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Sample records for aging premature

  1. Premature and accelerated ageing: HIV or HAART?

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    Reuben Luke Smith

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART has significantly increased life expectancy of the HIV-positive population. Nevertheless, the average lifespan of HIV patients remains shorter compared to uninfected individuals. Immunosenescence, a current explanation for this difference invokes heavily on viral stimulus despite HAART efficiency in viral suppression. We propose here that the premature and accelerated ageing of HIV patients can also be caused by adverse effects of antiretroviral drugs, specifically those that affect the mitochondria. The Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (NRTI antiretroviral drug class for instance, is known to cause depletion of mitochondrial DNA via inhibition of the mitochondrial specific DNA polymerase-ƴ. Besides NRTIs, other antiretroviral drug classes such as Protease Inhibitors also cause severe mitochondrial damage by increasing oxidative stress and diminishing mitochondrial function. We also discuss important areas for future research and argue in favour of the use of C. elegans as a novel model system for studying these effects.

  2. Premature aging in telomerase-deficient zebrafish

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    Monique Anchelin

    2013-09-01

    The study of telomere biology is crucial to the understanding of aging and cancer. In the pursuit of greater knowledge in the field of human telomere biology, the mouse has been used extensively as a model. However, there are fundamental differences between mouse and human cells. Therefore, additional models are required. In light of this, we have characterized telomerase-deficient zebrafish (Danio rerio as the second vertebrate model for human telomerase-driven diseases. We found that telomerase-deficient zebrafish show p53-dependent premature aging and reduced lifespan in the first generation, as occurs in humans but not in mice, probably reflecting the similar telomere length in fish and humans. Among these aging symptoms, spinal curvature, liver and retina degeneration, and infertility were the most remarkable. Although the second-generation embryos died in early developmental stages, restoration of telomerase activity rescued telomere length and survival, indicating that telomerase dosage is crucial. Importantly, this model also reproduces the disease anticipation observed in humans with dyskeratosis congenita (DC. Thus, telomerase haploinsufficiency leads to anticipation phenomenon in longevity, which is related to telomere shortening and, specifically, with the proportion of short telomeres. Furthermore, p53 was induced by telomere attrition, leading to growth arrest and apoptosis. Importantly, genetic inhibition of p53 rescued the adverse effects of telomere loss, indicating that the molecular mechanisms induced by telomere shortening are conserved from fish to mammals. The partial rescue of telomere length and longevity by restoration of telomerase activity, together with the feasibility of the zebrafish for high-throughput chemical screening, both point to the usefulness of this model for the discovery of new drugs able to reactivate telomerase in individuals with DC.

  3. Specific premature epigenetic aging of cartilage in osteoarthritis

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    Vidal-Bralo, Laura; Lopez-Golan, Yolanda; Mera-Varela, Antonio; Rego-Perez, Ignacio; Horvath, Steve; Zhang, Yuhua; del Real, Álvaro; Zhai, Guangju; Blanco, Francisco J; Riancho, Jose A.; Gomez-Reino, Juan J; Gonzalez, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a disease affecting multiple tissues of the joints in the elderly, but most notably articular cartilage. Premature biological aging has been described in this tissue and in blood cells, suggesting a systemic component of premature aging in the pathogenesis of OA. Here, we have explored epigenetic aging in OA at the local (cartilage and bone) and systemic (blood) levels. Two DNA methylation age-measures (DmAM) were used: the multi-tissue age estimator for cartilage and bone; and a blood-specific biomarker for blood. Differences in DmAM between OA patients and controls showed an accelerated aging of 3.7 years in articular cartilage (95 % CI = 1.1 to 6.3, P = 0.008) of OA patients. By contrast, no difference in epigenetic aging was observed in bone (0.04 years; 95 % CI = −1.8 to 1.9, P = 0.3) and in blood (−0.6 years; 95 % CI = −1.5 to 0.3, P = 0.2) between OA patients and controls. Therefore, premature epigenetic aging according to DNA methylation changes was specific of OA cartilage, adding further evidence and insight on premature aging of cartilage as a component of OA pathogenesis that reflects damage and vulnerability. PMID:27689435

  4. Premature ovarian failure (POF): discordance between somatic and reproductive aging.

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    Pal, Lubna; Santoro, Nanette

    2002-06-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a unique example of isolated organ senescence, with a population prevalence of approximately 1%. Though the phenotypic expression of POF is similar to that of age-appropriate natural menopause, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are diverse and not entirely clear. The impact of POF on the patient is profound, with myriad ramifications, ranging from psychological devastation to multi-system implications of estrogen deprivation and its sequelae. The hastening of degenerative changes noted in these patients however, are not entirely ameliorated with estrogen replacement and POF may indeed represent an acceleration of the aging process.

  5. Premature aging and immune senescence in HIV-infected children

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    Gianesin, Ketty; Noguera-Julian, Antoni; Zanchetta, Marisa; Del Bianco, Paola; Petrara, Maria Raffaella; Freguja, Riccardo; Rampon, Osvalda; Fortuny, Clàudia; Camós, Mireia; Mozzo, Elena; Giaquinto, Carlo; De Rossi, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Several pieces of evidence indicate that HIV-infected adults undergo premature aging. The effect of HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART) exposure on the aging process of HIV-infected children may be more deleterious since their immune system coevolves from birth with HIV. Design: Seventy-one HIV-infected (HIV+), 65 HIV-exposed-uninfected (HEU), and 56 HIV-unexposed-uninfected (HUU) children, all aged 0–5 years, were studied for biological aging and immune senescence. Methods: Telomere length and T-cell receptor rearrangement excision circle levels were quantified in peripheral blood cells by real-time PCR. CD4+ and CD8+ cells were analysed for differentiation, senescence, and activation/exhaustion markers by flow cytometry. Results: Telomere lengths were significantly shorter in HIV+ than in HEU and HUU children (overall, P < 0.001 adjusted for age); HIV+ ART-naive (42%) children had shorter telomere length compared with children on ART (P = 0.003 adjusted for age). T-cell receptor rearrangement excision circle levels and CD8+ recent thymic emigrant cells (CD45RA+CD31+) were significantly lower in the HIV+ than in control groups (overall, P = 0.025 and P = 0.005, respectively). Percentages of senescent (CD28−CD57+), activated (CD38+HLA-DR+), and exhausted (PD1+) CD8+ cells were significantly higher in HIV+ than in HEU and HUU children (P = 0.004, P < 0.001, and P < 0.001, respectively). Within the CD4+ cell subset, the percentage of senescent cells did not differ between HIV+ and controls, but programmed cell death receptor-1 expression was upregulated in the former. Conclusions: HIV-infected children exhibit premature biological aging with accelerated immune senescence, which particularly affects the CD8+ cell subset. HIV infection per se seems to influence the aging process, rather than exposure to ART for prophylaxis or treatment. PMID:26990630

  6. Blood cell mitochondrial DNA content and premature ovarian aging.

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    Marco Bonomi

    Full Text Available Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI is a critical fertility defect characterized by an anticipated and silent impairment of the follicular reserve, but its pathogenesis is largely unexplained. The frequent maternal inheritance of POI together with a remarkable dependence of ovarian folliculogenesis upon mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics suggested the possible involvement of a generalized mitochondrial defect. Here, we verified the existence of a significant correlation between blood and ovarian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA content in a group of women undergoing ovarian hyperstimulation (OH, and then aimed to verify whether mtDNA content was significantly altered in the blood cells of POI women. We recruited 101 women with an impaired ovarian reserve: 59 women with premature ovarian failure (POF and 42 poor responders (PR to OH. A Taqman copy number assay revealed a significant mtDNA depletion (P<0.001 in both POF and PR women in comparison with 43 women of similar age and intact ovarian reserve, or 53 very old women with a previous physiological menopause. No pathogenic variations in the mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ (POLG gene were detected in 57 POF or PR women with low blood mtDNA content. In conclusion, blood cell mtDNA depletion is a frequent finding among women with premature ovarian aging, suggesting that a still undetermined but generalized mitochondrial defect may frequently predispose to POI which could then be considered a form of anticipated aging in which the ovarian defect may represent the first manifestation. The determination of mtDNA content in blood may become an useful tool for the POI risk prediction.

  7. Incidence of Type-1 Retinopathy of Prematurity in Premature Babies Born Small for Gestational Age

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    İmren Akkoyun

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the incidence of type retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in patients small for gestational age (SGA and in patients appropriate for gestational age (AGA in a developing country. Material and Method: We included in this study infants (n=162 with gestational age (GA ≤34 weeks who were screened for ROP in a neonatal intensive care unit between June 2007 and December 2011 and were followed up until the retina was completely vascularized or ROP was regressed. Type 1 ROP was defined according to the ETROP study. To describe the incidence of type 1 ROP, data were analyzed in two main groups: (A SGA-group and (B AGA-group. SGA was defined as birth weight below the 10th percentile for gestational age. GA in weeks, birth weight (BW in grams (g, ROP at any stage, type 1 ROP, and post menstrual age (PMA at type 1 ROP were evaluated for the two groups. Retrospective review of records was performed. Results: BW (in mean±SD was 832.45±131.74 g in group A and 962.97±351.47 g in group B; GA (in mean±SD was 29.27±2.4 weeks in group A and 27.36±2.8 weeks in group B, with significant difference between the groups (p=0.001 vs. p<0.0001. Overall incidence of any-stage ROP was 41.2% in group A and 45.9% in group B, while type 1 ROP was 17.6% in group A and 15.3% in group B. PMA at type 1 ROP detection was 35±3.6 weeks in group A and 33.83±2.7 weeks in group B, without significant difference (p=0.57 vs. 0.44 vs. 0.23. In group A, the earliest diagnosis of type 1 ROP was 31 weeks PMA, the latest diagnosis was 43 weeks PMA. In group B, the earliest diagnosis of type 1 ROP was 32 weeks PMA, the latest diagnosis was 42 weeks PMA. Discussion: In groups A and B, larger infants may develop type 1 ROP and require treatment. Overall incidence of type 1 ROP in groups A and B is without significant difference. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 340-4

  8. Postoperative apnea after inguinal hernia repair in formerly premature infants: impacts of gestational age, postconceptional age and comorbidities

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    Özdemir, Tunç; Arıkan, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    Purpose It is common practice for premature infants undergoing elective inguinal hernia (IH) repair to be hospitalized for postoperative apnea monitoring. This study evaluated the risk of apnea after IH repair with regard to gestational age (GA) and postconceptional age (PCA) in formerly premature infants. Methods Formerly premature infants who had undergone elective IH repair between 01/2000 and 12/2012 were reviewed retrospectively in terms of GA, PCA, body weight, and comorbidities. All po...

  9. Visual impairment in premature children in school age

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    Liláková, Dana; Hejcmanová, Dagmar; Marešová, Jana

    2006-01-01

    Background: The developments in neonatology have resulted in an increasing number of deliveries of extremely immature infants that are associated with high morbidity. The main cause of eye disorders is retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and neurological diseases. Eye disorders related to the retinopathy of premature infants may be presumed and examined very early after birth. Many of the eye disorders appear, however, later in life. The aim of this study was to document the quality of visual fu...

  10. Association of Maternal Age to Development and Progression of Retinopathy of Prematurity in Infants of Gestational Age under 33 Weeks

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To find predictive and indicative markers of risk for development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and its progression to the stage requiring laser treatment, in premature infants whose gestational age (GA) was under 33 weeks. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 197 premature infants born in 2005–2010 whose GA < 33 weeks and underwent eye screening at Keio University Hospital. The association between candidate risk factors and development or progression of ROP was ...

  11. Onset of retinopathy of prematurity as related to postnatal and postconceptional age.

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    Quinn, G E; Johnson, L.; Abbasi, S

    1992-01-01

    The hypothesis that both perinatal events and stage of retinal development are important factors in determining the age at onset of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) was tested by comparing gestational age at birth with postnatal and postconceptional age when ROP (using ICROP) was first seen. The study population consisted of 207 infants (111 placebo (P) treated, 96 vitamin E (E) treated) who developed ROP among a group of 914 premature infants (460 P, 454 E) enrolled in a randomised clinical ...

  12. The Effect of Gestational Age on Axial Length of the Eyes of Premature Infants

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    Mehmet Ali Sekeroglu

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the axial length of the eyes of premature infants without retinopathy of prematurity and to document the relationship with gestational age and changes as infants grew-up. Material and Method: The axial length of the eyes were measured by using a mobile A-scan ultrasonographic biometry device just before the first retinopathy of prematurity screening examination and 4-weeks thereafter. Results: One-hundred and thirty-six infants with a mean gest...

  13. Maternal age as risk factor of prematurity in Spain: Mediterranean area

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    E. Cortés Castell

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal age is a preponderant variable in the epidemiological analysis of the premature birth. Studies show that in the extreme ages of the maternal life there is a risk of premature birth that generates a high rate of neonatal morbidity. Objetives: Determine the effect on the extreme ages of women residents in the province of Alicante on the total of the premature births. Method: An explanatory, retrospective case-control study was conducted during the period from January 1st, 2008 to December 31st, 2011. The study was based on the revision of the newborn registers from the Neonatal Screening Center of the province of Alicante. All the preterm were included, this means between 22 & 36 complete weeks of pregnancy (5,295 out of 78,391 newborn which represents 6.75% of prematurity, and a random sample of the deliveries with 37 weeks or more of pregnancy (control group. The age of the mother was studied as independent variable and the prematurity as dependent variable. Results: Clearly shows an increased risk of prematurity among teenage mothers compared to the age group nearest to them, which is confirmed by a squared Chi test which gives a significantly different distribution (p < 0,0001 and an OD for very preterm of 2,41 (1,51-3,24 and of preterm of 1,71 (1,32-2,19. This probability is also higher among mothers over 40 years old with an OD of 1,86 (1,39-2,48 and 1,66 (1,44-1,91 for very preterm newborns and preterm newborns respectively. Discussion: The results clearly manifest that teenagers and older pregnant mothers are at higher prematurity and low birth weight risk, therefore imposes the need to trace educational interventions to minimize this problem from the results in this research.

  14. The Premature Aging Hypothesis: Old Before Its Time?

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    Kramer, Joel H.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Administered California Verbal Learning Test to young and old alcoholics and controls. Alcoholism and aging produced similar levels of immediate and delayed free recall. However, poor recognition memory and more frequent intrusion and false positive errors were associated with alcoholism but not with aging. Results suggest that alcoholism and…

  15. Uremia causes premature ageing of the T cell compartment in end-stage renal disease patients

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    Meijers Ruud WJ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background End-stage renal disease (ESRD patients treated with renal replacement therapy (RRT have premature immunologically aged T cells which may underlie uremia-associated immune dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate whether uremia was able to induce premature ageing of the T cell compartment. For this purpose, we examined the degree of premature immunological T cell ageing by examining the T cell differentiation status, thymic output via T cell receptor excision circle (TREC content and proliferative history via relative telomere length in ESRD patients not on RRT. Results Compared to healthy controls, these patients already had a lower TREC content and an increased T cell differentiation accompanied by shorter telomeres. RRT was able to enhance CD8+ T cell differentiation and to reduce CD8+ T cell telomere length in young dialysis patients. An increased differentiation status of memory CD4+ T cells was also noted in young dialysis patients. Conclusion Based on these results we can conclude that uremia already causes premature immunological ageing of the T cell system and RRT further increases immunological ageing of the CD8+ T cell compartment in particular in young ESRD patients.

  16. Premature aging in skeletal muscle lacking serum response factor.

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    Charlotte Lahoute

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with a progressive loss of muscle mass, increased adiposity and fibrosis that leads to sarcopenia. At the molecular level, muscle aging is known to alter the expression of a variety of genes but very little is known about the molecular effectors involved. SRF (Serum Response Factor is a crucial transcription factor for muscle-specific gene expression and for post-natal skeletal muscle growth. To assess its role in adult skeletal muscle physiology, we developed a post-mitotic myofiber-specific and tamoxifen-inducible SRF knockout model. Five months after SRF loss, no obvious muscle phenotype was observed suggesting that SRF is not crucial for myofiber maintenance. However, mutant mice progressively developed IIB myofiber-specific atrophy accompanied by a metabolic switch towards a more oxidative phenotype, muscular lipid accumulation, sarcomere disorganization and fibrosis. After injury, mutant muscles exhibited an altered regeneration process, showing smaller regenerated fibers and persistent fibrosis. All of these features are strongly reminiscent of abnormalities encountered in aging skeletal muscle. Interestingly, we also observed an important age associated decrease in SRF expression in mice and human muscles. Altogether, these results suggest that a naturally occurring SRF down-regulation precedes and contributes to the muscle aging process. Indeed, triggering SRF loss in the muscles of mutant mice results in an accelerated aging process.

  17. Muscle wasting in myotonic dystrophies: a model of premature aging.

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    Alba Judith eMateos-Aierdi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Myotonic dystrophy type I (DM1 or Steinert’s disease and type II (DM2 are multisystem disorders of genetic origin. Progressive muscular weakness, atrophy and myotonia are the most prominent neuromuscular features of these diseases, and other clinical manifestations such as cardiomyopathy, insulin-resistance and cataracts are also common. From a clinical perspective, most DM symptoms are interpreted as a result of an accelerated aging (cataracts, muscular weakness and atrophy, cognitive decline, metabolic dysfunction, etc., including an increased risk of developing tumors. From this point of view, DM1 could be described as a progeroid syndrome since a notable age-dependent dysfunction of all systems occurs. The underlying molecular disorder in DM1 consists of the existence of a pathological (CTGn triplet expansion in the 3’ untranslated region of the DMPK gene, whereas (CCTGn repeats in the first intron of the CNBP/ZNF9 gene cause DM2. The expansions are transcribed into (CUGn and (CCUGn-containing RNA, respectively, which form secondary structures and sequester RNA-binding proteins, such as the splicing factor muscleblind-like protein (MBNL, forming nuclear aggregates known as foci. Other splicing factors, such as CUGBP, are also disrupted, leading to a spliceopathy of a large number of downstream genes linked to the clinical features of these diseases. Skeletal muscle regeneration relies on muscle progenitor cells, known as satellite cells, which are activated after muscle damage, and which proliferate and differentiate to muscle cells, thus regenerating the damaged tissue. Satellite cell dysfunction seems to be a common feature of both age-dependent muscle degeneration (sarcopenia and muscle wasting in DM and other muscle degenerative diseases. This review aims to describe the cellular, molecular and macrostructural processes involved in the muscular degeneration seen in DM patients, highlighting the similarities found with muscle aging.

  18. Morbidity structure among prematurely born babies of the same gestational age from single and twin pregnancies

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    Dragičević Marina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Premature infants, born before 37 completed weeks of gestation, belong to the category of at-risk children. They have a lower survival rate due to complex multifactorial diseases such as respiratory distress syndrome, nosocomial sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, intracranial pathologies (bleeding, ischemia, maldevelopment, retinopathy of prematurity, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia which threaten survival and optimal neurodevelopment. Multiple pregnancies are more often delivered before the due date. Our objective was to determine the morbidity structure among prematurely born twins compared to singletons of the same gestational age. Material and Methods. The analysis included 60 prematurely born children (30 preterm twins and 30 singletons who had been diagnosed with one or more diseases: respiratory distress syndrome, intraventricular hemorrhage, retinopathy, icterus, septicaemia, and other, with the exception of general infections. Results. The most common diagnosis of preterm twins and singletons was hyperbilirubinaemia (83.3% and respiratory distress syndrome (78.3%. Infections follow with 25% and intracranial hemorrhage with 21%. Conclusion. According to statistical analyses, there is no significant difference in incidence of morbidity among prematurely born singletons and preterm twins.

  19. Factors influencing the motor development of prematurely born school-aged children in Brazil.

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    Moreira, Rafaela S; Magalhães, Lívia C; Dourado, Jordana S; Lemos, Stela M A; Alves, Claudia R L

    2014-09-01

    Despite technological advances in neonatology, premature children are still susceptible to disruptions in neurological development. The current study aimed to analyze the factors that influence motor development in prematurely born school-aged children in Brazil. This cross-sectional study involved 100 "apparently normal" children, aged 8-10 years, born at less than 35 weeks of gestation or with birth weightToken Test (TT) and Teste de Desempenho Escolar (TDE), respectively. Parents answered questions regarding the child's clinical history and behavior using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and family environment resources (RAF). Hierarchical multivariate analyses revealed that 39% of the children scored lower on the MABC-2, as compared to that expected for their age (manual dexterity: 49%; balance: 35%; throwing/catching a ball: 26%). Multivariate analysis indicated that the lower the birth weight, the maternal age at childbirth, and the RAF score, the greater was the chance of impairment on the MABC-2 scores. The probability of having an impairment MABC-2 scores was four times higher when the mother was not employed. We also found associations between MABC-2 scores and the tasks of tying shoes and opening/closing zippers and buttons. Factors related to children's home environments and birth weight are associated with deficient motor performance in prematurely born Brazilian school-aged children. Deficient motor skills were also associated with difficulty in performing functional tasks requiring greater manual dexterity. PMID:24858787

  20. RARE CASE REPORT: WERNER’S SYNDROME - PREMATURE AGING SYNDROME SEEN IN TWO SISTERS

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    Gopal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Werner’s syndrome is a premature aging syndrome with au tosomal recessive mode of inheritance. It is a rare case, hence early identification of disease and genetic counseling is important. AIM: To describe the clinical features of Werner‘s Disease in two siblings. CLINICAL PRESENTATION : A 34 year old female cam e with recurrent ulcers on lower limb, she was operated for bilateral cataract, hypopigmentation in B/L extensor surface of arm and waist, absence of axillary and pubic hair, loss of subcutaneous fat and the patient appeared old. Her younger sister, 33yea r old female came with similar complaints but less severe and had diabetes mellitus. H/O consanguineous marriage in parents. RESULT : Skin biopsy: Epidermis was thinned out, appendages are sparse and dermis showed thick hyalinised collagen. CONCLUSION : With Clinical features of premature aging, h/o consanguineous marriage, positive family history a diagnosis of Werner’s disease was made

  1. Epigenetic inactivation of the premature aging Werner syndrome gene in human cancer

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    Agrelo, Ruben; Cheng, Wen-Hsing; Setien, Fernando; Ropero, Santiago; Espada, Jesus; Fraga, Mario F; Herranz, Michel; Paz, Maria F.; Sanchez-Cespedes, Montserrat; Artiga, Maria Jesus; Guerrero, David; Castells, Antoni; von Kobbe, Cayetano; Bohr, Vilhelm A.; Esteller, Manel

    2006-01-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is an inherited disorder characterized by premature onset of aging, genomic instability, and increased cancer incidence. The disease is caused by loss of function mutations of the WRN gene, a RecQ family member with both helicase and exonuclease activities. However, despite its putative tumor-suppressor function, little is known about the contribution of WRN to human sporadic malignancies. Here, we report that WRN function is abrogated in human cancer cells by transcripti...

  2. RARE CASE REPORT: WERNER’S SYNDROME - PREMATURE AGING SYNDROME SEEN IN TWO SISTERS

    OpenAIRE

    Gopal; Kavya Raju; Sharath Kumar; Ramesh*; Nandini

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Werner’s syndrome is a premature aging syndrome with au tosomal recessive mode of inheritance. It is a rare case, hence early identification of disease and genetic counseling is important. AIM: To describe the clinical features of Werner‘s Disease in two siblings. CLINICAL PRESENTATION : A 34 year old female cam e with recurrent ulcers on lower limb, she was operated for bilateral cataract, hypopigmentation in B/L extensor surface of arm and waist, a...

  3. The Effect of Gestational Age on Axial Length of the Eyes of Premature Infants

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    Mehmet Ali Sekeroglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the axial length of the eyes of premature infants without retinopathy of prematurity and to document the relationship with gestational age and changes as infants grew-up. Material and Method: The axial length of the eyes were measured by using a mobile A-scan ultrasonographic biometry device just before the first retinopathy of prematurity screening examination and 4-weeks thereafter. Results: One-hundred and thirty-six infants with a mean gestational age of 31,7±2,7 weeks and a birth-weight of 1561.0±379.3 g were included in the study. Axial length measurements were done at a mean postconceptional age of 35.8 ±2.6 (31-40 and 39.8±2.7 (35-44 weeks, consecutively. The mean axial length at first and second visits were 16.43±0.42 mm (15.28-17.13 and 16.69±0.41 mm (15.60-17.70, consecutively (p

  4. Association of Maternal Age to Development and Progression of Retinopathy of Prematurity in Infants of Gestational Age under 33 Weeks

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    Atsuro Uchida

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To find predictive and indicative markers of risk for development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP and its progression to the stage requiring laser treatment, in premature infants whose gestational age (GA was under 33 weeks. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 197 premature infants born in 2005–2010 whose GA<33 weeks and underwent eye screening at Keio University Hospital. The association between candidate risk factors and development or progression of ROP was assessed. Results. Among the 182 eligible infants (median GA, 29.1 weeks; median birth weight (BW, 1028 g, 84 (46% developed any stage of ROP, of which 45 (25% required laser treatment. Multivariate analysis using a stepwise method showed that GA (P=0.002; 95% confidence interval (CI, 0.508–0.858, BW (P<0.001; 95% CI, 0.994–0.998, and lower maternal age (P=0.032; 95% CI, 0.819–0.991 were the risk factors for ROP development and GA (P<0.001; 95% CI, 0.387–0.609 and lower maternal age (P=0.012; 95% CI, 0.795–0.973 were for laser treatment. The odds ratio of requiring laser treatment was 3.3 when the maternal age was <33 years. Conclusion. ROP was more likely to be developed and progressed in infants born from younger mother and low GA.

  5. Homeostatic imbalance between apoptosis and cell renewal in the liver of premature aging Xpd mice.

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    Jung Yoon Park

    Full Text Available Unrepaired or misrepaired DNA damage has been implicated as a causal factor in cancer and aging. Xpd(TTD mice, harboring defects in nucleotide excision repair and transcription due to a mutation in the Xpd gene (R722W, display severe symptoms of premature aging but have a reduced incidence of cancer. To gain further insight into the molecular basis of the mutant-specific manifestation of age-related phenotypes, we used comparative microarray analysis of young and old female livers to discover gene expression signatures distinguishing Xpd(TTD mice from their age-matched wild type controls. We found a transcription signature of increased apoptosis in the Xpd(TTD mice, which was confirmed by in situ immunohistochemical analysis and found to be accompanied by increased proliferation. However, apoptosis rate exceeded the rate of proliferation, resulting in homeostatic imbalance. Interestingly, a metabolic response signature was observed involving decreased energy metabolism and reduced IGF-1 signaling, a major modulator of life span. We conclude that while the increased apoptotic response to endogenous DNA damage contributes to the accelerated aging phenotypes and the reduced cancer incidence observed in the Xpd(TTD mice, the signature of reduced energy metabolism is likely to reflect a compensatory adjustment to limit the increased genotoxic stress in these mutants. These results support a general model for premature aging in DNA repair deficient mice based on cellular responses to DNA damage that impair normal tissue homeostasis.

  6. Clinical sonography in premature infant: Sonographic analysis of incidence and grade of germinal metrixhemorrhage according to gestational age,risk

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    Kim, Jae Hyoung; Kim, I. W.; Yeon, K. M. [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-12-15

    The authors reviewed 63 premature infants who was born from January 1986 to August 1988 at College of Medicine Seoul National University, to analyze grade of germinal metrixhemorrhage to gestational age, risk.

  7. Clinical sonography in premature infant: Sonographic analysis of incidence and grade of germinal metrixhemorrhage according to gestational age,risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors reviewed 63 premature infants who was born from January 1986 to August 1988 at College of Medicine Seoul National University, to analyze grade of germinal metrixhemorrhage to gestational age, risk.

  8. Factors influencing the motor development of prematurely born school-aged children in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Rafaela S; Magalhães, Lívia C; Dourado, Jordana S; Lemos, Stela M A; Alves, Claudia R L

    2014-09-01

    Despite technological advances in neonatology, premature children are still susceptible to disruptions in neurological development. The current study aimed to analyze the factors that influence motor development in prematurely born school-aged children in Brazil. This cross-sectional study involved 100 "apparently normal" children, aged 8-10 years, born at less than 35 weeks of gestation or with birth weightmotor development was assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-2). The children's neuropsychological and academic performance was assessed with the Token Test (TT) and Teste de Desempenho Escolar (TDE), respectively. Parents answered questions regarding the child's clinical history and behavior using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and family environment resources (RAF). Hierarchical multivariate analyses revealed that 39% of the children scored lower on the MABC-2, as compared to that expected for their age (manual dexterity: 49%; balance: 35%; throwing/catching a ball: 26%). Multivariate analysis indicated that the lower the birth weight, the maternal age at childbirth, and the RAF score, the greater was the chance of impairment on the MABC-2 scores. The probability of having an impairment MABC-2 scores was four times higher when the mother was not employed. We also found associations between MABC-2 scores and the tasks of tying shoes and opening/closing zippers and buttons. Factors related to children's home environments and birth weight are associated with deficient motor performance in prematurely born Brazilian school-aged children. Deficient motor skills were also associated with difficulty in performing functional tasks requiring greater manual dexterity.

  9. Premature skin aging features rescued by inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity in XPC-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mohsen; Mahfouf, Walid; Serrano-Sanchez, Martin; Raad, Houssam; Harfouche, Ghida; Bonneu, Marc; Claverol, Stephane; Mazurier, Frederic; Rossignol, Rodrigue; Taieb, Alain; Rezvani, Hamid Reza

    2015-04-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum type C (XP-C) is characterized mostly by a predisposition to skin cancers and accelerated photoaging, but little is known about premature skin aging in this disease. By comparing young and old mice, we found that the level of progerin and p16(INK4a) expression, β-galactosidase activity, and reactive oxygen species, which increase with age, were higher in young Xpc(-/-) mice than in young Xpc(+/+) ones. The expression level of mitochondrial complexes and mitochondrial functions in the skin of young Xpc(-/-) was as low as in control aged Xpc(+/+)animals. Furthermore, the metabolic profile in young Xpc(-/-) mice resembled that found in aged Xpc(+/+) mice. Furthermore, premature skin aging features in young Xpc(-/-) mice were mostly rescued by inhibition of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 1 (NOX1) activity by using a NOX1 peptide inhibitor, suggesting that the continuous oxidative stress due to overactivation of NOX1 has a causative role in the underlying pathophysiology. PMID:25437426

  10. Uremia-Associated Premature Aging of T Cells Does Not Predict Infectious Complications After Renal Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedeoglu, B; Meijers, R W J; Klepper, M; Hesselink, D A; Baan, C C; Litjens, N H R; Betjes, M G H

    2016-08-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease have prematurely aged T cell systems. We tested whether T cell aging parameters were associated with the risk of infections after renal transplantation (RTx). We studied 188 patients over 1 year. Peripheral T cells were analyzed before and at 3 and 6 mo after RTx for frequency of recent thymic emigrants, relative telomere length and differentiation status. These parameters were related to the occurrence of opportunistic and serious infections. Overall, 84 patients developed an infection. In this group, 50 developed an opportunistic infection and 53 developed a serious infection. T cell aging parameters assessed before RTx were not associated with infection risk. The memory T cells showed a decrease within the first 3 mo in both groups (p < 0.001). The CD4(+) memory T cells increased between 3 and 6 mo within the infection group (p = 0.015). The number of CD8(+) memory T cells increased in both groups (p < 0.001) but reached baseline levels only in the infection group. In the infection group, the CD8(+) CD28(null) T cell percentage increased between 3 and 6 mo (p = 0.024), tending to be higher than at baseline (p = 0.061). These differences in post-RTx dynamics resulted from infections. Parameters of uremia-associated premature aging of peripheral T cells do not predict posttransplant infections. PMID:26914971

  11. The relationship of birth weight, gestational age, and postmenstrual age with ocular biometry parameters in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozdemir Ozdemir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To analyze ocular biometry parameters and evaluate their relationship with gestational age, birth weight, and postmenstrual age in prematurely born infants. Methods: The right eyes of 361 premature infants born before the 36th gestational week were evaluated. Birth weight, gestational week, and gender were recorded. An A-scan Biometer was used for obtaining axial measurements, including anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, vitreous length, and total axial length. Results: Gestational age and birth weight values ranged from 23 to 36 weeks and from 560 to 2,670 g, respectively. The mean gestational age and birth weight were 30.8 ± 2.8 weeks and 1,497.9 ± 483.6 g, respectively. During the first examination (4-5 weeks of postnatal age, birth weight and gestational age of the infants correlated significantly and positively with lens thickness, vitreous length, and axial length (r>0.5, p<0.001, but not with anterior chamber depth (r<0.5. Increased vitreous and axial lengths correlated significantly with increasing postmenstrual age of the infants (r=0.669, p<0.001; r=0.845, p<0.001, respectively. Conclusions: Lens thickness, vitreous length, and axial length, but not anterior chamber depth, were significantly correlated with birth weight and gestational age. All four parameters increased with increasing postmenstrual age, with higher correlations for vitreous and axial lengths than for anterior chamber depth and lens thickness. It was concluded that axial elongation resulted primarily from increasing posterior chamber length.

  12. Characterization of monoaminergic systems in brain regions of prematurely ageing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Fuente, Monica; Hernanz, Angel; Medina, Sonia; Guayerbas, Noelia; Fernández, Beatriz; Viveros, Maria Paz

    2003-07-01

    We have previously shown that differences in life span among members of Swiss mouse populations appear to be related to their exploration of a T-maze, with a slow exploration ("slow mice") being linked to increased levels of emotionality/anxiety, an impaired immune function and a shorter life span. Thus, we proposed the slow mice as prematurely ageing mice (PAM). We have now compared the monoaminergic systems of the PAM and of the non-prematurely ageing mice (NPAM), in discrete brain regions. PAM had decreased noradrenaline (NA) levels in all the brain regions analysed, whereas the 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl glycol (MHPG)/NA ratios were not significantly modified. PAM also showed decreased serotonine (5-HT) levels in hypothalamus, striatum and midbrain, as well as increased 5-hydroxyindol-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA)/5-HT ratios in hypothalamus and hippocampus. The dopamine (DA) content was lower in PAM in most regions, whereas the 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC)/DA and homovanillic acid (HVA)/DA ratios were either increased or unchanged depending on the region analysed. In most cases, the differences between PAM and NPAM involved both sexes. One exception was the hypothalamus where the differences only affected the male mice. The neurochemical alterations found in PAM resemble some changes reported for aged animals and are related with their behavioural features.

  13. Early injury of the neonatal lung contributes to premature lung aging: a hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiners, Silke; Hilgendorff, Anne

    2016-12-01

    Chronic lung disease of the newborn, also known as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), is the most common chronic lung disease in early infancy and results in an increased risk for long-lasting pulmonary impairment in the adult. BPD develops upon injury of the immature lung by oxygen toxicity, mechanical ventilation, and infections which trigger sustained inflammatory immune responses and extensive remodeling of the extracellular matrix together with dysregulated growth factor signaling. Histopathologically, BPD is characterized by impaired alveolarization, disrupted vascular development, and saccular wall fibrosis. Here, we explore the hypothesis that development of BPD involves disturbance of conserved pathways of molecular aging that may contribute to premature aging of the lung and an increased susceptibility to chronic lung diseases in adulthood. PMID:27406259

  14. Atypical perceptual narrowing in prematurely born infants is associated with compromised language acquisition at 2 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suominen Kalervo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early auditory experiences are a prerequisite for speech and language acquisition. In healthy children, phoneme discrimination abilities improve for native and degrade for unfamiliar, socially irrelevant phoneme contrasts between 6 and 12 months of age as the brain tunes itself to, and specializes in the native spoken language. This process is known as perceptual narrowing, and has been found to predict normal native language acquisition. Prematurely born infants are known to be at an elevated risk for later language problems, but it remains unclear whether these problems relate to early perceptual narrowing. To address this question, we investigated early neurophysiological phoneme discrimination abilities and later language skills in prematurely born infants and in healthy, full-term infants. Results Our follow-up study shows for the first time that perceptual narrowing for non-native phoneme contrasts found in the healthy controls at 12 months was not observed in very prematurely born infants. An electric mismatch response of the brain indicated that whereas full-term infants gradually lost their ability to discriminate non-native phonemes from 6 to 12 months of age, prematurely born infants kept on this ability. Language performance tested at the age of 2 years showed a significant delay in the prematurely born group. Moreover, those infants who did not become specialized in native phonemes at the age of one year, performed worse in the communicative language test (MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories at the age of two years. Thus, decline in sensitivity to non-native phonemes served as a predictor for further language development. Conclusion Our data suggest that detrimental effects of prematurity on language skills are based on the low degree of specialization to native language early in development. Moreover, delayed or atypical perceptual narrowing was associated with slower language acquisition. The

  15. Effect of low lead exposure on gestational age, birth weight and premature rupture of the membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To find out the effect of prenatal exposure to low lead from cosmetics on gestational age, premature rupture of the membrane and birth weight. Methods: The study was carried out in the mountainous Aseer region, Southwest of Saudi Arabia where the air is thought to be clean and free of lead pollution due to the absence of petroleum smelting and other heavy industries. The region is famous as a holiday resort for tourists from Arabia and the gulf countries. All 176 pregnant women included in the study were of singleton pregnancies of gestational age 27 weeks or more who attended the antenatal outpatient clinic of the main maternity hospital. On the day of delivery 4 milliliters of venous blood from each singleton parturient was placed in a heparinized non-silica containing tube and stored at -20 deg. C prior to analysis. Results: Ninety-four (70.1%) women out of 134 had maternal blood lead concentration 200 mu g/L. The mean difference in gestational age was 10.5 days, showing a non significant difference (P=0.152). Ninety-three women (72.7%) out of a total of 128 who had blood lead concentration 200 mu g/L gave birth to infants weighing an average of 2.99 kg. The mean difference was 0.12 kg which is non-significant (P=0.261). Regarding premature rupture of the membrane a total of 127 women with maternal blood lead levels above 200 mu g/L showed no significant differences (P=0.64). The Chi-square test of the relationship between the birth weight (kg) and the levels of blood lead below 150 mu g/L was not significant while the relationship between the birth weight (kg) and the levels of blood lead above 200 mu g/L resulted in very slight differences in the values of infants' birth weight. Conclusion: The detected low lead exposures from cosmetics does not produce statistically significant effects on the three pregnancy outcomes; gestational age, premature rupture of the membrane or birth weight. However, the importance of low lead exposure from the 100% lead

  16. Homeostatic imbalance between apoptosis and cell renewal in the liver of premature aging XpdTTD mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.Y. Park; M.O. Cho; S. Leonard (Shanique); B. Calder (Brent); I.S. Mian (Saira); W.H. Kim (Woo); S.W.P. Wijnhoven (Susan); H. van Steeg (Harry); J.R. Mitchell (James); G.T.J. van der Horst (Gijsbertus); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); P. Cohen (Pinchas); J. Vijg (Jan); Y. Suh (Yousin)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractUnrepaired or misrepaired DNA damage has been implicated as a causal factor in cancer and aging. XpdTTDmice, harboring defects in nucleotide excision repair and transcription due to a mutation in the Xpd gene (R722W), display severe symptoms of premature aging but have a rduced incidence

  17. Transformation Resistance in a Premature Aging Disorder Identifies a Tumor-Protective Function of BRD4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Fernandez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Advanced age and DNA damage accumulation are prominent risk factors for cancer. The premature aging disorder Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS provides a unique opportunity for studying the interplay between DNA damage and aging-associated tumor mechanisms, given that HGPS patients do not develop tumors despite elevated levels of DNA damage. Here, we have used HGPS patient cells to identify a protective mechanism to oncogenesis. We find that HGPS cells are resistant to neoplastic transformation. Resistance is mediated by the bromodomain protein BRD4, which exhibits altered genome-wide binding patterns in transformation-resistant cells, leading to inhibition of oncogenic dedifferentiation. BRD4 also inhibits, albeit to a lower extent, the tumorigenic potential of transformed cells from healthy individuals. BRD4-mediated tumor protection is clinically relevant given that a BRD4 gene signature predicts positive clinical outcome in breast and lung cancer. Our results demonstrate a protective function for BRD4 and suggest tissue-specific roles for BRD4 in tumorigenesis.

  18. School performance at nine years of age in very premature and very low birth weight infants : Perinatal risk factors and predictors at five years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, E.T.M.; Ouden, A.L. den; Bauer, L.; Oudenrijn, C. van den; Brand, R.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    To assess the impact of both perinatal disorders and developmental problems identified at preschool age on school performance, we followed a virtually complete birth cohort of very premature (<32 completed weeks of gestation) and very low birth weight infants until they were 9 years of age. In 84% o

  19. Modifiable causes of premature death in middle-age in Western Europe : Results from the EPIC cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, David C.; Murphy, Neil; Johansson, Mattias; Ferrari, Pietro; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Clavel, Francoise; Dartois, Laureen; Li, Kuanrong; Kaaks, Rudolf; Weikert, Cornelia; Bergmann, Manuela; Boeing, Heiner; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Redondo, M. Luisa; Agudo, Antonio; Molina-Portillo, Elena; Altzibar, Jone M.; Cirera, Lluís; Ardanaz, Eva; Khaw, Kay Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Key, Timothy J.; Travis, Ruth C.; Bamia, Christina; Orfanos, Philippos; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Verschuren, W. M Monique; Struijk, Ellen A.; Peeters, Petra H.; Engström, Gunnar; Melander, Olle; Sund, Malin; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Lund, Eiliv; Norat, Teresa; Gunter, Marc; Riboli, Elio; Brennan, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background: Life expectancy is increasing in Europe, yet a substantial proportion of adults still die prematurely before the age of 70 years. We sought to estimate the joint and relative contributions of tobacco smoking, hypertension, obesity, physical inactivity, alcohol and poor diet towards risk

  20. Genetic inactivation of Cdk7 leads to cell cycle arrest and induces premature aging due to adult stem cell exhaustion

    OpenAIRE

    Ganuza, Miguel; Sáiz-Ladera, Cristina; Cañamero, Marta; Gómez, Gonzalo; Schneider, Ralph; Blasco, María A.; Pisano, David; Paramio, Jesús M.; Santamaría, David; Barbacid, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    Employing a conditionally inactive gene trap allele, Cdk7's function in regulating cellular proliferation by Cdk1/2-phosphorylation is convincingly dissected from alternative notions on CTD-phosphorylation of RNA Pol II. Premature aging phenotypes caused by stem cell depletion lend the necessary functional support.

  1. Premature aging in bone of fish from a highly polluted marine area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Crystalline structure of fishbone mineral was defined by XRD and FT-IR analyses. • Expected positive relationship between fish age and bone maturity was not found. • Mineralisation degree was positively related to high concentration of Hg and Cr. • S. porcus and D. annularis showed the highest bone maturity and Hg content. - Abstract: Fish species have attracted considerable interest in studies assessing biological responses to environmental contaminants. In this study, the attention has been focussed on fishbone of selected fish species from a highly polluted marine area, Augusta Bay (Italy, Central Mediterranean) to evaluate if toxicant elements had an effect on the mineralogical structure of bones, although macroscopic deformations were not evident. In particular, an attempt was made to evaluate if bone mineral features, such as crystallinity, mineral maturity and carbonate/phosphate mineral content, determined by XR-Diffraction and FT-IR Spectroscopy, suffered negative effects due to trace element levels in fishbone, detected by ICP-OES. Results confirmed the reliability of the use of diffractometric and spectroscopic techniques to assess the degree of crystallinity and the mineral maturity in fishbone. In addition, in highly polluted areas, Hg and Cr contamination induced a process of premature aging of fishbone, altering its biochemical and mineral contents

  2. Attenuation of replication stress-induced premature cellular senescence to assess anti-aging modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    Described is an in vitro model of premature senescence in pulmonary adenocarcinoma A549 cells induced by persistent DNA replication stress in response to treatment with the DNA damaging drug mitoxantrone (Mxt). The degree of cellular senescence, based on characteristic changes in cell morphology, is measured by laser scanning cytometry. Specifically, the flattening of cells grown on slides (considered the hallmark of cellular senescence) is measured as the decline in local intensity of DNA-associated DAPI fluorescence (represented by maximal pixels). This change is paralleled by an increase in nuclear area. Thus, the ratio of mean intensity of maximal pixels to nuclear area provides a very sensitive morphometric biomarker for the degree of senescence. This analysis is combined with immunocytochemical detection of senescence markers, such as overexpression of cyclin kinase inhibitors (e.g., p21(WAF1) ) and phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6), a key marker associated with aging/senescence that is detected using a phospho-specific antibody. These biomarker indices are presented in quantitative terms defined as a senescence index (SI), which is the fraction of the marker in test cultures relative to the same marker in exponentially growing control cultures. This system can be used to evaluate the anti-aging potential of test agents by assessing attenuation of maximal senescence. As an example, the inclusion of berberine, a natural alkaloid with reported anti-aging properties and a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine, is shown to markedly attenuate the Mxt-induced SI and phosphorylation of rpS6. The multivariate analysis of senescence markers by laser scanning cytometry offers a promising tool to explore the potential anti-aging properties of a variety agents.

  3. Homeostatic Imbalance between Apoptosis and Cell Renewal in the Liver of Premature Aging XpdTTD Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Jung Yoon Park; Mi-Ook Cho; Shanique Leonard; Brent Calder; I Saira Mian; Woo Ho Kim; Susan Wijnhoven; Harry van Steeg; James Mitchell; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T. J.; Jan Hoeijmakers; Pinchas Cohen; Jan Vijg; Yousin Suh

    2008-01-01

    Unrepaired or misrepaired DNA damage has been implicated as a causal factor in cancer and aging. Xpd(TTD) mice, harboring defects in nucleotide excision repair and transcription due to a mutation in the Xpd gene (R722W), display severe symptoms of premature aging but have a reduced incidence of cancer. To gain further insight into the molecular basis of the mutant-specific manifestation of age-related phenotypes, we used comparative microarray analysis of young and old female livers to discov...

  4. The Reasons and Prevention of Ovarian Premature Aging%卵巢早衰的原因与预防

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the factors that cause ovarian premature aging so as to provide a basis for clinical prevention and treatment of ovarian premature aging. Methods A questionnaire was used to investigate the 100 cases in the observation group and the control group, and the data was treated by logistic regression analysis. Results 12 variables such as the number of induced abortion, drinking, smoking, marital status, family and social relationship, bean products, mood, taking corticosteroids and so on are related to the occurrence of ovarian premature aging. Multiple factors analysis showed that marital status (OR = 6.03), number of induced abortion (OR = 2.14), smoking (OR =3.26), hair coloring (OR =2.74), mood (OR= 0.16), vegetables (OR = 0.34), mumps (OR = 10.23), and other factors are closely associated with ovarian premature aging. Conclusion Many factors can cause ovarian premature aging, so effective measures should be taken clinically to strengthen the prevention and treatment, thereby reducing the incidence of the disease and promoting the recovery of the patients as early as possible.%目的:分析卵巢早衰发生因素,为临床卵巢早衰的防治提供一定的依据。方法采用问卷调查方式对观察组和健康对照组共100例进行logistic回归分析。结果卵巢早衰发生因素与人工流产次数、饮酒、吸烟、婚姻状况以及家人社会相处关系、豆制品、心情和服用糖皮质激素等12个变量相关。多因素分析表明,婚姻状况(OR=6.03)、人工流产次数(OR=2.14)、吸烟(OR=3.26)、染发(OR=2.74)、心情(OR=0.16)、蔬菜(OR=0.34)、腮腺炎(OR=10.23)等因素与卵巢早衰密切相关。结论卵巢早衰发生因素较多,临床应采取有效的措施加强预防,治疗,以降低发病率,促进患者早日康复。

  5. A model of premature aging in mice based on altered stress-related behavioral response and immunosenescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveros, María-Paz; Arranz, Lorena; Hernanz, Angel; Miquel, Jaime; De la Fuente, Mónica

    2007-01-01

    The intensity of behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to stressful stimuli in rodent strains seems to be inversely related to their life span. We have previously shown that interindividual differences in members of outbred Swiss and inbred BALB/c mouse populations, both male and female, may be related to their behavior in a simple T-maze test. The animals that explore the maze slowly show impaired neuromuscular vigor and coordination, decreased locomotor activity, increased level of emotionality/anxiety, decreased levels of brain biogenic amines as well as immunosenescence and decreased life span, when compared to their control counterparts, which quickly explore the maze. These traits are similar to some of the alterations previously observed in aging animals and therefore we proposed that those 'slow mice' are biologically older than the fast animals and may be a model of prematurely aging mice (PAM). Although most of our work on this model has been performed on chronologically adult-mature animals, we have also shown that certain characteristics of PAM, such as increased anxiety and deficient immune response, are already present in chronologically young animals. Thus, it is tempting to hypothesize that chronic hyperreactivity to stress (trait anxiety) leading to immune dysfunction may have a causal relationship with impaired health and premature aging. In view of the link between oxidative stress and the aging process, the redox state of peritoneal leukocytes from PAM has been studied, showing an oxidative stress situation. In the present work we have determined the levels of a key antioxidant, reduced glutathione (GSH), and the oxidant malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker of lipid peroxidation, both in the spleen and brain of male and female PAM and non-PAM (NPAM). We found that GSH and MDA are decreased and increased, respectively, in PAM with respect to NPAM. Moreover, diet supplementation with antioxidants showed to be an effective strategy for protection

  6. Attenuation of Replication Stress–Induced Premature Cellular Senescence to Assess Anti-Aging Modalities

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Hong; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    Described is an in vitro model of premature senescence in pulmonary adenocarcinoma A549 cells induced by persistent DNA replication stress in response to treatment with the DNA damaging drug mitoxantrone (Mxt). The degree of cellular senescence, based on characteristic changes in cell morphology, is measured by laser scanning cytometry. Specifically, the flattening of cells grown on slides (considered the hallmark of cellular senescence) is measured as the decline in local intensity of DNA-as...

  7. Premature Contractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this more-forceful beat. Types of premature contractions Premature atrial contractions (PACs) start in the upper chambers of the ... and Privacy Policy Arrhythmia • ... Disorders Premature Contractions Tachycardia Ventricular Fibrillation Other Rhythm Disorders Types of ...

  8. Patch-based augmentation of Expectation-Maximization for brain MRI tissue segmentation at arbitrary age after premature birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengyuan; Kitsch, Averi; Miller, Steven; Chau, Vann; Poskitt, Kenneth; Rousseau, Francois; Shaw, Dennis; Studholme, Colin

    2016-02-15

    Accurate automated tissue segmentation of premature neonatal magnetic resonance images is a crucial task for quantification of brain injury and its impact on early postnatal growth and later cognitive development. In such studies it is common for scans to be acquired shortly after birth or later during the hospital stay and therefore occur at arbitrary gestational ages during a period of rapid developmental change. It is important to be able to segment any of these scans with comparable accuracy. Previous work on brain tissue segmentation in premature neonates has focused on segmentation at specific ages. Here we look at solving the more general problem using adaptations of age specific atlas based methods and evaluate this using a unique manually traced database of high resolution images spanning 20 gestational weeks of development. We examine the complimentary strengths of age specific atlas-based Expectation-Maximization approaches and patch-based methods for this problem and explore the development of two new hybrid techniques, patch-based augmentation of Expectation-Maximization with weighted fusion and a spatial variability constrained patch search. The former approach seeks to combine the advantages of both atlas- and patch-based methods by learning from the performance of the two techniques across the brain anatomy at different developmental ages, while the latter technique aims to use anatomical variability maps learnt from atlas training data to locally constrain the patch-based search range. The proposed approaches were evaluated using leave-one-out cross-validation. Compared with the conventional age specific atlas-based segmentation and direct patch based segmentation, both new approaches demonstrate improved accuracy in the automated labeling of cortical gray matter, white matter, ventricles and sulcal cortical-spinal fluid regions, while maintaining comparable results in deep gray matter. PMID:26702777

  9. Modifiable causes of premature death in middle-age in Western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, David C; Murphy, Neil; Johansson, Mattias;

    2016-01-01

    . Important contributions were also observed for overweight and obesity measured by waist-hip ratio (10 %; 95 % CI, 8-12 %) and high blood pressure (9 %; 95 % CI, 7-11 %). AFs for physical inactivity and excessive alcohol intake were 7 % and 4 %, respectively. Collectively, the AF for all six risk factors...... was 57 % (95 % CI, 55-59 %), being 35 % (95 % CI, 32-37 %) among never smokers and 74 % (95 % CI, 73-75 %) among current smokers. CONCLUSIONS: While smoking remains the predominant risk factor for premature death in Europe, poor diet, overweight and obesity, hypertension, physical inactivity...

  10. Comparisons of mortality and pre-discharge respiratory outcomes in small-for-gestational-age and appropriate-for-gestational-age premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Puneet

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are differences in the literature regarding outcomes of premature small-for-gestational-age (SGA and appropriate-for gestational-age (AGA infants, possibly due to failure to take into account gestational age at birth. Objective To compare mortality and respiratory morbidity of SGA and AGA premature newborn infants. Design/Methods A retrospective study was done of the 2,487 infants born without congenital anomalies at ≤36 weeks of gestation and admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU at John Dempsey Hospital, between Jan. 1992 and Dec. 1999. Recent (1994–96 U.S. birth weight percentiles for gestational age (GA, race and gender were used to classify neonates as SGA (th–90th percentile for GA. Using multivariate logistic regression and survival analyses to control for GA, SGA and AGA infants were compared for mortality and respiratory morbidity. Results Controlling for GA, premature SGA infants were at a higher risk for mortality (Odds ratio 3.1, P = 0.001 and at lower risk of respiratory distress syndrome (OR = 0.71, p = 0.02 than AGA infants. However multivariate logistic regression modeling found that the odds of having respiratory distress syndrome (RDS varied between SGA and AGA infants by GA. There was no change in RDS risk in SGA infants at GA ≤ 32 wk (OR = 1.27, 95% CI 0.32 – 1.98 but significantly decreased risk for RDS at GA > 32 wk (OR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.27 – 0.63; p Conclusions Premature SGA infants have significantly higher mortality, significantly higher risk of developing chronic lung disease and longer hospital stay as compared to premature AGA infants. Even the reduced risk of RDS in infants born at ≥32 wk GA, (conferred possibly by intra-uterine stress leading to accelerated lung maturation appears to be of transient effect and is counterbalanced by adverse effects of poor intrauterine growth on long term pulmonary outcomes such as chronic lung disease.

  11. AB226. The relationship between self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time and International Prostate Symptom Score in middle-aged men complaining of ejaculating prematurely in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X; Tang, D

    2016-01-01

    Objective We performed this study to evaluate the association between International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) in men with the four premature ejaculation (PE) syndromes. Methods From June 2012 to January 2014, a total of 690 men aged 40–59 years complaining of ejaculating prematurely and another 452 male healthy subjects of the same age without these complaints were included in this study. Men with the complaints of ejaculating prematurely were classified as one of the four PE syndromes: lifelong PE, acquired PE (APE), variable PE, and subjective PE. Each of them completed a detailed questionnaire including information on demographics, medical and sexual history (e.g., self-estimated IELT), IPSS, and International Index of Erectile Function-5. Results Men complaining of ejaculating prematurely reported higher IPSS (11.2±6.0 vs. 5.5±3.3) and shorter self-estimated IELT (2.1±1.6 vs. 4.8±3.3 min) than men without complaints (Pejaculating prematurely reported worse IPSS than men without these complaints. Self-estimated IELT was negatively associated with IPSS in men complaining of ejaculating prematurely, and the correlation was the strongest in men with APE.

  12. Correlation of serum KL-6 and CC16 levels with neurodevelopmental outcome in premature infants at 12 months corrected age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiqun; Lu, Hui; Zhu, Yunxia; Xiang, Junhua; Huang, Xianmei

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate KL-6 and CC16 levels and their correlation with neurodevelopmental outcome among very low birth weight pre-term infants at 12 months corrected age. This prospective cohort study was performed from 2011 to 2013 by enrolling pre-term neonates of gestational age ≤ 32 weeks and birth weight ≤ 1500 g. Serum KL-6 and CC16 levels were determined 7 days after birth and their correlation with neurodevelopment was evaluated using Gesell Mental Developmental Scales. Of the 86 eligible pre-term infants, 63 completed follow-up, of which 15 had bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At 12 months corrected age, 49 infants had favorable outcomes and 14 infants had poor neurodevelopmental outcome. KL-6 levels were higher and CC16 levels were lower in infants with poor neurodevelopmental outcome compared with those infants who had favourable neurodevelopmental outcome. Serum KL-6 levels less than 90.0 ng/ml and CC16 levels greater than 320.0 pg/ml at 7 days of life were found to be predictive of a favourable outcome at 12 months corrected age. These biological markers could predict neurodevelopmental outcome at 12 months corrected age in very low birth weight premature infants, and help the clinician plan early therapeutic interventions to minimize or avoid poor neurodevelopmental outcome. PMID:25631862

  13. Correlation of serum KL-6 and CC16 levels with neurodevelopmental outcome in premature infants at 12 months corrected age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiqun; Lu, Hui; Zhu, Yunxia; Xiang, Junhua; Huang, Xianmei

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate KL-6 and CC16 levels and their correlation with neurodevelopmental outcome among very low birth weight pre-term infants at 12 months corrected age. This prospective cohort study was performed from 2011 to 2013 by enrolling pre-term neonates of gestational age ≤ 32 weeks and birth weight ≤ 1500 g. Serum KL-6 and CC16 levels were determined 7 days after birth and their correlation with neurodevelopment was evaluated using Gesell Mental Developmental Scales. Of the 86 eligible pre-term infants, 63 completed follow-up, of which 15 had bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At 12 months corrected age, 49 infants had favorable outcomes and 14 infants had poor neurodevelopmental outcome. KL-6 levels were higher and CC16 levels were lower in infants with poor neurodevelopmental outcome compared with those infants who had favourable neurodevelopmental outcome. Serum KL-6 levels less than 90.0 ng/ml and CC16 levels greater than 320.0 pg/ml at 7 days of life were found to be predictive of a favourable outcome at 12 months corrected age. These biological markers could predict neurodevelopmental outcome at 12 months corrected age in very low birth weight premature infants, and help the clinician plan early therapeutic interventions to minimize or avoid poor neurodevelopmental outcome. PMID:25631862

  14. Risk Factors for Retinopathy of Prematurity in Premature Born Children

    OpenAIRE

    Alajbegovic-Halimic, Jasmina; Zvizdic, Denisa; Alimanovic-Halilovic, Emina; Dodik, Irena; Duvnjak, Sanela

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) represent disease of the eye in premature born children which affects immature blood vessels of the retina during their development. The emergence of retinopathy of prematurity depends on the interaction of multiple factors, such as: gestational age, low birth weight, hypoxia, duration of oxygen supplementation, respiratory distress syndrome, twin pregnancy, anemia, blood transfusions, sepsis, intraventricular hemorrhage, hypotension, hypothermia...

  15. Premature ejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001524.htm Premature ejaculation To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Premature ejaculation is when a man has an orgasm sooner ...

  16. Prevalence of premature ejaculation in young and middle-aged men in Korea: a multicenter internet-based survey from the Korean Andrological Society

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hyun Jun; Park, Jong Kwan; Park, Kwangsung; Lee, Sung Won; Kim, Sae-Woong; Yang, Dae Yul; Moon, Du Geon; Min, Kweon-Sik; Moon, Ki-Hak; Yang, Sang-Kuk; Hyun, Jae Seog; Park, Nam Cheol

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence and perception of premature ejaculation (PE) in young and middle-aged Korean men. The study was conducted using an Internet-assisted questionnaire. A total of 2 037 Korean male adults, aged 20 years or older, were randomly sampled based on age and residency. The questionnaire developed by the PE Study Group of the Korean Andrological Society includes four categories (overall sexual function, symptoms, distress and treatment) with a total o...

  17. Premature Aging of the Microcirculation in Patients with Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Thang, Oanh H.D.; Serné, Erik H; Grooteman, Muriel P.C.; Smulders, Yvo M.; ter Wee, Piet M.; Tangelder, Geert-Jan; Nubé, Menso J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Increasing age and advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) are both associated with an attenuated vasodilator response of the skin microcirculation. In the present study, we investigated the effect of aging on microvascular reactivity in patients with advanced CKD. Methods Acetylcholine (ACh)-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilation and sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-mediated endothelium-independent vasodilation were assessed by iontophoresis combined with laser Doppler flowmetry. Mic...

  18. The transverse diameter of the chest on routine radiographs reliably estimates gestational age and weight in premature infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, Kelly R. [University of Minnesota, Department of Radiology, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Zhang, Lei [University of Minnesota, Biostatistical Design and Analysis Center, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Seidel, Frank G. [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Prior to digital radiography it was possible for a radiologist to easily estimate the size of a patient on an analog film. Because variable magnification may be applied at the time of processing an image, it is now more difficult to visually estimate an infant's size on the monitor. Since gestational age and weight significantly impact the differential diagnosis of neonatal diseases and determine the expected size of kidneys or appearance of the brain by MRI or US, this information is useful to a pediatric radiologist. Although this information may be present in the electronic medical record, it is frequently not readily available to the pediatric radiologist at the time of image interpretation. To determine if there was a correlation between gestational age and weight of a premature infant with their transverse chest diameter (rib to rib) on admission chest radiographs. This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board, which waived informed consent. The maximum transverse chest diameter outer rib to outer rib was measured on admission portable chest radiographs of 464 patients admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) during the 2010 calendar year. Regression analysis was used to investigate the association between chest diameter and gestational age/birth weight. Quadratic term of chest diameter was used in the regression model. Chest diameter was statistically significantly associated with both gestational age (P < 0.0001) and birth weight (P < 0.0001). An infant's gestational age and birth weight can be reliably estimated by comparing a simple measurement of the transverse chest diameter on digital chest radiograph with the tables and graphs in our study. (orig.)

  19. The transverse diameter of the chest on routine radiographs reliably estimates gestational age and weight in premature infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior to digital radiography it was possible for a radiologist to easily estimate the size of a patient on an analog film. Because variable magnification may be applied at the time of processing an image, it is now more difficult to visually estimate an infant's size on the monitor. Since gestational age and weight significantly impact the differential diagnosis of neonatal diseases and determine the expected size of kidneys or appearance of the brain by MRI or US, this information is useful to a pediatric radiologist. Although this information may be present in the electronic medical record, it is frequently not readily available to the pediatric radiologist at the time of image interpretation. To determine if there was a correlation between gestational age and weight of a premature infant with their transverse chest diameter (rib to rib) on admission chest radiographs. This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board, which waived informed consent. The maximum transverse chest diameter outer rib to outer rib was measured on admission portable chest radiographs of 464 patients admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) during the 2010 calendar year. Regression analysis was used to investigate the association between chest diameter and gestational age/birth weight. Quadratic term of chest diameter was used in the regression model. Chest diameter was statistically significantly associated with both gestational age (P < 0.0001) and birth weight (P < 0.0001). An infant's gestational age and birth weight can be reliably estimated by comparing a simple measurement of the transverse chest diameter on digital chest radiograph with the tables and graphs in our study. (orig.)

  20. Random point mutations with major effects on protein-coding genes are the driving force behind premature aging in mtDNA mutator mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edgar, D.; Shabalina, I.; Camara, Y.; Wredenberg, A.; Calvaruso, M.A.; Nijtmans, L.G.J.; Nedergaard, J.; Cannon, B.; Larsson, N.G.; Trifunovic, A.

    2009-01-01

    The mtDNA mutator mice have high levels of point mutations and linear deletions of mtDNA causing a progressive respiratory chain dysfunction and a premature aging phenotype. We have now performed molecular analyses to determine the mechanism whereby these mtDNA mutations impair respiratory chain fun

  1. Inflammation and Oxidative Stress as Biomarkers of Premature Aging in Persons with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmeli, Eli; Imam, Bita; Bachar, Asad; Merrick, Joav

    2012-01-01

    The decline in cognitive ability and physical performance in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) is accompanied by less participation in social activities and a sedentary lifestyle; however the pathogenesis is not clear yet. It was recently suggested that chronic disease, adverse drug reactions, and aging create a cascade of events…

  2. Metabolic Damage and Premature Thymus Aging Caused by Stromal Catalase Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Ann V; Venables, Thomas; Shi, Jianjun; Farr, Andrew; van Remmen, Holly; Szweda, Luke; Fallahi, Mohammad; Rabinovitch, Peter; Petrie, Howard T

    2015-08-18

    T lymphocytes are essential mediators of immunity that are produced by the thymus in proportion to its size. The thymus atrophies rapidly with age, resulting in progressive diminution of new T cell production. This decreased output is compensated by duplication of existing T cells, but it results in gradual dominance by memory T cells and decreased ability to respond to new pathogens or vaccines. Here, we show that accelerated and irreversible thymic atrophy results from stromal deficiency in the reducing enzyme catalase, leading to increased damage by hydrogen peroxide generated by aerobic metabolism. Genetic complementation of catalase in stromal cells diminished atrophy, as did chemical antioxidants, thus providing a mechanistic link between antioxidants, metabolism, and normal immune function. We propose that irreversible thymic atrophy represents a conventional aging process that is accelerated by stromal catalase deficiency in the context of an intensely anabolic (lymphoid) environment.

  3. Effect of Infant Prematurity on Auditory Brainstem Response at Preschool Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Hasani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preterm birth is a risk factor for a number of conditions that requires comprehensive examination. Our study was designed to investigate the impact of preterm birth on the processing of auditory stimuli and brain structures at the brainstem level at a preschool age.   Materials and Methods: An auditory brainstem response (ABR test was performed with low rates of stimuli in 60 children aged 4 to 6 years. Thirty subjects had been born following a very preterm labor or late-preterm labor and 30 control subjects had been born following a full-term labor.   Results: Significant differences in the ABR test result were observed in terms of the inter-peak intervals of the I–III and III–V waves, and the absolute latency of the III wave (P

  4. Metabolic Damage and Premature Thymus Aging Caused by Stromal Catalase Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann V. Griffith

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available T lymphocytes are essential mediators of immunity that are produced by the thymus in proportion to its size. The thymus atrophies rapidly with age, resulting in progressive diminution of new T cell production. This decreased output is compensated by duplication of existing T cells, but it results in gradual dominance by memory T cells and decreased ability to respond to new pathogens or vaccines. Here, we show that accelerated and irreversible thymic atrophy results from stromal deficiency in the reducing enzyme catalase, leading to increased damage by hydrogen peroxide generated by aerobic metabolism. Genetic complementation of catalase in stromal cells diminished atrophy, as did chemical antioxidants, thus providing a mechanistic link between antioxidants, metabolism, and normal immune function. We propose that irreversible thymic atrophy represents a conventional aging process that is accelerated by stromal catalase deficiency in the context of an intensely anabolic (lymphoid environment.

  5. Sporadic premature aging in a Japanese monkey: a primate model for progeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Oishi

    Full Text Available In our institute, we have recently found a child Japanese monkey who is characterized by deep wrinkles of the skin and cataract of bilateral eyes. Numbers of analyses were performed to identify symptoms representing different aspects of aging. In this monkey, the cell cycle of fibroblasts at early passage was significantly extended as compared to a normal control. Moreover, both the appearance of senescent cells and the deficiency in DNA repair were observed. Also, pathological examination showed that this monkey has poikiloderma with superficial telangiectasia, and biochemical assay confirmed that levels of HbA1c and urinary hyaluronan were higher than those of other (child, adult, and aged monkey groups. Of particular interest was that our MRI analysis revealed expansion of the cerebral sulci and lateral ventricles probably due to shrinkage of the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus. In addition, the conduction velocity of a peripheral sensory but not motor nerve was lower than in adult and child monkeys, and as low as in aged monkeys. However, we could not detect any individual-unique mutations of known genes responsible for major progeroid syndromes. The present results indicate that the monkey suffers from a kind of progeria that is not necessarily typical to human progeroid syndromes.

  6. Dysregulation of Mitochondrial Quality Control Processes Contribute to Sarcopenia in a Mouse Model of Premature Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Anna-Maria; Adhihetty, Peter J; Wawrzyniak, Nicholas R.; Stephanie E. Wohlgemuth; Picca, Anna; Kujoth, Gregory C.; Prolla, Tomas A.; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations lead to decrements in mitochondrial function and accelerated rates of these mutations has been linked to skeletal muscle loss (sarcopenia). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of mtDNA mutations on mitochondrial quality control processes in skeletal muscle from animals (young; 3–6 months and older; 8–15 months) expressing a proofreading-deficient version of mtDNA polymerase gamma (PolG). This progeroid aging model exhibits elevated mtDNA...

  7. Premature Pubarche before One Year of Age: Distinguishing between Mini-Puberty Variants and Precocious Puberty

    OpenAIRE

    Bourayou, Rafik; Giabicani, Eloïse; Pouillot, Monique; Brailly-Tabard, Sylvie; Brauner, Raja

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to facilitate the distinction between the benign “mini-puberty of early infancy” and precocious puberty (PP). Material/Methods We compared 59 patients (21 boys and 38 girls) seen for pubic hair development before one year of age diagnosed as mini-puberty to 13 patients (2 boys) in whom pubertal development before one year revealed a PP. Results The boys with mini-puberty presented with pubic hair development and prepubertal testicular volume, with low plas...

  8. [Premature aging of an organism and characteristics of its manifestation in remote period after low dose irradiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholodova, N B; Zhavoronkova, L A; Ryzhov, B N; Kuznetsova, G D

    2007-01-01

    In this study 58 participants of the liquidation of the consequences of Chernobyl accident in 1986-1987 were investigated. All the patients complain of constant headaches, disorders of memory, general weakness, rapid fatigability, decreased sexual drive, emotional instability etc. The complex (comprehensive) modern methods of investigation were used to carry out the objective assessment of presented complains and of character of the central nervous system damage: complex computer quantitative analysis of mental capacity; analysis of personality traits by using the MMPI test; single photon emission tomography (with the drug of Ceretec); X-ray computer tomography; magnetic resonance computer tomography. The experimental study with examination of primates who were exposured in sum dose 1 Gy (by drop method) was carried out, too. The results of complex investigation of participants of liquidation of Chernobyl accident consequences enable to postulate the formation of premature aging of an organism in these persons. Data of the experimental study of primates irradiated in dose 1 Gy revealed formation of the brain atrophy in the remote period after low dose radiation exposure. PMID:18383710

  9. THE CAUSES AND PREVENTION MEASURES OF PREMATURE AGING FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLE BATTERY%电动车电瓶早衰原因及其预防措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵正平; 张媛

    2012-01-01

    针对现有电动车电瓶早衰严重的问题,结合电瓶的工作原理,深入分析了电瓶早衰的原因,并提出了具体的预防措施。试验表明,这些措施能够较好地保证电瓶的使用寿命,预防早衰,具有很好的应用参考价值。%According to the premature aging of battery for electric vehicle, combining the battery works, the paper deeply analyses the causes of premature aging of battery and puts forward the specific preventive measures. Experiment shows that these measures can ensure the service life of the battery and have a good value for application.

  10. Physiology and biochemistry of leaf bleaching in prematurely aging maple (Acer saccharinum L.) trees. II. Functional and molecular adjustment of PSII.

    OpenAIRE

    Lepeduš, Hrvoje; Begović, Lidija; Mlinarić, Selma; Šimić, Domagoj; Štolfa, Ivna; Parađiković, Nada; Užarević, Zvonimir; Jurković, Vlatka; Cesar, Vera

    2011-01-01

    In the present study we aimed to investigate physiological and molecular mechanisms of photosynthetic performance decline in prematurely aged bleached leaves of silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.) trees. We used in vivo chlorophyll a fluorescence measurement to analyze changes in PSII photochemistry, relative abundance of photosynthetic proteins (D1, LHCII, Cytf and Rubisco LSU), relations between chlorophylls and their precursor protochlorophyllide as well as elemental composition of the l...

  11. Premature infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preterm infant; Preemie; Premie ... The infant may have trouble breathing and keeping a constant body temperature. ... A premature infant may have signs of the following problems: Anemia Bleeding into the brain or damage to the brain's white ...

  12. Specific Language and Reading Skills in School-Aged Children and Adolescents are Associated with Prematurity after Controlling for IQ

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eliana S.; Yeatman, Jason D.; Luna, Beatriz; FELDMAN, HEIDI M.

    2010-01-01

    Although studies of long-term outcomes of children born preterm consistently show low intelligence quotient (IQ) and visual-motor impairment, studies of their performance in language and reading have found inconsistent results. In this study, we examined which specific language and reading skills were associated with prematurity independent of the effects of gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and IQ. Participants from two study sites (N = 100) included 9–16 year old children born before 36 w...

  13. Premature ovarian failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persani Luca

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Premature ovarian failure (POF is a primary ovarian defect characterized by absent menarche (primary amenorrhea or premature depletion of ovarian follicles before the age of 40 years (secondary amenorrhea. It is a heterogeneous disorder affecting approximately 1% of women e.g. Turner syndrome represent the major cause of primary amenorrhea associated with ovarian dysgenesis. Despite the description of several candidate genes, the cause of POF remains undetermined in the vast majority of the cases. Management includes substitution of the hormone defect by estrogen/progestin preparations. The only solution presently available for the fertility defect in women with absent follicular reserve is ovum donation.

  14. Activation of the Hog1p kinase in Isc1p-deficient yeast cells is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress sensitivity and premature aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, António Daniel; Graça, João; Mendes, Vanda; Chaves, Susana Rodrigues; Amorim, Maria Amélia; Mendes, Marta Vaz; Moradas-Ferreira, Pedro; Côrte-Real, Manuela; Costa, Vítor

    2012-05-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Isc1p, an orthologue of mammalian neutral sphingomyelinase 2, plays a key role in mitochondrial function, oxidative stress resistance and chronological lifespan. Isc1p functions upstream of the ceramide-activated protein phosphatase Sit4p through the modulation of ceramide levels. Here, we show that both ceramide and loss of Isc1p lead to the activation of Hog1p, the MAPK of the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway that is functionally related to mammalian p38 and JNK. The hydrogen peroxide sensitivity and premature aging of isc1Δ cells was partially suppressed by HOG1 deletion. Notably, Hog1p activation mediated the mitochondrial dysfunction and catalase A deficiency associated with oxidative stress sensitivity and premature aging of isc1Δ cells. Downstream of Hog1p, Isc1p deficiency activated the cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway. Deletion of the SLT2 gene, which encodes for the MAPK of the CWI pathway, was lethal in isc1Δ cells and this mutant strain was hypersensitive to cell wall stress. However, the phenotypes of isc1Δ cells were not associated with cell wall defects. Our findings support a role for Hog1p in the regulation of mitochondrial function and suggest that constitutive activation of Hog1p is deleterious for isc1Δ cells under oxidative stress conditions and during chronological aging. PMID:22445853

  15. Prematures with and without Regressed Retinopathy of Prematurity: Comparison of Long-Term (6-10 Years) Ophthalmological Morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cats, Bernard P.; Tan, Karel E. W. P.

    Reporting long-term ophthalmologic sequelae among ex-prematures at 6 to 10 years of age, this study compares 42 ex-premature infants who had had regressed forms of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) during the neonatal period with 42 matched non-ROP ex-premature controls at 6 to 10 years of age. Subjects were subdivided into four groups: (1) ROP…

  16. Premature ejaculation

    OpenAIRE

    Goodman, R E

    1981-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual disorder. Recent normative data suggests that men with an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) of less than 1 minute have “definite” PE, while men with IELTs between 1 and 1.5 minutes have “probable” PE. Although there is insufficient empirical evidence to identify the etiology of PE, there is limited correlational evidence to suggest that men with PE have high levels of sexual anxiety and inherited altered sensitivity of central 5-HT...

  17. Premature delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardita Donoso Bernales

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Preterm delivery is the single most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. In Chile, preterm births have increased in the past decade, although neonatal morbidity and mortality attributable to it shows a downward trend, thanks to improvements in neonatal care of premature babies, rather than the success of obstetric preventive and therapeutic strategies. This article describes clinical entities, disease processes and conditions that constitute predisposing factors of preterm birth, as well as an outline for the prevention and clinical management of women at risk of preterm birth.

  18. Immunisation of premature infants

    OpenAIRE

    Bonhoeffer, J; Siegrist, C‐A; Heath, P T

    2006-01-01

    Premature infants are at increased risk of vaccine preventable infections, but audits have shown that their vaccinations are often delayed. Early protection is desirable. While the evidence base for immunisation of preterm infants is limited, the available data support early immunisation without correction for gestational age. For a number of antigens the antibody response to initial doses may be lower than that of term infants, but protective concentrations are often achieved and memory succ...

  19. VEGF 936C>T is predictive of threshold retinopathy of prematurity in Japanese infants with a 30-week gestational age or less

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko Yagi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Mariko Yagi1, Motohiro Yamamori4, Ichiro Morioka2, Naoki Yokoyama2, Shigeru Honda3, Akira Negi3, Tsutomu Nakamura1, Noboru Okamura4, Katsuhiko Okumura1, Toshiyuki Sakaeda5, Masafumi Matsuo21Department of Clinical Evaluation of Pharmacotherapy, 2Department of Pediatrics, 3Department of Surgery, Division of Ophthalmology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan; 4Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mukogawa Women's University, Nishinomiya, Japan; 5Center for Integrative Education of Pharmacy Frontier, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto, JapanAbstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF contributes to the development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. We investigated the association of ROP with VEGF genetic polymorphisms and its clinical parameters in Japanese people. Sixty-seven infants with a gestational age of 30 weeks or less were enrolled and classified into the threshold ROP group (infants with Stage 3 ROP in zone I or II, five continuous or eight total clock hours of the retina and the presence of plus disease, n = 30 and the nonthreshold ROP group (n = 37. The VEGF genotypes of −1498T>C, −1154G>A, −634C>G, −7C>T, 936C>T, and 1612G>A were determined. VEGF 936C>T polymorphism and 11 clinical parameters were significantly different between the two ROP groups by univariate analysis. A logistic regression analysis with adjustments for gestational age and birth weight showed that the heterozygous or homozygous carrier state of the T alleles of VEGF 936C>T polymorphism (odds ratio 5.12; 95% confidence interval: 1.25–20.92; P = 0.023 and duration of oxygen administration (odds ratio 1.05; 95% confidence interval: 1.00–1.10; P = 0.042 were independent risk factors of threshold ROP. VEGF 936C>T polymorphism may predict threshold ROP in Japanese infants with a gestational age of 30 weeks or less.Keywords: retinopathy of prematurity, vascular

  20. Outcomes for Extremely Premature Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Glass, HC; Costarino, AT; Stayer, SA; Brett, CM; Cladis, F; Davis, PJ

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 International Anesthesia Research Society. Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for 7 years and is now approximately 11.39%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23 to 24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have bet...

  1. Oxidative stress-induced premature senescence dysregulates VEGF and CFH expression in retinal pigment epithelial cells: Implications for Age-related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marazita, Mariela C.; Dugour, Andrea; Marquioni-Ramella, Melisa D.; Figueroa, Juan M.; Suburo, Angela M.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress has a critical role in the pathogenesis of Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD), a multifactorial disease that includes age, gene variants of complement regulatory proteins and smoking as the main risk factors. Stress-induced premature cellular senescence (SIPS) is postulated to contribute to this condition. In this study, we hypothesized that oxidative damage, promoted by endogenous or exogenous sources, could elicit a senescence response in RPE cells, which would in turn dysregulate the expression of major players in AMD pathogenic mechanisms. We showed that exposure of a human RPE cell line (ARPE-19) to a cigarette smoke concentrate (CSC), not only enhanced Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) levels, but also induced 8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine-immunoreactive (8-OHdG) DNA lesions and phosphorylated-Histone 2AX-immunoreactive (p-H2AX) nuclear foci. CSC-nuclear damage was followed by premature senescence as shown by positive senescence associated-β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal) staining, and p16INK4a and p21Waf-Cip1 protein upregulation. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) treatment, a ROS scavenger, decreased senescence markers, thus supporting the role of oxidative damage in CSC-induced senescence activation. ARPE-19 senescent cultures were also established by exposure to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which is an endogenous stress source produced in the retina under photo-oxidation conditions. Senescent cells upregulated the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8, the main markers of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Most important, we show for the first time that senescent ARPE-19 cells upregulated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and simultaneously downregulated complement factor H (CFH) expression. Since both phenomena are involved in AMD pathogenesis, our results support the hypothesis that SIPS could be a principal player in the induction and progression of AMD. Moreover, they would also explain the striking association of this disease

  2. Oxidative stress-induced premature senescence dysregulates VEGF and CFH expression in retinal pigment epithelial cells: Implications for Age-related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela C. Marazita

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has a critical role in the pathogenesis of Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD, a multifactorial disease that includes age, gene variants of complement regulatory proteins and smoking as the main risk factors. Stress-induced premature cellular senescence (SIPS is postulated to contribute to this condition. In this study, we hypothesized that oxidative damage, promoted by endogenous or exogenous sources, could elicit a senescence response in RPE cells, which would in turn dysregulate the expression of major players in AMD pathogenic mechanisms. We showed that exposure of a human RPE cell line (ARPE-19 to a cigarette smoke concentrate (CSC, not only enhanced Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS levels, but also induced 8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine-immunoreactive (8-OHdG DNA lesions and phosphorylated-Histone 2AX-immunoreactive (p-H2AX nuclear foci. CSC-nuclear damage was followed by premature senescence as shown by positive senescence associated-β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal staining, and p16INK4a and p21Waf-Cip1 protein upregulation. N-acetylcysteine (NAC treatment, a ROS scavenger, decreased senescence markers, thus supporting the role of oxidative damage in CSC-induced senescence activation. ARPE-19 senescent cultures were also established by exposure to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, which is an endogenous stress source produced in the retina under photo-oxidation conditions. Senescent cells upregulated the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8, the main markers of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP. Most important, we show for the first time that senescent ARPE-19 cells upregulated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and simultaneously downregulated complement factor H (CFH expression. Since both phenomena are involved in AMD pathogenesis, our results support the hypothesis that SIPS could be a principal player in the induction and progression of AMD. Moreover, they would also explain the striking association of this

  3. A hyperoxic lung injury model in premature rabbits: the influence of different gestational ages and oxygen concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Munhoz Manzano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many animal models have been developed to study bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. The preterm rabbit is a low-cost, easy-to-handle model, but it has a high mortality rate in response to the high oxygen concentrations used to induce lung injury. The aim of this study was to compare the mortality rates of two models of hyperoxia-induced lung injury in preterm rabbits. METHODS: Pregnant New Zealand white rabbits were subjected to caesarean section on gestational day 28 or 29 (full term  = 31 days. The premature rabbits in the 28-day gestation group were exposed to room air or FiO₂ ≥95%, and the rabbits in the 29-day gestation group were exposed to room air or FiO₂  = 80% for 11 days. The mean linear intercept (Lm, internal surface area (ISA, number of alveoli, septal thickness and proportion of elastic and collagen fibers were quantified. RESULTS: The survival rates in the 29-day groups were improved compared with the 28-day groups. Hyperoxia impaired the normal development of the lung, as demonstrated by an increase in the Lm, the septal thickness and the proportion of elastic fibers. Hyperoxia also decreased the ISA, the number of alveoli and the proportion of collagen fibers in the 28-day oxygen-exposed group compared with the control 28-day group. A reduced number of alveoli was found in the 29-day oxygen exposed animals compared with the control 29-day group. CONCLUSIONS: The 29-day preterm rabbits had a reduced mortality rate compared with the 28-day preterm rabbits and maintained a reduction in the alveoli number, which is comparable to BPD in humans.

  4. Osteopenia - premature infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal rickets; Brittle bones - premature infants; Weak bones - premature infants; Osteopenia of prematurity ... that are born full-term. A lack of vitamin D may also lead to osteopenia in infants. ...

  5. Premature graying of hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Pandhi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature graying is an important cause of low self-esteem, often interfering with socio-cultural adjustment. The onset and progression of graying or canities correlate very closely with chronological aging, and occur in varying degrees in all individuals eventually, regardless of gender or race. Premature canities may occur alone as an autosomal dominant condition or in association with various autoimmune or premature aging syndromes. It needs to be differentiated from various genetic hypomelanotic hair disorders. Reduction in melanogenically active melanocytes in the hair bulb of gray anagen hair follicles with resultant pigment loss is central to the pathogenesis of graying. Defective melanosomal transfers to cortical keratinocytes and melanin incontinence due to melanocyte degeneration are also believed to contribute to this. The white color of canities is an optical effect; the reflection of incident light masks the intrinsic pale yellow color of hair keratin. Full range of color from normal to white can be seen both along individual hair and from hair to hair, and admixture of pigmented and white hair is believed to give the appearance of gray. Graying of hair is usually progressive and permanent, but there are occasional reports of spontaneous repigmentation of gray hair. Studies evaluating the association of canities with osteopenia and cardiovascular disease have revealed mixed results. Despite the extensive molecular research being carried out to understand the pathogenesis of canities, there is paucity of effective evidence-based treatment options. Reports of repigmentation of previously white hair following certain inflammatory processes and use of drugs have suggested the possibility of cytokine-induced recruitment of outer sheath melanocytes to the hair bulb and rekindled the hope for finding an effective drug for treatment of premature canities. In the end, camouflage techniques using hair colorants are outlined.

  6. Premature aging phenotype in mice lacking high affinity nicotinic receptors: region specific changes in layer V pyramidal cell morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Konsolaki

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms by which aging leads to alterations in brain structure and cognitive deficits are unclear. A central yet presently unresolved issue in aging research concerns the distinction between normal/successful aging, consisting of a moderate decline in cognitive performance, and pathological aging, manifested as mild cognitive impairment or full-blown neurodegeneration and dementia. In particular, it has been proposed that the age-related decline in cognitive abilities may be an age-related escalation of early-life cognitive limitations, rather than an abruptly emerging neuropathological process that occurs in old age (Elias et al., 2000; Small et al., 2000; Sarter and Bruno, 2004; Amieva et al., 2005; Tyas et al., 2007. In this scenario, early abnormalities or incompletely matured neural systems would interact with age-related processes to explain the cognitive decline in later ages. However this proposal remains controversial (Nilsson et al., 2009; Salthouse, 2009 and, to our knowledge, has not been explored at the morphological/structural level. Hence it is important to identify factors that may confer a predisposition to pathological aging and examine how they interact with the process of aging per se. One such factor is the integrity of the cholinergic system: cholinergic basal forebrain neurons and their projections to the cortex show increased vulnerability to aging (Fischer et al., 1987; Altavista et al., 1990; Casu et al., 2002 and cognitive decline is associated with selective loss of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR function (Hellstrom-Lindahl and Court, 2000; Schliebs and Arendt, 2011. In this respect, animals with specific cholinergic deficits are important tools for understanding the neurobiology of successful aging. One such animal model is the β2-/- mouse, in which the gene encoding the β2 subunit of the nAChR is genetically deleted (Picciotto et al., 1995. Aged β2-/- mice have been proposed as a model of

  7. Premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Chris G

    2007-04-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual disorder. Recent normative data suggests that men with an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) of less than 1 minute have "definite" PE, while men with IELTs between 1 and 1.5 minutes have "probable" PE. Although there is insufficient empirical evidence to identify the etiology of PE, there is limited correlational evidence to suggest that men with PE have high levels of sexual anxiety and inherited altered sensitivity of central 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin) receptors. Pharmacological modulation of the ejaculatory threshold using off-label daily or on-demand selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors is well tolerated and offers patients a high likelihood of achieving improved ejaculatory control within a few days of initiating treatment, consequential improvements in sexual desire and other sexual domains. Investigational drugs such as the ejaculo-selective serotonin transport inhibitor, dapoxetine represent a major development in sexual medicine. These drugs offer patients the convenience of on-demand dosing, significant improvements in IELT, ejaculatory control and sexual satisfaction with minimal adverse effects. PMID:19675782

  8. Premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Chris G

    2007-04-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual disorder. Recent normative data suggests that men with an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) of less than 1 minute have "definite" PE, while men with IELTs between 1 and 1.5 minutes have "probable" PE. Although there is insufficient empirical evidence to identify the etiology of PE, there is limited correlational evidence to suggest that men with PE have high levels of sexual anxiety and inherited altered sensitivity of central 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin) receptors. Pharmacological modulation of the ejaculatory threshold using off-label daily or on-demand selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors is well tolerated and offers patients a high likelihood of achieving improved ejaculatory control within a few days of initiating treatment, consequential improvements in sexual desire and other sexual domains. Investigational drugs such as the ejaculo-selective serotonin transport inhibitor, dapoxetine represent a major development in sexual medicine. These drugs offer patients the convenience of on-demand dosing, significant improvements in IELT, ejaculatory control and sexual satisfaction with minimal adverse effects.

  9. Correlation of serum KL-6 and CC16 levels with neurodevelopmental outcome in premature infants at 12 months corrected age

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhiqun; Lu, Hui; Zhu, Yunxia; Xiang, Junhua; Huang, Xianmei

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate KL-6 and CC16 levels and their correlation with neurodevelopmental outcome among very low birth weight pre-term infants at 12 months corrected age. This prospective cohort study was performed from 2011 to 2013 by enrolling pre-term neonates of gestational age ≤ 32 weeks and birth weight ≤ 1500 g. Serum KL-6 and CC16 levels were determined 7 days after birth and their correlation with neurodevelopment was evaluated using Gesell Mental Developmental Scales....

  10. Proteasome dysfunction in Drosophila signals to an Nrf2-dependent regulatory circuit aiming to restore proteostasis and prevent premature aging

    OpenAIRE

    Tsakiri, Eleni N.; Sykiotis, Gerasimos P.; Papassideri, Issidora S.; Terpos, Evangelos; Dimopoulos, Meletios A; Gorgoulis, Vassilis G.; Bohmann, Dirk; Trougakos, Ioannis P.

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquitin–proteasome system is central to the regulation of cellular proteostasis. Nevertheless, the impact of in vivo proteasome dysfunction on the proteostasis networks and the aging processes remains poorly understood. We found that RNAi-mediated knockdown of 20S proteasome subunits in Drosophila melanogaster resulted in larval lethality. We therefore studied the molecular effects of proteasome dysfunction in adult flies by developing a model of dose-dependent pharmacological proteasom...

  11. Human milk for the premature infant

    OpenAIRE

    Underwood, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Premature infants are a heterogeneous group with widely differing needs for nutrition and immune protection with risk of growth failure, developmental delays, necrotizing enterocolitis, and late-onset sepsis increasing with decreasing gestational age and birth weight. Human milk from women delivering prematurely has more protein and higher levels of many bioactive molecules compared to milk from women delivering at term. Human milk must be fortified for small premature infants to achieve adeq...

  12. Ventricular premature complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bockeria O.L.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ventricular premature complexes are fairly common heart rhythm disturbances. They occur in patients of all age groups. Sometimes the registration of electrocardiogram is ample for the diagnosis.The difficulty lies in determining the causes of ventricular arrhythmia. The detailed examination is needed for verification of the diagnosis and risk stratification: a Holter monitoring, laboratory tests, a heart magnetic resonance imaging, an electrophysiological study. This results can significantly change further tactics of patient management.It is necessary to make a deliberate decision in favor of one or another treatment after revealing the causes.

  13. Inhibition of Mitochondrial Cytochrome c Release and Suppression of Caspases by Gamma-Tocotrienol Prevent Apoptosis and Delay Aging in Stress-Induced Premature Senescence of Skin Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Makpol

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we determined the molecular mechanism of γ-tocotrienol (GTT in preventing cellular aging by focusing on its anti-apoptotic effect in stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS model of human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs. Results obtained showed that SIPS exhibited senescent-phenotypic characteristic, increased expression of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA β-gal and promoted G0/G1 cell cycle arrest accompanied by shortening of telomere length with decreased telomerase activity. Both SIPS and senescent HDFs shared similar apoptotic changes such as increased Annexin V-FITC positive cells, increased cytochrome c release and increased activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 (P<0.05. GTT treatment resulted in a significant reduction of Annexin V-FITC positive cells, inhibited cytochrome c release and decreased activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 (P<0.05. Gene expression analysis showed that GTT treatment down regulated BAX mRNA, up-regulated BCL2A1 mRNA and decreased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 protein expression (P<0.05 in SIPS. These findings suggested that GTT inhibits apoptosis by modulating the upstream apoptosis cascade, causing the inhibition of cytochrome c release from the mitochondria with concomitant suppression of caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation. In conclusion, GTT delays cellular senescence of human diploid fibroblasts through the inhibition of intrinsic mitochondria-mediated pathway which involved the regulation of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes and proteins.

  14. [Premature birth and cognitive functioning in adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubetzky, O; Weitzman, A; Gilat, I; Tyano, S

    1999-11-01

    Premature infants are considered a high-risk population for developing cognitive dysfunction. Studies have indicated lower cognitive performance among elementary school children born prematurely. We focused on cognitive functioning of such adolescents. This age was chosen because of its critical importance in the development of the individual. 50 adolescents aged 14-16 years born prematurely were compared with 50 born at full-term and matched for gender, age and socioeconomic status. All subjects attended regular schools and did not suffer severe neurological disorders. Cognitive functioning was measured by the Bender-Visual Motor Gestalt Test and by 3 subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (revised WISC-R test). Results revealed that prematurely born adolescents scored lower than those born at term on all measures of cognitive performance. The results are discussed in terms of their developmental meaning and of therapy for the prematurely born. PMID:11419040

  15. Pharmacotherapy for premature ejaculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waldinger, Marcel D

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As there are various drugs and different treatment strategies to delay ejaculation, a review of the current drug treatments for premature ejaculation is relevant for daily clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: There are four premature ejaculation subtypes: lifelong premature ejacula

  16. Retinopathy of Prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinweg, Sue Byrd; Griffin, Harold C.; Griffin, Linda W.; Gingras, Happy

    2005-01-01

    The eyes of premature infants are especially vulnerable to injury after birth. A serious complication is called retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), which is abnormal growth of the blood vessels in an infant's eye. Retinopathy of prematurity develops when abnormal blood vessels grow and spread throughout the retina, which is the nerve tissue at the…

  17. Early Arterial Ischemic Stroke in Premature Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Presentation, clinical course, and outcomes for 23 premature children with arterial ischemic stroke before 44 weeks gestational age are reported from Riley Hospital for Children, Indianapolis, IN.

  18. Analysis on effects of fetal age and birth weight on prognosis of premature infants%胎龄和出生体重对早产儿预后影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫雅蓉; 章恒; 许兵

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨胎龄及出生体重对早产儿预后的影响.方法:回顾性分析无锡市妇幼保健院2008年1月~2009年12月间分娩的217例早产儿资料.结果:早产儿并发症的发生率和死亡率分别为43.8%和2.3%.早产儿并发症和死亡主要发生于胎龄<32周或出生体重<1 500 g的极低体重儿.缺氧缺血性脑病、窒息、呼吸窘迫综合症发生率和死亡率随胎龄或出生体重增加均呈下降趋势.结论:出生前加强孕期保健,尽可能延长胎龄,促进肺成熟;出生后防止早产儿窒息和加强低出生体重儿监护,将降低早产儿并发症发生率和死亡率.%Objective: To explore the effects of fetal age and birth weight on prognosis of premature infants. Methods: The clinical data of 217 premature infants born in the hospital from January 2008 to December 2009 were analyzed retrospectively. Results: The incidence of complication and mortality of premature infants were 43.8% and 2. 3%, respectively; the premature infants less than 32 gestational weeks or birth weight < 1 500 g had high incidence of complication and high mortality; the incidences of complications ( including hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, asphyxia and respiratory distress syndrome) and mortality of premature infants showed a decreasing trend with fetal age and the increase of birth weight. Conclusion: Enhancing pregnant health care before delivery, prolonging fetal age as far as possible,promoting fetal lung maturity, preventing neonatal asphyxia and strengthening the monitoring on low birth weight infants may reduce the incidence of complication and mortality of premature infants.

  19. Apnea of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piermichele Paolillo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Apnea of prematurity (AOP is one of the most frequent pathologies in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, with an incidence inversely related to gestational age. Its etiology is often multi factorial and diagnosis of idiopathic forms requires exclusion of other underlying diseases. Despite being a self-limiting condition which regresses with the maturation of the newborn, possible long-term effects of recurring apneas and the degree of desaturation and bradycardia who may lead to abnormal neurological outcome are not yet clarified. Therefore AOP needs careful evaluation of its etiology and adequate therapy that can be both pharmacological and non-pharmacological. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  20. Incidence of Retinopathy of Prematurity in Extremely Premature Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Şahin, Alparslan; Şahin, Muhammed; Türkcü, Fatih Mehmet; Cingü, Abdullah Kürşat; Yüksel, Harun; Çınar, Yasin; Arı, Şeyhmus; Çaça, İhsan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the incidence and the severity of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in extremely preterm infants born before 28 weeks of gestation in southeastern Turkey. Methods. A retrospective chart review was performed for infants born before 28 weeks of gestation. The following data were reviewed: gender, gestational age (GA), birth weight (BW), zone and stage of ROP, presence of plus disease, and treatment for ROP if needed. Infants were divided into 2 groups according to GA as f...

  1. Premature infants' health at multiple induced pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernenkov Yu.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to define the risk factors adversely influencing prenatal development at premature birth at use of methods of assisted reproductive technology (ART; to estimate premature' infants health from multiple induced pregnancy according to Perinatal Center of Saratov for last 3 years. Material and Methods. Under supervision there were 139 pregnant women with application ART. 202 children (51 twins were born and 5 triplet babies, from them 83 premature infants born from multiple induced pregnancy have been analyzed. Results. The newborns examined by method ART, were distributed as follows: 22-28 weeks — 19 children; 29-32 weeks — 23; 33-36 weeks — 41. Asphyxia at birth was marked at all premature infants. Respiratory insufficiency at birth is revealed in 87,3% of cases. The most frequent pathologies in premature infants are revealed: neurologic infringements and bronchopulmonary pathology occured at all children, developmental anomaly — 33, 8%, retinopathies in premature infants — 26,5%. The mortality causes include: extreme immaturity, cerebral leukomalacia, IVN 3 degrees. Conclusion. The risk factors, premature birth at application of methods ART are revealed: aged primiparas, pharmacological influence, absence of physiological conditions of prenatal development; multifetation. The high percent of birth of children with ELBW and ULBW is revealed. RDCN with further BPD development, retinopathies in premature infants and CNS defeat is more often occured.

  2. Acute appendicitis in a premature baby

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of acute appendicitis in a premature baby in whom diagnosis was suggested on plain films of the abdomen is presented. In this baby air in a hollow viscus suspected of being an enlarged appendix was the clue to diagnosis. The diagnostic dilemma of this rare and life-threatening condition in premature babies and newborns is underlined. The relevance of different imaging modalities and of different findings in this age group is discussed. Awareness of this rare condition and possible differential diagnosis in newborns and premature babies is stressed. (orig.)

  3. [Premature rupture of membranes and chorioamnionitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Garcia, R

    1988-01-01

    , and congenital malformations. Neonatal sepsis occurs in about 5% of live births following premature rupture, but the rate triples after 24 hours, especially in premature infants. The rate of neonatal asphyxia also increases considerable after 24 hours. Congenital malformations, prolapse of the cord, and pelvic presentation are positively associated with premature rupture of membranes. If the decision is made to interrupt the pregnancy, it should be done between 12-24 hours after rupture because the risks of infection and respiratory difficulty are most balanced at that point. Vaginal deliveries should be preferred only if conditions are favorable for a prompt delivery. The gestational age, presence of infection, obstetric condition of the mother, and indication for hysterectomy are the most important points to consider i management of premature rupture.

  4. Temperament of premature infants with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Ryu, Hyo Jeong; Don Kim, Kyoung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the infant temperaments of children with cerebral palsy due to premature birth. [Subjects and Methods] Data were collected through questionnaires sent to 118 mothers of infants diagnosed with cerebral palsy due to premature birth. [Results] Different infant temperament scores were obtained according to the degrees of disability, type of palsy, birth weights, gestational age, and periods of hospitalization in an NICU; however, the differences ...

  5. 'Rush' type retinopathy of prematurity: report of three cases.

    OpenAIRE

    Nissenkorn, I; Kremer, I; Gilad, E.; Cohen, S.; Ben-Sira, I

    1987-01-01

    Three premature infants observed to develop severe stage III retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) at 3 to 5 weeks of age received immediate treatment by cryoablation and photocoagulation, with good results. The critical importance of the ophthalmic examination of premature babies from the age of 2 weeks, so as not to overlook such cases of 'rush' type ROP is stressed and the difficulty involved in treating such small neonates is discussed.

  6. Premature ovarian failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujović, Svetlana; Ivović, Miomira; Tancić-Gajić, Milina; Marina, Ljiljana; Barać, Marija; Arizanović, Zorana; Nenezić, Ana; Ivanisević, Maja; Micić, Jelena; Sajić, Silvija; Micić, Dragan

    2012-01-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is the occurrence of hypergonadotropic hypoestrogenic amenorrhea in women under the age of forty years. It is idiopathic in 74-90% patients. Known cases can be divided into primary and secondary POF. In primary POF genetic aberrations can involve the X chromosome (monosomy, trisomy, translocations, deletions) or autosomes. Genetic mechanisms include reduced gene dosage and non-specific chromosome effects impairing meiosis, decreasing the pool of primordial follicles and increasing atresia due to apoptosis or failure of follicle maturation. Autoimmune ovarian damage is caused by alteration of T-cell subsets and T-cell mediated injury, increase of autoantibody producing B-cells, a low number of effector/cytotoxic lymphocyte, which decreases the number and activity of natural killer cells. Bilateral oophorectomy, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and infections cause the secondary POF. Symptoms of POF include irritability, nervousness, loss of libido, depression, lack of concentration, hot flushes, weight gaining, dry skin, vaginal dryness, frequent infections etc.The diagnosis is confirmed by the level of FSH of over 40 IU/L and estradiol below 50 pmol/L in women aged below 40 years. Biochemical and other hormonal analysis (free thyroxin, TSH, prolactin, testosterone), karyotype (libido. Sequential estrogen progestagen replacement therapy is the first line therapy for ovulation induction in those looking for pregnancy and after that oocyte donation will be advised. Appropriate estro-progestagen therapy improves the quality of life and prevents complications such as cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, stroke etc. PMID:23350261

  7. Micafungin in Premature and Non-premature Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Manzoni, Paolo; Wu, Chunzhang; Tweddle, Lorraine; Roilides, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Invasive fungal infections cause excessive morbidity and mortality in premature neonates and severely ill infants. Methods: Safety and efficacy outcomes of micafungin were compared between prematurely and non-prematurely born infants

  8. [Treatment of premature ejaculation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targoński, Aleksander; Prajsner, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Premature ejaculation is the most common sexual dysfunction in men. Its prevalence rate in Europe and in United States is estimated to be between 20% and 30%. The diagnosis of premature ejaculation is based on three main criteria: increased intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), lack of control over ejaculation and interpersonal psychological disturbances. Premature ejaculation is classified as lifelong (primary) or acquired (secondary) and might be facilitated by chronic prostatitis, diabetes mellitus, hyperthyroidism, obesity. The exact etiology of the disease remains unclear, although 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine) receptors are known to have a significant role. The use of SSRIs (selective serotonine reuptake inhibitors) is old and efficient form of therapy for premature ejaculation. Other drugs like tramadol, clomipramine, local anaesthetics and PDE-5 (phosphodiesterase 5) inhibitors also have some efficacy in the treatment of premature ejaculation. To minimize adverse effects the "on demand" therapy is preferred to the daily treatment. Simple questionnaires for patients are used to assess treatment effects. PMID:22827115

  9. Central corneal thickness and intraocular pressure in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekeroglu, Mehmet Ali; Hekimoglu, Emre; Petricli, İkbal Seza; Karakaya, Jale; Ozcan, Beyza; Yucel, Husniye; Kavurt, Aysen Sumru; Bas, Ahmet Yagmur

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the central corneal thickness (CCT) and intraocular pressure (IOP) of premature infants and to document correlation of them with gestational age, chronological age, and birth weight of infants. Using a hand-held applanation tonometer and a portable pachymeter, IOP and CCT of 170 premature infants were measured just before initial retinopathy of prematurity screening examination and re-measured 4 weeks after the first visit. The CCT and IOP were positively correlated during the first (r = 0.616, p premature infants with a smaller gestational age were found to be higher (p Premature infants with smaller gestational age have higher CCT and IOP values when compared to older infants. These values tend to become lower 4 weeks after the first examination as infants become older. The CCT and IOP were positively correlated with each other and both were negatively correlated with gestational age, chronological age, and birth weight during first and second visits. PMID:26286757

  10. Outcomes for extremely premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Hannah C; Costarino, Andrew T; Stayer, Stephen A; Brett, Claire M; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for 7 years and is now approximately 11.39%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23 to 24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an extremely premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal estimated date of confinement. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the extremely premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and extremely low birth weight infant (premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91% and 95% (compared with 85%-89%) avoids excess mortality; however, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending. The development of neonatal neurocritical intensive care units may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow-up to detect and address developmental, learning, behavioral, and social problems is critical for children born at these early gestational ages.The striking similarities in response to extreme prematurity in the lung and brain imply that agents and techniques that benefit one organ are likely to also benefit the other. Finally, because therapy and supportive care continue to change, the outcomes of extremely low birth weight infants are

  11. [Ophthalmologic prevention in premature infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, U M; Baumer, P; Michel, U

    1987-11-01

    Forty-four of the 262 pupils at the school for blind and visually handicapped children in Nuremberg, i.e., 17%, suffer from sequelae of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP); this condition is currently top of the list of causes of blindness. The risk factors involved were identified by analyzing 294 histories of premature children born between 1981 und 1984. In the case of 16 children, ophthalmoscopic criteria were taken from the 1984 international classification. The data of the children with ROP, at birth and at the time when ROP developed, were recorded on a prognosis card, in each case between the child's absolute age (abscissa) and birthweight in g (ordinate). In this way it was possible to read off the critical phase of retinal development for each newly examined child. This card facilitates monitoring, the provision of forensic evidence, the timing of ophthalmoscopy during critical phases of retinal development, and may also enable further relationships to be detected. PMID:3430997

  12. 不同胎龄及出生体质量双胎早产儿224例临床分析%Clinical Analysis of 224 Twin Premature Infants with Different Gestational Age and Birth Weight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖镇宇; 黄瑞文; 肖艾青

    2014-01-01

    【目的】分析不同胎龄及出生体质量双胎早产儿并发症发生率及死亡原因。【方法】将2010年7月至2012年7月在本院新生儿科住院的224例双胎早产儿,根据胎龄分为≤32周,~34周,~37周组,根据出生体质量分为<1500 g,~2500 g,≥2500 g组。比较各组患儿并发症的发生率及病死率。【结果】贫血、呼吸衰竭、早产儿视网膜病变、新生儿呼吸窘迫综合征、支气管肺发育不良在不同胎龄及出生体质量双胎早产儿组间比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),且胎龄越小,出生体质量越低,发生率越高;低血糖在不同胎龄及出生体质量双胎早产儿组间比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),且出生体质量越低,发生率越高;呼吸暂停在不同胎龄及出生体质量双胎早产儿组间比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。224例患儿中死亡15例,病死率为6.7%。胎龄越小、出生体质量越低,病死率越高,各组间比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。【结论】加强双胎早产儿孕母的保健工作,降低早产儿及低出生体质量儿的发生率;加强双胎早产儿常见并发症的防治,以降低其病死率。%[Obj ective]To analyze the incidence of the complications and mortality rate of twin premature infants with different gestational age and birth weight.[Methods]According to gestational age,224 twin premature infants hos-pitalized in neonate department of our hospital from July 2010 to July 2012 were divided into less than 32-week group,32~34-week group and 34~37 week group.According to birth weight,all patients were divided into less than 1500g group,1500-2500g group and more than 2500g group.The incidence of complications and mortality rate were compared among different groups.[Results]There were significant differences in the incidence of anemia,respiratory failure,reti-nopathy of prematurity

  13. Acetaminophen developmental pharmacokinetics in premature neonates and infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Brian J; van Lingen, Richard A; Hansen, Tom G;

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe acetaminophen developmental pharmacokinetics in premature neonates through infancy to suggest age-appropriate dosing regimens.......The aim of this study was to describe acetaminophen developmental pharmacokinetics in premature neonates through infancy to suggest age-appropriate dosing regimens....

  14. Premature ovarian failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujović Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature ovarian failure (POF is the occurrence of hypergonadotropic hypoestrogenic amenorrhea in women under the age of forty years. It is idiopathic in 74-90% patients. Known cases can be divided into primary and secondary POF. In primary POF genetic aberrations can involve the X chromosome (monosomy, trisomy, translocations, deletions or autosomes. Genetic mechanisms include reduced gene dosage and non-specific chromosome effects impairing meiosis, decreasing the pool of primordial follicles and increasing atresia due to apoptosis or failure of follicle maturation. Autoimmune ovarian damage is caused by alteration of T-cell subsets and T-cell mediated injury, increase of autoantibody producing B-cells, a low number of effector/cytotoxic lymphocyte, which decreases the number and activity of natural killer cells. Bilateral oophorectomy, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and infections cause the secondary POF. Symptoms of POF include irritability, nervousness, loss of libido, depression, lack of concentration, hot flushes, weight gaining, dry skin, vaginal dryness, frequent infections etc. The diagnosis is confirmed by the level of FSH of over 40 IU/L and estradiol below 50 pmol/L in women aged below 40 years. Biochemical and other hormonal analysis (free thyroxin, TSH, prolactin, testosterone, karyotype (<30 years of age, ultrasound of the breasts and pelvis are advisable. Optimal therapy is combined estrogen progestagen therapy given in a sequential rhythm, after excluding absolute contraindications. Testosterone can be added to adnexectomized women and those with a low libido. Sequential estrogen progestagen replacement therapy is the first line therapy for ovulation induction in those looking for pregnancy and after that oocyte donation will be advised. Appropriate estro-progestagen therapy improves the quality of life and prevents complications such as cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, stroke etc.

  15. Premature ovarian failure and ovarian autoimmunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Schoemaker (Joop); H.A. Drexhage (Hemmo); A. Hoek (Annemieke)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractPremature ovarian failure (POF) is defined as a syndrome characterized by menopause before the age of 40 yr. The patients suffer from anovulation and hypoestrogenism. Approximately 1% of women will experience menopause before the age of 40 yr. POF is a heter

  16. 早产儿胎龄和体重对儿童糖尿病的预测作用%Study on the Prediction Function of Gestational Age and Body Weight of Premature Infants on Diabetes in C hildren

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈召金; 黎见乐; 姚慧梅; 兰红霞

    2014-01-01

    目的:探究并分析早产儿胎龄和体重对儿童糖尿病的预测作用。方法回顾性分析200例早产儿的临床资料。按照早产儿的胎龄分为A1、A2、A3、A4组,根据出生体重分为B1、B2、B3、B4组,根据喂养方式分为C1、C2、C3组。跟踪随访15年后,记录早产儿儿童糖尿病的发病率。结果28~30周胎龄组早产儿儿童糖尿病发病率为80.0%,明显高于其他胎龄组;出生体重≤999 g早产儿发病率为80.0%,较其他组早产儿高;人工喂养组早产儿发病率为60.8%,明显高于其余两组(P均<0.05),具有统计学意义。结论儿童糖尿病的发病率与早产儿胎龄和出生体重密切相关。%Objective To explore and analyze the prediction function of gestational age and body weight of premature infants on diabetes in children .Methods The retrospective analysis of clinical data was taken ,in-cluding 200 cases of premature infants .According to their gestational age ,they were divided into A1,A2,A3, A4 four groups,with B1 ,B2,B3,B4 four groups according to their birth weight ,C1,C2,C3 three groups accord-ing to the feeding patterns .After a follow-up visit for 15 years,records were written down on the incidences of diabetes in these children .Re sults The incidence of diabetes was 80%in group of premature infants with 28~30 weeks'gestational age ,significantly higher than other age groups .So was the morbidity rate of those with birth weight ≤999g,which accounted for 80.0%.The morbidity rate of premature infants ,who were treated with arti-ficial feeding was 60.8%,significantly higher than the other two groups (P<0.05).Besides,the morbidity rate in group of infants with non-nutritive sucking accounted for 50 .9%.Conclusion The incidence of diabetes in children is closely related to the gestational age and birth weight of these premature infants .

  17. The Effects of Fetal Surgery on Retinopathy of Prematurity Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Nallasamy

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fetal surgery is selectively offered for severe or life-threatening fetal malformations. These infants are often born prematurely and are thus at risk for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. It is not known whether fetal surgery confers an increased risk of developing severe ROP relative to published rates in standard premature populations ≤37 weeks of age grouped by birth weight (

  18. The Role of Prematurity in Patients With Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelnik, Nathanel; Lahat, Eli; Heyman, Eli; Livne, Amir; Schertz, Mitchell; Sagie, Liora; Fattal-Valevski, Aviva

    2016-05-01

    A multicenter retrospective study was conducted to investigate the perinatal factors, imaging findings and clinical characteristics of hemiplegic cerebral palsy with a particular focus on children born prematurely. Our cohort included 135 patients of whom 42% were born prematurely; 16% were extreme premature infants who were born at 30 weeks or earlier. Nineteen (14%) were twins. Right hemiplegia was slightly more common and accounted for 59% of the patients. Imaging findings of intraventricular hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia were more prevalent in premature children whereas stroke, porencephaly, cerebral hemorrhage and cerebral atrophy were more evenly distributed in both term-born and prematurely-born children (p< 0.01). The overall prevalence of epilepsy in the cohort was 26% with no differences in full-term compared to prematurely-born children. Regardless of the gestational birth age, intellectual deficits were more common in the presence of comorbidity of both hemiplegia and epilepsy (p< 0.05). PMID:26500242

  19. A predictive model for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV hospitalisation of premature infants born at 33–35 weeks of gestational age, based on data from the Spanish FLIP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueras-Aloy Jose

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study, conducted in Europe, was to develop a validated risk factor based model to predict RSV-related hospitalisation in premature infants born 33–35 weeks' gestational age (GA. Methods The predictive model was developed using risk factors captured in the Spanish FLIP dataset, a case-control study of 183 premature infants born between 33–35 weeks' GA who were hospitalised with RSV, and 371 age-matched controls. The model was validated internally by 100-fold bootstrapping. Discriminant function analysis was used to analyse combinations of risk factors to predict RSV hospitalisation. Successive models were chosen that had the highest probability for discriminating between hospitalised and non-hospitalised infants. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves were plotted. Results An initial 15 variable model was produced with a discriminant function of 72% and an area under the ROC curve of 0.795. A step-wise reduction exercise, alongside recalculations of some variables, produced a final model consisting of 7 variables: birth ± 10 weeks of start of season, birth weight, breast feeding for ≤ 2 months, siblings ≥ 2 years, family members with atopy, family members with wheeze, and gender. The discrimination of this model was 71% and the area under the ROC curve was 0.791. At the 0.75 sensitivity intercept, the false positive fraction was 0.33. The 100-fold bootstrapping resulted in a mean discriminant function of 72% (standard deviation: 2.18 and a median area under the ROC curve of 0.785 (range: 0.768–0.790, indicating a good internal validation. The calculated NNT for intervention to treat all at risk patients with a 75% level of protection was 11.7 (95% confidence interval: 9.5–13.6. Conclusion A robust model based on seven risk factors was developed, which is able to predict which premature infants born between 33–35 weeks' GA are at highest risk of hospitalisation from RSV. The model could be

  20. Refractive status and optical components of premature babies with or without retinopathy of prematurity at 3-4 years old

    OpenAIRE

    Ouyang, Li-Juan; Yin, Zheng-Qin; Ke, Ning; Chen, Xin-Ke; Liu, Qin; Fang, Jing; Chen, Lin; Chen, Xiu-Rong; Shi, Hui; Tang, Ling; Pi, Lian-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the refractive status and optical components of premature babies with or without retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) at 3-4 years old, and to explore the influence of prematurity and ROP on the refractive status and optical components. Methods: Premature babies receiving fundus examination were recruited into ROP group and non-ROP group, with age-matched full-term babies as controls. Results: The incidence of myopia was the highest in ROP (3/59, 5.08%). The incidence of a...

  1. Intracranial hemorrhage in the premature infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intracranial hemorrhage in the premature infant is a common pathology that generates high levels of morbimortality within this group of age. A revision of the pathophysiology of the disease is made, as well as the normal brain echographic anatomy, the initial pathological findings and most frequent complications

  2. Myopia in premature babies with and without retinopathy of prematurity.

    OpenAIRE

    Nissenkorn, I; YASSUR;, Y.; Mashkowski, D; Sherf, I; Ben-Sira, I

    1983-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-five premature infants weighing 600-2000 g were followed up during 1974-80 for the presence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and for the existence of myopia. 50% of the premature infants who had ROP were myopic, while only 16% myopic premature infants were found among those who did not have ROP. There was a positive correlation between the degree of myopia and the severity of cicatricial ROP. No difference existed in the frequency and degree of myopia between prematur...

  3. Retinopathy of Prematurity in Triplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ali Şekeroğlu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the incidence, severity and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in triplets. Materials and Methods: The medical records of consecutive premature triplets who had been screened for ROP in a single maternity hospital were analyzed and presence and severity of ROP; birth weight, gender, gestational age of the infant; route of delivery and the mode of conception were recorded. Results: A total of 54 triplets (40 males, 14 females who were screened for ROP between March 2010 and February 2013 were recruited for the study. All triplets were delivered by Caesarean section and 36 (66.7% were born following an assisted conception. During follow-up, seven (13% of the infants developed ROP of any stage and two (3.7% required laser photocoagulation. The mean gestational age of triplets with ROP was 27.6±1.5 (27-31 weeks whereas it was 32.0±1.5 (30-34 weeks in those without ROP (p=0.002. The mean birth weights of triplets with and without ROP were 1290.0±295.2 (970-1600 g and 1667.5±222.2 (1130-1960 g, respectively (p<0.001. The presence of ROP was not associated with gender (p=0.358 or mode of conception (p=0.674. Conclusion: ROP in triplets seems to be mainly related to low gestational age and low birth weight. Further prospective randomized studies are necessary to demonstrate risk factors of ROP in triplets and to determine if and how gemelarity plays a role in the development of ROP.

  4. Is retinopathy of prematurity decreasing?--comparison of two different periods in the same NICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satar, Mehmet; Ozlü, Ferda; Cekinmez, Eren K; Yapıcıoğlu-Yıldıztaş, Hacer; Narlı, Nejat; Erdem, Elif; Soylu, Merih

    2014-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity is a retinal vascular disorder seen frequently in very premature infants, and is associated with poor clinical outcomes. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity and mechanical ventilation, oxygen therapy, gestational age, and antenatal steroids in extremely low birth weight infants as well as to retrospectively analyze changes in the incidence and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity over two study periods. PMID:24911851

  5. Mean trombosit volume in patients with retinopathy of prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    Harun Yüksel; Alparslan Şahin; Muhammed Şahin; Fatih Mehmet Türkcü; Yasin Çınar; Zeynep Gürsel Özkurt; Ümit Karaalp; Ünal Uluca; İhsan Çaça

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to evaluate the mean platelet volume (MPV) in patients with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) with respect to development of type 1 ROP Methods: The medical records of the premature infants were evaluated. Babies with a birth weight under 1500 g and a gestational age under 32 weeks were enrolled to the study. Birth weight, gestational age, onset and grade of retinopathy, presence of plus disease were analyzed. At the time of type 1 ROP diagnosis, blood samples were obta...

  6. Incidence of Retinopathy of Prematurity in Bahrain, 2002–2011

    OpenAIRE

    Ebtisam K Al Alawi; Mohamed Shaker Al Omran; Al Bahrana, Ebtihal H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to determine the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in Bahrain. Designs and Methods: premature infants (gestation age ≤32 weeks, birth weight ≤1500 g) admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Salmaniya Medical Complex were examined based on a predetermined screening protocol. The first examination was performed at 4-6 weeks of age, from January 1, 2002 to December 3, 2011. Data were collected on the type and incidence of each of ROP, birth weight...

  7. Retinopathy of prematurity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retinopathy of prematurity has been the leading cause of childhood blindness. Early and effective screening has helped to diagnose the visual target of an infant by the difference between growing up with a disability or not. A joint effort between ophthalmologists and neonatologists is proposed to control this disease, ensuring success. An appropriate, early, effective and timely treatment has been the laser and cryotherapy like good choices for the neonate to prevent disease progression. Evaluation of screening program, to determine the incidence, compare statistics variables have been measures as other medical pathologies should be encouraged as research topics. A decrease in the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity is expected, controlling the risk factors during the child's stay in intrahospital neonatal unit

  8. Retinopathy of prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    Hellström, Ann; Smith, Lois E. H.; Dammann, Olaf

    1991-01-01

    The immature retinas of preterm newborns are susceptible to insults that disrupt neurovascular growth, which leads to retinopathy of prematurity. Suppression of growth factors due to hyperoxia and loss of the maternal-fetal interaction result in an arrest of retinal vascularisation (phase 1). Subsequently, the increasingly metabolically active, yet poorly vascularised, retina becomes hypoxic, stimulating growth factor-induced vasoproliferation (phase 2), which can cause retinal detachment. In...

  9. Retinopathy of prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    Hellström, Ann; Smith, Lois E. H.; Dammann, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    The immature retinas of preterm neonates are susceptible to insults that disrupt neurovascular growth, leading to retinopathy of prematurity. Suppression of growth factors due to hyperoxia and loss of the maternal–fetal interaction result in an arrest of retinal vascularisation (phase 1). Subsequently, the increasingly metabolically active, yet poorly vascularised, retina becomes hypoxic, stimulating growth factor-induced vasoproliferation (phase 2), which can cause retinal detachment. In ver...

  10. Premature ejaculation: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Sukumar Reddy Gajjala; Azheel Khalidi

    2014-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual disorder. It is defined by the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders as "ejaculation occurring, without control, on or shortly after penetration and before the person wishes it, causing marked distress or interpersonal difficulty. [1] Although the timing of intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) (i.e., time from penetration to ejaculation) is not included in this definition, an IELT of

  11. Parent behaviors moderate the relationship between neonatal pain and internalizing behaviors at 18 months corrected age in children born very prematurely

    OpenAIRE

    Vinall, Jillian; Miller, Steven P.; Synnes, Anne R; Grunau, Ruth E

    2013-01-01

    Children born very preterm (≤32 weeks gestation) show greater internalizing (anxious/depressed) behaviors compared to term-born peers as early as 2 years corrected age (CA), however, the role of early stress in the etiology of internalizing problems in preterm children remains unknown. Therefore, we examined the relationship between neonatal pain and internalizing behavior at 18 months CA in children born very preterm, and examined whether parent behavior and stress moderated this relationshi...

  12. Hyperactive mTOR signals in the proopiomelanocortin-expressing hippocampal neurons cause age-dependent epilepsy and premature death in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Yuki; Sakai, Yasunari; Shimmura, Mitsunori; Shigeto, Hiroshi; Nishio, Miki; Akamine, Satoshi; Sanefuji, Masafumi; Ishizaki, Yoshito; Torisu, Hiroyuki; Nakabeppu, Yusaku; Suzuki, Akira; Takada, Hidetoshi; Hara, Toshiro

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a frequent comorbidity in patients with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). Recent studies utilizing massive sequencing data identified subsets of genes that are associated with epilepsy and FCD. AKT and mTOR-related signals have been recently implicated in the pathogenic processes of epilepsy and FCD. To clarify the functional roles of the AKT-mTOR pathway in the hippocampal neurons, we generated conditional knockout mice harboring the deletion of Pten (Pten-cKO) in Proopiomelanocortin-expressing neurons. The Pten-cKO mice developed normally until 8 weeks of age, then presented generalized seizures at 8–10 weeks of age. Video-monitored electroencephalograms detected paroxysmal discharges emerging from the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. These mice showed progressive hypertrophy of the dentate gyrus (DG) with increased expressions of excitatory synaptic markers (Psd95, Shank3 and Homer). In contrast, the expression of inhibitory neurons (Gad67) was decreased at 6–8 weeks of age. Immunofluorescence studies revealed the abnormal sprouting of mossy fibers in the DG of the Pten-cKO mice prior to the onset of seizures. The treatment of these mice with an mTOR inhibitor rapamycin successfully prevented the development of seizures and reversed these molecular phenotypes. These data indicate that the mTOR pathway regulates hippocampal excitability in the postnatal brain. PMID:26961412

  13. Retrospective evaluation of retinopathy of prematurity screening in the fifty-nine patients

    OpenAIRE

    YILMAZ, Resul; ÜNÜVAR, Şeyma; Karaaslan, Erhan; İnce, Deniz Anuk; DEMİR, Selim; DEMİR, Helin DENİZ

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: We aimed to evaluate the possible risk factors for the development of retinopathy of prematurity(ROP) Patients and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted between January 2012- and May 2013 for premature infants aged 34 weeks or younger who were screened for premature retinopathy. Fifty nine infants were included into the study. Birth weight, gestational age and other risk factors were evaluated.. Results: Birth weights were between 750 and 3590g (mean 1960g) gestational ages ...

  14. Proteomic profiling of adipose tissue from Zmpste24-/- mice, a model of lipodystrophy and premature aging, reveals major changes in mitochondrial function and vimentin processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinado, Juan R; Quirós, Pedro M; Pulido, Marina R; Mariño, Guillermo; Martínez-Chantar, Maria L; Vázquez-Martínez, Rafael; Freije, José M P; López-Otín, Carlos; Malagón, María M

    2011-11-01

    Lipodystrophy is a major disease involving severe alterations of adipose tissue distribution and metabolism. Mutations in genes encoding the nuclear envelope protein lamin A or its processing enzyme, the metalloproteinase Zmpste24, cause diverse human progeroid syndromes that are commonly characterized by a selective loss of adipose tissue. Similarly to humans, mice deficient in Zmpste24 accumulate prelamin A and display phenotypic features of accelerated aging, including lipodystrophy. Herein, we report the proteome and phosphoproteome of adipose tissue as well as serum metabolome in lipodystrophy by using Zmpste24(-/-) mice as experimental model. We show that Zmpste24 deficiency enhanced lipolysis, fatty acid biogenesis and β-oxidation as well as decreased fatty acid re-esterification, thus pointing to an increased partitioning of fatty acid toward β-oxidation and away from storage that likely underlies the observed size reduction of Zmpste24-null adipocytes. Besides the mitochondrial proteins related to lipid metabolism, other protein networks related to mitochondrial function, including those involved in tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation, were up-regulated in Zmpste24(-/-) mice. These results, together with the observation of an increased mitochondrial response to oxidative stress, support the relationship between defective prelamin A processing and mitochondrial dysfunction and highlight the relevance of oxidative damage in lipoatrophy and aging. We also show that absence of Zmpste24 profoundly alters the processing of the cytoskeletal protein vimentin and identify a novel protein dysregulated in lipodystrophy, High-Mobility Group Box-1 Protein. Finally, we found several lipid derivates with important roles in energy balance, such as Lysophosphatidylcholine or 2-arachidonoylglycerol, to be dysregulated in Zmpste24(-/-) serum. Together, our findings in Zmpste24(-/-) mice may be useful to unveil the mechanisms underlying adipose tissue

  15. Intracranial haemorrhage after transport of premature newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasojević Slobodan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial hemorrhage remains an important factor of premature newborns’ morbidity. Its incidence is significantly influenced by adequate perinatal care and safe neonatal transport. Risk factors for the development of intracranial hemorrhage in premature newborns after neonatal transport were analyzed in the retrospective transversal clinical study. Out of 150 study subjects, 60% (n=90/150 had intracranial hemorrhage with a statistically significant difference in relation to Apgar score, gestational age, birth weight, age at the moment of transport and the prophylactic use of surfactant. In this group, grades I/II intracranial hemorrhage were detected in 77% (n=69/90, while grades III/IV intracranial hemorrhage were diagnosed in 23% (n=21/90. A statistically significant difference was observed in relation to gestational age, birth weight, antenatal use of tocolytics and steroids, delivery mode and age in the time of transport between these groups. All patients were transferred to Intensive Care Unit, the duration of transport was less than 5 minutes in 71% 9n=107/150, whereas longer transport was recorded in 29% (n=43/150. In the group of longer transport, prophylactic surfactant was less frequently used with a higher incidence of grades III/IV intracranial hemorrhage. In order to prevent the development of intracranial hemorrhage in premature newborns, the most important measures are the antenatal use of steroids and postnatal prophylactic use of surfactant.

  16. Parent behaviors moderate the relationship between neonatal pain and internalizing behaviors at 18 months corrected age in children born very prematurely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinall, Jillian; Miller, Steven P; Synnes, Anne R; Grunau, Ruth E

    2013-09-01

    Children born very preterm (≤ 32 weeks gestation) exhibit greater internalizing (anxious/depressed) behaviors compared to term-born peers as early as 2 years corrected age (CA); however, the role of early stress in the etiology of internalizing problems in preterm children remains unknown. Therefore, we examined the relationship between neonatal pain and internalizing behavior at 18 months CA in children born very preterm and examined whether parent behavior and stress moderated this relationship. Participants were 145 children (96 very preterm, 49 full term) assessed at 18 months CA. Neonatal data were obtained from medical and nursing chart review. Neonatal pain was defined as the number of skin-breaking procedures. Cognitive ability was measured with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II. Parents completed the Parenting Stress Index III, Child Behavior Checklist 1.5-5, and participated in a videotaped play session with their child, which was coded using the Emotional Availability Scale IV. Very preterm children displayed greater Internalizing behaviors compared to full-term control children (P=.02). Parent Sensitivity and Nonhostility moderated the relationship between neonatal pain and Internalizing behavior (all P.05). Parent Emotional Availability and stress were not associated with Internalizing behaviors in full-term control children. Positive parent interaction and lower stress appears to ameliorate negative effects of neonatal pain on stress-sensitive behaviors in this vulnerable population.

  17. 小胎龄早产儿支气管肺发育不良发生率和危险因素分析%The incidence and risk factors of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in small gestational age premature infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑国方; 武荣; 刘石; 郝小清

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyse bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) incidence and high risk factor in the small gestational age premature infants. Methods Retrospective analyse the materials of inpatient infants whose gestational age (GA) were =?2 weeks and survived over 28 days in our neonatal intensive care unite ( NICU). The 28 cases as BPD group met the new diagnostic criteria of BPD. The 56 cases as the control group were randomly selected from all the premature infant with no BPD. Results Total of 197 cases of premature infant were included in this study. The incidence of BPD is about 14.2%. There were statistical significance in each GA period group (x2 =32.269,/* =0.000). The incidence increased when the GA decreased; There were statistical significance in each birth weight group (x2 =30. 244, P =0. 000), the incidence increased when birth weight decreased. From the comparison of the 23 risk factors for BPD, we find thai 12 factors have statistical significance (P < 0. 05), those are GA, body weight, oxygen time, maximum oxygen treatment concentration, hospital days, tracheal intubation mechanical ventilation, replacement therapy with pulmonary surfactant, anemia, application of Meropenem, the ratio of tenth day body weight to birth weight, the first blood gas analysis scores after birth and oxygen index < 300. On the basis of Logistic regression analysis of GA, birth weight, the highest inhaled oxygen volume concentration, tracheal intubation mechanical ventilation, anemia, the ratio of tenth day body weight to birth weight, we find that body weight, the highest inhaled oxygen volume concentration, the ratio of tenth body weight to birth weight are high risk factors for BPD. By compared the 18 factors between mild BPD and moderate or severe BPD, we find that asphyxia, application of diuretic, oxygen time and first blood gas analysis scores after birth have statistical significance ( P < 0.05 ) . Conclusions The birth weight, the highest inhaled oxygen volume

  18. Hormonal Profile in Indian Men with Premature Androgenetic Alopecia

    OpenAIRE

    Narad, Smita; Pande, Sushil; Gupta, Madhur; Chari, Suresh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Alopecia in male is considered as a genetically determined disorder characterized by increased level of local androgen metabolite and increase androgen receptor binding in balding areas. Frequent deviations of hormones from normal values have been reported in men diagnosed with premature androgenetic alopecia (AGA) especially for androgens, gonadotropins and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Different studies in the past have inferred that premature baldness before the age of...

  19. Retinopathy of prematurity: review of a four-year period.

    OpenAIRE

    Cats, B P; Tan, K E

    1985-01-01

    For a four-year period the development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) was determined among neonates considered at risk of acquiring this condition. Fifty-six out of 249 premature infants developed some degree of ROP. Comparison of these infants with a group of 56 controls, admitted to hospital in the same period and matched for sex, birth weight, and gestational age, showed significant differences for sepsis, blood transfusions, and the period of oxygen monitoring in relation to the peri...

  20. Bilateral Coats' Disease Combined with Retinopathy of Prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    Huseyin Gursoy; Nazmiye Erol; Mustafa Deger Bilgec; Hikmet Basmak; Ozden Kutlay; Huseyin Aslan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To report a case of bilateral Coats’ disease combined with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Case. Retinal vascularization was complete in the right eye, whereas zone III, stage 3 ROP and preplus disease were observed in the left eye at 43 weeks of postmenstrual age (PMA) in a 31-week premature, 1200-g neonate. Intraretinal exudates developed and retinal hemorrhages increased in the left eye at 51 weeks of PMA. Diode laser photocoagulation (LP) was applied to the left eye. Exudates i...

  1. Autosomal Translocation Patient Who Experienced Premature Menopause: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Tae-Hee; Kim, Yesol; Jeong, Do-Won; Lee, Eun-Gyeong; Jeon, Dong-Su; Kim, Jun-Mo

    2015-01-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a condition in which the ovarian functions of hormone production and oocyte development become impaired before the typical age for menopause. POF and early menopause are present in a broad spectrum of gonad dysgenesis, from a complete cessation of ovarian function to an intermittent follicle maturation failure. Actually POF has been identified as a genetic entity (especially chromosome X), but data on genetic factors of premature menopause are limited. Until...

  2. Acute renal failure in premature neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doronjski Aleksandra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Hemodynamic stress is the leading cause of acute renal failure (ARF in premature neonates. Incidence of ARF in this population is between 8 and 24%. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of presence of ARF in premature neonates, as well as its impact on their survival. Methods. A retrospective study of 114 premature neonates [(gestational age, GA less than 37 gestation weeks (gw] admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU at the Pediatric Clinic, Institute of Child and Youth Healthcare of Vojvodina in 2007 was conducted. Serum creatinine, urea and bilirubine were determined on the 3rd day of life in 65 newborns who met inclusion criteria. ARF was diagnosed in 16 newborns (n=16/65; 25%. Results. The premature neonates with ARF had significantly lower GA [<28 gw - 8/16 (50% vs. 5/49 (10%; p < 0.05], birth weight (BW (1 265 g vs. 1615 g; p < 0.05 and systolic blood pressure (43.37 mm Hg vs. 52.7 mmHg; p < 0.05 than ones without ARF. Non-olyguric ARF was diagnosed in 62% of newborns with ARF (n=10/16, while the rest had the olyguric type (n = 6/16; 38%. Twenty-five percent of premature neonates with ARF (n = 4/16 died in contrast to 10% of premature neonates without ARF (n = 5/49. ARF was treated conservatively in all but 3 cases when peritoneal dialysis was performed. Renal function has recovered completely in all of the survivors. In order to determine their predictivity in relation to ARF, following parameters were analyzed: GA, BW < 1 500 g, presence of concomitant sepsis and intracranial hemorrhage grade III/IV. BW < 1 500 g demonstrated the highest sensitivity (se 0.75, while GA < 28 gw, sepsis and intracranial hemorrhage grade III/IV showed high specificity (sp = 0.90, 0.89 0.88, respectively. Conclusion. Acute renal failure frequently occurs in population of premature neonates and requires meticulous fluid and electrolyte balance, especially in the case of low birth weight and extreme immaturity.

  3. Pathophysiology of Retinopathy of Prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    İmren Akkoyun

    2012-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), an ocular disease characterized by onset of vascular abnormalities in the developing retina, is the major cause of visual impairment and blindness in premature neonates. ROP is a complex multifactorial disease that occurs with microvascular degeneration followed by neovascularization which passing through different stages can progress to retinal detachment. Currently used ablative therapies like cryocoagulation and laser photocoagulation for prolifer...

  4. Premature ejaculation: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukumar Reddy Gajjala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature ejaculation (PE is a common male sexual disorder. It is defined by the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders as "ejaculation occurring, without control, on or shortly after penetration and before the person wishes it, causing marked distress or interpersonal difficulty. [1] Although the timing of intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT (i.e., time from penetration to ejaculation is not included in this definition, an IELT of <2 min, or ejaculation occurring before penetration, has been considered consistent with PE. [2] Management involves both the patient and his partner. Therapeutic options should suit both partners and be appropriate to their habit in planning and frequency of intercourse. Follow-up at appropriate intervals to judge efficacy, titrate dosage of pharmacological treatments and ascertain side effects is mandatory.

  5. 小于2岁婴幼儿乳房早发育临床随访研究%A clinical follow-up study of premature thelarche in infants under two years of age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王应旻; 梁黎; 方燕兰; 傅君芬; 董关萍; 王春林

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解小于2岁婴幼儿乳房发育的临床现况及转归,分析影响乳房消退的相关因素.方法 分析2009年10月至2010年9月间因乳房早发育来我院内分泌科就诊的863例2岁以下患儿临床及实验诊断资料并进行纵向随访研究.结果 小于2岁单纯乳房早发育患儿中绝大多数(89.3%)在3周岁内消退,乳房消退平均年龄为17±6月龄;小部分(10.7%)反复或持续增大,3岁后仍不消退,极少数转变为中枢性性早熟.初诊时乳房Tanner分期和基础E2值升高与否是影响乳房消退的独立危险因素.结论 小于2岁婴幼儿乳房早发育在临床并不少见,大多呈自限性病程,3周岁内可消退,但对2岁以上乳房增大持续不消退者要定期随访.%Objective To investigate the clinical status and natural course of premature thelarche (PT) in infants under 2 years of age and to analyze the predictive factors for regression of thelarche. Methods The clinical and laboratory data of 863 infants under 2 years of age, who visited the department of endocrinology in our hospital due to PT between October 2009 and September 2010, were analyzed. A a longitudinal follow-up study was performed. Results Of the infants under 2 years of age with isolated PT, 89. 3% showed a regression before the age of 3 years (mean 17 ± 5. 6 months), 10.7% had recurrent or persistent thelarche, with no regression after the age of 3 years, and some even developed into central precocious puberty. The independent predictive factors for regression of thelarche were Tanner stage at the first visit and whether baseline estradiol level had increased. Conclusions PT in infants under 2 years of age is not rare in the clinical setting, and it usually runs a self-limited course, subsiding before the age of 3 years. However, regular follow-ups should be performed for infants aged over 2 years with persistent thelarche.

  6. Premature ovarian insufficiency: Pathogenesis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna J Fenton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The term premature ovarian insufficiency (POI describes a continuum of declining ovarian function in a young woman, resulting in an earlier than average menopause. It is a term that reflects the variable nature of the condition and is substantially less emotive than the formerly used "premature ovarian failure" which signaled a single event in time. Contrary to the decline in the age of menarche seen over the last 3-4 decades there has been no similar change in the age of menopause. In developed nations, the average age for cessation of menstrual cycles is 50-52 years. The age is younger among women from developing nations. Much has been written about POI despite a lack of good data on the incidence of this condition. It is believed that 1% of women under the age of 40 years and 0.1% under the age of 30 years will develop POI. Research is increasingly providing information about the pathogenesis and treatments are being developed to better preserve ovarian function during cancer treatment and to improve fertility options. This narrative review summarizes the current literature to provide an approach to best practice management of POI.

  7. Tests of screening criteria for retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olujić Maja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Retinopathy of prematurity is a disease of the eye, i.e. the retinal blood vessels, which occurs exclusively in premature infants. The level of blindness in one country depends on the level of development of neonatal care and the opportunities to implement screening. The aim of this study was to examine the possibilities of changing screening criteria, provided that not a single child was left out from the survey. Material and Methods. A two-year prospective study, which was carried out in the period from January 1st 2007 to December 31st 2008, included 191 premature infants who were treated at the Institute for Child and Youth Healthcare of Vojvodina. Results. Different inclusion criteria regarding body mass and gestational age were applied for screening retinopathy of prematurity and we assessed the coverage of the sample if certain screening criteria were applied. According to the results of the research, when the applied screening criterion was 37/2000, there was not a single case of a blind, prematurely born baby. Discussion. Great migrations of population as well as big differences in characteristics of premature infants together with underlying multi-factor diseases besides retinopathy of prematurity send a warning signal to be very cautious. Conclusion. Although this study has given ground to shift the limits of screening, we will adhere to broad screening criteria.

  8. Premature and accelerated aging: HIV or HAART?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L. Smith; R. de Boer; S. Brul; Y. Budovskaya; H. van der Spek

    2013-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has significantly increased life expectancy of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive population. Nevertheless, the average lifespan of HIV-patients remains shorter compared to uninfected individuals. Immunosenescence, a current explanation for t

  9. Thinking about Pregnancy After Premature Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... between pregnancies > Thinking about pregnancy after premature birth Thinking about pregnancy after premature birth E-mail to ... talk to other women like me who are thinking about pregnancy after having a premature baby? Visit ...

  10. Prenatal Stress, Prematurity, and Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medsker, Brock; Forno, Erick; Simhan, Hyagriv; Celedón, Juan C

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting millions of children in the United States and worldwide. Prematurity is a risk factor for asthma, and certain ethnic or racial minorities such as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic blacks are disproportionately affected by both prematurity and asthma. In this review, we examine current evidence to support maternal psychosocial stress as a putative link between prematurity and asthma, while also focusing on disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune responses as potential underlying mechanisms for stress-induced "premature asthma." Prenatal stress may cause not only abnormalities in the HPA axis but also epigenetic changes in the fetal glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), leading to impaired glucocorticoid metabolism. Moreover, maternal stress can alter fetal cytokine balance, favoring TH2 (allergic) immune responses characteristic of atopic asthma: interleukin 6 (IL-6), which has been associated with premature labor, can promote TH2 responses by stimulating production of IL-4 and IL-13. Given a link among stress, prematurity, and asthma, future research should include birth cohorts aimed at confirming and better characterizing "premature asthma." If confirmed, clinical trials of prenatal maternal stress reduction would be warranted to reduce the burden of these common comorbidities. While awaiting the results of such studies, sound policies to prevent domestic and community violence (eg, from firearms) are justified, not only by public safety but also by growing evidence of detrimental effects of violence-induced stress on psychiatric and somatic health.

  11. Prenatal Stress, Prematurity, and Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medsker, Brock; Forno, Erick; Simhan, Hyagriv; Celedón, Juan C

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting millions of children in the United States and worldwide. Prematurity is a risk factor for asthma, and certain ethnic or racial minorities such as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic blacks are disproportionately affected by both prematurity and asthma. In this review, we examine current evidence to support maternal psychosocial stress as a putative link between prematurity and asthma, while also focusing on disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune responses as potential underlying mechanisms for stress-induced "premature asthma." Prenatal stress may cause not only abnormalities in the HPA axis but also epigenetic changes in the fetal glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), leading to impaired glucocorticoid metabolism. Moreover, maternal stress can alter fetal cytokine balance, favoring TH2 (allergic) immune responses characteristic of atopic asthma: interleukin 6 (IL-6), which has been associated with premature labor, can promote TH2 responses by stimulating production of IL-4 and IL-13. Given a link among stress, prematurity, and asthma, future research should include birth cohorts aimed at confirming and better characterizing "premature asthma." If confirmed, clinical trials of prenatal maternal stress reduction would be warranted to reduce the burden of these common comorbidities. While awaiting the results of such studies, sound policies to prevent domestic and community violence (eg, from firearms) are justified, not only by public safety but also by growing evidence of detrimental effects of violence-induced stress on psychiatric and somatic health. PMID:26676148

  12. Cystic fibrosis in premature infants

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, KD; Engmann, C.; Moya, F. (Francina); Muhlebach, M

    2011-01-01

    There are few reports of cystic fibrosis (CF) diagnosed in premature infants. We describe the clinical course of three patients, from our neonatal intensive care units, who were diagnosed with CF, and discuss the existing literature and treatment considerations.

  13. Prevention of retinopathy of prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    João Borges Fortes Filho; Gabriela Unchalo Eckert; Marcia Beatriz Tartarella; Renato Soibelmann Procianoy

    2011-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is related to oxygen-regulated vascular endothelial growth factor and to insulin-like growth factor-I. After premature birth, supplemental oxygen induces a retinal hyperoxic condition with vasoconstriction and to a definitive interruption of retinal vasculogenesis. Peripheral ischemia may stimulate retinal neovascularization and the onset of additional ROP-related complications. The natural course of the disease may result in irreversible blindness if not prom...

  14. Advances in treating premature ejaculation

    OpenAIRE

    Çayan, Selahittin; Şerefoğlu, Ege Can

    2014-01-01

    In spite of its high prevalence and long history, the ambiguity regarding the definition, epidemiology and management of premature ejaculation continues. Topical anesthetic creams and daily or on-demand selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment forms the basis of pharmacotherapy for premature ejaculation today, in spite of low adherence by patients. Psychotherapy may improve the outcomes when combined with these treatment modalities. Tramadol and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibit...

  15. Vitreous hemorrhage caused by scleral depression during laser treatment for aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    Parag K Shah; V Narendran; Narendran, Kalpana

    2006-01-01

    Ablation for threshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a procedure with a high benefit-to-risk ratio. Vitreous hemorrhage is a rare complication which may occur during this procedure. We report a case which developed vitreous hemorrhage in both eyes while doing laser using a scleral depressor. A premature male child was born through normal delivery at gestational age of 32 weeks and birth weight of 1420 grams. A diagnosis of aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity (APROP) was made...

  16. Serum prohepcidin levels in premature newborns with oxygen radical diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, H Tolga; Yurdakök, Murat; Korkmaz, Ayşe; Yiğit, Şule

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prohepcidin levels in premature newborns with oxygen radical diseases such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity and necrotizing enterocolitis and to compare these levels with those of healthy premature newborns. Eighty premature infants (25-34 weeks gestational age) were enrolled. The patient group was composed of 38 premature babies with oxygen radical diseases, and the control group consisted of 42 healthy premature newborns. Complete blood count, serum iron and ferritin concentrations, iron-binding capacity (IBC), transferrin and prohepcidin levels were measured. The mean ferritin and prohepcidin levels were higher in the patient group than in the control group (p = 0.038 and p = 0.022, respectively). No significant correlations were found between serum prohepcidin levels and iron parameters. We believe that this finding will contribute to a greater understanding of the etiopathogenesis of oxygen radical diseases. There is a need for future studies to explore the link between underlying inflammatory mechanisms and hepcidin in oxygen radical diseases. PMID:25363011

  17. Retinopathy of prematurity in surfactant treated infants.

    OpenAIRE

    Rankin, S. J.; Tubman, T. R.; Halliday, H. L.; Johnston, S S

    1992-01-01

    Seventy six babies of less than 1500 g birth weight who had surfactant replacement therapy for severe respiratory distress syndrome were studied to assess the presence and stage of subsequent retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). A control group of 90 babies, matched for birth weight and gestational age, who did not have surfactant therapy were also studied. Threshold ROP or greater was found in 1.7% of the surfactant group and 7.8% of the controls. For the babies of less than 1000 g birth weight...

  18. Neurosensory outcome of prematurely born children following intracranial hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velisavljev-Filipović Gordana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. More and more survival of newborns with small or extremely small body mass at birth, as well as increasing percent of prematurely born babies, have emphasized the significance of intracranial haemorrhage problem. Prematurely born infants are under increased risk for strabismus, amblyopia, blinding and hearing loss. Objective. Establishing the frequency of sensory damages (damage of sight and hearing in prematurely born infants with various degrees of intracranial haemorrhage. Methods. The study is prospective, controlled and included 120 prematurely born infants with diagnosed four different grade intracranial haemorrhage on ultrasonic examination of the central nervous system. The study excluded prematurely born children from twin pregnancies with congenital malformations and stoppage of intrauterine growth. Ophthalmological examination was done at 9, 12, and 36 months of postnatal age. Audilogical examination was done after delivery, at 2 months of age. Results. There are statistically significant differences (p<0.01 related to the presence of strabismus among groups of examinees with vairious hemorrhage degrees. Strabismus was present only in one premature infant with 1st and in 10 children (33.3% with the 4th degree. Amblyopia occurred only among examinees with 4th degree hemorrhage. There were statistically significant differences (p<0.01 related to the finding of transitory otoacoustic emission of the left ear and the right ear among the groups. The finding of the right ear was not usual in 7 examinees from the 4th degree hemorrhage. The finding of the left ear was not usual in 1 examinee from the third and in 7 examinees from the fourth group. Conclusion. Prematurely born children with a higher degree intracranial hemorrhage have a greater risk for the loss of hearing and development of visual handicap.

  19. Premature Calcifications of Costal Cartilages: A New Perspective Premature Calcifications of Costal Cartilages: A New Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcifications of the costal cartilages occur, as a rule, not until the age of 30 years. The knowledge of the clinical significance of early and extensive calcifications is still incomplete. Materials and Methods. A search was made to find patients below the age of 30 years who showed distinct calcifications of their lower costal cartilages by viewing 360 random samples of intravenous pyelograms and abdominal plain films. The histories, and clinical and laboratory findings of these patients were analyzed. Results. Nineteen patients fulfilled the criteria of premature calcifications of costal cartilages (CCCs). The patients had in common that they were frequently referred to a hospital and were treated by several medical disciplines. Nevertheless many complaints of the patients remained unsolved. Premature CCCs were often associated with rare endocrine disorders, inborn errors of metabolism, and abnormal hematologic findings. Among the metabolic disorders there were 2 proven porphyrias and 7 patients with a suspected porphyria but with inconclusive laboratory findings. Conclusion. Premature CCCs are unlikely to be a normal variant in skeletal radiology. The findings in this small group of patients call for more intensive studies, especially in regard to the putative role of a porphyria

  20. Serial serum alkaline phosphatase as an early biomarker for osteopenia of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Enas A A; Said, Reem N; Mosallam, Dalia S; Moawad, Eman M I; Kamal, Naglaa M; Fathallah, Mohammed G E-D

    2016-09-01

    Metabolic bone disease of prematurity is a condition characterized by reduction in bone mineral content (osteopenia). It is a problem faced by very low birth weight (VLBW) infants because of lack of fetal mineralization during the last trimester. Our aim was to assess serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level as an early biomarker for osteopenia in premature infants and to estimate an optimal cutoff value of serum ALP at which osteopenia is detected radiologically in premature newborns.This prospective study was conducted on a cohort of 120 newborn infants of both sex of ≤34 weeks' gestational age and premature infants particularly those <1000-g birth weight and <32 weeks' gestation. PMID:27631238

  1. PREVALENCE OF RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY IN ASIAN INDIAN BABIES FROM A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE

    OpenAIRE

    Sunayana; Hilda; Vinay; Norman; Sripathi

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the prevalence of retinopathy of prematurity(ROP) in Asian Indian babies from a tertiary care centre MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective observational case study was conducted in the neonatal care unit of father Muller charitable institutions on all premature babies weighing < 2000 g at birth with gestational age

  2. Major sacrococcygeal teratoma in an extreme premature infant: a multidisciplinary approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otter, S.C.M.; Mol, A.C. de; Eggink, A.J.; Heijst, A.F. van; Bruijn, D. de; Wijnen, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    Antenatally diagnosed, large sacrococcygeal teratomas in very premature infants are associated with a very poor outcome. We present an extreme premature infant with cardiac decompensation, diagnosed at 27 weeks and 1 day of gestational age. A positive outcome could be achieved with intensive multidi

  3. Breastfeeding maintenance of very low weight premature babies: experience of mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz de Carvalho Ciaciare

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to comprehend the breastfeeding process from reports of mothers of premature babies and identify factors facilitating or complicating this process. A descriptive qualitative study regarding the family centered care. We conducted 12 interviews with mothers of six months premature babies of chronological age and we submitted data to content analysis. Four categories emerged: The previous breastfeeding experience in the process of breastfeeding the premature baby; Emotional context versus the breastfeeding process; The ability to manage breastfeeding the premature baby and, Successes and failures. We concluded that family and professional support, adequate management and the welcoming of individualized services in the prematurity context were majorly responsible for the breastfeeding success, being even able to surpass the previous maternal desire. Breastfeeding accompaniment after discharge is indispensable for its success with premature babies.

  4. Macular edema in Asian Indian premature infants with retinopathy of prematurity: Impact on visual acuity and refractive status after 1-year

    OpenAIRE

    Anand Vinekar; Shwetha Mangalesh; Chaitra Jayadev; Noel Bauer; Sivakumar Munusamy; Vasudha Kemmanu; Mathew Kurian; Padmamalini Mahendradas; Kavitha Avadhani; Bhujang Shetty

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To report the impact of transient, self-resolving, untreated "macular edema" detected on spectral domain optical coherence tomography in Asian Indian premature infants with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) on visual acuity (VA) and refraction at 1-year of corrected age. Materials and Methods: Visual acuity and refraction of 11 infants with bilateral macular edema (Group A) was compared with gestational age-matched 16 infants with ROP without edema (Group B) and 17 preterms infants wi...

  5. Similar phenotype characteristics comparing familial and sporadic premature ovarian failure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, F.; Knauff, E.A.; Niermeijer, M.F.; Eijkemans, M.J.; Laven, J.S.E.; Lambalk, C.B.; Fauser, B.C.J.M.; Goverde, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Premature ovarian failure (POF) is characterized by secondary amenorrhea before the age of 40 years, along with repeated increased follicle-stimulating hormone and low estrogen concentrations. POF is considered a complex genetic disease with a familial presentation in 12% to 50% of cases.

  6. Similar phenotype characteristics comparing familial and sporadic premature ovarian failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, Femi; Knauff, Erik A. H.; Niermeijer, Martinus F.; Eijkemans, Marinus J.; Laven, Joop S. E.; Lambalk, Cornelius B.; Fauser, Bart C. J. M.; Goverde, Angelique J.; Hoek, Annemieke

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Premature ovarian failure (POF) is characterized by secondary amenorrhea before the age of 40 years, along with repeated increased follicle-stimulating hormone and low estrogen concentrations. POF is considered a complex genetic disease with a familial presentation in 12% to 50% of cases.

  7. Influence of Perinatal Risk Factors on Premature Labor Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agamurad A. Orazmuradov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, for the first time, the problem of premature labor (PL is considered from the standpoint of the concept of perinatal obstetric risk. The obtained results show that the optimal choice of the mode of delivery must be based on gestational age and perinatal risk (PR factors with calculation of their intrapartum gain (IG.

  8. Modern Approach in Premature Ovarian Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacu Irina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Premature ovarian failure (POF is a condition affecting 1-2% of women younger than 40 years of age, characterized by amenorrhea, hypoestrogenism and elevated gonadotropin levels. In the last years it became a problem of social health interest as the frequency increased due to environmental factors and new, efficient methods for cancer treatment in young women. Few genes have beed identified to explain cases of POF but there are also autoimmune associated conditions and an increasing number of iatrogenic cases (chemotherapy, surgery, radiotherapy. Modern approach in POF means not only a precise etiological diagnosis, but also a correct counseling for these patients who often want to become parents, and a chance for a healthy life without the long term consequences of estrogen deprivation from an early age. In vitro fertilization (IVF techniques can be useful for certain cases but research is needed on strategies to improve fertility for women who have follicles remaining in the ovaries.

  9. Early repolarization as a predictor of premature ventricular beats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoshvili, Z T; Petriashvili, Sh G; Archadze, A T; Azaladze, I G

    2015-02-01

    Early repolarization pattern (ERP) is a common ECG variant, characterized by J point elevation manifested either as terminal QRS slurring (the transition from the QRS segment to the ST segment) or notching (a positive deflection inscribed on terminal QRS complex) associated with concave upward ST-segment elevation and prominent T waves in at least two contiguous leads. Aim of this observational study was to compare number of premature ventricular beats in the different groups of patients with early repolarization. The result of this observational study shows that there are: 1,74 fold higher number of premature ventricular beats in 41-74 year subgroup VS 19-40 year subgroup; 1,31 fold higher number of premature ventricular beats in male subgroup VS female subgroup (But this difference is not statistically significant, because t=1,49, p=0,141); 2,85 fold higher number of premature ventricular beats in CAD+ERP subgroup VS ERP without CAD subgroup; 1,74 fold higher number of premature ventricular beats in HF+ERP subgroup VS ERP without HF subgroup; 1,81 fold higher number of premature ventricular beats in CAD+ERP subgroup VS CAD without ERP subgroup; 1,58 fold higher number of premature ventricular beats in HF+ERP subgroup VS HF without ERP subgroup; So, CAD+ERP is very arrhythmogenic condition, after this is HF+ERP, Then Age. This study shows that ERP independently increase number of PVB in different groups (CAD, HF). This is principally new and very important result. Also the number of patients is enough to make this conclusion.

  10. 过氧化氢诱导的人正常和早老细胞中DNA损伤及其修复研究%The Study of Hydrogen Peroxide Induced DNA Damage and Recovery in Normal Aging and Premature Aging Human Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    所起凤; 杜文婷; 杨鸣鸣; 范雪娇; 刘戟

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究人早老细胞和正常衰老细胞在氧化应激条件下的DNA损伤和修复.方法 采用免疫荧光技术和彗星电泳技术,分别检测3组不同群体倍增数(PD)的人正常二倍体成纤维细胞BJ(青年组第14代,成年组第30代,衰老组第45代)和2组不同PD的人赫-吉二氏综合征(HGPS)细胞(青年组第8代,衰老组第17代)的DNA基础损伤程度.研究过氧化氢诱导造成以上细胞组DNA损伤及去除致损因素正常培养后的修复水平,采用免疫荧光和彗星电泳技术检测细胞在沉默DNA损伤修复蛋白着色性干皮病蛋白A(XPA)表达前后的修复能力.结果 BJ细胞衰老组DNA损伤程度较高,与成年组相比,对DNA损伤诱导因子更加敏感(P<0.05);成年组与青年组相比,对损伤诱导因子也更敏感(P<0.05).HGPS细胞青年组的DNA基础损伤程度即已达到衰老BJ细胞类似或更高水平,且与BJ细胞具有一致的DNA损伤年龄变化趋势.经siRNA沉默XPA表达后可部分恢复HGPS细胞的修复能力,对BJ细胞则没有影响.随年龄增长无论正常还是早老细胞,DNA损伤程度增加,修复效率降低.结论 XPA功能异常抑制了HGPS细胞的损伤修复.%Objective To study the DNA damage and recovery induced by hydrogen peroxide in normal aging and premature aging human cells. Methods The immunofluorescent assay and comet assay were used to estimate basal DNA damage in normal aging BJ cells and premature aging Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) cells, which were divided into three and two distinct population doubling (PD) number groups (BJ 14· 30, 45 and HGPS 8, 17) respectively. The DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide of these cell populations, as well as their repair activity, was also studied. Finally, the recovery capability before and after the xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA ) knocked down in these groups was measured. Results Our results indicated that the normal BJ cells of older PD number

  11. Music Therapy with Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Jayne

    2003-01-01

    Over 20 years of research and clinical practice in music therapy with premature infants has been compiled into this text designed for Board Certified Music Therapists specializing in Neonatal Intensive Care clinical services, for NICU medical staff incorporating research-based music therapy into developmental care plans, and for parents of…

  12. Brain Maturity and Variation of Oxygen Extraction in Premature Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Dib, Mohamed; Aly, Safwat; Govindan, Rathinaswamy; Mohamed, Mohamed; du Plessis, Adre; Aly, Hany

    2016-07-01

    Objectives The ability of the premature brain to extract and use oxygen has not been studied adequately. This study aimed to determine factors that influence fractional tissue oxygen extraction (FTOE) of the brain in premature infants using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and pulse oximetry. Study Design We prospectively studied FTOE in very low birth weight (BW) infants (periventricular leukomalacia. Both FTOE short- and long-scale variabilities correlated negatively with GA and positively with postnatal age (PNA). Moreover, FTOE long-scale variability was significantly reduced in infants supported with invasive ventilation. Conclusions In premature infants, cerebral oxygen extraction increased with reduced Hb and severe brain injury. Variability in oxygen extraction showed differential changes with GA and PNAs and was affected by invasive ventilation. PMID:26906179

  13. Retinopathy of prematurity blindness worldwide: phenotypes in the third epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinn GE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Graham E Quinn Division of Ophthalmology, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Wood Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Blindness due to retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is an increasing problem worldwide as improved levels of neonatal care are provided in countries with developing neonatal intensive care units. The occurrence of ROP blindness varies dramatically with the socioeconomic development of a country. In regions with high levels of neonatal care and adequate resources, ROP blindness is largely restricted to premature infants with very low birth weight and low gestational age while in middle- and low-income countries with regional variation in technology and capacity, limited health resources may well limit the care of the premature newborn. Keywords: ROP, international, blindness

  14. Risk factors of intracranial hemorrhage in premature neonates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Khalessi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH is an important cause of brain injury in premature neonates. Current study tries to define associated risk factors of IVH in preterm neonates in Aliasghar Children Hospital during 2008 to 2011. In this study, the risk factors have been evaluated in premature neonates with IVH, who had at least one brain sonography since their admission in NICU. A total of 63 premature neonates with IVH were assessed. Mean gestational age was 29.81 (24-34 weeks and mean birth weight was 1290.83±382.96 gr. Other risk factors such as sex, mode of delivery, history of using infertility drugs, maternal disease, maternal hypertension and preeclampsia, lumbar puncture, ventilator therapy and pneumothorax were considered. Because no absolute treatment for IVH is available, identifying risk factors is important in prevention and management of IVH.

  15. Complications in premature labor between severe preeclampsia and normal pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardiazar, Zahra; Ramin, Mitra; Madarek, Elahe Olad Saheb; Atashkhouei, Simin; Torab, Reza; Goldust, Mohamad

    2013-05-01

    Severe Preeclampsia may lead to liver and renal failure, Disseminated Intravascular Coagulopathy (DIC) and Central Nervous System (CNS) abnormalities. This study aimed at comparing of infant complication in premature labor between severe preeclampsia and normal pregnancies. In this analytical-descriptive study, one hundred pregnant with severe preeclampsia and premature delivery due to severity of preeclampsia were compared with one hundred cases of premature delivery without preeclampsia to study neonatal fate. The understudy subjects were divided into five age groups of 27-28, 29-30, 31-32, 33-34, 35-36 weeks considering type of delivery, neonate features and neonatal complications related to premature delivery. Mean age of mothers of normal delivery group was 27.28 +/- 5.42 mean age of mothers of the second group was 30.56 +/- 5.86. There was statistically meaningful difference between two groups of delivery regarding patients' systolic blood pressure (p preeclampsia due to stressful conditions created for the fetus. PMID:24498811

  16. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants born prematurely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, Glen P

    2014-01-01

    Long-term follow-up of infants born prematurely is necessary to determine neurodevelopmental outcomes, particularly with the expansion of interest from major disabilities to high prevalence/low severity dysfunctions. Models of pathogenesis include changes due to developmental disruptions and to injury, the magnitude and type of change influenced by the infant's age, and central nervous system recovery and reorganization. Alterations in neurogenesis, migration, myelination, cell death, and synaptogenesis occur even in the absence of insult. Despite increased knowledge regarding these processes, the functional significance of brain abnormalities is unclear. Because of methodologic problems in follow-up studies, it is difficult to characterize outcome definitively. Nonetheless, an acceptable degree of agreement across studies is found with regard to specific neurodevelopmental outcomes: motor/neurologic function, visuomotor integrative skills, IQ, academic achievement, language, executive function, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder/behavioral issues. In general, children born prematurely have more problems in these areas than do their normal birth weight counterparts. Suggestions for improved analyses and clarification of outcomes include use of cluster analysis, structural equation modeling, growth curve analysis, developmental epidemiologic approaches, and better control of background variables using risk indexes and factor scores. Better assessment techniques measuring functions documented to be at higher risk of problems are discussed. PMID:25007063

  17. Premature adrenarche: etiology, clinical findings, and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voutilainen, Raimo; Jääskeläinen, Jarmo

    2015-01-01

    Adrenarche means the morphological and functional change of the adrenal cortex leading to increasing production of adrenal androgen precursors (AAPs) in mid childhood, typically at around 5-8 years of age in humans. The AAPs dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate conjugate (DHEAS) are the best serum markers of adrenal androgen (AA) secretion and adrenarche. Normal ACTH secretion and action are needed for adrenarche, but additional inherent and exogenous factors regulate AA secretion. Inter-individual variation in the timing of adrenarche and serum concentrations of DHEA(S) in adolescence and adulthood are remarkable. Premature adrenarche (PA) is defined as the appearance of clinical signs of androgen action (pubic/axillary hair, adult type body odor, oily skin or hair, comedones, acne, accelerated statural growth) before the age of 8 years in girls or 9 years in boys associated with AAP concentrations high for the prepubertal chronological age. To accept the diagnosis of PA, central puberty, adrenocortical and gonadal sex hormone secreting tumors, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and exogenous source of androgens need to be excluded. The individually variable peripheral conversion of circulating AAPs to biologically more active androgens (testosterone, dihydrotestosterone) and the androgen receptor activity in the target tissues are as important as the circulating AAP concentrations as determinants of androgen action. PA has gained much attention during the last decades, as it has been associated with small birth size, the metabolic and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), and thus with an increased risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in later life. The aim of this review is to describe the known hormonal changes and their possible regulators in on-time and premature adrenarche, and the clinical features and possible later health problems associating with PA. PMID:24923732

  18. Bone mineralisation in premature infants cannot be predicted from serum alkaline phosphatase or serum phosphate

    OpenAIRE

    Faerk, J; Peitersen, B; Petersen, S; Michaelsen, K

    2002-01-01

    Background: The bone mineral content of premature infants at term is lower than in mature infants at the same postconceptional age. Serum alkaline phosphatase and serum phosphate are often used as indicators of bone mineralisation.

  19. Extrauterine growth restriction: Universal problem among premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunnella Alcantara Chagas de FREITAS

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the growth rate of premature infants in the first weeks of life and factors associated with extrauterine growth restriction. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 254 premature infants in a neonatal intensive care unit conducted from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2010. Infants who died or had malformations incompatible with life were excluded. Median weight curves according to gestational age were constructed for the first four weeks of life. The Fenton growth chart calculations provided the weight Z-scores. Extrauterine growth restriction was defined as corrected weight-for-age Z-score ≤-2. Perinatal, morbidity, and health care variables were analyzed. The Poisson regression model yielded the prevalenceratios . Associations between extrauterine growth restriction and the perinatal, morbidity, and care variables were investigated. Poisson regression controlled possible confounding factors. Results: The frequency of extrauterine growth restriction was 24.0%. Most (85.0% small-for-gestational-age infants developed extrauterine growth restriction; 55.3% of extrauterine growth restriction cases involved small-for-gestational-age infants. Premature infants with gestational age >32 weeks did not recover the median birth weight until the third week of life and had a higher frequency of small-for-gestational-age. The Z-scores of non-small-for-gestational-age infants decreased more after birth than those of small-for-gestational-age infants. extrauterine growth restriction was associated with small-for-gestational-age (PR=6.14; 95%CI=3.33-11.33;p <0.001 and time without enteral diet (PR=1.08; 95%CI=1.04-1.13; p =0.010. Conclusion: Extrauterine growth restriction occurs in premature infants of all gestational age. The participation of small-for-gestational-age and nutritional practices in its genesis is noteworthy. We suggest prospective studies of all premature infants. The implementation of best care practices

  20. Changes in Heart Rate Variability in a Premature Infant with Hydrocephalus

    OpenAIRE

    Zuzana Uhrikova; Branislav Kolarovszki; Kamil Javorka; Michal Javorka; Katarina Matasova; Hana Kolarovszka; Mirko Zibolen

    2012-01-01

    Objective - To define changes of heart rate variability in premature infant with hydrocephalus before and after drainage procedure. Study Design - The authors report a case of a premature infant with hydrocephalus with analysis of heart rate variability before and after drainage procedure. Three subsequent recordings of the electrocardiography and heart rate variability were done: the first at the age of 22 days before insertion of ventriculoperitoneal shunt, the second at the age of 36 d...

  1. Prevention of retinopathy of prematurity

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    João Borges Fortes Filho

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is related to oxygen-regulated vascular endothelial growth factor and to insulin-like growth factor-I. After premature birth, supplemental oxygen induces a retinal hyperoxic condition with vasoconstriction and to a definitive interruption of retinal vasculogenesis. Peripheral ischemia may stimulate retinal neovascularization and the onset of additional ROP-related complications. The natural course of the disease may result in irreversible blindness if not promptly diagnosed and attended. Recently, a significant increase in the prevalence of ROP has been observed in survival rates of preterm infants, especially in emerging-economy countries in Latin America, Asia, and Eastern Europe. This article addresses the main preventive measures in ROP.

  2. Medical therapy for premature ejaculation

    OpenAIRE

    Mohee, Amar; Eardley, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual dysfunction. Advances in PE research have been hampered owing to a nonstandardized definition of PE, until the definition by the International Society of Sexual Medicine (ISSM) in 2009. Once the diagnosis of PE is established through a thorough history, a variety of medical therapies is available, including tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), centrally acting opiates, phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors and ...

  3. Positional moulding in premature hydrocephalics.

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar R

    2002-01-01

    Seven premature hydrocephalics presenting with lambdoid positional moulding (LPM) were reviewed. All were treated for hydrocephalus secondary to aqueductal stenosis, Dandy Walker Syndrome and infection. Parenchymal hemorrhage, intraventricular bleed, cortical atrophy, septal agenesis, cortical anomalies and subdural hygroma were the other common associations. These children did not show expected improvement in their higher mental functions at 6 months to 5.4 years of follow-up, following the ...

  4. A Retrospective Study of 15 Cases of Premature Pubarche

    OpenAIRE

    Çaksen, Hüseyin; Kurtoğlu, Selim; Yüksel, Şaban

    2000-01-01

    In this study the findings of 15 patients with premature pubarche PP [one of them aged 7 5 months the others between 4 years 1 month and 9 years the mean age 6 50±3 50 years ] were evaluated retrospectively Our purpose was to determine the factors that are operative in the pathophysiology of PP Of 15 patients 13 83 1 were girls two 16 9 were boys Appearence of pubic hair began between ages 4 and 8 5 6 25±3 18 years in all patients except for the patient aged 7 5 months It began at 7 months of...

  5. New Ballard Score, expanded to include extremely premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, J L; Khoury, J C; Wedig, K; Wang, L; Eilers-Walsman, B L; Lipp, R

    1991-09-01

    The Ballard Maturational Score was refined and expanded to achieve greater accuracy and to include extremely premature neonates. To test validity, accuracy, interrater reliability, and optimal postnatal age at examination, the resulting New Ballard Score (NBS) was assessed for 578 newly born infants and the results were analyzed. Gestational ages ranged from 20 to 44 weeks and postnatal ages at examination ranged from birth to 96 hours. In 530 infants, gestational age by last menstrual period was confirmed by agreement within 2 weeks with gestational age by prenatal ultrasonography (C-GLMP). For these infants, correlation between gestational age by NBS and C-GLMP was 0.97. Mean differences between gestational age by NBS and C-GLMP were 0.32 +/- 1.58 weeks and 0.15 +/- 1.46 weeks among the extremely premature infants (less than 26 weeks) and among the total population, respectively. Correlations between the individual criteria and C-GLMP ranged from 0.72 to 0.82. Interrater reliability of NBS, as determined by correlation between raters who rated the same subgroup of infants, ws 0.95. For infants less than 26 weeks of gestational age, the greatest validity (97% within 2 weeks of C-GLMP) was seen when the examination was performed before 12 hours of postnatal age. For infants at least 26 weeks of gestational age, percentages of agreement with C-GLMP remained constant, averaging 92% for all postnatal age categories up to 96 hours. The NBS is a valid and accurate gestational assessment tool for extremely premature infants and remains valid for the entire newborn infant population. PMID:1880657

  6. Comparative study of visual functions in premature pre-school children with and without retinopathy of prematurity

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    Lígia Beatriz Bonotto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Observe whether there are differences in visual functions among premature infants with treated retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in relation to preterm infants with ROP and spontaneous regression; and among these two groups with ROP and the control group without ROP. Methods: Crosssectional observational no blind study. Premature infants were born between 06/199206/2006 and were exam between 06/200912/2010; registered in data of Hospital de Olhos Sandalla Amin Ghanem; with gestational age less than or equal to 32 weeks and 1,599 g born weigh; without ROP and ROP stages II or III, in one of the eyes, with spontaneous regression or with treatment; at least three visits during the selection period at maximum 6 months in the first exam and minimum 4 years of age in reassessment (chronological age were include. Premature that did not respond or were not located for reassessment and those that did not have conditions to do the exams were exclude. Study's groups: G1 ROP posttreatment; G2ROP postspontaneous regression; G3 without ROP (control. Visual function evaluated with visual acuity (VA, contrast sensitivity test (CST, color test (CT, eye movement, stereopsis. Results: Overall, there were 24 premature infants and 48 eyes. Normal VA: 64.28% (G1, 87.5% (G2 and 100% (G3; Normal CST: 66.67% (G1, 100% (G2 and 55.56% (G3; Normal Ishihara CT: 100% (G1 and G2 and 86% (G3; Normal Farnsworth CT: 20% (G1, 75% (G2 and 50% (G3. Normal stereoacuity: 0.00% (G1; 25% (G2 and 3.5% (G3. Strabismus: 37% (G2, 0.00% (G1 and G3. The prevalent tendency for lower response in CST and CT between the premature children in group G3 and Farnsworth color test in G1 is a curious result of this work and more study is necessary about these visual functions in older premature children. Conclusion: The visual functions showed no statistically significant difference among the groups studied.

  7. Current therapies for premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Serap; Kadowitz, Philip J; Sikka, Suresh C

    2016-07-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) subjectively affects 20-30% of men globally. Until recently, understanding of PE was hampered by the absence of a widely accepted definition, paucity of evidence-based clinical studies, and the absence of an appropriate animal model. Here, we elaborate on the current definition of PE, its pathogenesis, currently available therapies, and future treatment prospects. Most treatments for PE are 'off-label' and include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), topical anesthetics, tramadol, and phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors. Such knowledge of the benefit and limitations of each treatment will help to direct future drug design and formulations.

  8. Current therapies for premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Serap; Kadowitz, Philip J; Sikka, Suresh C

    2016-07-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) subjectively affects 20-30% of men globally. Until recently, understanding of PE was hampered by the absence of a widely accepted definition, paucity of evidence-based clinical studies, and the absence of an appropriate animal model. Here, we elaborate on the current definition of PE, its pathogenesis, currently available therapies, and future treatment prospects. Most treatments for PE are 'off-label' and include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), topical anesthetics, tramadol, and phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors. Such knowledge of the benefit and limitations of each treatment will help to direct future drug design and formulations. PMID:27179987

  9. PERINATAL AND MATERNAL OUTCOME IN PREMATURE RUPTURE OF MEMBRANES

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    Mercy Rodrigo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The objectives of this study are 1 To find out the incidence of premature rupture of membranes, 2 To evaluate the aetiology of premature rupture of membranes, 3 To assess foetal and maternal outcome in premature rupture of membranes. MATERIAL AND METHODS This prospective case control study was conducted in Govt. RSRM Lying In Hospital, Chennai, over a period of 6 months and 100 cases of spontaneous rupture of membranes attending the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology were studied. Maternal and neonatal outcome were compared with controls. RESULTS Incidence of PROM was 9.06%. Most of them belonged to low socioeconomic class and in the age group 20-29 years, commonly seen primi gravida and in unbooked cases. Aetiological analysis revealed infection in 15% of cases, which is evident by positive amniotic fluid culture, h/o recent coitus in 20%, mal-presentation in 7%. Cause is unknown in most of the cases. The caesarean section rate is 24% when compared to 12% in control group. The PROM group had higher morbidities like postpartum haemorrhage, postpartum fever, wound infection, neonatal sepsis. CONCLUSION This study showed significantly increased morbidity for both mother and baby. PROM causes major increase in the incidence of prematurity, hence careful screening of high risk factors and treatment of infection promptly is needed to decrease the perinatal morbidity and mortality.

  10. Hormonal response of the premature primate to operative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A F; Lally, K P; Chwals, W J; McCurnin, D C; Gerstmann, D R; Shade, R A; deLemos, R A

    1993-06-01

    There are few data on the hormonal response to operation in the premature infant. Studies examining the response of newborn human infants have been performed on patients beyond the first few days of life, where some adaptation to postnatal life has occurred. This study evaluated the response of the newly born premature primate to surgical stress. Premature baboons (75% gestation) were intubated, mechanically ventilated and underwent thoracotomy at 2 hours of life with exposure of the ductus arteriosus (PDA). In group 1, formalin was infiltrated to keep the ductus patent. In group 2, the PDA was ligated. Controls had no operation. Blood was drawn at 0, 6, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours of age. Echocardiograms were performed to confirm patency or closure of the ductus and to monitor cardiac function. Epinephrine, norepinephrine, renin, and cortisol levels were measured. Cortisol levels rose in all groups. Operation stimulated a marked increase in catecholamine and renin levels in both operative groups, which was more marked in the group with PDA ligation at 24 hours. These data reflect expected pathophysiology since early PDA ligation exerts additional hemodynamic demand on the heart. In conclusion, the premature primate is able to mount a significant and severity-dependent endocrine response to stress. PMID:8331518

  11. Distribution of Retinopathy of Prematurity and Its Risk Factors

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    Pedram Niknafs

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:This study was conducted to determine the distribution and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in premature infants referred to neonates intensive care unit (NICU of central hospital of Kerman University of Medical Sciences, to obtain primary information on ROP in Kerman, Iran.Methods: In a cross sectional prospective study, data of premature infants screened for ROP including possible risk factors and eye examination results were recorded during 2006-2008 and analyzed by using logistic regression and chi-square tests.Findings: Out of 83 premature infants, 24 (29% had different stages of ROP (CI 95%: 0.19-0.39. The infants' mean gestational age (GA and mean birth weight (BW in ROP group were 30.17±1.8 weeks and 1247.92±237.1 grams (g, respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed a significant relation between GA and BW with ROP (P<0.001. Indication for treatment was set in 6 (25% infants.Conclusion: The results of this study illustrate a relatively high prevalence of ROP in this series. GA and BW were independent ROP determinants.

  12. Factors influencing the level of physical development of premature newborns

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    Vostrikova G.V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to assess the factors having impact on physical development of prematurely born children at birth. Materials and Methods. 1099 case histories of newborns, the exchanged cards of pregnant women, birth case histories of women who gave birth in gestational age from 22 to 37 weeks. Results. It has been shown that there are significant indices effecting premature birth affect: chronic inflammatory diseases of the oropharynx, gastrointestinal tract, diabetes, thyroid disease, pathology of vision, infectious diseases, skin diseases; sexually transmitted infections, chronic pelvic inflammatory disease, cervical erosion, genital infantilism; preeclampsia of the first and second half of pregnancy, chronic fetoplacental insufficiency, anemia, inflammatory diseases during pregnancy, acute respiratory viral infections, obesity, gestational diabetes and pyelonephritis; prenatal pouring out of amniotic fluid, umbilical cord pathology, cho-rioamnionitis. Defined correlation between weight and height indicators of premature infants at birth and groups of medicines that women have during their pregnancy. Conclusions. Identification of factors affecting the level of physical development of premature children is important in determination of women with a higher probability of birth of children with intrauterine development and for assessing the further development of these children.

  13. Optimal oxygen saturation in premature infants

    OpenAIRE

    Meayoung Chang

    2011-01-01

    There is a delicate balance between too little and too much supplemental oxygen exposure in premature infants. Since underuse and overuse of supplemental oxygen can harm premature infants, oxygen saturation levels must be monitored and kept at less than 95% to prevent reactive oxygen species-related diseases, such as retinopathy of prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At the same time, desaturation below 80 to 85% must be avoided to prevent adverse consequences, such as cerebra...

  14. xidative Stress and Retinopathy of Prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    Ümeyye Taka Aydın; Hatip Aydın; Osman Çekiç

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the etiology of retinopathy of prematurity. Insufficient antioxidant system and increased oxidative stress in premature infants lead to the development of the disease. Understanding the mechanism of oxidative stress and antioxidant system and the related signaling pathways contribute to the development of novel options for diagnosis and treatment of retinopathy of prematurity. The current review aimed to evaluate the relationship between ox...

  15. Advances in understanding and treating premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitz, Theodore R; Serefoglu, Ege Can

    2015-11-01

    Over the past several years, many advances have been made in our understanding of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management of premature ejaculation. Newly developed definitions of premature ejaculation are now available, and our perception of the classification, prevalence, aetiological factors, and treatment options for premature ejaculation have evolved. Despite ongoing research, there remains much to be learned about all aspects of this common sexual disorder, in particular effective clinical diagnosis and treatment options. PMID:26502991

  16. Maintaining Optimal Oxygen Saturation in Premature Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Yoke Yen; Tay, Yih Yann; Shah, Varsha Atul; Chang, Pisun; Loh, Khuan Tai

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Advances in technology have resulted in increasing survival rates for premature infants. Oxygen therapy is commonly used in neonatal units as part of respiratory support. The number of premature infants in our institution surviving with severe (stage ≥3) retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) prompted a review of oxygen therapy as a contributing factor. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of oxygen may cause irreversible damage to the eyes of very-low-birth-weight preterm infant...

  17. Premature infants' health at multiple induced pregnancy.

    OpenAIRE

    Chernenkov Yu.V.; Nechaev V.N.; Stasova Yu.V.; Tereshenko V.A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to define the risk factors adversely influencing prenatal development at premature birth at use of methods of assisted reproductive technology (ART); to estimate premature' infants health from multiple induced pregnancy according to Perinatal Center of Saratov for last 3 years. Material and Methods. Under supervision there were 139 pregnant women with application ART. 202 children (51 twins were born and 5 triplet babies), from them 83 premature infants born from multiple induced p...

  18. Long Latency Auditory Evoked Potential in Term and Premature Infants

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    Didoné, Dayane Domeneghini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The research in long latency auditory evokes potentials (LLAEP in newborns is recent because of the cortical structure maturation, but studies note that these potentials may be evidenced at this age and could be considered as indicators of cognitive development. Purpose To research the exogenous potentials in term and premature infants during their first month of life. Materials and Methods The sample consisted of 25 newborns, 15 term and 10 premature infants. The infants with gestational age under 37 weeks were considered premature. To evaluate the cortical potentials, the infants remained in natural sleep. The LLAEPs were researched binaurally, through insertion earphones, with frequent /ba/ and rare /ga/ speech stimuli in the intensity of 80 dB HL (decibel hearing level. The frequent stimuli presented a total of 80% of the presentations, and the rare, 20%. The data were statistically analyzed. Results The average gestational age of the term infants was 38.9 weeks (± 1.3 and for the premature group, 33.9 weeks (± 1.6. It was possible to observe only the potentials P1 and N1 in both groups, but there was no statistically significant difference for the latencies of the components P1 and N1 (p > 0.05 between the groups. Conclusion It was possible to observe the exogenous components P1 and N1 of the cortical potentials in both term and preterm newborns of no more than 1 month of age. However, there was no difference between the groups.

  19. Adolescent Premature Ovarian Insufficiency Following Human Papillomavirus Vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Little, Deirdre Therese; Ward, Harvey Rodrick Grenville

    2014-01-01

    Three young women who developed premature ovarian insufficiency following quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination presented to a general practitioner in rural New South Wales, Australia. The unrelated girls were aged 16, 16, and 18 years at diagnosis. Each had received HPV vaccinations prior to the onset of ovarian decline. Vaccinations had been administered in different regions of the state of New South Wales and the 3 girls lived in different towns in that state. Each had been p...

  20. Premature menopause and severity of coronary artery disease

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    Hamidreza Nasri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Relationship between premature menopause and presence, severity and life-threatening events of coro-nary artery disease (CAD has been suggested in recent observations. The present study tried to assess relationship be-tween age of menopause and severity of CAD in a sample of women with suspected CAD. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we included 189 consecutive women with suspected CAD that were candidate for coronary angiography and admitted to the Shafa hospital in Kerman city. Our final population for analysis included women who underwent natural menopause (n = 148 or premature menopause (n = 41. CAD severity was classified according to the number of coronary artery stenosis ≥ 50% in coronary angiography. Results: Among 189 study patients with suspected CAD, 22.0% of those with early menopause and 23.6% of those with normal menopause suffered three coronary vessels involvement, while normal angiography features was shown in 39.0%o and 40.5%>, respectively. Regarding severity of CAD and left main lesions, no significant differences were found between the patients with and without premature menopause. According to the multivariable logistic regression model and with the presence of other patients′ variables as cofounders, age of menopause could not predict the presence and severity of CAD in patients with suspected CAD. However, patients′ age (OR: 1.11, p < 0.001 and family history of CAD (OR: 2.05, p = 0.04 were main predictors of the severity of CAD in these patients. Conclusions: Premature menopause does not predict occurrence or severity of CAD in women with suspected CAD, but women age and their family history of CAD are main predictors of the severity of CAD.

  1. Study on the relationship between retinopathy of prematurity and maternal age,smoking during pregnancy,drugs and pregnancy complications%早产儿视网膜病变与孕妇年龄、孕期吸烟、药物、妊娠并发症的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊永强; 刘生荣; 陈立宇; 吕月娥; 陈美玲; 周俊楠

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between the occurrence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and hazard factorsduring pregnancy including maternal age, smoking during pregnancy, drugs and pregnancy complications. Methods: 829 premature infants visiting the hospital from January 2008 to April 2010 received fundus examination regularly. International staging system of ROP was used for diagnosis and staging of ROP. The related clinical data of pregnant women were collected. Results: Among 829 premature infants, 97 infants were diagnosed as ROP, the incidence was 11.7%. There was no significant difference in maternal age and drug use during pregnancy, there was significant difference in smoking during pregnancy and pregnancy complicationa, multivariate logistic analysis showed that there was a significant correlation between smoking, pregnancy complications and the occurrence of ROP. Conclusion: Smoking and pregnancy complications are important risk factors of ROP during pregnancy.%目的:探讨早产儿视网膜病变(ROP)的发生与孕妇年龄、孕期吸烟、药物、妊娠并发症等孕期危害因素的关系.方法:对2008年1月~2010年4月在厦门市妇幼保健院收治的829例早产儿定期进行眼底检查,根据ROP国际分期标准进行ROP的诊断和分期,并收集孕妇孕期相关临床资料.结果,829例早产儿中ROP的患儿为97例,患病率为11.70%.孕妇年龄、孕期服用药物无明显差异,而孕期吸烟和妊娠期并发症差异有统计学意义,经进一步多因素Logistic回归分析显示吸烟、妊娠并发症与ROP发生有显著相关性.结论:吸烟和妊娠并发症是孕期导致ROP发病的高危因素.

  2. xidative Stress and Retinopathy of Prematurity

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    Ümeyye Taka Aydın

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays an important role in the etiology of retinopathy of prematurity. Insufficient antioxidant system and increased oxidative stress in premature infants lead to the development of the disease. Understanding the mechanism of oxidative stress and antioxidant system and the related signaling pathways contribute to the development of novel options for diagnosis and treatment of retinopathy of prematurity. The current review aimed to evaluate the relationship between oxidative stress and retinopathy of prematurity and to create a current notion regarding this issue. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 223-7

  3. The relation between oxygen saturation level and retionopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Gharavi Fard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oxygen therapy used for preterm infant disease might be associated with oxygen toxicity or oxidative stress. The exact oxygen concentration to control and maintain the arterial oxygen saturation balance is not certainly clear. We aimed to compare the efficacy of higher or lower oxygen saturations on the development of severe retinopathy of prematurity which is a major cause of blindness in preterm neonates. Methods: PubMed was searched for obtaining the relevant articles. A total of seven articles were included after studying the titles, abstracts, and the full text of retrieved articles at initial search. Inclusion criteria were all the English language human clinical randomized controlled trials with no time limitation, which studied the efficacy of low versus high oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry in preterm infants.Result: It can be suggested that lower limits of oxygen saturations have higher efficacy at postmesetural age of ≤28 weeks in preterm neonates. This relation has been demonstrated in five large clinical trials including three Boost trials, COT, and Support.Discussion: Applying higher concentrations of oxygen supplementations at mesentural age ≥32 weeks reduced the development of retinopathy of prematurity. Lower concentrations of oxygen saturation decreased the incidence and the development of retinopathy of prematurity in preterm neonates while applied soon after the birth.Conclusions: Targeting levels of oxygen saturation in the low or high range should be performed cautiously with attention to the postmesentural age in preterm infants at the time of starting the procedures.

  4. Patients with premature cardiovascular disease and a positive family history for cardiovascular disease are prone to recurrent events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Mulders; Z. Meyer; C. van der Donk; A.A. Kroon; I. Ferreira; C.D.A. Stehouwer; S.J. Pinto-Sietsma

    2011-01-01

    Background: Premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) is treated in the same way as CVD of advanced age. However, in patients with premature CVD and a family history of CVD, different -possibly genetic-mechanisms may underlie this disease, which current medical treatment is not targeted to. This sugges

  5. Serbia within the European context: An analysis of premature mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinkovic Jelena

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on the global predictions majority of deaths will be collectively caused by cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and traffic accidents over the coming 25 years. In planning future national health policy actions, inter – regional assessments play an important role. The purpose of the study was to analyze similarities and differences in premature mortality between Serbia, EURO A, EURO B, and EURO C regions in 2000. Methods Mortality and premature mortality patterns were analysed according to cause of death, by gender and seven age intervals. The study results are presented in relative (% and absolute terms (age-specific and age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population, and age-standardized rates of years of life lost – YLL per 1,000. Direct standardization of rates was undertaken using the standard population of Europe. The inter-regional comparison was based on a calculation of differences in YLL structures and with a ratio of age-standardized YLL rates per 1,000. A multivariate generalized linear model was used to explore mortality of Serbia and Europe sub-regions with ln age-specific death rates. The dissimilarity was achieved with a p ≤ 0.05. Results According to the mortality pattern, Serbia was similar to EURO B, but with a lower average YLL per death case. YLL patterns indicated similarities between Serbia and EURO A, while SRR YLL had similarities between Serbia and EURO B. Compared to all Europe sub-regions, Serbia had a major excess of premature mortality in neoplasms and diabetes mellitus. Serbia had lost more years of life than EURO A due to cardiovascular, genitourinary diseases, and intentional injuries. Yet, Serbia was not as burdened with communicable diseases and injuries as were EURO B and EURO C. Conclusion With a premature mortality pattern, Serbia is placed in the middle position of the Europe triangle. The main excess of YLL in Serbia was due to cardiovascular, malignant diseases, and

  6. Sexual function of premature ejaculation patients assayed with Chinese Index of Premature Ejaculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-MingYuan; Zhong-ChengXin; HuiJiang; Yan-JieGuo; Wu-JiangLiu; LongTian; Ji-ChuanZhu

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To assess the psychometric properties of the Chinese Index of Premature Ejaculation (CIPE).Methods: The sexual function of 167 patients with and 114 normal controls without premature ejaculation (PE) were evaluated with CIPE. All subjects were married and had regular sexual activity. The CIPE has 10 questions, focusing on libido, erectile function, ejaculatory latency, sexual satisfaction and difficulty in delaying ejaculation, self-confidence and depression. Each question was responded to on a 5 point Likert-type scale. The individual question score and the total scale score were analyzed between the two groups. Results: There were no significant differences between the age, duration of marriage and educational level (P>0.05) of patients with and without PE and normal controls. The mean latency of patients with PE and normal controls were 1.6±1.2 and 10.2±9.5 minutes,respectively. Significant differences between patients with (26.7±4.6) PE and normal controls (41.9±4.0) were observed on the total score of CIPE (P15 point) 19.8%, moderate (10~14 point) 62.8% and severe (<9point) 16.7%. Conclusion:The CIPE-5 is a useful method for the evaluation of sexual function of patients with PE and can be used as a clinical endpoint for clinical trials studying the efficacy of pharmacological intervention.

  7. Evolución del riesgo de mortalidad fetal tardía, prematuridad y bajo peso al nacer, asociado a la edad materna avanzada, en España (1996-2005 Trends in the risk of late fetal mortality, prematurity and low birth weight associated with advanced maternal age in Spain (1996-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Luque Fernández

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Describir la evolución de la fecundidad, la mortalidad fetal tardía, la prematuridad y el bajo peso al nacer, así como su asociación con la edad materna avanzada, en España, durante el período 1996-2005. Métodos: Estudio ecológico. La prematuridad y el bajo peso en función de la edad materna se analizan mediante tablas de contingencia. La evolución de las tasas de mortalidad fetal tardía se analiza mediante una estandarización directa. El riesgo de mortalidad fetal tardía, ajustado por la edad materna y la prematuridad, se analiza mediante una regresión de Poisson. Resultados: Las tasas de mortalidad fetal tardía y de fecundidad han aumentado en las mujeres de más de 35 años de edad, sobre todo en las mayores de 45 años. El riesgo de mortalidad fetal tardía es 2,7 veces superior para las mujeres a partir de los 45 años (razón de tasas: 2,7; intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95%]: 1,8-3,0, con una fracción etiológica de la exposición del 69% (IC95%: 55,2-78,6. La prevalencia de prematuridad y de bajo peso para este mismo grupo es 3 veces superior, con una razón de prevalencias de prematuridad de 2,9 (IC95%: 2,7-3,1 y de bajo peso de 3,1 (IC95%: 2,9-3,3. Conclusiones: El elevado riesgo de las mujeres de 45 o más años de edad se explica por el aumento de la proporción de embarazos en este grupo de edad. Se requieren nuevos estudios, en el ámbito de la epidemiología perinatal, que analicen el impacto de las técnicas de reproducción asistida en los embarazos a edades avanzadas, así como la dinamización de la puesta en marcha del registro nacional de técnicas de reproducción asistida.Objectives: To describe trends in fertility, fetal death rate, prematurity and low birth weight, as well as their association with advanced maternal age, in Spain from 1996 to 2005. Methods: We performed an ecological study. The association between low birth weight and prematurity with maternal age was analyzed through

  8. Salivary FOXP2 expression and oral feeding success in premature infants

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmerman, Emily; Maki, Monika; Maron, Jill

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study is to determine whether salivary FOXP2 gene expression levels at the initiation of oral feeding attempts are predictive of oral feeding success in the premature newborn. In this prospective study, saliva samples from 21 premature infants (13 males; birth gestational age [GA]: 30–34 wk) were collected around the initiation of oral feeding trials. Total RNA was extracted and underwent reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction amplification for FOXP2...

  9. Understanding the Short- and Long-Term Respiratory Outcomes of Prematurity and Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Jessica Y; Keller, Roberta L; Aschner, Judy L.; Hartert, Tina V; Moore, Paul E

    2015-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic respiratory disease associated with premature birth that primarily affects infants born at less than 28 weeks’ gestational age. BPD is the most common serious complication experienced by premature infants, with more than 8,000 newly diagnosed infants annually in the United States alone. In light of the increasing numbers of preterm survivors with BPD, improving the current state of knowledge of long-term respiratory morbidity for infants with BPD ...

  10. Type 1 Retinopathy of Prematurity and Its Laser Treatment of Large Preterm Infants in East China

    OpenAIRE

    Shan, Haidong; Ni, Yinqing; Xue, Kang; Yu, Jia; Huang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe Type 1 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and its laser treatment outcomes in premature infants with birth weight > 1250 g in Eastern China. Methods A retrospective review of 3175 ROP records was conducted at Shanghai Eye & ENT Hospital of Fudan University. The records were collected at the ROP clinic from 2006 to 2014, including their demographic and medical information such as gestational age, birth weight, supplemental oxygen therapy, systemic complications, ROP stage, lo...

  11. Macular Findings Obtained by Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Retinopathy of Prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the macular findings obtained with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT) in infants with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Materials and Methods. The macular SD OCT images of 190 premature infants were analyzed. Data regarding central foveal thickness (CFT), cystoid macular edema (CME), and cyst grading were compared. The relationships of CFT with gestational age and birth weight were investigated. Results. The results were obtained from 358 eyes of 179 inf...

  12. Retinopathy of Prematurity: An Evaluation in the Keelung Area of Taiwan over A 10- Year Period.

    OpenAIRE

    Ko-Jen Yang; Chen-Hsin Tsai; Chi-Chun Lai; Chia-Shun Lu; Tun-Lu Chen

    2005-01-01

    Background: We report on the experience of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) at ChangGang Memorial Hospital (CGMH), Keelung, Taiwan over a 10-year period.Methods: A retrospective review was made of data of all premature infants with a diagnosisof ROP at Keelung CGMH between 1994 and 2003. Data on certaincharacteristics including gender, gestational age (GA), birth body weight(BBW), stage of ROP, and treatment modalities were collected and analyzed.Results: Among the 458 infants screened for RO...

  13. Effect of two polyethylene covers in prevention of hypothermia among premature neonates

    OpenAIRE

    Talakoub, Sedigheh; Shahbazifard, Zahra; Armanian, Amir Mohamad; Ghazavi, Zohreh

    2015-01-01

    Background: After the umbilical cord is cut, premature neonates face numerous problems including hypothermia. With regard to serious complications of hypothermia and incapability of conventional methods in preservation of neonates’ temperature after admission, the researcher decided to conduct a study on the effects of two polyethylene covers in prevention of hypothermia among premature neonates. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on 96 neonates aged 28–32 weeks that ran...

  14. Can prematurity risk in twin pregnancies after in vitro fertilization be predicted? A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barad David

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assisted reproduction (ART contributes to world-wide increases of twin pregnancies, in turn raising prematurity risks. Whether characteristics of ART cycles, resulting in twin gestations, can predict prematurity risks was the subject of this study. Methods One-hundred-and-six women, ages 20 to 39 years, with consecutive dichorionic-diamniotic (DC/DA twin gestations were retrospectively investigated. All pregnancies investigated followed fresh ART cycles, with use of autologous gamets, and were delivered at a university-based high-risk, maternal-fetal medicine unit. Only premature deliveries (i.e., <37.0 weeks gestational age, with viable neonate(s of ≥ 500 grams, were considered for analysis. Results After 1.8 +/- 1.2 ART cycles, 11.0 +/- 5.4 oocytes were retrieved and 2.4 +/- 0.9 embryos transferred in 106 women aged 31.6 +/- 4.2 years. Indications for ART treatment were male factor in 51.9%, female infertility in 27.4% and combined infertility in 20.8%. Though maternal age significantly influenced prematurity risk (p < 0.05, paternal age, maternal body mass index, indications for fertility treatment, number of previous ART attempts, oocytes retrieved or embryos transferred, as well as stimulation protocols and previous ART pregnancies, were not associated with gestational duration in twin pregnancies. Summary Except for female age, baseline and ART cycle characteristics do not allow for prediction of prematurity risk in dichorionic twin gestations after assisted reproduction.

  15. 28 CFR 51.22 - Premature submissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Premature submissions. 51.22 Section 51.22 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF... § 51.22 Premature submissions. The Attorney General will not consider on the merits: (a) Any...

  16. 7 CFR 29.2290 - Premature primings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Premature primings. 29.2290 Section 29.2290 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... 21) § 29.2290 Premature primings. Ground leaves harvested before reaching complete growth...

  17. Feeding premature infants after hospital discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Yuen, Doris E

    1998-01-01

    Supplying adequate nutrition to premature infants is an ongoing challenge. Common medical conditions that premature infants develop and therapies given to them can increase their nutritional requirements or interfere with the delivery of nutrients. This article outlines factors to consider when prescribing appropriate diet and nutritional supplements at hospital discharge.

  18. Retinoblastoma in patients with regressed retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Vasu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is a well-known clinical entity in premature babies. We report two patients (1 and 2 with regressed ROP who later presented with retinoblastoma (RB. To the best of our knowledge, there is only one such report in the literature so far. Two unrelated patients 1 and 2, born at 32 weeks gestation were screened for ROP at 34 weeks gestation. This showed Zone II Stage II ROP which regressed by 38 weeks of gestation on follow-up. Both patients were lost to follow-up by 40 weeks of gestation. They presented at four years of age with white reflex in the eye. Patient 1 was found to have unilateral and patient 2 bilateral RB. The occurrence of RB in these patients with regressed ROP is probably coincidental.

  19. Prostaglandin E2 and patent ductus arteriosus in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochammading Mochammading

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA is a congenital heart disease most commonly occurring in premature infants. Spontaneous ductus arteriosus (DA closure in premature infants has been suggested to be associated with duct lumen maturity and the DA sensitivity to prostaglandin E2 (PGE2.Objective To assess for a possible correlation between serum PGE2 levels and PDA size in premature infants.Methods This observational study using repeated measurements on premature infants with PDA detected at days 2-3 of life was undertaken in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital and Fatmawati Hospital, Jakarta, from April to May 2014. The PDA was diagnosed using 2-D echocardiography and PGE2 levels were measured by immunoassay. Pearson’s correlation test was used to evaluate a possible correlation between PGE2 level and DA diameter.Results Thirty-three premature infants of median gestational age 31 (range 28-32 weeks and median birth weight 1,360 (range 1,000-1,500 grams were enrolled. Almost two-thirds of the subjects were male. Almost all (30/33 subjects had spontaneous DA closure before the age of 10 days. Subjects’ mean DA diameter was 2.9 (SD 0.5 mm with maximum flow velocity of 0.2 (SD 0.06 cm/sec, and left atrial-to-aortic root ratio (LA/Ao of 1.5 (SD 0.2. Their mean PGE2 levels at the ages of 2-3, 5-7, and after 10 days were 5,238.6 (SD 1,225.2, 4,178.2 (SD 1,534.5, and 915.2 (SD 151.6 pg/mL, respectively. The PGE2 level at days 2-3 was significantly correlated with DA diameter (r = 0.667; P < 0.001, but not at days 5-7 (r = 0.292; P = 0.105 or at day 10 (r = 0.041; P = 0.941.Conclusion There is a strong, positive correlation between the PGE2 level and DA diameter in preterm infants at 2-3 days of age. However, there is no significant correlation between PGE2 level and persistence of PDA.

  20. Premature Ventricular Complexes and Premature Ventricular Complex Induced Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latchamsetty, Rakesh; Bogun, Frank

    2015-09-01

    Presentation, prognosis, and management of premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) vary significantly among patients and depend on PVC characteristics as well as patient comorbidities. Presentation can range from incidental discovery in an asymptomatic patient to debilitating heart failure. Prognosis depends on, among other factors, the presence or absence of structural heart disease, PVC burden and other factors detailed in this review. Our understanding of the clinical significance of frequent PVCs, particularly as it relates to development of cardiomyopathy, has advanced greatly in the past decade. In this article, we explore the mechanisms governing PVC initiation and discuss prevalence and frequency of PVCs in the general population. We also explore prognostic implications based on PVC frequency as well as the presence or absence of underlying heart disease. We then take a focused look at PVC-induced cardiomyopathy and identify predictors for developing cardiomyopathy. Finally, we discuss clinical evaluation and management of patients presenting with frequent PVCs. Management can include clinical observation, addressing reversible causes, lifestyle modification, pharmacotherapy, or catheter ablation.

  1. Retinopathy of prematurity in port harcourt, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adio, Adedayo O; Ugwu, Rosemary O; Nwokocha, Chidi G; Eneh, Augusta U

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. With many preterm babies now surviving as a result of improvement in neonatal care in Nigeria, the incidence of visual impairment/blindness as a result of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) may rise. We describe our findings after screening starts for the first time in a 15-year-old special care baby unit so as to establish the incidence and risk factors for developing ROP. Methods. A prospective study carried out at the Special Care Baby Unit (SCBU) and Pediatric Outpatient Clinics of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital between January 1 and October 31, 2012. Fifty-three preterm babies (of 550 neonates admitted within the study period) delivered before 32 completed weeks and weighing less than 1500 g were included in the study following informed consent and the main outcome measure was the development of any stage of ROP. Results. Mean gestational age at birth was 28.98 ± 1.38 weeks. Mean birth weight was 1411 ± 128 g. Out of 550 babies admitted at SCBU, 87 of 100 preterms survived with 53 included in study. Twenty-five (47.2%) had different degrees of ROP with prevalence found to be 47.2%. Prevalence was higher (75%) in babies weighing cost effective to acquire treatment facilities at the moment (the only child with treatable disease died), facilities for screening preterm infants displaying high risk features may be essential as smaller babies are saved. PMID:24649375

  2. Premature birth: An Enigma for the Society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Infants born preterm are at greater risk than infants born at term for mortality and a variety of health and developmental problems. Complications include acute respiratory, gastrointestinal, immunologic, central nervous system, hearing, and vision problems, as well as longer-term motor, cognitive, visual, hearing, behavioral, social-emotional, health, and growth problems. The birth of a preterm infant can also bring considerable emotional and economic costs to families and have implications for public-sector services, such as health insurance, educational, and other social support systems. The greatest risk of mortality and morbidity is for those infants born at the earliest gestational ages. However, those infants born nearer to term represent the greatest number of infants born preterm and also experience more complications than infants born at term. Preterm birth is a complex cluster of problems with a set of overlapping factors of influence. Its causes may include individual-level behavioral and psychosocial factors, neighborhood characteristics, environmental exposures, medical conditions, infertility treatments, biological factors and genetics. Many of these factors occur in combination, particularly in those who are socioeconomically disadvantaged or who are members of racial and ethnic minority groups. The empirical investigation was carried out to draw correlation between preterm birth and eventuality. This paper deals with various issues related to the premature deliveries from socio-biological perspectives.

  3. Determinants and Predictors of School Adaptation and Academic Achievement in Prematurely Born Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmar, Magda; Varga, Magdolna Estefan

    The study followed up 30 premature Hungarian infants of low birthweight (less than 2500 grams) but no other major perinatal complications. Subjects were tested at age 6 on the Budapest-Binet IQ test, the Goodenough's "Draw a Person" test, the Bender Gestalt test, and a school entry test battery. Test performances at age 6 found that the…

  4. The impact of pharmaceutical innovation on premature cancer mortality in Switzerland, 1995-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Frank R

    2016-09-01

    The premature cancer mortality rate has been declining in Switzerland, but there has been considerable variation in the rate of decline across cancer sites (e.g., breast or digestive organs). I analyze the effect that pharmaceutical innovation had on premature cancer mortality in Switzerland during the period 1995-2012 by investigating whether the cancer sites that experienced more pharmaceutical innovation had larger declines in premature mortality, controlling for the number of people diagnosed and mean age at diagnosis. Premature cancer mortality before ages 75 and 65 is significantly inversely related to the cumulative number of drugs registered 5, 10, and 15 years earlier. The number of drugs registered during 1980-1997 explains 63 % of the variation across cancer sites in the 1995-2012 log change in the premature (before age 75) mortality rate. Controlling for the cumulative number of drugs, the cumulative number of chemical subgroups does not have a statistically significant effect on premature mortality. This suggests that drugs (chemical substances) within the same class (chemical subgroup) are not "therapeutically equivalent". Over 17,000 life-years before age 75 were gained in 2012 due to drugs registered during 1990-2007. The number of life-years before age 75 gained in 2012 from drugs registered during two earlier periods (1985-2002 and 1980-1997) were more than twice as great. Since mean utilization of new drugs is much lower than mean utilization of older drugs, more recent drug registrations may have a smaller effect on premature mortality than earlier drug registrations even if the average quality of newer drugs is higher. Estimates of the cost per life-year gained before ages 75 and 65 in 2012 from drugs registered during 1990-2007 are $21,228 and $28,673, respectively. These figures are below even the lowest estimates from the value-of-life literature of the value of a quality-adjusted life-year. The estimates indicate that the cost per life

  5. Retinopathy of Prematurity in Infants with Late Retinal Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zeinab Mousavi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To report the incidence, severity and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in premature infants with late ROP examination in Farabi Eye Hospital. METHODS: In a retrospective study from January 2001 to July 2007, hospital records of premature infants who were examined later than 9 weeks after birth were reviewed to determine the incidence, severity and possible risk factors of ROP including gender, singleton or multiple gestations, gestational age (GA, birth weight (BW, oxygen therapy, blood transfusion, phototherapy, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, mechanical ventilation, intraventricular hemorrhage and sepsis as well as age at initial examination. RESULTS: Out of a total of 797 infants referred for ROP screening during the study period, 216 (27.1% had late examinations at a mean age of 141.7±150.4 (range 64-1,460 days. Of these, 87 (40.3% had different stages of ROP, 65 (30.1% had stage 4 or 5 disease including 34 (16.2% infants with stage 5 ROP in both eyes which was untreatable. Lower GA (P < 0.001, RDS (P=0.041 and blood transfusion (P=0.009 were associated with the development of ROP. CONCLUSION: The overall prevalence of ROP and the incidence

  6. The epidemiology of premature ejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitz, Theodore Robert

    2016-01-01

    Vast advances have occurred over the past decade with regards to understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology and management of premature ejaculation (PE); however, we still have much to learn about this common sexual problem. As a standardized evidence-based definition of PE has only recently been established, the reported prevalence rates of PE prior to this definition have been difficult to interpret. As a result, a large range of conflicting prevalence rates have been reported. In addition to the lack of a standardized definition and operational criteria, the method of recruitment for study participation and method of data collection have obviously contributed to the broad range of reported prevalence rates. The new criteria and classification of PE will allow for continued research into the diverse phenomenology, etiology and pathogenesis of the disease to be conducted. While the absolute pathophysiology and true prevalence of PE remains unclear, developing a better understanding of the true prevalence of the disease will allow for the completion of more accurate analysis and treatment of the disease.

  7. Psychosexual therapy for premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althof, Stanley E

    2016-08-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a male sexual dysfunction that creates considerable anguish for the man, his partner and their relationship. PE is not one disorder but includes the four subtypes (lifelong, acquired, natural and subjective) each with unique psychological concerns and issues. Psychological treatment for men and couples with PE addresses sexual skills/techniques but also focuses on issues of self-esteem, performance anxiety and interpersonal conflict. The outcome studies for psychotherapy alone are difficult to interpret and compare because of poor methodological design (lack of control groups, small sample size, poor outcome measures and lack of follow-up). However, the few studies that surmount these methodological hurdles suggest that psychological intervention offers men and couples a promising treatment option. Combination pharmaco- and psychotherapy is the most promising intervention for lifelong and acquired PE and offers superior efficacy to drug alone. This is because men and couples learn sexual skills, address the intrapsychic, interpersonal and cognitive issues that precipitate and maintain the dysfunction. PMID:27652220

  8. The epidemiology of premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitz, Theodore Robert; Serefoglu, Ege Can

    2016-08-01

    Vast advances have occurred over the past decade with regards to understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology and management of premature ejaculation (PE); however, we still have much to learn about this common sexual problem. As a standardized evidence-based definition of PE has only recently been established, the reported prevalence rates of PE prior to this definition have been difficult to interpret. As a result, a large range of conflicting prevalence rates have been reported. In addition to the lack of a standardized definition and operational criteria, the method of recruitment for study participation and method of data collection have obviously contributed to the broad range of reported prevalence rates. The new criteria and classification of PE will allow for continued research into the diverse phenomenology, etiology and pathogenesis of the disease to be conducted. While the absolute pathophysiology and true prevalence of PE remains unclear, developing a better understanding of the true prevalence of the disease will allow for the completion of more accurate analysis and treatment of the disease. PMID:27652213

  9. Medical therapy for premature ejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohee, Amar; Eardley, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual dysfunction. Advances in PE research have been hampered owing to a nonstandardized definition of PE, until the definition by the International Society of Sexual Medicine (ISSM) in 2009. Once the diagnosis of PE is established through a thorough history, a variety of medical therapies is available, including tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), centrally acting opiates, phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors and topical desensitizing creams. Most of these treatments increase the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) and patient satisfaction scores, with the most convincing evidence for SSRIs and topical creams. Daily SSRIs such as paroxetine, although efficacious, do have a substantial and prolonged side effect profile. Dapoxetine, which is a on-demand SSRI, is the only licensed drug for the treatment of PE, increasing IELT by a factor of 2.5 to 3 with limited and tolerable side effects. In the near future, the topical aerosol PSD502 is due to be licensed for the treatment of PE, increasing IELT by up to a factor of 6 but having minimal local and negligible systemic side effects. PMID:22046199

  10. "Assessment of retinopathy of prematurity among 150 premature neonates in Farabi eye hospital "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Riazi Esfahani M

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of retinopathy of permaturity (ROP and to evaluate possible neonatal risk factors for ROP. The main study was a cross-sectional study including 150 high-risk neonates born at teaching hospitals of Tehran universities referring to to Farabi Eye Hospital. The chossing critertia were birth weight less than 2500 g or gestational age younger than 37 weeks. ROP was present in 9(6% newborns, all of whom aged less than 32 weeks a birth. There was also strong association between ROP and birth weight, oxygen administration, respiratory distress syndrome and intraventricular hemorrhage. There also seems to be a higher risk for developing ROP in female neoates, those who were born by multiple gestaional pregnancies or were treated by phototherapy or transfusion and those who had suffered from bronchopulmonary dysplasia or seiss.Prematurity per se remains the strongest risk factof for ROP. Suitable criteria for screening of ROP seems to be gestational age younger than 32 weeks or birth weight less than 1500 g

  11. Treatment-related risk factors for premature menopause following Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bruin, Marie L; Huisbrink, Jeannine; Hauptmann, Michael;

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a cohort-study among 518 female 5-year Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors, aged 14 to 40 years (median: 25 years) at treatment (1965-1995). Multivariable Cox regression was used to quantify treatment effects on risk of premature menopause, defined as cessation of menses before age 40...... years. After a median follow up of 9.4 years, 97 women had reached menopause before age 40 years. Chemotherapy was associated with a 12.3-fold increased risk of premature menopause compared with radiotherapy alone. Treatment with MOPP (mechlorethamine, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone......)/ABV (doxorubicine, bleomycine, vinblastine) significantly increased the risk of premature menopause (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.9), although to a lesser extent than MOPP treatment (HR: 5.7). Alkylating agents, especially procarbazine (HR: 8.1) and cyclophosphamide (HR: 3.5), showed the strongest associations. Ten years...

  12. Doxapram Use for Apnoea of Prematurity in Neonatal Intensive Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Prins

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Apnoea of prematurity is treated with noninvasive respiratory therapy and methylxanthines. For therapy unresponsive apnoea doxapram is often prescibed in preterm neonates. The duration, dosage and route of administration of doxapram together with its efficacy was evaluated in two Dutch neonatal intensive care. Outcome concerning short-term safety and neonatal morbidity were evaluated. During 5 years, 122 of 1,501 admitted newborns <32 weeks of gestational age received doxapram. 64.8% of patients did not need intubation after doxapram. 25% of treated neonates were <27 weeks of gestation. A positive response to doxapram therapy on apnoea was associated with longer duration of doxapram usage (P<0.001, lower mean doses (P<0.003, and less days of intensive care (median 33 versus 42 days; P<0.002. No patients died during doxapram therapy. Incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis, intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, retinopathy of prematurity, persistent ductus arteriosus, or worsening of pulmonary condition did not increase during doxapram therapy. Doxapram is frequently used for apnoea of prematurity, despite a lack of data on short-term efficacy and long-term safety. Until efficacy and safety are confirmed in prospective trials, doxapram should be used with caution.

  13. Mean trombosit volume in patients with retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Yüksel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to evaluate the mean platelet volume (MPV in patients with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP with respect to development of type 1 ROP Methods: The medical records of the premature infants were evaluated. Babies with a birth weight under 1500 g and a gestational age under 32 weeks were enrolled to the study. Birth weight, gestational age, onset and grade of retinopathy, presence of plus disease were analyzed. At the time of type 1 ROP diagnosis, blood samples were obtained. In the patients without type 1 ROP the blood samples were also obtained at similar gestational age. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelet count, and MPV results were recorded. Results: Sixty-three infants were studied. 22 of them had type 1 ROP and 41 had not developed type 1 ROP. The mean gestational age and the mean birth weight between groups were not statistically significant. The mean MPV values in patients with type 1 ROP and without type 1 ROP was 9,1±2,0 fL and 9,4±1,8 fL, respectively (p=0.61. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that MPV values were not associated with severity of ROP in our study population. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (2: 443-446

  14. [The differentiation between premature thelarche and pubertas praecox on the basis of clinical, hormonal and radiological findings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlenz, J; Habermehl, P; Wemme, H; Grimm, W; Schönberger, W

    1994-09-30

    In a retrospective study of 39 girls (aged 10 months to 7 10/12 years) with premature breast development criteria for distinguishing between premature thelarche and precocious puberty were analysed. Serum estradiol levels and bone age were determined and a test with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) performed (inclusion criteria). On the basis of the LHRH test and bone age, premature thelarche was diagnosed in 29 patients and precocious puberty in ten: while those with premature thelarche had a follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) pattern of rise, in those with precocious puberty the rise in gonadotropin was of the LH type. The LH/FSH ratio 30 min after stimulation was 1 (median 2.1 [1.34-5.67] in those with precocious puberty. Bone age was accelerated by at least 18 months in those with precocious puberty, but it corresponded to their chronological age or was only slightly accelerated in those with premature thelarche. These data thus indicate that premature thelarche and central precocious puberty can be reliably distinguished by the LHRH test and bone age. PMID:7924927

  15. Stages of providing comprehensive eye care for premature children with premature retinopathy

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Tereshchenko; Y.A. Belyy; I. G. Trifanenkova; M. S. Tereshchenkova

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose. Functional results analysis of eye care system for premature infants including a complete cycle of measures in an early detection, treatment and regular medical check-up activities for patients with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in the Central Region of Russia. Material and methods. Visits of the clinical specialists were carried out to the Departments for Nursing of Premature Infants for screening examinations in groups of ROP development risk. Infants w...

  16. Dietary and nutritional manipulation of the nuclear transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and sterol regulatory element-binding proteins as a tool for reversing the primary diseases of premature death and delaying aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtak, Karen A

    2014-04-01

    Evolution over 2.1 billion years has equipped us with a biochemical pathway that has the power to literally reverse the primary disease etiologies that have become the leading causes of death and aging in the developed world. Activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) pathway arrests inflammatory signaling throughout the body, reverses damage to tissues, reverses insulin resistance, and can even dissolve beta-amyloid plaque in the brain. It has played a critical role in the evolution of the metazoans and the successful migration of humans to all corners of the Earth. For two decades, various pharmaceuticals have been designed to activate the PPAR pathway but have consistently fallen short of expectations. There is nothing wrong with these drugs. The problem has been the standard "healthy" diet creating mixed signals that render the drugs ineffective. This article explores the ongoing dance between the two primary nuclear receptors that mediate gene regulation of fatty acids. It discusses their interaction with sirtuins and telomerase, optimization of their obligate heterodimers, and why manipulation of dietary and nutritional factors, like the ketogenic diet, is the most effective means of activation. These are effective tools that we can start implementing now to slow, and in some cases reverse, the diseases of aging. PMID:24713058

  17. Apnea of prematurity: from cause to treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Jing; Gonzalez, Fernando; Mu, Dezhi

    2011-01-01

    Apnea of prematurity (AOP) is a common problem affecting premature infants, likely secondary to a “physiologic” immaturity of respiratory control that may be exacerbated by neonatal disease. These include altered ventilatory responses to hypoxia, hypercapnia, and altered sleep states, while the roles of gastroesophageal reflux and anemia remain controversial. Standard clinical management of the obstructive subtype of AOP includes prone positioning and continuous positive or nasal intermittent...

  18. An Ecological Model for Premature Infant Feeding

    OpenAIRE

    White-Traut, Rosemary; Norr, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Premature infants are at increased risk for poor health, feeding difficulties, and impaired mother-infant interaction leading to developmental delay. Social-environmental risks, such as poverty or minority status, compound these biologic risks, placing premature infants in double jeopardy. Guided by an ecological model, the Hospital-Home Transition: Optimizing Prematures’ Environment (H-HOPE) intervention combines the Auditory, Tactile, Visual, and Vestibular intervention with participatory g...

  19. Retinopathy of Prematurity and Blood Transfusion Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    P Mohagheghi; Khosravi, N.; H Samaii

    2003-01-01

    To determine the role of blood transfusion protocols on retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), a prospective cohort study on 57 premature infants under 1501 grams birth weight was performed. Fourteen day-old infants were divided into two groups randomly. Infants in group 1 (n=27) received packed red blood cell transfusion only if specific medical signs were met and their hematocrit level was under 30%. Infants in group 2 (n=30) received blood transfusion to maintain their hematocrit level > 40%...

  20. Aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity classification

    OpenAIRE

    A.V. Tereshchenko,; Yu. A. Belyy; M. S. Tereshchenkova; I. G. Trifanenkova

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Based on dynamic monitoring of 133 premature infants (266 eyes) with aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), digital retinoscopy and computer morphometry the disease clinical and morphometric features were revealed and systematized, and their consecutive replacement was fixed. As a result the separate classification of aggressive posterior disease was worked up. In aggressive posterior ROP course the next consecutive stages were marked out: subclinical, early ...

  1. Intracranial haemorrhage after transport of premature newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Spasojević Slobodan; Stojanović Vesna; Savić Radojica; Doronjski Aleksandra

    2010-01-01

    Intracranial hemorrhage remains an important factor of premature newborns’ morbidity. Its incidence is significantly influenced by adequate perinatal care and safe neonatal transport. Risk factors for the development of intracranial hemorrhage in premature newborns after neonatal transport were analyzed in the retrospective transversal clinical study. Out of 150 study subjects, 60% (n=90/150) had intracranial hemorrhage with a statistically significant difference in relation to Apgar sc...

  2. Premature infants and neurodevelopmental morbidity Invited Author

    OpenAIRE

    Uysal, Serap

    2010-01-01

    Brain injury in some surviving premature infants increases the risk of nbsp; neurodevelopmental disability including major cognitive and motor deficits Periventricular leukomalacia PVL is the main type of brain injury The cerebral white matter thalamus basal ganglia cerebral cortex brain stem and cerebellum may be nbsp; affected Infants with low birth weight are also in high risk It is difficult to shout a clear clinico pathologic correlations in premature infants has been difficult The neuro...

  3. Premature dental eruption: report of case.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNamara, C M

    2011-08-05

    This case report reviews the variability of dental eruption and the possible sequelae. Dental eruption of the permanent teeth in cleft palate children may be variable, with delayed eruption the most common phenomenon. A case of premature dental eruption of a maxillary left first premolar is demonstrated, however, in a five-year-old male. This localized premature dental eruption anomaly was attributed to early extraction of the primary dentition, due to caries.

  4. Hypothermia: Novel Approaches for Premature Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Higgins, Rosemary D.; Shankaran, Seetha

    2011-01-01

    Hypothermia for hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy has recently permeated clinical practice for term infants. Speculation regarding a neuroprotective benefit of hypothermia for premature infants with HIE has been raised as a need for further research. Hypothermia for other indications including necrotizing enterocolitis with the hope of tissue preservation following injury is less well studied. A summary of evidence for hypothermia and premature infants is presented in this brief report.

  5. Effect of parenteral glutamine supplementation in premature infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zheng-hong; WANG Dan-hua; DONG Mei

    2007-01-01

    Background Glutamine, proposed to be conditionally essential for critically ill patients, is not added routinely to parenteral amino acid formulations for premature infants and is provided in only small quantities by the enteral route when enteral feeding is Iow. Parenteral feeding is the basic way of nutrition in the first days of life of premature infants. In this study, we evaluated the effects of glutamine supplemented parenteral nutrition for premature infants on growth and development, feeding toleration, and infective episodes.Methods From December 2002 to July 2006, 53 premature infants were given either standard or glutamine supplemented parenteral nutrition for more than 2 weeks. Twenty-eight infants were in glutamine supplemented group, whose gestational age (31.4±2.0) weeks, birth weight range (1386±251) g; twenty-five infants were in control group, gestational age (31.1 ± 1.7) weeks, with birth weight range (1346± 199) g. There were no differences between the two groups. Various growth and biochemical indices were monitored throughout the duration of hospital stay. Data between groups were analyzed with Student's t test. Nonparametric data were analyzed using a Chi-square test. A two-tailed P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results The level of serum albumin was lower in the glutamine groups on the second week (3.0 vs 3.2 g/dl, P=0.028), and blood urea nitrogen was higher in glutamine groups on the fourth week (8.1 vs 4.9 mg/dl, P=0.014), but normal. Glutamine group infants took fewer days to regain birth weight (8.1 vs 10.4 days, P=0.017), required fewer days on parenteral nutrition (24.8 vs 30.8 days, P=0.035), with shorter stays in hospital (32.1 vs 38.6 days, P=0.047). Episodes of hospital acquired infection in glutamine supplemented infants were lower than that in control group (0.96 vs 1.84 times, P=0.000).Conclusion Parenteral glutamine supplementation in premature infants can shorten days on parenteral nutrition and

  6. Perioperative management and post-operative course in preterm infants undergoing vitreo-retinal surgery for retinopathy of prematurity: A retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Renu Sinha; Praveen Talawar; Rashmi Ramachandran; Rajvardhan Azad; Virender Kumar Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Premature infants scheduled for surgery under general anesthesia are more prone to cardio-respiratory complications. Risk factors include post-conception age (PCA), cardiac and respiratory disease, anemia and opioid administration. This retrospective study evaluates the perioperative management and post-operative course (apnea and bradycardia) in premature infants undergoing surgery for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Materials and Methods: We analyzed the pre-operative data...

  7. Pulmonary function changes after nebulised and intravenous frusemide in ventilated premature infants

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhu, V.; Keszler, M.; Dhanireddy, R.

    1997-01-01

    AIMS—To compare the effects of a single dose of frusemide administered either intravenously or by nebulisation on pulmonary mechanics in premature infants with evolving chronic lung disease.
METHODS—The effect of frusemide on pulmonary mechanics was studied at a median postnatal age of 23 (range 14-52) days in 19 premature infants at 24 to 30 weeks gestational age, who had been dependent on mechanical ventilation since birth. Frusemide (1 mg/kg/body weight) was administered, in random order, ...

  8. Influence of the blood glucose level on the development of retinopathy of prematurity in extremely premature children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina V. Nicolaeva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:To investigate the influence of the blood glucose level on the development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in extremely premature infants.Methods:Sixty-four premature infants with a gestational age of less than 30 weeks and a birth weight of less than 1500 g were included in the study. Children without ROP were allocated to Group 1 (n=14, gestational age 28.6 ± 1.4 weeks, birth weight 1162 ± 322 g, and children with spontaneous regression of ROP were allocated to Group 2 (n=32, gestational age 26.5 ± 1.2 weeks, birth weight 905 ± 224 g. Children with progressive ROP who underwent laser treatment were included in Group 3 (n=18, gestational age 25.4 ± 0.7 weeks, birth weight 763 ± 138 g. The glucose level in the capillary blood of the premature infants was monitored daily during the first 3 weeks of life. A complete ophthalmological screening was performed from the age of 1 month. The nonparametric signed-rank Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test was used for statistical analysis.Results:The mean blood glucose level was 7.43 ± 2.6 mmol/L in Group 1, 7.8 ± 2.7 mmol/L in Group 2, and 6.7 ± 2.6 mmol/L in Group 3. There were no significant differences in the blood glucose levels between children with and without ROP, and also between children with spontaneously regressing ROP and progressive ROP (p>0.05. Additionally, there were no significant differences in the blood glucose levels measured at the first, second, and third weeks of life (p>0.05.Conclusion:The blood glucose level is not related to the development of ROP nor with its progression or regression. The glycemic level cannot be considered as a risk factor for ROP, but reflects the severity of newborns’ somatic condition and morphofunctional immaturity.

  9. Quantitative ultrasound bone measurements of different gestational age premature infants at birth in Guangzhou zone%广州地区不同胎龄早产儿出生时骨定量超声值测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿柳红; 李思涛; 庄桂英; 徐庆活; 杨文欢; 肖昕

    2013-01-01

    目的 测定广州地区不同胎龄早产儿出生时的骨定量超声值,并与高加索白人种早产儿比较,了解广州地区早产儿骨骼发育的状况,评价定量超声技术的实用性.方法 采用以色列Sunlight公司生产的Omnisense定量超声仪,对2010年6月至2012年6月在广州市花都区妇幼保健院出生的不同胎龄的早产儿进行左侧胫骨声波速度(SOS)测量,并与高加索白人种进行比较.结果 广州地区出生的1039例不同胎龄早产儿根据胎龄分为A、B、C、D组(≤30周、30+1 ~32周、32+1~34周和34+1~ 36+6周4组).4组早产儿出生时所测得的SOS值分别为(2892.05±139.17) m/s、(2936.84±137.87) m/s、(2966.65±116.60) m/s和(2988.63±120.74) m/s,SOS值随胎龄增加而增加,差别有统计学意义(F=15.758,P=0.000),但各组中男女童之间SOS值无明显差异(F =2.665,P =0.103).广州地区不同胎龄的早产儿出生时SOS值的差距(定义为Z值)与高加索白人种比较差异无统计学意义(P=0.117),男女比较差异亦无统计学意义(F=3.494,P=0.062).结论 早产儿SOS值随早产儿成熟度增加而升高;广州地区的不同胎龄早产儿出生时骨强度与高加索白人种无明显差距;骨定量超声技术可用于临床评价早产儿骨发育情况.%Objective To measure the values of quantitative ultrasound(QUS) of different gestational age preterm infants at birth in Guangzhou area,and compare them with the values of Caucasian preterm infants in order to get insight into the bone development status of preterm infants in Guangzhou area and to evaluate the practicability of QUS.Methods The Omnisense quantitative ultrasound produced by Israel Sunlight company was used to measure the bone speed of sound(SOS) of left tibia of preterm infants born between Jun.2010 and Jun.2012 in Maternity and Children Health Hospital of Huadu District in Guangzhou,and the values of SOS of Caucasian preterm infants was compared.Results There were totally

  10. PSYCHOMOTOR DEVELOPMENT IN PREMATURE INFANTS UNTIL THE END OF THEIR THIRD YEAR OF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina DUKOVSKA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Psychomotor development in premature infants has specific characteristics with increased tendency towards neuro-developmental difficulties, such as the fact that certain percent of the developmentally challenged people belongs in this category of children.Many factors contribute to the neuro-developmental difficulties in premature infants. A large number of studies have shown that the birth weight (BW and gestational age (GA have strong correlation with the neuro-developmental outcome.In order to establish the general developmental outcome and the developmental outcome in specific areas of early development, that is the first three years of life in preemies, we have conducted a research on our own population. We conducted a longitudinal study on 20 premature newborns with very low birth weight (VLBW, with a follow-up period from 4 weeks CGA until 36 weeks GA.The research results showed that the largest difference in developmental areas between the group of premature infants with VLBW and the control group is present at the end of the 36th month of life and the general development quotient (GDQ in the premature group was significantly lower during the whole follow-up period, except at the end of month 4 - in different developmental areas. We also concluded that 20% of the premature infants with VLBW have developmental difficulties and severe difficulties in their motor development.

  11. Recent advances in the treatment of premature ejaculation

    OpenAIRE

    Linton, Kate D; Wylie, Kevan R

    2010-01-01

    Kate D Linton, Kevan R WylieSheffield Teaching Hospitals, Sheffield, UKAbstract: Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common sexual problem affecting men. It can affect men at all ages and has a serious impact on the quality of life for men and their partners. Currently there are no pharmaceutical agents approved for use in the UK, and so all drugs used for this condition are off label. Behavioral therapy has been used to treat PE, but the results are not durable once therapy has b...

  12. Recent advances in the treatment of premature ejaculation

    OpenAIRE

    Linton, Kate D; Wylie, Kevan R

    2010-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common sexual problem affecting men. It can affect men at all ages and has a serious impact on the quality of life for men and their partners. Currently there are no pharmaceutical agents approved for use in the UK, and so all drugs used for this condition are off label. Behavioral therapy has been used to treat PE, but the results are not durable once therapy has been concluded. Several topical therapies have been used including severance-secret (SS) cr...

  13. Health Issues of Premature Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Preemie > Health Issues ...

  14. Incidence and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    Rasyidah; Sujan Ali Fing

    2013-01-01

    Background Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is one of the main causes of visual impairment in premature infants. Objective To determine the incidence and risk factors for ROP in premature infants. Methods This retrospective study included premature infants born in Stella Mmaris Women’s and Children’s Hospital and admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and Neonatology Department from November 2009 to May 2012. We included all premature infants with body weight (BW) < 1500 ...

  15. Risk Factors for premature birth in a hospital 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada-Barrios, Margarita E.; Alvarado, German F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to determine the risk factors for premature birth. Methods: retrospective case-control study of 600 pregnant women assisted in a hospital, with 298 pregnant women in the case group (who gave birth prematurely history of premature birth (adjusted OR= 3.7; p history of premature birth, preeclampsia, not receiving prenatal care and receiving inadequate prenatal care were risk factors for premature birth. PMID:27463110

  16. Meconium microbiome analysis identifies bacteria correlated with premature birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandria N Ardissone

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is the second leading cause of death in children under the age of five years worldwide, but the etiology of many cases remains enigmatic. The dogma that the fetus resides in a sterile environment is being challenged by recent findings and the question has arisen whether microbes that colonize the fetus may be related to preterm birth. It has been posited that meconium reflects the in-utero microbial environment. In this study, correlations between fetal intestinal bacteria from meconium and gestational age were examined in order to suggest underlying mechanisms that may contribute to preterm birth.Meconium from 52 infants ranging in gestational age from 23 to 41 weeks was collected, the DNA extracted, and 16S rRNA analysis performed. Resulting taxa of microbes were correlated to clinical variables and also compared to previous studies of amniotic fluid and other human microbiome niches.Increased detection of bacterial 16S rRNA in meconium of infants of <33 weeks gestational age was observed. Approximately 61·1% of reads sequenced were classified to genera that have been reported in amniotic fluid. Gestational age had the largest influence on microbial community structure (R = 0·161; p = 0·029, while mode of delivery (C-section versus vaginal delivery had an effect as well (R = 0·100; p = 0·044. Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Photorhabdus, and Tannerella, were negatively correlated with gestational age and have been reported to incite inflammatory responses, suggesting a causative role in premature birth.This provides the first evidence to support the hypothesis that the fetal intestinal microbiome derived from swallowed amniotic fluid may be involved in the inflammatory response that leads to premature birth.

  17. Premature Ejaculation and Utilization of Cognitive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Premature ejaculation is the most common male sexual dysfunction leading to distress in many couples. Master and Johnson emphasized the concept of early learned experiences and Kaplan emphasized lack of sensory awareness. For treatment sex therapists mainly utilize start-stop and squeeze techniques as homework. Couples enter sex therapy with some cognitive distortions and beliefs about sex and sexuality. These beliefs are also named sexual myths. For some couples using techniques to challenge cognitive distortions and maladaptive beliefs about sex and sexuality can be used. In this paper by presenting a case we discussed how cognitive techniques can be used along with behaviour techniques with couples. Case: Presenting clients are five years married couple who are thirty and twenty nine years old respectively. They attended to the outpatient clinic with the request of the female client. Their main complaint was premature ejaculation. They were diagnosed premature ejaculation using clinical interview. In treatment besides start and stop technique, cognitive techniques were utilized to address dysfunctional beliefs about sexuality. Discussion: Premature ejaculation is a male sexual dysfunction that causes distress and intimacy problems between couples. Stop start and squeeze techniques were accepted as the choice of treatment but their effectiveness is questioned recently. Also cognitive distortions and maladaptive beliefs may hamper therapy progress. Besides that, behavioral techniques utilizing cognitive techniques to lessen the degree of dysfunctional beliefs about sex and sexuality may help the couple to overcome premature ejaculation and enhance sexual satisfaction and intimacy.

  18. Anatomy of the Circle of Willis and Blood Flow in the Brain-Feeding Vasculature in Prematurely Born Infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kooij, B. J. M.; Hendrikse, J.; Benders, M. J. N. L.; de Vries, L. S.; Groenendaal, F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown a disrupted development of cerebral blood vessels at term-equivalent age in prematurely born infants. Objective: To assess the anatomy of the circle of Willis in preterm neonates (gestational age 25-31 weeks) at term-equivalent age and to evaluate the relation

  19. Factors given by birth and oxygenotherapy in relation to development of retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olujić Maja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Retinopathy of prematurity is a disease of the eye which affects the blood vessels of the retina and represents the most important cause of blindness and low vision in children worldwide. There are many risk factors given by birth and parameters of general health status that may influence this disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the significance of the factors given by birth and use of oxygen in relation to the development of premature retinopathy. Material and Methods. A two-year-long prospective study was done at the Institute for Child and Youth Health Care of Vojvodina. In this study the following parameters were examined: weight, gestational age as a factor given by birth and parameters of oxygenotherapy - the number of days on oxygenotherapy and the number of days of mechanical ventilation. The findings on the eye fundus were also taken into consideration. Results. The test results suggest that the gestational age is the most important factor given by birth which determines the possibility of development of premature retinopathy. Conclusion. In fact, the most important risk factor for the development of premature retinopathy is premature birth.

  20. Clinical analysis of high risk factors for premature and prognosis of premature infants%早产高危因素及早产儿预后的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晏金荣

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析早产高危因素及早产儿预后的影响因素。方法:回顾性分析55例早产儿的临床资料,分析早产原因及影响预后的因素。结果:导致早产的高危因素主要包括胎膜早破、前置胎盘、重度子痫前期、高龄、妊娠期贫血、多胎妊娠和瘢痕子宫等。影响早产儿预后的因素主要包括胎龄、体重、分娩方式。结论:早产的高危因素复杂。重视围生期保健、防治妊娠并发症可降低早产的发生率。%Objective:To analyze the high risk factors for premature and the influence factors for prognosis of premature infants. Methods:The clinical data of 55 cases of premature infants were analyzed retrospectively.The high risk factors for premature and the influence factors for prognosis of premature infants were analyzed.Results:The high risk factors causing premature included premature rupture of membrane,placenta previa,severe preeclampsia,age,gestational anemia,multiple pregnancy and scarred uterus.The factors affecting the prognosis of premature infants included gestational age,body weight and delivery mode.Conclusion:The high risk factors of preterm were complex.Paying attention to the perinatal health care and taking measures to prevent and control the pregnancy complications actively could reduce the incidence of premature infants.

  1. Necrotizing Enterocolitis: A dreadful condition of premature babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Kumar sharma

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available NEC is inflammatory necrosis of intestine with most common site being terminal ileum and ascending colon in preterm babies (1. The condition is typically seen in premature infants, and the timing of its onset is generally inversely proportional to the gestational age of the baby at birth, i.e. The earlier a baby is born, longer is the time of risk for NEC in premature babies. The incidence of NEC is inversely proportional to the gestational age and birth weight (2. Baby have initial symptoms which include feeding intolerance, increased gastric residuals, abdominal distension and bloody stools (3. The laboratory triad includes metabolic acidosis, hyponatremia and thrombocytopenia. Pneumatosis intestinalis is the pathognomonic radiological finding in the NEC. Modified Bell’s staging is used to stage the NEC. Treatment involves Nil per Oral, supportive care, antibiotics, surgery in advanced stages and parenteral nutrition (4,5. Complication of NEC includes mortality, prolonged NICU stay, intestinal strictures, enterocutaneous fistula, intra-abdominal abscess, cholestasis, and short-bowel syndrome (6,7, neurodevelopmental, motor, sensory, and cognitive problems (8,9.

  2. Necrotizing Enterocolitis: A dreadful condition of premature babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak sharma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available NEC is inflammatory necrosis of intestine with most common site being terminal ileum and ascending colon in preterm babies (1. The condition is typically seen in premature infants, and the timing of its onset is generally inversely proportional to the gestational age of the baby at birth, i.e. The earlier a baby is born, longer is the time of risk for NEC in premature babies. The incidence of NEC is inversely proportional to the gestational age and birth weight (2. Baby have initial symptoms which include feeding intolerance, increased gastric residuals, abdominal distension and bloody stools (3. The laboratory triad includes metabolic acidosis, hyponatremia and thrombocytopenia. Pneumatosis intestinalis is the pathognomonic radiological finding in the NEC. Modified Bell’s staging is used to stage the NEC. Treatment involves Nil per Oral, supportive care, antibiotics, surgery in advanced stages and parenteral nutrition (4,5. Complication of NEC includes mortality, prolonged NICU stay, intestinal strictures, enterocutaneous fistula, intra-abdominal abscess, cholestasis, and short-bowel syndrome (6,7, neurodevelopmental, motor, sensory, and cognitive problems (8,9.

  3. Early onset neonatal sepsis in preterm premature rupture of membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the frequency of early onset neonatal sepsis in newborn with various duration of preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Combined Military Hospital, Lahore from November 2009 to November 2010. Material and Methods: Neonates of singleton pregnancies complicated by preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PPROM) with delivery between 30 and 36 weeks gestation were included in the study. The overall frequency of neonatal sepsis was calculated on clinical and serological basis. Comparison of the frequency of sepsis among groups with varying duration of rupture of membranes was done. Results: Out of 164 babies, 84 (51.2%) were female and 80 (48.8%) were male. Mean maternal age was 23 years (range: 18-36 years). Mean gestational age was 33 weeks (range: 30-36 weeks). Sepsis was suspected in 41(25%) babies on clinical grounds. C-reactive protein was raised in 36 (22%) neonates. There was statistically insignificant difference between clinical versus serological diagnosis (p=0.515). Frequency of neonatal sepsis was significantly higher in mothers with longer duration of rupture of membrane (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Frequency of neonatal sepsis was observed to be 22%. PPROM is an important risk factor for early onset neonatal sepsis. (author)

  4. Gross morphological changes in premature and post mature human plancentae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Placenta is a valuable tool for maternal and foetal diseases. Gross pathological changes are seen in the placenta of many disorders of pregnancy, which are associated with high perinatal morbidity and mortality. This study was conducted with the aim to compare the morphological features of preterm, term and post term placentae in our setup. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on 150 placentae: 50 were from normal (term) pregnancies considered as control (delivered between 37 to 42 weeks of gestation.), 50 from premature pregnancies (gestational age between 35-37 weeks) from mothers having hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, and 50 from post mature pregnancies (gestational age more than 42 weeks). The placentae were collected from Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar, through purposive sampling. Placentae were examined in the department of Anatomy, Khyber Medical College Peshawar. Results: In gross morphological features of placentae (weight and diameter) showed significant (p<0.001) among the groups Conclusion: In was concluded that the hypertensive disorders of the pregnancy adversely influence the morphology of placenta, which leads to the premature delivery. (author)

  5. Aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Tereshchenko,

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Based on dynamic monitoring of 133 premature infants (266 eyes with aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity (ROP, digital retinoscopy and computer morphometry the disease clinical and morphometric features were revealed and systematized, and their consecutive replacement was fixed. As a result the separate classification of aggressive posterior disease was worked up. In aggressive posterior ROP course the next consecutive stages were marked out: subclinical, early clinical appearances stage, manifestation stage, advanced, far-advanced and terminal stages. The peculiarity of early clinical appearances stage and manifestation stage is the presence of such course types: favorable and unfavorable.

  6. Retinopathy of Prematurity in Very Low Birth Weight Infants: Effects of Serum Vitamin A and Clinical Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Esra Arun Özer; Özlem Sivaslı Gül; Gamze Men; Ekrem Talay; Sümer Sütçüoğlu; Ali Kanık; Ebru Türkoğlu; Zelal Kahramaner; Hese Coşar; Aydın Erdemir; Işın Yaprak

    2011-01-01

    Pur po se: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a proliferative vascular disease which affects premature newborns and occurs during vessel development. The pathogenesis of ROP is complex and includes oxidative damage to the developing retina. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of ROP with serum vitamin A levels and clinical parameters in infants with a gestational age of ≤32 weeks and birth weight of ≤1500 grams. Ma te ri al and Met hod: Newborns admitted to Newbor...

  7. Advanced glycation end products and the absence of premature atherosclerosis in glycogen storage disease Ia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hollander, N. C.; Mulder, Douwe J.; Graaff, R.; Thorpe, S. R.; Baynes, J. W.; Smit, Gerrit; Smit, Andries

    2007-01-01

    Introducton: Despite their unfavourable cardiovascular risk profile, patients with glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD Ia) do not develop premature atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that this paradox might be related to a decreased formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) resulting from

  8. Bio-social and environmental factors of premature births and stillbirths in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnelli, A; Zannella, F

    1981-01-01

    An examination of a number of biological and social aspects of infant survival in Italy is presented, with particular reference to regional differences in premature births and stillbirths. Factors examined include birth order, mother's age, mother's educational background, father's occupation, and the economic, hygienic, and health care conditions of the province of residence. Data are for 1974-1975. (summary in FRE, ITA)

  9. Retinopathy of prematurity in infants of birth weight > 2000 g after haemorrhagic shock at birth.

    OpenAIRE

    Jandeck, C; Kellner, U.; Kössel, H; Bartsch, M.; Versmold, H T; Foerster, M. H.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is associated with low birth weight and low gestational age. For ROP screening examination is recommended in infants weighing 1500 g (n = 149) and who required additional oxygen supplementation or underwent surgery with general anaesthesia ...

  10. Treatment-related risk factors for premature menopause following Hodgkin lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. de Bruin (Marie); J. Huisbrink (Jeannine); M. Hauptmann (Michael); M.A. Kuenen (Marianne); G.M. Ouwens (Gabey); M.B. van 't Veer (Mars); B.M.P. Aleman (Berthe); F.E. van Leeuwen (Flora)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractWe conducted a cohort-study among 518 female 5-year Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors, aged 14 to 40 years (median: 25 years) at treatment (1965-1995). Multivariable Cox regression was used to quantify treatment effects on risk of premature menopause, defined as cessation of menses before

  11. Intervention with African American Premature Infants: Four-Month Results of an Early Intervention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teti, Douglas M.; Black, Maureen M.; Viscardi, Rose; Glass, Penny; O'Connell, Melissa A.; Baker, Linda; Cusson, Regina; Reiner Hess, Christine

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of an early intervention program targeting African American mothers and their premature, low birth weight infants at 3 to 4 months' corrected age from four neonatal intensive care units, 173 families are recruited (84 intervention, 89 control). The 8-session, 20-week intervention consists of a psychoeducational…

  12. Inflammatory and oxidative stress airway markers in premature newborns of hypertensive mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J. Madoglio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although oxidative stress and inflammation are important mechanisms in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia and preterm diseases, their contribution to the respiratory prognosis of premature infants of hypertensive mothers is not known. Our objective was to determine the levels of oxidative stress and inflammation markers in the airways of premature infants born to hypertensive and normotensive mothers, in the first 72 h of life, and to investigate whether they are predictors of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD/death. This was a prospective study with premature infants less than 34 weeks’ gestation on respiratory support who were stratified into 2 groups: 32 premature infants of hypertensive mothers and 41 of normotensive women, with a mean gestational age of 29 weeks. Exclusion criteria were as follows: diabetes mellitus, chorioamnionitis, malformation, congenital infection, and death within 24 h after birth. The outcome of interest was BPD/death. Malondialdehyde (MDA, nitric oxide (NO, and interleukin 8 (IL-8 were measured in airway aspirates from the first and third days of life and did not differ between the groups. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed. The concentrations of MDA, NO, and IL-8 were not predictors of BPD/death. Premature infants who developed BPD/death had higher levels of IL-8 in the first days of life. The gestational age, mechanical ventilation, and a small size for gestational age were risk factors for BPD/death. In conclusion, the biomarkers evaluated were not increased in premature infants of hypertensive mothers and were not predictors of BPD/death.

  13. Retinopathy of prematurity: A study of prevalence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel H. A. A. Hakeem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is a serious complication of prematurity treatment and can lead to blindness unless recognized and treated early. Objective: The objective was to estimate the prevalence of ROP in preterm infants in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU, to identify the risk factors which predispose to ROP, and to assess the outcome of these cases. Materials and Methods: A ROP prospective screening survey was performed enrolling all prematures admitted to the NICU from January 2009 to December 2010, with a gestational age of 32 weeks or less at birth and a birth weight of 1500 g or less. Infants whose gestational age was >32 weeks or birth weight was >1500 g were included if they were exposed to oxygen therapy for more than 7 days. A total of 172 infants (84 males and 88 females had retinal evaluation by indirect ophthalmoscopy from the fourth postnatal week and followed up periodically. Perinatal risk factors for ROP were assessed using univariate and multivariate analysis. Infants who progressed to stage 3 ROP were given laser therapy. Results: Out of the studied 172 infants, 33 infants (19.2% developed ROP in one or both eyes; 18 (54.5% cases stage 1, 9 (27.3% cases stage 2, and 6 (18.2% cases stage 3. None of the studied neonates presented ROP at stages 4 or 5. The six cases diagnosed as ROP stage 3 underwent laser ablative therapy. Univariate analysis showed that there was a significant relationship between the occurrence of ROP and gestational age (P = 0.000, sepsis (P = 0.004, oxygen therapy (P = 0.018, and frequency of blood transfusions (P = 0.030. However, an insignificant relationship was found between the occurrence of ROP and sex, mode of delivery, birth weight, respiratory distress syndrome, patent ductus arteriosus, intraventricular hemorrhage, hypotension, phototherapy, duration of oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation, and CPAP (all P > 0.05. Gestational age, sepsis, oxygen therapy, and frequency of

  14. Follow-up study on premature infants with and without retinopathy of prematurity.

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, R; O'Keefe, M

    1993-01-01

    The ocular complications in population of 131 premature infants, with and without retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) are reported. An increased incidence of strabismus (20% with ROP and 25% without ROP) and myopia (27.5% with ROP and 8.8% without ROP) was shown. Significant visual loss occurred in 10.7% overall, increasing to 35% with stage 3 disease and 100% with stage 4. With the increased survival rate of premature infants, the relevance to future management of this expanding group of young ...

  15. Prematurity, smallness-for-gestational age and later hospital admissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Á Rogvi, Rasmus; Forman, Julie Lyng; Greisen, Gorm

    2015-01-01

    & urological diseases, and occurred throughout childhood and early adulthood. Novel findings included increased risks for delayed puberty, neurofibromatosis type 1 and ileus and decreased risks of mononucleosis, peritonsillar abscesses, chronic hypothyroidism and several types of fractures and contusions later...

  16. Successful Surgical Management of Retinopathy of Prematurity Showing Rapid Progression despite Extensive Retinal Photocoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadkari, Salil S; Kulkarni, Sucheta R; Kamdar, Rushita R; Deshpande, Madan

    2015-01-01

    The management of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) can be challenging in preterm babies with a gestational age oxygen therapy for respiratory distress, sepsis, neonatal jaundice). A premature infant presented with "hybrid" zone 1 disease in the right eye and aggressive posterior ROP in the left eye. Both eyes were adequately treated with laser photocoagulation; however, the eyes deteriorated and progressed to stage 4 ROP. Both eyes eventually underwent intravitreal bevacizumab followed by lens sparing vitrectomy with good anatomical and visual outcome. Anticipation of progression despite laser photocoagulation in certain clinical scenarios, frequent follow-up and timely surgical intervention is paramount. PMID:26180484

  17. Comparison of Efficacy of Sertralin on Patients with Premature Ejaculation By Penile Biothesiometry

    OpenAIRE

    Emrah Okulu

    2013-01-01

    Aim: We examine the efficacy of the low dose, high dose and on demand use of sertraline on patients with primary premature ejaculation.The value of penile biothesiometry on interpretation of responses from these treatments is also evaluated. Material and Method: A total of 70 men, 23 to 55 years old(mean age 36.4),with premature ejaculation were randomized into two treatment groups,each consisting of 35 patients,receiving placebo,sertraline, in a fashion.Because 10 patients dropped out for so...

  18. Efficacy and safety of clomipramine and sertraline in the treatment of premature ejaculation

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZBEY, İSA; Aksoy, Yılmaz; BİÇGİ, Okan; POLAT, Özkan; Aydin, Nazan; DEMİREL, Azam

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy and safety of ciomipramine and sertraiine in patients with premature ejaculation. The study included total 33 patients, with true premature ejaculation (PE), age ranged from 23 to 45 years old (mean: 30.5 years). The patients were randomly divided into 3 groups; 12 patients as ciomipramine group, 11 patients as sertraiine group and 10 patients as placebo group. Each patient took 1 capsule daily for the first week, then 2 daily for trie remainin...

  19. Mental Health Outcomes in US Children and Adolescents Born Prematurely or with Low Birthweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal K. Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effects of prematurity (37 weeks of gestation and low birthweight (2500 g on mental health outcomes among US children aged 2–17 years. The 2011-2012 National Survey of Children’s Health ( = 95,677 was used to estimate prevalence of parent-reported mental health problems in children. Prevalence of mental disorders was 22.9% among children born prematurely, 28.7% among very-low-birth-weight (1500 g children, and 18.9% among moderately low-birth-weight (1500–2499 g children, compared with 15.5% in the general child population. Compared to those born full term, children born prematurely had 61% higher adjusted odds of serious emotional/behavioral problems, 33% higher odds of depression, and 58% higher odds of anxiety. Children born prematurely had 2.3 times higher odds of autism/ASD, 2.9 times higher odds of development delay, and 2.7 times higher odds of intellectual disability than term children. Very-low-birth-weight children had 3.2 times higher odds of autism/ASD, 1.7 times higher odds of ADD/ADHD, 5.4 times higher odds of development delay, and 4.4 times higher odds of intellectual disability than normal-birth-weight children. Social factors were significant predictors of mental disorders in both premature/low-birth-weight and term/normal-birth-weight children. Neurodevelopmental conditions accounted for the relationship between prematurity and depression/anxiety/conduct problems. Prematurity and low birthweight are significant risk factors for mental health problems among children.

  20. Catheter ablation of parahisian premature ventricular complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun; Kim, Jeong Su; Park, Yong Hyun; Kim, June Hong; Chun, Kook Jin

    2011-12-01

    Catheter ablation is performed in selected patients with a symptomatic premature ventricular complex (PVC) or PVC-induced cardiomyopathy. Ablation of PVC from the His region has a high risk of inducing a complete atrioventricular block. Here we report successful catheter ablation of a parahisian PVC in a 63-year-old man.

  1. New Information About Premature Births (For Consumers)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-10-06

    A new study finds that prematurity is the most frequent cause of infant death in the United States. Learn more.  Created: 10/6/2006 by CDC Division of Reproductive Health.   Date Released: 10/6/2006.

  2. Optimal oxygen saturation in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meayoung Chang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a delicate balance between too little and too much supplemental oxygen exposure in premature infants. Since underuse and overuse of supplemental oxygen can harm premature infants, oxygen saturation levels must be monitored and kept at less than 95% to prevent reactive oxygen species-related diseases, such as retinopathy of prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At the same time, desaturation below 80 to 85% must be avoided to prevent adverse consequences, such as cerebral palsy. It is still unclear what range of oxygen saturation is appropriate for premature infants; however, until the results of further studies are available, a reasonable target for pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2 is 90 to 93% with an intermittent review of the correlation between SpO2 and the partial pressure of arterial oxygen tension (PaO2. Because optimal oxygenation depends on individuals at the bedside making ongoing adjustments, each unit must define an optimal target range and set alarm limits according to their own equipment or conditions. All staff must be aware of these values and adjust the concentration of supplemental oxygen frequently.

  3. Premature phaseout of the Barsebaeck plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of the phaseout on the supply of electric power of the country is discussed. The impact on consumption and possibilities of substitution and alternatives are dealt with. The particular effects on the supply of electric power in the South of Sweden are treated and the cost and environmental effects of premature phaseout are presented. (G.B.)

  4. AMH as Predictor of Premature Ovarian Insufficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunding, Stine Aa; Aksglæde, Lise; Anderson, Richard A;

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: The majority of Turner syndrome (TS) patients suffer from accelerated loss of primordial follicles. Low circulating levels of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) may predict the lack of spontaneous puberty in prepubertal girls and imminent premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) in TS women...

  5. Severe apnoeas following immunisation in premature infants

    OpenAIRE

    Slack, M; Schapira, D

    1999-01-01

    Four premature infants developed apnoeas severe enough to warrant resuscitation after immunisation with diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT), and Haemophilus influenzae B (Hib). One required re-intubation and ventilation.
 Although apnoeas after immunisation are recognised, they are not well documented. It is time for further research to elucidate the best time to immunise such infants.



  6. Pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis in a premature infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis (PCH) is a rare disorder characterized by widespread capillary proliferation in the lung, infiltrating the interstitium and the alveolar walls. We present the HRCT features of PCH in a surviving ex-premature infant. To our knowledge, this is a unique case of the radiological features of PCH in a young living infant. (orig.)

  7. Pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis in a premature infant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Cicero J.T.A.; Massie, John; Mandelstam, Simone A. [University of Melbourne, Royal Children' s Hospital, Parkville, VIC (Australia)

    2005-06-01

    Pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis (PCH) is a rare disorder characterized by widespread capillary proliferation in the lung, infiltrating the interstitium and the alveolar walls. We present the HRCT features of PCH in a surviving ex-premature infant. To our knowledge, this is a unique case of the radiological features of PCH in a young living infant. (orig.)

  8. Inonotus obliquus protects against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and premature senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jong Seok; Pahk, Jung Woon; Lee, Jong Seok; Shin, Won Cheol; Lee, Shin Young; Hong, Eock Kee

    2011-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the cytoprotective effects of Inonotus obliquus against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and premature senescence. Pretreatment with I. obliquus scavenged intracellular ROS and prevented lipid peroxidation in hydrogen peroxide-treated human fibroblasts. As a result, I. obliquus exerted protective effects against hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis and premature senescence in human fibroblasts. In addition, I. obliquus suppressed UV-induced morphologic skin changes, such as skin thickening and wrinkle formation, in hairless mice in vivo and increased collagen synthesis through inhibition of MMP-1 and MMP-9 activities in hydrogen peroxide-treated human fibroblasts. Taken together, these results demonstrate that I. obliquus can prevent the aging process by attenuating oxidative stress in a model of stress-induced premature senescence. PMID:21359681

  9. Inhalation Anesthesia with Sevoflurane during Intravitreal Bevacizumab Injection in Infants with Retinopathy of Prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Tokgöz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground. To investigate the anesthetic management in premature infants with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP treated with intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB injections. Methods. A retrospective chart review was performed for the patients with ROP who had IVB injection. Clinical characteristics, demographic variables, anesthetic medications, operation techniques, time intervals, and complications were recorded. Results. Sixty-six eyes of 33 patients (23 males, 10 females with type 1 ROP who were treated with IVB were included. A total of 66 anesthetic applications were performed. Mean gestational age at birth was 28.3 weeks (range 25–33. Mean birth weight was 1300 g (range 600–1850. Serious ocular and systemic complications were not observed in any infant. Conclusion. Inhalation anesthesia with sevoflurane during IVB treatment in premature infants with ROP may be appropriate for anesthetic management.

  10. 3 Steps to Lower a Woman's Risk of Premature Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3 Steps to Lower a Woman's Risk of Premature Birth Study finds there's lots mothers-to-be ... or federal policy. More Health News on: Pregnancy Premature Babies Preterm Labor Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus ...

  11. Pot While Pregnant May Raise Premature Birth Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159036.html Pot While Pregnant May Raise Premature Birth Risk: Study Experts' advice ... May 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Smoking pot while pregnant may increase the risk of premature delivery, a ...

  12. Bone mineralisation in premature infants cannot be predicted from serum alkaline phosphatase or serum phosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerk, J; Peitersen, Birgit; Petersen, S;

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The bone mineral content of premature infants at term is lower than in mature infants at the same postconceptional age. Serum alkaline phosphatase and serum phosphate are often used as indicators of bone mineralisation. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the association between bone mineral content...... and serum alkaline phosphatase and serum phosphate. METHODS: Serum alkaline phosphatase and phosphate were measured at weekly intervals during admission in 108 premature infants of gestational age below 32 weeks (mean (SD) gestational age 29 (2) weeks; mean (SD) birth weight 1129 (279) g). Bone mineral...... content was measured at term (mean gestational age 41 weeks) by dual energy x ray absorptiometry and corrected for body size. RESULTS: Serum alkaline phosphatase was significantly negatively associated with serum phosphate (p alkaline...

  13. Subclinical Coronary Plaque Burden in Asymptomatic Relatives of Patients With Documented Premature Coronary Artery Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Morten Krogh; Jensen, Jesper Møller; Bøtker, Hans Erik;

    Introduction: A family history of premature coronary artery disease (CAD) is a well-known risk factor for adverse coronary events with age of onset being inversely related to the degree of heritability. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that asymptomatic first degree relatives, of patients with premature...... CAD, suffer a high burden of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. Methods: First degree relatives, aged 30-65 years, of patients with a documented coronary revascularization procedure before the age of 40 years, were invited to participate in the study. Participants were matched by age, sex...... and absence of a family history, with patients referred for coronary CT angiography (CTA) because of atypical angina or non-anginal chest pain. A pooled blinded analysis was performed. The main outcome measure was the number of plaque-affected coronary segments. Results: 88 relatives and 88 symptomatic...

  14. The relationship of adverse childhood experiences to a history of premature death of family members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Edwards J

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs, including childhood abuse and neglect, and serious household dysfunction, and premature death of a family member. Because ACEs increase the risk for many of the leading causes of death in adults and tend to be familial and intergenerational, we hypothesized that persons who report having more ACEs would be more likely to have family members at risk of premature death. Methods We used data from 17,337 adult health plan members who completed a survey about 10 types of ACEs and whether a family member died before age 65. The prevalence of family member premature death and its association with ACEs were assessed. Results Family members of respondents who experienced any type of ACEs were more likely to have elevated prevalence for premature death relative to those of respondents without such experience (p Conclusion Adverse childhood experiences may be an indicator of a chaotic family environment that results in an increased risk of premature death among family members.

  15. Neuromodulation of Limb Proprioceptive Afferents Decreases Apnea of Prematurity and Accompanying Intermittent Hypoxia and Bradycardia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavan, Kalpashri; Frank, Paul; Cordero, Daniella M.; Benharash, Peyman; Harper, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Apnea of Prematurity (AOP) is common, affecting the majority of infants born at prematurity (ROP), injury to sympathetic ganglia regulating cardiovascular action, impaired pancreatic islet cell and bone development, cerebellar injury, and neurodevelopmental disabilities. Current standard of care for AOP/IH includes prone positioning, positive pressure ventilation, and methylxanthine therapy; these interventions are inadequate, and not optimal for early development. Objective The objective is to support breathing in premature infants by using a simple, non-invasive vibratory device placed over limb proprioceptor fibers, an intervention using the principle that limb movements trigger reflexive facilitation of breathing. Methods Premature infants (23–34 wks gestational age), with clinical evidence of AOP/IH episodes were enrolled 1 week after birth. Caffeine treatment was not a reason for exclusion. Small vibration devices were placed on one hand and one foot and activated in 6 hour ON/OFF sequences for a total of 24 hours. Heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation (SpO2), and breathing pauses were continuously collected. Results Fewer respiratory pauses occurred during vibration periods, relative to baseline (ppremature neonates, limb proprioceptive stimulation, simulating limb movement, reduces breathing pauses and IH episodes, and lowers the number of bradycardic events that accompany aberrant breathing episodes. This low-cost neuromodulatory procedure has the potential to provide a non-invasive intervention to reduce apnea, bradycardia and intermittent hypoxia in premature neonates. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02641249 PMID:27304988

  16. Macular Findings Obtained by Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Retinopathy of Prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Kazim Erol

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine the macular findings obtained with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT in infants with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. Materials and Methods. The macular SD OCT images of 190 premature infants were analyzed. Data regarding central foveal thickness (CFT, cystoid macular edema (CME, and cyst grading were compared. The relationships of CFT with gestational age and birth weight were investigated. Results. The results were obtained from 358 eyes of 179 infants (81 females and 98 males of a mean gestational age of 30.9±2.7 weeks and a mean birth weight of 1609±477 g. ROP was diagnosed in 126 eyes and CME in 139 eyes. A significantly greater percentage of eyes with ROP were found to have CME (54% compared to eyes without ROP (31%; P=0.001. The incidence of CME was 46.3% for stage 1 ROP, 57.1% for stage 2, and 87.5% for stage 3. There was a weakly inverse correlation between CFT, gestational age, and birth weight (P=0.025, r=-0.227; P=0.002, r=-0.182, resp., Spearman correlation test. Conclusions. High-quality SD OCT images can be obtained from premature infants using the iVue system. Severity and frequency of CME in premature infants increase as stage of ROP increases.

  17. Dental and Maxillofacial Abnormalities in Children with Premature Loss of Primary Canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarelys Morera Pérez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: since primary canines are among the last teeth to be replaced by permanent ones, they are critical to maintain the space in the dental arch and proper occlusion. Their premature loss has a greater impact on the anterior region, but it can also affect the posterior region. Objective: to describe dental and maxillofacial abnormalities in children who prematurely lost the primary canines. Methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted in children aged 5 to 9 years attending the Guerrillero Heroico Elementary School located within the health area number 2 of Cienfuegos municipality, from November 2014 through April 2015. Variables analyzed were: age, sex, cause of tooth loss, dental and maxillofacial abnormalities (linguoversion of lower or upper incisors, mesial occlusion, crowding, hyperocclusion, and increased or decreased overjet. Results: the premature loss of primary canines was more frequently observed in children aged 5 and 6 years and in most cases, it resulted from indicated extractions (66.7%. Linguoversion of lower incisors and increased overjet were the most common abnormalities. Conclusion: all children showed dental and maxillofacial abnormalities related to the premature loss of primary canines. This demonstrates the importance of avoiding their early loss whenever possible, as it is a key factor for the development of malocclusion.

  18. The Effects of Varicocelectomy on the Patients With Premature Ejaculation

    OpenAIRE

    Asadpour, Amir Abbas; Aslezare, Mohammad; Nazari Adkani, Lina; Armin, Mohsen; Vojdani, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Premature ejaculation is one of the most problems in clinical practice. The association between varicocele and premature ejaculation was poorly understood. The effects of varicocelectomy on premature ejaculation in varicocele patient was studied. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the impacts of varicocelectomy on patients with both premature ejaculation and varicoceles. Patients and Methods: This was a clinical trial study, conducted on 124 patients (20-35 years o...

  19. Management of inguinal hernia in premature infants: 10-year experience

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley John Crankson; Khalil Al Tawil; Mohammad Al Namshan; Saud Al Jadaan; Beverly Jane Baylon; Mutaz Gieballa; Ibrahim Hakim Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Debatable issues in the management of inguinal hernia in premature infants remain unresolved. This study reviews our experience in the management of inguinal hernia in premature infants. Materials and Methods: Retrospective chart review of premature infants with inguinal hernia from 1999 to 2009. Infants were grouped into 2: Group 1 had repair (HR) just before discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and Group 2 after discharge. Results: Eighty four premature infants were i...

  20. 14 CFR 1214.806 - Premature termination of Spacelab flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Premature termination of Spacelab flights... FLIGHT Reimbursement for Spacelab Services § 1214.806 Premature termination of Spacelab flights. If a... are, in NASA's judgment, adversely affected by such premature termination. The basis for...

  1. Raised Vaginal Fluid Fibronectin Level Indicates Premature Rupture of Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Bhowmik

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Premature rupture of membrane (PROM is one of the common complications of pregnancy that has major impact on fetal and neonatal outcome. It is the commonest clinical event where a normal pregnancy becomes suddenly a high-risk one for mother and fetus or neonate. Objective: The study was undertaken to investigate whether raised fibronectin level in vaginal fluid may indicate premature rupture of membrane. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Sir Salimullah Medical College & Mitford Hospital, Dhaka during the period of January 2006 to December 2007. A total of 114 pregnant women with gestational age 28th week up to 40th week were included. Sixty were PROM (Group I and 54 were non-PROM (Group II subjects. Fibronectin in vaginal fluid was measured by an immunochemical reaction by nephelometer. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS version 10.0. Results: The PROM patients had significantly higher concentration of fibronectin (225.77 ± 115.18 ng/mL compared to that in non-PROM subjects (8.04 ± 16.17 ng/mL (p < 0.001. Conclusion: It can be concluded that in cases of unequivocal rupture or intactness of the membranes, the result of the fibronectin test corresponds well with the clinical situation. So fibronectin is a sensitive test for detection of amniotic fluid in the vagina.

  2. Bilateral Coats’ Disease Combined with Retinopathy of Prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Gursoy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To report a case of bilateral Coats’ disease combined with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. Case. Retinal vascularization was complete in the right eye, whereas zone III, stage 3 ROP and preplus disease were observed in the left eye at 43 weeks of postmenstrual age (PMA in a 31-week premature, 1200-g neonate. Intraretinal exudates developed and retinal hemorrhages increased in the left eye at 51 weeks of PMA. Diode laser photocoagulation (LP was applied to the left eye. Exudates involved the macula, and telangiectatic changes developed one month following LP. Additional LP was applied to the left eye combined with intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB injection at 55 weeks of PMA. Disease regressed one month after the additional therapy. At the 14-month examination of the baby, telangiectatic changes and intraretinal exudates were observed in the right eye. Diode LP was applied to the right eye combined with IVB injection. Exudates did not resolve completely, and cryotherapy was applied one month following LP. Retinal findings regressed three months following the cryotherapy. Conclusion. This is the first report of presumed bilateral Coats’ disease combined with ROP. If Coats’ disease could be diagnosed at early stages, it would be a disease associated with better prognosis.

  3. Adolescent Premature Ovarian Insufficiency Following Human Papillomavirus Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre Therese Little MBBS, DRANZCOG, FACRRM

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Three young women who developed premature ovarian insufficiency following quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination presented to a general practitioner in rural New South Wales, Australia. The unrelated girls were aged 16, 16, and 18 years at diagnosis. Each had received HPV vaccinations prior to the onset of ovarian decline. Vaccinations had been administered in different regions of the state of New South Wales and the 3 girls lived in different towns in that state. Each had been prescribed the oral contraceptive pill to treat menstrual cycle abnormalities prior to investigation and diagnosis. Vaccine research does not present an ovary histology report of tested rats but does present a testicular histology report. Enduring ovarian capacity and duration of function following vaccination is unresearched in preclinical studies, clinical and postlicensure studies. Postmarketing surveillance does not accurately represent diagnoses in adverse event notifications and can neither represent unnotified cases nor compare incident statistics with vaccine course administration rates. The potential significance of a case series of adolescents with idiopathic premature ovarian insufficiency following HPV vaccination presenting to a general practice warrants further research. Preservation of reproductive health is a primary concern in the recipient target group. Since this group includes all prepubertal and pubertal young women, demonstration of ongoing, uncompromised safety for the ovary is urgently required. This matter needs to be resolved for the purposes of population health and public vaccine confidence.

  4. Current pharmacological agents for the treatment of premature ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Dede

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to review and assess the update studies regarding medical treatment for premature ejaculation (PE. It is the most common sexual problem affecting men. It can affect men at all ages and has a serious impact on the quality of life for men and their partners. A wide variety of therapeutic modalities have been tried for treatment of premature ejaculation. Psychological therapies may be helpful for patients with complaint PE. Several topical therapies have been used including lidocaine cream, lidocaine-prilocaine cream. There has been recent interest in the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI for the treatment of PE, due to the fact that one of their common side effects is delayed ejaculation. Currently used SSRIs have several non-sexual side effects and long half lives, therefore there has been interest in developing a short acting, and efficacious SSRI that can be used on-demand for PE. Dapoxetine has been recently evaluated for the treatment of PE by several groups, and results so far appear promising.

  5. Recent advances in the treatment of premature ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate D Linton

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Kate D Linton, Kevan R WylieSheffield Teaching Hospitals, Sheffield, UKAbstract: Premature ejaculation (PE is the most common sexual problem affecting men. It can affect men at all ages and has a serious impact on the quality of life for men and their partners. Currently there are no pharmaceutical agents approved for use in the UK, and so all drugs used for this condition are off label. Behavioral therapy has been used to treat PE, but the results are not durable once therapy has been concluded. Several topical therapies have been used including severance-secret (SS cream, lignocaine spray, lidocaine-prilocaine cream and lidocaine-prilocaine spray (TEMPE. There has been recent interest in the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs for the treatment of PE, due to the fact that one of their common side effects is delayed ejaculation. Currently used SSRIs have several non-sexual side effects and long half lives, therefore there has been interest in developing a short acting, efficacious SSRI that can be used on-demand for PE. Dapoxetine has been recently evaluated for the treatment of PE by several groups, and results so far appear promising.Keywords: premature ejaculation, topical therapies, selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, dapoxetine

  6. Retinopathy of Prematurity and Blood Transfusion Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Mohagheghi

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available To determine the role of blood transfusion protocols on retinopathy of prematurity (ROP, a prospective cohort study on 57 premature infants under 1501 grams birth weight was performed. Fourteen day-old infants were divided into two groups randomly. Infants in group 1 (n=27 received packed red blood cell transfusion only if specific medical signs were met and their hematocrit level was under 30%. Infants in group 2 (n=30 received blood transfusion to maintain their hematocrit level > 40% regardless of their signs. All infants had an eye examination by indirect ophthalmoscopy from 28 to 40 days of life for detecting ROP. We did not find any significant difference in ROP incidence between both groups.

  7. The Effect of Peribulbar Block with General Anesthesia for Vitreoretinal Surgery in Premature and Ex-Premature Infants with Retinopathy of Prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Renu; Maitra, Souvik

    2016-01-15

    Safe anesthesia in premature and ex-premature infants remains a challenge for the anesthesiologist. These infants are at risk of postoperative apnea, desaturation, and bradycardia after general anesthesia. We describe our experience of peribulbar block in 24 infants who underwent vitreoretinal surgery for retinopathy of prematurity. None of our patients had postoperative apnea or required neonatal intensive care admission. A possible opioid and muscle relaxant-sparing effect of peribulbar block might have reduced the incidence of postoperative complications. PMID:26556110

  8. INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM AND CENTRAL ASIA: PREMATURE ASSESSMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Sabol, Steven

    2008-01-01

    In the months leading up to, and the first few years after, the Soviet Union collapsed numerous articles and books were published that claimed Islamic "fundamentalism" was likely to emerge in Central Asia. These fears were predicated on numerous scenarios, the most important being the ongoing political and military crisis in Afghanistan and Iranian attempts to increase its influence in the region. I will argue, however, that these concerns were premature and that the real threat to the stabil...

  9. Preclinical Models of Encephalopathy of Prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    Jantzie, Lauren L.; Robinson, Shenandoah

    2015-01-01

    Encephalopathy of prematurity (EoP) encompasses the central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities associated with injury from preterm birth. Although rapid progress is being made, limited understanding exists of how the cellular and molecular CNS injury from early birth manifests as the myriad of neurological deficits in children who are born preterm. More importantly, this lack of direct insight into the pathogenesis of these deficits hinders both our ability to diagnose those infants who are a...

  10. Multifactorial risk environment for retinopathy of prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    Drazdienė, Nijolė; Bagdonienė, Rasa; Sirtautienė, Rasa; Vezbergienė, Nijolė; Sliesoraitienė, Viktorija; Sliesoraitytė, Ieva

    2006-01-01

    Background: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) might be prevented by a timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment applied according to the risk factors. The goal of our research was to combine the optimal clinical and epidemiological indicators for ROP risk detection. Materials and methods: A retrospective observational research was carried out at Clinic of Neonatology of Vilnius University Children’s Hospital. The research combined examination of epidemiological and clinical characteristic...

  11. Retinopathy of prematurity: the need for prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Lois

    2016-01-01

    Raffael Liegl,1 Ann Hellström,2 Lois EH Smith1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden Abstract: More than 450,000 babies are born prematurely in the USA every year. The improved survival of even the most vulnerable low body weight preterm infants has, despite improving health outc...

  12. Retinopathy of prematurity: the need for prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Liegl R; Hellström A; Smith LEH

    2016-01-01

    Raffael Liegl,1 Ann Hellström,2 Lois EH Smith1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden Abstract: More than 450,000 babies are born prematurely in the USA every year. The improved survival of even the most vulnerable low body weight preterm infants has, despite improving health outcomes, le...

  13. Premature Ejaculation and Utilization of Cognitive Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU; M. Hakan TÜRKÇAPAR; Akkoyunlu, Canan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Premature ejaculation is the most common male sexual dysfunction leading to distress in many couples. Master and Johnson emphasized the concept of early learned experiences and Kaplan emphasized lack of sensory awareness. For treatment sex therapists mainly utilize start-stop and squeeze techniques as homework. Couples enter sex therapy with some cognitive distortions and beliefs about sex and sexuality. These beliefs are also named sexual myths. For some couples using technique...

  14. Clomiphene Effects on Idiopathic Premature Ejaculation

    OpenAIRE

    Ketabchi

    2015-01-01

    Background Premature ejaculation (PE) is the inability to delay ejaculation, occurring sooner than they or their partner would like during sexual activities. PE is a challenging problem that can affect sexual enjoyment and may harm relationships of couples and affect their quality of life. In idiopathic PE, several helpful techniques and medicines are recommended, but none of them has yielded satisfactory results. Objectives Our o...

  15. Nutritional support in the premature newborn

    OpenAIRE

    Puntis, J W L

    2006-01-01

    The theory and practice of nutritional support in the premature newborn has assumed increasing importance with survival of greater numbers of very immature infants. After birth, many do not tolerate full enteral feeding until gastrointestinal motor function has matured. During this process some will develop necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), a devastating failure of adaptation to postnatal life that may result in death, or severe complications. The feeding strategy that minimises the risk of NE...

  16. The impact of prematurity on fetal haemoglobin and how it can bias measurement of glycated haemoglobin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Gitte; Esberg, Gitte; Grytter, Carl;

    : As part of a nutritional study on premature children, HbF and HbA1c were measured in 46 premature infants at the age of six to eight months. Results: Median HbF percentage was 10.3% (range 2.0 to 39.2%). In a multiple regression model only birth weight (P = 0.002) and post-conceptional age (P ... significantly from unadjusted values (4.4±0.4%), (P bias for unadjusted values ranging from 1.9 to 33.3%. Conclusions: The HbF concentration remains high in premature infants at six to eight months of age. The clinical implication of this work is a renewed attention on the prolonged Hb...

  17. A Century of Germinal Matrix Intraventricular Hemorrhage in Autopsied Premature Infants: A Historical Account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefti, Marco M; Trachtenberg, Felicia L; Haynes, Robin L; Hassett, Catherine; Volpe, Joseph J; Kinney, Hannah C

    2016-01-01

    The care of premature infants in the 20th century is remarkable for technical advances that have dramatically improved survival, but little is known about temporal changes in the neuropathology of the premature infant over this time frame. We hypothesize that the autopsy rate of germinal matrix hemorrhage changed in the 20th century relative to combined influences of clinical interventions that were both harmful and helpful. We examined germinal matrix hemorrhage with intraventricular hemorrhage (GMH-IVH) in 345 premature infants (gestational age 25-36 weeks) autopsied at Boston Children's Hospital from 1914 to 2015. There was a median of 19 cases/decade (range 7-68). Over the course of the study median gestational age decreased from 33 to 27 gestational weeks (P3-fold around the time of the introduction of positive pressure ventilation into premature intensive care in the mid-1960s. The increased incidence of GMH-IVH in the 1970s-1980s likely reflects respiratory and hemodynamic imbalances complicating mechanical ventilation. We speculate that the subsequent decreased incidence of GMH-IVH likely reflects stabilization of respiratory function with improvements in ventilators and in ventilator management beginning in the 1970s and the use of surfactant and antenatal steroids in the 1980s. PMID:26372101

  18. Genetically modified mouse models for premature ovarian failure (POF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagarlamudi, Krishna; Reddy, Pradeep; Adhikari, Deepak; Liu, Kui

    2010-02-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a complex disorder that affects approximately 1% of women. POF is characterized by the depletion of functional ovarian follicles before the age of 40 years, and clinically, patients may present with primary amenorrhea or secondary amenorrhea. Although some genes have been hypothesized to be candidates responsible for POF, the etiology of most of the cases is idiopathic, with the underlying causes still unidentified because of the heterogeneity of the disease. In this review, we consider some mutant mouse models that exhibit phenotypes which are comparable to human POF, and we suggest that the use of these mouse models may help us to gain a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying POF in humans.

  19. Practice Bulletin No. 172: Premature Rupture of Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Preterm delivery occurs in approximately 12% of all births in the United States and is a major factor that contributes to perinatal morbidity and mortality (1, 2). Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PROM) complicates approximately 3% of all pregnancies in the United States (3). The optimal approach to clinical assessment and treatment of women with term and preterm PROM remains controversial. Management hinges on knowledge of gestational age and evaluation of the relative risks of delivery versus the risks of expectant management (eg, infection, abruptio placentae, and umbilical cord accident). The purpose of this document is to review the current understanding of this condition and to provide management guidelines that have been validated by appropriately conducted outcome-based research when available. Additional guidelines on the basis of consensus and expert opinion also are presented. PMID:27661655

  20. Practice Bulletin No. 172 Summary: Premature Rupture of Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Preterm delivery occurs in approximately 12% of all births in the United States and is a major factor that contributes to perinatal morbidity and mortality (1, 2). Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PROM) complicates approximately 3% of all pregnancies in the United States (3). The optimal approach to clinical assessment and treatment of women with term and preterm PROM remains controversial. Management hinges on knowledge of gestational age and evaluation of the relative risks of delivery versus the risks of expectant management (eg, infection, abruptio placentae, and umbilical cord accident). The purpose of this document is to review the current understanding of this condition and to provide management guidelines that have been validated by appropriately conducted outcome-based research when available. Additional guidelines on the basis of consensus and expert opinion also are presented. PMID:27661647

  1. Behavioral and social development of children born extremely premature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Hansen, Bo Mølholm; Munck, Hanne;

    2004-01-01

    A cohort of extremely prematurely born children and matched term controls was assessed at 5 years of age. The parents completed a questionnaire on their behavioral and social development. The purpose was to illuminate whether the children's general intellectual ability and parental sensitivity were...... associated with behavioral and social development. The index children exhibited more hyperactive behavior and had poorer social skills than the controls. Lower Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) was associated with outward reacting and hyperactive behavior and poorer social skills. Sensitive parenting was associated...... with less outward reacting and less hyperactive behavior. When controlling for differences in FSIQ and parental sensitivity, the index children persisted to have an increased risk of exhibiting hyperactive behavior but not poorer social skills. The index children with normal intellectual development...

  2. [Prematurity risk according to prematurity risk score and postpartal morbidity of the newborn infants (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coradello, H; Lubec, G; Simbruner, G

    1981-02-01

    Risk of premature birth was evaluated retrospectively in 610 women in the first days after delivery using the prematurity risk score published by Thalhammer 1973. The calculated risk of premature birth was compared than prospectively to postpartal morbidity of the newborn infants as determined by duration of hospital stay, incidence of respiratory distress syndrome, need of artificial ventilation and mortality. A positive correlation could be found between risk of premature birth and postpartal morbidity of the newborn infants especially in small premature infants with birthweights of 2000 grams and less. The same correlation existed also in two groups of infants out of two different obstetric clinics which showed the same distribution of prenatal risks and the same prenatal care frequencies. It clearly becomes evident that infants with the same prenatal risks but good prenatal care during pregnancy had much lower hospital stays, lower respiratory distress frequencies and lower mortality rates than babies delivered from pregnancies badly cared for. These prenatal care related differences in postpartum morbidity again were much more evident in infants out of lower birth weight classes.

  3. Patterned progression of bacterial populations in the premature infant gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa, Patricio S; Warner, Barbara B; Zhou, Yanjiao; Weinstock, George M; Sodergren, Erica; Hall-Moore, Carla M; Stevens, Harold J; Bennett, William E; Shaikh, Nurmohammad; Linneman, Laura A; Hoffmann, Julie A; Hamvas, Aaron; Deych, Elena; Shands, Berkley A; Shannon, William D; Tarr, Phillip I

    2014-08-26

    In the weeks after birth, the gut acquires a nascent microbiome, and starts its transition to bacterial population equilibrium. This early-in-life microbial population quite likely influences later-in-life host biology. However, we know little about the governance of community development: does the gut serve as a passive incubator where the first organisms randomly encountered gain entry and predominate, or is there an orderly progression of members joining the community of bacteria? We used fine interval enumeration of microbes in stools from multiple subjects to answer this question. We demonstrate via 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing of 922 specimens from 58 subjects that the gut microbiota of premature infants residing in a tightly controlled microbial environment progresses through a choreographed succession of bacterial classes from Bacilli to Gammaproteobacteria to Clostridia, interrupted by abrupt population changes. As infants approach 33-36 wk postconceptional age (corresponding to the third to the twelfth weeks of life depending on gestational age at birth), the gut is well colonized by anaerobes. Antibiotics, vaginal vs. Caesarian birth, diet, and age of the infants when sampled influence the pace, but not the sequence, of progression. Our results suggest that in infants in a microbiologically constrained ecosphere of a neonatal intensive care unit, gut bacterial communities have an overall nonrandom assembly that is punctuated by microbial population abruptions. The possibility that the pace of this assembly depends more on host biology (chiefly gestational age at birth) than identifiable exogenous factors warrants further consideration. PMID:25114261

  4. 特发性右心室流出道室性心动过速/室性早搏的性别、年龄和临床特点%The gender, age and clinical feature of idiopathic right ventricular outflow tract ventricular tachycardia/premature ventricular complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈刚; 张澍; 张奎俊; 陈新; 姚焰; 马坚; 楚建民; 方丕华; 贾玉和; 王方正

    2010-01-01

    目的 特发性右心室流出道室性心动过速(室速)/室性早搏(室早)是指不伴有明显器质性心脏病的起源于右心室流出道的室速/室早.对478例特发性右心室流出道室速/室早患者进行系统的回顾性分析,探讨其性别、年龄和临床特点.方法 478例患者,平均年龄(39.8±13.8)岁,在过去的15年里,先后因特发性室速/室早在我院住院治疗,并都接受了心内电生理检查和射频消融术治疗.这478例患者室速/室早的射频消融靶点均位于右心室流出道.结果 在478例患者中,女性288例(60.3%),男性190例(39.7%),女性/男性比为1.52.出现症状的年龄女性为(41.2±12.7)岁,男性为(37.6±15.0)岁(P<0.05),所有患者均有不同程度的心悸症状,478例患者中,67例(14.2%)曾出现过黑矇症状,13例(2.7%)曾经出现晕厥.263例(55%)患者在接受射频消融术前,接受过抗心律失常的药物治疗,药物治疗不成功.结论 特发性右心室流出道室速/室早患者女性较男性多,女性出现临床症状的平均年龄较男性大,对于这一现象的研究有助于揭示这种心律失常的发生机制.所有患者均有不同程度的心慌症状,有的患者甚至出现黑矇、晕厥.因此对于特发性右心室流出道室速/室早应当更加积极地治疗.%Objective The aim of this study was to clarify gender,age and clinical feature of idiopathic right ventricular outflow tract ventricular tachycardia/premature ventricular complexes(ROVT/PVC). Methods We studied 478 patients[mean age(39. 8 ± 13. 8)years]with idiopathic ROVT/PVC who were admitted to our center consecutively in past 15 years. All of them underwent catheter mapping and radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA), and the original sites of ventricular tachycardia/premature ventricular complexes were confirmed by catheter mapping and radiofrequency catheter ablation. Results Of 478 patients, 288 patients (60. 3% )were female, 190 patients(39. 7% )were male

  5. [Pharmacokinetic and clinical evaluations on ceftriaxone in neonates and premature infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiro, H; Kusumoto, Y; Satoh, Y; Oikawa, T; Osano, M

    1988-03-01

    Ceftriaxone (CTRX) was clinically evaluated and its pharmacokinetics studied in neonates and premature infants, and the results obtained are summarized as follows. 1. Average blood levels of CTRX after intravenous administration of 10 mg/kg in 3 neonates with birth weights of 2,500 g or more were 45.32 mcg/ml at 15 minutes, 28.91 mcg/ml at 1 hour, 15.76 mcg/ml at 6 hours, and 16.28 mcg/ml at 12 hours, and the half-life was 9.93 hours. The half-life in a newly born premature infant (less than 1 day) was 28.90 hours, and in a premature infant 6 days old it was 12.90 hours. 2. Average blood levels after intravenous administration of 20 mg/kg to 2 neonates aged 0 and 3 days with birth weights of 2,500 g or more, were 129.7 mcg/ml at 15 minutes, 60.94 mcg/ml at 1 hour, 32.04 mcg/ml at 6 hours, and 24.23 mcg/ml at 12 hours, and the half-life was 8.95 hours. The half-life in a newly born premature infant (less than 1 day) was 20.70 hours. 3. Urinary recovery rates of CTRX in 12 hours after intravenous administration of 10 or 20 mg/kg to 6 neonates aged 0 to 3 days (including premature infants) ranged from 13.8 to 50.6%. 4. Clinical efficacies of CTRX were excellent or good in 3 of 4 neonates including infants suspected of having infections (efficacy rate: 75%). 5. As a side effect, diarrhea was noted in 1 case. PMID:3404644

  6. Premature Coronary Heart Disease and Traditional Risk Factors-Can We Do Better?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Sadeghi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traditional cardiovascular risk factors are strong predictors of an increased likelihood for premature CHD. Considering the benefits of risk factors᾿ management, it is imperative to find and treat them before looking for more unknown and weak risk factors. Objectives: Limited information is available about the demographic and historical characteristics of the patients with premature Coronary Heart Disease (CHD in IR Iran. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of the traditional risk factors in these patients. Also, the researchers hypothesized that there are insufficient risk assessment and preventive intervention methods for the asymptomatic adult population. Methods: This study was conducted on 125 patients with premature CHD (age<50 years who were admitted in two academic hospitals with acute coronary syndromes. The patients were accepted since they had a definite CHD on the basis of acute myocardial infarction (elevated cardiac enzymes or documented CAD in coronary angiography. Results: The mean age of the study population was 42.50±5.65 (26 to 49 years. Among the patients,92 (73.6% were male, 113 (90.4% were married, 58 (46.4% were smokers,19 (15.2% were opium users, 97 (77.6% had dyslipidemia, 44 (35.2% had hypertension, and 33 (26.4% had diabetes mellitus. In addition, family history was presented in 54 patients (43.2%. Conclusions: Premature Coronary Heart Disease is a public health problem. However, there is lack of effective and intensive treatments of well-defined traditional risk factors and prevention methods for the majority of the patients experiencing premature CHD. In sum, there is still plenty of room for improvement of risk management in IR Iran.

  7. Retinopathy of prematurity: the need for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liegl R

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Raffael Liegl,1 Ann Hellström,2 Lois EH Smith1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden Abstract: More than 450,000 babies are born prematurely in the USA every year. The improved survival of even the most vulnerable low body weight preterm infants has, despite improving health outcomes, led to the resurgence in preterm complications including one of the major causes for blindness in children, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. The current mainstay in ROP therapy is laser photocoagulation and the injection of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF antibodies in the late stages of the disease after the onset of neovascularization. Both are proven options for ophthalmologists to treat the severe forms of late ROP. However, laser photocoagulation destroys major parts of the retina, and the injection of VEGF antibodies, although rather simple to administer, may cause a systemic suppression of normal vascularization, which has not been studied in sufficient depth. However, the use of neither VEGF antibody nor laser treatment prevents ROP, which should be the long-term goal. It should be possible to prevent ROP by more closely mimicking the intrauterine environment after preterm birth. Such preventive measures include preventing the toxic postbirth influences (eg, oxygen excess as well as providing the missing intrauterine factors (eg, insulin growth factor 1 and are likely to also reduce other complications of premature birth as well as ROP. This review is meant to summarize the current knowledge on the prevention of ROP with a particular emphasize on the use of insulin growth factor 1 supplementation. Keywords: ROP, IGF-1, insulin growth factor 1

  8. The pathophysiology of lifelong premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldinger, Marcel D

    2016-08-01

    For many decades it has been thought that lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) is only characterized by persistent early ejaculations. Despite enormous progress of in vivo animal research, and neurobiological, genetic and pharmacological research in men with lifelong PE, our current understanding of the mechanisms behind early ejaculations is far from complete. The new classification of PE into four PE subtypes has shown that the symptomatology of lifelong PE strongly differs from acquired PE, subjective PE and variable PE. The phenotype of lifelong PE and therefore also the pathophysiology of lifelong PE is much more complex. A substantial number of men with lifelong PE not only have PE, but also premature erection and premature penile detumescence as part of an acute hypertonic or hypererotic state when engaged in an erotic situation or when making love. As both erectio praecox, ejaculatio praecox, detumescentia praecox, and the hypererotic state are part of the phenotype lifelong PE, it is argued that lifelong PE is not only a disturbance of the timing of ejaculation but also a disturbance of the timing of erection, detumescence and arousal. Since 1998, the pathophysiology of lifelong PE was thought to be mainly mediated by the central serotonergic system in line with genetic polymorphisms of specific serotonergic genes. However, by accepting that lifelong PE is characterized by the reversible hypertonic state the hypothesis of mainly serotonergic dysfunction is no longer tenable. Instead, it has been postulated that the pathophysiology of lifelong PE is mediated by a very complex interplay of central and peripheral serotonergic, dopaminergic, oxytocinergic, endocrinological, genetic and probably also epigenetic factors. Progress in research of lifelong PE can only be accomplished when a stopwatch is used to measure the IELT and the cut-off point of 1 minute for the definition of lifelong PE is maintained. Current use of validated questionnaires, neglect of

  9. The pathophysiology of lifelong premature ejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    For many decades it has been thought that lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) is only characterized by persistent early ejaculations. Despite enormous progress of in vivo animal research, and neurobiological, genetic and pharmacological research in men with lifelong PE, our current understanding of the mechanisms behind early ejaculations is far from complete. The new classification of PE into four PE subtypes has shown that the symptomatology of lifelong PE strongly differs from acquired PE, subjective PE and variable PE. The phenotype of lifelong PE and therefore also the pathophysiology of lifelong PE is much more complex. A substantial number of men with lifelong PE not only have PE, but also premature erection and premature penile detumescence as part of an acute hypertonic or hypererotic state when engaged in an erotic situation or when making love. As both erectio praecox, ejaculatio praecox, detumescentia praecox, and the hypererotic state are part of the phenotype lifelong PE, it is argued that lifelong PE is not only a disturbance of the timing of ejaculation but also a disturbance of the timing of erection, detumescence and arousal. Since 1998, the pathophysiology of lifelong PE was thought to be mainly mediated by the central serotonergic system in line with genetic polymorphisms of specific serotonergic genes. However, by accepting that lifelong PE is characterized by the reversible hypertonic state the hypothesis of mainly serotonergic dysfunction is no longer tenable. Instead, it has been postulated that the pathophysiology of lifelong PE is mediated by a very complex interplay of central and peripheral serotonergic, dopaminergic, oxytocinergic, endocrinological, genetic and probably also epigenetic factors. Progress in research of lifelong PE can only be accomplished when a stopwatch is used to measure the IELT and the cut-off point of 1 minute for the definition of lifelong PE is maintained. Current use of validated questionnaires, neglect of

  10. Comprehensive Retinal Image Analysis for Aggressive Posterior Retinopathy of Prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Computer aided analysis plays a nontrivial role in assisting the diagnosis of various eye pathologies. In this paper, we propose a framework to help diagnose the presence of Aggressive Posterior Retinopathy Of Prematurity (APROP), a pathology that is characterised by rapid onset and increased tortuosity of blood vessels close to the optic disc (OD). We quantify vessel characteristics that are of clinical relevance to APROP such as tortuosity and the extent of branching i.e., vessel segment count in the defined diagnostic region. We have adapted three vessel segmentation techniques: matched filter response, scale space theory and morphology with local entropy based thresholding. The proposed feature set equips us to build a linear discriminant classifier to discriminate APROP images from clinically healthy images. We have studied 36 images from 21 APROP subjects against a control group of 15 clinically healthy age matched infants. All subjects are age matched ranging from 33−40 weeks of post menstrual age. Experimental results show that we attain 100% recall and 95.45% precision, when the vessel network obtained from morphology is used for feature extraction. PMID:27711231

  11. Retinopathy of Prematurity in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Adio, Adedayo O.; Ugwu, Rosemary O; Nwokocha, Chidi G.; Eneh, Augusta U.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. With many preterm babies now surviving as a result of improvement in neonatal care in Nigeria, the incidence of visual impairment/blindness as a result of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) may rise. We describe our findings after screening starts for the first time in a 15-year-old special care baby unit so as to establish the incidence and risk factors for developing ROP. Methods. A prospective study carried out at the Special Care Baby Unit (SCBU) and Pediatric Outpatient Clinics of...

  12. Premature ejaculation: current and future treatments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Levent Gurkan; Matthew Oommen; Wayne J. G. Hellstrom

    2008-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is recognized to be the most common male sexual disorder. PE provides difficulties for professionals who treat this condition because there is neither a universally accepted definition nor a medication approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Despite these shortcomings, physicians continue to diagnose their patients with PE according to major guidelines and treat them with either behavioral therapies or off-label medications. This review focuses on current and emerging treatment options and medications for PE. Advantages and limitations of each treatment option are discussed in the light of current published peer-reviewed literature.

  13. Premature ejaculation: old story, new insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannini, Emmanuele A; Ciocca, Giacomo; Limoncin, Erika; Mollaioli, Daniele; Di Sante, Stefania; Gianfrilli, Daniele; Lombardo, Francesco; Lenzi, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    Conventional theories and therapies for premature ejaculation (PE) are based on assumptions not always supported by evidence. This review of the current literature on the physiology of the ejaculatory control, pathogenesis of PE, and available therapies shows that PE is still far from being fully understood. However, several interesting hypotheses have been formulated, and solid, evidence-based clinical data are currently available for dapoxetine, the unique, first-line, officially approved pharmacotherapy for PE. Further growth in the field of PE will occur only when we shift from opinion-based classifications, definitions, and hypotheses to robust, noncontroversial data grounded on evidence. PMID:26409323

  14. The drug treatment of premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisasue, Shin-Ichi

    2016-08-01

    The management recommendation for both acquired premature ejaculation (APE) and lifelong PE (LPE) are similar, such as a behavioral/psychotherapy, a pharmacotherapy and a combination of these treatments. For the drug treatment for PE, gold standard is selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) including dapoxetine or paroxetine. The drug treatment for PE is still developing and some new promising therapeutic options have been proposed. Topical anesthetics, tramadol, and alpha-1 blockers will be the next strategies of the drug treatment for PE in the future. PMID:27652221

  15. Premature ovarian failure: morphological and ultrastructural aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidar, M A; Baracat, E C; Simões, M J; Focchi, G R; Evêncio Neto, J; de Lima, G R

    1994-01-01

    The authors documented by means of light and transmission electron microscopy that the ovaries of women with premature ovarian failure (POF) displayed dense connective tissue and rare corpora albicantia. Eight of the ten studied cases did not present ovarian follicles; in two cases, it was verified the presence of ovarian follicles, atypical primordial follicles and in one case, a corpus luteum was identified (after stimulation with exogenous gonadotrophin). Regarding the ultrastructural analysis, it was noted that the fibroblasts were united one to each other by cellular prolongations that formed a woof, constituting a cellular syncicius. PMID:7610321

  16. Cytogenetics of Premature Ovarian Failure: An Investigation on 269 Affected Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Baronchelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of X chromosome in the aetiology of premature ovarian failure (POF is well-known but in many cases POF still remains idiopathic. Chromosome aneuploidy increase is a physiological phenomenon related to aging, but the role of low-level sex chromosome mosaicism in ovarian function is still undiscovered. Standard cytogenetic analysis was carried out in a total of 269 patients affected by POF: 27 chromosomal abnormalities were identified, including X chromosome and autosomal structural and numerical abnormalities. In 47 patients with 46,XX karyotype we performed interphase FISH using X alpha-satellite probe in order to identify X chromosome mosaicism rate. Aneuploidy rate in the patient group was significantly higher than the general population group. These findings underline the importance of X chromosome in the aetiology of POF and highlight the potential role of low-level sex chromosome mosaicism in ovarian aging that may lead to a premature onset of menopause.

  17. Premature loss of the maxillary primary incisors: effect on speech production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, T O; Kummer, A W; Lee, L; Creaghead, N A; Moore, L J

    1995-01-01

    The residual effect of premature loss due to extraction of the four maxillary primary incisors on speech production was studied. The articulation of twenty-six subjects who had their teeth extracted before the age of five years was evaluated at eight, nine, or ten years old and compared with the articulation of an age-matched comparison group with normal exfoliation of their incisors. T-tests for related measures revealed no statistically significant differences between the group with premature loss and the comparison group. These results suggest that loss of maxillary incisors in children younger than five years is not likely to result in defective articulation while the teeth are missing or when the permanent dentition is acquired.

  18. Germ cell deficient (gcd) mouse as a model of premature ovarian failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, M; Cummings, L; Chada, K

    1993-08-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) in women is characterized as menopause commencing before age 35. Although some cases of POF appear to be inherited, no experimental animal models of familial POF are available. Recently a mouse mutation has been identified that results in infertility due to a lack of primordial germ cells arising in early embryonic development. It was observed that shortly after puberty, females homozygous for this mutation entered reproductive senescence as defined by high levels of circulating gonadotropins, inability to respond either hormonally or functionally to superovulation, and a disrupted estrous cycle. Also, the ovaries completely lacked developing follicles and the endometrium was inactive. However, these mice had undergone complete sexual development as determined by age of vaginal opening, mammary gland histology, and sexual behavior. Thus, these animals closely mimic familial premature ovarian failure and may be useful models for study of the pathogenesis and treatment of this condition.

  19. Modelling small-area inequality in premature mortality using years of life lost rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Analysis of premature mortality variations via standardized expected years of life lost (SEYLL) measures raises questions about suitable modelling for mortality data, especially when developing SEYLL profiles for areas with small populations. Existing fixed effects estimation methods take no account of correlations in mortality levels over ages, causes, socio-ethnic groups or areas. They also do not specify an underlying data generating process, or a likelihood model that can include trends or correlations, and are likely to produce unstable estimates for small-areas. An alternative strategy involves a fully specified data generation process, and a random effects model which "borrows strength" to produce stable SEYLL estimates, allowing for correlations between ages, areas and socio-ethnic groups. The resulting modelling strategy is applied to gender-specific differences in SEYLL rates in small-areas in NE London, and to cause-specific mortality for leading causes of premature mortality in these areas.

  20. Prevalence and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cut Badriah

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is the main cause of visual impairment in premature infants. Due to advances in neonatal care, the increased survival of extremely low birth weight (ELBW infants in recent years has produced a population of infants at very high risk of ROP. Objective The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and potential risk factors for ROP. Methods This retrospective study was conducted at the Neonatalogy Ward, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, from January 2005 to August 2010. We included all premature infants of gestational age (GA < 37 weeks, body weight (BW not exceeding 2000 grams, as well as those who had eye examinations and complete medical records. Risk factors such as GA, BW, duration of oxygen (O2 therapy, sepsis, and red blood cell (RBC transfusion were analyzed using the Chi-square and logistic regression tests. Pediatric ophthalmologists had performed eye examinations on all infants. ROP was graded according to the International Classification of ROP. Results The prevalence of ROP and of stage 3 or greater ROP was 11.9% and 4.8% of all subjects, respectively. Body weight, GA, duration of O2 therapy, and sepsis were found to be associated with the development of ROP. However, stepwise logistic regression analysis revealed that only BW of ≤ 1000 g [odds ratio (OR 10.88; 95% CI 3.09 to 38.31; P < 0.000], O2 therapy ≥ 7 days (OR 5.56; 95% CI 1.86 to 16.58; P < 0.0001, and GA of ≤ 28 weeks (OR 4.26; 95% CI 1.15 to 15.81; P = 0.030 were statistically significant risk factors for ROP. The equation obtained was y = -4.092 + 2.388 (BW + 1.451 (GA + 1.716 (duration of O2 therapy. The model showed good calibration (a non-significant Hosmer-Llemeshow test; P = 0.816 and discriminative ability. The area under the curve (AUC value was 92.2% (95% CI 0.867 to 0.976; P < 0.0001. Conclusion Prevalence of ROP in this study (11.9% was lower than that of previous studies. Bby regression logistic analysis, the

  1. Impact of enteral protein supplementation in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrus DM

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available David M Barrus1, Joann Romano-Keeler2, Christopher Carr3, Kira Segebarth4, Betty Claxton2, William F Walsh2, Paul J Flakoll51Department of Neonatology, Saint Francis Hospital–Bartlett, Memphis, TN, 2Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt Medical Center, Nashville, TN, 3Department of Surgery, Naval Hospital Bremerton, Bremerton, WA, 4Pediatric and Diabetes Specialists, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC, 5Department of Surgery, Vanderbilt Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USAObjective: The quantity of enteral protein supplementation required by premature infants to optimize growth has not been determined. This study compares the growth of premature infants fed the current standard intake of protein (3.5 g/kg/day with the growth of those fed a higher amount (4.0 g/kg/day.Study design: Fifty-two infants <1500 g and <33 weeks gestational age participated in a blinded, single-center, prospective randomized control trial to compare growth between two groups of different protein-intake levels. Primary outcomes were average daily weight gain (g/kg/day, head-circumference (cm/kg/week and linear growth velocity (cm/kg/week. Secondary outcomes were serum indices of protein tolerance and plasma amino acid concentrations.Results: Infants receiving higher amounts of protein had higher rates of growth for body weight (18.2 ± 0.7 versus 16.2 ± 1.0 g/kg/day; P < 0.05 and head circumference (0.87 ± 0.08 versus 0.62 ± 0.07 cm/kg/week; P < 0.05, with no differences in blood protein or plasma amino acid concentrations. Length of hospital stay was 14 days shorter for the higher-protein group (51.4 ± 4.0 versus 65.9 ± 6.3 days.Conclusion: Increasing premature infant enteral protein supplementation from a calculated intake of 3.5–4.0 g/kg/day improved growth in a safe manner.Keywords: human milk, human milk fortifier, growth, low birth weight

  2. Macular edema in Asian Indian premature infants with retinopathy of prematurity: Impact on visual acuity and refractive status after 1-year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Vinekar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the impact of transient, self-resolving, untreated "macular edema" detected on spectral domain optical coherence tomography in Asian Indian premature infants with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP on visual acuity (VA and refraction at 1-year of corrected age. Materials and Methods: Visual acuity and refraction of 11 infants with bilateral macular edema (Group A was compared with gestational age-matched 16 infants with ROP without edema (Group B and 17 preterms infants without ROP and without edema (Group C at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of corrected age using Teller Acuity Cards and cycloplegic retinoscopy. Sub-group analysis of the previously described pattern A and B macular edema was performed. Results: Visual acuity was lower in infants with macular edema compared with the other two control groups throughout the study period, but statistically significant only at 3 months. Visual improvement in these infants was highest between the 3 rd and 6 th month and plateaued by the end of the 1 st year with acuity comparable to the other two groups. The edema cohort was more hyperopic compared to the other two groups between 3 and 12 months of age. Pattern A edema had worse VA compared to pattern B, although not statistically significant. Conclusion: Macular edema, although transient, caused reduced VA as early as 3 months of corrected age in Asian Indian premature infants weighing <2000 g at birth. The higher hyperopia in these infants is possibly due to visual disturbances caused at a critical time of fovealization. We hypothesize a recovery and feedback mechanism based on the principles of active emmetropization to explain our findings.

  3. Early behavior and development are influenced by the n-6 and n-3 status in prematures*

    OpenAIRE

    Strandvik Birgitta; Lundqvist-Persson Cristina; Sabel Karl-Göran

    2011-01-01

    In a cohort of premature infants, consecutively included in the study at birth and followed to 18 months of age, the neonatal status of essential fatty acids and longchain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) were investigated and correlated to the development at 40 and 44 weeks gestational age and at 3, 6, 10 and 18 months corrected age. The diet reported by the mothers contained low EFA, 98% had an intake < 1 energy% of n-3 fatty acids. Fatty acid analyses were performed in early breast mil...

  4. Retinopathy of prematurity in a Danish neonatal intensive care unit, 1985-1991

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arrøe, M; Peitersen, Birgit

    1993-01-01

    During the 7 year period 1985 to 1991, 170 infants born in Hvidovre Hospital, Denmark, with birthweight gestational age ... of prematurity (ROP). Eighteen developed blindness or severely reduced vision and 6 developed unilateral blindness. In 21 the ROP changes regressed. Eight infants eventually developed severe myopia. The 45 infants with ROP were compared with the 125 without ROP. There was no difference in birth weight, gender......, or mode of delivery. Significant difference was found in gestational age, asphyxia, intensive treatment and complications. Particularly infants with ROP born with gestational age 27 to 29 weeks needed prolonged and more intensive treatment than infants without ROP. Infants with ROP had more frequently...

  5. Prevalence of dental caries and caries-related risk factors in premature and term children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Resende Nogueira Cruvinel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the prevalence of enamel defects and dental caries and their risk factors on primary and permanent dentitions of prematurely-born children and term children. Eighty children were examined, 40 born prematurely (G1 and 40 born term (G2, in the age group between 5 and 10 years. The demographic variables, medical history and oral health behaviors were recorded on a questionnaire. The teeth were examined for presence of deficiencies of the enamel and caries that were registered. The caries were registered, focusing on the indices dmft (decayed, missing, and filled primary teeth and DMFT (decayed, missing, and filled permanent teeth. The results showed that 75% of the total sample had enamel defects. The logistic regression model showed that other risk factors such as per capita family income, educational level, dietary and hygiene habits, fluoride exposure, trauma, and diseases had no correlation with enamel defects and caries. A smaller value of total DMFT (0.95 was found in the group of premature children in comparison to the term children (2.07 p = 0.0164. There was no difference concerning the permanent dentition between the two groups (p = 0.9926. One concludes that prematurity can't be a predisposing factor for the presence of dental caries.

  6. Bowel Perforation in Premature Infants with Necrotizing Enterocolitis: Risk Factors and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lingling; Tian, Jianmei; Zhao, Xingli; Cheng, Ping; Chen, Xiaoqian; Yu, Yun; Ding, Xiaochun; Zhu, Xueping; Xiao, Zhihui

    2016-01-01

    We aim to determine risk factors and clinical outcomes for bowel perforation in premature infants with NEC. We analyzed clinical data of 57 cases of premature infants with NEC at our NICU between January 2010 and December 2012. Based on the presence of bowel perforation, we divided these infants into two groups: perforated NEC group (n = 10) and nonperforated NEC group (n = 47). We compared general information, clinical characteristics, and laboratory findings between groups. The perforated NEC group, compared to the nonperforated NEC group, had significantly lesser gestational age, lower birth weight, higher prevalence of apnea, mechanical ventilation, sepsis and shock, lower blood pH, higher levels of blood glucose, abnormal WBC count and thrombocytopenia, and elevated CRP (all P < 0.05). Moreover, the perforated NEC group had significantly longer durations of fasting and TPN usage, higher incidences of EUGR and cholestasis, longer duration of antibiotics, higher frequency of advanced antibiotics use, and poorer prognosis than the nonperforated NEC group (all P < 0.05). Bowel perforation in premature infants with NEC was associated with multiple risk factors. Early identification of some of these risk factors in premature infants with NEC may help implement early intervention to reduce the incidence of bowel perforation and thereby improve the prognosis. PMID:27375739

  7. An Evaluation of the Pea Pod System for Assessing Body Composition of Moderately Premature Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsum, Elisabet; Olhager, Elisabeth; Törnqvist, Caroline

    2016-04-22

    (1) BACKGROUND: Assessing the quality of growth in premature infants is important in order to be able to provide them with optimal nutrition. The Pea Pod device, based on air displacement plethysmography, is able to assess body composition of infants. However, this method has not been sufficiently evaluated in premature infants; (2) METHODS: In 14 infants in an age range of 3-7 days, born after 32-35 completed weeks of gestation, body weight, body volume, fat-free mass density (predicted by the Pea Pod software), and total body water (isotope dilution) were assessed. Reference estimates of fat-free mass density and body composition were obtained using a three-component model; (3) RESULTS: Fat-free mass density values, predicted using Pea Pod, were biased but not significantly (p > 0.05) different from reference estimates. Body fat (%), assessed using Pea Pod, was not significantly different from reference estimates. The biological variability of fat-free mass density was 0.55% of the average value (1.0627 g/mL); (4) CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the Pea Pod system is accurate for groups of newborn, moderately premature infants. However, more studies where this system is used for premature infants are needed, and we provide suggestions regarding how to develop this area.

  8. An Evaluation of the Pea Pod System for Assessing Body Composition of Moderately Premature Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Forsum

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Assessing the quality of growth in premature infants is important in order to be able to provide them with optimal nutrition. The Pea Pod device, based on air displacement plethysmography, is able to assess body composition of infants. However, this method has not been sufficiently evaluated in premature infants; (2 Methods: In 14 infants in an age range of 3–7 days, born after 32–35 completed weeks of gestation, body weight, body volume, fat-free mass density (predicted by the Pea Pod software, and total body water (isotope dilution were assessed. Reference estimates of fat-free mass density and body composition were obtained using a three-component model; (3 Results: Fat-free mass density values, predicted using Pea Pod, were biased but not significantly (p > 0.05 different from reference estimates. Body fat (%, assessed using Pea Pod, was not significantly different from reference estimates. The biological variability of fat-free mass density was 0.55% of the average value (1.0627 g/mL; (4 Conclusion: The results indicate that the Pea Pod system is accurate for groups of newborn, moderately premature infants. However, more studies where this system is used for premature infants are needed, and we provide suggestions regarding how to develop this area.

  9. Newborn Urinary Metabolic Signatures of Prematurity and Other Disorders: A Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Sílvia O; Pinto, Joana; Barros, António S; Morais, Elisabete; Duarte, Daniela; Negrão, Fátima; Pita, Cristina; Almeida, Maria do Céu; Carreira, Isabel M; Spraul, Manfred; Gil, Ana M

    2016-01-01

    This work assesses the urinary metabolite signature of prematurity in newborns by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, while establishing the role of possible confounders and signature specificity, through comparison to other disorders. Gender and delivery mode are shown to impact importantly on newborn urine composition, their analysis pointing out at specific metabolite variations requiring consideration in unmatched subject groups. Premature newborns are, however, characterized by a stronger signature of varying metabolites, suggestive of disturbances in nucleotide metabolism, lung surfactants biosynthesis and renal function, along with enhancement of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle activity, fatty acids oxidation, and oxidative stress. Comparison with other abnormal conditions (respiratory depression episode, large for gestational age, malformations, jaundice and premature rupture of membranes) reveals that such signature seems to be largely specific of preterm newborns, showing that NMR metabolomics can retrieve particular disorder effects, as well as general stress effects. These results provide valuable novel information on the metabolic impact of prematurity, contributing to the better understanding of its effects on the newborn's state of health. PMID:26566167

  10. Prevalence of dental caries and caries-related risk factors in premature and term children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruvinel, Vanessa Resende Nogueira; Gravina, Danuze Batista Lamas; Azevedo, Tatiana Degani Paes Leme; Bezerra, Ana Cristina Barreto; Toledo, Orlando Ayrton de

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of enamel defects and dental caries and their risk factors on primary and permanent dentitions of prematurely-born children and term children. Eighty children were examined, 40 born prematurely (G1) and 40 born term (G2), in the age group between 5 and 10 years. The demographic variables, medical history and oral health behaviors were recorded on a questionnaire. The teeth were examined for presence of deficiencies of the enamel and caries that were registered. The caries were registered, focusing on the indices dmft (decayed, missing, and filled primary teeth) and DMFT (decayed, missing, and filled permanent teeth). The results showed that 75% of the total sample had enamel defects. The logistic regression model showed that other risk factors such as per capita family income, educational level, dietary and hygiene habits, fluoride exposure, trauma, and diseases had no correlation with enamel defects and caries. A smaller value of total DMFT (0.95) was found in the group of premature children in comparison to the term children (2.07) p = 0.0164. There was no difference concerning the permanent dentition between the two groups (p = 0.9926). One concludes that prematurity can't be a predisposing factor for the presence of dental caries. PMID:20877971

  11. Bowel Perforation in Premature Infants with Necrotizing Enterocolitis: Risk Factors and Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We aim to determine risk factors and clinical outcomes for bowel perforation in premature infants with NEC. We analyzed clinical data of 57 cases of premature infants with NEC at our NICU between January 2010 and December 2012. Based on the presence of bowel perforation, we divided these infants into two groups: perforated NEC group (n=10 and nonperforated NEC group (n=47. We compared general information, clinical characteristics, and laboratory findings between groups. The perforated NEC group, compared to the nonperforated NEC group, had significantly lesser gestational age, lower birth weight, higher prevalence of apnea, mechanical ventilation, sepsis and shock, lower blood pH, higher levels of blood glucose, abnormal WBC count and thrombocytopenia, and elevated CRP (all P<0.05. Moreover, the perforated NEC group had significantly longer durations of fasting and TPN usage, higher incidences of EUGR and cholestasis, longer duration of antibiotics, higher frequency of advanced antibiotics use, and poorer prognosis than the nonperforated NEC group (all P<0.05. Bowel perforation in premature infants with NEC was associated with multiple risk factors. Early identification of some of these risk factors in premature infants with NEC may help implement early intervention to reduce the incidence of bowel perforation and thereby improve the prognosis.

  12. Cardiac output by Doppler echocardiography in the premature baboon: Comparison with radiolabeled microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsed-Doppler echocardiography (PDE) is a useful noninvasive method for determining left ventricular output (LVO). However, despite increasingly widespread use in neonatal intensive care units, validation studies in prematures with cardiopulmonary disease are lacking. The purpose of this study was to compare radiolabeled microsphere (RLM) and PDE measurements of LVO, using the critically ill premature baboon as a model of the human neonate. Twenty-two paired RLM and PDE measurements of LVO were obtained in 14 animals between 3 and 24 h of age. Average PDE LVO was 152 ml/min/kg (range, 40-258 ml/min/kg) compared to 158 ml/min/kg (range, 67-278 ml/min/kg) measured by RLM. Linear regression analysis of the paired measurements showed good correlation with a slope near unity (gamma = 0.94x + 4.20, r = 0.91, SEE = 25.7 ml). The authors conclude that PDE determinations of LVO compare well with those measured by RLM in the premature baboon. PDE appears to provide a valid estimate of LVO and should be useful in human prematures with cardiopulmonary distress

  13. Ultrasound diagnosis of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis: Determinants of pyloric length and the effect of prematurity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haider, Nadeem; Spicer, Richard; Grier, David

    2002-02-01

    AIM: To evaluate the determinants of sonographic measurements of pyloric length and muscle thickness in infants with hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS) and to determine whether infants born prematurely have proportionately smaller measurements. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was carried out of 190 infants operated on for HPS at Bristol Children's Hospital over a 5-year period. Sonographic measurements of pyloric length and muscle thickness were related to age, history of prematurity, weight, sex and family history of HPS. RESULTS: Pyloric length in infants with HPS was significantly greater in those born at term compared to those born prematurely (18{center_dot}6 mm [SD 2{center_dot}2] vs 17{center_dot}3 mm [SD 3{center_dot}1], P 0{center_dot}043); this was explainable by body weight, with length increasing by 1{center_dot}13 mm (SE 0{center_dot}35) per kilogram (P 0{center_dot}002). There was no significant relationship with measured muscle thickness. CONCLUSION: Sonographic measurement of pyloric length is strongly correlated with the weight of the infant, irrespective of other factors. The relationship of length and weight may be useful in confirming the presence of HPS in small and premature infants. Haider, N. et al. (2002)

  14. Ultrasound diagnosis of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis: Determinants of pyloric length and the effect of prematurity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To evaluate the determinants of sonographic measurements of pyloric length and muscle thickness in infants with hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS) and to determine whether infants born prematurely have proportionately smaller measurements. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was carried out of 190 infants operated on for HPS at Bristol Children's Hospital over a 5-year period. Sonographic measurements of pyloric length and muscle thickness were related to age, history of prematurity, weight, sex and family history of HPS. RESULTS: Pyloric length in infants with HPS was significantly greater in those born at term compared to those born prematurely (18·6 mm [SD 2·2] vs 17·3 mm [SD 3·1], P 0·043); this was explainable by body weight, with length increasing by 1·13 mm (SE 0·35) per kilogram (P 0·002). There was no significant relationship with measured muscle thickness. CONCLUSION: Sonographic measurement of pyloric length is strongly correlated with the weight of the infant, irrespective of other factors. The relationship of length and weight may be useful in confirming the presence of HPS in small and premature infants. Haider, N. et al. (2002)

  15. The burden of premature mortality in Spain using standard expected years of life lost: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez-Martín Elena

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measures of premature mortality have been used to guide debates on future health priorities and to monitor the population health status. Standard expected years of life lost (SEYLL is one of the methods used to assess the time lost due to premature death. This article affords an overview of premature mortality in Spain for the year 2008. Methods A population-based study was conducted estimating SEYLL by sex and age groups. SEYLL, a key component of the disability-adjusted life years measure of disease burden, was calculated using Princeton West standard life tables with life expectancy at birth fixed at 80 years for males and 82.5 years for females. Population data and specific death records were obtained from the official registers of the National Institute of Statistics. All data were analysed and prepared in GesMor and Epidat software packages. Results The burden of premature mortality was estimated at 2.1 million SEYLL when age at death is taken into account. Males lost 60.9% and females lost 39.1% of total SEYLL. Malignant tumors (34.5% and cardiovascular diseases (24.0% were the leading categories in terms of SEYLL. Ischaemic heart disease (8.5% and lung cancers (8.0% were the most common specific causes of SEYLL followed by cerebrovascular diseases (5.9%, colorectal cancer (4.1%, road traffic accidents (3.5%, Alzheimer and other dementias (2.9%, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (2.8%, breast cancer (2.8% and suicides (2.6%. Conclusions In Spain, premature mortality was essentially due to chronic non-communicable diseases. Data provided in this study are relevant for a more balanced health agenda aimed at reducing the burden of premature mortality. This study also represents a first step in estimating the overall burden of disease in terms of premature death and disability.

  16. Stages of providing comprehensive eye care for premature children with premature retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Tereshchenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose. Functional results analysis of eye care system for premature infants including a complete cycle of measures in an early detection, treatment and regular medical check-up activities for patients with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in the Central Region of Russia. Material and methods. Visits of the clinical specialists were carried out to the Departments for Nursing of Premature Infants for screening examinations in groups of ROP development risk. Infants with the revealed ROP were referred to the Kaluga Branch of the S. Fyodorov Eye Microsurgery State Institution for a detailed diagnostic examination and a subsequent treatment and monitoring. Results. There were made 454 visits to Kaluga, Tula, Bryansk, and Orel regions in the period between 2003 and 2011 and 8861 infants were examined. ROP was found in 1834 infants (20.7%. There were performed 823 different interventions for infants with active ROP: 737 retinal laser coagulations, 3-port lens preserving vitrectomy — 72, lens vitrectomy — 14. The total efficacy of the treatment was 92.9%. Conclusion. The proposed eye care system for premature infants in the Central Region of Russia combines all trends: from a detailed precise diagnosis to a high-technologic treatment. It allows to reproduce it all over the Russian Federation territory.

  17. Pathophysiology and Mechanisms of Severe Retinopathy of Prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    Hartnett, M. Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) affects only premature infants, but as premature births increase in many areas of the world, ROP has become a leading cause of childhood blindness. Blindness can occur from aberrant developmental angiogenesis that leads to fibrovascular retinal detachment. In order to treat severe ROP, it is important to study normal developmental angiogenesis and the stresses that activate pathologic signaling events and aberrant angiogenesis in ROP. Vascular endothelial grow...

  18. Bell's Phenomenon during Screening Examination for Retinopathy of Prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ji Eun; Park, Jun Mo; Choi, Hee Young; Oum, Boo Sup

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Bell's phenomenon (BP), which may disturb screening examinations for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), is known to present infrequently in premature babies. Stress associated with the examinations can influence expression of BP. The authors of the present study evaluated BP during examinations for ROP. Methods The present study included 102 eyes of 51 premature babies. Expression of BP was assessed at 3 steps of the examination in the following order: after insertion of a speculum, af...

  19. Distribution of Retinopathy of Prematurity and Its Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Amirkhosro Ghaseminejad; Pedram Niknafs

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to determine the distribution and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in premature infants referred to neonates intensive care unit (NICU) of central hospital of Kerman University of Medical Sciences, to obtain primary information on ROP in Kerman, Iran. Methods In a cross sectional prospective study, data of premature infants screened for ROP including possible risk factors and eye examination results were recorded during 2006-2008 and analyzed...

  20. Development of Gastrointestinal Motility and Feeding Techniques in Premature Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Aydın, Ahmet; Çam, Halit; Fıçıcıoğlu, Can; Mıkla, Şerare

    1994-01-01

    Premature infants have high energy and nutrient requirements for their rapid growth On the other hand they have many feeding problems caused by motility immaturities such as poor sucking and swallow reflexes a small stomach capacity and a weak gag reflex The purpose of this review is to discuss the enteral feeding techniques and the feeding schedule in premature infants Key words: Premature Infant Development Of Gastrointestinal Motility Feeding Techniques

  1. Machine learning to predict extubation outcome in premature infants

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Martina; Wagner, Carol C.; Stanislaus, Romesh; Almeida, Jonas S

    2013-01-01

    Though treatment of the ventilated premature infant has experienced many advances over the past decades, determining the best time point for extubation of these infants remains challenging and the incidence of extubation failures largely unchanged. The objective was to provide clinicians with a decision-support tool to determine whether to extubate a mechanically ventilated premature infant by using a set of machine learning algorithms on a dataset assembled from 486 premature infants receivi...

  2. Association between assisted reproductive technology and advanced retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RV Paul Chan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available RV Paul Chan1, Yoshihiro Yonekawa1, Margaux A Morrison2,3, Grace Sun1, Ryan K Wong1, Jeffrey M Perlman4, Michael F Chiang5,6, Thomas C Lee7, M Elizabeth Hartnett3, Margaret M DeAngelis2,31Department of Ophthalmology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York; 2Ocular Molecular Genetics Institute, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; 3University of Utah School of Medicine, Moran Eye Center, Salt Lake City, Utah; 4Department of Pediatrics, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York; Departments of 5Ophthalmology and 6Biomedical Informatics, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York; 7The Vision Center, Children’s Hospital Los Angeles, California, USAPurpose: To investigate the associations between assisted reproductive technology (ART and severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP requiring treatment. Methods: Retrospective analyses of inborn preterm infants screened for severe ROP at the Weill Cornell Medical Center Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at the New York-Presbyterian Hospital by single factor logistic regression and multifactor models.Results: Of 399 ethnically diverse infants, 253 were conceived naturally and 146 by ART. Eight (3.16% patients conceived naturally, and 11 (7.53% with ART required laser treatment. In multifactor analyses, significant risks for severe ROP requiring treatment included both gestational age (odds ratio [OR] 0.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23–0.52; P< 0.001 and ART ([OR] 4.70; [CI], 1.52–4.57; P = 0.007.Conclusions: ART is associated with severe ROP requiring treatment in this cohort. This is the first report that demonstrates a statistically significant association between ART and severe ROP requiring treatment in infants in the US.Keywords: retinopathy of prematurity, low birth rate, blindness, assisted reproductive technology

  3. Retinopathy of Prematurity; Risk Factors, Prognosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Kocabeyo¤lu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence, related risk factors, treatment and follow-up results in cases of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. Material and Method: Medical records of 405 premature infants who attended our clinic between August 1999 and September 2004 were retrospectively screened. Among these patients, 379 infants were followed up in our neonatology unit and 26 were referred to us from other clinics. Indirect diode laser photocoagulation and/or cryotherapy were performed when prethreshold or threshold ROP was detected. Surgery was performed in stage IV-V ROP. Results: ROP was detected in 88 out of 405 infants (21.72%. At the first examination, stage I ROP was detected in 18 eyes (10.4%, stage II - in 67 eyes (38.72%, stage III - in 82 eyes (47.39%, and stage IV-V – in 6 eyes (3.46%. Indirect diode laser photocoagulation was applied to 34 eyes with stage II and in 47 eyes with stage III ROP. Ten eyes with threshold ROP and 4 eyes which progressed to threshold ROP were treated with cryotherapy. Scleral buckling was performed in 3 eyes that progressed to stage IV ROP. At the first examination, 2 eyes with stage IV-V ROP were treated with pars plana vitrectomy (PPV. Discussion: In our series, the most important risk factors for development and progression of ROP were found to be low birth weight, low gestational age, mechanical ventilation and multiple pregnancy. Effective screening, follow-up and appropriate treatment are important for prevention of permanent damage and unfavorable outcome in ROP. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2011; 41: 128-32

  4. Impact of prostate volume on erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Ho; Lee, Sung Won

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the impact of total prostate volume (TPV) on the international index of erectile function-5 (IIEF) and the premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT). A cross-sectional study was conducted that included 8336 men who had participated in a health examination. PEDT, IIEF and transrectal ultrasonography were used. A full metabolic work-up and serum testosterone level checks were also performed. The median age of participants was 51.0 years. In total, 40.1% had IIEF scores ≤16. Additionally, 24.7% were classified as demonstrating premature ejaculation (PE) (PEDT > 10). The severity of erectile dysfunction (ED) significantly increased with the TPV (p trend < 0.001). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the odds ratio (OR) for IIEF scores ≤ 16 significantly increased in the group with TPVs of 30-39 cm(3) and the group with TPVs ≥ 40 cm(3) compared with the group with TPVs ≤ 19 cm(3) (TPV 30-39 cm(3), OR: 1.204, 95% confidence interval: 1.034-1.403; TPV ≥ 40 cm(3), OR: 1.326: 95% confidence interval: 1.051-1.733) and this relationship was maintained after adjusting for propensity score (TPV ≥ 30 cm(3), OR: 1.138: 95% confidence interval: 1.012-1.280). However, neither PEDT nor PE was correlated with TPV. In conclusion, TPV is significantly and independently correlated with IIEF but not with PEDT. Future investigations should explore the temporal relationship between TPV and ED. PMID:27145693

  5. Body growth and brain development in premature babies: an MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzarouchi, Loukia C.; Zikou, Anastasia; Kosta, Paraskevi; Argyropoulou, Maria I. [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Drougia, Aikaterini; Andronikou, Styliani [University of Ioannina, Intensive Care Unit, Child Health Department, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Astrakas, Loukas G. [University of Ioannina, Department of Medical Physics, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece)

    2014-03-15

    Prematurity and intrauterine growth restriction are associated with neurodevelopmental disabilities. To assess the relationship between growth status and regional brain volume (rBV) and white matter microstructure in premature babies at around term-equivalent age. Premature infants (n= 27) of gestational age (GA): 29.8 ± 2.1 weeks, with normal brain MRI scans were studied at corrected age: 41.2 ± 1.4 weeks. The infants were divided into three groups: 1) appropriate for GA at birth and at the time of MRI (AGA), 2) small for GA at birth with catch-up growth at the time of MRI (SGA{sub a}) and 3) small for GA at birth with failure of catch-up growth at the time of MRI (SGA{sub b}). The T1-weighted images were segmented into 90 rBVs using the SPM8/IBASPM and differences among groups were assessed. Fractional anisotropy (FA) was measured bilaterally in 15 fiber tracts and its relationship to GA and somatometric measurements was explored. Lower rBV was observed in SGA{sub b} in superior and anterior brain areas. A positive correlation was demonstrated between FA and head circumference and body weight. Body weight was the only significant predictor for FA (P< 0.05). In premature babies, catch-up growth is associated with regional brain volume catch-up at around term-equivalent age, starting from the brain areas maturing first. Body weight seems to be a strong predictor associated with WM microstructure in brain areas related to attention, language, cognition, memory and executing functioning. (orig.)

  6. Premature Birth with Complicated Perinatal Course Delaying Diagnosis of Prader-Willi Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ciana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prader-Willi syndrome in the newborn is essentially characterized by marked hypotonia, feeding difficulties, hypogonadism, and possible characteristic facial features. However, diagnosis at this age may be particularly difficult, and dysmorphic features may be subtle or absent. Prematurity can furthermore delay clinical features recognition and typical complications due to preterm birth may contribute to divert the diagnosis. We describe a preterm baby with a complicated perinatal course later diagnosed as PWS.

  7. The Association between Maternal Factors and Preterm Birthand Premature Rapture of Membranes

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency of preterm birth (PTB) and premature rapture of membranes (PROM) and their associations with maternal factors. Material and methods: This cross sectional study was carried out at Akbar-Abadi hospital in Tehran during January 2009-Aprile 2010. Four hundred sixty six primiparous women with gestational age more than 20 weeks and singleton pregnancy were enrolled in the study. Data were analyzed using SPSS-16. P<0.05...

  8. Adopting western retinopathy of prematurity screening programs in eastern countries, are we screening properly?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almutez Gharaibeh

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion : ROP occurs in premature infants in Jordan with gestational age above 32 weeks and birth weight above 1250 gm. Future guidelines for screening should incorporate the current study outcomes. A prospective, population-based is required to set national guidelines for ROP screening in the Jordanian population and similarly for different populations worldwide. Consanguinity may play a role in ROP development and further genetic studies may aid in elucidating the pathogenesis of ROP.

  9. AB212. Clinical study on the treatment of lifelong premature ejaculation with Paroxetine hydrochloride and tamsulosin

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yan-Feng; Zhang, Chao; Li, Bo-jun

    2016-01-01

    Objective There are quite a few researches about SSRIs and alpha-receptor blockers on the treatment of premature ejaculation (PE), but few researches focus on the combination use of them. In this study, we evaluate the efficacy and safety of combine and alone use of paroxetine hydrochloride and tamsulosin on the treatment of lifelong PE. Methods 352 cases of men with 18–65 years of age, a history of lifelong PE and an intra-vaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT)

  10. Duration and characteristics of treatment of premature lambs with natural surfactant.

    OpenAIRE

    Jobe, A; Ikegami, M; Glatz, T; Yoshida, Y.; Diakomanolis, E.; Padbury, J.

    1981-01-01

    Premature lambs were treated with 50 mg/kg of natural surfactant lipid by tracheal instillation either at birth or shortly thereafter when respiratory failure was documented. All lambs were delivered by cesarean section and supported on infant ventilators with 100% oxygen under conditions to mimic the care of human infants with the respiratory distress syndrome. The natural surfactant used for therapy was recovered by lavage from sheep lung. Six 120-d gestational age lambs treated at birth ha...

  11. Association Between Epicardial Fat Thickness and Premature Coronary Artery Disease: A Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Faghihi, Shadi; Vasheghani-Farahani, Ali; Parsaee, Mozhgan; Saedi, Sedigheh; Ghadrdoost, Behshid

    2015-01-01

    Background: The association between epicardial fat thickness (EFT) and premature coronary artery disease (CAD) has not been elaborately studied. Objectives: In the present study, we sought whether such a relationship between EFT and CAD exists. Patients and Methods: Sixty two consecutive subjects, under 50 years of age, who underwent coronary angiography (CAG) with the aspect of CAD, were included in this case control study. They were divided into two groups of 31 subjects, namely CAD (cases)...

  12. Risk Factors and Prevention of Late Onset Sepsis in Premature Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Downey, L Corbin; Smith, P. Brian; Benjamin, Daniel K.

    2010-01-01

    Late-onset sepsis in premature infants is a major cause of morbidity, mortality, and increased medical costs. Risk factors include low birth weight, low gestational age, previous antimicrobial exposure, poor hand hygiene, and central venous catheters. Methods studied to prevent late-onset sepsis include early feedings, immune globulin administration, prophylactic antimicrobial administration, and improved hand hygiene. In this review, we will outline the risk factors for development of late-o...

  13. Body growth and brain development in premature babies: an MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prematurity and intrauterine growth restriction are associated with neurodevelopmental disabilities. To assess the relationship between growth status and regional brain volume (rBV) and white matter microstructure in premature babies at around term-equivalent age. Premature infants (n= 27) of gestational age (GA): 29.8 ± 2.1 weeks, with normal brain MRI scans were studied at corrected age: 41.2 ± 1.4 weeks. The infants were divided into three groups: 1) appropriate for GA at birth and at the time of MRI (AGA), 2) small for GA at birth with catch-up growth at the time of MRI (SGAa) and 3) small for GA at birth with failure of catch-up growth at the time of MRI (SGAb). The T1-weighted images were segmented into 90 rBVs using the SPM8/IBASPM and differences among groups were assessed. Fractional anisotropy (FA) was measured bilaterally in 15 fiber tracts and its relationship to GA and somatometric measurements was explored. Lower rBV was observed in SGAb in superior and anterior brain areas. A positive correlation was demonstrated between FA and head circumference and body weight. Body weight was the only significant predictor for FA (P< 0.05). In premature babies, catch-up growth is associated with regional brain volume catch-up at around term-equivalent age, starting from the brain areas maturing first. Body weight seems to be a strong predictor associated with WM microstructure in brain areas related to attention, language, cognition, memory and executing functioning. (orig.)

  14. The relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and premature infants in Taiwanese: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Shih-Ming

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm survivors from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU are considered to be at risk for some neurobehavioral disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. The current study aimed to explore the relationship between ADHD and premature infants in Taiwan. Methods A total of 195 children (157 males and 38 females diagnosed with ADHD based on DSM-IV and aged between 6 to 12 years and a control group of 212 (164 males, 48 females age- and sex-matched healthy children were enrolled. The ADHD-Rating scale and CGI severity were performed by child psychiatrists. Demographic data of the children, including birth history, perinatal neurological and respiratory problems were collected to facilitate the investigation of whether a correlation exists between ADHD and prematurity. Results The ADHD group had a significantly higher rate of prematurity and significantly higher rate of low birth body weight (defined as P = 0.003. Pearson correlation showed a significantly negative correlation between gestational age and ADHD-RS score, inattentive score, hyperactivity and CGI-S score (P = 0.004, 0.013, 0.015 and 0.002, respectively. However, only a CGI-S score (P = 0.018 showed a significantly correlation between low birth weight and ADHD. Conclusions Premature infants have significantly more severe symptoms of ADHD at school age and they were highly correlated. Further study is necessary to determine the main effect and pathogenesis of moderate as well as extreme preterm birth on the development of ADHD.

  15. Computed tomography of the head of new born premature infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of the extracerebral space on CT resulted as follows: The existence of the etracerebral space in the parieto-occipital region (PO-ECS) was physiological findings characteristic to premature infants. Its incidence was higher and the width of the space was greater, in those of premature infants. Generally PO-ECS disappeared around 40 weeks of gestation, while it tended to remaine beyond 40 weeks in premature infants born after less than 30 weeks of pregnancy. The appearance and disappearance of the PO-ECS may present some approach to learning the development of the brain in premature infants. (Ueda, J.)

  16. Job losses and accumulated number of broken partnerships increase risk of premature mortality in Danish men born in 1953

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriegbaum, Margit; Christensen, Ulla; Lund, Rikke;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate how accumulation of job losses and broken partnerships affect the risk of premature mortality, and to study joint exposure to both events. METHODS: Birth cohort study of 9789 Danish men born in 1953 with follow-up of events between the ages of 40 and 51. RESULTS: The adj......OBJECTIVE: To investigate how accumulation of job losses and broken partnerships affect the risk of premature mortality, and to study joint exposure to both events. METHODS: Birth cohort study of 9789 Danish men born in 1953 with follow-up of events between the ages of 40 and 51. RESULTS......: The adjusted hazard rates for premature mortality was 1.44 (95% CI = 1.15 to 1.80) for individuals with one job loss, 1.55 (1.13 to 2.13) for individuals with one broken partnership, and 2.15 (95% CI = 1.49 to 3.10) for individuals with two or more broken partnerships. CONCLUSIONS: Experience of at least one...... job loss increased the risk of premature mortality. The risk of premature mortality increased with the number of broken partnerships. There was no statistical interaction between job losses and broken partnerships....

  17. Neuro-ophthalmic manifestations of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Patil Chhablani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing rates of preterm births coupled with better survival of these infants have resulted in higher prevalence of systemic and ocular complications associated with prematurity. In addition to retinopathy of prematurity, infants who are born preterm may suffer from severe visual impairment as a result of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, hypoglycemia, and other metabolic imbalances. The effect of these processes on the anterior visual pathway may result in optic atrophy, optic nerve hypoplasia or optic disc cupping and affection of the posterior visual pathway leads to cortical visual impairment (CVI. Other ocular associations include strabismus, nystagmus, and ocular motor abnormalities such as tonic down gaze and defective saccades and pursuits. Cortical and subcortical involvement also manifests as defects in functional vision and these have not yet been completely understood. Children with CVI may have visual field defects, photophobia, defective visual processing, and deficient color vision. Since most of these children also suffer from additional systemic disabilities, evaluation, and management remains a challenge. However, early diagnosis and initiation of rehabilitation therapy can prove to be of significant benefit in these children.

  18. The pathophysiology of acquired premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Chris G; Jannini, Emmanuele A; Serefoglu, Ege C; Hellstrom, Wayne J G

    2016-08-01

    The second Ad Hoc International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation defined acquired premature ejaculation (PE) as a male sexual dysfunction characterized by a the development of a clinically significant and bothersome reduction in ejaculation latency time in men with previous normal ejaculatory experiences, often to about 3 minutes or less, the inability to delay ejaculation on all or nearly all vaginal penetrations, and the presence of negative personal consequences, such as distress, bother, frustration and/or the avoidance of sexual intimacy. The literature contains a diverse range of biological and psychological etiological theories. Acquired PE is commonly due to sexual performance anxiety, psychological or relationship problems, erectile dysfunction (ED), and occasionally prostatitis and hyperthyroidism, consistent with the predominant organic etiology of acquired PE, men with this complaint are usually older, have a higher mean BMI and a greater incidence of comorbid disease including hypertension, sexual desire disorder, diabetes mellitus, chronic prostatitis, and ED compared to lifelong, variable and subjective PE. PMID:27652216

  19. Treatment of threshold retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshpande Dhanashree

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This report deals with our experience in the management of threshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. A total of 45 eyes of 23 infants were subjected to treatment of threshold ROP. 26.1% of these infants had a birth weight of >l,500 gm. The preferred modality of treatment was laser indirect photocoagulation, which was facilitated by scleral depression. Cryopexy was done in cases with nondilating pupils or medial haze and was always under general anaesthesia. Retreatment with either modality was needed in 42.2% eyes; in this the skip areas were covered. Total regression of diseases was achieved in 91.1% eyes with no sequelae. All the 4 eyes that progressed to stage 5 despite treatment had zone 1 disease. Major treatment-induced complications did not occur in this series. This study underscores the importance of routine screening of infants upto 2,000 gm birth weight for ROP and the excellent response that is achieved with laser photocoagulation in inducing regression of threshold ROP. Laser is the preferred method of treatment in view of the absence of treatment-related morbidity to the premature infants.

  20. Premature centromere division and other centromeric misbehavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, P.H. [Christchurch School of Medicine (New Zealand)

    1993-12-31

    Premature centromere division was initially described for the X chromosome. In an otherwise typical metaphase cell, one chromosome showed no primary constriction and appeared to have no centromere. G-banding analysis indicated that this apparent acentric fragment was an entire X chromosome. Because its centromere was divided when the centromeres of all other chromosomes of the metaphase cell were entire, the condition was described as premature centromere division (PCD). The importance of PCD lies in its being a mechanism on non-disjunction, as was indicated by the strong association of X chromosome aneuploidy with PCD,X. We can infer that the affected chromosome failed to take part in the normal distribution of chromosomes at mitoses. The centromere, it its widest sense, is generally believed to have a role in the correct orientation of chromosomes at the metaphase plate and the distribution of chromatids to the spindle poles. The failure of these functions implies a major centromeric dysfunction. What do we know of this complex region of the chromosome that might help us understand its dysfunction?

  1. Long term refractive outcome in eyes of preterm infants with and without retinopathy of prematurity: comparison of keratometric value, axial length, anterior chamber depth, and lens thickness

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, M. Y.; Park, I.K.; Yu, Y S

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—A longitudinal study of premature infants was conducted to examine changes in refractive status and their relation with age and factors influencing the occurrence and degree of myopia. Identification of which of the various refractive factors play important parts in relation to myopia in premature infants was attempted.
METHODS—Under observation were 125 eyes in 65 patients who were found to demonstrate no signs of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) or who had grade I or II ROP ...

  2. Retinopathy of Prematurity Among 1000-2000 Gram Birth Weight Newborn Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamali Fatahi Bayat

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The goal of this study was to identify the risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in neonatal intensive care unit in preterm infants born with birth weight 1000-2000g or at gestational age less than 34 weeks. Material & Methods: From August 2000 to December 2001, 50 preterm newborn infants with birth weights less than 2000 g or gestational age less than 34 weeks admitted to the NICU were studied. Newborn infants with birth weight between 1200-2000g who received more than 6 hours oxygen and newborn infants with birth weight 1000-1200 g regardless of oxygen therapy, who survived until 4 weeks postnatal, were enrolled and followed. Patients underwent indirect ophthalmologic examination by two ophthalmologists between 4-8 weeks post partum. The newborn infants who had ROP were assigned to case group and those without ROP to control group, both groups were reexamined every 2-4 weeks or according to international classification of retinopathy of prematurity (ICROP advice. Findings: Fifty newborn infants, 36 (72% in control group, 14 (28% in case group, were studied. Gestational age and birth weight of the patients with ROP were significantly lower than those of control group. Duration of oxygen therapy, hyperoxia, acidosis, hypercarbia, hypocarbia and phototherapy are suggested as risk factors contributing to ROP. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that the ROP frequency remains elevated among premature and very low birth weight infants. Infants at risk for ROP should have screening eye examinations and proper treatment.

  3. Serum Phosphorus Levels in Premature Infants Receiving a Donor Human Milk Derived Fortifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. Chetta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An elevated serum phosphorus (P has been anecdotally described in premature infants receiving human milk fortified with donor human milk-derived fortifier (HMDF. No studies have prospectively investigated serum P in premature infants receiving this fortification strategy. In this single center prospective observational cohort study, extremely premature infants ≤1250 grams (g birth weight (BW were fed an exclusive human milk-based diet receiving HMDF and serum P levels were obtained. We evaluated 93 infants with a mean gestational age of 27.5 ± 2.0 weeks (Mean ± SD and BW of 904 ± 178 g. Seventeen infants (18.3% had at least one high serum P level with a mean serum P of 9.2 ± 1.1 mg/dL occurring at 19 ± 11 days of life. For all infants, the highest serum P was inversely correlated to the day of life of the infant (p < 0.001, R2 = 0.175 and positively correlated with energy density of HMDF (p = 0.035. Serum P was not significantly related to gender, BW, gestational age, or days to full feeds. We conclude that the incidence of hyperphosphatemia was mild and transient in this population. The risk decreased with infant age and was unrelated to gender, BW, or ethnicity.

  4. The effects of force-fledging and premature fledging on the survival of nestling songbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streby, Henry M.; Peterson, Sean M.; Lehman, Justin A.; Kramer, Gunnar R.; Iknayan, Kelly J.; Andersen, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the broad consensus that force-fledging of nestling songbirds lowers their probability of survival and therefore should be generally avoided by researchers, that presumption has not been tested. We used radiotelemetry to monitor the survival of fledglings of OvenbirdsSeiurus aurocapilla and Golden-winged Warblers Vermivora chrysoptera that we unintentionally force-fledged (i.e. nestlings left the nest in response to our research activities at typical fledging age), that fledged prematurely (i.e. nestlings left the nest earlier than typical fledging age), and that fledged independently of our activities. Force-fledged Ovenbirds experienced significantly higher survival than those that fledged independent of our activities, and prematurely fledged Ovenbirds had a similarly high survival to those that force-fledged at typical fledging age. We observed a similar, though not statistically significant, pattern in Golden-winged Warbler fledgling survival. Our results suggest that investigator-induced force-fledging of nestlings, even when deemed premature, does not necessarily result in reduced fledgling survival in these species. Instead, our results suggest that a propensity or ability to fledge in response to disturbance may be a predictor of a higher probability of fledgling survival.

  5. Analysis of the horizontal corneal diameter, central corneal thickness, and axial length in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozdemir Ozdemir

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the horizontal corneal diameter, central corneal thickness, and axial length in premature infants. Methods: Infants with a birth weight of less than 2,500 g or with a gestation period of less than 36 weeks were included in the study. Infants with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP were allocated to Group 1 (n=138, while those without ROP were allocated to Group 2 (n=236. All infants underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, including corneal diameter measurements, pachymetry, biometry, and fundoscopy. Between-group comparisons of horizontal corneal diameter, central corneal thickness, and axial lengths were performed. Independent sample t-tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: Data was obtained from 374 eyes of 187 infants (102 female, 85 male. The mean gestational age at birth was 30.7 ± 2.7 weeks (range 25-36 weeks, the mean birth weight was 1,514 ± 533.3 g (range 750-1,970 g, and the mean postmenstrual age at examination was 40.0 ± 4.8 weeks. The mean gestational age and the mean birth weight of Group 1 were statistically lower than Group 2 (p0.05. Conclusions: The presence of ROP in premature infants does not alter the horizontal corneal diameter, central corneal thickness, or axial length.

  6. Changes in Heart Rate Variability in a Premature Infant with Hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Uhrikova

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective - To define changes of heart rate variability in premature infant with hydrocephalus before and after drainage procedure. Study Design - The authors report a case of a premature infant with hydrocephalus with analysis of heart rate variability before and after drainage procedure. Three subsequent recordings of the electrocardiography and heart rate variability were done: the first at the age of 22 days before insertion of ventriculoperitoneal shunt, the second at the age of 36 days with functional shunt, the third at the age of 71 days (before discharge. Results - Before drainage operation, there was reduced heart rate variability in time and spectral domains, and sympathetic activity was dominant. After surgery, an increase in heart rate variability parameters was found, particularly with spectral analysis. The ratio of low-frequency/high-frequency band and relative power of the low-frequency band decreased, reflecting enhanced parasympathetic activity. Conclusion - Results of the heart rate variability analysis in a preterm infant with hydrocephalus before and after drainage procedure showed marked improvement in chronotropic cardiac regulation. Evaluation of heart rate variability in premature infants with hydrocephalus with increased intracranial pressure can be an additional method for monitoring of cardiac dysregulation and improvement of the cardiovascular control after successful drainage procedure.

  7. Comparative study of visual functions in premature pre-school children with and without retinopathy of prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    Lígia Beatriz Bonotto; Ana Tereza Ramos Moreira; Silvia Chuffi; Susana Maria Bittencourt Sckudlarek

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Observe whether there are differences in visual functions among premature infants with treated retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in relation to preterm infants with ROP and spontaneous regression; and among these two groups with ROP and the control group without ROP. Methods: Crosssectional observational no blind study. Premature infants were born between 06/199206/2006 and were exam between 06/200912/2010; registered in data of Hospital de Olhos Sandalla Amin Ghanem; with gestatio...

  8. Prematurity and low birth weight as risk factors for the development of affective disorder, especially depression and schizophrenia: A register study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JK, Larsen; Bendsen, BB; Foldager, Leslie;

    2010-01-01

    Background: The present study examined whether low birth weight, prematurity or low birth weight adjusted for gestational age are risk factors for the subsequent development of affective disorder, especially depression. Methods: A population-based case-control design was applied to the Danish...... adjustment for low birth weight. Conclusion: Prematurity and low birth weight were found to be risk factors for subsequent development of affective disorder (especially depression) and schizophrenia....

  9. Association Between Changes in Serum 5-Hydroxy-Tryptamine Concentrations and Improvement in Clinical Symptoms in Primary Premature Ejaculation with Paroxetine Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Yu; Wang, You; Wang, Xi; Ye, Gang; Jiang, Yuanbin; Xiong, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aimed to investigate the association between changes in serum 5-hydroxy tryptamine (5-HT) concentrations and improvement in clinical symptoms in primary premature ejaculation with paroxetine treatment. Material/Methods A total of 142 men aged 18–65 years with a history of lifelong premature ejaculation and an intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) 30 s and ≤60 s (group B), and IELT >60 s and

  10. Cytogenetic Analysis of 65 Women with Premature Ovarian Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Ates

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI is characterized as amenorrhea for more than 6 months, occurring before the age of 40, with an increased follicle-stimulating hormone and low estrogen concentrations. The aim of our study is to determine the types and distribution of cytogenetic abnormalities among women with POI. Material and Method: The study is based on the retrospective karyotype analysis of 65 women with idiopathic POI referred to the Medical Genetics Department at the Bezmialem Vakif University Hospital. Results: Chromosomal abnormalities were present in 12 of 65 cases (18.4%. All of them had numerical abnormalities of the X chromosome. The most frequently detected abnormalities were X chromosome mosaicisms. Two cases had fragile X premutation carriers. Eight (12.3% women were considered as familial POI. Discussion: Our results underline the essential role of the X chromosome in the etiology of POI. Therefore, regardless of clinical features and woman%u2019s age, cytogenetic investigations should be routinely performed in cases with POI.

  11. Comparison of Efficacy of Sertralin on Patients with Premature Ejaculation By Penile Biothesiometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah Okulu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We examine the efficacy of the low dose, high dose and on demand use of sertraline on patients with primary premature ejaculation.The value of penile biothesiometry on interpretation of responses from these treatments is also evaluated. Material and Method: A total of 70 men, 23 to 55 years old(mean age 36.4,with premature ejaculation were randomized into two treatment groups,each consisting of 35 patients,receiving placebo,sertraline, in a fashion.Because 10 patients dropped out for some reason,the study was completed with 32 patients in placebo,28 patients in sertraline groups. The study was divided into five periods in order, i.e. before treatment(BT, low dose(LD, high dose(HD, on demand(OD and after treatment(AT.Patients did not use any of these drugs during BT and AT periods. Drug visits, intravaginal ejaculation latencies and sexual satisfaction score of the previous period were recorded,penile biothesiometric analysis was performed as well. Results: The percentage of patients with a SES score ‘moderate’ or ‘good’ for placebo group on LD period, was 25%;for sertraline group was 46.4%, but on HD and OD periods it was about %40 for placebo group and 71.4% for sertraline group.According to latancies and penile biothesiometric data,both sertraline group was superior to placebo in all LD, HD and OD periods(pOD>LD.Drug caused non-serious side effects in 10 of 60 patients(16.6%. Discussion: Sertraline is effective in primary premature ejaculation.On demand use of both drugs following a two week high dose use,is an effective treatment for primary premature ejaculation with less side effects. Penile biothesiometry can be used to evaluate the efficacy of pharmacotherapy in primary premature ejaculation in place of intravaginal latency measurements and satisfaction scores.

  12. Calculation of organ doses in X-ray examinations of premature babies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As ionizing radiation has enabled great progress in the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of medicine, its use is in most cases easily justifiable. General radiation protection principles require additionally that radiation doses of the patients should be as low as reasonably achievable within the medical purposes. In Europe this is stipulated in the directive 97/43/Euratom. This directive also requires that special attention should be given to the patient doses in pediatric examinations, of which premature babies constitute an important sub-group. All babies born before 37 weeks of gestation are defined as being prematurely born. Newborn and prematurely born babies are particularly sensitive to the detrimental effects of X-rays. Risk of cancer induction is believed to be 2 to 3 times higher than that of the average population and 6 to 9 times higher than the risk from an exposure at 60 years of age, for equal dose. A premature born child may be exposed to a large number of diagnostic X-ray examinations. Several of these infants may have underdeveloped lungs, which may lead directly to the respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) or to (lethal) lunghypoplasia/hypertension. Diagnosis and follow-up of the respiratory distress syndrome by means of chest radiography is justified. Risks associated with X-ray examinations are low compared to the other medical risks that these patients face, but even in this case the radiation dose should be kept as low as possible. Knowledge of the radiation dose is a first step in the optimization process. A recent study on 255 premature children in the University Hospital of Gasthuisberg found that they undergo 10 X-ray examinations, on the average. In this sample, the maximum was 78 X-ray examinations

  13. Effect of mouse nerve growth factor on brain development in premature infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Ban; Zhong-He Wan

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect of application of mouse nerve growth factor in neonatal period on brain development in premature infants.Methods:A total of 37 cases of premature infants given birth in our hospital from 1st January, 2015 to 30th December, 2015 were selected as research subjects and divided into observation group (n=18) and control group (n=19) according to different ways of intervention. Control group didn’t receive exogenous drugs, observation group received mouse nerve growth factor (NGF) treatment in neonatal period, and then differences in results of brain magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalogram, brainstem auditory evoked potential, scores of Gesell developmental scale, levels of NSE, S-100β, 8-OHdG and 8-I-PGF2α and levels of TLR-4, TNF-α, IL-18 and so on of two groups after intervention were compared.Results:Proportions of normal MRI, EEG and BAEP of observation group were higher than those of control group, and proportions of severely abnormal were significantly lower than those of control group; scores of Gesell developmental scale motor, adaptive behavior, language and social skills of observation group in 3 months and 6 months of corrected gestational age were higher than those of control group; serum NSE, S-100β, 8-OHdG and 8-I-PGF2α levels of observation group after 3 months and 6 months of corrected gestational age were lower than those of control group ; serum TLR-4, TNF-α, IL-18, NF-κB and MMP-9 levels of observation group after 6 months of corrected gestational age were lower than those of control group, and levels of EGF and SOD were higher than those of control group.Conclusion: Application of mouse nerve growth factor in neonatal period of premature infants helps to promote nerve cell growth and development and optimize brain function of premature infants, and it has active clinical significance.

  14. Acupuncture Treatment for 98 Cases of Ventricular Premature Beat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Baojie; Wang Feng; Wang Xinzhong

    2008-01-01

    @@ Ventricular premature beat is a commonly encountered arrhythmia,which can occur in patients with and without cardiac diseases.In TCM.ventricular premature beat fall into the category of palpitation and obstruction of qi in the chest.The authors treated it with acupuncture and obtained satisfactory thera-peutic effects.A summary follows.

  15. Feeding premature infants banked human milk homogenized by ultrasonic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayol, M R; Martinez, F E; Jorge, S M; Gonçalves, A L; Desai, I D

    1993-12-01

    Premature neonates fed ultrasonically homogenized human milk had better weight gain and triceps skin-fold thickness than did a control group given untreated human milk (p tube feeding (p Ultrasonic homogenization of human milk appears to minimize loss of fat and thus allows better growth of premature infants. PMID:8229535

  16. Current Concepts of Oxygen Management in Retinopathy of Prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    Leah A Owen; M. Elizabeth Hartnett

    2014-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a potentially blinding disorder in premature infants. The underlying pathophysiology is incompletely understood, limiting the prevention and treatment of this devastating condition. Current therapies are directed toward management of aberrant neovascularization thought to result from retinal ischemia in the developing preterm retina. The molecular mediators important for development of retinal ischemia and subsequent neovascular pathology are not fully unde...

  17. Nasal versus temporal preretinal vasoproliferation in retinopathy of prematurity.

    OpenAIRE

    Nissenkorn, I; Kremer, I; Cohen, S.; Ben-Sira, I

    1989-01-01

    Nasal preretinal neovascularisations have been observed to develop at least two weeks earlier than those on the temporal side in more than a third of premature babies with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) stage 3, weighing between 690 and 1030 g. All these babies were assigned for cryotherapy. This interesting observation is discussed in relation to retinal vascular development and the pathogenesis of ROP.

  18. Palliative Care for Extremely Premature Infants and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Renee D.

    2010-01-01

    Extremely premature infants face multiple acute and chronic life-threatening conditions. In addition, the treatments to ameliorate or cure these conditions often entail pain and discomfort. Integrating palliative care from the moment that extremely premature labor is diagnosed offers families and clinicians support through the process of defining…

  19. Reduction in mydriatic drop size in premature infants.

    OpenAIRE

    WHEATCROFT, S.; A Sharma; McAllister, J

    1993-01-01

    In a prospective study of 26 premature infants, 5 microliters microdrops were compared with standard 26 microliters eye drops of cyclopentolate 0.5% and phenylephrine 2.5%. There was no statistical difference in pupil dilatation. The 5 microliters microdrops have potentially fewer adverse effects in premature infants.

  20. Enteral nutrition of the premature infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Jin Cho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Early nutritional support for preterm infants is critical because such support influences long-term outcome. Minimal enteral feeding should be initiated as soon as possible if an infant is stable and if feeding advancement is recommended as relevant to the clinical course. Maternal milk is the gold standard for enteral feeding, but fortification may be needed to achieve optimal growth in a rapidly growing premature infant. Erythromycin may aid in promoting gastrointestinal motility in cases that exhibit feeding intolerance. Selected preterm infants need vitamins, mineral supplements, and calorie enhancers to meet their nutritional needs. Despite all that is known about this topic, additional research is needed to guide postdischarge nutrition of preterm infants in order to maintain optimal growth and neurodevelopment.

  1. Rahnella aquatilis Sepsis in a Premature Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan Kuzdan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rahnella aquatilis is an infrequently isolated Gram-negative rod within the Enterobacteriaceae family. The organism’s natural habitat is water. The organism is rarely isolated from clinical specimens and it seldom causes infection in immunocompetent individuals. Here we present a one-month-old boy who was born prematurely at 27th week of gestation by cesarean section with a birth weight of 730 g. He developed sepsis caused by Rahnella aquatilis during the treatment for ventilator associated pneumonia due to Stenotrophomonas maltophilia with ciprofloxacin. He was successfully treated with a combination of amikacin plus meropenem. Although R. aquatilis is one of the saprophyticus organisms, it may cause life-threatening infection in newborn.

  2. Classification and definition of premature ejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnham, Arie

    2016-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a poorly understood condition and is considered as the most common sexual disorder in men. The ambiguity surrounding PE is in part due to the difficulty in conducting and interpreting research in the absence of a standardised definition that adequately encompasses the characteristics of these patients. An enhanced awareness of sexual dysfunctions in the recent decades has lead to an increase in scientific research that has challenged the traditional paradigm regarding PE. This has also enabled to establish a universal definition and classification of the disease. A move to a more evidence based approach has improved the clinicians’ ability to define those who need medical treatment, as well as perform further research in this complex condition.

  3. Bmi-1 absence causes premature brain degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangliang Cao

    Full Text Available Bmi-1, a polycomb transcriptional repressor, is implicated in cell cycle regulation and cell senescence. Its absence results in generalized astrogliosis and epilepsy during the postnatal development, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate the occurrence of oxidative stress in the brain of four-week-old Bmi-1 null mice. The mice showed various hallmarks of neurodegeneration including synaptic loss, axonal demyelination, reactive gliosis and brain mitochondrial damage. Moreover, astroglial glutamate transporters and glutamine synthetase decreased in the Bmi-1 null hippocampus, which might contribute to the sporadic epileptic-like seizures in these mice. These results indicate that Bmi-1 is required for maintaining endogenous antioxidant defenses in the brain, and its absence subsequently causes premature brain degeneration.

  4. Necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants and newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mϋller, M J; Paul, T; Seeliger, S

    2016-09-16

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common acquired disease of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in premature infants and newborns. It is defined as an ulcerative inflammation of the intestinal wall. The clinical signs of incipient NEC are often very discrete, and range from localized intestinal symptoms to generalized signs of sepsis. NEC is classified depending on its severity into disease states according to the modified Bell's Classification. Treatment of NEC ranges, depending on its severity, from a conservative therapeutic approach to surgery with resection of the affected parts of the intestine. Mortality is considerably high in extremely small preterm infants reaching up to 42% of the affected children. Measures such as breastfeeding or alternatively nutrition with pasteurized human donor milk from a milk bank, administration of probiotics, avoidance of histamine type II receptor antagonists, and restrictive antibiotic treatment should be considered early on for prevention of NEC. PMID:27589549

  5. Classification and definition of premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnham, Arie; Serefoglu, Ege Can

    2016-08-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a poorly understood condition and is considered as the most common sexual disorder in men. The ambiguity surrounding PE is in part due to the difficulty in conducting and interpreting research in the absence of a standardised definition that adequately encompasses the characteristics of these patients. An enhanced awareness of sexual dysfunctions in the recent decades has lead to an increase in scientific research that has challenged the traditional paradigm regarding PE. This has also enabled to establish a universal definition and classification of the disease. A move to a more evidence based approach has improved the clinicians' ability to define those who need medical treatment, as well as perform further research in this complex condition.

  6. Classification and definition of premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnham, Arie; Serefoglu, Ege Can

    2016-08-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a poorly understood condition and is considered as the most common sexual disorder in men. The ambiguity surrounding PE is in part due to the difficulty in conducting and interpreting research in the absence of a standardised definition that adequately encompasses the characteristics of these patients. An enhanced awareness of sexual dysfunctions in the recent decades has lead to an increase in scientific research that has challenged the traditional paradigm regarding PE. This has also enabled to establish a universal definition and classification of the disease. A move to a more evidence based approach has improved the clinicians' ability to define those who need medical treatment, as well as perform further research in this complex condition. PMID:27652214

  7. The experience of becoming a grandmother to a premature infant - A balancing act, influenced by ambivalent feeling

    OpenAIRE

    Hollman Frisman, Gunilla; Eriksson, Carrie; Pernehed, Sara; Mörelius, Evalotte

    2012-01-01

    Aims and objectives.  To explore and describe the experience of becoming a grandmother to a premature infant. Background.  Becoming a grandmother involves a new perspective of life. Grandmothers of sick infants find themselves in a new situation with an adult child undergoing serious stress. Few studies have approached the grandmothers’ own experience of becoming a grandmother to a premature infant. Design.  A qualitative content analysis was used. Methods.  Eleven women, 52–66 years of age, ...

  8. Repair of giant omphalocele in a premature neonate with non-cross-linked porcine acellular dermal matrix (Strattice Tissue Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Engstrand Lilja

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The management of giant omphalocele (GO is a major challenge in pediatric surgery and there are many different surgical strategies described. Here we report a complicated case in which the abdominal wall in a premature neonate (gestational age 33 + 2 weeks and 1700 g with GO was reconstructed with a non-cross-linked acellular porcine dermal matrix (Strattice™ combined with vacuum therapy. This strategy can be an alternative method in the repair of GO in premature neonates with high risk of infection, underdeveloped abdominal cavity and insufficient native tissue.

  9. [Report on threatened premature labor: etiology, management, results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzibahcian, J J; Mida, M; David, E; Weber, L; Boulanger, J C; Vitse, M

    1990-12-01

    The studies on the aetiological factors of a premature delivery constitute an old fear of obstetricians and epidemiologists. However, they remain confused and the very definition of prematurity is among the first sources of confusion. There are many therapeutic methods considered as preventive. Their efficacy is debatable whilst their secondary effects are obvious. In this article, the authors report the results of a retrospective study of observations of patients who presented threats of premature labour and analyzed the epidemiological aspects, the aetiological factors and the therapeutic methods. It seems important to consider the risk factors in order to prevent premature labour. A decrease in the use of betamimetics and an increase in that of therapies said to be of replacement does not seem to be accompanied by a relative increase in the incidence of prematurity.

  10. Characteristic analysis and prevention on premature convergence in genetic algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐宗本; 高勇

    1997-01-01

    The identification and characteristics of premature convergence in genetic algorithms (GAs) are investigated Through a detailed quantitative analysis on the search capability and the degree of population diversity, the cause of premature convergence in GAs is recognized, and attributed to the maturation effect of the GAs: The minimum schema deduced from current population, which is the largest search space of a GA, converges to a homogeneous population in probability 1 ( so the search capability of the GA decreases and premature convergence occurs). It is shown that, as quantitative features of the maturation effect, the degree of population diversity converges to zero with probability 1, and the tendency for premature convergence is inversely proportional to the population size and directly proportional to the variance of the fitness ratio of zero allele at any gene position of the current population. Based on the theoretical analysis, several strategies for preventing premature convergence are suggest

  11. Preterm premature rupture of the fetal membranes: association with sociodemographic factors and maternal genitourinary infections ,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnildo A. Hackenhaar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:tthis study aimed to investigate the incidence of premature rupture of fetal membranes in preterm singleton pregnancies and its association with sociodemographic factors and maternal self-reported genitourinary infections.METHODS:this was a population-based cross-sectional study, which included all mothers of newborns of singleton deliveries that occurred in 2010, with birth weight > 500 grams, who resided in the city of Rio Grande. Women were interviewed in the two maternity hospitals. Cases were women who had lost amniotic fluid before hospitalization and whose gestational age was less than 37 weeks. Statistical analysis was performed by levels to control for confounding factors using Poisson regression.RESULTS:of the 2,244 women eligible for the study, 3.1% had preterm premature rupture of fetal membranes, which was more frequent, after adjustment, in women of lower socioeconomic status, (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.94, with lower level of schooling (PR = 2.43, age > 29 years (PR = 2.49, and smokers (PR = 2.04. It was also associated with threatened miscarriage (PR = 1.68 and preterm labor, (PR = 3.40. There was no association with maternal urinary tract infection or presence of genital discharge.CONCLUSIONS:the outcome was more common in puerperal women with lower level of schooling, lower socioeconomic status, older, and smokers, as well as those with a history of threatened miscarriage and premature labor. These factors should be considered in the prevention, diagnosis, and therapy approach.

  12. Vision-related quality of life in children with retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcione Aparecida Messa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:To evaluate the effect of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP on vision-related quality of life in children.Methods:The Children's Visual Function Questionnaire (CVFQ, an instrument that evaluates vision-related quality of life in children, was used. It is divided into 6 subscales: General Health, Vision Health, Competence, Personality, Family Impact, and Treatment. The sample consisted of parents of premature children up to 3 years of age who had ROP and no neurological damage (ROP group and parents of premature children up to 3 years of age who had normal vision and absence of other diseases (control group.Results:There were 88 subjects in total, 43 in the ROP group and 45 in the control group. The ROP group had lower scores on the CVFQ than the control group. The Total Index and all CVFQ subscale scores and for were significant lower in the ROP group than in the control group. The ROP group was divided according to the severity of the disease. The Total Index, Vision Health, and Competence scores in children with more severe ROP were significantly lower than those in children with less severe ROP.Conclusion:ROP was shown to have a negative effect on vision-related quality of life in children.

  13. Adiponectin corrects premature cellular senescence and normalizes antimicrobial peptide levels in senescent keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Taewon; Kim, Min Jeong; Heo, Won Il; Park, Kui Young; Choi, Sun Young; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Hong, Seung-Phil; Kim, Seong-Jin; Im, Myung; Moon, Nam Ju; Seo, Seong Jun

    2016-09-01

    Stress-induced premature senescence or aging causes dysfunction in the human somatic system. Adiponectin (Acrp30) plays a role in functional recovery, especially with adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1). Acrp30 stimulation reduced the premature senescence positive ratio induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and restituted human β-defensin 2 (hBD-2) levels in senescent keratinocytes. Acrp30 recovered AMPK activity in senescent keratinocytes and increased SIRT1 deacetylation activity. As a result, FoxO1 and FoxO3 transcription activity was recovered. Additionally, Acrp30 stimulation suppresses NFκB p65, which induces abnormal expression of hBD-2 induced by H2O2. In the present study, we have shown that Acrp30 reduces premature senescence and recovers cellular function in keratinocytes. These results suggest a role for Acrp30 as an anti-aging agent to improve impaired skin immune barriers. PMID:27349869

  14. The effect of massage with medium-chain triglyceride oil on weight gain in premature neonates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Saeadi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Prematurity and poor weight gaining are important causes for neonatal hospitalization. The present study aimed to investigate the role of medium-chain triglyceride (MCT oil via massage therapy as a supplementary nutritional method on the weight gain of Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU-hospitalized neonates. This randomized clinical trial performed among 121 stable premature neonates hospitalized in the NICU of Qaem Educational Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. They were randomly divided into three groups: oil-massage, massage alone and control groups. These groups were compared on the basis of weight gain during a one-week interval. The three groups were matched for sex, mean gestational age, birth weight, head circumference, delivery, and feeding type (P>0.05. The mean weight gain on the 7th day in the oil massage group was 105±1.3gr and 52±0.1gr in the massage group; whereas 54±1.3gr weight loss was observed in the control group. Significant differences were observed between the oil-massage group and the other two groups, respectively (P=0.002 and P=0.000. The findings of this study suggest that transcutaneous feeding with MCT oil massage therapy in premature neonates can result in accelerated weight gain in this age group with no risk of NEC.

  15. Retinopathy of Prematurity Among 1000-2000 Gram Birth Weight Newborn Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamali Fatahi Bayat; Azizollah Yousefi; Seyedeh Fatemeh Khatami; Gholamali Mamuri

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to identify the risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in neonatal intensive care unit in preterm infants born with birth weight 1000-2000g or at gestational age less than 34 weeks. Material & Methods: From August 2000 to December 2001, 50 preterm newborn infants with birth weights less than 2000 g or gestational age less than 34 weeks admitted to the NICU were studied. Newborn infants with birth weight between 1200-2000g who received more t...

  16. Rerouting surgery of cardiac type total anomalous pulmonary venous return in a premature newborn with very low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, En-Ting; Huang, Shu-Chien; Wu, Mei-Hwan; Wang, Jou-Kou; Chang, Chung-I

    2007-02-01

    Intracardiac repair for complex congenital heart defects in premature neonates with very low birth weight (VLBW) is still a challenge to pediatric cardiac surgeons. We report the successful rerouting of cardiac type total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR) in a premature newborn (36th gestational week) with VLBW (1250 g). She had severe hypoxemia and low cardiac output despite medical treatment. Rerouting surgery of TAPVR was performed under deep hypothermia circulatory arrest at the age of 20 days. The sternum was left open and approximated 2 days later. Follow-up echocardiography showed good ventricular function without pulmonary venous obstruction. The endotracheal tube was removed 7 days postoperatively. She was then discharged without complication. In conclusion, with improved cardiopulmonary bypass technique and perioperative care, open heart surgery can be performed in premature newborns with VLBW.

  17. A case of premature ovarian failure (POF) in a 31-year-old woman with a 47,XXX karyotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skałba, Piotr; Cygal, Anna; Gierzyńska, Zuzanna

    2010-01-01

    A case of POF in a 31-year-old woman with karyotype 47,XXX. The aim of the study was to discuss a case of POF in a 31-year-old patient with polysomy 47,XXX. The described karyotype is not usually associated with this characteristic physical phenotype. In some rare cases, menstrual disorders, sterility, secondary amenorrhoea, premature menopause, and low intelligence are found. Our observations revealed the necessity for cytogenetic examination in all women at reproductive age with symptoms of premature ovarian failure. According to the data found in literature, patients with POF and karyotype disorders belong to the risk group of premature death, mostly for cardiological reasons. Raising patient awareness about the risk may have a positive effect on quality of life and regularity of check-ups.

  18. A susceptibility gene for premature ovarian failure (POF) maps to proximal Xq28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Francesca; Rizzolio, Flavio; Pramparo, Tiziano; Sala, Cinzia; Bione, Silvia; Bernardi, Franca; Goegan, Mara; Zuffardi, Orsetta; Toniolo, Daniela

    2004-10-01

    Terminal deletions of the long arm of the human X chromosome have been described in women with premature ovarian failure (POF). We report here the molecular characterization of an inherited deletion in two affected women and in their mother. The two daughters presented secondary amenorrhea at 17 or 22 years respectively, while the mother was fertile. She had four children, but she eventually had premature menopause at 43 years of age. The fine molecular analysis of the deletion showed that the three women carried an identical deletion. We conclude that the phenotypic difference within the family must be attributed to genetic or environmental factors and not to the presence of different extent deletions. By comparison with other deletions in the region, we map a susceptibility gene for POF to 4.5 Mb, in the distal part of Xq.

  19. Understanding the Short- and Long-Term Respiratory Outcomes of Prematurity and Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Jessica Y; Keller, Roberta L; Aschner, Judy L; Hartert, Tina V; Moore, Paul E

    2015-07-15

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic respiratory disease associated with premature birth that primarily affects infants born at less than 28 weeks' gestational age. BPD is the most common serious complication experienced by premature infants, with more than 8,000 newly diagnosed infants annually in the United States alone. In light of the increasing numbers of preterm survivors with BPD, improving the current state of knowledge of long-term respiratory morbidity for infants with BPD is a priority. We undertook a comprehensive review of the published literature to analyze and consolidate current knowledge of the effects of BPD that are recognized at specific stages of life, including infancy, childhood, and adulthood. In this review, we discuss both the short-term and long-term respiratory outcomes of individuals diagnosed as infants with the disease and highlight the gaps in knowledge needed to improve early and lifelong management of these patients. PMID:26038806

  20. Successful surgical management of retinopathy of prematurity showing rapid progression despite extensive retinal photocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salil S Gadkari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP can be challenging in preterm babies with a gestational age <30 weeks, those with very low birth weight and multiple risk factors (eg., oxygen therapy for respiratory distress, sepsis, neonatal jaundice. A premature infant presented with "hybrid" zone 1 disease in the right eye and aggressive posterior ROP in the left eye. Both eyes were adequately treated with laser photocoagulation; however, the eyes deteriorated and progressed to stage 4 ROP. Both eyes eventually underwent intravitreal bevacizumab followed by lens sparing vitrectomy with good anatomical and visual outcome. Anticipation of progression despite laser photocoagulation in certain clinical scenarios, frequent follow-up and timely surgical intervention is paramount.

  1. Normal standards for kidney length as measured with US in premature infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to develop normal standards for kidney length in premature infants, the authors measured kidney length by US imaging in 39 (to date) premature infants less than 72 hours old and without known renal disease. Kidney length was compared with four different parameters of body size, including gestational age, birth weight, birth length, and body surface area. Similar standards have been generated previously for normal renal length as measured by US imaging in full-term infants and older children. These standards have proven utility in cases of congenital and acquired disorders that abnormally increase or decrease renal size. Scatter plots of kidney length versus body weight and kidney length versus body surface area conformed well to a logarithmic distribution, with a high correlation coefficient and close-fitting 95% confidence limits (SEE = 2.05)

  2. Weight loss and premature death: the 1946 British birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Albanese

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The relationship between weight loss and mortality has important clinical and public health significance but has proved to be complex. Evidence is mixed and particularly limited on the association between weight loss in mid-life and premature death (i.e. before 65 years of age, a small albeit important segment of total mortality. We aimed to study the association between midlife weight change and mortality accounting for health and lifestyle characteristics, and also considering potential bias due to preexisting chronic diseases and smoking status. DESIGN: Longitudinal, population-based, 'the 1946 British' birth cohort study. SUBJECTS AND MEASURES: In 2750 men and women, mortality from age 53 through 65 years was analyzed according to categories of measured 10 year weight change between 43 and 53 years. Cox's hazard ratios (HR were progressively adjusted for socio-demographic, lifestyle and health characteristics. RESULTS: Nearly 20% of participants lost weight and over 50% gained 5 kg or more in midlife. There were 164 deaths. Compared to those who gained between 2 and 5 kg, those who lost 5 kg or more had an increased risk of premature death independently of midlife physical activity, socio-economic circumstances and educational attainment. This association was unaltered when highest weight loss (lost more than 15 Kg (p = 0.04 and early deaths were excluded (p<0.001, but was no longer significant after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors and health status (HR = 1.8; 95% CI: 0.9 to 3.5. CONCLUSION: The inverse association between weight loss in midlife and higher risk of premature death may be explained by vascular risk factors and ill health. In consideration of the burden of premature death, closer monitoring of weight loss in mid-life is warranted.

  3. Auditory stimuli mimicking ambient sounds drive temporal "delta-brushes" in premature infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Chipaux

    Full Text Available In the premature infant, somatosensory and visual stimuli trigger an immature electroencephalographic (EEG pattern, "delta-brushes," in the corresponding sensory cortical areas. Whether auditory stimuli evoke delta-brushes in the premature auditory cortex has not been reported. Here, responses to auditory stimuli were studied in 46 premature infants without neurologic risk aged 31 to 38 postmenstrual weeks (PMW during routine EEG recording. Stimuli consisted of either low-volume technogenic "clicks" near the background noise level of the neonatal care unit, or a human voice at conversational sound level. Stimuli were administrated pseudo-randomly during quiet and active sleep. In another protocol, the cortical response to a composite stimulus ("click" and voice was manually triggered during EEG hypoactive periods of quiet sleep. Cortical responses were analyzed by event detection, power frequency analysis and stimulus locked averaging. Before 34 PMW, both voice and "click" stimuli evoked cortical responses with similar frequency-power topographic characteristics, namely a temporal negative slow-wave and rapid oscillations similar to spontaneous delta-brushes. Responses to composite stimuli also showed a maximal frequency-power increase in temporal areas before 35 PMW. From 34 PMW the topography of responses in quiet sleep was different for "click" and voice stimuli: responses to "clicks" became diffuse but responses to voice remained limited to temporal areas. After the age of 35 PMW auditory evoked delta-brushes progressively disappeared and were replaced by a low amplitude response in the same location. Our data show that auditory stimuli mimicking ambient sounds efficiently evoke delta-brushes in temporal areas in the premature infant before 35 PMW. Along with findings in other sensory modalities (visual and somatosensory, these findings suggest that sensory driven delta-brushes represent a ubiquitous feature of the human sensory cortex

  4. Effect of Erythropoietin in Infants with the Anemia of Prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sh. Farhat

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant human erythropoietin (Epo is known to accelerate erythropoesis in preterm infants. This study was designed to assess the effect of Epo in treatment of anemia of prematurity .Preterm infants with Hct <30% when infant’s age was between 2 to 3 weeks or Hct<25% when infant’s age was more than 3 weeks , were divided randomly in two groups, each group included 10 babies. The mean gestational age in control group was 32.1±1.85 weeks and birth weight was 1489±218 (SD , grams and in case group was 31.5±2.12 weeks and birth weight was 1367±227 grams. Infants in case group received Epo 500 u/kg twice weekly for 4 weeks. All infants in control and case group were fed human milk and supplemented with entral iron prophylaxy. Levels of hematocrit and reticolocytes were determined for each infant at the beiging of study, 3 days after treatment and one week after the end of treatment. Weight, length and head circomference were determined weekly.The groups were significantly different in hematocrit and reticulocyes count at the end of study (P<0.0001 and P=0.024 respectively. In control group the prophylactic iron supplementation was not sufficient to prevent anemia and we found a significant decrease in hematocrit level at the end of study (P<0.0001.We concluded the early treatment of anemia of prematutiry with rhEpo with iron increase hematocrit and retyculocyte in perterm infants. If we can minimize blood sampling for laboratory analysis in preterm infants, treatment with Epo will reduce the need for blood transfusion in these infants.

  5. 早产儿303例临床分析%Clinical analysis of premature infants in 303 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏春晖; 杨诗梅; 隋华

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨不同胎龄及体重早产儿早产原因、合并症及近期预后。方法:收治早产儿303例,按不同胎龄和体重分为6组,对6组早产儿的早产原因、合并症以及近期预后进行分析。结果:胎膜早破是引起早产最主要的原因。早产儿主要并发症为贫血、高胆红素血症及肺炎等。不同胎龄组的并发症发生率差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:产科、新生儿科医师应当掌握引起早产的原因,积极防治早产儿合并症,提高早产儿的存活率和生存质量。%Objective:To explore the preterm birth reasons,complications and recent prognosis of different gestational age and weight premature infants.Methods:303 cases of premature infants were selected.They were divided into 6 groups according to different gestational age and weight.The preterm birth reasons,complications and recent prognosis of premature infants in 6 groups were analyzed.Results:The premature rupture of fetal membranes is the main reason of premature birth.The main complications of premature infants were anemia,hyperbilirubinemia and pneumonia.The differences between the complications incidence rate in different age groups had statistically significant(P<0.05).Conclusion:Obstetric,neonatal pediatricians should grasp the reasons of premature birth,actively prevent and treat the complications of premature infants,to improve the survival rate and the life quality of preterm infants.

  6. Response to Pain by Different Gestational Age Neonates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏传雄; 杨磊; 赵萍; 张小铭

    2002-01-01

    One hundred infants were divided into the following 3 gestational age (GA) groups: ( I )premature infants (n= 30) with the gestational age between 29 and 32 weeks; ( Ⅱ ) premature infants (n=30) with the gestational age between 33 and 36 weeks; ( Ⅲ ) full-term infants (n=40).The recorded responses of all infants to pain included the behavioral responses to painful stimuli (cry,facial activity and limbs movement) and the variety of heart rate. The results indicated that the infants of 3 groups had different degree response to various painful stimuli. Pain expression in full term infants was more significant than premature infants to same stimuli. 33-weeks GA infants were differential from 29-weeks GA infants. Full term infants showed more vertical mouth stretch and more taut tongue and more hand to mouth than premature infants, but more horizontal mouth stretch in premature infants.

  7. Premature ovarian failure : from phenotype to genotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knauff, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    Postponement of childbearing has led to increased rates of age-related female subfertility. Age-related decreases in ovarian follicle numbers and decay in oocyte quality influence the natural loss of fecundity and ultimately the start of menopause. The rate of ovarian ageing is highly variable among

  8. An ultrasound protocol in premature infants with intracranial hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velisavljev-Filipović Gordana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Prematurity is a great health problem in our country and in the world. There are more than 11% of premature births in America annually, and in Europe this rate is between 5-10%. In Vojvodina, 9% of babies are born prematurely. Intracranial hemorrhage takes a significant place in the morbidity of prematurely born children. Intracranial hemorrhage in premature newborn infants Incomplete CNS development of premature infants causes numerous complications, but it is also the factor which enables survival of extremely immature infants without sequelae. The management protocol depends on the level of hemorrhage. Early diagnosis of intracranial hemorrhage and determination of the level of hemorrhage are of utmost importance for disability prevention. Ultrasound in monitoring intracranial hemorrhage Brain monitoring of prematurely born babies is performed by ultrasound. This type of visualization has several advantages over other techniques: it is mobile, so called "bedside technique", it is relatively cheap, it may be repeated several times, it is possible to define the exact time of hemorrhage and monitor its absorption from day to day. Ultrasound is safe, and there is no ionized radiation. No sedation is required for ultrasound examination. The examination is not painful. Conclusion The frequency of ultrasound depends on the level of hemorrhage, presence or absence of ventriculomegally/ hydrocephalus, as well as on the surrounding cerebral parenchyma. .

  9. Substance Abuse and Psychiatric Co-morbidity as Predictors of Premature Mortality in Swedish Drug Abusers: A Prospective Longitudinal Study 1970-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyhlén, Anna; Fridell, Mats; Bäckström, Martin;

    2011-01-01

    with a decreased risk. Neurosis, mainly depression and/or anxiety disorders, predicted drug related premature death while chronic psychosis and personality disorders did not. Chronic alcohol addiction was associated with increased risk of non drug related death. Conclusions The cohort of drug abusers had......Background Few longitudinal cohort studies have focused on the impact of substances abused and psychiatric disorders on premature mortality. The aim of the present study was to identify predictors of increased risk of drug related death and non drug related death in substance abusers of opiates...... an increased risk of premature death to the age of 69. Drug related premature death was predicted by male gender, the use of opiates or barbiturates and depression and anxiety disorders at first admission. The predicted cumulative incidence of drug related death was significantly higher in opiate...

  10. Genome-wide association study and premature ovarian failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christin-Maitre, S; Tachdjian, G

    2010-05-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is defined as an amenorrhea for more than 4months, associated with elevated gonadotropins, usually higher than 20mIU/ml, occurring in a woman before the age of 40. Some candidate genes have been identified in the past 15years, such as FOXL2, FSHR, BMP15, GDF9, Xfra premutation. However, POF etiology remains unknown in more than 90% of cases. The first strategy to identify candidate gene, apart from studying genes involved in ovarian failure in animal models, relies on the study of X chromosome deletions and X;autosome translocations in patients. The second strategy is based on linkage analysis, the third one on Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) array. The latest strategy relies on Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS). This technique consists in screening single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in patients and controls. So far, three studies have been performed and have identified different loci potentially linked to POF, such as PTHB1 and ADAMTS19. However, replications in independent cohorts need to be performed. GWAS studies on large cohorts of women with POF should find new candidate genes in the near future.

  11. Melatonin, a possible promising panacea for premature ovarian failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Guo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Premature ovarian failure (POF is characterized by impairment of ovarian function unrelated to elevatedfollicle-stimulating hormone (FSH before the age of 40. The consequence of POF is severe and distinctive, presentingfrom infertility to symptoms caused by hormone deprivation. The mechanism of POF remains unclearand current treatments are therefore ineffective. Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine is a neuroendocrinalhormone chiefly secreted by the pineal body. Melatonin exerts extensive physiological and pharmacologicaleffects on the biological rhythm, oxidative stress, reproduction, autoimmune and tumourigenesis. However,current researches have not yet brought melatonin into the study of POF. In the present review, we have involvedstate-of-the-art research progress of melatonin in ovary with regard to oxidation, follicle formation and function,and ovarian autoimmune disorders since these aspects mainly dispose to POF development. The features thatmelatonin scavenges reactive oxygen species (ROS, directly and indirectly induces follicle maturation, ovulationand inhibits apoptosis, and modulates autoimmune derangements in the ovaries are highly indicative that melatonincan effect in combating POF. Also, in this respect we have discussed the possibility of applying melatoninin the treatment of POF and have listed evidence of studies in vitro and in vivo. Vacant research directions aresubsequently suggested and the future application of melatonin in POF treatment is prospected.

  12. An immunological insight into premature ovarian failure (POF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragojević-Dikić, Svetlana; Marisavljević, Dragomir; Mitrović, Ana; Dikić, Srdjan; Jovanović, Tomislav; Janković-Raznatović, Svetlana

    2010-09-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF), a serious life-changing condition that affects young women, remains an enigma and the researchers' challenge. The term POF generally describes a syndrome of gonadal failure before the age of 40, characterized by amenorrhea, sex steroid deficiency and elevated levels of gonadotropins. Infertility and psychological stress are common consequences of this entity the prevalence of which is 0.9-3%. The known cause of this condition includes: genetic aberrations, autoimmune ovarian damage, iatrogenic and environmental factors, although in majority of cases the underlying cause is not identified. For many women in whom the cause of ovarian failure is unknown, autoimmunity may be the pathogenic mechanism. There is currently evidence that some cases of POF are due to faulty recognition of self in the ovary by the immune system, possibly provoked by genetic or environmental factors initiating such immune response. Numerous evidence, including association with multiple autoimmune endocrine disorders, clinical reversibility, transitory estrogen deficiency, histological and immunological features and the demonstration of circulating ovarian antibodies in serum samples from women with POF, have suggested its immunological origin. We discuss the possible role of such an autoimmune process as a cause or consequence of POF including treatment strategies in POF patients.

  13. Premature adrenarche--a common condition with variable presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utriainen, Pauliina; Laakso, Saila; Liimatta, Jani; Jääskeläinen, Jarmo; Voutilainen, Raimo

    2015-01-01

    Adrenarche refers to a maturational increase in the secretion of adrenal androgen precursors, mainly dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate (DHEAS). In premature adrenarche (PA), clinical signs of androgen action appear before the age of 8/9 years in girls/boys, concurrently with the circulating DHEA(S) concentrations above the usually low prepubertal level. The most pronounced sign of PA is the appearance of pubic/axillary hair, but also other signs of androgen effect (adult type body odor, acne/comedones, greasy hair, accelerated statural growth) are important to recognize. PA children are often overweight and taller than their peers, and the higher prevalence of PA in girls than in boys is probably explained by higher female adiposity and peripheral DHEA(S) conversion to active androgens. PA diagnosis requires exclusion of other causes of androgen excess: congenital adrenal hyperplasia, androgen-producing tumors, precocious puberty, and exogenous source of androgens. PA has been linked with unfavorable metabolic features including hyperinsulinism, dyslipidemia, and later-appearing ovarian hyperandrogenism. Although this common condition is usually benign, PA children with additional risk factors including obesity should be followed up, with the focus on weight and lifestyle. Long-term follow-up studies are warranted to clarify if the metabolic changes detected in PA children persist until adulthood. PMID:25676474

  14. CSB-PGBD3 Mutations Cause Premature Ovarian Failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Qin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Premature ovarian failure (POF is a rare, heterogeneous disorder characterized by cessation of menstruation occurring before the age of 40 years. Genetic etiology is responsible for perhaps 25% of cases, but most cases are sporadic and unexplained. In this study, through whole exome sequencing in a non-consanguineous family having four affected members with POF and Sanger sequencing in 432 sporadic cases, we identified three novel mutations in the fusion gene CSB-PGBD3. Subsequently functional studies suggest that mutated CSB-PGBD3 fusion protein was impaired in response to DNA damage, as indicated by delayed or absent recruitment to damaged sites. Our data provide the first evidence that mutations in the CSB-PGBD3 fusion protein can cause human disease, even in the presence of functional CSB, thus potentially explaining conservation of the fusion protein for 43 My since marmoset. The localization of the CSB-PGBD3 fusion protein to UVA-induced nuclear DNA repair foci further suggests that the CSB-PGBD3 fusion protein, like many other proteins that can cause POF, modulates or participates in DNA repair.

  15. Level of Sexual Myths Level in Premature Ejaculation Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Gunes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to determine level of belief in sexual myths in the cases of premature ejacula­tion (PE which is the most common sexual dysfunction in men. Methods: This study included 100 cases who applied Di­cle University Faculty of Medicine hospitals meet prema­ture ejaculation criteria of DSM-5 and 70 healthy controls. Sociodemographic data form, Hamilton Depression Rat­ing Scale (HDS, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAS, Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASES-Men form and Sexual Myths Evaluation Form were applied to partici­pants. Results: In the study, rate of belief in sexual myths in PE cases was found significantly higher than healthy controls. In the PE cases, education time less than 10 years, the presence of comorbid sexual dysfunction were found to be statistically significant factors that increase the level of belief in sexual myths in the PE cases, HDS (p=0.0002, HAS (p=0.0001, ASES (p=0.0004 scores were statisti­cally significantly higher than the control group. In the loss of sexual desire in men with comorbid ASES (p=0.0001, with ED, ASES (p=0.001 and HDS (p=0.040 scores were found statistically significantly higher. Conclusions: Sexual information should be given in the appropriate age by educated person in educational insti­tutions.

  16. Symbolic transfer entropy-based premature signal analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jun; Yu Zheng-Feng

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we use symbolic transfer entropy to study the coupling strength between premature signals.Numerical experiments show that three types of signal couplings are in the same direction.Among them,normal signal coupling is the strongest,followed by that of premature ventricular contractions,and that of atrial premature beats is the weakest.The T test shows that the entropies of the three signals are distinct.Symbolic transfer entropy requires less data,can distinguish the three types of signals and has very good computational efficiency.

  17. Symbolic transfer entropy-based premature signal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Yu, Zheng-Feng

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we use symbolic transfer entropy to study the coupling strength between premature signals. Numerical experiments show that three types of signal couplings are in the same direction. Among them, normal signal coupling is the strongest, followed by that of premature ventricular contractions, and that of atrial premature beats is the weakest. The T test shows that the entropies of the three signals are distinct. Symbolic transfer entropy requires less data, can distinguish the three types of signals and has very good computational efficiency.

  18. Symbolic transfer entropy-based premature signal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we use symbolic transfer entropy to study the coupling strength between premature signals. Numerical experiments show that three types of signal couplings are in the same direction. Among them, normal signal coupling is the strongest, followed by that of premature ventricular contractions, and that of atrial premature beats is the weakest. The T test shows that the entropies of the three signals are distinct. Symbolic transfer entropy requires less data, can distinguish the three types of signals and has very good computational efficiency. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  19. Efficacy of Dapoxetine in the Treatment of Premature Ejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Chris G.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual disorder which is associated with substantial personal and interpersonal negative psychological factors. Pharmacotherapy of PE with off-label antidepressant SSRI drugs is common. Development and regulatory approval of drugs specifically for the treatment of PE will reduce reliance on off-label treatments and serve to fill a unmet treatment need. Aim To review evidence supporting the efficacy and safety of dapoxetine in the treatment of PE. Methods MEDLINE and the proceedings of major international and regional scientific meetings during the period 1994–2010 were searched for publications or abstracts using the word dapoxetine in the title, abstract or keywords. This search was then manually cross-referenced for all papers. This review encompasses studies of dapoxetine pharmacokinetics, animal studies, human phase 1, 2 and 3 efficacy and safety studies and drug-interaction studies. Results Dapoxetine is a potent selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, which is administered on-demand 1–3 hours prior to planned sexual contact. Dapoxetine is rapidly absorbed and eliminated, resulting in minimal accumulation and has dose-proportional pharmacokinetics, which are unaffected by multiple dosing. Dapoxetine 30 mg and 60 mg has been evaluated in 5 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in 6081 men aged ≥18 years. Outcome measures included stopwatch-measured intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), Premature Ejaculation Profile (PEP) inventory items, clinical global impression of change (CGIC) in PE, and adverse events. Mean IELT, all PEP items and CGIC improved significantly with both doses of dapoxetine vs. placebo (P < 0.001 for all). The most common treatment related adverse effects included nausea (11.0% for 30 mg, 22.2% for 60 mg), dizziness (586% for 30 mg, 10.9% for 60 mg), and headache (5.6% for 30 mg, 8.8% for 60 mg), and evaluation of validated rated scales demonstrated no SSRI

  20. [Environmentally induced (extrinsic) skin aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutmann, J; Schikowski, T; Hüls, A; Vierkötter, A; Grether-Beck, S

    2016-02-01

    Chronic exposure to ultraviolet light, particularly as a component of natural sunlight, is a major cause of environmentally induced aging of the skin. In addition, other environmental factors for premature skin aging include longer wavelength radiation in the visible light region and in particular in the shortwave infrared radiation region. Furthermore, particulate and gaseous components of air pollution significantly contribute to the aging process. PMID:26769311

  1. The Effect of Fish Oil-Based Lipid Emulsion and Soybean Oil-Based Lipid Emulsion on Cholestasis Associated with Long-Term Parenteral Nutrition in Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Leilei; Zhang, Jing; Gao, Jiejin; Qian, Yan; Ling, Ya

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To retrospectively study the effect of fish oil-based lipid emulsion and soybean oil-based lipid emulsion on cholestasis associated with long-term parenteral nutrition in premature infants. Methods. Soybean oil-based lipid emulsion and fish oil-based lipid emulsion had been applied in our neonatology department clinically between 2010 and 2014. There were 61 qualified premature infants included in this study and divided into two groups. Soybean oil group was made up of 32 premature infants, while fish oil group was made up of 29 premature infants. Analysis was made on the gender, feeding intolerance, infection history, birth weight, gestational age, duration of parenteral nutrition, total dosage of amino acid, age at which feeding began, usage of lipid emulsions, and incidence of cholestasis between the two groups. Results. There were no statistical differences in terms of gender, feeding intolerance, infection history, birth weight, gestational age, duration of parenteral nutrition, total dosage of amino acid, and age at which feeding began. Besides, total incidence of cholestasis was 21.3%, and the days of life of occurrence of cholestasis were 53 ± 5.0 days. Incidence of cholestasis had no statistical difference in the two groups. Conclusion. This study did not find the different role of fish oil-based lipid emulsions and soybean oil-based lipid emulsions in cholestasis associated with long-term parenteral nutrition in premature infants. PMID:27110237

  2. The Effect of Fish Oil-Based Lipid Emulsion and Soybean Oil-Based Lipid Emulsion on Cholestasis Associated with Long-Term Parenteral Nutrition in Premature Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilei Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To retrospectively study the effect of fish oil-based lipid emulsion and soybean oil-based lipid emulsion on cholestasis associated with long-term parenteral nutrition in premature infants. Methods. Soybean oil-based lipid emulsion and fish oil-based lipid emulsion had been applied in our neonatology department clinically between 2010 and 2014. There were 61 qualified premature infants included in this study and divided into two groups. Soybean oil group was made up of 32 premature infants, while fish oil group was made up of 29 premature infants. Analysis was made on the gender, feeding intolerance, infection history, birth weight, gestational age, duration of parenteral nutrition, total dosage of amino acid, age at which feeding began, usage of lipid emulsions, and incidence of cholestasis between the two groups. Results. There were no statistical differences in terms of gender, feeding intolerance, infection history, birth weight, gestational age, duration of parenteral nutrition, total dosage of amino acid, and age at which feeding began. Besides, total incidence of cholestasis was 21.3%, and the days of life of occurrence of cholestasis were 53±5.0 days. Incidence of cholestasis had no statistical difference in the two groups. Conclusion. This study did not find the different role of fish oil-based lipid emulsions and soybean oil-based lipid emulsions in cholestasis associated with long-term parenteral nutrition in premature infants.

  3. The Effect of Fish Oil-Based Lipid Emulsion and Soybean Oil-Based Lipid Emulsion on Cholestasis Associated with Long-Term Parenteral Nutrition in Premature Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Leilei; Zhang, Jing; Gao, Jiejin; Qian, Yan; Ling, Ya

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To retrospectively study the effect of fish oil-based lipid emulsion and soybean oil-based lipid emulsion on cholestasis associated with long-term parenteral nutrition in premature infants. Methods. Soybean oil-based lipid emulsion and fish oil-based lipid emulsion had been applied in our neonatology department clinically between 2010 and 2014. There were 61 qualified premature infants included in this study and divided into two groups. Soybean oil group was made up of 32 premature infants, while fish oil group was made up of 29 premature infants. Analysis was made on the gender, feeding intolerance, infection history, birth weight, gestational age, duration of parenteral nutrition, total dosage of amino acid, age at which feeding began, usage of lipid emulsions, and incidence of cholestasis between the two groups. Results. There were no statistical differences in terms of gender, feeding intolerance, infection history, birth weight, gestational age, duration of parenteral nutrition, total dosage of amino acid, and age at which feeding began. Besides, total incidence of cholestasis was 21.3%, and the days of life of occurrence of cholestasis were 53 ± 5.0 days. Incidence of cholestasis had no statistical difference in the two groups. Conclusion. This study did not find the different role of fish oil-based lipid emulsions and soybean oil-based lipid emulsions in cholestasis associated with long-term parenteral nutrition in premature infants.

  4. Nuclear Chk1 prevents premature mitotic entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Makoto; Goto, Hidemasa; Kasahara, Kousuke; Kawakami, Yoshitaka; Nakanishi, Makoto; Kiyono, Tohru; Goshima, Naoki; Inagaki, Masaki

    2011-07-01

    Chk1 inhibits the premature activation of the cyclin-B1-Cdk1. However, it remains controversial whether Chk1 inhibits Cdk1 in the centrosome or in the nucleus before the G2-M transition. In this study, we examined the specificity of the mouse monoclonal anti-Chk1 antibody DCS-310, with which the centrosome was stained. Conditional Chk1 knockout in mouse embryonic fibroblasts reduced nuclear but not centrosomal staining with DCS-310. In Chk1(+/myc) human colon adenocarcinoma (DLD-1) cells, Chk1 was detected in the nucleus but not in the centrosome using an anti-Myc antibody. Through the combination of protein array and RNAi technologies, we identified Ccdc-151 as a protein that crossreacted with DCS-310 on the centrosome. Mitotic entry was delayed by expression of the Chk1 mutant that localized in the nucleus, although forced immobilization of Chk1 to the centrosome had little impact on the timing of mitotic entry. These results suggest that nuclear but not centrosomal Chk1 contributes to correct timing of mitotic entry.

  5. Clomiphene Effects on Idiopathic Premature Ejaculation

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    Ketabchi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Premature ejaculation (PE is the inability to delay ejaculation, occurring sooner than they or their partner would like during sexual activities. PE is a challenging problem that can affect sexual enjoyment and may harm relationships of couples and affect their quality of life. In idiopathic PE, several helpful techniques and medicines are recommended, but none of them has yielded satisfactory results. Objectives Our objective in this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of clomiphene as a selective estrogen receptor modulator on the treatment of idiopathic PE. Patients and Methods In a randomized clinical trial, 178 married men with idiopathic PE defined according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Third Revised Version (DSM-III-R who referred to urology clinics over a 10-month period in 2012 were randomized into two groups, namely the study (clomiphene and control (placebo groups. They completed self-administered questionnaires that included intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT, erectile dysfunction indexes, quality of life (QOL, sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle, and medical illness. After 6 months of intervention, all data were compared with the baseline data and between the groups. Results Within the 10-month study course, 126 patients (70.8% completed this study. After intervention and comparison of the results between the two groups, IELT, sexual indexes, and QOL improved in the study group, but significant differences were observed only in the IELT and QOL findings. Conclusions Clomiphene seems to be useful in the pharmacological treatment of PE compared to the placebo.

  6. Retinopathy of prematurity: Past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Parag K; Prabhu, Vishma; Karandikar, Smita S; Ranjan, Ratnesh; Narendran, Venkatapathy; Kalpana, Narendran

    2016-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a vasoproliferative disorder of the retina occurring principally in new born preterm infants. It is an avoidable cause of childhood blindness. With the increase in the survival of preterm babies, ROP has become the leading cause of preventable childhood blindness throughout the world. A simple screening test done within a few weeks after birth by an ophthalmologist can avoid this preventable blindness. Although screening guidelines and protocols are strictly followed in the developed nations, it lacks in developing economies like India and China, which have the highest number of preterm deliveries in the world. The burden of this blindness in these countries is set to increase tremendously in the future, if corrective steps are not taken immediately. ROP first emerged in 1940s and 1950s, when it was called retrolental fibroplasia. Several epidemics of this disease were and are still occurring in different regions of the world and since then a lot of research has been done on this disease. However, till date very few comprehensive review articles covering all the aspects of ROP are published. This review highlights the past, present and future strategies in managing this disease. It would help the pediatricians to update their current knowledge on ROP. PMID:26862500

  7. The Premature Formation of High Redshift Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Melia, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    Observations with WFC3/IR on the Hubble Space Telescope and the use of gravitational lensing techniques have facilitated the discovery of galaxies as far back as z ~ 10-12, a truly remarkable achievement. However, this rapid emergence of high-z galaxies, barely ~ 200 Myr after the transition from Population III star formation to Population II, appears to be in conflict with the standard view of how the early Universe evolved. This problem has much in common with the better known (and probably related) premature appearance of supermassive black holes at z ~ 6. It is difficult to understand how ~ 10^9 solar-mass black holes could have appeared so quickly after the big bang without invoking non-standard accretion physics and the formation of massive seeds, neither of which is seen in the local Universe. In earlier work, we showed that the appearance of high-z quasars could instead be understood more reasonably in the context of the R_h=ct Universe, which does not suffer from the same time compression issues as L...

  8. Nuclear Chk1 prevents premature mitotic entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Makoto; Goto, Hidemasa; Kasahara, Kousuke; Kawakami, Yoshitaka; Nakanishi, Makoto; Kiyono, Tohru; Goshima, Naoki; Inagaki, Masaki

    2011-07-01

    Chk1 inhibits the premature activation of the cyclin-B1-Cdk1. However, it remains controversial whether Chk1 inhibits Cdk1 in the centrosome or in the nucleus before the G2-M transition. In this study, we examined the specificity of the mouse monoclonal anti-Chk1 antibody DCS-310, with which the centrosome was stained. Conditional Chk1 knockout in mouse embryonic fibroblasts reduced nuclear but not centrosomal staining with DCS-310. In Chk1(+/myc) human colon adenocarcinoma (DLD-1) cells, Chk1 was detected in the nucleus but not in the centrosome using an anti-Myc antibody. Through the combination of protein array and RNAi technologies, we identified Ccdc-151 as a protein that crossreacted with DCS-310 on the centrosome. Mitotic entry was delayed by expression of the Chk1 mutant that localized in the nucleus, although forced immobilization of Chk1 to the centrosome had little impact on the timing of mitotic entry. These results suggest that nuclear but not centrosomal Chk1 contributes to correct timing of mitotic entry. PMID:21628425

  9. Morbidity and mortality of premature neonates after introduction of national in vitro fertilisation programme: Our experience

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    Spasojević Slobodan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Infertility occurs in approximately10% of couples and in vitro fertilisation (IVF is its most efficient treatment method. The National IVF Programme started in October 1st, 2006. Objective. Examination of morbidity and mortality of premature neonates conceived by IVF after initiation of the National IVF Programme. Methods. Retrospective analysis of history charts of IVF premature neonates treated at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU of the Institute of Child and Youth Healthcare of Vojvodina, Novi Sad, Serbia, from March 1st, 2007 to March 1st, 2008. Results. Of 189 treated premature neonates, 25 (13.23% were IVF conceived, with mean gestational age (GA of 29.46±3.28 gestational weeks (GW, one-minute Apgar score 5.44±2.45, five-minute Apgar score 7.16±1.92 and birth weight (BW 1299±484.35 g; from singleton 12 (48%, twin 10 (40%, and trigeminal 3 (12% gestations. The largest number of neonates were of GA between 29 and 31.9 GW (12; 48% and BW between 1500 and 2499 g (9; 36%. All of them were treated due to respiratory distress syndrome, complicated in 2 (8% with air leak syndromes and in 4 (16% with pulmonary haemorrhage. Congenital anomalies were detected in 2 (8% and intracranial haemorrhage developed subsequently in 21 (84% neonates. Lethal outcome occurred in 7 (28% neonates, in all cases in lower gestation groups (<29 GW. Variable analysis showed significantly higher incidence of chorioamnionitis (p=0.0004 and lower GA (p~0.00, BW (p~0.00, one-minute Apgar score (p=0.0007 as well as significant difference in prophylactic surfactant application (p~0.00 and mean arterial pressure on admission (p=0.002. Conclusion. Morbidity and mortality of IVF premature neonates does not differ significantly from that of other premature neonates treated at NICU. Prematurity and low BW are important factors in pathology of these neonates and final outcome is influenced by perinatal asphyxia, risk of systemic infection, prophylactic

  10. Effect of Interventions for Premature Ejaculation in the Treatment of Chronic Prostatitis with Secondary Premature Ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang-Qing; Yi, Qing-Tong; Chen, Chu-Hong; Gong, Min

    2016-08-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of interventions for premature ejaculation (PE) in the management of patients with chronic prostatitis and secondary premature ejaculation. Methods Totally 90 patients diagnosed as chronic prostatitis with PE were randomly divided into control group (n=45) and interventional group (n=45). Control group received a conventional therapy consisted of oral administration of antibiotics,α-receptor blocker,and proprietary Chinese medicine for clearing away heat and promoting diuresis. Interventional group received a conventional therapy combined with treatment for ameliorating the PE symptom (oral dapoxetine on-demand and ejaculation control exercise).National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI),Chinese Index of Sexual Function for Premature Ejaculation (CIPE)-5 questionnaires,intravaginal ejaculatory latency time,and the number of coituses per week were applied for evaluating the treatment outcomes. Results Follow-up was accomplished in 35 and 38 patients in the control and interventional group.The CIPE-5 score,intravaginal ejaculatory latency time,and the number of coituses per week were significantly improved in both two groups but more significantly in interventional group (all Pquality of life subscores and total score were improved significantly in both two groups after treatment,but the NIH-CPSI pain and quality of life subscores had been improved more significantly in the interventional group (all Pquality of sexual life but also help improve the NIH-CPSI pain and quality of life subscores. PE should be routinely screened and treated during the management of CP.p. PMID:27594150

  11. Effects of sponge bathing on vagal tone and behavioural responses in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae-Kyung

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of sponge bathing on physiological (vagal tone, heart rate, heart period, oxygen saturation) and behavioural responses in newly born premature infants in the intensive care unit of a university hospital in South Korea. A convenience sample was taken of 40 infants who were between 27 and 36 weeks gestational age at birth and free of congenital defects. The infants' physiological parameters were recorded 10 min before, during and after bathing. To determine behavioural status, tools were modified from the instruments used in a previous study by Scafidi et al. (1990). Analysis of the results showed that the premature infants reacted to sponge bathing with decreases in vagal tone and heart period and increases in heart rate. Oxygen saturation did not demonstrate any remarkable alteration during bathing. Also, there were no significant differences in behavioural signs, motor activity and behavioural distress. Results of this study indicated that nurses in a neonatal intensive care unit should decide according to a premature infant's physiological state whether or not to give a sponge bath. PMID:12100647

  12. Type 1 Retinopathy of Prematurity and Its Laser Treatment of Large Preterm Infants in East China.

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    Haidong Shan

    Full Text Available To describe Type 1 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP and its laser treatment outcomes in premature infants with birth weight > 1250 g in Eastern China.A retrospective review of 3175 ROP records was conducted at Shanghai Eye & ENT Hospital of Fudan University. The records were collected at the ROP clinic from 2006 to 2014, including their demographic and medical information such as gestational age, birth weight, supplemental oxygen therapy, systemic complications, ROP stage, location, presence of plus disease. All infants were examined by RetCam fundus camera. Those with Type 1 ROP were also examined by indirect ophthalmoscope before undergoing transpupillary laser treatment.A total of 12 infants (24 eyes with Type 1 ROP and birth weight > 1250 g were enrolled. All infants enrolled had plus disease and ROP in zone II retina. Specifically, 16 eyes (67% had stage 2 ROP. 8 eyes (33% had stage 3 ROP. ROP regressed in 23 eyes (96% following laser treatment. Partial retinal detachment developed in one eye (4%. No severe involution sequelaes or laser-related complications were recorded. Mean follow-up was 30±6 weeks.Type 1 ROP may occur in large premature infants who have undergone supplemental oxygen therapy. This Type 1 ROP is mainly located in zone II retina. Laser treatment is a safe and effective intervention for these infants.

  13. Abnormal cortical development after premature birth shown by altered allometric scaling of brain growth.

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    Olga Kapellou

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We postulated that during ontogenesis cortical surface area and cerebral volume are related by a scaling law whose exponent gives a quantitative measure of cortical development. We used this approach to investigate the hypothesis that premature termination of the intrauterine environment by preterm birth reduces cortical development in a dose-dependent manner, providing a neural substrate for functional impairment. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed 274 magnetic resonance images that recorded brain growth from 23 to 48 wk of gestation in 113 extremely preterm infants born at 22 to 29 wk of gestation, 63 of whom underwent neurodevelopmental assessment at a median age of 2 y. Cortical surface area was related to cerebral volume by a scaling law with an exponent of 1.29 (95% confidence interval, 1.25-1.33, which was proportional to later neurodevelopmental impairment. Increasing prematurity and male gender were associated with a lower scaling exponent (p < 0.0001 independent of intrauterine or postnatal somatic growth. CONCLUSIONS: Human brain growth obeys an allometric scaling relation that is disrupted by preterm birth in a dose-dependent, sexually dimorphic fashion that directly parallels the incidence of neurodevelopmental impairments in preterm infants. This result focuses attention on brain growth and cortical development during the weeks following preterm delivery as a neural substrate for neurodevelopmental impairment after premature delivery.

  14. Prophylactic effect of low dose vitamin D in osteopenia of prematurity: a clinical trial study.

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    Paymaneh Alizadeh Taheri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteopenia of prematurity (OOP is a preventable disease. Improved survival of premature newborns is associated with an increased incidence of OOP. The purpose of this study was to compare the prophylactic effects of two low doses of vitamin D (200 and 400 IU/Day on the clinical, biochemical and radiological indices of the rickets of prematurity. In a randomized clinical trial, 60 preterm newborns with birth weight < 2000 g & gestational age < 37 weeks were randomly divided in two groups. Thirty newborns received 200 IU/d of vitamin D in group one and 30 ones received 400 IU/day of vitamin D in group two. On the 6th to 8th weeks of life, serum calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphates, and 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentrations were measured and x- ray of left wrist and physical examination were performed. Both groups had no difference in biochemical, radiological or clinical presentation of rickets. Current study indicated that low dose vitamin D (200 IU/Day is enough for prevention of OOP.

  15. Development of premature children: caregivers' understanding according to the Bioecological Theory

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    Rayla Amaral Lemos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE Understanding the conceptions of premature children caregivers on child development and associated factors. METHOD An exploratory-descriptive qualitative study of 12 families with children under three years of age. Interviews were submitted to thematic content analysis, systematized into the categories of Bioecological Theory of Human Development: Process, Person, Context and Time, and in the Functional Development category. RESULTS There are concerns about impairment in the current and future development of a Person/child defined as fragile as a result of premature birth (Time dimension, minimized by the scope of observable competencies such as motor skills. The Context, especially family and health services, and Proximal Processes, described as one-way caregiver interactions, are considered determinants of development. Functional Development is considered a natural consequence and result of education. The support network is crucial, supporting or limiting care. CONCLUSION Concerns about the development mobilize caregivers to stimulate the premature child/person and requests family and healthcare assistance.

  16. MRI quantitative assessment of brain maturation and prognosis in premature infants using total maturation score

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To quantitatively assess brain maturation and prognosis in premature infants on conventional MRI using total maturation score (TMS). Methods: Nineteen cases of sequelae of white matter damage (WMD group )and 21 cases of matched controls (control group) in premature infants confirmed by MRI examinations were included in the study. All cases underwent conventional MR imaging approximately during the perinatal period after birth. Brain development was quantitatively assessed using Childs AM's validated scoring system of TMS by two sophisticated radiology physicians. Interobserver agreement and reliability was evaluated by using intraclass correlation (ICC). Linear regression analysis between TMS and postmenstrual age (PMA) was made(Y: TMS, X: PMA). Independent-sample t test of the two groups' TMS was made. Results: Sixteen of 19 cases revealed MRI abnormalities. Lesions showing T1 and T2 shortening tended to occur in clusters or a linear pattern in the deep white matter of the centrum semiovale, periventricular white matter. Diffusion-weighted MR image (DWI) showed 3 cases with greater lesions and 4 cases with new lesions in corpus callosum. There was no abnormality in control group on MRI and DWI. The average numbers of TMS between the two observers were 7.13±2.27, 7.13±2.21. Interobservcer agreement was found to be high (ICC=0.990, P2=0.6401,0.5156 respectively, P0.05). Conclusion: Conventional MRI is able to quantify the brain maturation and prognosis of premature infants using TMS. (authors)

  17. Urinary Metabolite Profiles in Premature Infants Show Early Postnatal Metabolic Adaptation and Maturation

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    Sissel J. Moltu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Early nutrition influences metabolic programming and long-term health. We explored the urinary metabolite profiles of 48 premature infants (birth weight < 1500 g randomized to an enhanced or a standard diet during neonatal hospitalization. Methods: Metabolomics using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR was conducted on urine samples obtained during the first week of life and thereafter fortnightly. Results: The intervention group received significantly higher amounts of energy, protein, lipids, vitamin A, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid as compared to the control group. Enhanced nutrition did not appear to affect the urine profiles to an extent exceeding individual variation. However, in all infants the glucogenic amino acids glycine, threonine, hydroxyproline and tyrosine increased substantially during the early postnatal period, along with metabolites of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (succinate, oxoglutarate, fumarate and citrate. The metabolite changes correlated with postmenstrual age. Moreover, we observed elevated threonine and glycine levels in first-week urine samples of the small for gestational age (SGA; birth weight < 10th percentile for gestational age as compared to the appropriate for gestational age infants. Conclusion: This first nutri-metabolomics study in premature infants demonstrates that the physiological adaptation during the fetal-postnatal transition as well as maturation influences metabolism during the breastfeeding period. Elevated glycine and threonine levels were found in the first week urine samples of the SGA infants and emerged as potential biomarkers of an altered metabolic phenotype.

  18. Effect of antenatal growth and prematurity on brain white matter: diffusion tensor study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepomaeki, V. [Turku University Central Hospital, Medical Imaging Centre of Southwest Finland, Turku (Finland); Turku University Central Hospital, Turku PET-Centre, PO Box 52, Turku (Finland); Paavilainen, T.; Komu, M. [Turku University Central Hospital, Medical Imaging Centre of Southwest Finland, Turku (Finland); Matomaeki, J.; Lapinleimu, H.; Liisa Lehtonen, L. [Turku University Central Hospital and University of Turku, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); Hurme, S. [University of Turku, Department of Biostatistics, Turku (Finland); Haataja, L. [Turku University Central Hospital and University of Turku, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Turku (Finland); Parkkola, R. [Turku University Central Hospital, Medical Imaging Centre of Southwest Finland, Turku (Finland); Turku University Central Hospital, Turku PET-Centre, PO Box 52, Turku (Finland); University of Turku, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Turku (Finland)

    2012-06-15

    White matter maturation is characterised by increasing fractional anisotropy (FA) and decreasing mean diffusivity (MD). Contradictory results have been published on the effect of premature birth on white matter maturation at term-equivalent age. To assess the association of gestational age and low birth-weight-for-gestational-age (z-score) with white matter maturation. Infants (n = 76, 53 males) born at different gestational ages were imaged at term-equivalent age. Gestational age and birth weight z-score were used as continuous variables and the effect on diffusion parameters was assessed. Brain maturation was studied using regions-of-interest analysis in several white matter areas. Gestational age showed no significant effect on white matter maturation at term-equivalent age. Children with low birth weight z-score had lower FA in the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum (regression, P = 0.012 and P = 0.032; correlation, P = 0.009 and P = 0.006, respectively), and higher MD in the splenium of the corpus callosum (regression, P = 0.002; correlation, P = 0.0004) compared to children whose birth weight was appropriate for gestational age. Children with low birth weight relative to gestational age show delay and/or anomaly in white matter maturation at term-equivalent age. (orig.)

  19. Effect of Erythropoietin in Infants with the Anemia of Prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    A. Sh. Farhat; A. Mohammadzadeh; F. Naseri

    2004-01-01

    Recombinant human erythropoietin (Epo) is known to accelerate erythropoesis in preterm infants. This study was designed to assess the effect of Epo in treatment of anemia of prematurity .Preterm infants with Hct

  20. Prematurity as a factor of damaged child development

    OpenAIRE

    Chukhutova G.L.

    2015-01-01

    At present time prematurity is the main reason for disability in children, which can be exemplified by the fact that 2/3 of educatees of children' homes for blind and deaf are preterm children. The most drastic consequences of prematurity is cerebral palsy with spastic diplegia; blindness or poor vision as a result of retina detachment; auditory inefficiency connected with the nerve deafness, decline in general cognitive and speech development; difficulties in coordination and planning serial...

  1. Prevalence and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    Cut Badriah; Idham Amir; Elvioza; Evita KB Ifran

    2012-01-01

    Background Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is the main cause of visual impairment in premature infants. Due to advances in neonatal care, the increased survival of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants in recent years has produced a population of infants at very high risk of ROP. Objective The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and potential risk factors for ROP. Methods This retrospective study was conducted at the Neonatalogy Ward, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, ...

  2. Tests of screening criteria for retinopathy of prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    Olujić Maja; Oros Ana; Bregun-Doronjski Aleksandra; Velisavljev-Filipović Gordana

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Retinopathy of prematurity is a disease of the eye, i.e. the retinal blood vessels, which occurs exclusively in premature infants. The level of blindness in one country depends on the level of development of neonatal care and the opportunities to implement screening. The aim of this study was to examine the possibilities of changing screening criteria, provided that not a single child was left out from the survey. Material and Methods. A two-year prospective study, which w...

  3. Intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy in retinopathy of prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    GÜNAY, Murat; ÇELİK, Gökhan

    2015-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is the retinal vascular developmental disorder of the premature infants and it is a leading cause of childhood blindness. Hypoxia secondary to the immature retina with subsequent release of some mediators establish the characteristic feature of ‘progressive retinopathy’. The most promoter one among these mediators is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The screening and treatment criteria were identified in past literature and successful treatment resul...

  4. Plus Disease: Why is it Important in Retinopathy of Prematurity?

    OpenAIRE

    Solarte Carlos; Awad Abdulaziz; Wilson Clare; Ells Anna

    2010-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is one of the leading causes of preventable blindness in childhood. Early posterior pole vascular signs of severe ROP have been studied since the first description of the disease. The progressive changes that take place in the posterior pole vessels of an extremely premature baby occur in a predictable fashion soon after birth. These vascular changes are described as plus disease and are defined as abnormal dilation and tortousity of the blood vessels during R...

  5. Retinopathy of prematurity: recent advances in our understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Wheatley, C M; Dickinson, J L; Mackey, D.A.; Craig, J.E.; Sale, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) has been recognised as an important cause of childhood visual impairment and blindness since the 1940s when improved facilities and treatment increased the survival rate of premature infants. Although its incidence and severity have been decreasing in developed countries over the past two decades, both are increasing in developing nations. ROP is consequently targeted as an important but avoidable disease. This review provides an updated summary and discussion...

  6. Management of premature primary tooth loss in the child patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Clarice S

    2013-08-01

    Premature loss of primary teeth can result in a loss of arch length and have a negative effect on occlusion and alignment, often increasing the need for orthodontic treatment. Use of space maintainers can reduce the severity of problems such as crowding, ectopic eruption, tooth impaction and poor molar relationship. This article presents a review of the consequences of premature tooth loss and discusses the appliances commonly used for space maintenance.

  7. DENGUE DURING PREGNANCY: ASSOCIATION WITH LOW BIRTH WEIGHT AND PREMATURITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    RIBEIRO, Christiane Fernandes; LOPES, Vânia Glória Silami; Brasil, Patricia; da Silva, Licinio Esmeraldo; RIBEIRO, Pedro Henrique Fernandes Josephson; UGENTI, Luca Cipriani; NOGUEIRA, Rita Maria Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dengue virus infection during pregnancy and its correlation with low birth weight, prematurity, and asphyxia. A non-concurrent cohort study reveals the association of dengue during pregnancy with prematurity and low birth weight, when birth occurred during the maternal-fetal viremia period (p = 0.016 and p < 0.0001, respectively). PMID:26910454

  8. Exploration of a hearing protective device solution for premature babies

    OpenAIRE

    Valls Esteve, Arnau

    2015-01-01

    Exploration of a hearing protective device solution for premature babies The levels of noise in most hospital NICUs frequently exceed recommended World Health Organization (WHO) standards and recommended international limits. Additionally, premature babies and newborns can have stays of up to 3 months in these settings. In recent years, the combination of these two factors has raised concerns in the medical community about the effects of patients' exposure to noise, starting to be clearly ...

  9. Chronic respiratory disease in premature infants caused by Chlamydia trachomatis.

    OpenAIRE

    Numazaki, K; Chiba, S.; Kogawa, K; Umetsu, M; Motoya, H; Nakao, T.

    1986-01-01

    The relation between chronic respiratory disease and infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in premature infants was investigated to ascertain the aetiological importance of intrauterine C trachomatis infection and chronic respiratory disease in premature infants. Serum IgM antibodies against C trachomatis were determined by enzyme linked fluorescence assay. Sections of lung tissues obtained by biopsy and at necropsy were also tested for the presence of antigens using fluorescein conjugated mon...

  10. Graying severity score: A useful tool for evaluation of premature canities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Singal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is no uniform grading scale for objective assessment of premature canities that can serve as a reference. The aim of the study was to devise an objective and reproducible scoring system to assess the severity of premature canities. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted from November 2011 to April 2013 in a tertiary care setup with 52 apparently healthy individuals with onset of premature graying of scalp hair before the age of 20 years. A new scoring system (Graying Severity Score, GSS was devised to evaluate the extent of graying taking into account five representative sites from the scalp by two independent investigators and analysed for agreement. GSS ranged from 0 to 15 that was further graded as mild, moderate, and severe. Results: The highest total GSS attained was 13 and lowest was 4 (mean = 6.6 ± 1.97. Of the 52 patients 17 (32.69% had mild, 32 (61.54% moderate, and only 3 (5.77% had severe GSS. Scores of both investigators were found to have good agreement. The intraclass correlation calculated by the two-way mixed model using the absolute agreement definition for the GSS was 0.967 (CI = 0.944–0.981; P = 0.000 and for GSS grade was 0.962 (P = 0.000. In the study subjects the frontal and the vertex regions were found to be the worst affected. Conclusion: GSS is a novel, numeric, objective, and reproducible tool for evaluation of premature canities that can be used to follow up and assess therapeutic response. Further large scale studies are recommended to optimize its utility.

  11. Novel risk factors for premature peripheral arterial occlusive disease in non-diabetic patients: a case-control study.

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    Annie M Bérard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of genetic and environmental vascular risk factors in non diabetic patients with premature peripheral arterial disease, either peripheral arterial occlusive disease or thromboangiitis obliterans, the two main entities of peripheral arterial disease, and to established whether some of them are specifically associated with one or another of the premature peripheral arterial disease subgroups. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study included 113 non diabetic patients with premature peripheral arterial disease (diagnosis <45-year old presenting either a peripheral arterial occlusive disease (N = 64 or a thromboangiitis obliterans (N = 49, and 241 controls matched for age and gender. Both patient groups demonstrated common traits including cigarette smoking, low physical activity, decreased levels of HDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (active form of B6 vitamin and zinc. Premature peripheral arterial occlusive disease was characterized by the presence of a family history of peripheral arterial and carotid artery diseases (OR 2.3 and 5.8 respectively, 95% CI, high lipoprotein (a levels above 300 mg/L (OR 2.3, 95% CI, the presence of the factor V Leiden (OR 5.1, 95% CI and the glycoprotein Ia(807T,837T,873A allele (OR 2.3, 95% CI. In thromboangiitis obliterans group, more patients were regular consumers of cannabis (OR 3.5, 95% CI and higher levels in plasma copper has been shown (OR 6.5, 95% CI. CONCLUSIONS: According to our results from a non exhaustive list of study parameters, we might hypothesize for 1 a genetic basis for premature peripheral arterial occlusive disease development and 2 the prevalence of environmental factors in the development of thromboangiitis obliterans (tobacco and cannabis. Moreover, for the first time, we demonstrated that the 807T/837T/873A allele of platelet glycoprotein Ia may confer an additional risk for development of peripheral

  12. Nurses' role in promoting relations between parents and premature newborns in the concept of Family-Centered Care

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    Kateřina Jakšová

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the following review is to analyze the role of nurses in promoting relations between parents and premature newborns according to the concept of Family-Centered Care. Design: The type of study – review. Methods: Both licensed and free-access electronic databases were used to search relevant studies from Czech and foreign sources for the period 2000–2015: CINAHL EBSCOhost, SCOPUS, PubMed and Medline. The selection criteria for the studies to be analyzed were as follows: both quantitative and qualitative studies taking into account parents aged 19–44 with premature newborns from 24–36 weeks of gestation. Experimental studies and imprecisely defined studies were eliminated. Only 21 of the 49 research studies considered met the selection criteria. This review involves seven of the studies: three quantitative studies – one randomized study, two cross-sectional studies, and four case studies. Results: Based on analysis of the studies, it appears that Family-Centered Care should be considered an essential means of support for parents of premature newborns. The role of nurses in promoting relations between parents and their premature newborns was highly appreciated in the areas of therapeutic communication, efficient work organization and choice of appropriate interventions. Conclusion: Studies focusing on the application of the principles of Family-Centered Care stress its advantages for parents, premature newborns, and medical staff. The conclusion of most of the studies is that nurses play a unique role in eliminating the degree of trauma experienced by parents, and in promoting relations between parents and premature newborns according to the concept of Family-Centered Care.

  13. Dorsal penile nerves and primary premature ejaculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hai-feng; ZHANG Chun-ying; LI Xing-hua; FU Zhong-ze; CHEN Zhao-yan

    2009-01-01

    Background Based on our clinical experience, the number of dorsal penile nerves in patients with primary premature ejaculation (PPE) is not consistent with the average number (2 branches). In this study, we evaluated the number and distribution of dorsal penile nerves among healthy Chinese adults and patients with PPE.Methods The dorsal nerve of the penis, the deep dorsal vein of the penis, and the dorsal artery of the penis between the deep fascia of the penis and the albuginea penis were carefully educed, observed, and counted in 38 adult autopsy specimens. The number and distribution of the dorsal penile nerve in 128 surgical patients with PPE were determined. Results The numbers of dorsal penile nerves of the 38 cases were as follows:7 branches in 1 case; 6 branches in 1 case; 5 branches in 6 cases; 4 branches in 9 cases; 3 branches in 14 cases; and 2 branches in 7 cases. Most of the dorsal nerves were parallel to each other and in the dorsum of the penis. In only 8 cases, the branches were connected by some communicating branches. In 4 cases, 1 or 2 thin dorsal nerves continued their pathway over the ventral aspect of the penis. The average number of branches of the dorsal penile nerve in patients with PPE was 7.16. Conclusions Based on the study of 38 cases, the average number of dorsal penile nerves was 3.55 branches and that of patients with PPE was greater. These preliminary results suggest that the excessive dorsal penile nerves may have an impact on PPE via increased sensitivity and provide topographic data for the possible treatment of PPE.

  14. Preclinical Models of Encephalopathy of Prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantzie, Lauren L; Robinson, Shenandoah

    2015-01-01

    Encephalopathy of prematurity (EoP) encompasses the central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities associated with injury from preterm birth. Although rapid progress is being made, limited understanding exists of how cellular and molecular CNS injury from early birth manifests as the myriad of neurological deficits in children who are born preterm. More importantly, this lack of direct insight into the pathogenesis of these deficits hinders both our ability to diagnose those infants who are at risk in real time and could potentially benefit from treatment and our ability to develop more effective interventions. Current barriers to clarifying the pathophysiology, developmental trajectory, injury timing, and evolution include preclinical animal models that only partially recapitulate the molecular, cellular, histological, and functional abnormalities observed in the mature CNS following EoP. Inflammation from hypoxic-ischemic and/or infectious injury induced in utero in lower mammals, or actual prenatal delivery of more phylogenetically advanced mammals, are likely to be the most clinically relevant EOP models, facilitating translation to benefit infants. Injury timing, type, severity, and pathophysiology need to be optimized to address the specific hypothesis being tested. Functional assays of the mature animal following perinatal injury to mimic EoP should ideally test for the array of neurological deficits commonly observed in preterm infants, including gait, seizure threshold and cognitive and behavioral abnormalities. Here, we review the merits of various preclinical models, identify gaps in knowledge that warrant further study and consider challenges that animal researchers may face in embarking on these studies. While no one model system is perfect, insights relevant to the clinical problem can be gained with interpretation of experimental results within the context of inherent limitations of the chosen model system. Collectively, optimal use of multiple models

  15. Emerging and investigational drugs for premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Chris G

    2016-08-01

    Over the past 20-30 years, the premature ejaculation (PE) treatment paradigm, previously limited to behavioural psychotherapy, has expanded to include drug treatment. Pharmacotherapy for PE predominantly targets the multiple neurotransmitters and receptors involved in the control of ejaculation which include serotonin, dopamine, oxytocin, norepinephrine, gamma amino-butyric acid (GABA) and nitric oxide (NO). The objective of this article is to review emerging PE interventions contemporary data on the treatment of PE was reviewed and critiqued using the principles of evidence-based medicine. Multiple well-controlled evidence-based studies have demonstrated the efficacy and safety of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in delaying ejaculation, confirming their role as first-line agents for the medical treatment of lifelong and acquired PE. Daily dosing of SSRIs is likely to be associated with superior fold increases in IELT compared to on-demand SSRIs. On-demand SSRIs are less effective but may fulfill the treatment goals of many patients. Integrated pharmacotherapy and CBT may achieve superior treatment outcomes in some patients. PDE-5 inhibitors alone or in combination with SSRIs should be limited to men with acquired PE secondary to co-morbid ED. New on-demand rapid acting SSRIs, oxytocin receptor antagonists, or single agents that target multiple receptors may form the foundation of more effective future on-demand medication. Current evidence confirms the efficacy and safety of dapoxetine, off-label SSRI drugs, tramadol and topical anaesthetics drugs. Treatment with α1-adrenoceptor antagonists cannot be recommended until the results of large well-designed RCTs are published in major international peer-reviewed medical journals. As our understanding of the neurochemical control of ejaculation improves, new therapeutic targets and candidate molecules will be identified which may increase our pharmacotherapeutic armamentarium. PMID:27652222

  16. Calculating expected years of life lost for assessing local ethnic disparities in causes of premature death

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    Katcher Brian S

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A core function of local health departments is to conduct health assessments. The analysis of death certificates provides information on diseases, conditions, and injuries that are likely to cause death – an important outcome indicator of population health. The expected years of life lost (YLL measure is a valid, stand-alone measure for identifying and ranking the underlying causes of premature death. The purpose of this study was to rank the leading causes of premature death among San Francisco residents, and to share detailed methods so that these analyses can be used in other local health jurisdictions. Methods Using death registry data and population estimates for San Francisco deaths in 2003–2004, we calculated the number of deaths, YLL, and age-standardized YLL rates (ASYRs. The results were stratified by sex, ethnicity, and underlying cause of death. The YLL values were used to rank the leading causes of premature death for men and women, and by ethnicity. Results In the years 2003–2004, 6312 men died (73,627 years of life lost, and 5726 women died (51,194 years of life lost. The ASYR for men was 65% higher compared to the ASYR for women (8971.1 vs. 5438.6 per 100,000 persons per year. The leading causes of premature deaths are those with the largest average YLLs and are largely preventable. Among men, these were HIV/AIDS, suicide, drug overdose, homicide, and alcohol use disorder; and among women, these were lung cancer, breast cancer, hypertensive heart disease, colon cancer, and diabetes mellitus. A large health disparity exists between African Americans and other ethnic groups: African American age-adjusted overall and cause-specific YLL rates were higher, especially for homicide among men. Except for homicide among Latino men, Latinos and Asians have comparable or lower YLL rates among the leading causes of death compared to whites. Conclusion Local death registry data can be used to measure, rank, and

  17. Endothelial Function in Adolescents with a History of Premature Coronary Artery Disease in One Parent

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    M Hashemi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In young adults, a family history of premature coronary artery disease (CAD, as well as genetic and environmental factors are independent risk factors for coronary artery disease. Methods: Endothelial function was studied in 30 children (21 boys and 9 girls with mean age of 14.9 +/- 2.3 years old of patients with documented CAD (men 45 and women 50 years old. Chidren did not have any history of diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and smoking (active/passive. Using vascular ultrasound, we measured resting Basal Brachial artery Diameter (BBD and Endothelium-Dependent Dilatation (EDD in response to increased flow and sublingual glyceryltrinitrate (GTN, an Endothelium-Independent Dilation (EID. These parameters were also measured in 30 control subjects with normal parents (18 boys and 12 girls with mean age of 14.2 +/- 2/5years old and results were compared with each other. Results: Adolescents in CAD group had abnormal Endothelial Dependent Dilatation or EDD/BBD (8.5 +/- 3.4% vs 11.8 +/- 4.5% in control subjects; P= 0.003.Endothelial Independent Dilatation (EID/BBD in the positive fimily history group was significantly more than control subjects (18.5 +/- 6.7% vs 11.9 +/- 5.2%; P <0.001. EDD/EID or the index of endothelial function was significantly lower in the positive family history group (0.92 +/- 0.05 vs 1+/- 0.03; P<0.001. There was no difference in EDD/EID index between those with history of premature CAD in mother (7 cases and those with history of premature CAD in father (23 cases (0.92 +/- 0.04 vs 0.91+/- 0.05. Conclusion: Normal adolescents without any cardiovascular risk factors but a history of premature coronary artery disease in one parent may have endothelial dysfunction, and there is no difference whether the CAD is in mother or father. Keywords: Endothelial dependent dilation, family history, CAD risk factors, premature coronary artery disease

  18. Genes involved in the pathogenesis of premature ovarian insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandini, C; Regini, C; Vellucci, F L; Petraglia, F; Luisi, S

    2015-10-01

    Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is defined by the presence of primary or secondary amenorrhea, for at least 4 months, before the age of 40 years associated with follicle stimulating homone levels in menopausal range, exciding 40 UI/L. The diagnosis is confirmed by two blood sample at least 1 month to measure the level of FSH (over 40 UI/L) and level of estradiol (below 50 pmol/L). Ovarian follicular dysfunction and/or depletion of functional primordial follicles characterized this pathology. Abnormal bleeding patterns also include oligomenrrhea and polimenorrhea; because of these irregular menstrual cycles during adolescence, diagnosis could be difficult in young women. Excluding the cases in which an etiopathogenetic agent could be identified, such as in case of chemio- and radiotherapy or extensive surgery, women with autoimmune diseases and/or infections, the etiology of POI remains idiopathic. An important genetic component exists, supported by both a frequent recurring familiar event (20-30%) and the association with other different genetic disorders in particular the X chromosome defects and the implication of some different genes with significant functions in ovarian development. For most of the women the diagnosis of POI is unexpected because of there are no obvious signs or symptoms that precede the cessation of periods with a normal menstrual history, age of menarche and fertility prior to the onset of menopause. The diagnosis of POI has a deleterious psychological impact on the emotional sphere of the women affected: anger, depression, anxiety and sadness are common and the fact that the diagnosis coincides with infertility needs a psychological support. Oral hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) administration is not recommended as first choice of treatment because of the higher hormones concentration with respect to the real hormones necessity of the patients and transdermal HRT may be preferred in women with coagulation disturbances to relief

  19. [Unemployment during pregnancy: direct or indirect risk factor of prematurity and fetus hypotrophy?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, W

    1999-01-01

    The question as to whether in a transitional phase in the political and socio-economic development in Poland, an increased threat of unemployment may also produce health effects manifested by an elevated risk for prematurity and fetus hypotrophy is one of important challenges. If the answer is positive then this issue should have much stronger impact on political and economic decisions. The data obtained from numerous studies carried out in countries of western Europe and the United States shows that the job performance during pregnancy under conditions free from occupational exposure and arduousness does not directly augment the risk of detrimental effect to the health of pregnant woman or her fetus. Just on the contrary, it was found that job performance during pregnancy, and strictly speaking steady employment during this period may somewhat become a 'protective factor'. In Poland, the highest rate of unemployment is observed among women in the 18-24 age group, that is at the age most suitable for procreation. Nowadays it is common that the decision on child-bearing is postponed until the economic status of the woman or her family comes to be more stable. On the other hand, in the population of women looking for a job but determined to set up a family prematurity is quite common that results only in part from an excessive effect of risk factors for this pathology very typical of this social group, like smoking, single parenthood, early or late child-bearing age. After adjusting these factors, the risk of prematurity decreased considerably but it was still high. It is thought that stress and the sense of threat and uncertainty is mostly responsible for this phenomenon. An increased risk of fetus hypotrophy among unemployed women after considering all confounding factors, was not observed. PMID:10746241

  20. Anatomical and Refractive Results of Diode Laser Photocoagulation in Retinopathy of Prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sadeghi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is a major cause of blindness in premature newborns. It accounts for 4% of childhood blindness in developed countries and up to 40% in developing countries. The aim of this study is to report the refractive and anatomical outcome of patients who had undergone laser photocoagulate on for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP.Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional study, a total of forty eyes of twenty patients who had undergone transscleral diode laser photocoagulation for ROP between 2004-2008 were studied for the following measures: grade of ROP pre- and postoperatively, birth weight, gestational age, perioperative and postoperative complications, and current refraction.Results: Mean birth weight of patients was 923±271 gr and mean gestational age was 27.3±2.6 wk. All eyes had threshold ROP and responded to laser treatment with regression of ROP. Perioperative complications included hemorrhages in 15% that resorbed spontaneously. The mean age of patients at the time of examination for this study was 4.13±1.30 yr and their anatomical status of retina was normal. Strabismus (more than 20 prism diopter was found in 10% of patients. The spherical equivalent of refraction at the time of examination was -2.31±3.38 diopter.Conclusion: Photocoagulation for ROP in our patients resulted in regression of threshold ROP. In addition, the analyses of refractive outcome demonstrated a predominance of myopia and astigmatism.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;19(1:22-26

  1. Characterization of tissue metabolism of thyroid hormones in very premature infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid status was characterized in very preterm infants (gestational age 23-32 wk; n = 61) from birth through day 14; in those infants who died within 16 days of delivery (n = 10) it was also correlated with the metabolism of thyroid hormones in peripheral tissues (brain, liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, and different localities of adipose tissue). The results obtained support the view that peripheral tissues of very premature infants are involved in local generation of triiodothyronine (T3) and inactivation of thyroid hormones, but do not represent a major source of circulating T3. In this study observations on postnatal development of plasma thyroid hormone levels in normal and critically ill premature neonates are presented. Enzyme activities of all three types of iodothyronine deiodinases were followed in autopsy samples from brain, liver, kidney, muscle, and adipose tissue depots, to better characterize the relationships between peripheral metabolism of thyroid hormones and thyroid status in critically ill very preterm newborns. Plasma concentrations of total T3, total T4, and total rT3 were estimated by competitive radioimmunoassay. Plasma TSH concentrations were measured by microparticle enzyme immunoassay. Measurable activities of deiodinases of type I, II and II were detected post mortem in all tissue samples, except for type II activity in kidney. No correlation between postnatal age and the enzyme activities was found in in different tissues in the group of infants who died by 16 days of age. All activities were the highest in liver and differed significantly in particular tissues. Obtained results suggest tat, in contrast to adults, iodothyronine metabolism in peripheral tissues of premature newborns seems to be dominated by thyroid hormones inactivation, and T3 production mainly for local use inside tissues. (authors)

  2. Ultrasound measurement of the corpus callosum and neural development of premature infants*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Liu; Shikao Cao; Jiaoran Liu; Zhifang Du; Zhimei Guo; Changjun Ren

    2013-01-01

    Length and thickness of 152 corpus cal osa were measured in neonates within 24 hours of birth. Using ultrasonic diagnostic equipment with a neonatal brain-specific probe, corpus cal osum length and thickness of the genu, body, and splenium were measured on the standard mid-sagittal plane, and the anteroposterior diameter of the genu was measured in the coronal plane. Results showed that corpus cal osum length as wel as thickness of the genu and splenium increased with gesta-tional age and birth weight, while other measures did not. These three factors on the standard mid-sagittal plane are therefore likely to be suitable for real-time evaluation of corpus cal osum de-velopment in premature infants using cranial ultrasound. Further analysis revealed that thickness of the body and splenium and the anteroposterior diameter of the genu were greater in male infants than in female infants, suggesting that there are sex differences in corpus cal osum size during the neonatal period. A second set of measurements were taken from 40 premature infants whose ges-tational age was 34 weeks or less. Corpus cal osum measurements were corrected to a gestational age of 40 weeks, and infants were grouped for analysis depending on the outcome of a neonatal behavioral neurological assessment. Compared with infants with a normal neurological assessment, corpus cal osum length and genu and splenium thicknesses were less in those with abnormalities, indicating that corpus cal osum growth in premature infants is associated with neurobehavioral de-velopment during the early extrauterine stage.

  3. System of the ophthalmologic help premature children with retinopathy of prematurity in the Central region of Russia

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Tereshchenko; Yu. A. Belyy; I. G. Trifanenkova; M. S. Tereshchenkova

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Functional results analysis of ophthalmologic help system for premature infants, which includes the full cycle of early revelation, treatment and regular medical check-up activities for patients with ROP in Central region of Russia.Methods: Fields for ROP screening were performed in premature infants medical care units by clinic specialists. Infants with re- vealed ROP were directed to Kaluga Branch of IRtC «Eye Microsurgery» for detailed diagnostic examination and subsequent treatme...

  4. A de novo Reciprocal X; 9 Translocation in A Patient with Premature Ovarian Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Faezeh Azizi; Soraya Saleh Gargari; Mir Davood Omrani

    2013-01-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) causes hypergonadotrophic amenorrhea in 1-3% of females, occurring before the age of 40 among women with chromosomal rearrangements in the long arm of the X chromosome 'critical region'. In this article, we report a case of POF and primary amenorrheain a girl with a de novo reciprocal translocation between chromosomes X and 9. The proband was a 17 years old girl with a history of irregular menstruation and high level of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) (151 m...

  5. Incidence of retinopathy of prematurity and risk factors in the South-Western Region of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa Feghhi; Seyed Mohammad Hassan Altayeb; Foad Haghi; Ali Kasiri; Fereydoun Farahi; Mosoud Dehdashtyan; Mahzyar Movasaghi; Fakher Rahim

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to report the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and the contribution of various risk factors to ROP in the south-western region of Iran. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional case-control series reviewed all low birth weight (LBW, ≤2000 g) neonates and/or neonates less than 32 weeks gestational age who had been hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit from 2006 to 2010. The cohort was divided into infants without ROP (nonROP group)...

  6. Bone mineralization in newborns whose mothers received magnesium sulphate for tocolysis of premature labour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malaeb, Shadi N.; Rassi, Adriana I.; Yunis, Khalid A. [Department of Pediatrics, American University of Beirut Medical Center, PO Box 11-0236, Beirut (Lebanon); Haddad, Maurice C. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut (Lebanon); Seoud, Muhieddine A. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2004-05-01

    Prolonged maternal magnesium sulphate infusion therapy for tocolysis of premature labour may result in secondary fetal hypermagnesaemia, which has been associated with bony abnormalities in the newborn. We report on four infants, members of two twin pregnancies, who were exposed to prolonged fetal hypermagnesaemia. Three of the infants, all appropriate for gestational age, showed abnormal radiological findings consisting of abnormal mineralisation of long-bone metaphyses owing to fetal hypermagnesaemia. The fourth infant, who was growth retarded, had normal bones. Intrauterine growth restriction appears to be protective against magnesium sulphate-induced abnormal bone mineralisation in the newborn. (orig.)

  7. Prevalence of dental caries in children born prematurely or at full term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravina, Danuze Batista Lamas; Cruvinel, Vanessa Resende Nogueira; Azevedo, Tatiana Degani Paes Leme; de Toledo, Orlando Ayrton; Bezerra, Ana Cristina Barreto

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of dental caries in 192 children, 96 born prematurely and 96 at full term, in a regional hospital in Brazil. Mean age at clinical examination was 40.72 months in the full-term group (G1) and 30.44 months in the premature group (G2). The children were divided in two age subgroups: 0 to 3 and 4 to 6 years. Statistical results (Student's t and Kruskal-Wallis tests) showed that dmft was 0.43 for G1 and 0.01 for G2 in the 0-3 age subgroup, and 1.7 for G1 and 1.1 for G2 in the 4-6 age subgroup. Differences were significant between G1 and G2 only in the 0-3 age subgroup (p = 0.047). Caries evaluation showed that, of the 96 children in G1, 75 were caries free, while in G2, 84 did not have the disease. These differences were not significant (p = 0.088). The lower mean dmft found in the 0-3 age subgroup in G2 may be attributed to routines established by the hospital's neonatology staff, such as frequent dental visits and preventive instructions about oral habits, oral hygiene and diet. After this age, with the completion of the primary dentition, values increased and became similar between the G1 and G2 groups. Results also suggested a highly skewed distribution since most caries were found in only a small number of children. PMID:17242798

  8. Results of Screening for Retinopathy of Prematurity: How the Ideal Screening Program Should Be?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Esen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the rate of infants with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP requiring treatment, to investigate the relation of this rate with birth age and birth weight, and to discuss the screening criteria eligible for our country. Materials and Methods: Medical records of premature infants examined for ROP with birth weight ≤2000 gram (g and/or gestational age ≤34 weeks were evaluated. Patients were grouped according to their birth weights as ≤1000 g, 1001-1500 g, >1500 g, and according to gestational age as ≤27 weeks, 28-31 weeks, ≥32 weeks. The rate of patients with treatment-requiring ROP was evaluated in these groups. The birth weights and gestational ages of these patients were analyzed. Results: Treatment requiring ROP stages were detected in 100 (8% of 1250 infants. The mean gestational age and birth weight of these patients was 28.3±2.3 (24-34 weeks and 1152.2±396 (520-2120 g respectively, and both were found lower than those of nontreated infants (p1500 g required treatment. According to the gestational age, 33 (19.4% of 170 infants ≤27 weeks, 59 (10.3% of 572 infants between 28-31 weeks, 8 (1.6% of 508 infants ≥32 weeks required treatment. Conclusion: The best way to avoid the vision loss due to ROP is to establish a regular screening program including every infant that may require treatment. So we recommend that screening criteria for our country should be wider than applied in developed countries, and babies having gestational age ≤34 weeks and/or birth weight ≤2000 g should be screened for ROP. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 42-6

  9. The impact of fetal gender on prematurity in dichorionic twin gestations after in vitro fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barad David H

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Impact of fetal gender on prematurity has been primarily investigated in singleton pregnancies. In an attempt to understand better how fetal gender may affect gestational length in twin gestations after in vitro fertilization, same-sex twins and opposite twins were compared for pregnancy duration. Methods This study evaluated 113 women at ages 20 to 39 years with consecutive dichorionic-diamniotic twin gestations after assisted reproduction. All pregnancies were results of fresh in vitro fertilization (IVF cycles with use of autologous oocytes and sperm and were delivered at up to 37 weeks of gestation at a University-based high-risk, maternal-fetal medicine unit. Results Both groups did not differ in baseline characteristics, such as maternal ages, indications for fertility treatments, number of previous IVF attempts, body mass index and parity. Opposite sex- twins, however, presented with significantly shorter gestational age at birth (32.9 +/- 3.4 weeks than same-sex twins (34.3 +/- 2.5 weeks, (p Conclusions Fetal gender mix serves as risk factor for more significant prematurity in dichorionic-diamniotic twins after assisted reproduction with opposite sex twins at higher risk than same sex-twins.

  10. Advanced atherogenic index for the assessment of consolidated lipid risk in premature coronary artery disease patients in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjiv Kumar Bansal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The high prevalence, severity, and prematurity of coronary artery disease (CAD in the Indian population cannot be completely explained by the conventional lipid parameters and the existing lipid indices. Aims and Objectives: To calculate newly defined advanced atherogenic index (AAI in premature CAD patients and compare it between cases and controls and Correlate its values with the existing indices. Material and Methods: One hundred and twenty premature CAD patients and an equal number of age and sex matched healthy individuals were included in this study. Lipid profile and nonconventional lipid parameters like oxidized Low density lipoprotein (OX LDL, small dense LDL (SD LDL, lipoprotein (a apolipoprotein B (Apo B, and apolipoprotein A1 (Apo A1 were estimated and their values were used to define AAI and existing lipid indices like AI, lipid tetrad index (LTI and lipid pentad index (LPI. Results: The mean age of cases and controls was 37.29 + 4.50 and 36.13 + 3.53 years, respectively. The value of AAI was highly significant in cases (3461.22 ± 45.20 as compared to controls (305.84 ± 21.80. AAI has shown better statistical significance and correlation (P < 0.0001, r = 0.737 as compared to the earlier indices such as AI (P < 0.01, r = 0.52, LTI (P < 0.001, r = 0.677 and LPI (P < 0.001, r = 0.622 in premature CAD. Kolmogorov D statistic and cumulative distribution function plot has shown that AAI can discriminate cases and controls more accurately as compared to the earlier indices. Conclusion: Statistically AAI appears to be a better marker of consolidated lipid risk in premature CAD patients as compared to the earlier indices.

  11. Selective resection of dorsal nerves of penis for premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G-X; Yu, L-P; Bai, W-J; Wang, X-F

    2012-12-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is one of the most prevalent male sexual dysfunctions. Selective resection of the dorsal nerve (SRDN) of penis has recently been used for the treatment of PE and has shown some efficacy. To further clarify the efficacy and safety of SRDN on PE, we performed a preliminary, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical observational study. Persons with the complaints of rapid ejaculation, asking for circumcision because of redundant foreskin, intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) within 2 min, not responding to antidepressant medication or disliking oral medication were randomly enrolled in two groups. From April 2007 to August 2010, a total of 101 eligible persons were enrolled, 40 of them received SRDN which dorsal nerves of the penis were selectively resected, and those (n = 61) enrolled in the control group were circumcised only. IELT and the Brief Male Sexual Function Inventory (BMSFI) questionnaire were implemented pre- and post-operatively for the evaluation of the effect and safety of the surgery. There are no statistically significant differences in the baseline data including mean ages, mean IELTs, perceived control abilities and the BMSFI mean scores between the two groups. With regard to the post-operative data of the surgery, both IELTs and perceived control abilities were significantly increased after SRDN (1.1 ± 0.9 min vs. 3.8 ± 3.1 min for pre- and post-operative IELT, respectively, p 0.05). Also, there were no statistically significant differences both in BMSFI composite and subscale scores between the two groups after surgery. Hence, we conclude that SRDN is effective in delaying ejaculation and improving ejaculatory control, whereas erectile function is not affected. The results imply that SRDN may be an alternative method for the treatment of PE for some patients. PMID:22882515

  12. Selective resection of dorsal nerves of penis for premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G-X; Yu, L-P; Bai, W-J; Wang, X-F

    2012-12-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is one of the most prevalent male sexual dysfunctions. Selective resection of the dorsal nerve (SRDN) of penis has recently been used for the treatment of PE and has shown some efficacy. To further clarify the efficacy and safety of SRDN on PE, we performed a preliminary, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical observational study. Persons with the complaints of rapid ejaculation, asking for circumcision because of redundant foreskin, intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) within 2 min, not responding to antidepressant medication or disliking oral medication were randomly enrolled in two groups. From April 2007 to August 2010, a total of 101 eligible persons were enrolled, 40 of them received SRDN which dorsal nerves of the penis were selectively resected, and those (n = 61) enrolled in the control group were circumcised only. IELT and the Brief Male Sexual Function Inventory (BMSFI) questionnaire were implemented pre- and post-operatively for the evaluation of the effect and safety of the surgery. There are no statistically significant differences in the baseline data including mean ages, mean IELTs, perceived control abilities and the BMSFI mean scores between the two groups. With regard to the post-operative data of the surgery, both IELTs and perceived control abilities were significantly increased after SRDN (1.1 ± 0.9 min vs. 3.8 ± 3.1 min for pre- and post-operative IELT, respectively, p 0.05). Also, there were no statistically significant differences both in BMSFI composite and subscale scores between the two groups after surgery. Hence, we conclude that SRDN is effective in delaying ejaculation and improving ejaculatory control, whereas erectile function is not affected. The results imply that SRDN may be an alternative method for the treatment of PE for some patients.

  13. PHACTR1 Gene Polymorphism Is Associated with Increased Risk of Developing Premature Coronary Artery Disease in Mexican Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Hernández, Nonanzit; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Posadas-Sánchez, Rosalinda; Martínez-Rodríguez, Nancy; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos Alfonso; Rodríguez-Cortés, Adrián Asael; Pérez-Méndez, Oscar; Blachman-Braun, Ruben; Rodríguez-Pérez, José Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the protein phosphatase and actin regulator 1 gene (PHACTR1) have been associated with susceptibility to develop several diseases, including cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of two polymorphisms (rs2026458 and rs9349379) of the PHACTR1 gene in the susceptibility to the risk of developing premature coronary artery disease (CAD) in the Mexican population. The genotype analysis was performed using 5’exonuclease TaqMan genotyping assays in a group of 994 patients with premature CAD and 703 controls. A similar genotype distribution of rs2026458 was observed in both groups; however, under an additive model adjusted by age, body mass index, type 2 diabetes mellitus, smoking, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, the rs9349379 G allele was associated with a higher risk for developing premature CAD (odds ratio (OR) = 1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.03–1.46, p-value (p) = 0.024). The two PHACTR1 polymorphisms were not in linkage disequilibrium. In summary, our results suggest that the PHACTR1 rs9349379 polymorphism plays an important role in the risk of developing premature CAD in the Mexican population. PMID:27517945

  14. PHACTR1 Gene Polymorphism Is Associated with Increased Risk of Developing Premature Coronary Artery Disease in Mexican Population

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    Nonanzit Pérez-Hernández

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the protein phosphatase and actin regulator 1 gene (PHACTR1 have been associated with susceptibility to develop several diseases, including cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of two polymorphisms (rs2026458 and rs9349379 of the PHACTR1 gene in the susceptibility to the risk of developing premature coronary artery disease (CAD in the Mexican population. The genotype analysis was performed using 5’exonuclease TaqMan genotyping assays in a group of 994 patients with premature CAD and 703 controls. A similar genotype distribution of rs2026458 was observed in both groups; however, under an additive model adjusted by age, body mass index, type 2 diabetes mellitus, smoking, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, the rs9349379 G allele was associated with a higher risk for developing premature CAD (odds ratio (OR = 1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.03–1.46, p-value (p = 0.024. The two PHACTR1 polymorphisms were not in linkage disequilibrium. In summary, our results suggest that the PHACTR1 rs9349379 polymorphism plays an important role in the risk of developing premature CAD in the Mexican population.

  15. Stress-Induced Premature Senescence or Stress-Induced Senescence-Like Phenotype: One In Vivo Reality, Two Possible Definitions?

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    Olivier Toussaint

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available No consensus exists so far on the definition of cellular senescence. The narrowest definition of senescence is irreversible growth arrest triggered by telomere shortening counting cell generations (definition 1. Other authors gave an enlarged functional definition encompassing any kind of irreversible arrest of proliferative cell types induced by damaging agents or cell cycle deregulations after overexpression of proto-oncogenes (definition 2. As stress increases, the proportion of cells in “stress-induced premature senescence-like phenotype” according to definition 1 or “stress-induced premature senescence,” according to definition 2, should increase when a culture reaches growth arrest, and the proportion of cells that reached telomere-dependent replicative senescence due to the end-replication problem should decrease. Stress-induced premature senescence-like phenotype and telomere-dependent replicatively senescent cells share basic similarities such as irreversible growth arrest and resistance to apoptosis, which may appear through different pathways. Irreversible growth arrest after exposure to oxidative stress and generation of DNA damage could be as efficient in avoiding immortalisation as “telomere-dependent” replicative senescence. Probabilities are higher that the senescent cells (according to definition 2 appearing in vivo are in stress-induced premature senescence rather than in telomere-dependent replicative senescence. Examples are given suggesting these cells affect in vivo tissue (pathophysiology and aging.

  16. Incidence and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity

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    Rasyidah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is one of the main causes of visual impairment in premature infants. Objective To determine the incidence and risk factors for ROP in premature infants. Methods This retrospective study included premature infants born in Stella Mmaris Women’s and Children’s Hospital and admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU and Neonatology Department from November 2009 to May 2012. We included all premature infants with body weight (BW 32 weeks with unstable clinical courses who had been screened for ROroP. Data was analyzed with Fisher’s exact test and independent t test. Results Of the 48 premature infants in the study, ROroP was detected in 6 (12.5% of the subjects. Stages of ROP were classified according to the International Classification of of Prematurity. Stage 1 ROP was detected in 1 (2.1% subject; stage 2 ROP was detected in 3 (6.25% subjects; and stage 3 ROP was found in 2 (4.2% subjects. The 2 infants with stage 3 ROroP required surgery. No was detected in infants with GA > 30 weeks or BW > 1250 g. Respiratory distress syndrome (RrDS, sepsis, blood transfusion, and apnea were found to be associated with development of ROP. Duration of oxygen therapy was found to be a significant risk factor for ROP in a comparison of the no ROP group to the ROP group: 14.0 (SD 9.508 days vs. 3.81 (SD 5.218 days, respectively (P<0.05. In addition, the duration of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP usage was also a significant risk factor for ROP, with 1.83 (SD 1.329 days in the ROP group vs. 0.76 (SD 1.122 days in the no ROP group (P<0.05. Conclusions The incidence of ROP in the premature infants in our study is 12.5%. Retinopathy of prematurity is associated with lower BbW, lower GA, lower Apgar score at the 5th minute, RrDS,6,7sepsis, apnea, blood transfusion, aminophylline usage, as well as longer duration of oxygen therapy and CPAP usages. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:76-82.].

  17. Incidence and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasyidah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is one of the main causes of visual impairment in premature infants.Objective To determine the incidence and risk factors for ROP in premature infants.Methods This retrospective study included premature infants born in Stella Mmaris Women’s and Children’s Hospital and admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU and Neonatology Department from November 2009 to May 2012. We included all premature infants with body weight (BW 32 weeks with unstable clinical courses who had been screened for ROroP. Data was analyzed with Fisher’s exact test and independent t test.Results Of the 48 premature infants in the study, ROroP was detected in 6 (12.5% of the subjects. Stages of ROP were classified according to the International Classification of of Prematurity. Stage 1 ROP was detected in 1 (2.1% subject; stage 2 ROP was detected in 3 (6.25% subjects; and stage 3 ROP was found in 2 (4.2% subjects. The 2 infants with stage 3 ROroP required surgery. No was detected in infants with GA > 30 weeks or BW > 1250 g. Respiratory distress syndrome (RrDS, sepsis, blood transfusion, and apnea were found to be associated with development of ROP. Duration of oxygen therapy was found to be a significant risk factor for ROP in a comparison of the no ROP group to the ROP group: 14.0 (SD 9.508 days vs. 3.81 (SD 5.218 days, respectively (P<0.05. In addition, the duration of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP usage was also a significant risk factor for ROP, with 1.83 (SD 1.329 days in the ROP group vs. 0.76 (SD 1.122 days in the no ROP group (P<0.05.Conclusions The incidence of ROP in the premature infants in our study is 12.5%. Retinopathy of prematurity is associated with lower BbW, lower GA, lower Apgar score at the 5th minute, RrDS,6,7sepsis, apnea, blood transfusion, aminophylline usage, as well as longer duration of oxygen therapy and CPAP usages.

  18. Multimodel estimates of premature human mortality due to intercontinental transport of air pollution

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    Liang, C.; Silva, R.; West, J. J.; Sudo, K.; Lund, M. T.; Emmons, L. K.; Takemura, T.; Bian, H.

    2015-12-01

    Numerous modeling studies indicate that emissions from one continent influence air quality over others. Reducing air pollutant emissions from one continent can therefore benefit air quality and health on multiple continents. Here, we estimate the impacts of the intercontinental transport of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on premature human mortality by using an ensemble of global chemical transport models coordinated by the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP). We use simulations of 20% reductions of all anthropogenic emissions from 13 regions (North America, Central America, South America, Europe, Northern Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, Former Soviet Union, Middle East, East Asia, South Asia, South East Asia, Central Asia, and Australia) to calculate their impact on premature mortality within each region and elsewhere in the world. To better understand the impact of potential control strategies, we also analyze premature mortality for global 20% perturbations from five sectors individually: power and industry, ground transport, forest and savannah fires, residential, and others (shipping, aviation, and agriculture). Following previous studies, premature human mortality resulting from each perturbation scenario is calculated using a health impact function based on a log-linear model for O3 and an integrated exposure response model for PM2.5 to estimate relative risk. The spatial distribution of the exposed population (adults aged 25 and over) is obtained from the LandScan 2011 Global Population Dataset. Baseline mortality rates for chronic respiratory disease, ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer are estimated from the GBD 2010 country-level mortality dataset for the exposed population. Model results are regridded from each model's original grid to a common 0.5°x0.5° grid used to estimate mortality. We perform uncertainty analysis and evaluate the sensitivity

  19. J point elevation as a predictor of premature ventricular beats.

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    Matoshvili, Z; Petriashvili, Sh; Archvadze, A; Azaladze, I

    2014-01-01

    Early repolarization pattern (ERP) is a common ECG variant, characterized by J point elevation manifested either as terminal QRS slurring (the transition from the QRS segment to the ST segment) or notching (a positive deflection inscribed on terminal QRS complex) associated with concave upward ST-segment elevation and prominent T waves in at least two contiguous leads. 36 patients were included in this observation. There are 36 patients (19-68 years old) with early repolarization ECG patterns. All this 36 patients were divided into two groups according to their level of J point elevation. First group consisted of 12 patients with J point elevation ≥0,15 mV; second group - of 24 patients with J point elevation premature ventricular beat during 24 h. Before and during this monitoring patients don't take any antyarrhythmic drugs. In the first group (J point elevation ≥0,15 mV) sum of premature ventricular beats were 27432, in the second group (J point elevation premature ventricular beats were 31 896. The results of this observational study shows that there is 1,72 fold higher number of premature ventricular beats in first group. So, J point elevation equal or more then 0,15 mV, is more arrhythmogenic and induces premature ventricular beats. This is principally new and very important result.

  20. [Vitamin A level and diseases of premature infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, En-Fu; Yuan, Tian-Ming

    2016-02-01

    Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin, and it is not only necessary for the normal growth and development of epithelial cells, but also plays a very important role in the normal growth and development of the retina, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, brain, and immune system. Studies have confirmed that the low level of vitamin A in premature infants at birth can last through the entire infancy. Recently, there have been particular concerns about the level of vitamin A and development of diseases in premature infants, with major focuses on the related mechanisms of action of vitamin A in respiratory distress syndrome, chronic lung disease, retinopathy of prematurity, necrotizing enterocolitis, patent ductus arteriosus, and infections in premature infants, which still awaits further investigation.This paper summarizes and analyzes the current status of research on vitamin A level and diseases of premature infants at home and abroad. In addition, although enough evidence suggests that vitamin A supplementation is beneficial to preterm infants, evidence is still lacking for recommended methods for supplementation and dose of vitamin A, and further studies are needed. PMID:26903067