a simulated refractory sludge. The ISV process completely vitrified the tank, its contents, and the soil below the tank to a depth of 2.4 m, producing a uniform glass and crystalline monolith with an estimated mass of 30 tons. A large-scale underground tank test is scheduled for early 1991. 5 refs., 4 figs

  8. Ionospheric Effects of Underground Nuclear Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.; von Frese, R. R.; G-Brzezinska, D. A.; Morton, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Telemetry from the Russian INTERCOSMOS 24 satellite recorded ELF and VLF electromagnetic disturbances in the outer ionosphere from an underground nuclear explosion that was detonated at Novaya Zemlya Island on 24 October 1994. The IC24 satellite observations were obtained at about 900 km altitude within a few degrees of ground zero. The disturbances were interpreted for magnetohydrodynamic excitation of the ionosphere’s E layer by the acoustic wave. Electrons are accelerated along the magnetic force lines to amplify longitudinal currents and magnetic disturbances that may be measured by magnetometers at ground-based observatories and on-board satellites. The underground nuclear test near P’unggye, North Korea on 25 May 2009 provides a further significant opportunity for studying the utility of ionospheric disturbances for characterizing ground zero. Of the seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic, and radionuclide detection elements of the International Monitoring System (IMS) established by the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), only the first two elements detected this event. However, the event also appears to have been recorded as a direct traveling ionospheric disturbance (TID) in the slant total electron content (TEC) observations derived from a network of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) measurements. The TID was observed to distances of at least 600 km from the explosion site propagating with a speed of about 281m/s. Thus, the global distributions and temporal variations of the TEC, may provide important information to help detect and characterize clandestine underground nuclear explosions.

  9. The Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, J.

    2015-08-01

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota, has been transformed into a dedicated facility to pursue underground research in rare-process physics, as well as offering research opportunities in other disciplines such as biology, geology and engineering. A key component of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is the Davis Campus, which is in operation at the 4850-foot level (4300 m.w.e.) and currently hosts two main physics projects: the LUX dark matter experiment and the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment. In addition, two low-background counters currently operate at the Davis Campus in support of current and future experiments. Expansion of the underground laboratory space is underway at the 4850L Ross Campus in order to maintain and enhance low-background assay capabilities as well as to host a unique nuclear astrophysics accelerator facility. Plans to accommodate other future experiments at SURF are also underway and include the next generation of direct-search dark matter experiments and the Fermilab-led international long-baseline neutrino program. Planning to understand the infrastructure developments necessary to accommodate these future projects is well advanced and in some cases have already started. SURF is a dedicated research facility with significant expansion capability.

  10. Groundwater Pollution from Underground Coal Gasification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In situ coal gasification poses a potential environmental risk to groundwater pollution although it depends mainly on local hydrogeological conditions.In our investigation, the possible processes of groundwater pollution originating from underground coal gasification (UCG) were analyzed.Typical pollutants were identified and pollution control measures are proposed.Groundwater pollution is caused by the diffusion and penetration of contaminants generated by underground gasification processes towards surrounding strata and the possible leaching of underground residue by natural groundwater flow after gasification.Typical organic pollutants include phenols, benzene, minor components such as PAHs and heterocyclics.Inorganic pollutants involve cations and anions.The natural groundwater flow after gasification through the seam is attributable to the migration of contaminants, which can be predicted by mathematical modeling.The extent and concentration of the groundwater pollution plume depend primarily on groundwater flow velocity, the degree of dispersion and the adsorption and reactions of the various contaminants.The adsorption function of coal and surrounding strata make a big contribution to the decrease of the contaminants over time and with the distance from the burn cavity.Possible pollution control measures regarding UCG include identifying a permanently, unsuitable zone, setting a hydraulic barrier and pumping contaminated water out for surface disposal.Mitigation measures during gasification processes and groundwater remediation after gasification are also proposed.

  11. Siting estimation of underground nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is urgent to establish newly developed nuclear power plant siting such as underground siting, Quatenary ground siting or off-shore siting. In the previous reports, we presented the method of exploration and seismic stability estimation and described two examples of layout and technical evaluation of rock foundation for underground nuclear power plant of tunnel type cavern with two model site which we made imaginarily. This report is the companion volume to above reports and describes two examples of layout and technical evaluation for case study of underground nuclear power plant of shaft type cavern. For a site with tableland slope, as the results of geological survery, the rock foundation around the reactor cavern were cleared to be consisted of hard granite (CH class). The mechanical properties of rock foundation and the magnitude of initial stress around the reactor cavern were evaluated by insitu test in the adits (E.L.-6.0 m, E.L. 65.0 m). As the result of these tests, the magnitude of initial stress was nearly equal to the dead weight of rock foundation overlaying the reactor cavern. (J.P.N.)

  12. The Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake

    CERN Document Server

    Heise, Jaret

    2015-01-01

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota has been transformed into a dedicated facility to pursue underground research in rare-process physics, as well as offering research opportunities in other disciplines such as biology, geology and engineering. A key component of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is the Davis Campus, which is in operation at the 4850-foot level (4300 m.w.e.) and currently hosts two main physics projects: the LUX dark matter experiment and the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment. In addition, two low-background counters currently operate at the Davis Campus in support of current and future experiments. Expansion of the underground laboratory space is underway at the 4850L Ross Campus in order to maintain and enhance low-background assay capabilities as well as to host a unique nuclear astrophysics accelerator facility. Plans to accommodate other future experiments at SURF are also underway and include the next generation of direct-sea...

  13. Assessment of the underground disposal of tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) of Canada is facing the issue of long-term disposal of uranium tailings. One option that has not been examined in sufficient detail for the AECB is the retrieval of tailings from surface impoundments and subsequent placement of those tailings in underground workings of mines. This report is structured like a catalogue of facts and information, with each paragraph presenting some concept, concern, theory, or case study involving the retrieval or placement of tailings. All relevant information, findings, interpretations, conclusions, and recommendations gathered during the course of this study are included. The Table of Contents illustrates the striking number of relevant topics and acts like a flowchart or checklist to ensure that an underground-disposal submission by a mining company has addressed relevant topics. This report explains in detail the implications of disturbing surface-impounded tailings for the purpose of placing only some of the volume underground. The cumulative environmental, safety, and monetary liabilities of such a partial scheme can be discouraging in some cases. (author). 244 refs., 47 tabs., 17 figs

  14. Freedom Quilts: Mathematics on the Underground Railroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Maureen D.

    2005-01-01

    A mathematics activity is presented which is a lesson frequently taught to upper elementary school students. It helps the students to see the connection of mathematics with a real-world activity, appreciate the mathematical knowledge required of quilt makers, reinforce their knowledge of the geometrical properties of different shapes and bring…

  15. Management of recto-vaginal fistulas after prosthetic reinforcement treatment for pelvic organ prolapse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehdi; Ouassi; Silvia; Cresti; Urs; Giger; Igor; Sielezneff; Nicolas; Pirrò; Bruno; Berthet; Philippe; Grandval; Bernard; Consentino; Bernard; Sastre

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To communicate our findings on successful treat-ment of recto-vaginal fistulas (RVFs) after prosthetic reinforcement surgery of pelvic organ prolapse (POP). METHODS: A retrospective single center study between 1998 and 2008 was performed. A total of 80 patients with RVF were identified, of which five patients (6%), with a mean age of 65 years (range: 52-73), had undergone previous surgery for POP with pros-thetic reinforcement. RESULTS: All patients complained about ongoing vaginal infections and febri...

  16. Influence of Bridge Deck Concrete Parameters on the Reinforcing Steel Corrosion

    OpenAIRE

    Balakumaran, Soundar Sriram G.

    2010-01-01

    Chloride induced corrosion of steel in concrete is one of the major forms of deterioration mechanisms found in reinforced concrete bridges. Early age corrosion damage reduces the lifespan of the bridges, which results in heavy economic losses. Research has been conducted to identify economic solutions for significantly delaying and/or preventing corrosion damage. Considering the amount of steel reinforcement used in bridge decks, the influence of as constructed parameters including clear spac...

  17. First Report of the Stapled Mesh Stoma Reinforcement Technique in a Urologic Context

    OpenAIRE

    Dwayne Tun Soong Chang; Isaac Andrew Thyer; John Oliver Larkin; Marina Helen Wallace; Dickon Hayne

    2014-01-01

    Parastomal hernia is a common complication of ileal conduit formation. Mesh repair of parastomal hernia has lower rate of recurrence than nonmesh techniques but can be time-consuming to perform. The stapled mesh stoma reinforcement technique (SMART) is a novel method of rapidly constructing a reinforced stapled stoma. We report the first case utilising this technique in a urologic context. The procedure was performed on a middle-aged female with recurrent parastomal hernia of her ileal condui...

  18. ANALYSIS OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF HYDROTHERMALLY CURED HIGH STRENGTH CEMENT MATRIX FOR TEXTILE REINFORCED CONCRETE

    OpenAIRE

    Ondřej Holčapek; Filip Vogel; Petr Konvalinka

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this article is to describe the influence of hydrothermal curing conditions in an autoclave device (different pressure and temperature), which took place at various ages of a fresh mixture (cement matrix – CM, and fibre-reinforced cement matrix – FRCM), on textile reinforced concrete production. The positive influence of autoclaving has been evaluated through the results of physical and mechanical testing – compressive strength, flexural strength, bulk density and dynami...

  19. Cultural Pride Reinforcement as a Dimension of Racial Socialization Protective of Urban African American Child Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Bannon, William M.; McKay, Mary M.; Chacko, Anil; Rodriguez, James A.; Cavaleri, Mary

    2009-01-01

    The study objective was to examine how parental endorsement of cultural pride reinforcement messages may explain African American child anxiety. Data were gathered from 72 African American parents and their elementary school-aged children. Results indicated stronger parental endorsement of cultural pride reinforcement messages predicted less child anxiety. Additionally parental endorsement of these messages moderated the relationship between child mental health risk factor exposure and child ...

  20. Quantification of rats' behavior during reinforcement periods

    OpenAIRE

    Gunn, Kenneth P.

    1983-01-01

    What is treated as a single unit of reinforcement often involves what could be called a reinforcement period during which two or more acts of ingestion may occur, and each of these may have associated with it a series of responses, some reflexive, some learned, that lead up to ingestion. Food-tray presentation to a pigeon is an example of such a “reinforcement period.” In order to quantify this behavior, a continuous-reinforcement schedule was used as the reinforcement period and was chained ...

  1. Flexural Behavior of Textile-Reinforced Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkova Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the flexural behaviour of textile-reinforced concrete (TRC. Two samples of TRC made of high strength reinforcing fabrics made of glass and carbon rovings were produced. Three-point bending test was carried out to examine the flexural performance of the developed samples. The maximum flexural strength and reinforcement efficiency were calculated. Experimental results showed that that all types of applied fabric reinforcement contributed to increases strength as compared to nonreinforced concrete. Furthermore, the deformation behavior of reinforced concrete was analyzed. The advantage is in higher residual load-bearing capacity, which allows maintaining the integrity of the structure.

  2. Service-life prediction of reinforced concrete structures in subsurface environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Ki Jung; Jung, Hae Ryong; Park, Joo Wan [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    This paper focuses on the estimation of durability and service-life of reinforced concrete structures in Wolsong Low- and intermediate-level wastes Disposal Center (WLDC) in Korea. There are six disposal silos located in the saturated environment. The silo concrete is degraded due to reactions with groundwater and chemical attacks, and finally it will lose its properties as a transport barrier. The infiltration of sulfate and magnesium, leaching of potassium hydroxide, and chlorine induced corrosion are the most significant factors for degradation of reinforced concrete structure in underground environment. From the result of evaluation of the degradation time for each factor, the degradation rate of the reinforced concrete due to sulfate and magnesium is 1.308×10{sup -3} cm/yr, and it is estimated to take 48,000 years for full degradation while potassium hydroxide is leached in depth of less than 1.5 cm at 1,000 years after the initiation of degradation. In case of chlorine induced corrosion, it takes 1,648 years to initiate corrosion in the main reinforced bar and 2,288 years to reach the lifetime limit of the structural integrity, and thus it is evaluated as the most significant factor.

  3. Alumina-Reinforced Zirconia Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung R.; Bansal, Narottam P.

    2003-01-01

    Alumina-reinforced zirconia composites, used as electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells, were fabricated by hot pressing 10 mol percent yttria-stabilized zirconia (10-YSZ) reinforced with two different forms of alumina particulates and platelets each containing 0 to 30 mol percent alumina. Major mechanical and physical properties of both particulate and platelet composites including flexure strength, fracture toughness, slow crack growth, elastic modulus, density, Vickers microhardness, thermal conductivity, and microstructures were determined as a function of alumina content either at 25 C or at both 25 and 1000 C. Flexure strength and fracture toughness at 1000 C were maximized with 30 particulate and 30 mol percent platelet composites, respectively, while resistance to slow crack growth at 1000 C in air was greater for 30 mol percent platelet composite than for 30 mol percent particulate composites.

  4. Grammatical Evolution Guided by Reinforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Mingo, Jack Mario; Aler, Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    Grammatical evolution is an evolutionary algorithm able to develop, starting from a grammar, programs in any language. Starting from the point that individual learning can improve evolution, in this paper it is proposed an extension of Grammatical evolution that looks at learning by reinforcement as a learning method for individuals. This way, it is possible to incorporate the Baldwinian mechanism to the evolutionary process. The effect is widened with the introduction of the Lamarck hypothes...

  5. Adaptive Bases for Reinforcement Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Di Castro, Dotan

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of reinforcement learning using function approximation, where the approximating basis can change dynamically while interacting with the environment. A motivation for such an approach is maximizing the value function fitness to the problem faced. Three errors are considered: approximation square error, Bellman residual, and projected Bellman residual. Algorithms under the actor-critic framework are presented, and shown to converge. The advantage of such an adaptive basis is demonstrated in simulations.

  6. Cover Tree Bayesian Reinforcement Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Tziortziotis, Nikolaos; Dimitrakakis, Christos; Blekas, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an online tree-based Bayesian approach for reinforcement learning. For inference, we employ a generalised context tree model. This defines a distribution on multivariate Gaussian piecewise-linear models, which can be updated in closed form. The tree structure itself is constructed using the cover tree method, which remains efficient in high dimensional spaces. We combine the model with Thompson sampling and approximate dynamic programming to obtain effective exploration po...

  7. COAL REINFORCED COMPOSITE POLYAMIDE NANOFIBERS

    OpenAIRE

    R. Keskin; I. Gocek; U. K. Sahin; O. B. Berkalp; N. Acarkan; Ozkan, S.; C. D. Dikmen; E. Daskaya; H. Saglam

    2013-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposites are novel classes of composite materials derived from nanoparticles with at least one dimension in the nanometric range. Nanofibers that are produced by electrospinning process have a wide range of use in different textile applications including medical textiles, filtration textiles, protective clothing, as well as coatings for various purposes [1-4]. The aim of this study is to design and develop nanosized coal reinforced composite polyamide (PA) nanofibers by electros...

  8. Polymer nanocomposites reinforced with montmorillonite

    OpenAIRE

    L.A. Dobrzański; M. Bilewicz; Viana, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Light microscope with polarized light has been used for observation layered zone, visible thanks to polarization of the light, inside polymer-polymer composites and nanocomposites Aim of work has been concentrated on investigation of nanocomposites as promising engineering materials, basing on composition of polypropylene and montmorillonite as reinforcement in the shape of nanoparticles of 2:1 silicate.Design/methodology/approach: Conventional and non-conventional injection molding ...

  9. Reinforcement Learning or Active Inference?

    OpenAIRE

    Friston, K.; Daunizeau, J.; Kiebel, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper questions the need for reinforcement learning or control theory when optimising behaviour. We show that it is fairly simple to teach an agent complicated and adaptive behaviours using a free-energy formulation of perception. In this formulation, agents adjust their internal states and sampling of the environment to minimize their free-energy. Such agents learn causal structure in the environment and sample it in an adaptive and self-supervised fashion. This results in behavioural p...

  10. Fiber reinforced titanium alloy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The more important titanium matrix composites studied to date are composed of titanium alloy matrices, such as Ti 6Al--4V, reinforced with filaments of boron, silicon carbide, or sapphire, as well as with wires of beryllium or refractory metal alloys. The primary fabrication techniques for these materials involve vacuum hot pressing at 1300 to 16000F, alternate layers of titanium alloy matrix foils, and suitably aligned filament mats. The more ductile reinforcements such as beryllium, have been incorporated into titanium matrix composites by coextrusion. Fabrication of composite gas turbine engine fan blades from both boron (SiC coated) and beryllium reinforced Ti 6Al--4V alloy is described. Feasibility studies have been made in the fabrication of Boron/Ti 6Al--4V composite rings for possible gas turbine engine disc applications. Mechanical properties of various titanium matrix composite systems are presented and demonstrate the attractive elevated temperature properties of some systems to 10000F. (35 fig, 6 tables) (U.S.)

  11. Money, «Laissez-Faire» and the Underground Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Gerasimos T. Soldatos; Zikos, Spyros

    2000-01-01

    The fact that the use of money enables underground transactions to be kept undetected by the authorities, implies that its variation changes this ability too, thus imposing transaction costs. Variations in money alter in addition the interest rate and hence, the opportunity cost of holding money, which is another money related factor affecting underground economy. The present paper argues that this double role of money makes it useful in controlling underground activities, more useful than a ...

  12. The effects of the underground economy on economic competitiviness

    OpenAIRE

    Donici, Gabriel-Andrei/GA

    2012-01-01

    A real, almost palpable, connection exists between the official and the underground economy. More than that, both sides of the economy (official and underground) are connected with the competitiveness of a country. Strangely a large presence of undereground in the economy is a sign of competitiveness. Although we would be tempted to say that underground is bad for competitiveness the reality is that due to taxes and regulations the resources (especially the human ones) used ”illegaly” would p...

  13. The Underground Economy in a Matching Model of Endogenous Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Lisi, Gaetano; Pugno, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    A matching model will explain both unemployment and economic growth by considering the underground sector. Three problems can thus be simultaneously accounted for: (i) the persistence of underground economy, (ii) the ambiguous relationships between underground employment and unemployment, and (iii) between growth and unemployment. The key assumptions adopted are that entrepreneurial ability is heterogeneous across individuals; skill accumulation determines productivity growth in the regular s...

  14. Money, "laissez-faire" and the underground economy

    OpenAIRE

    Σολδάτος, Γεράσιμος; Ζήκος, Σπύρος

    2000-01-01

    The fact that the use of money enables underground transactions to be kept undetected by the authorities, implies that its variation changes this ability too, thus imposing transaction costs. Variations in money alter in addition the interest rate and hence, the opportunity cost of holding money, which is another money related factor affecting underground economy. The present paper argues that this double role of money makes it useful in controlling underground activities, more...

  15. Grounding Effect on Common Mode Interference of Underground Inverter

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Qiang; Cheng, Ning; LI Zhen-shuang

    2013-01-01

    For the neutral point not grounded characteristics of underground power supply system in coal mine, this paper studied common mode equivalent circuit of underground PWM inverter, and extracted parasitic parameters of interference propagation path. The author established a common mode and differential mode model of underground inverter. Taking into account the rise time of PWM, the simulation results of conducted interference by Matlab software is compared with measurement spectrum on the AC s...

  16. Numerical Simulations of Leakage from Underground LPG Storage Caverns

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Hajime; Pruess, Karsten

    2004-01-01

    To secure a stable supply of petroleum gas, underground storage caverns for liquified petroleum gas (LPG) are commonly used in many countries worldwide. Storing LPG in underground caverns requires that the surrounding rock mass remain saturated with groundwater and that the water pressure be higher than the liquid pressure inside the cavern. In previous studies, gas containment criteria for underground gas storage based on hydraulic gradient and pressure have been discussed, but these s...

  17. Cascade recursion models of computing the temperatures of underground layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN; Liqun; BI; Siwen; SONG; Shixin

    2006-01-01

    An RBF neural network was used to construct computational models of the underground temperatures of different layers, using ground-surface parameters and the temperatures of various underground layers. Because series recursion models also enable researchers to use above-ground surface parameters to compute the temperatures of different underground layers, this method provides a new way of using thermal infrared remote sensing to monitor the suture zones of large areas of blocks and to research thermal anomalies in geologic structures.

  18. POTENSI PENERIMAAN PAJAK DARI UNDERGROUND ECONOMY DI INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Nizar, Muhammad Afdi; Purnomo, Kuntarto

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to estimate the size of underground economy activities in Indonesia. Based on the results of these estimates, further calculated the potential tax loss due to the existence of underground economy activities. This study was conducted using quantitative approaches, namely currency demand model which is estimated by ordinary least square (OLS) method. By using time series (quarterly) data period 2000 – 2009 we found that the size of underground economy is about Rp164, 4 trill...

  19. POTENSI PENERIMAAN PAJAK DARI UNDERGROUND ECONOMY DI INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Nizar, Muhammad Afdi; Purnomo, Kuntarto

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to estimate the size of underground economy activities in Indonesia. Based on the results of these estimates, further calculated the potential tax loss due to the existence of underground economy activities. This study was conducted using quantitative approaches, namely currency demand model which is estimated by ordinary least square (OLS) method. By using time series (quarterly) data period 2000 – 2009 we found that the size of underground economy is about Rp164, 4 trillion ...

  20. Comparative analysis among sampling methods of underground water

    OpenAIRE

    Fábio Augusto Gomes Vieira Reis; Roberto Soriano Junior

    2005-01-01

    The monitoring of the underground water quality assumes importance because of the increasing use of it for the different purposes of the contemporaneous society. Different methods for sampling and monitoring of underground water can take to very distinct results. In this way, the present work has as objective to carry out comparative studies among three methods of sampling of underground waters. Bailer, Electric pump of high flowing and pump of low flowing. Quantitative and qualitative sampli...

  1. Personal Dosimetry Enhancement for Underground Workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Thinová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Personal dosimetry for underground workers mainly concerns measurement of the concentration of radon (and its daughters and the correct application of the data in dose calculation, using a biokinetic model for lung dosimetry. A conservative approach for estimating the potential dose in caves (or underground is based on solid state alpha track detector measurements. The obtained dataset is converted into an annual effective dose in agreement with the ICRP recommendations using the “cave factor”, the value of which depends on the spectrum of aerosol particles, or on the proportional representation of the unattached and the attached fraction and on the equilibrium factor. The main difference between apartments and caves is the absence of aerosol sources, high humidity, low ventilation rate and the uneven surface in caves. A more precisely determined dose value would have a significant impact on radon remedies or on restricting the time workers stay underground. In order to determine  how the effective dose is calculated, it is necessary to divide these areas into distinct categories by the following measuring procedures: continual radon measurement (to capture the differences in EERC between working hours and night-time, and also between daily and seasonal radon concentration variations; regular measurements of radon and its daughters to estimate the equilibrium factor and the presence of 218Po; regular indoor air flow measurements to study the location of the radon supply and its transfer among individual areas of the cave; natural radioactive element content evaluation in subsoils and in water inside/outside, a study of the radon sources in the cave; aerosol particle-size spectrum measurements to determine the free fraction; monitoring the behaviour of guides and workers to record the actual time spent in the cave, in relation to the continuously monitored levels of Rn concentration. 

  2. Low energy neutron background in deep underground laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Andreas; Görres, Joachim; Junker, Matthias; Kratz, Karl-Ludwig; Laubenstein, Matthias; Long, Alexander; Nisi, Stefano; Smith, Karl; Wiescher, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The natural neutron background influences the maximum achievable sensitivity in most deep underground nuclear, astroparticle and double-beta decay physics experiments. Reliable neutron flux numbers are an important ingredient in the design of the shielding of new large-scale experiments as well as in the analysis of experimental data. Using a portable setup of 3He counters we measured the thermal neutron flux at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility, the Soudan Underground Laboratory, on the 4100 ft and the 4850 ft levels of the Sanford Underground Research Facility, at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory. Absolute neutron fluxes at these laboratories are presented.

  3. Entrepreneurial Opportunity in Denmark’s Underground Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaei, Shahamak; Dana, L-P; Vang, Jan;

    Based on interviews with immigrants to Denmark, meetings with stakeholders and with experts in the field, this article addresses issues regarding the underground economy in Denmark. What circumstances and factors characterise specific sectors or breaches to the ones in which undocumented immigran...... participate in underground economic activities? Is the underground economy a pull factor for irregular/undocumented migration?......Based on interviews with immigrants to Denmark, meetings with stakeholders and with experts in the field, this article addresses issues regarding the underground economy in Denmark. What circumstances and factors characterise specific sectors or breaches to the ones in which undocumented immigrants...

  4. Low energy neutron background in deep underground laboratories

    CERN Document Server

    Best, Andreas; Junker, Matthias; Kratz, Karl-Ludwig; Laubenstein, Matthias; Long, Alexander; Nisi, Stefano; Smith, Karl; Wiescher, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The natural neutron background influences the maximum achievable sensitivity in most deep underground nuclear, astroparticle and double-beta decay physics experiments. Reliable neutron flux numbers are an important ingredient in the design of the shielding of new large-scale experiments as well as in the analysis of experimental data. Using a portable setup of He-3 counters we measured the thermal neutron flux at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility, the Soudan Underground Laboratory, on the 4100 ft and the 4850 ft levels of the Sanford Underground Research Facility, at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory. Absolute neutron fluxes at these laboratories are presented.

  5. VIRTUS. Virtual underground laboratory in rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germany does not have an underground laboratory to study the behavior of geological formations for the use as final repository for radioactive high-level wastes. VIRTUS was developed to have an adequate tool to study the complex and safety relevant processes in geological structures for a fast and effective planning and testing of final repository design. The three-dimensional visualization of the numerical simulations results will help n the scientists and the interested public to understand the process flows in a final repository.

  6. 100-N Area underground storage tank closures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the removal/characterization actions concerning underground storage tanks (UST) at the 100-N Area. Included are 105-N-LFT, 182-N-1-DT, 182-N-2-DT, 182-N-3-DT, 100-N-SS-27, and 100-N-SS-28. The text of this report gives a summary of remedial activities. In addition, correspondence relating to UST closures can be found in Appendix B. Appendix C contains copies of Unusual Occurrence Reports, and validated sampling data results comprise Appendix D

  7. Underground-brändien rakentuminen

    OpenAIRE

    Hänninen, Johanna

    2010-01-01

    Markkinajohtajuudesta eri toimialoilla taistelevat usein suuret ja kauan toiminnassa olleet brändit, joiden haastaminen saattaa olla vaikeaa. Brändinrakennus kannattaakin suunnata näiden suurien brändien väliin jääviin tyhjiin markkinarakoihin. Yksi esimerkki tällaisesta hyvin hyödynnetystä markkinaraosta ovat underground-brändit, joiden brändinrakennuksen lähtökohtana ei ole kilpailla toimialan suurien brändien kanssa, vaan hallita omaa markkinarakoaan kohdennetulla tarjonnallaan. Niiden tav...

  8. Procedure for producing petroleum from underground formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to win hydrocarbons from underground formations an aqueous stopper can be introduced into a borehole to displace the hydrocarbons and to obtain them through a production borehole. Hereby the viscosity and density of the displacing solution is important. Most suitable is a water-soluble, practically linear polymer of high molecular weight. The paper describes new procedures for obtaining such polymer: When adding salts and when exposed to γ rays a higher percent monomer transformation to the desired polymer takes place within a shorter time. 75 examples are given to get the desired solution. (HK)

  9. Underground coal gasification. Gasificacion subterranea del carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Amor, G.; Obis, A. (ITGE, Madrid (Spain))

    1990-07-01

    In spite of the low price of both oil and gas, underground coal gasification is still an attractive option because of the possibility for exploiting coal which it would be uneconomic to mine by conventional methods. New technology has recently made gasification into a reality and methods have been developed to gasify both deep and superficial inclined seams. Recent tests in nearly level seams in the USA have been successful so that the process has become competitive in spite of current oil prices. 3 figs.

  10. The homestake surface-underground scintillations: Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbato, S.; Daily, T.; Fenyves, E. J.; Kieda, D.; Cherry, M. L.; Lande, K.; Lee, C. K.

    1985-01-01

    Two new detectors are currently under construction at the Homestake Gold Mine a 140-ton Large Area Scintillation Detector (LASD) with an upper surface area of 130 square meters, a geometry factor (for an isotropic flux) of 1200 square meters, sr, and a depth of 4200 m.w.e.; and a surface air shower array consisting of 100 scintillator elements, each 3 square meters, spanning an area of approximately square kilometers. Underground, half of the LASD is currently running and collecting muon data; on the surface, the first section of the air shower array will begin operation in the spring of 1985. The detectors and their capabilities are described.

  11. Homestake surface-underground scintillations: description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two new detectors are currently under construction at the Homestake Gold Mine, a 140-ton Large Area Scintillation Detector (LASD) with an upper surface area of 130 square meters a geometry factor (for an isotropic flux) of 1200 square meters sr, and a depth of 4200 m.w.e.; and a surface air shower array consisting of 100 scintillator elements, each 3 square meters. Underground, half of the LASD is currently running and collecting muon data; on the surface, the first section of the air shower array will begin operation in the spring of 1985. The detectors and their capabilities are described

  12. Monopoles and the Homestake underground scintillation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Together, the two new Homestake detectors will be used to search for slow, massive magnetic monopoles; to study the zenith angle distribution of neutrino-induced muons; to search for neutrino bursts from the gravitational collapse of massive stars; to measure the multiplicity and transverse momentum distributions of cosmic ray muons; and to study the composition of the primary cosmic rays. Both instruments have been described in detail elsewhere; the authors discuss here the capabilities of the underground device as a detector of slow magnetic monopoles

  13. Bioclimatic underground architecture: Development and principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojić Jasmina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The principal idea of paper lies in analyzing contemporary architectural challenges, concerning climate changes, global warming, renewable energy deficiency and population growth. The relevant examples and principles of sustainable and selfsustainable architecture development throughout history are presented. Underground structures as passive solar systems, vegetation used as insulation, ventilation and isolation are given as one of possible solutions for this global phenomenon. By studying the model of Nature, certain solutions imitating systems and laws of flora and fauna are given that will insure the necessary savings of non-renewable energy during the building construction and their later energy consumption.

  14. Physicochemical bases of underground leaching process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physicochemical bases of uranium underground leaching (UL) from ores are considered. The UL process is generally characterized. Advantages and disadvantages of acidic and carbonate leaching techniques are discussed. UO2 oxidation and solution using oxygen and MnO2 as oxidizers in the presence of 3+Fe catalysts and nitrogen oxides, are considered. The data on the solvent interaction with ore and enclosing rock components are given. The mechanisms and kinetic regularities of extracting uranium from ores with natural and artificial permeability are described as well as the mechanisms and kinetic regularities of the process of dissolved uranium absorption by ore-free rocks

  15. The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Akerib, D. S.; Bai, X.; S. Bedikian; Bernard, E.; Bernstein, A.; Bolozdynya, A.; Bradley, A; Byram, D.; Cahn, S. B.; Van Camp, C.; Carmona-Benitez, M. C.; Carr, D.; Chapman, J. J.; Chiller, A.; Chiller, C.

    2012-01-01

    The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) collaboration has designed and constructed a dual-phase xenon detector, in order to conduct a search for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles(WIMPs), a leading dark matter candidate. The goal of the LUX detector is to clearly detect (or exclude) WIMPS with a spin independent cross section per nucleon of $2\\times 10^{-46}$ cm$^{2}$, equivalent to $\\sim$1 event/100 kg/month in the inner 100-kg fiducial volume (FV) of the 370-kg detector. The overall background ...

  16. 100-N Area underground storage tank closures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, C.A.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the removal/characterization actions concerning underground storage tanks (UST) at the 100-N Area. Included are 105-N-LFT, 182-N-1-DT, 182-N-2-DT, 182-N-3-DT, 100-N-SS-27, and 100-N-SS-28. The text of this report gives a summary of remedial activities. In addition, correspondence relating to UST closures can be found in Appendix B. Appendix C contains copies of Unusual Occurrence Reports, and validated sampling data results comprise Appendix D.

  17. Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory: Status and Prospectives

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is a 20 kton liquid scintillator (LS) detector, which is planed to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and measure the oscillation parameters at the sub-percent level using reactor antineutrino oscillations. As a multipurpose neutrino experiment, JUNO is also capable of measuring supernova burst neutrinos, the diffuse supernova neutrino background, geo-neutrinos, solar neutrinos and atmospheric neutrinos. After a brief introduction to the physics motivation, we discuss the status of the JUNO project, including the design of the detector systems. Finally the latest civil progress and future prospectives are also highlighted.

  18. Fire extinguishing in goaf of underground mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Privalov, N.I.; Belik, I.P.; Krupka, A.A.; Taratuta, S.N. (VNIIGD (USSR))

    1990-09-01

    Discusses a scheme developed by the VNIIGD institute for fire fighting in underground coal mines with or without fire hazards. Inert gases are used for fire extinguishing. The following aspects of fire fighting are discussed: isolation of a mine zone with a developing fire, position of ventilation barriers, other methods for control of air leaks, position of the GIG-4 inert gas generator, supply of inert gases to a fire center, position of blowers, operation of an automatic system for analysis of fire gases and for measuring concentration of individual components, automatic control of inert gas supply. A scheme of the system is discussed.

  19. EAS selection in the EMMA underground array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarkamo, J.; Bezrukov, L.; Enqvist, T.;

    2013-01-01

    The first measurements of the Experiment with MultiMuon Array (EMMA) have been analyzed for the selection of the Extensive Air Showers (EAS). Test data were recorded with an underground muon tracking station and a satellite station separated laterally by 10 metres. Events with tracks distributed...... over all of the tracking detector area and even extending over to the satellite station are identified as EAS. The recorded multiplicity spectrum of the events is in general agreement with CORSIKA EAS simulation and demonstrates the array's capability of EAS detection....

  20. Signatures of aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornwall, J.; Dyson, F.; Garwin, R.; Hammer, D.; Happer, W.; Lewis, N.; Schwitters, R.; Sullivan, J.; Williams, E.

    1998-01-06

    The Department of Energy and its three weapons laboratories (LANL, LLNL, and SNL) have developed a Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program (SSMP) in response to their designated mission of maintaining an effective, i.e. reliable and safe, nuclear deterrent without underground nuclear tests (UGTs). The need to ensure the effectiveness of an aging stockpile presents new challenges of major importance. In this study we review what is known about the aging of critical constituents, particularly the high explosives, polymers, and metals in the enduring stockpile. We discuss data that are required to provide a fuller understanding of aging, and how to obtain that data as a basis for anticipating and addressing potential stockpile problems. Our particular concern is problems that may arise in the short term, i.e. within the next 5 to 10 years, and their implied requirements for preventive maintenance and remanufacture.

  1. Telework and the Information Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanworth, Celia

    1998-01-01

    Review of Information Age literature found not enough evidence that information industries will reenergize economies or provide high-quality jobs. Virtual organizations are hard to identify. Women do the bulk of low-skill, low-paying telework jobs, reinforcing sex roles and class divisions. Remote workers are often vulnerable and cut off from…

  2. Responding during reinforcement delay in a self-control paradigm.

    OpenAIRE

    Logue, A. W.; Peña-Correal, T E

    1984-01-01

    Eight pigeons chose between a small, immediate reinforcer and a large, increasingly delayed reinforcer. Responding during the large-reinforcer delays was examined. During large-reinforcer delays, pecks on one key produced the small, immediate reinforcer; pecks on the other key had no effect. Thus, a pigeon could reverse its initial choice of the large, delayed reinforcer, or it could maintain its original choice. Pigeons that made a relatively high number of initial large-reinforcer choices t...

  3. Internal inspection of reinforced concrete for nuclear structures using shear wave tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Aging of reinforced concrete used for worldwide nuclear structures is increasing and necessitating evaluation. • Nondestructive evaluation is a tool for assessing the condition of reinforced concrete of nuclear structures. • Ultrasonic shear wave tomography as a stress wave technique has begun to be utilized for investigation of concrete material. • A study using ultrasonic shear wave tomography indicates anomalies vital to the long-term operation of the structure. • The use of this technique has shown to successfully evaluate the internal state of reinforced concrete members. - Abstract: Reinforced concrete is important for nuclear related structures. Therefore, the integrity of structural members consisting of reinforced concrete is germane to the safe operation and longevity of these facilities. Many issues that reduce the likelihood of safe operation and longevity are not visible on the surface of reinforced concrete material. Therefore, an investigation of reinforced concrete material should include techniques which will allow peering into the concrete member and determining its internal state. The performance of nondestructive evaluations is pursuant to this goal. Some of the categories of nondestructive evaluations are electrochemical, magnetism, ground penetrating radar, and ultrasonic testing. A specific ultrasonic testing technique, namely ultrasonic shear wave tomography, is used to determine presence and extent of voids, honeycombs, cracks perpendicular to the surface, and/or delamination. This technique, and others similar to it, has been utilized in the nuclear industry to determine structural conditions

  4. Probability distribution of pitting corrosion depth and rate in underground pipelines: A Monte Carlo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The probability distributions of external-corrosion pit depth and pit growth rate were investigated in underground pipelines using Monte Carlo simulations. The study combines a predictive pit growth model developed by the authors with the observed distributions of the model variables in a range of soils. Depending on the pipeline age, any of the three maximal extreme value distributions, i.e. Weibull, Frechet or Gumbel, can arise as the best fit to the pitting depth and rate data. The Frechet distribution best fits the corrosion data for long exposure periods. This can be explained by considering the long-term stabilization of the diffusion-controlled pit growth. The findings of the study provide reliability analysts with accurate information regarding the stochastic characteristics of the pitting damage in underground pipelines.

  5. Probability distribution of pitting corrosion depth and rate in underground pipelines: A Monte Carlo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caleyo, F. [Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, ESIQIE, IPN, UPALM Edif. 7, Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: fcaleyo@gmail.com; Velazquez, J.C. [Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, ESIQIE, IPN, UPALM Edif. 7, Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Valor, A. [Facultad de Fisica, Universidad de La Habana, San Lazaro y L, Vedado, 10400, La Habana (Cuba); Hallen, J.M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, ESIQIE, IPN, UPALM Edif. 7, Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    The probability distributions of external-corrosion pit depth and pit growth rate were investigated in underground pipelines using Monte Carlo simulations. The study combines a predictive pit growth model developed by the authors with the observed distributions of the model variables in a range of soils. Depending on the pipeline age, any of the three maximal extreme value distributions, i.e. Weibull, Frechet or Gumbel, can arise as the best fit to the pitting depth and rate data. The Frechet distribution best fits the corrosion data for long exposure periods. This can be explained by considering the long-term stabilization of the diffusion-controlled pit growth. The findings of the study provide reliability analysts with accurate information regarding the stochastic characteristics of the pitting damage in underground pipelines.

  6. Structure and properties of textile reinforced concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Volkova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the structure and properties of textile-reinforced concrete were investigated. Two types of high strength reinforcing fabrics made of glass and carbon rovings were used in this study. The samples of textile-reinforced concrete were produced. The mechanical properties of the developed samples were determined via a three-point bending test. The maximum flexural strength and reinforcement efficiency were calculated. It was found that the samples with textile reinforcement have higher strength characteristics as compared to nonreinforced concrete. Furthermore, the deformation behavior of reinforced concrete was analyzed. The advantage is in higher residual load-bearing capacity, which allows maintaining the integrity of the structure.

  7. The thermal regime of underground storage facility for heat-generating radiation hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a model case study the authors have chosen the theoretical development carried out by experts of the Mining Institute KSC RAS concerning design-layout of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) underground storage facility. The object is to be modelled in the rock mass at a depth of 100 m using artificial (reinforced concrete canisters, built-in reinforced concrete constructions) and natural (rock) protection barriers. The fuel storage time is 50 years. And it is necessary to provide both reliability and lifetime of the storage facility and SNF decay-heat removal. Heat removal should be arranged in order to exclude possible overheating (source surface 358 K, granite 373) as well as to guarantee none of high temperature gradients in the protection constructions. The work is aimed at: (1) showing possibilities of thermal regime modelling for extremely important facility using COMSOL software; (2) determining degree of model thermophysical parameters impact and values of air consumption on the SNF longterm storage facility thermal regime. (orig.)

  8. Underground nuclear explosions at Astrakhan, USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, I.Y.

    1982-08-13

    The three underground nuclear explosions recorded in 1980 and 1981 by Hagfors Observatory in Sweden are in the vicinity of Astrakhan on the Caspian Sea. They are believed to be associated with the development of a gas condensate field discovered in 1973. The gas producing horizons are in limestones at 4000 m depth. They are overlain by bedded, Kungarian salts. Salt domes are recognized in the area. Plans to develop the field are contained in the 11th Five Year Plan (1981-82). The USSR has solicited bids from western contractors to build gas separation and gas processing plant with an annual capacity of 6 billion m/sup 3/. Ultimate expansion plans call for three plants with the total capacity of 18 billion m/sup 3/. By analogy with similar peaceful nuclear explosions described in 1975 by the Soviets at another gas condensate field, the underground cavities are probably designed for storage of unstable, sour condensate after initial separation from the gaseous phases in the field. Assuming that the medium surrounding the explosions is salt, the volume of each cavity is on the order of 50,000 m/sup 3/.

  9. An Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Characterization Data and Technology Development Needs Assessment provides direct support to the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID). Key users of the study's products may also include individuals and programs within the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Office of Waste Operations (EM-30), and the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40). The goal of this work is to provide the UST-ID with a procedure for allocating funds across competing characterization technologies in a timely and defensible manner. It resulted in three primary products: 1. It organizes and summarizes information on underground storage tank characterization data needs. 2. It describes current technology development activity related to each need and flags areas where technology development may be beneficial. 3. It presents a decision process, with supporting software, for evaluating, prioritizing, and integrating possible technology development funding packages. The data presented in this document can be readily updated as the needs of the Waste Operations and Environmental Restoration programs mature and as new and promising technology development options emerge

  10. Inter-disciplinary Interactions in Underground Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. S.; Bettini, A.

    2010-12-01

    Many of underground facilities, ranging from simple cavities to fully equipped laboratories, have been established worldwide (1) to evaluate the impacts of emplacing nuclear wastes in underground research laboratories (URLs) and (2) to measure rare physics events in deep underground laboratories (DULs). In this presentation, we compare similarities and differences between URLs and DULs in focus of site characterization, in quantification of quietness, and in improvement of signal to noise ratios. The nuclear waste URLs are located primarily in geological medium with potentials for slow flow/transport and long isolation. The URL medium include plastic salt, hard rock, soft clay, volcanic tuff, basalt and shale, at over ~500 m where waste repositories are envisioned to be excavated. The majority of URLs are dedicated facilities excavated after extensive site characterization. The focuses are on fracture distributions, heterogeneity, scaling, coupled processes, and other fundamental issues of earth sciences. For the physics DULs, the depth/overburden thickness is the main parameter that determines the damping of cosmic rays, and that, consequently, should be larger than, typically, 800m. Radioactivity from rocks, neutron flux, and radon gas, depending on local rock and ventilation conditions (largely independent of depth), are also characterized at different sites to quantify the background level for physics experiments. DULs have been constructed by excavating dedicated experimental halls and service cavities near to a road tunnel (horizontal access) or in a mine (vertical access). Cavities at shallower depths are suitable for experiments on neutrinos from artificial source, power reactors or accelerators. Rocks stability (depth dependent), safe access, and utility supply are among factors of main concerns for DULs. While the focuses and missions of URLs and DULs are very different, common experience and lessons learned may be useful for ongoing development of new

  11. Reinforcement learning and its application to Othello

    OpenAIRE

    Wezel, Michiel; van Eck, Nees Jan

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIn this article we describe reinforcement learning, a machine learning technique for solving sequential decision problems. We describe how reinforcement learning can be combined with function approximation to get approximate solutions for problems with very large state spaces. One such problem is the board game Othello, with a state space size of approximately 1028. We apply reinforcement learning to this problem via a computer program that learns a strategy (or policy) for Othell...

  12. Reinforcement learning and its application to Othello

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    In this article we describe reinforcement learning, a machine learning technique for solving sequential decision problems. We describe how reinforcement learning can be combined with function approximation to get approximate solutions for problems with very large state spaces. One such problem is the board game Othello, with a state space size of approximately 1028. We apply reinforcement learning to this problem via a computer program that learns a strategy (or policy) for Othello by playing...

  13. Concrete and reinforced concrete - glance at future

    OpenAIRE

    Tamrazyan Ashot Georgievich

    2014-01-01

    In the article the information on the upcoming international conference on concrete and reinforced concrete is offered. The aim of the conference is stated, as well as the main points of the program, composition of the conference, the papers’ subject is disclosed. The author highlights the effect of reinforced concrete invention on the world civilization development. According to the author’s point of view, today reinforced concrete became one of the most evident means of the world developmen...

  14. Token reinforcement and resistance to change

    OpenAIRE

    Thrailkill, Eric A

    2013-01-01

    Interventions based on a token economy effectively reduce problematic behavior. Yet, treatment gains deteriorate once an intervention is discontinued. It is important to better understand the persistence of behavior maintained by token reinforcement in simple experimental procedures. A Pavlovian association with primary reinforcement is said to endow neutral stimuli (e.g., coins, poker chips, lights, signs, stickers, etc.) with their own function to strengthen behavior as conditioned reinforc...

  15. The mechanics of fibre-reinforced sand

    OpenAIRE

    Dos Santos, APS; Consoli, NC; Baudet, BA

    2010-01-01

    Fibres can be an effective means of reinforcing soils. This paper presents data from laboratory triaxial tests on quartzitic sand reinforced with polypropylene fibres. By keeping the studied composite consistent throughout the study (host sand and fibre characteristics kept constant), it has been possible to develop a framework of behaviour for the sand-fibre material, which provides a solid base for future research on fibre-reinforced soils. Data from previous work and from new tests have be...

  16. Behavior of reinforced concrete at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study is presented concerning the behavior of reinforced concrete sections at elevated temperatures. Material properties of concrete and reinforcing steel are discussed. Behavior studies are made by means of moment-curvature-axial force relationships. Particular attention is given to the load carrying capacity, thermal forces and moments, and deformation capacity. The effects on these properties of variations in the strength properties, the temperature level and distribution, the amount of reinforcing steel, and limiting values of strains are considered

  17. Equivalence relations and the reinforcement contingency.

    OpenAIRE

    Sidman, M

    2000-01-01

    Where do equivalence relations come from? One possible answer is that they arise directly from the reinforcement contingency. That is to say, a reinforcement contingency produces two types of outcome: (a) 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, or n-term units of analysis that are known, respectively, as operant reinforcement, simple discrimination, conditional discrimination, second-order conditional discrimination, and so on; and (b) equivalence relations that consist of ordered pairs of all positive elements that...

  18. Reinforcement learning in repeated portfolio decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Diao, Linan; Rieskamp, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    How do people make investment decisions when they receive outcome feedback? We examined how well the standard mean-variance model and two reinforcement models predict people's portfolio decisions. The basic reinforcement model predicts a learning process that relies solely on the portfolio's overall return, whereas the proposed extended reinforcement model also takes the risk and covariance of the investments into account. The experimental results illustrate that people reacted sensitively to...

  19. Nonlinear Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Column with Fiber Reinforced Polymer Bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Subramani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the results of an analytical investigation on the behaviour of RC columns reinforced with fibber reinforced polymer bars FRP are presented and discussed. Nonlinear finite element analysis on 10-column specimens was achieved by using ANSYS software. The nonlinear finite element analysis program ANSYS is utilized owing to its capabilities to predict either the response of reinforced concrete columns in the post-elastic range or the ultimate strength of a reinforced concrete columns reinforced by FRP bars. An extensive set of parameters is investigated including different main reinforcement ratios, main reinforcement types (GFRP, Steel, the transverse reinforcement ratios, and the characteristic compressive strength of concrete. A comparison between the experimental results and those predicted by the existing models are presented. Results and conclusions may be useful for designers, have been raised, and represented.

  20. Enhancing corrosion resistance of reinforced concrete structures with hybrid fiber reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Reinforced concrete beams were subjected to cyclic flexural loading. • Hybrid fiber reinforced composites were effective in reducing corrosion rates. • Crack resistance due to fibers increased corrosion resistance of steel rebar. • Galvanic corrosion measurements underestimated corrosion rates. • Polarization resistance measurements predicted mass loss more accurately. - Abstract: Service loads well below the yield strength of steel reinforcing bars lead to cracking of reinforced concrete. This paper investigates whether the crack resistance of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concrete (HyFRC) reduces the corrosion rate of steel reinforcing bars in concrete after cyclic flexural loading. The reinforcing bars were extracted to examine their surface for corrosion and compare microcell and macrocell corrosion mass loss estimates against direct gravimetric measurements. A delay in corrosion initiation and lower active corrosion rates were observed in the HyFRC beam specimens when compared to reinforced specimens containing plain concrete matrices cycled at the same flexural load

  1. Mechanical characterization of fiber reinforced Polymer Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marciano Laredo dos Reis

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study between epoxy Polymer Concrete plain, reinforced with carbon and glass fibers and commercial concrete mixes was made. The fibers are 6 mm long and the fiber content was 2% and 1%, respectively, in mass. Compressive tests were performed at room temperature and load vs. displacement curves were plotted up to failure. The carbon and glass fibers reinforcement were randomly dispersed into the matrix of polymer concrete. An increase in compressive properties was observed as function of reinforcement. The comparison also showed that Polymer Concrete, plain and reinforced, has a better performance than regular market concrete, suggesting that PC is a reliable alternative for construction industry.

  2. Effects of reinforcement history on responding under progressive-ratio schedules of reinforcement.

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, S L; Pedersen, J.; Kinney, G G; Myers, J.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of experimental history on responding under a progressive-ratio schedule of reinforcement were examined. Sixteen pigeons were divided into four equal groups. Groups 1 to 3 were trained to peck a key for food under a fixed-ratio, variable-ratio, or differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate schedule of reinforcement. After training, these pigeons were shifted to a progressive-ratio schedule, later were shifted back to their original schedule (with decreased rates of reinforcement), and...

  3. DUCTILITY BEHAVIOR FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS STRENGTHENED WITH EXTERNALLY BONDED GLASS FIBER REINFORCED POLYMER LAMINATES

    OpenAIRE

    Mariappan Mahalingam; Ragunath Pulipakka Narashima Rao; Suguna Kannan

    2013-01-01

    The study presents the results of an experimental investigation conducted on Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete (SFRC) beams with externally bonded Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) laminates with a view to study their strength and ductility. A total of ten beams, 150Ã250 mm in cross-section were tested in the laboratory over an effective span of 2800 mm. Three fiber reinforced concrete beams were used as reference beams. Six fiber reinforced concrete beams were provided with externally bond...

  4. Strength Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Beam with Externally Bonded FRP Reinforcement

    OpenAIRE

    N. Pannirselvam; P. N. Ragunath; Suguna, K

    2008-01-01

    This research study presents the evaluation of the structural behaviour of reinforced concrete beams with externally bonded Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) reinforcements. Three different steel ratios with two different Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) types and two different thicknesses in each type of GFRP were used. Totally fifteen rectangular beams of 3 m length were cast. Three rectangular beams were used as reference beam (Control Beams) and the remaining were fixed with GFRP lamina...

  5. Nonlinear Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Column with Fiber Reinforced Polymer Bars

    OpenAIRE

    T.Subramani; Reni Kuruvilla

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the results of an analytical investigation on the behaviour of RC columns reinforced with fibber reinforced polymer bars FRP are presented and discussed. Nonlinear finite element analysis on 10-column specimens was achieved by using ANSYS software. The nonlinear finite element analysis program ANSYS is utilized owing to its capabilities to predict either the response of reinforced concrete columns in the post-elastic range or the ultimate strength of a reinforced...

  6. MODELING THE EFFECTS OF SENSORY REINFORCERS ON BEHAVIORAL PERSISTENCE WITH ALTERNATIVE REINFORCEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Sweeney, Mary M.; Moore, Keira; Shahan, Timothy A; Ahearn, William H; Dube, William V; Nevin, John A

    2014-01-01

    Problem behavior often has sensory consequences that cannot be separated from the target response, even if external, social reinforcers are removed during treatment. Because sensory reinforcers that accompany socially mediated problem behavior may contribute to persistence and relapse, research must develop analog sensory reinforcers that can be experimentally manipulated. In this research, we devised analogs to sensory reinforcers in order to control for their presence and determine how sens...

  7. The paradox of preference for unreliable reinforcement: The role of context and conditioned reinforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Lalli, Joseph S.; Mauro, Benjamin C

    1995-01-01

    We discuss Belke and Spetch's (1994) work on choice between reliable and unreliable reinforcement. The studies by Belke and Spetch extend a line of basic research demonstrating that under certain experimental conditions in a concurrent chains procedure, pigeons prefer an alternative that produces unreliable reinforcement. The authors describe the variables that influence preference for unreliable reinforcement, including the signaling and the duration of the reinforcement schedules, the conte...

  8. Assessment of adhesive setting time in reinforced concrete beams strengthened with carbon fibre reinforced polymer laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► This study investigated the effect of adhesive setting time on the modal parameters. ► Modal parameters recommend the 18th day as the maturity age of the adhesive. ► Static data recommend 7th day as the maturity age of the adhesive. ► Setting time affects the modal parameters as tool for assessment repaired structures. ► Carrying the modal parameters after 1st day results in 55% loss of the actual improvement. -- Abstract: The strengthened effectiveness and the performance capacity of repaired Reinforced Concrete (RC) structures with Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) sheets is dependent on the properties of the adhesive interface layer. Adhesive material requires a specific setting time to achieve the maximum design capacity. Adhesive producer provides technical data which demonstrates the increase with time of the capacity, up to the maximum. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the adhesive setting time on the modal parameters as an indication of the effectiveness of CFRP on repaired RC beams. Firstly, datum modal parameters were determined on the undamaged beam and subsequently the parameters were obtained when damaged was induced on the RC beam by application of load until the appearance of the first crack. Finally, the RC beam is repaired with externally bonded CFRP sheets, and modal parameters are once again applied after 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 11, 15 and 18 days. The comparison is made with the data based on half day results in order to monitor the change in the modal parameters corresponding to the adhesive setting time. The modal parameters where used as indicators for the effectiveness of CFRP are affected by the adhesive time as shown in this study. Results are compared with the adhesive technical data provided by the adhesive producer.

  9. On Future Coal Mining and Human Underground Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Petras, L.

    1980-01-01

    The IIASA Research Program for 1980 includes two Industry Studies under the general heading "Issues for the Eighties". The first of these industry studies is in Coal, in particular hard coal mining underground. This Professional Paper provides background material for a discussion of new mining technologies, e.g., robot mining devices, to be considered in the context of anticipated shortage of underground manpower.

  10. Urban Underground Pipelines Mapping Using Ground Penetrating Radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underground spaces are now being given attention to exploit for transportation, utilities, and public usage. The underground has become a spider's web of utility networks. Mapping of underground utility pipelines has become a challenging and difficult task. As such, mapping of underground utility pipelines is a ''hit-and-miss'' affair, and results in many catastrophic damages, particularly in urban areas. Therefore, this study was conducted to extract locational information of the urban underground utility pipeline using trenchless measuring tool, namely ground penetrating radar (GPR). The focus of this study was to conduct underground utility pipeline mapping for retrieval of geometry properties of the pipelines, using GPR. In doing this, a series of tests were first conducted at the preferred test site and real-life experiment, followed by modeling of field-based model using Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD). Results provide the locational information of underground utility pipelines associated with its mapping accuracy. Eventually, this locational information of the underground utility pipelines is beneficial to civil infrastructure management and maintenance which in the long term is time-saving and critically important for the development of metropolitan areas

  11. The Stranger Within: Dostoevsky's Underground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In Fyodor Dostoevsky's influential novel "Notes from underground", we find one of the most memorable characters in nineteenth century literature. The Underground Man, around whom everything else in this book revolves, is in some respects utterly repugnant: he is self-centred, obsessive and cruel. Yet he is also highly intelligent,…

  12. Use of a Sheath in Concealing Underground Explosions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Viswanathan

    1966-10-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical formula is obtained for the decoupling of the seismic signals from underground explosions due to the introduction of a sheath of a stronger material on the cavity walls. The elastic-elastic decoupling clearly enhances the value of the elastic-nonelastic decoupling factor already known. The theory has applications in the concealing of underground nuclear and chemical explosions.

  13. Magneto-Inductive Underground Communications in a District Heating System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meybodi, Soroush Afkhami; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon;

    2011-01-01

    Feasibility of underground data communications is investigated by employing magnetic induction as the key technology at physical layer. Realizing an underground wireless sensor network for a district heating plant motivates this research problem. The main contribution of the paper is to find the ...

  14. Noncontingent Reinforcement, Alternative Reinforcement, and the Matching Law: A Laboratory Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecott, Cheryl L.; Critchfield, Thomas S.

    2004-01-01

    Basic researchers, but not most applied researchers, have assumed that the behavior-decelerating effects of noncontingent reinforcement result at least partly from adventitious reinforcement of competing behaviors. The literature contains only sketchy evidence of these effects because few noncontingent reinforcement studies measure alternative…

  15. Reinforcement Delay Fading during Differential Reinforcement of Communication: The Effects of Signals on Response Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michael E.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Fisher, Wayne W.; Roane, Henry S.; Zangrillo, Amanda N.

    2011-01-01

    Signals during delays to reinforcement may lessen reductions in responding that typically occur when there is a delay between a response and its reinforcer. Sparse applied research has been devoted to understanding the conditions under which responding may be maintained when delays to reinforcement are introduced. We evaluated the extent to which…

  16. Reinforcement learning or active inference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friston, Karl J; Daunizeau, Jean; Kiebel, Stefan J

    2009-01-01

    This paper questions the need for reinforcement learning or control theory when optimising behaviour. We show that it is fairly simple to teach an agent complicated and adaptive behaviours using a free-energy formulation of perception. In this formulation, agents adjust their internal states and sampling of the environment to minimize their free-energy. Such agents learn causal structure in the environment and sample it in an adaptive and self-supervised fashion. This results in behavioural policies that reproduce those optimised by reinforcement learning and dynamic programming. Critically, we do not need to invoke the notion of reward, value or utility. We illustrate these points by solving a benchmark problem in dynamic programming; namely the mountain-car problem, using active perception or inference under the free-energy principle. The ensuing proof-of-concept may be important because the free-energy formulation furnishes a unified account of both action and perception and may speak to a reappraisal of the role of dopamine in the brain. PMID:19641614

  17. Reinforcement learning or active inference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl J Friston

    Full Text Available This paper questions the need for reinforcement learning or control theory when optimising behaviour. We show that it is fairly simple to teach an agent complicated and adaptive behaviours using a free-energy formulation of perception. In this formulation, agents adjust their internal states and sampling of the environment to minimize their free-energy. Such agents learn causal structure in the environment and sample it in an adaptive and self-supervised fashion. This results in behavioural policies that reproduce those optimised by reinforcement learning and dynamic programming. Critically, we do not need to invoke the notion of reward, value or utility. We illustrate these points by solving a benchmark problem in dynamic programming; namely the mountain-car problem, using active perception or inference under the free-energy principle. The ensuing proof-of-concept may be important because the free-energy formulation furnishes a unified account of both action and perception and may speak to a reappraisal of the role of dopamine in the brain.

  18. Polymer nanocomposites reinforced with montmorillonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Dobrzański

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Light microscope with polarized light has been used for observation layered zone, visible thanks to polarization of the light, inside polymer-polymer composites and nanocomposites Aim of work has been concentrated on investigation of nanocomposites as promising engineering materials, basing on composition of polypropylene and montmorillonite as reinforcement in the shape of nanoparticles of 2:1 silicate.Design/methodology/approach: Conventional and non-conventional injection molding process has been used for obtaining nanocomposites. In non-conventional process has been used the special mold for inducing the shear rates, additionally equipped with external computer to control melt manipulation of solidifying polymer inside mold cavityFindings: Highly developed structure consisted of multilayer zone between skin and core mainly responsible for reinforcement and improvement of fracture toughness of polymer composites and nanocompositesResearch limitations/implications: Nanocomposites of polymer blends and montmorillonite were moulded by direct injection moulding according to melt temperature and stroke time-number combination included in design of experiments.Practical implications: Application of special injection moulding technique provides to structure development and gives possibility to create multilayer zone, which strengthen material. Besides strengthening obtaining of such nanocomposites is cheap thanks to application of low cost injection moulding technique and not expensive polyolefines with developed structure, without using additional fillers (e.g. compatybilizers.Originality/value: Very wide application of polymer composites and nanocomposites as engineering materials used for various industries like building engineering, automotive and aerospace

  19. Planning geological underground repositories - Communicating with society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project 'Planning geological underground repositories: Communicating with society', financed by the Swiss Federal Office for Energy, aimed at identifying basic principles for an appropriate information and communication strategy in the process of finding an underground site to store radioactive wastes. The topic concerns an issue increasingly discussed in modern societies: How to improve the dialogue between science, infrastructure operators, public authorities, groups in civil society and the population to answer complex problems? Against this background, in the project the following questions were taken into account: (i) How can the dialogue between science, politics, economy, and the (non-)organised public be arranged appropriately? Which principles are to be considered in organising this process? How can distrust within the population be reduced and confidence in authorities and scientific expertise be increased? (ii) How can society be integrated in the process of decision-making so that this process is perceived as comprehensible, acceptable and legitimate? To answer these questions, an analysis method based on scientific theory and methodology was developed, which compares national participation and communication processes in finding underground storage sites in selected countries. Case studies have been carried out in Germany, Sweden, Belgium, and Switzerland. By using specific criteria to evaluate communication processes, the strong points as well as the drawbacks of the country-specific concepts of information, communication and participation have been analysed in a comparing dimension. By taking into account the outcomes, prototypical scenarios have been deduced that can serve as a basis for compiling a reference catalogue of measures, which is meant to support the Swiss communication strategy in the finding of an appropriate site for a nuclear waste repository. Following conclusions can be drawn from the international comparison: (i) Open and

  20. Low energy neutron background in deep underground laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural neutron background influences the maximum achievable sensitivity in most deep underground nuclear, astroparticle and double-beta decay physics experiments. Reliable neutron flux numbers are an important ingredient in the design of the shielding of new largescale experiments as well as in the analysis of experimental data. Using a portable setup of 3He counters and polyethylene moderators we measured the thermal and epithermal neutron flux at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility, the Soudan Underground Laboratory, on the 4100 ft and the 4850 ft levels of the Sanford Underground Research Facility, at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory. Absolute neutron fluxes at these laboratories are presented and the consequences for future underground measurements of neutron producing reactions for nuclear astrophysics are discussed. (author)

  1. An investigation into underground navigation using electromagnetic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Tillema, N J

    2000-01-01

    findings. The lateral wave starts at the source underground, travels to the boundary, follows the air-ground boundary and then propagates back into the ground to the receiver antenna. As the wave travels a significant part of its path in air, it was less susceptible to irregularities underground. Measurement of the phase has shown it to be sensitive to errors caused by reflections. This was the reason why reliable information of the phase was not always available during the measurements. The field trials have shown the possibility of using electromagnetic waves to track a moving transmitter underground. Any system that estimates the underground displacement of the transmitter should have two or more receiver antennas. The experiments have shown a possible accuracy of such a system of approximately 2 m or less. This thesis explores the possibility of measuring the movement of an underground transmitter using electromagnetic waves. The displacement of the transmitter was estimated based on the magnitude and pha...

  2. Radon study in underground buildings in Chongqing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon concentration measurements using a scintillation detector were conducted in 51 large underground buildings, which have been used as hotels, entertainment halls, restaurants, shops and factories, etc, in Chongqing, China. The results showed that the radon concentrations in these underground buildings ranged from 3.2 to 616.2 Bqm-3. The arithmetic mean was 57.6 Bqm-3, which was about 4 times as much as the mean radon concentration in ground buildings in Chongqing. The underground buildings with the highest radon concentrations were correlated with the high content of radium-226 in building materials, mechanical ventilation through interior circulatory ducts, underground depth of the building, and particularly, fissures in the walls. Measures of radon mitigation in underground buildings were recommended. (orig.). (3 refs., 5 tabs.)

  3. Underground siting of nuclear power plants: potential benefits and penalties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential for improving nuclear power safety is analyzed by siting plants underground in mined cavities or by covering plants with fill earth after construction in an excavated cut. Potential benefits and penalties of underground plants are referenced to analogous plants located on the surface. Three representative regional sites having requisite underground geology were used to evaluate underground siting. The major factors which were evaluated for all three sites were: (1) containment of radioactive materials, (2) transport of groundwater contamination, and (3) seismic vulnerability. External protection, plant security, feasibility, operational considerations, and cost were evaluated on a generic basis. Additionally, the national availability of sites having the requisite geology for both underground siting concepts was determined

  4. A risk measurement tool for an underground electricity distribution system considering the consequences and uncertainties of manhole events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explores a risk measure of underground vaults that considers the consequences of arc faults. The increasing use of underground systems, together with the aging of networks, the lack of maintenance and interference from other (third party) underground systems nearby have caused many accidents in urban areas, thus endangering human life. The involvement of a large number (hundreds or thousands) of underground vaults with different characteristics, the lack of historical data on modes of failure, the rarity of the occurrence of some faults, the magnitude of their consequences and the involvement of a complex environment surrounding the hazard zone make risk management even more complex and uncertain. Furthermore, given that the (monetary, time, staff, etc.) resources of an electrical power company are limited and scarce, it is necessary to use decision-making tools that aggregate the consequences and the uncertainties to assess the risks jointly with the preference structure of the company, thus solving the problem more realistically. Therefore, this paper puts forward the use of an additional risk analysis for manhole events in underground electrical distribution networks with a view to its being used as a decision aid tool in risk management. As an illustration of the use of the risk measurement tool proposed, a numerical application is presented. The result rather than showing a ranking of underground vaults, gives a measure of the risk used that can show the decision-maker (DM) how much better one group of alternatives (formed by alternatives with quite similar risk values) is than other groups, based on the DM’s attitude to risk and grounded on the axiomatic structure of utility theory. - Highlights: • The paper proposes a risk measure of underground vaults for manhole events. • It makes risk analysis in underground electrical distribution networks. • It makes more than show a risk ranking of underground vaults. • It can show to the DM how

  5. Structural analysis of ORNL underground gunite waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The North Tank Farm (NTF) and the South Tank Farm (STF) located at ORNL contains 8 underground waste storage tanks which were built around 1943. The tanks were used to collect and store the liquid portion of the radioactive and/or hazardous chemical wastes produced as part of normal facility operations at ORNL, but are no longer part of the active Low Level Liquid Waste system of the Laboratory. The tanks were constructed of gunite. The six STF tanks are 50 ft in diameter, and have a 12 ft sidewall, and an arched dome rising another 6.25 ft. The sidewall are 6 in. thick and have an additional 1.5 in. gunite liner on the inside. There is a thickened ring at the wall-dome juncture. The dome consists of two 5 in. layers of gunite. The two tanks in the NTF are similar, but smaller, having a 25 ft diameter, no inner liner, and a dome thickness of 3.5 in. Both sets of tanks have welded wire mesh and vertical rebars in the walls, welded wire mesh in the domes, and horizontal reinforcing hoop bars pre-tensioned to 35 to 40 ksi stress in the walls and thickened ring. The eight tanks are entirely buried under a 6 ft layer of soil cover. The present condition of the tanks is not accurately known, since access to them is extremely limited. In order to evaluate the structural capability of the tanks, a finite element analysis of each size tank was performed. Both static and seismic loads were considered. Three sludge levels, empty, half-full, and full were evaluated. In the STF analysis, the effects of wall deterioration and group spacing were evaluated. These analyses found that the weakest element in the tanks is the steel resisting the circumferential (or hoop) forces in the dome ring, a fact verified separately by an independent reviewer. However, the hoop steel has an adequate demand/capacity ratio. Buckling of the dome and the tank walls is not a concern

  6. Sanford Underground Research Facility - The United State's Deep Underground Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardiman, D.

    2012-12-01

    The 2.5 km deep Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is managed by the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority (SDSTA) at the former Homestake Mine site in Lead, South Dakota. The US Department of Energy currently supports the development of the facility using a phased approach for underground deployment of experiments as they obtain an advanced design stage. The geology of the Sanford Laboratory site has been studied during the 125 years of operations at the Homestake Mine and more recently as part of the preliminary geotechnical site investigations for the NSF's Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory project. The overall geology at DUSEL is a well-defined stratigraphic sequence of schist and phyllites. The three major Proterozoic units encountered in the underground consist of interbedded schist, metasediments, and amphibolite schist which are crosscut by Tertiary rhyolite dikes. Preliminary geotechnical site investigations included drift mapping, borehole drilling, borehole televiewing, in-situ stress analysis, laboratory analysis of core, mapping and laser scanning of new excavations, modeling and analysis of all geotechnical information. The investigation was focused upon the determination if the proposed site rock mass could support the world's largest (66 meter diameter) deep underground excavation. While the DUSEL project has subsequently been significantly modified, these data are still available to provide a baseline of the ground conditions which may be judiciously extrapolated throughout the entire Proterozoic rock assemblage for future excavations. Recommendations for facility instrumentation and monitoring were included in the preliminary design of the DUSEL project design and include; single and multiple point extensometers, tape extensometers and convergence measurements (pins), load cells and pressure cells, smart cables, inclinometers/Tiltmeters, Piezometers, thermistors, seismographs and accelerometers, scanners (laser

  7. Applicability of US findings in the field of underground nuclear explosions to underground nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies illustrate the applicability of fast-acting closure seals in underground nuclear power plants. The fast-acting closures vary in design; they may be used in combination with each other or with conventional valves either as almost gas-tight flow control valves or as gas-tight valves. They have the advantage of a very short closing time of 1 ms to about 1 s if necessary even with very large cross sectional areas and are independent of power supply. Packed closures are also independent of flow forces. It is, however, not very sensible to transfer the fast-action closure technology directly to underground nuclear power plants as the loads occurring and the requirements to be made are not identical. (orig./HP)

  8. The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Akerib, D S; Bedikian, S; Bernard, E; Bernstein, A; Bolozdynya, A; Bradley, A; Byram, D; Cahn, S B; Camp, C; Carmona-Benitez, M C; Carr, D; Chapman, J J; Chiller, A; Chiller, C; Clark, K; Classen, T; Coffey, T; Curioni, A; Dahl, E; Dazeley, S; de Viveiros, L; Dobi, A; Dragowsky, E; Druszkiewicz, E; Edwards, B; Faham, C H; Fiorucci, S; Gaitskell, R J; Gibson, K R; Gilchriese, M; Hall, C; Hanhardt, M; Holbrook, B; Ihm, M; Jacobsen, R G; Kastens, L; Kazkaz, K; Knoche, R; Kyre, S; Kwong, J; Lander, R; Larsen, N A; Lee, C; Leonard, D S; Lesko, K T; Lindote, A; Lopes, M I; Lyashenko, A; Malling, D C; Mannino, R; Marquez, Z; McKinsey, D N; Mei, D -M; Mock, J; Moongweluwan, M; Morii, M; Nelson, H; Neves, F; Nikkel, J A; Pangilinan, M; Parker, P D; Pease, E K; Pech, K; Phelps, P; Rodionov, A; Roberts, P; Shei, A; Shutt, T; Silva, C; Skulski, W; Solovov, V N; Sofka, C J; Sorensen, P; Spaans, J; Stiegler, T; Stolp, D; Svoboda, R; Sweany, M; Szydagis, M; Taylor, D; Thomson, J; Tripathi, M; Uvarov, S; Verbus, J R; Walsh, N; Webb, R; White, D; White, J T; Whitis, T J; Wlasenko, M; Wolfs, F L H; Woods, M; Zhang, C

    2012-01-01

    The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) collaboration has designed and constructed a dual-phase xenon detector, in order to conduct a search for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles(WIMPs), a leading dark matter candidate. The goal of the LUX detector is to clearly detect (or exclude) WIMPS with a spin independent cross section per nucleon of $2\\times 10^{-46}$ cm$^{2}$, equivalent to $\\sim$1 event/100 kg/month in the inner 100-kg fiducial volume (FV) of the 370-kg detector. The overall background goals are set to have $<$1 background events characterized as possible WIMPs in the FV in 300 days of running. This paper describes the design and construction of the LUX detector.

  9. The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) collaboration has designed and constructed a dual-phase xenon detector, in order to conduct a search for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), a leading dark matter candidate. The goal of the LUX detector is to clearly detect (or exclude) WIMPS with a spin independent cross-section per nucleon of 2×10−46cm2, equivalent to ∼1event/100kg/month in the inner 100-kg fiducial volume (FV) of the 370-kg detector. The overall background goals are set to have <1 background events characterized as possible WIMPs in the FV in 300 days of running. This paper describes the design and construction of the LUX detector

  10. Underground research laboratory room 209 instrument array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An in situ excavation response test was conducted at the 240 level of the Underground Research Laboratory (URL). The test was carried out in conjunction with drill and blast excavation of a near-circular tunnel, about 3.5 m in diameter. The tunnel was excavated through a tunnel axis. Three modelling groups made predictions of the response of the rock mass and hydraulic behaviour of the water-bearing fracture to excavation. Two of the groups used the three-dimensional Finite-element Method and one group used the Discontinuous Deformation Analysis Method. Both methods predicted displacements and stress changes that agreed reasonably well with the measured response, but none of the methods predicted the hydraulic response of the fracture

  11. Radiological criteria for underground nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological criteria for the conduct of nuclear tests have undergone many revisions with the current criteria being 0.17 rad for uncontrolled populations and 0.5 rad for controllable populations. Their effect upon operations at the Nevada Test Site and the current off-site protective plans are reviewed for areas surrounding the Site. The few accidental releases that have occurred are used to establish estimates of probability of release and of hazard to the population. These are then put into context by comparing statistical data on other accidents and cataclysms. The guidelines established by DOE Manual Chapter MC-0524 have never been exceeded during the entire underground nuclear test program. The probability of real hazard to off-site populations appears to be sufficiently low as not to cause undue concern to the citizenry

  12. Underground population defense structures in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wukasch, E.

    The design and construction ofunderground shelters to protect the Chinese population in the event of nuclear war are described. Built in the style of World War II air raid shelters and designed as neighborhood defense facilities, these are not judged to be adequate for nuclear defense needs, particularly the needs of urban populations. However, 80% of China's population is rural and 1/3 of this has lived underground for centuries in cliff dwellings and atrium houses. It is, therefore, concluded that China's rural population has a better chance the the population of any other country for long-term survival from the later consequences, as well as the immediate shock, of an urban nuclear attack. (LCL)

  13. Homestake surface-underground scintillators: Initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first 70 tons of the 140-ton Large Area Scintillation Detector (LASD) have been operating since Jan. 1985 at a depth of 4850 ft. (4200 m.w.e.) in the Homestake Gold Mine, Lead, S.D. A total of 4 x 10(4) high-energy muons (E sub mu is approx. 2.7 TeV at the surface) have been detected. The remainder of the detector is scheduled to be in operation by the Fall of 1985. In addition, a surface air shower array is under construction. The first 27 surface counters, spaced out over an area of 270' x 500', began running in June, 1985. The LASD performance, the potential of the combined shower array and underground muon experiment for detecting point sources, and the initial results of a search for periodic emission from Cygnus X-3 are discussed

  14. Civil Engineering Construction of Underground Works

    CERN Document Server

    Rammer, H

    1999-01-01

    For the first time at CERN, new shafts and caverns will be excavated inside a surface building. The LHC civil engineering construction for the ATLAS experiment has been designed such that the experimental hall will be completed to the extent that it can provide a secure, weatherproof and sound insulated covering to the shaft excavation area. The construction of the two access shafts and the experimental cavern will follow and will be carried out inside the building. This unconventional method of working allows the excavation of the Molasse rock in the dry, which is essential for this type of rock, and ensures reduced environmental pollution by noise and dust. The paper will present the technical infrastructure required for this particular construction method, explain its advantages and disadvantages, and compare it with a conventional method of underground excavations to be used on the same work site for the construction of the service cavern.

  15. Hazard index for underground toxic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To adequately define the problem of waste management, quantitative measures of hazard must be used. This study reviews past work in the area of hazard indices and proposes a geotoxicity hazard index for use in characterizing the hazard of toxic material buried underground. Factors included in this index are: an intrinsic toxicity factor, formulated as the volume of water required for dilution to public drinking-water levels; a persistence factor to characterize the longevity of the material, ranging from unity for stable materials to smaller values for shorter-lived materials; an availability factor that relates the transport potential for the particular material to a reference value for its naturally occurring analog; and a correction factor to accommodate the buildup of decay progeny, resulting in increased toxicity

  16. Transient behaviour of deep underground salt caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with the transient behaviour of deep underground salt caverns. It has been shown that a cavern is a complex system, in which there are mechanical, thermal, chemical and hydraulic evolutions. The importance of the transient evolutions, particularly the role of the 'reverse' creep in the interpretation of the tightness test in a salt cavern is revealed. Creep is characterized by a formulation of the behaviour law which presents the advantage, in a practical point of view, to only have a reduced number of parameters while accounting of the essential of what it is observed. The initiation of the rupture in the effective traction in a salt cavern rapidly pressurized is discussed. A model fitted to a very long term behaviour (after abandonment) is developed too. In this case too, a lot of phenomena, more or less coupled, occur, when the existing literature took only into account some phenomena. (O.M.)

  17. Underground research laboratory room 209 instrument array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An in situ excavation response test was conducted at the 240 Level of the Underground Research Laboratory (URL). The test was carried out in conjunction with the drill and blast excavation of a near-circular tunnel, about 3.5 m in diameter. The tunnel was excavated through a near-vertical water-bearing fracture oriented almost perpendicular to the tunnel axis. Three modelling groups made predictions of the response of the rock mass and hydraulic behaviour of the water-bearing fracture to excavation. Two of the groups used the three-dimensional Finite-Element Method and one group used the Discontinuous Deformation Analysis Method. Both methods predicted displacements and stress changes that agreed reasonably well with the measured response, but none of the methods predicted the hydraulic response of the fracture

  18. MODELING UNDERGROUND STRUCTURE VULNERABILITY IN JOINTED ROCK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. SWIFT; D. STEEDMAN

    2001-02-01

    The vulnerability of underground structures and openings in deep jointed rock to ground shock attack is of chief concern to military planning and security. Damage and/or loss of stability to a structure in jointed rock, often manifested as brittle failure and accompanied with block movement, can depend significantly on jointed properties, such as spacing, orientation, strength, and block character. We apply a hybrid Discrete Element Method combined with the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics approach to simulate the MIGHTY NORTH event, a definitive high-explosive test performed on an aluminum lined cylindrical opening in jointed Salem limestone. Representing limestone with discrete elements having elastic-equivalence and explicit brittle tensile behavior and the liner as an elastic-plastic continuum provides good agreement with the experiment and damage obtained with finite-element simulations. Extending the approach to parameter variations shows damage is substantially altered by differences in joint geometry and liner properties.

  19. Modeling of long High Voltage AC Underground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsdottir, Unnur Stella; Bak, Claus Leth; Wiechowski, W. T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the work and findings of a PhD project focused on accurate high frequency modelling of long High Voltage AC Underground cables. The project is cooperation between Aalborg University and Energinet.dk. The objective of the project is to investigate the accuracy of most up to date...... cable models, perform highly accurate field measurements for validating the model and identifying possible disadvantages of the cable model. Furthermore the project suggests and implements improvements and validates them against several field measurements. It is shown in this paper how a new method for...... calculating the frequency dependent cables impedance greatly improves the modeling procedure and gives a highly accurate result for high frequency simulations....

  20. Hazard index for underground toxic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.; McKone, T.E.

    1980-06-01

    To adequately define the problem of waste management, quantitative measures of hazard must be used. This study reviews past work in the area of hazard indices and proposes a geotoxicity hazard index for use in characterizing the hazard of toxic material buried underground. Factors included in this index are: an intrinsic toxicity factor, formulated as the volume of water required for dilution to public drinking-water levels; a persistence factor to characterize the longevity of the material, ranging from unity for stable materials to smaller values for shorter-lived materials; an availability factor that relates the transport potential for the particular material to a reference value for its naturally occurring analog; and a correction factor to accommodate the buildup of decay progeny, resulting in increased toxicity.

  1. Technical problems and future underground engineering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical problems to be solved in future underground engineering experiments are of two kinds. One concerns adequate description of the variation of nuclear explosion effects with physical nd chemical properties of the explosion site. The other concerns engineering of the explosive detonation system to provide adequate safety and security, concurrently with minimum total costs per explosion. The semiempirical equations for explosion effects can be trusted only in the range of explosive energy, depth of burst, and rock type for which there is prior experience. Effects calculations based on the principles of continuum mechanics and measurable geophysical properties appear to work in the few test cases, such as Gasbuggy, to which they have been applied. These calculational methods must be tested in a variety of situations. The relevance of dynamic and static measurements on Dragon Trail, Bronco, Rulison, Stoop, Ketch, and Pinedale to proving the methods are discussed in this paper. The traditional methods of assembling and fielding nuclear explosives have evolved from practice at the Nevada Test Site. These provide great flexibility and assure maximum recovery of all data from each test, thus minimizing the time required to achieve desired results. Timing and firing, radiation monitoring, explosives assembly and emplacement, explosive performance, weather monitoring, and dynamic measurements of earth and building motion have all been handled traditionally as independent functions. To achieve lower costs in underground engineering experiments and projects, one prototype system combining all electronic, measurement, and communication functions is being built. Much further work will be required to complete this effort, including, especially, an examination of safety criteria and means for assuring operational and public safety at reduced costs. (author)

  2. New underground treatment installation for radium removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For removal of radium from saline waters a method of purification has been developed and implemented in full technical scale in one of Polish coal mines several years ago. The purification station in Piast Colliery was unique, the first underground installation for the removal of radium isotopes from saline waters. Very good results have been achieved - approximately 6 m3/min of radium-bearing waters were treated there, more than 100 MBq of 226Ra and 228Ra remained underground each day. Purification has been started in 1999, therefore a lot of experiences have been gathered during this period. Since year 2002, a new purification station has been under the construction in another colliery - Ziemowit. The preparation of water galleries, feeding station, pumping station etc. has been finished at the end of 2005. In February 2006, the purification of mine waters was started in this mine, at the level -650 meters. Barium chloride is used as a cleaning agent, and amount of water to be purified is larger as in the Piast mine - reaching 9 m3/min., although concentration of radium isotopes is lower. After several months from the start-up of the installation, results of purification are excellent. The removal efficiency is higher than 95%, enabling decrease of radium concentration below 0.5 kBq/m3, while before purification the summary concentration of 226Ra and 228Ra exceeded 9 kBq/m3. Sediments with enhanced radioactivity are settled in the sedimentation galleries, without any contact with the crew or ventilation air. Only an increase of gamma dose rate near the installation is observed due to scaling of radium-barium sulphates in the canal, leading from the installation to the sedimentation galleries. In the paper short description of the installation, results of purification in the start-up period and effects for the environment are presented. (author)

  3. Surface effects of underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, B.M.; Drellack, S.L. Jr.; Townsend, M.J.

    1997-06-01

    The effects of nuclear explosions have been observed and studied since the first nuclear test (code named Trinity) on July 16, 1945. Since that first detonation, 1,053 nuclear tests have been conducted by the US, most of which were sited underground at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The effects of underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) on their surroundings have long been the object of much interest and study, especially for containment, engineering, and treaty verification purposes. One aspect of these explosion-induced phenomena is the disruption or alteration of the near-surface environment, also known as surface effects. This report was prepared at the request of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), to bring together, correlate, and preserve information and techniques used in the recognition and documentation of surface effects of UNEs. This report has several main sections, including pertinent background information (Section 2.0), descriptions of the different types of surface effects (Section 3.0), discussion of their application and limitations (Section 4.0), an extensive bibliography and glossary (Section 6.0 and Appendix A), and procedures used to document geologic surface effects at the NTS (Appendix C). Because a majority of US surface-effects experience is from the NTS, an overview of pertinent NTS-specific information also is provided in Appendix B. It is not within the scope of this report to explore new relationships among test parameters, physiographic setting, and the types or degree of manifestation of surface effects, but rather to compile, summarize, and capture surface-effects observations and interpretations, as well as documentation procedures and the rationale behind them.

  4. Notes from the underground: a cultural, political, and aesthetic mapping of underground music

    OpenAIRE

    GRAHAM, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The term 'underground music‘, in my account, connects various forms of music-making that exist largely outside 'mainstream‘ cultural discourse, such as Drone Metal, Free Improvisation, Power Electronics, and DIY Noise, amongst others. Its connotations of concealment and obscurity indicate what I argue to be the music‘s central tenets of cultural reclusion, political independence, and aesthetic experiment. In response to a lack of scholarly discussion of this music, my thesis provides a cultur...

  5. Structural Behavior of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer (BFRP) Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovitigala, Thilan

    The main challenge for civil engineers is to provide sustainable, environmentally friendly and financially feasible structures to the society. Finding new materials such as fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) material that can fulfill the above requirements is a must. FRP material was expensive and it was limited to niche markets such as space shuttles and air industry in the 1960s. Over the time, it became cheaper and spread to other industries such as sporting goods in the 1980-1990, and then towards the infrastructure industry. Design and construction guidelines are available for carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), aramid fiber reinforced polymer (AFRP) and glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) and they are currently used in structural applications. Since FRP is linear elastic brittle material, design guidelines for the steel reinforcement are not valid for FRP materials. Corrosion of steel reinforcement affects the durability of the concrete structures. FRP reinforcement is identified as an alternative to steel reinforcement in corrosive environments. Although basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP) has many advantages over other FRP materials, but limited studies have been done. These studies didn't include larger BFRP bar diameters that are mostly used in practice. Therefore, larger beam sizes with larger BFRP reinforcement bar diameters are needed to investigate the flexural and shear behavior of BFRP reinforced concrete beams. Also, shear behavior of BFRP reinforced concrete beams was not yet studied. Experimental testing of mechanical properties and bond strength of BFRP bars and flexural and shear behavior of BFRP reinforced concrete beams are needed to include BFRP reinforcement bars in the design codes. This study mainly focuses on the use of BFRP bars as internal reinforcement. The test results of the mechanical properties of BFRP reinforcement bars, the bond strength of BFRP reinforcement bars, and the flexural and shear behavior of concrete beams

  6. Underground design Laxemar, Layout D2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-11-15

    Laxemar candidate area is located in the province of Smaaland, some 320 km south of Stockholm. The area is located close to the shoreline of the Baltic Sea and is within the municipality of Oskarshamn, and immediately west of the Oskarshamn nuclear power plant and the Central interim storage facility for spent fuel (Clab). The easternmost part (Simpevarp subarea) includes the Simpevarp peninsula, which hosts the power plants and the Clab facility. The island of Aespoe, containing the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory is located some three kilometres northeast of the central parts of Laxemar. The Laxemar subarea covers some 12.5 km2, compared with the Simepvarp subarea, which is approximately 6.6 km2. The Laxemar candidate area has been investigated in stages, referred to as the initial site investigations (ISI) and the complete site investigations (CSI). These investigations commenced in 2002 and were completed in 2008. During the site investigations, several studies and design steps (D0, D1 and D2) were carried out to ensure that sufficient space was available for the 6,000-canister layout within the target volume at a depth of approximately 500 m. The findings from design Step D2 for the underground facilities including the access ramp, shafts, rock caverns in a Central Area, transport tunnels, and deposition tunnels and deposition holes are contained in this report. The layout for these underground excavations at the deposition horizon requires an area of 5.7 km2, and the total rock volume to be excavated is 3,008 x 103 m3 using a total tunnel length of approximately 115 km. The behaviour of the underground openings associated with this layout is expected to be similar to the behaviour of other underground openings in the Scandinavian shield at similar depths. The dominant mode of instability is expected to be structurally controlled wedge failure. Stability of the openings will be achieved with traditional underground rock support and by orienting the openings

  7. Underground design Laxemar, Layout D2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laxemar candidate area is located in the province of Smaaland, some 320 km south of Stockholm. The area is located close to the shoreline of the Baltic Sea and is within the municipality of Oskarshamn, and immediately west of the Oskarshamn nuclear power plant and the Central interim storage facility for spent fuel (Clab). The easternmost part (Simpevarp subarea) includes the Simpevarp peninsula, which hosts the power plants and the Clab facility. The island of Aespoe, containing the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory is located some three kilometres northeast of the central parts of Laxemar. The Laxemar subarea covers some 12.5 km2, compared with the Simepvarp subarea, which is approximately 6.6 km2. The Laxemar candidate area has been investigated in stages, referred to as the initial site investigations (ISI) and the complete site investigations (CSI). These investigations commenced in 2002 and were completed in 2008. During the site investigations, several studies and design steps (D0, D1 and D2) were carried out to ensure that sufficient space was available for the 6,000-canister layout within the target volume at a depth of approximately 500 m. The findings from design Step D2 for the underground facilities including the access ramp, shafts, rock caverns in a Central Area, transport tunnels, and deposition tunnels and deposition holes are contained in this report. The layout for these underground excavations at the deposition horizon requires an area of 5.7 km2, and the total rock volume to be excavated is 3,008 x 103 m3 using a total tunnel length of approximately 115 km. The behaviour of the underground openings associated with this layout is expected to be similar to the behaviour of other underground openings in the Scandinavian shield at similar depths. The dominant mode of instability is expected to be structurally controlled wedge failure. Stability of the openings will be achieved with traditional underground rock support and by orienting the openings

  8. 3D textiles for composite reinforcements

    OpenAIRE

    Fangueiro, Raúl; Mingxing, Z.; Hong, H; Soutinho, Hélder Filipe Cunha; Gonçalves, P.; Araújo, Mário Duarte de

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview on the last developments on 3D textile structures for composite reinforcements. The application of innovative 3D shaped weft-knitted preforms in GFRP tube joints is presented and discussed. Moreover, the mechanical behaviour of 3D hybrid basalt fiber reinforced composite material sis also presented and discussed.

  9. Token Reinforcement: A Review and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackenberg, Timothy D.

    2009-01-01

    Token reinforcement procedures and concepts are reviewed and discussed in relation to general principles of behavior. The paper is divided into four main parts. Part I reviews and discusses previous research on token systems in relation to common behavioral functions--reinforcement, temporal organization, antecedent stimulus functions, and…

  10. Durability of fibre reinforced concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    The planned research will indicate, whether fibre reinforced concrete has better or worse durability than normal concrete. Durability specimens will be measured on cracked as well as uncracked specimens. Also the pore structure in the concrete will be characterized.Keywords: Fibre reinforced...... concrete, durability, pore structure, mechanical load...

  11. Design guidelines for FRP reinforced concrete structures

    OpenAIRE

    Pilakoutas, Kypros; Guadagnini, Maurizio; Neocleous, Kyriacos; Matthys, Stijn

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an outline of the approach proposed by fib task group 9.3 for the next generation of design guidelines for fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) reinforced concrete structures. The approach covers a range of FRP-related topics, including material properties, durability, design philosophy, the limit states of bending, shear, cracking and deflection, and bond.

  12. Operant Variability and the Power of Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuringer, Allen

    2009-01-01

    Reinforcers contingent on response variability exert powerful and precise control over levels of variability, from stereotypy to stochasticity. This paper reviews how variability-contingent reinforcers interact with non-contingent, eliciting events to influence the variability of operant responses. Relationships to stimulus control, choice,…

  13. Demonstrating Differential Reinforcement by Shaping Classroom Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Gordon K.; Nelson, Nancy H.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a classroom demonstration using differential reinforcement to shape student participation in a small psychology laboratory. Concludes that the technique was useful for illustrating how reinforcers shape behavior. Suggests that the demonstration facilitated understanding of operant conditioning procedures and encouraged more equitable…

  14. A survey of random processes with reinforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Pemantle, Robin

    2006-01-01

    The models surveyed include generalized P\\'{o}lya urns, reinforced random walks, interacting urn models, and continuous reinforced processes. Emphasis is on methods and results, with sketches provided of some proofs. Applications are discussed in statistics, biology, economics and a number of other areas.

  15. Fatigue Performance of Fiber Reinforced Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jun, Zhang; Stang, Henrik

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to obtain basic data of fibre reinforced concrete under fatigue load and to set up a theoretical model based on micromechanics. In this study, the bridging stress in fiber reinforced concrete under cyclic tensile load was investigted in details. The damage...

  16. Mechanism Analysis of Helical and Twisted Reinforcement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Junlin; ZHOU Bo

    2008-01-01

    Although helical and twisted reinforcement has been used to reinforce concrete for more than two decades,its rationale still remains unclear.With a brief review of current researches on the helical and twisted reinforcement properties,this paper describes some new phenomenon of the helical and twisted reinforcement in concrete and other matrix by experimental studies,and then discusses on mechanism of helical effect of strengthening.This paper also discusses the mechanism of accessional helical effect of strengthening and its significance in industrial practice.Extensive tests indicate that twisting is the most effective way to improve reinforcement mechanical properties.The main results are:(1)They can greatly enhance bond anchorage in base material.In some pull-out tests,the pull-out resistance increases with reinforcement slip within the specimens,which results not only in a higher pull-out load but also a larger slip up to 70%-80% of reinforcement embedded length.(2)Concrete reinforced by twisted bars demonstrates certain ductility at failure.(3)The bond strength depends on the pitch space directly.(4)The twisted effect on material strengthening is from a three-dimensional interlocking force which is formed from material untwisting when they were pulled out from base specimens.

  17. Wiener filtering with a seismic underground array at the Sanford Underground Research Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A seismic array has been deployed at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in the former Homestake mine, South Dakota, USA, to study the underground seismic environment. This includes exploring the advantages of constructing a third-generation gravitational-wave (GW) detector underground. A major noise source for these detectors would be Newtonian noise (NN), which is induced by fluctuations in the local gravitational field. The hope is that a combination of a low-noise seismic environment and coherent noise subtraction using seismometers in the vicinity of the detector could suppress the NN to below the projected noise floor for future GW detectors. In this paper, certain properties of the NN subtraction problem are studied by applying similar techniques to data of a seismic array. We use Wiener filtering techniques to subtract coherent noise in a seismic array in the frequency band 0.05–1 Hz. This achieves more than an order of magnitude noise cancellation over a majority of this band. The variation in the Wiener-filter coefficients over the course of the day, including how local activities impact the filter, is analyzed. We also study the variation in coefficients over the course of a month, showing the stability of the filter with time. How varying the filter order affects the subtraction performance is also explored. It is shown that optimizing filter order can significantly improve subtraction of seismic noise. (paper)

  18. Wiener filtering with a seismic underground array at the Sanford Underground Research Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Coughlin, Michael; Christensen, Nelson; Dergachev, Vladimir; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Kandhasamy, Shivaraj; Mandic, Vuk

    2014-01-01

    A seismic array has been deployed at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in the former Homestake mine, South Dakota, to study the underground seismic environment. This includes exploring the advantages of constructing a third-generation gravitational-wave detector underground. A major noise source would be Newtonian noise, which is induced by fluctuations in the local gravitational field. The hope is that a combination of a low-noise seismic environment and coherent noise subtraction using seismometers in the vicinity of the detector could suppress the Newtonian noise to required levels. In this paper, we use Wiener filtering techniques to subtract coherent noise in a seismic array in the form of oceanic microseisms. We achieve more than an order of magnitude noise cancellation between about 0.05-0.5 Hz. We examine the variation in the Wiener filter coefficients over the course of the day, showing how local activities impact the filter. We also study the variation in coefficients over the course of a mo...

  19. Underground disposal method for radioactive material-containing body and underground disposal product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When a radioactive material-containing body is buried, in a sealed state, into a disposal hole formed in rock substrates, a high density buffering layer is formed to the surface of the radioactive material-containing body such that a buffering material, for example, bentonite compressed and solidified by cold isostatic pressing covers the surface integrally. The thus formed underground disposal products are charged in the disposal hole and buried in a sealed state. Accordingly, operation for forming a buffering layer by additionally filling buffering material to the disposal hole can be saved, thereby enabling to remarkably improve the operationability upon underground disposal. Further, since the homogeneous high density buffering layer is formed integrally, if underground water is immersed to the disposal hole, the high density buffering layer is swollen uniformly, to prevent water from intrusion due to elevation of the inner pressure, accordingly, sealing property and safety can be ensured. Further, when ground water is intruded, ground water is prevented from reaching an overpack and corroding the surface thereof by uniform swelling of the buffer layer. (T.M.)

  20. Study on the living environment of semi-underground room with attached green house; Fusetsu onshitsu no aru hanchikashitsu no kyojusei ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T.; Tsukayama, N. [Ochanomizu University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    In response to demand for the expansion of living space, the living environment of semi-underground room has been investigated. An attached green house (passive solar house) is adjacent to the semi-underground room. This is reinforced concrete construction, having flat type solar collector on its roof and lighting window in its north side. It does not have artificial air conditioners. Based on the measurements of daylight factor, artificial lighting is not required at the window in the daytime, but it is desirable to use daylight and artificial lighting together at the center. The performance of sound insulation depends on the high performance soundproof sash level. There is less daily temperature variation due to its large heat capacity, and less yearly temperature variation than the outside. By shielding the solar radiation, the insolation in the green house in summer can be restricted in the same as in winter. The insolation can be easily received in winter due to its large vertical intensity of solar radiation. The green house in the south side is useful for improving the living environment of semi-underground room. The temperature rise in the semi-underground room can be restricted by opening window in summer. It is desirable for the comfortable living to use artificial cooling to reduce the daytime temperature by 3 to 4{degree}C. In winter, it is comfortable to heat by 4 to 5{degree}C. 2 refs., 7 figs.