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Sample records for aging male rats

  1. Effects of taurine on male reproduction in rats of different ages

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Jiancheng; Wu Gaofeng; Feng Ying; Lv Qiufeng; Lin Shumei; Hu Jianmin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background It has been demonstrated that taurine is one of the most abundant free amino acids in the male reproductive system, and can be biosynthesized by male reproductive organs. But the effect of taurine on male reproduction is poorly understood. Methods Taurine and β-alanine (taurine transport inhibitor) were offered in water to male rats of different ages. The effects of taurine on reproductive hormones, testis marker enzymes, antioxidative ability and sperm quality were invest...

  2. Comparison of Morphometric Aspects of Light and Electron Microscopy of the Hypoglossal Nerve between Young and Aged Male Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Pourghasem; Yasser Asghari Vostacolaee; Nabiollah Soltanpour

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Age-related changes occur in many different systems of the body. Many elderly people show dysphagia and dysphonia. This research was conducted to evaluate quantitatively the morphometrical changes of the hypoglossal nerve resulting from the aging process in young and aged rats. Materials and Methods: Through an experimental study ten male wistar rats (4 months: 5 rats, 24 months: 5 rats) were selected randomly from a colony of wistars in the UWC. After a fixation process and prepar...

  3. Cadmium affects the episodic luteinizing hormone secretion in male rats: possible age-dependent effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, A; Márquez, N; Piquero, S; Esquifino, A I

    1999-01-11

    Cadmium affects luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion through unknown mechanisms. The present study was undertaken to assess whether chronic exposure to low concentrations of cadmium may affect the episodic secretion of LH and if these effects are age-dependent. Male rats were given cadmium at a dose of 50 ppm in the drinking water, from day 30 to 60 or from day 60 to 90 of life. Age-matched rats with access to cadmium-free water were used as controls. At the end of the treatment, blood samples were collected every 7 min for 3 h, from 10:30 to 13.30 in conscious, freely moving rats. In control animals, mean serum LH levels and pulse duration increased with age (P < or = 0.001), and pulse frequency and the relative amplitude of LH pulses decreased (P < or = 0.001). Cadmium administration, from day 30 to 60 of life, decreased the pulse frequency and mean half-life of the hormone (P < or = 0.05, P < or = 0.01, respectively). However, no changes in any other parameters studied were observed as compared to the control group. When cadmium was administered from day 60 to 90, mean serum LH levels and the duration of LH pulses decreased (P < or = 0.05), whereas the pulse frequency increased (P < or = 0.05). The absolute and relative amplitude of the LH peaks and the mean half-life of the hormone were not changed after cadmium administration from day 60 to 90. These results indicate that low doses of cadmium change the pulsatile secretion of LH in male rats and that the effect of cadmium on episodic LH release was age-dependent. PMID:10048746

  4. LPS alters pattern of sickness behavior but does not affect glutathione level in aged male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrotek, Sylwia; Jędrzejewski, Tomasz; Nowakowska, Anna; Kozak, Wiesław

    2016-08-01

    Behavioral symptoms of sickness, such as fever and motor activity are a coordinated set of changes that develop during infection. The aim of study was to compare the sickness behaviour (SB) in healthy old and young rats treated with pyrogenic dose of endotoxin and to check their glutathione level. Before experimentation male Wistar rats were selected according to standard body mass, motor activity, and white blood cells count. Intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from E. coli was used to provoke SB. The level of liver glutathione, interleukin (IL) -6, deep body temperature (Tb) and motor activity were measured. Glutathione level in old and young rats did not differ significantly. In both young and old rats LPS administration provoked fever (the mean value of Tb was 38.06 ± 0.01 °C in old rats, and 38.19 ± 0.06 °C in young rats). LPS injection affected night-time activity in both groups (12 h averages were 1.56 ± 0.40 counts in old LPS-treated rats vs 2.74 ± 0.53 counts in not-treated old rats and 3.44 ± 0.60 counts for young LPS-treated vs 4.28 ± 0.57 counts for young not-treated rats). The injection of LPS provoked an elevation of plasma IL-6 concentration (from values below the lowest detectable standard in not-treated groups of animals to 6322.82 ± 537.00 pg/mL in old LPS-treated rats and 7415.62 ± 451.88 pg/mL in young LPS-treated rats). Based on these data, we conclude that good health of aged rats prevents decrease in the glutathione level. Old rats are still able to develop SB in response to pyrogenic dose of LPS, although its components have changed pattern compared to young animals. PMID:26829940

  5. Non-injurious neonatal hypoxia confers resistance to brain senescence in aged male rats.

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    Nicolas Martin

    Full Text Available Whereas brief acute or intermittent episodes of hypoxia have been shown to exert a protective role in the central nervous system and to stimulate neurogenesis, other studies suggest that early hypoxia may constitute a risk factor that influences the future development of mental disorders. We therefore investigated the effects of a neonatal "conditioning-like" hypoxia (100% N₂, 5 min on the brain and the cognitive outcomes of rats until 720 days of age (physiologic senescence. We confirmed that such a short hypoxia led to brain neurogenesis within the ensuing weeks, along with reduced apoptosis in the hippocampus involving activation of Erk1/2 and repression of p38 and death-associated protein (DAP kinase. At 21 days of age, increased thicknesses and cell densities were recorded in various subregions, with strong synapsin activation. During aging, previous exposure to neonatal hypoxia was associated with enhanced memory retrieval scores specifically in males, better preservation of their brain integrity than controls, reduced age-related apoptosis, larger hippocampal cell layers, and higher expression of glutamatergic and GABAergic markers. These changes were accompanied with a marked expression of synapsin proteins, mainly of their phosphorylated active forms which constitute major players of synapse function and plasticity, and with increases of their key regulators, i.e. Erk1/2, the transcription factor EGR-1/Zif-268 and Src kinase. Moreover, the significantly higher interactions between PSD-95 scaffolding protein and NMDA receptors measured in the hippocampus of 720-day-old male animals strengthen the conclusion of increased synaptic functional activity and plasticity associated with neonatal hypoxia. Thus, early non-injurious hypoxia may trigger beneficial long term effects conferring higher resistance to senescence in aged male rats, with a better preservation of cognitive functions.

  6. Evaluation of some hormonal levels related to age in adult and aged male rats exposed to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As we grow older, the ability to produce most hormones in adequate amounts declined. This decline in natural hormones production coincides with nearly every age-related health problems. The present work aims to evaluate the levels of some hormones related to age namely dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-s) and melatonin and also the alteration in lipid fractions using male rats subjected to acute sublethal dose of gamma radiation. This study included thirty two male albino rats divided into two main groups; adult group (four months old) and aged group (20 months old). Each group was divided into two subgroups; control group and group irradiated at a dose level of 5 Gray whole body gamma irradiation. Blood samples were collected from both adult and aged groups 3 days post-irradiation after 16 hours fasting. As related to age, the aged group showed significant decrease in DHEA, DHEA-s and melatonin levels and significant increase in total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-c and cholesterol/HDL ratio when compared to adult group. Concerning the effect of gamma radiation, the irradiated adult group showed significant (P<0.01) decrease in DHEA, DHEA-s and melatonin levels by values equal to -32.2%, - 39.8% and -67.9%, respectively, and nonsignificant changes in lipids concentrations except for LDL-c level, which showed significant (P<0.05) increase at +58.2 % in irradiated adult group as compared to adult controls. On the other hand, exposure to irradiation of aged rats did not affect the hormonal levels assayed except for the level of DHEA-s which was decreased significantly (P<0.05) by -26.4% as compared to control aged rats. Also, total cholesterol and LDL-c levels were increased significantly (P<0.01) by +17.1% and +27.4 %, respectively in irradiated rats as compared to control aged group. It could be concluded that y-radiation obviously accelerates the aging process in adults suggesting the need for protective agents to overcome the

  7. Four-vessel occlusion model using aged male Wistar rats: a reliable model to resolve the discrepancy related to age in cerebral ischemia research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancer-Rodríguez, Jesús; Villarreal-Silva, Eliud Enrique; Salazar-Ybarra, Rodolfo Amador; Quiroga-García, Oscar; Rodríguez-Rocha, Humberto; García-García, Aracely; Morales-Avalos, Rodolfo; Morales-Gómez, Jesús Alberto; Quiroga-Garza, Alejandro; Saucedo-Cárdenas, Odila; Xu, Zao Cheng; Elizondo-Omaña, Rodrigo Enrique; Martínez-Ponce-de-León, Angel Raymundo; Guzmán-López, Santos

    2016-06-01

    Animal models of cerebral ischemia have typically been established and performed using young animals, even though cerebral ischemia (CI) affects primarily elderly patients. This situation represents a discrepancy that complicates the translation of novel therapeutic strategies for CI. Models of transient global CI using aged animals have demonstrated an apparent neuroprotective effect on CA1 hippocampal neurons; however, this effect is not completely understood. Our study used a model in which young (3-6 months) and aged (18-21 months) male Wistar rats were subjected to 15 min of transient global CI using the four-vessel occlusion (4 VO) model. We determined that the 4 VO model can be performed on aged rats with a slight increase in mortality rate. In aged rats, the morphological damage was completely established by the 4th day after reperfusion, displaying no difference from their younger counterparts. These results demonstrated the lack of a neuroprotective effect of aging on CA1 hippocampal neurons in aged male Wistar rats. This study determined and characterized the morphological damage to the CA1 area after 15 min of 4 VO in aged male Wistar rats, validating the use of this model in CI and aging research. PMID:25966656

  8. Influence of Physical Exercise and Food Restriction on the Biomechanical Properties of the Femur of Ageing Male Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Skalicky, Monika; Viidik, Andrus

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Voluntary running in wheels as well as food reduction increase the life spans of rats. Disparate parameters such as the collagen biomarker of ageing and the development of kidney pathologies are decreased by voluntary exercise. There are few reports on the influence of physical exercise...... and food restriction on the skeleton of male rats. Most investigations initiated rather short-term interventions in 4- to 5-week-old animals and thus studied more the influence of growth than the influence of ageing on the skeleton. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of physical exercise and food...... to SE group. This decrease was counteracted by physical exercise (RW and TM groups) as well as by food restriction (PW group). In contrast, the strength of the femoral mid-diaphysis did not differ between BL and SE groups. CONCLUSIONS: The distal metaphysis in the male rat femur is more prone...

  9. Brain SERT Expression of Male Rats Is Reduced by Aging and Increased by Testosterone Restitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Jaime Herrera-Pérez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In preclinical and clinical studies aging has been associated with a deteriorated response to antidepressant treatment. We hypothesize that such impairment is explained by an age-related decrease in brain serotonin transporter (SERT expression associated with low testosterone (T levels. The objectives of this study were to establish (1 if brain SERT expression is reduced by aging and (2 if the SERT expression in middle-aged rats is increased by T-restitution. Intact young rats (3–5 months and gonad-intact middle-aged rats with or without T-restitution were used. The identification of the brain SERT expression was done by immunofluorescence in prefrontal cortex, lateral septum, hippocampus, and raphe nuclei. An age-dependent reduction of SERT expression was observed in all brain regions examined, while T-restitution recovered the SERT expression only in the dorsal raphe of middle-aged rats. This last action seems relevant since dorsal raphe plays an important role in the antidepressant action of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. All data suggest that this mechanism accounts for the T-replacement usefulness to improve the response to antidepressants in the aged population.

  10. Age-related changes in metabolism and disposition of salicylic acid (SAL) in male Fischer 344 rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SAL-induced nephrotoxicity has been reported to be greater in older rats. To examine age- and dose-related changes in disposition and metabolism, SAL was administered po at 5, 50 and 500 mg/kg to male Fischer 344 rats aged 3, 12, and 25 mo. At 5 mg 14C-SAL/kg, urinary excretion was complete by 24hr in 3 and 25 mo rats, but not until 48 hours in 12 mo rats. No age-related differences were observed in the percentage of administered 14C-SAL excreted as oxidative metabolites, unmetabolized SAL, or salicyl ester glucuronide. 25 mo rats excreted significantly less of a total dose of 14C-SAL as the ether glucuronide, while a significant age-related increase was noted in the percentage excreted as salicyluric acid (SUA). At 50 mg 14C-SAL/kg, urinary elimination shifted towards zero-order kinetics and excretion was not complete until 48 hr in all age groups. The percentage of an administered dose of 14C-SAL found in urine as oxidative metabolites and SAL ester glucuronide increased significantly in all age groups, while the percentage excreted as SUA decreased. In addition, 12 and 25 month rats excreted a significantly greater percentage of the total dose as 2,3 and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid than 3 mo rats at ≥ 50 mg 14C-SAL/kg. These results indicate that increased production of oxidative metabolites in older rats at higher doses of SAL may be responsible in part for the age-related increase in acute SAL nephrotoxicity

  11. Effect of fetal hypothyroidism on tolerance to ischemia-reperfusion injury in aged male rats: Role of nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeddi, Sajad; Zaman, Jalal; Ghasemi, Asghar

    2016-05-01

    Aging is associated with increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease. Thyroid hormone deficiency during fetal life decreases myocardial tolerance to ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in later life. The long-term effects of fetal hypothyroidism (FH) on response to IR injury in aged rats have not been well documented. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the effect of FH on tolerance to IR injury in young and aged male rats and to determine contribution of iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase), Bax, and Bcl-2. Pregnant female rats were divided into two groups: The FH group received water containing 0.025% 6-propyl-2-thiouracil during gestation and the controls consumed tap water. Isolated perfused hearts from young (3 months) and aged (12 months) rats were subjected to IR. Hemodynamic parameters, infarct size, and heart NOx (nitrite+nitrate) levels were measured; in addition, mRNA expression of iNOS, Bax, and Bcl-2 and their protein levels in heart were measured. Recovery of post-ischemic LVDP and ±dp/dt were lower and infarct sizes were higher than controls in aged FH rats (68.38 ± 6.7% vs. 50.5 ± 1.7%; P Bcl-2 was lower in both the young (350 and 240% for iNOS and Bax, respectively and 51% for Bcl-2) and aged rats (504 and 567% for iNOS and Bax, respectively and 67% for Bcl-2). Compared to controls, in FH rats protein levels of iNOS (37% for young and 45% for aged rats) and Bax (94% for young and 118% for aged rats) were higher while for Bcl-2 (36% for young and 62% for aged rats) were lower. After IR, in FH rats, aminoguanidine, a selective iNOS inhibitor, decreased mRNA expression of iNOS and Bax and increased expression of Bcl-2 in both young (65% and 58% for iNOS and Bax, respectively and 152% for Bcl-2) and aged rats (76% and 64% for iNOS and Bax, respectively and 222% for Bcl-2). In addition, in the heart of FH rats, aminoguanidine decreased protein levels of iNOS (47% for young and 60% for aged rats) and Bax (57% for young and 80% for

  12. Aging male syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valer Donca

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aging Male Syndrome is a medical condition through which men could pass between the ages of 35 and 65, when testosterone levelsin their body decline considerably. Androgen deficiency in the aging male has become a topic of increasing interest and debate throughout theworld. In contrast to female menopause, the process of aging in the male genital system is slow and highly variable between individuals. Thecharacteristic symptoms of Aging Male Syndrome include weakness, depression, fatigue and changes in body hair and skin, decreased sexualdesire, decreased lean body mass accompanied by increased visceral fat, decreased bone mineral density. Aging Male Syndrome is usually diagnosedby testing the blood for testosterone levels. The usual treatment method for Aging Male Syndrome includes testosterone injections,testosterone patches, testosterone gels and oral preparations.

  13. Ambiguous response of lung lamellar bodies to sauna-like heat stress in two age groups of adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heino, M E

    1980-06-01

    Two groups of adult male rats, aged 2.5 and 5 months, were exposed daily for 12 min to 65 degrees C for five successive periods a week for 6 weeks. Both age groups, and in particular the young one, repeatedly suffered from exhausting heat stress. Lung specimens from cardiac lobes were prepared for light- and electron-microscopy. A significnat increase was noted in the lung lamellar body number in the old test rats, on comparison with old ones employed as controls (p < 0.05). The young group was unresponsive. Consequently, stress induced by increased sympathetic activity is not always a direct stimulus, as had been thought earlier. It seems, at least where heat stress is concerned, that it is the age, weight, and systemic reactions which exercise a great influence upon lamellar body production, and may even overrule the role of sympathetic activity. PMID:7417113

  14. Accelerated aging of reproductive capacity in male rat offspring of protein-restricted mothers is associated with increased testicular and sperm oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-González, Guadalupe L.; Reyes-Castro, Luis A.; Vega, Claudia C; Boeck, Lourdes; Ibáñez, Carlos; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Larrea, Fernando; Zambrano, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Maternal protein restriction (MPR) in pregnancy causes life course organ dysfunction, but few studies link the developmental origins of disease hypothesis to early aging. Suboptimal developmental nutrition increases oxidative stress (OS) and male infertility, damaging sperm function. We hypothesized that MPR in pregnancy accelerates age-related changes in testicular and sperm function related to both maternal diet and increased testicular OS in rat offspring. We studied male rats whose pregna...

  15. Comparison of Morphometric Aspects of Light and Electron Microscopy of the Hypoglossal Nerve between Young and Aged Male Wistar Rats

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    Mohsen Pourghasem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Age-related changes occur in many different systems of the body. Many elderlypeople show dysphagia and dysphonia. This research was conducted to evaluatequantitatively the morphometrical changes of the hypoglossal nerve resulting from theaging process in young and aged rats.Materials and Methods: Through an experimental study ten male wistar rats (4 months: 5rats, 24 months: 5 rats were selected randomly from a colony of wistars in the UWC. Aftera fixation process and preparation of samples of the cervical portion of the hypoglossalnerve of these rats, light and electron microscopic imaging were performed. These imageswere evaluated according to the numbers and size of myelinated nerve fibers, nucleoli ofSchwann cells, myelin sheath thickness, axon diameter, and g ratio. All data were analyzedby Mann-Whitney, a non-parametric statistical test.Results: In light microscope, numbers of myelinated nerve fibers, the mean entire nerveperimeters, the mean entire nerve areas and the mean entire nerve diameters in youngand aged rats’ were not significantly different between the two groups.In electron microscope, numbers of myelinated axons, numbers of Schwann cell nucleoliand the mean g ratios of myelinated axon to Schwann cell in young and aged rats werenot significantly different. The myelinated fiber diameters, the myelin sheath thicknesses,myelinated axon diameters and the mean g ratio of axon diameter to myelinated fiberdiameter in young and aged fibers were significantly differentConclusion: The mean g ratio of myelinated nerve fibers of peripheral nerves stabilizes atthe level of 0.6 after maturation and persists without major change during adulthood. Thisratio of axon diameter to fiber diameter (0.6 is optimum for normal conduction velocity ofneural impulses. Our study indicated that the g ratio of myelinated nerve fiber of the hypoglossalnerve decreased prominently in aged rats and can be a cause of impairment innerve function in

  16. Effects of Aging and Anti-Aging Hormones on The Kidney, The Thyroid Functions and The Histology of The Testis of Male Albino Rats

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    Shadia Ali Radwan; Samia Mohamed Sakr; Mohamed Salah Al-Shinnawy and Enas Saleh Abdel-Bakey

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of aging and anti-aging hormones on the kidney, the thyroid and the testis of aged male albino rats from the physiological and histological points of view. Material & Methods Thirty five male rats were used in the present study. They were allocated into five groups. The first group (5months old served as control group and the other remaining groups are (18 months old. The second group 1 ml/kg b.w. corn oil intramuscular injection through a period of two weeks .The third group received 2mg/kg b.w. of melatonin hormone orally daily for two weeks. The fourth group received 0.57 mg/kg b.w. of testosterone hormone via intramuscular injection through two weeks. The fifth group received the same dose of both hormones (Melatonin & Testosterone for two weeks. Some biochemical parameters of the kidney, the thyroid and histological structure of the testis were examined. Results The untreated aged group showed insignificant change in urea level with highly significant decrease in creatinine, T3 and T4 hormones levels. The melatonin treated group showed significant decrease in urea level with highly significant decrease in creatinine, T3 and T4 hormones. The testosterone treated group showed highly significant increase in urea, T3 and T4 hormones and highly significant decrease in creatinine level. Whereas, fifth group showed significant decrease in urea accompanied with a highly significant decrease in creatinine and highly significant increase in T3 with a significant increase in T4. The histological changes induced by aging and anti-aging hormones included intertubular haemorrhage, odematous areas present between the seminiferous tubules. The interstitial tissue was degenerated. The degenerated seminiferous tubules revealed maturation arrest in late-stage spermatides. Conclusion In conclusion, aging and anti-aging hormones administration into adult male rats exerts a clear effect on the kidney and

  17. Androgen-mediated development of irradiation-induced thyroid tumors in rats: dependence on animal age during interval of androgen replacement in castrated males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When male Long-Evans rats at age 8 weeks were radiation treated (40 microCi Na131I), thyroid follicular adenomas and carcinomas were observed at age 24 months with a high incidence of 94%. Castration of males prior to irradiation significantly reduced this tumor incidence to 60%. When testosterone (T) was replaced in castrated, irradiated male rats, differentially increased incidences of thyroid tumors occurred. Immediate (age 2-6 mo) or early (age 6-12 mo) T replacement at approximate physiologic levels led to thyroid follicular tumor incidences of 100 and 82%, respectively, whereas intermediate (12-18 mo) or late (18-24 mo) T treatment led to only 70 and 73% incidences, respectively. Continuous T replacement (2-24 mo) in castrated irradiated male rats raised thyroid tumor incidence to 100%. Since elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is a reported requisite for development of radiation-associated thyroid tumors, the effects of T on serum TSH levels were examined. Mean serum TSH values in all irradiated animal groups were significantly elevated above age-matched nonirradiated animals at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Serum TSH levels were higher in continuous T-replaced irradiated castrates than in intact, irradiated males, whereas such intact male TSH levels were greater than those for irradiated castrates without T treatment. Interval T replacement in castrated male rats was associated with increased serum TSH levels during the treatment interval and with lowered TSH levels after discontinuation of T treatment, particularly in irradiated rats. However, when irradiated, castrated males received late T replacement (age 18-24 mo), there was no elevation of TSH at the end of the treatment interval. An indirect effect of T via early stimulation of TSH may be partly responsible for the high incidence of irradiation-induced thyroid tumors in rats

  18. AGE-RELATED ALTERATIONS IN THE STIMULATED RELEASE IN VITRO OF CATECHOLAMINES AND LUTEINIZING HORMONE-RELEASING HORMONE FROM THE MALE RAT HYPOTHALAMUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using an in vitro perifusion system, the present study investigated the possibility that alterations in catecholamine and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) secretion from the male rat mediobasal hypothalamus are present during the period of middle-age. The results indi...

  19. The aging male project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Saad

    2001-06-01

    alpha estradiol have been synthesized some of which show selectivity for the central nervous system. CNS effects have been demonstrated in female and male animals. Cardiovascular protection by estrogens has been shown in animal and human studies. Atherosclerotic plaque size was reduced after estrogen injections in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Phytoestrogen-fed monkeys had lower total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol and higher HDL cholesterol. Apart from atherosclerotic lesions, coronary artery vascular reactivity was improved. Some of these experimental findings were confirmed in human studies in postmenopausal women with and without estrogen treatment. Whether all of the described estrogenic effects can be seen in men remains to be investigated. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 127-33Keywords : aging, andropause, testosterone, estrogens

  20. 3α-androstanediol, but not testosterone, attenuates age-related decrements in cognitive, anxiety, and depressive behavior of male rats

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    Cheryl A Frye

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Some hippocampally-influenced affective and/or cognitive processes decline with aging. The role of androgens in this process is of interest. Testosterone (T is aromatized to estrogen, and reduced to dihydrotestosterone (DHT, which is converted to 5α-androstane, 3α, 17α-diol (3α-diol. To determine the extent to which some age-related decline in hippocampally-influenced behaviors may be due to androgens, we examined the effects of variation in androgen levels due to age, gonadectomy, and androgen replacement on cognitive (inhibitory avoidance, Morris water maze and affective (defensive freezing, forced swim behavior among young (4-months, middle-aged (13-months, and aged (24-months male rats. Plasma and hippocampal levels of androgens were determined. In experiment 1, comparisons were made between 4-, 13-, and 24-month old rats that were intact or gonadectomized (GDX and administered a T-filled or empty silastic capsule. There was age-related decline in performance of the inhibitory avoidance, water maze, defensive freezing, and forced swim tasks, and hippocampal 3α-diol levels. Chronic, long-term (1-4 weeks T-replacement reversed the effects of GDX in 4- and 13-month old, but not 24-month old, rats in the inhibitory avoidance task. Experiments 2 and 3 assessed whether acute subcutaneous T or 3α-diol, respectively, could reverse age-associated decline in performance. 3α-diol, but not T, compared to vehicle, improved performance in the inhibitory avoidance, water maze, forced swim, and defensive freezing tasks, irrespective of age. Thus, age is associated with a decrease in 3α-diol production and 3α-diol administration reinstates cognitive and affective performance of aged male rats.

  1. Late-onset intermittent fasting dietary restriction as a potential intervention to retard age-associated brain function impairments in male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Rumani; Lakhanpal, Dinesh; Kumar, Sushil; Sharma, Sandeep; Kataria, Hardeep; Kaur, Manpreet; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2011-01-01

    Lifelong dietary restriction (DR) is known to have many potential beneficial effects on brain function as well as delaying the onset of neurological diseases. In the present investigation, the effect of late-onset short-term intermittent fasting dietary restriction (IF-DR) regimen was studied on motor coordination and cognitive ability of ageing male rats. These animals were further used to estimate protein carbonyl content and mitochondrial complex I–IV activity in different regions of brain...

  2. Dietary HMB and β-alanine co-supplementation does not improve in situ muscle function in sedentary, aged male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, David W; Acksel, Cara; Boyd, Iva M; Maynard, John; McCorkle, Katherine W; Edens, Neile K; Garvey, Sean M

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of dietary β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) combined with β-alanine (β-Ala) in sedentary, aged male rats. It has been suggested that dietary HMB or β-Ala supplementation may mitigate age-related declines in muscle strength and fatigue resistance. A total of 20 aged Sprague-Dawley rats were studied. At age 20 months, 10 rats were administered a control, purified diet and 10 rats were administered a purified diet supplemented with both HMB and β-Ala (HMB+β-Ala) for 8 weeks (approximately equivalent to 3 and 2.4 g per day human dose). We measured medial gastrocnemius (MG) size, force, fatigability, and myosin composition. We also evaluated an array of protein markers related to muscle mitochondria, protein synthesis and breakdown, and autophagy. HMB+β-Ala had no significant effects on body weight, MG mass, force or fatigability, myosin composition, or muscle quality. Compared with control rats, those fed HMB+β-Ala exhibited a reduced (41%, P = 0.039) expression of muscle RING-finger protein 1 (MURF1), a common marker of protein degradation. Muscle from rats fed HMB+β-Ala also exhibited a 45% reduction (P = 0.023) in p70s6K phosphorylation following fatiguing stimulation. These data suggest that HMB+β-Ala at the dose studied may reduce muscle protein breakdown by reducing MURF1 expression, but has minimal effects on muscle function in this model of uncomplicated aging. They do not, however, rule out potential benefits of HMB+β-Ala co-supplementation at other doses or durations of supplementation in combination with exercise or in situations where extreme muscle protein breakdown and loss of mass occur (e.g., bedrest, cachexia, failure-to-thrive). PMID:26579948

  3. Soybean isoflavones alter parvalbumin in hippocampus of mid-aged normal female, ovariectomized female, and normal male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    In Koo HWANG; Moo Ho WON; Yoon-bok LEE; Ki-yeon YOO; Tae-cheon KANG; Soon Sung LIM; Sang Moo KIM; Heon-soo SOHN; Woo-jung KIM; Hyun Kyung SHIN

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the long-term effect of soybean isoflavones on changes in parvalbumin (PV) immunoreactivity in the hippocampus in normal female, ovariectomized (OVX) female and normal male rats. Methods: Ten-month-old rats were assigned to one of 9 groups (n=7 in each group) based on body weight using arandomized complete-block design. The groups were: control diet-treated females,OVX females, and males; 0.3 g/kg isoflavone-treated females, OVX females, and males; and 1.2 g/kg isoflavone-treated females, OVX females, and males. The PV immunostaining was conducted by using the standard avidin-biotin complex method. Results: PV immunoreactivity and the number of PV-immunoreactive neurons in all the groups after isoflavone treatment were significantly changed in the hippocampal CA1 region and in the dentate gyrus, but not in the hippocampal CA2/3 region. PV immunoreactivity and the number of PV-immunoreactive neurons in the control diet OVX females were similar to those in the control diet, and were greater than those in the control diet normal females. PV immunoreactivity and the number of PV-immunoreactive neurons in all the isoflavone-treated groups decreased dose-dependently after isoflavone treatment. Conclusion: Long-term administration of isoflavones may induce a reduction of PV in interneurons in the hippocampal CA1 region and in the dentate gyrus. The reduction of PV in these regions suggests that the long-term administration of isoflavones may cause a change in calcium homeostasis in the hippocampal CA1 region and in the dentate gyrus.

  4. The aging male project

    OpenAIRE

    Farid Saad

    2001-01-01

    With an increasing life expectancy and a decreasing reproduction rate, the population structure changes. A Jenapharm R & D program investigates the endocrinology of aging men. In men, a decrease in production of sex steroids and other hormones with age can be observed. The typical patterns of daily rhythmicity become less distinct. This is part of a very complex picture in which not only isolated hormones are involved, but also the influence of hormones on each other. Many factors from th...

  5. Middle age onset short-term intermittent fasting dietary restriction prevents brain function impairments in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rumani; Manchanda, Shaffi; Kaur, Taranjeet; Kumar, Sushil; Lakhanpal, Dinesh; Lakhman, Sukhwinder S; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2015-12-01

    Intermittent fasting dietary restriction (IF-DR) is recently reported to be an effective intervention to retard age associated disease load and to promote healthy aging. Since sustaining long term caloric restriction regimen is not practically feasible in humans, so use of alternate approach such as late onset short term IF-DR regimen which is reported to trigger similar biological pathways is gaining scientific interest. The current study was designed to investigate the effect of IF-DR regimen implemented for 12 weeks in middle age rats on their motor coordination skills and protein and DNA damage in different brain regions. Further, the effect of IF-DR regimen was also studied on expression of energy regulators, cell survival pathways and synaptic plasticity marker proteins. Our data demonstrate that there was an improvement in motor coordination and learning response with decline in protein oxidative damage and recovery in expression of energy regulating neuropeptides. We further observed significant downregulation in nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and cytochrome c (Cyt c) levels and moderate upregulation of mortalin and synaptophysin expression. The present data may provide an insight on how a modest level of short term IF-DR, imposed in middle age, can slow down or prevent the age-associated impairment of brain functions and promote healthy aging by involving multiple regulatory pathways aimed at maintaining energy homeostasis. PMID:26318578

  6. Androgens and the ageing male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Anders; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2002-01-01

    severe primary or secondary hypogonadism. Thus, androgen substitution therapy is warranted in men with true hypogonadism at all ages. Symptoms experienced by otherwise healthy ageing males are non-specific and vague, although some may be similar to symptoms of hypogonadism. Therefore, the term...... have an andropause. As large placebo-controlled studies of androgen treatment in elderly males are lacking, proper risk assessment of adverse effects such as prostate cancer following testosterone treatment in elderly males is completely lacking. In the future, testosterone therapy may prove beneficial...... in some elderly males with low-normal testosterone levels. However, at this point in time, widespread use of testosterone in an elderly male population outside controlled clinical trials seems inappropriate....

  7. Androgens and the ageing male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Anders; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2002-01-01

    Hypogonadal men share a variety of signs and symptoms such as decreased muscle mass, osteopoenia, increased fat mass, fatigue, decreased libido and cognitive dysfunctions. Controlled trials have demonstrated favourable effects of androgen substitution therapy on these signs and symptoms in men with...... severe primary or secondary hypogonadism. Thus, androgen substitution therapy is warranted in men with true hypogonadism at all ages. Symptoms experienced by otherwise healthy ageing males are non-specific and vague, although some may be similar to symptoms of hypogonadism. Therefore, the term...... have an andropause. As large placebo-controlled studies of androgen treatment in elderly males are lacking, proper risk assessment of adverse effects such as prostate cancer following testosterone treatment in elderly males is completely lacking. In the future, testosterone therapy may prove beneficial...

  8. Testosterone replacement alters the cell size in visceral fat but not in subcutaneous fat in hypogonadal aged male rats as a late-onset hypogonadism animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhamed A

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Amr Abdelhamed,1,2 Shin-ichi Hisasue,1 Masato Shirai,3 Kazuhito Matsushita,1 Yoshiaki Wakumoto,1 Akira Tsujimura,1 Taiji Tsukamoto,4 Shigeo Horie1 1Department of Urology, Juntendo University, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Andrology, Sohag University, Graduate School of Medicine, Sohag, Egypt; 3Department of Urology, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Urayasu, Japan; 4Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo, Japan Background: Patients with late-onset hypogonadism (LOH benefit from testosterone replacement by improvement in the parameters of the metabolic syndrome, but fat cell morphology in these patients is still unclear. This study aims to determine the effect of testosterone replacement on the morphology of fat cells in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue and on erectile function in hypogonadal aged male rats as a model of LOH. Methods: Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 20–22 months were randomly allocated to two groups, ie, aged male controls (control group, n=5 and aged males treated with testosterone replacement therapy (TRT group, n=5. Testosterone enanthate 25 mg was injected subcutaneously every 2 weeks for 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, the intracavernous pressure (ICP and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP ratio was assessed. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue specimens were collected and analyzed using Image-J software. Results: Body weight at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after TRT was 800.0±35.4 g, 767.5±46.3 g, and 780±40.4 g, respectively (not statistically significant. The ICP/MAP ratio was 0.341±0.015 in the TRT group and 0.274±0.049 in the control group (not statistically significant. The median subcutaneous fat cell size was 4.85×103 (range 0.85–12.53×103 µm2 in the control group and 4.93×103 (range 6.42–19.7×103 µm2 in the TRT group (not statistically significant. In contrast, median visceral fat cell size was significantly

  9. Age-related changes in the percentage of oleate in adipose tissue of male and female Fischer rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorling, E.B.; Hansen, Harald S.

    1995-01-01

    weeks. Oestrogen injections twice a week to the castrated rats increased their oleate percentage within the same period to 23.4 ± 0.3%, partly reflecting the increase observed in the female rats. Stearic acid showed similar but less pronounced changes. The ratio oleic acid/stearic acid was constantly...

  10. Aging changes in the male reproductive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aging changes in the male reproductive system may include changes in testicular tissue, sperm production, and erectile ... during a process that some people call andropause. Aging changes in the male reproductive system occur primarily ...

  11. Aging changes in the male reproductive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004017.htm Aging changes in the male reproductive system To use ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Aging changes in the male reproductive system may include ...

  12. Toluene effects on the motor activity of adolescent, young-adult, middle-age and senescent male Brown Norway rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Life stage is an important risk factor for toxicity. Children and aging adults, for example, are more susceptible to certain chemicals than are young adults. In comparison to children, relatively little is known about susceptibility in older adults. Additionally, few studies have...

  13. [Changes in bones in the aging males].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegorzewska, Alicja E

    2007-08-01

    The report contains a summary of results on bone changes in aging male, presented during the 2nd CSSAM/ISAM North American Congress on the Aging Male. It was shown that age-related osteoporosis can be slowed in men by substitutive treatment with testosterone. Taking into account such therapy, one should remember about its adverse effects. PMID:18044351

  14. Reproductive ability of pubertal male and female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Zemunik

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Ten Fisher rats 50 to 55 days of age made up the pubertal group, and ten rats 90 to 95 days of age served as the controls. The testicular and epididymal weights and volumes of the pubertal males were lower than those of the controls (P0.05. At the beginning of gestation, the pubertal dams weighed less than the controls (P<0.001 but following uterectomy the body weights were equal. Pubertal dams delivered fewer pups than the controls (8.1 ± 2.5 vs 10.4 ± 1.3, P<0.05. There was no difference in the body weights of their offspring or in the weights of their placentas. The results suggest that, in contrast to their female counterparts, pubertal male rats are not fully mature and have not reached complete reproductive capacity at 50-55 days of age.

  15. [Male impotence in old age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentimone, F; Del Corso, L

    1994-05-01

    Normal aging does not induce impotence, but only modifies the physiology of the erection which, however, allows good sexual intercourse. Impotence, found in 55.0% of the over 75 men, is due to organic or psychogenic causes: above all, penile arterial insufficiency and the collateral effects of drugs for the diseases which often affect the elderly, are the main factors. PMID:8028756

  16. Histopathological effects of doxorubicin on pancreas in male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Ali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the histopathological side effects of doxorubicin on pancreas tissue in male albino rats Rattus norvegicus. This study were used 55 adult rats (2.5-3.5 month of age. The rats divided into two groups, the first group include (35 rats. The second group were (20 rats. Microscopial examination of pancreas lesion demonstrated oedema around the acini, swelling of the epithelial cells of acini, occurance of cystic fibrosis (mucoviscidosis at the concentration of (4,5 mg/kg of body weight ,occurrence of small islets that form of few cells and exocrine-endocrine transformation. There were thickness in the walls of blood vessels, thrombus, congestion of blood vessels, we conclude, that doxorubicin had histopathological effect on pancreas in sub-acute doses more than chronic doses.

  17. Aging, mitochondria and male reproductive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Sandra; Ramalho-Santos, João

    2009-12-01

    The rise in life expectancy over the last century, together with higher maternal and paternal ages and have highlighted the issue of reduced fertility with advancing age. Aging of the male reproductive system is incited by multi-factorial changes at molecular, cellular and regulatory levels, and individual characteristics are highly variable, although strongly influenced by lifestyle and environmental factors. Damage accumulated with age leads to progressive deregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and of local auto/paracrine interactions, thereby inducing changes in target organs such as the testis, penis and prostate. Elderly human males produce less testosterone, have fewer motile sperm and a higher incidence of erectile dysfunction and prostate disorders, all of which contribute to lower fertility. Cellular aging can manifest itself at several levels. Aging cells progressively accumulate "waste" products, resulting in a decreased functionally. Changes to mitochondria are among the most remarkable features observed in aging cells and several theories place mitochondria at the hub of cellular events related to aging, namely in terms of the accumulation of oxidative damage to cells and tissues, a process in which these organelles may play a prominent role, although alternative theories have also emerged. Furthermore, mitochondrial energy metabolism is also crucial for male reproductive function and mitochondria may therefore constitute a common link between aging and fertility loss. PMID:20021411

  18. Chronic administration of thiamine pyrophosphate decreases age-related histological atrophic testicular changes and improves sexual behavior in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Montiel, H L; Vásquez López, C M; González-Loyola, J G; Vega-Anaya, G C; Villagrán-Herrera, M E; Gallegos-Corona, M A; Saldaña, C; Ramos Gómez, M; García Horshman, P; García Solís, P; Solís-S, J C; Robles-Osorio, M L; Ávila Morales, J; Varela-Echavarría, A; Paredes Guerrero, R

    2014-06-01

    Aging is a multifactorial universal process and constitutes the most important risk factor for chronic-degenerative diseases. Although it is a natural process, pathological aging arises when these changes occur quickly and the body is not able to adapt. This is often associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammation, and a decrease in the endogenous antioxidant systems, constituting a physiopathological state commonly found in chronic-degenerative diseases. At the testicular level, aging is associated with tissue atrophy, decreased steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis, and sexual behavior disorders. This situation, in addition to the elevated generation of ROS in the testicular steroidogenesis, provides a critical cellular environment causing oxidative damage at diverse cellular levels. To assess the effects of a reduction in the levels of ROS, thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) was chronically administered in senile Wistar rats. TPP causes an activation of intermediate metabolism routes, enhancing cellular respiration and decreasing the generation of ROS. Our results show an overall decrease of atrophic histological changes linked to aging, with higher levels of serum testosterone, sexual activity, and an increase in the levels of endogenous antioxidant enzymes in TPP-treated animals. These results suggest that TPP chronic administration decreases the progression of age-related atrophic changes by improving the intermediate metabolism, and by increasing the levels of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:24371036

  19. Vitamin C partially attenuates male reproductive deficits in hyperglycemic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damasceno Débora C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperglycemia can impair the male reproductive system in experimental animals and in men during reproductive age. Studies have shown that vitamin C has some good effects on male reproductive system, and therefore vitamin C treatment could attenuate the dysfunctions in this system caused by hyperglycemia. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate whether vitamin C treatment could attenuate reproductive dysfunctions in hyperglycemic male rats. Methods Adult male rats were divided into 3 groups: a normoglycemic (n = 10 and two hyperglycemic (that received a single dose of streptozotocin - 40 mg/kg BW. The two last groups (n = 10 per group were divided into: hyperglycemic control (Hy and hyperglycemic + 150 mg of vitamin C (HyC, by gavage during 30 consecutive days. The normoglycemic and hyperglycemic control groups received the vehicle (water. The first day after the treatment, the rats were anesthetized and killed to evaluate oxidative stress biomarkers (TBARS, SOD, GSHt and GSH-Px in the erythrocytes, body and reproductive organ weights, sperm parameters, plasma hormone levels (FSH, LH and testosterone, testicular and epididymal histo-morphometry and histopathology. Results Compared with the normoglycemic animals, hyperglycemic control rats showed reduced weight of the body and reproductive organ but testis weight was maintained. It was also observed reduction of testosterone and LH levels, seminiferous tubular diameter, sperm motility and sperm counts in the epididymis. In addition, there was an increase in morphological abnormalities on spermatozoa as well as in oxidative stress level. Vitamin C reduced the oxidative stress level, diminished the number of abnormal sperm, and increased testosterone and LH levels and seminiferous tubular diameter but did not show improvement of sperm motility in relation to the hyperglycemic control group. Hyperglycemia caused a rearrangement in the epididymal tissue components (stroma

  20. Orexin-1 Receptor Mediation of Cocaine Seeking in Male and Female Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Luyi; Ghee, Shannon M.; Chan, Clifford; Lin, Li; Cameron, Michael D.; Kenny, Paul J.; See, Ronald E.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that female rats exhibit enhanced cocaine seeking during multiple phases of cocaine addiction compared with males. The orexin/hypocretin system recently has been implicated in drug addiction in male rats. Based on the known sex differences in cocaine addiction, in the current study we examined orexin-mediated cocaine seeking during self-administration, extinction, and reinstatement in age-matched male (initial weight 250–300 g) and female (initial weight 175–225 g)...

  1. Effects of Triclocarban on Intact Immature Male Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duleba, Antoni J.; Ahmed, Mohamed I.; Sun, Meng; Gao, Allen C.; Villanueva, Jesus; Conley, Alan J.; Turgeon, Judith L.; Benirschke, Kurt; Gee, Nancy A.; Chen, Jiangang; Green, Peter G.; Lasley, Bill L.

    2011-01-01

    Triclocarban (TCC; 3,4,4′-trichlorocarbanilide) is an antimicrobial agent used widely in various personal hygiene products including soaps. Recently, TCC has been shown to enhance testosterone-induced effects in vitro and to enlarge accessory sex organs in castrated male rats. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of TCC on intact age-matched male rats and on human prostate LNCaP and C4–2B cells. Seven-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats received either a normal diet or a diet supplemented with TCC (0.25% in diet) for 10 days. Triclocarban induced hyperplasia of accessory sex organs in the absence of significant qualitative histological changes. Serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone were not significantly altered by TCC treatment. In prostate cancer-derived LNCaP and C4–2B cells, TCC potentiated androgen actions via androgen receptor-dependent actions. In conclusion, TCC significantly affects intact male reproductive organs and potentiates androgen effects in prostate cancer cells. PMID:20889956

  2. Testosterone deprivation accelerates cardiac dysfunction in obese male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongkan, Wanpitak; Pintana, Hiranya; Sivasinprasasn, Sivaporn; Jaiwongkam, Thidarat; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C; Chattipakorn, Nipon

    2016-06-01

    Low testosterone level is associated with increased risks of cardiovascular diseases. As obese-insulin-resistant condition could impair cardiac function and that the incidence of obesity is increased in aging men, a condition of testosterone deprivation could aggravate the cardiac dysfunction in obese-insulin-resistant subjects. However, the mechanism underlying this adverse effect is unclear. This study investigated the effects of obesity on metabolic parameters, heart rate variability (HRV), left ventricular (LV) function, and cardiac mitochondrial function in testosterone-deprived rats. Orchiectomized or sham-operated male Wistar rats (n=36per group) were randomly divided into groups and were given either a normal diet (ND, 19.77% of energy fat) or a high-fat diet (HFD, 57.60% of energy fat) for 12weeks. Metabolic parameters, HRV, LV function, and cardiac mitochondrial function were determined at 4, 8, and 12weeks after starting each feeding program. We found that insulin resistance was observed after 8weeks of the consumption of a HFD in both sham (HFS) and orchiectomized (HFO) rats. Neither the ND sham (NDS) group nor ND orchiectomized (NDO) rats developed insulin resistance. The development of depressed HRV, LV contractile dysfunction, and increased cardiac mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production was observed earlier in orchiectomized (NDO and HFO) rats at week 4, whereas HFS rats exhibited these impairments later at week 8. These findings suggest that testosterone deprivation accelerates the impairment of cardiac autonomic regulation and LV function via increased oxidative stress and impaired cardiac mitochondrial function in obese-orchiectomized male rats. PMID:27000685

  3. Changes in intracellular calcium in brain cells of aged rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Li; Yunpeng Cao

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that voltage-dependent calcium influx, and enhancement of certain calcium-dependent processes in neurons, is related to aging. OBJECTIVE: To observe changes in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) in neurons of aged rats, and to compare with young rats. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized control experiment of neurophysiology was performed at the Central Laboratory of School of Pharmaceutical Science, China Medical University from June to August 2004. MATERIALS: Ten male, healthy, Wistar rats, 19 months old, were selected for the aged group. Ten male, 3-month-old, Wistar rats were selected for the young control group. Fura-2/AM was provided by the Institute of Pharmaceutical Research of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, and the F-2000 fluorospectrophotometer was a product of Hitachi, Japan. METHODS: Fluorescence Fura-2 spectrophotometer was used to measure [Ca2+]i in acutely dissociated brain cells of aged and young rats. The concentration of extracellular potassium was controlled by adding different volumes of chloridated potassium solution of high concentration. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: [Ca2+]i in neurons of young and aged rats in the presence of 1 mmol/L extracellular calcium concentration and 0 mmol/L (resting state), 5, 10, 20, and 40 mmol/L extracellular potassium. Absolute increase of [Ca2+]i in neurons of young and aged rats when extraceUular potassium was 5,10,20, 40 mmol/L. RESULTS: In the presence of 1 mmol/L extracellular Ca2+ and 0 mmol/L (resting state), 5, 10, 20, and 40 mmol/L extracellular potassium, [Ca2+]i in the neurons of aged rats was significantly less than that in young rats (P 0.05). CONCLUSION: The overload of [Ca2+]i in neurons of aged rats is greater than that of young rats under the same circumstances.

  4. Effects of Triclocarban on Intact Immature Male Rat: Augmentation of Androgen Action

    OpenAIRE

    Duleba, Antoni J.; Ahmed, Mohamed I.; Sun, Meng; Gao, Allen C.; Villanueva, Jesus; Conley, Alan J.; Turgeon, Judith L.; Benirschke, Kurt; Gee, Nancy A.; Chen, Jiangang; Green, Peter G.; Lasley, Bill L

    2011-01-01

    Triclocarban (TCC; 3,4,4′-trichlorocarbanilide) is an antimicrobial agent used widely in various personal hygiene products including soaps. Recently, TCC has been shown to enhance testosterone-induced effects in vitro and to enlarge accessory sex organs in castrated male rats. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of TCC on intact age-matched male rats and on human prostate LNCaP and C4–2B cells. Seven-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats received either a normal diet or a diet supplem...

  5. Relative age effect in junior tennis (male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Agricola

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The issues of the age effect (the theory of the age influence have been shown in sport sciences since the 1980s. The theory of age effect works on the assumption that athletes born in the beginning of a calendar year are, particularly in children’s and junior age, more successful than athletes born in the end of the year. This fact has been proved by a number of research studies, mainly in ice hockey, soccer, and tennis but also in other sports. OBJECTIVE: The submitted contribution is aimed at verifying of the age effect in junior tennis. The research objective was to find out the distribution of birth date frequencies in a population of tennis players’ in individual months, quarters, and half-years in the observed period 2007–2011 and to check the significance of differences. METHODS: The research was conducted on male tennis players aged 13–14 (N = 239, participants of the World Junior Tennis Finals. From the methodological point of view, it was an intentional selection. The birth dates of individual tennis players were taken from official materials of the ITF, the research data were processed using Microsoft Excel. The personal data were processed with the approval of players and the hosting organization (ITF. RESULTS: Testing of the hypothesis on the significance of differences in the distribution of frequencies between individual quarters (Q1–Q4 has proved statistically relevant differences between Q1 and Q3, Q1 and Q4, Q2 and Q3, and Q2 and Q4; a statistically relevant difference has been also found in the distribution of frequencies between the first and second half of the year. On the basis of the results of the presented research, the age effect in the studied population of junior male tennis players can be regarded as significant. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the analysis of the research data confirm the conclusions of similar studies in other sports and prove that in the population of elite junior players

  6. Effects of Semelil (ANGIPARS™) on focal cerebral ischemia in male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Asadi-Shekaari, M; H Eftekhar Vaghefi; Talakoub, A; HR Khorram Khorshid

    2010-01-01

    "n  Background and the purpose of the study: Cerebral ischemia is one of the main causes of long term disability and death in aged populations. Many herbal drugs and extracts have been used for the treatment of cerebral ischemia induced insults. This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of Semelil (ANGIPARSTM), a new herbal drug, on focal cerebral ischemia in male rats. Material and methods: Male rats were divided into five groups: sham-operated, ischemic anim...

  7. Tetracarpidium conophorum ameliorates oxidative reproductive toxicity induced by ethanol in male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Akomolafe, S. F.; Oboh, G.; Akindahunsi, A. A.; Afolayan, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Tetracarpidium conophorum (Mull. Arg.) Hutch. & Dalz is one of the many medicinal plants used for ages in folklore as male fertility enhancers. The current study evaluates the effect of the plant leaf extract on alcohol - induced reproductive toxicity in male rats. Methods Thirty rats were randomly divided into six groups of five animals each; Group 1 (positive control) received normal saline only; Group 2 (ethanol alone) were given only 30 % ethanol orally at 7 ml/kg body weight p...

  8. Hippocampal long-term potentiation is reduced in mature compared to young male rats but not in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfort, P; Felipo, V

    2007-05-11

    Aging is associated with a decline in cognitive function which could be due to reduced synaptic plasticity. Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) is an activity-dependent form of increased transmission efficacy at synapses that is considered the basis for some forms of learning and memory. We studied the N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor-dependent LTP in the CA1 region of hippocampus in young (2 months) and mature (8 months) male and female rats. We have found that in young male rats the tetanus increased the magnitude of excitatory post-synaptic potentials to 204+/-10% of basal while in mature male rats the magnitude of the LTP was significantly lower reaching only 153+/-11% of basal. This decrease did not occur in female rats. Similar changes occurred in the content of the NMDA receptor subunits NR1 and NR2A in hippocampus. The amount of both subunits was reduced significantly (15-16%) in hippocampus of 8-month-old compared with 2-month-old male rats. This decrease was not observed in female rats. Moreover, there is a significant correlation between the content of NR1 subunit and the magnitude of the potentiation. These data suggest that some of the neurobiological changes induced in hippocampus by aging are different in males and females. PMID:17395392

  9. Male Rat Susceptibility for Liver and Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkawt H. Hamad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The experimental study of this paper was designed to investigate male rat susceptibility to liver injury. A combination of two experimental animal models (Lead acetate for tissue injury (80 mg / L and castration had been used on twenty male rats, they were divided into two groups sham (n = 10; castrated (n = 10. Results revealed that, liver weight reduced significantly (P < 0.05 in sham group in comparison with castrated rats, but kidney weight changed slightly. Also, serum aminotransferase (AST was significantly higher in sham versus castrated rats. Neither alanine aminotransferase (ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP nor malondialdehyde (MDA changed. In conclusion, the absence of male sex hormone would delay tissue injury of male rat organs especially liver organ.

  10. Disposition of citral in male Fischer rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disposition of citral, an essential oil occurring in many foods and fragrances, was studied in male Fischer rats after iv, po, and dermal treatments. The pattern of distribution and elimination was the same after iv or oral exposure. Urine was the major route of elimination of citral-derived radioactivity, followed by feces, 14CO2, and expired volatiles. However, after dermal exposure, relatively less of the material was eliminated in the urine and more in the feces, suggesting a role for first-pass metabolism through the skin. Citral was almost completely absorbed orally; due to its extreme volatility, much of an applied dermal dose was lost. The citral remaining on the skin was fairly well absorbed. No effect of oral dose, from 5 to 500 mg/kg, was detected on disposition. Although the feces was a minor route of excretion, approximately 25% of the administered dose was eliminated via the bile within 4 hr of an iv dose. The metabolism of citral was both rapid and extensive. Within 5 min of an iv dose, no unmetabolized citral could be detected in the blood. Repeated exposure to citral resulted in an increase in biliary elimination, without any significant change in the pattern of urinary, fecal, or exhaled excretion. This suggests that citral may induce at least one pathway of its own metabolism. The rapid metabolism and excretion of this compound suggest that significant bioaccumulation of citral would not occur

  11. Histomorphological and histomorphometrical investigations of early bone damage following incorporation of optimal carcinogenic doses of 239-plutonium in male rats of different age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is early damage to bone at small carcinogenic amounts of the nuclide, including heavy defects of bone structure and bone marrow osteoporotic features of trabecular bone and only histomorphometrically detectable changes in bone metabolism. The dependence of radiation dose to skeleton and the spacial distribution of the nuclide on age and growth of the experimental animals is demonstrated and correlated to the histological findings. It is also shown that growth and metabolism parameters of bone influence the decorporation performance of the chelating agent Zn-DTPA. (orig.)

  12. The Effect of Hindlimb Suspension on the Reproductive System of Young Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tou, Janet; Grindeland, R.; Baer, L.; Guran, G.; Fung, C.; Wade, C.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Colonization of space requires the ability to reproduce in reduced gravity. Following spaceflight, astronauts and male rats exhibit decreased testosterone (T). This has important implications as T effects the testes and accessory sex glands. To our knowledge no studies have examined the effects of spaceflight on accessory sex glands. Due to the rarity of spaceflight opportunities, ground models have been used to simulate weightlessness. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of long-term (21 d) weightlessness on the reproductive system of male rats. Weightlessness was simulated using the Morey-Holton hindlimb suspension (HLS) model. Age 10 week old, male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing (209.0 +9.7g) were randomly assigned (n=10/group) to either HLS or ambulatory control. In HLS rats, testes mass was 33% lower (preproduction function and capability in weightlessness. Funding provided by NASA.

  13. Aromatized testosterone attenuates contextual generalization of fear in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Joseph F; Vanderhoof, Tyler; Winiecki, Patrick; Latsko, Maeson S; Riccio, David C; Jasnow, Aaron M

    2016-08-01

    Generalization is a common symptom of many anxiety disorders, and females are 60% more likely to suffer from an anxiety disorder than males. We have previously demonstrated that female rats display significantly accelerated rates of contextual fear generalization compared to male rats; a process driven, in part, by activation of ERβ. The current study was designed to determine the impact of estrogens on contextual fear generalization in male rats. For experiment 1, adult male rats were gonadectomized (GDX) and implanted with a capsule containing testosterone proprionate, estradiol, dihydrotestosterone proprionate (DHT), or an empty capsule. Treatment with testosterone or estradiol maintained memory precision when rats were tested in a different (neutral) context 1day after training. However, male rats treated with DHT or empty capsules displayed significant levels of fear generalization, exhibiting high levels of fear in the neutral context. In Experiment 2, we used acute injections of gonadal hormones at a time known to elicit fear generalization in female rats (e.g. 24h before testing). Injection treatment followed the same pattern of results seen in Experiment 1. Finally, animals given daily injections of the aromatase inhibitor, Fadrozole, displayed significant fear generalization. These data suggest that testosterone attenuates fear generalization likely through the aromatization testosterone into estradiol as animals treated with the non-aromatizable androgen, DHT, or animals treated with Fadrozole, displayed significant generalized fear. Overall, these results demonstrate a sex-dependent effect of estradiol on the generalization of contextual fear. PMID:27368147

  14. The Brain Metabolome of Male Rats across the Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaojiao; Chen, Tianlu; Zhao, Aihua; Wang, Xiaoyan; Xie, Guoxiang; Huang, Fengjie; Liu, Jiajian; Zhao, Qing; Wang, Shouli; Wang, Chongchong; Zhou, Mingmei; Panee, Jun; He, Zhigang; Jia, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive and accurate characterization of brain metabolome is fundamental to brain science, but has been hindered by technical limitations. We profiled the brain metabolome in male Wistar rats at different ages (day 1 to week 111) using high-sensitivity and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Totally 380 metabolites were identified and 232 of them were quantitated. Compared with anatomical regions, age had a greater effect on variations in the brain metabolome. Lipids, fatty acids and amino acids accounted for the largest proportions of the brain metabolome, and their concentrations varied across the lifespan. The levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids were higher in infancy (week 1 to week 3) compared with later ages, and the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids increased in the aged brain (week 56 to week 111). Importantly, a panel of 20 bile acids were quantitatively measured, most of which have not previously been documented in the brain metabolome. This study extends the breadth of the mammalian brain metabolome as well as our knowledge of functional brain development, both of which are critically important to move the brain science forward. PMID:27063670

  15. Green tea polyphenols supplementation improves bone microstructure in orchidectomized middle-Aged rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our recent study shows that green tea polyphenols (GTP) attenuate trabecular bone loss in ovariectomized middle-aged female rats. To investigate whether GTP prevents bone loss in male rats, 40 rats with and without oriectomy (ORX) were assigned to 4 groups in a 2 (sham vs. ORX)× 2 (no GTP and 0.5% G...

  16. Influence of pesticides on thyroid gland activity in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plasma levels of T3, T4 and TSH were determined following daily administrations of 1/10 LD50 of metacide (organophoshosphorus) or methavine (carbamate or metoxuron (herbicide) pesticides in male albino rats for 45 days. At the end of the experiment, significant increase of body weights were observed in rats treated with metacide or metoxuron while methavine led to significant decreased TSH secretion. Metoxuron caused significant decrease in both T3 and T4 levels in plasma and metacide increased T3 and increased T4 levels in plasma of male rats

  17. The food-conditioned place preference task in adolescent, adult and aged rats of both sexes

    OpenAIRE

    Rubinow, Marisa J.; Hagerbaumer, Diana A.; Juraska, Janice M.

    2008-01-01

    The rat basolateral amygdala shows neuroanatomical sex differences, continuing development after puberty and aging-related alterations. Implications for amygdala-dependent memory processes were explored here by testing male and female hooded rats in adolescence, adulthood and old age on the food-conditioned place preference task. While aged rats were unimpaired, adolescents failed to learn the task. This finding may be related to ongoing development of the basolateral amygdala and related mem...

  18. Comparative toxicology of carfene in male and female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to determine the potential toxicity associated with daily oral administrations of carfene (2.5 mg/kg body weight) for 15 consecutive days on protein level in liver, kidney, brain and spleen tissues of male and female rats after 1, 5, 10 and 15 days of treatment. Evaluation of the trace elements, zinc and copper in serum, revealed that zinc level was decreased significantly while that of copper was increased in both male and female rats compared to controls. The incorporation rate of 14 C-isoleucine for synthesis of protein tended to decrease in liver tissues and increase in brain tissues of rats. Kidney and spleen tissues showed fluctuated changes. It was noticed in the present investigation that the incorporation rate of I4 C-radioactivity in different selected tissues under estimation was more pronounced in male than in female rats

  19. Reproductive Toxicity of Triptolide in Male House Rat, Rattus rattus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neena Singla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to investigate the toxic effect of triptolide fed in bait on reproduction of male house rat, Rattus rattus. Feeding of cereal based bait containing 0.2% triptolide to male R. rattus for 5 days in no-choice feeding test, leading to mean daily ingestion of 20.45 mg/kg bw of triptolide, was found effective in significantly (P≤0.05 reducing sperm motility and viability in cauda epididymal fluid by 80.65 and 75.14%, respectively, from that of untreated rats. Pregnancy rates were decreased by 100% in untreated cyclic female rats paired with male rats treated with 0.2% triptolide. Present studies suggest the potential of 0.2% triptolide bait in regulating reproductive output of R. rattus.

  20. Possible mechanism for accelerated atherogenesis in male versus female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietary fat and cholesterol enter the circulation as chylomicrons. They are removed from the circulation by attachment to lipoprotein lipase located on the endothelial surfaces. As the result of lipoprotein lipase action, chylomicrons are partially hydrolyzed and then reenter the circulation as remnants, which are rapidly cleared by the liver. We investigated the fate of 3H-retinol- and 14C-cholesterol-labeled chylomicrons injected into male and female rats. The disappearance curves of chylomicrons from the circulation were not significantly different in males and females, which suggests that translocation from plasma to endothelium is similar for both sexes. However, in male rats, the dwell time of chylomicrons on the endothelium was significantly prolonged. At 10 and 20 minutes after chylomicron injection, more label was found in the livers of female than male rats. The opposite was true for hearts. Male hearts contained significantly more endothelium-bound chylomicrons when compared with female hearts. This increase in dwell time may allow greater cholesterol deposition in the endothelium of male rats. The more rapid processing of chylomicrons was associated with a 300% greater postheparin lipoprotein lipase in female rats, which suggests a greater enzyme density at chylomicron attachment points on endothelium

  1. Castration increases elimination of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a marked sex difference in whole body elimination of PFOA in rats with females (t1/2) 1/2 = 15 days). The authors were interested in determining if the levels of circulating androgens or estrogens modulate PFOA elimination. That is, if castrated males pretreated with estradiol exhibit a female pattern of PFOA elimination and if ovariectomized females pretreated with testosterone exhibit the male pattern. Castration of males greatly increased the elimination of [1-14C]PFOA (9.4 μmol/kg, ip) into both urine and feces, but castration plus estradiol produced no further augmentation. In female rats, neither ovariectomy nor ovariectomy plus testosterone affected the elimination of PFOA. They conclude that a factor produced by the testis, most likely androgens, modulate the elimination of PFOA in the male rat

  2. AGE-RELATED CHANGES IN RECEPTOR-MEDIATED PHOSPHOINOSITIDE HYDROLYSIS IN VARIOUS REGIONS OF RAT BRAIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of age on cholinergic markers and receptor-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis was dined in the frontal cortex and striatum of male Fischer-344 rats. holine acetyltransferase activity was decreased 27% in the striatum of aged (24 month) rats cared to young (3 month...

  3. Relative age effect in junior tennis (male)

    OpenAIRE

    Adrián Agricola; Jiří Zháněl; Ondřej Hubáček

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The issues of the age effect (the theory of the age influence) have been shown in sport sciences since the 1980s. The theory of age effect works on the assumption that athletes born in the beginning of a calendar year are, particularly in children’s and junior age, more successful than athletes born in the end of the year. This fact has been proved by a number of research studies, mainly in ice hockey, soccer, and tennis but also in other sports. OBJECTIVE: The submitted contribut...

  4. The Effects of Mobile Phone Radiation on Serum Level of Cortisol and Anxiety in Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rahim Ahmadi; B Khakpour; Sanaz Parsania

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Widespread use of cell phones is the most important risk factor f human health in the age of technology. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mobile phone radiation on serum level of cortisol and changes in anxiety level in male rats. Materials and Method: In this laboratory-experimental study, the male Wistar rats were divided into control and exposed to cell phone radiation for 1h, 3h, and 6h/day, groups . After 8 weeks, Elevated Plus Maze was used ...

  5. Age at death estimation from bone histology in Malaysian males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor, Faridah Mohd; Pastor, Robert F; Schutkowski, Holger

    2014-10-01

    Estimation of age from microscopic examination of human bone utilizes bone remodeling. This allows 2 regression equation to be determined in a specific population based on the variation in osteon turnover in different populations. The aim of this study was to provide age estimation for Malaysian males. Ground undecalcified cross sections were prepared from long limb bones of 50 deceased males aged between 21 and 78 years. Ten microstructural parameters were measured and subjected to multivariate regression analysis. Results showed that osteon count had the highest correlation with age (R = 0.43), and age was estimated to be within 10.94 years of the true value in 98% of males. Cross validation of the equation on 50 individuals showed close correspondence of true ages with estimated ages. Further studies are needed to validate and expand these results. PMID:24189643

  6. Effects of Green Tea Extract on Learning, Memory, Behavior and Acetylcholinesterase Activity in Young and Old Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Tranum; Pathak, C. M.; Pandhi, P.; Khanduja, K. L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of green tea extract administration on age-related cognition in young and old male Wistar rats. Methods: Young and old rats were orally administered 0.5% green tea extract for a period of eight weeks and were evaluated by passive avoidance, elevated maze plus paradigm and changes in acetylcholinesterase activity.…

  7. Tempol protects sleep-deprivation induced behavioral deficits in aggressive male Long-Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Naimesh; Atrooz, Fatin; Asghar, Saman; Salim, Samina

    2016-01-26

    Earlier, we reported that elevated anxiety-like behavior and high aggression in aged retired breeder Long-Evans (L-E) rats was associated with increased plasma corticosterone and elevated oxidative stress levels. In the present study, we examined how this aged aggressive and anxious rat strain responds to acute sleep deprivation (24h) and whether their behaviors can be modulated via antioxidant tempol treatment. Four groups of L-E rats were utilized: naïve control (NC), tempol treated control (T+NC), sleep deprived (SD), tempol treated and sleep deprived (T+SD). Thus, two groups were treated with tempol (1mM in drinking water for 2 weeks) while the other two were not. Two groups were subjected to acute sleep deprivation (24h) using the columns-in-water model while the other two were not. Sleep deprivation induced anxiety-like behavior, led to significant depression-like behavior and short-term memory impairment in SD rats. And, decision-making behavior also was compromised in SD rats. These behavioral and cognitive impairments were prevented with tempol treatment in T+SD rats. Tempol treatment also reduced SD-induced increase in corticosterone and oxidative stress levels in T+SD rats. These results suggest potential involvement of oxidative stress mechanisms in regulation of sleep deprivation induced behavioral and cognitive deficits in male aged-aggressive rats. PMID:26724222

  8. The effect of hypernatremic state on anesthesia: male Wistar rat

    OpenAIRE

    Heydarpour F, Rostami A, Alipour M, Amini B, Heydarpour P

    2008-01-01

    "nBackground: The function of internal systems can be influenced significantly by hypernatremia, even anesthesia may be affected by this electrolyte imbalance. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a single anesthetic dose of ketamine in an experimental rat model of chronic hypernatremia. "n"nMethods: Sixty male Wistar rats, weighing 300(±20)g, were allocated randomly to three groups: the control group received drinking water and test groups 1 and 2 r...

  9. Melatonin improves spatial navigation memory in male diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrin Babaei-Balderlou

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of melatonin as an antioxidant on spatial navigation memory in male diabetic rats. Thirty-two male white Wistar rats weighing 200 ± 20 g were divided into four groups, randomly: control, melatonin, diabetic and melatonin-treated diabetic. Experimental diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg kg-1 streptozotocin. Melatonin was injected (10 mg kg-1 day-1, ip for 2 weeks after 21 days of diabetes induction. At the end of administration period, the spatial navigation memory of rats was evaluated by cross-arm maze. In this study lipid peroxidation levels, glutathione-peroxidase and catalase activities were measured in hippocampus. Diabetes caused to significant decrease in alternation percent in the cross-arm maze, as a spatial memory index, compared to the control group (p < 0.05, whereas administration of melatonin prevented the spatial memory deficit in diabetic rats. Also melatonin injection significantly increased the spatial memory in intact animals compared to the control group (p < 0.05. Assessment of hippocampus homogenates indicated an increase in lipid peroxidation levels and a decrease in GSH-Px and CAT activities in the diabetic group compared to the control animals, while melatonin administration ameliorated these indices in diabetic rats. In conclusion, diabetes induction leads to debilitation of spatial navigation memory in rats, and the melatonin treatment improves the memory presumably through the reduction of oxidative stress in hippocampus of diabetic rats.

  10. Fertility of male adult rats submitted to forced swimming stress

    OpenAIRE

    Mingoti G.Z.; Pereira R.N.; Monteiro C.M.R.

    2003-01-01

    We investigated whether stress interferes with fertility during adulthood. Male Wistar rats (weighing 220 g in the beginning of the experiment) were forced to swim for 3 min in water at 32ºC daily for 15 days. Stress was assessed by the hot-plate test after the last stressing session. To assess fertility, control and stressed males (N = 15 per group) were mated with sexually mature normal females. Males were sacrificed after copulation. Stress caused by forced swimming was demonstrated by a s...

  11. Effects of psychostimulants on social interaction in adult male rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlamberová, R.; Mikulecká, Anna; Macúchová, E.; Hrebíčková, I.; Ševčíková, M.; Nohejlová, K.; Pometlová, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 8 (2015), s. 776-785. ISSN 0955-8810 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : amphetamine * cocaine * male rats * 3,4 methylenedimethoxyamphetamine * psychostimulants * social behavior Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.148, year: 2014

  12. Effect of glyphosate on reproductive organs in male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Pengyuan; Hu, Ping; Tang, Juan; Li, Yansen; Li, Chunmei

    2016-06-01

    Glyphosate as an active ingredient of Roundup(®) which is thought to be one of the most popular herbicide was used worldwide. Many studies have focused on reproductive toxicity on glyphosate-based herbicide, but few evidence exists to imply the male reproductive toxicity of glyphosate alone in vivo. In this study SD rats were Lavaged with glyphosate at doses of 5, 50, 500mg/kg to detect the toxicity of glyphosate on rat testis. Glyphosate significantly decreased the average daily feed intake at dose of 50mg/kg, and the weight of seminal vesicle gland, coagulating gland as well as the total sperm count at dose of 500mg/kg. Immunohistochemistry of androgen receptor (AR) has no difference among all groups. As to testosterone, estradiol, progesterone and oxidative stress parameters, the level of them has no differences amidst all doses. Taken together, we conclude that glyphosate alone has low toxicity on male rats reproductive system. PMID:27286640

  13. Fertility of male adult rats submitted to forced swimming stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Z. Mingoti

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether stress interferes with fertility during adulthood. Male Wistar rats (weighing 220 g in the beginning of the experiment were forced to swim for 3 min in water at 32ºC daily for 15 days. Stress was assessed by the hot-plate test after the last stressing session. To assess fertility, control and stressed males (N = 15 per group were mated with sexually mature normal females. Males were sacrificed after copulation. Stress caused by forced swimming was demonstrated by a significant increase in the latency of the pain response in the hot-plate test (14.6 ± 1.25 s for control males vs 26.0 ± 1.53 s for stressed males, P = 0.0004. No changes were observed in body weight, testicular weight, seminal vesicle weight, ventral prostate weight or gross histological features of the testes of stressed males. Similarly, no changes were observed in fertility rate, measured by counting live fetuses in the uterus of normal females mated with control and stressed males; no dead or incompletely developed fetuses were observed in the uterus of either group. In contrast, there was a statistically significant decrease in spermatid production demonstrated by histometric evaluation (154.96 ± 5.41 vs 127.02 ± 3.95 spermatids per tubular section for control and stressed rats, respectively, P = 0.001. These data demonstrate that 15 days of forced swimming stress applied to adult male rats did not impair fertility, but significantly decreased spermatid production. This suggests that the effect of stress on fertility should not be assessed before at least the time required for one cycle of spermatogenesis.

  14. 衰老雄性大鼠雄激素缺乏与睾丸间质细胞中Perilipin基因表达间关系的研究%Down-regulated Expression of Perilipin in Leydig Cells of Aging Male Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何华; 李玉华; 刘媛媛; 袁伟; 李润生

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨Perilipin基因差异表达与雄激素缺乏之间的关系.方法 采用D-半乳糖注射的方法建立大鼠亚急性衰老雄激素缺乏动物模型,检测血清总睾酮(TT)、超氧化物岐化酶(SOD)、丙二醛(MDA)水平判断造模成功,采用Percoll非连续密度梯度离心法分离睾丸间质细胞(Leydig),原代培养72h后提取大鼠Leydig细胞总RNA,基因芯片筛选差异表达基因,最后半定量RT-PCR验证芯片结果.结果 与对照组比较,模型组(低剂量组和高剂量组)血清TT浓度、SOD活力下降,MDA含量升高,差异有统计学意义;基因芯片结果显示,脂类代谢途径与雄激素缺乏最为相关,差异表达基因分别为Perilipin,Fabp4,Mgll;半定量RT-PCR结果发现,Perilipin基因及其两个亚型表达显著下调.结论 在RNA水平Perilipin基因表达与雄激素缺乏可能有关.%Objective To evaluate the relationship of Perilipin expression with reduced androgen synthesis in aging male rats. Methods The three-month old rats were injected every day with D-galactose (300 mg/kg) for two months to establish the model of aging rat. The levels of total testosterone (TT), superoxitase dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum were used as the criterion to evaluate the quality of the animal model. For measurement of differentially-expressed genes, the Leydig cells was separated by Percoll discontinuous density gradient centrifugation, cultured for three day and then used for preparation of total RNA. Gene expression profile in the aging Leydig cells was studied in by cDNA microarray technique plus validation of screened genes by RT-PCR. Results In D-galactose-injected rats, the serum levels of MDA and SOD were significantly higher than those of the control rats. However, the serum level of TT was significantly lower in the rats injected with D-galactose than that of the control rats. Expression of hundreds of genes changed in the Leydig cells of aging rats, compared to that

  15. Effects of Semelil (ANGIPARS™ on focal cerebral ischemia in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Asadi-Shekaari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available "n  Background and the purpose of the study: Cerebral ischemia is one of the main causes of long term disability and death in aged populations. Many herbal drugs and extracts have been used for the treatment of cerebral ischemia induced insults. This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of Semelil (ANGIPARSTM, a new herbal drug, on focal cerebral ischemia in male rats. Material and methods: Male rats were divided into five groups: sham-operated, ischemic animals treated with distilled water as vehicle, ischemic animals treated with 1, 10 and 100 mg/kg of Semilil respectively. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO model was used in NMRI rats and neuronal injury analyzed in hippocampal CA1 sector after 48 hrs of Middle Cerebral Artery (MCAO. Results: Results of this study showed that treatment with semelil attenuated ischemic damages and has positive effects on focal cerebral ischemia.

  16. Effect of oily Rosmarinus Officinalis extract on some reproductive and sperm parameters in adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Hameed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was conducted to examine the effect of oral administration of oily Rosmarinus Officinalis extract on spermatogenesis, accessory sex glands and serum testosterone level in adult male rats aged 2.5-3 months. The extract was administered orally daily at 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight for 6 weeks. The results showed that the extract at the three doses significantly reduced testis weight and testosterone level. Furthermore a significant reduction in sperm count, weight of body, tail of epididymis, seminal vesicles and prostate gland in rats treated with extract at 500 and 1000 mg/kg compared with control, associated with a significant reduction in the percentage of live sperms and significant increase in the percentage of dead sperms and morphologically abnormal sperms compared with control. It was concluded that Rosmarinus Officinalis extract administration to adult male rats caused adverse effects on some reproductive and semen parameters.

  17. Coccomyxa Gloeobotrydiformis Improves Learning and Memory in Intrinsic Aging Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Luning; Jin, Ying; Dong, Liming; Sui, Hai-juan; Sumi, Ryo; Jahan, Rabita; Hu, Dahai; Li, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Declining in learning and memory is one of the most common and prominent problems during the aging process. Neurotransmitter changes, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and abnormal signal transduction were considered to participate in this process. In the present study, we examined the effects of Coccomyxa gloeobotrydiformis (CGD) on learning and memory ability of intrinsic aging rats. As a result, CGD treated (50 mg/kg·d or 100 mg/kg ·d for a duration of 8 weeks) 22-month-old male ...

  18. Microscopic details of age related changes in rat optic nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Pacella

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Age-related changes in the number and density of optic nerve fibres were studied in 12-month-old (adult and 24-month-old (aged male Wistar rats. Methods: Two-micrometer-thick resin-embedded optic nerve cross-sections obtained from two different age groups were stained with toluidine blue and examined under a light microscope at low (5x and high (500x magnification. The optic nerve cross-sectional area, and the number of nerve fibres with diameters less or higher than 1 μm were evaluated by means of computerized image analysis and statistical analysis of results. Results: Retrobulbar optic nerve cross-sectional area decreased in relation to ageing. The number of optic nerve fibres with a diameter of less than 1 μm decreased by about 39% in 24-month-old rats versus 12 month-old animals (P 0.05. Conclusions: Data suggest that age-related impairment of nerve cell population also occurs at the optic nerve level. Our data allow us to hypothesize that all major components of the rat optic paths are sensitive to the aging process.

  19. Rock Sparrow Song Reflects Male Age and Reproductive Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nemeth, Erwin; Kempenaers, Bart; Matessi, Giuliano; Brumm, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of mating signals is closely linked to sexual selection. Acoustic ornaments are often used as secondary sexual traits that signal the quality of the signaller. Here we show that song performance reflects age and reproductive success in the rock sparrow (Petronia petronia). In an...... nests. Older males could be distinguished from yearlings by singing at lower rate and higher amplitudes. Our findings suggest that song rate may be used as a signal of age and together with song pitch as a signal of reproductive success in this species. Alternatively, younger and less successful males...... might try to compensate their inferior status by increased song rates and lower pitch. Independent of age and quality, high-amplitude songs correlated with paternity loss in the own nest, suggesting that in this species song amplitude is not an indicator of male quality but high-intensity songs may be...

  20. "Aging males" symptoms and general health of adult males: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, John W; Ng, Chi-Fai; Chiu, Peter Ka Fung; Teoh, Jeremy Yuen Chun; Yee, C H

    2016-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the prevalence and severity of health-related complaints perceived by adult males of Hong Kong by using the Hong Kong Traditional Chinese versions of the Aging males' symptoms (AMS) scale and the 5-dimensional and 3-level European Quality of life (EQ-5D-3L) questionnaire. A total of 825 adult males aged 40 years or above were surveyed, and observed that 80% of the population was living with little-to-mild levels of aging symptoms with mean total scores ranged between 26.02 ± 7.91 and 32.99 ± 7.91 in different age groups. Such symptoms were correlated with age, especially for the somato-vegetative and sexual symptoms. The most severe AMS symptoms were observed in the oldest age group at 70 years or above, with 76%, 34% and 70% living with moderate-to-severe levels of somato-vegetative, psychological and sexual symptoms, respectively. The result was highly correlated with the EQ-5D-3L questionnaire. Secondly, the Hong Kong Aging males' symptoms (AMS) scale was shown to have good reliability with test-retest coefficient at 0.79 (ranged 0.66-0.87) and Cronbach's alpha coefficient at 0.88 (ranged 0.70-0.84). In summary, the population of Hong Kong male adults was commonly living with little-to-mild levels of aging symptoms, whereas their severity was correlated with age. PMID:27068128

  1. Coccomyxa Gloeobotrydiformis Improves Learning and Memory in Intrinsic Aging Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Luning; Jin, Ying; Dong, Liming; Sui, Hai-Juan; Sumi, Ryo; Jahan, Rabita; Hu, Dahai; Li, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Declining in learning and memory is one of the most common and prominent problems during the aging process. Neurotransmitter changes, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and abnormal signal transduction were considered to participate in this process. In the present study, we examined the effects of Coccomyxa gloeobotrydiformis (CGD) on learning and memory ability of intrinsic aging rats. As a result, CGD treated (50 mg/kg·d or 100 mg/kg ·d for a duration of 8 weeks) 22-month-old male rats, which have shown significant improvement on learning and spatial memory ability compared with control, which was evidently revealed in both the hidden platform tasks and probe trials. The following immunohistochemistry and Western blot experiments suggested that CGD could increase the content of Ach and thereby improve the function of the cholinergic neurons in the hippocampus, and therefore also improving learning and memory ability of the aged rats by acting as an anti-inflammatory agent. The effects of CGD on learning and memory might also have an association with the ERK/CREB signalling. The results above suggest that the naturally made drug CGD may have several great benefit as a multi-target drug in the process of prevention and/or treatment of age-dependent cognitive decline and aging process. PMID:26078724

  2. Dominant lethals following administration of tritium (THO) to rat males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adult rat males were given a single intraperitoneal tritium (THO) injection at 0,01 or 0,001 mCi/g body weight (1/100 or 1/1000 of LDsub(50/30), respectively). Twelve days after treatment each male was mated to 3-5 intact females, and the latter were replaced by fresh ones every 12 following days over a 120-day period. Mated females were killed to score conceptions, corpora lutea, and live and dead embryos. Estimations were made of F1 prenatal death rate (according to Bateman, 1958) and the frequency of induction of dominant lethal mutations (according to Roehrborn, 1970). The results observed indicated paternal exposure to tritium (THO) to produce dominant lethals both in pre- and post-meiotic germ cells in the rat. The extent of the genetic damage studied was found to depend on the amount of activity administered as well as on the time interval between treatment and conception. (author)

  3. Drug Specificity in Drug vs. Food Choice in Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Tunstall, Brendan J.; Riley, Anthony L.; Kearns, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Although different classes of drug differ in their mechanisms of reinforcement and effects on behavior, little research has focused on differences in self-administration behaviors maintained by these drugs. Persistent drug choice despite available reinforcement alternatives has been proposed to model behavior relevant to addiction. The present study used a within-subjects procedure, where male rats (Long-Evans, N = 16) were given a choice between cocaine (1.0 mg/kg/inf) and food (a single 45-...

  4. Methamphetamine affects social interaction in adult male rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pometlová, M.; Mikulecká, Anna; Šlamberová, Romana; Schutová, B.; Hrubá, L.; Rokyta, R.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 18, Suppl.1 (2007), S77-S77. ISSN 0955-8810. [Biennial Meeting of the European Behavioural Pharmacology Society /12./. 31.08.2007-03.09.2007, Tübingen] R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) 1A8610; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : metemphetamine * behavior * male rat Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  5. Studies on curacron food poisoning in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the toxic effect of contaminated food with organophosphorus pesticide curacron for different periods on serum glucose, total protein, free amino acids, glutamic pyruvic and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminases in male rats. Radioimmunoassay technique was used the effect of curacron pesticide on serum insulin level in rats for 45 days. It has been found that curacron caused disturbance in in liver functions which were elucidated through the biochemical determination of glutamic oxaloacetic (SGOT) and glutamic pyruvic (SGPT) transaminases and in the levels of serum glucose and insulin of rats fed with daily doses of 71.6 mg curacron/kg for 45 days. The administered dose of curacron showed cumulative physiological effect and caused marked increases in SGOT, SGPT, total protein and serum insulin levels. On the other hand, it caused significant decreases in levels of serum glucose and free amino acids (FAA) as compared with the control ones

  6. Cannabis, Cocaine and the Wages of Prime Age Males

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses a dataset collected among inhabitants of Amsterdam, to study whether wages of prime age male workers are affected by the use of cannabis and cocaine.The analysis shows that cocaine use and infrequent cannabis use do not affect wages.Frequent cannabis use has a negative wage effect.The age of onset is also important.The earlier current cannabis users have started to use cannabis the larger the negative impact on their wage.

  7. Cannabis, Cocaine and the Wages of Prime Age Males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses a dataset collected among inhabitants of Amsterdam, to study whether wages of prime age male workers are affected by the use of cannabis and cocaine.The analysis shows that cocaine use and infrequent cannabis use do not affect wages.Frequent cannabis use has a negative wage effect.Th

  8. Aged rats are hypo-responsive to acute restraint: implications for psychosocial stress in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M Buechel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive processes associated with prefrontal cortex and hippocampus decline with age and are vulnerable to disruption by stress. The stress/ stress hormone/ allostatic load hypotheses of brain aging posit that brain aging, at least in part, is the manifestation of life-long stress exposure. In addition, as humans age, there is a profound increase in the incidence of new onset stressors, many of which are psychosocial (e.g., loss of job, death of spouse, social isolation, and aged humans are well-understood to be more vulnerable to the negative consequences of such new-onset chronic psychosocial stress events. However, the mechanistic underpinnings of this age-related shift in chronic psychosocial stress response, or the initial acute phase of that chronic response, have been less well-studied. Here, we separated young (3 mo. and aged (21 mo. male F344 rats into control and acute restraint (an animal model of psychosocial stress groups (n = 9-12/ group. We then assessed hippocampus-associated behavioral, electrophysiological, and transcriptional outcomes, as well as blood glucocorticoid and sleep architecture changes. Aged rats showed characteristic water maze, deep sleep, transcriptome, and synaptic sensitivity changes compared to young. Young and aged rats showed similar levels of distress during the three hour restraint, as well as highly significant increases in blood glucocorticoid levels 21 hours after restraint. However, young, but not aged, animals responded to stress exposure with water maze deficits, loss of deep sleep and hyperthermia. These results demonstrate that aged subjects are hypo-responsive to new-onset acute psychosocial stress, which may have negative consequences for long-term stress adaptation and suggest that age itself may act as a stressor occluding the influence of new onset stressors.

  9. Antispermatogenic activity of Morinda lucida extract in male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yinusa Raji; Olumide S. Akinsomisoye; Toyin M. Salman

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of Morinda lucida Benth (Rubiaceae) on the reproductive activity of male albino rats.respectively. The control rats received the vehicle. All the treated rats had corresponding recovery groups. At the end of each experimental period, animals were killed and organ weights, sperm characteristics, serum testosterone levels,histology of the testes and fertility were assessed. Results: Morinda lucida leaf extract did not cause any changes in body and somatic organ weights, but significantly increased the testis weight (P < 0.05). The sperm motility and viability, and the epididymal sperm counts of rats treated for 13 weeks were significantly reduced (P < 0.05). Sperm morphological abnormalities and serum testosterone levels were significantly increased (P < 0.05). There were various degrees of damage to the seminiferous tubules. The extract reduced the fertility of the treated rats by reducing the litter size. Reversal of these changes, however, occurred after a period of time. Conclusion: The extract of Morinda lucida has reversible antispermatogenic properties.

  10. Oestradiol and IGF1 reduce cell loss after global ischemia in middle-aged female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Traub, Michael L.; De Butte-Smith, Maxine; Zukin, R. Suzanne; Etgen, Anne M.

    2009-01-01

    Whereas the ability of oestradiol and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) to afford neuroprotection against ischemia-induced neuronal death in young female and male rodents is well established, the impact of IGF1 in middle-aged animals is largely unknown. This study assessed the efficacy of oestradiol and IGF1 in reducing neuronal death after transient global ischemia in middle-aged female rats following an 8-week hormone withdrawal. Rats were ovariohysterectomized (OVX) and implanted 8 weeks...

  11. The sensitivity of male rat reproductive organs to monosodium glutamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitthichai Iamsaard

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to investigate the sensitivity of the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, and sperm acrosome reaction (AR to monosodium L- glutamate (MSG in rats. Materials and methods. Rats were divided into four groups and fed with non-acidic MSG at 0.25, 3 or 6 g/kg body weight for 30 days or without MSG. The morphological changes in the reproductive organs were studied. The plasma testosterone level, epididymal sperm concentration, and sperm AR status were assayed. Results. Compared to the control, no significant changes were discerned in the morphology and weight of the testes, or the histological structures of epididymis, vas deferens and seminal vesicle. In contrast, significant decreases were detected in the weight of the epididymis, testosterone levels, and sperm concentration of rats treated with 6 g/kg body weight of MSG. The weight loss was evident in the seminal vesicle in MSG-administered rats. Moreover, rats treated with MSG 3 and 6 g/kg exhibited partial testicular damage, characterized by sloughing of spermatogenic cells into the seminiferous tubular lumen, and their plasma testosterone levels were significantly decreased. In the 6 g/kg MSG group, the sperm concentration was significantly decreased compared with the control or two lower dose MSG groups. In AR assays, there was no statistically significant difference between MSG-rats and normal rats. Conclusion. Testicular morphological changes, testosterone level, and sperm concentration were sensitive to high doses of MSG while the rate of AR was not affected. Therefore, the consumption of high dose MSG must be avoided because it may cause partial infertility in male.

  12. Maternal separation produces alterations of forebrain brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in differently aged rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong eWang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Early postnatal maternal separation (MS can play an important role in the development of psychopathologies during ontogeny. In the present study, we investigated the effects of repeated MS (4 h per day from postnatal day [PND] 1–21 on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, the nucleus accumbens (NAc and the hippocampus of male and female juvenile (PND 21, adolescent (PND 35 and young adult (PND 56 Wistar rats. The results indicated that MS increased BDNF in the CA1 and the dentate gyrus (DG of adolescent rats as well as in the DG of young adult rats. However, the expression of BDNF in the mPFC in the young adult rats was decreased by MS. Additionally, in the hippocampus, there was decreased BDNF expression with age in both the MS and socially reared rats. However, in the mPFC, the BDNF expression was increased with age in the socially reared rats; nevertheless, the BDNF expression was significantly decreased in the MS young adult rats. In the NAc, the BDNF expression was increased with age in the male NMS rats, and the young adult female MS rats had less BDNF expression than the adolescent female MS rats. The

  13. Effects of triclocarban on intact immature male rat: augmentation of androgen action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duleba, Antoni J; Ahmed, Mohamed I; Sun, Meng; Gao, Allen C; Villanueva, Jesus; Conley, Alan J; Turgeon, Judith L; Benirschke, Kurt; Gee, Nancy A; Chen, Jiangang; Green, Peter G; Lasley, Bill L

    2011-02-01

    Triclocarban (TCC; 3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanilide) is an antimicrobial agent used widely in various personal hygiene products including soaps. Recently, TCC has been shown to enhance testosterone-induced effects in vitro and to enlarge accessory sex organs in castrated male rats. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of TCC on intact age-matched male rats and on human prostate LNCaP and C4-2B cells. Seven-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats received either a normal diet or a diet supplemented with TCC (0.25% in diet) for 10 days. Triclocarban induced hyperplasia of accessory sex organs in the absence of significant qualitative histological changes. Serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone were not significantly altered by TCC treatment. In prostate cancer-derived LNCaP and C4-2B cells, TCC potentiated androgen actions via androgen receptor-dependent actions. In conclusion, TCC significantly affects intact male reproductive organs and potentiates androgen effects in prostate cancer cells. PMID:20889956

  14. Time-Course Expression Profiles of Hair Cycle-Associated Genes in Male Mini Rats after Depilation of Telogen-Phase Hairs

    OpenAIRE

    Aya Umeda-Ikawa; Isao Shimokawa; Kunio Doi

    2009-01-01

    Jcl:WistarTGN(ARGHGEN)1Nts rat (Mini rat) is a growth hormone (GH)-deficient transgenic rat. The hair cycle in the dorsal skin of male Mini rats enters a long-lasting telogen phase after eights weeks of age, but depilation can induce a transient hair cycle again. In this study, a time-course profiling of genes expression was done on the dorsal skin of male Mini rats along the progression of depilation-induced hair cycle using DNA microarray analysis. As a result, 1,215 probe sets including 1,...

  15. Males, but not females, lose tyrosine hydroxylase fibers in the medial prefrontal cortex and are impaired on a delayed alternation task during aging

    OpenAIRE

    Chisholm, Nioka C.; Kim, Taehyeon; Juraska, Janice M.

    2013-01-01

    The structure of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is particularly vulnerable to the effects of aging, and behaviors mediated by the PFC are impaired during aging in both humans and animals. In male rats, behavioral deficits have been correlated with a decrease in dopaminergic functioning. However, studies have found that anatomical changes associated with aging are sexually dimorphic, with males experiencing greater age-related loss than females. The present study investigated the effects of sex a...

  16. Glutamatergic signaling and low prodynorphin expression are associated with intact memory and reduced anxiety in rat models of healthy aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eMenard

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The LOU/C/Jall (LOU rat strain is considered a model of healthy aging due to its increased longevity, maintenance of stable body weight (BW throughout life and low incidence of age-related diseases. However, aging LOU rat cognitive and anxiety status has yet to be investigated. In the present study, male and female LOU rat cognitive performances (6-42 months were assessed using novel object recognition and Morris Water Maze tasks. Recognition memory remained intact in all LOU rats up to 42 months of age. As for spatial memory, old LOU rat performed similarly as young animals for learning acquisition, reversal learning and retention. While LOU rat BW remained stable despite aging, 20-month-old ad-libitum-fed (OAL male Sprague Dawley rats become obese. We determined if long-term caloric restriction (LTCR prevents age-related BW increase and cognitive deficits in this rat strain, as observed in the obesity-resistant LOU rats. Compared to young animals, recognition memory was impaired in OAL but intact in 20-month-old calorie-restricted (OCR rats. Similarly, OAL spatial learning acquisition was impaired but LTCR prevented the deficits. Exacerbated stress responses may favor age-related cognitive decline. In the elevated plus maze and open field tasks, LOU and OCR rats exhibited high levels of exploratory activity whereas OAL rats displayed anxious behaviors. Expression of prodynorphin (Pdyn, an endogenous peptide involved in stress-related memory impairments, was increased in the hippocampus of OAL rats. Group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 and immediate early genes Homer 1a and Arc expression, both associated with successful cognitive aging, were unaltered in aging LOU rats but lower in OAL than OCR rats. Altogether, our results, supported by principal component analysis and correlation matrix, suggest that intact memory and low anxiety are associated with glutamatergic signaling and low Pdyn expression in the hippocampus of non obese aging

  17. Effect of radiation leakage of microwave oven on viability and concentration of sperm in mature and prepuberty male rat

    OpenAIRE

    Zare D; Jelodar Gh; SS Hashemi

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: Testes are composed of very active body tissues, which can be affected by exposure to radiofrequency waves. Age of exposure may also be an important factor. This study was carried out to evaluate morphological parameters of rat sperm exposed to microwave radiation at pre and post puberty. Methods: For this experimental study, 18 adults (2 month years old) and 18 prepuberty (1 month years old) male rats were selected and each group divided in two subgroups, control and ...

  18. Age-related dendritic hypertrophy and sexual dimorphism in rat basolateral amygdala

    OpenAIRE

    Rubinow, Marisa J.; Drogos, Lauren L.; Juraska, Janice M.

    2007-01-01

    Little research has examined the influence of aging or sex on anatomical measures in the basolateral amygdala. We quantified spine density and dendritic material in Golgi-Cox stained tissue of the basolateral nucleus in young adult (3–5 months) and aged (20–24 months) male and female Long-Evans rats. Dendritic branching and spine density were measured in principal neurons. Age, but not sex, influenced the dendritic tree, with aged animals displaying significantly more dendritic material. Prev...

  19. Effect of piperine on the epididymis of adult male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. C. D'cruz; P. P. Mathur

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of piperine on the epididymal antioxidant system of adult male rats. Methods: Adult male rats were orally administered piperine at doses of 1 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg body weight each day for 30consecutive days. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, the rats were weighed and killed with ether and the epididymis was dissected from the bodies. Sperm collected from the cauda region of the epididymis was used for the assessment of its count, motility and viability. Caput, corpus and cauda regions of the epididymis were separated and homogenized separately to obtain 10 % homogenates. The supernatants were used for the assays of sialic acid,superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide generation. Results: Body weight of the piperine-treated rats remained unchanged. The weights of the caput,corpus and cauda regions of the epididymis significantly decreased at dose of 100 mg/kg. Epididymal sperm count and motility decreased at 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg, and sperm viability decreased significantly at 100 mg/kg. Sialic acid levels in the epididymis decreased significantly at 100 mg/kg while significant decrease in the cauda region alone was observed at 10 mg/kg. A significant decline in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, along with an increase in hydrogen peroxide generation and lipid peroxidation were observed at 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg. Conclusion: Piperine caused a decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and sialic acid levels in the epididymis and thereby increased reactive oxygen species levels that could damage the epididymal environment and sperm function.

  20. Effect of Leaked Radiation from Microwave Oven on Bone Marrow of Male Rats in Pre and Post Pubertal Stage

    OpenAIRE

    G Jelodar; Nazifi, S; E Adelian

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Increasing hematological diseases along with increased use of microwaves in different systems proposed possible correlation between them. Age of exposure to wave is also an important factor. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of radiation leakaged from microwave oven on hemopoitic bone marrow cells at pre and post pubertal. Methods: Fourteen male mature (2 months old) and 14 male immature rats(one month old) were randomly divided in to four groups (control and test)...

  1. The pituitary - Aging and spaceflown rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.; Grindeland, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    Decrements in growth hormone (GH) release we observed in two spaceflight experiments and four tail-suspended rat studies mimic age-associated changes in the mammalian pituitary GH system seen by Meites and others. The spaceflight data suggest that formation of high molecular weight bioactive disulfide-linked aggregates of the 20 and 22K monomeric GH forms may be reduced in microgravity, thereby, reducing target tissue activity. Correlative studies to confirm spaceflight as a model for pituitary GH system aging should include: (1) investigation of mechanisms of intracellular hormone packaging, (2) consequences to biological activity of the hormone molecule, and (3) study of intracellular microtubule dynamics.

  2. PROTECTION ROLE OF CALCIUM THERAPY IN IRRADIATED MALE ALBINO RATS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Free oxygen radicals and insufficiency of antioxidant enzymes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of radiation syndrome. The trace elements are functioning as co-factors in antioxidant enzymes. The antioxidant system and trace elements have been investigated in many different studies including tissue repair processes but this study deal with radiation injury in male albino rats.The study was carried out to investigate the beneficial role of the used metallo element as radio-protector due to its ability for chelating free radicals produced by ionizing radiation. The efficacy of daily oral treatment of rats with calcium glubionate (daily 6 mg/kg body wt) for 6 successive days to control many of the damaging effects of ionizing radiation when these rats subjected to 6 Gy whole body gamma ray were studied. The activity of catalase (CAT) and levels of total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerols (TG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum were determined. In addition, CAT activity and contents of reduced glutathione (GSH) and MDA in liver, kidney and spleen tissues of control, calcium treated, irradiated and protected rat groups were evaluated. Samples were collected from animals 24 hours after end of the Ca- glubionate treatment or exposure to gamma radiation. The data obtained revealed that, radiation exposure caused significant alterations in all tissues and serum biochemistry. On the contrary, neutralization was occurred in these biochemical aspects in protected animal groups due to Ca-glubionate treatment. In conclusion, Ca-glubionate could protect rats against biochemical alterations associated with gamma ray oxidative stress. These effects were explained in the light of the presumed different mechanisms of Ca-glubionate

  3. Persuasion Tactics Used by College Age Females on College Age Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Erika J.; Pollard, Gloria D.; Williams, Christina M.

    This paper researched persuasive tactics used by college age females on college age males. Previous evidence indicates that nonverbal persuasion is more effective than verbal persuasion. The topics explored in previous research on persuasion consisted of physical attractiveness, indirect knowledge of influence, tactics used by children and college…

  4. The Effects of Mobile Phone Radiation on Serum Level of Cortisol and Anxiety in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Ahmadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Widespread use of cell phones is the most important risk factor f human health in the age of technology. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mobile phone radiation on serum level of cortisol and changes in anxiety level in male rats. Materials and Method: In this laboratory-experimental study, the male Wistar rats were divided into control and exposed to cell phone radiation for 1h, 3h, and 6h/day, groups . After 8 weeks, Elevated Plus Maze was used for anxiety evaluation. Blood samples also were obtained using cardiac puncture method and after serum preparation, levels of cortisol were measured using ELFA method. The data were statistically analyzed using SPSS software version 19. Results: The results indicated that serum level of cortisol significantly increased in rats exposed to cell phone radiation for 6h/day compare to control animals (P < 0.05. Also the results of the elevated plus maze test showed that the percentage of time spent in open arms significantly decreased in all experimental groups compared with control rats (P< 0.001. There was also significant decrease in the percentage of entries into open arms in all experimental groups compared to control group (P< 0.001. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that the exposure to cell phone radiation results in enhanced anxiety level accompanied by increased serum level of cortisol.

  5. Prostate response to prolactin in sexually active male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Luis I

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prostate is a key gland in the sexual physiology of male mammals. Its sensitivity to steroid hormones is widely known, but its response to prolactin is still poorly known. Previous studies have shown a correlation between sexual behaviour, prolactin release and prostate physiology. Thus, here we used the sexual behaviour of male rats as a model for studying this correlation. Hence, we developed experimental paradigms to determine the influence of prolactin on sexual behaviour and prostate organization of male rats. Methods In addition to sexual behaviour recordings, we developed the ELISA procedure to quantify the serum level of prolactin, and the hematoxilin-eosin technique for analysis of the histological organization of the prostate. Also, different experimental manipulations were carried out; they included pituitary grafts, and haloperidol and ovine prolactin treatments. Data were analyzed with a One way ANOVA followed by post hoc Dunnet test if required. Results Data showed that male prolactin has a basal level with two peaks at the light-dark-light transitions. Consecutive ejaculations increased serum prolactin after the first ejaculation, which reached the highest level after the second, and started to decrease after the third ejaculation. These normal levels of prolactin did not induce any change at the prostate tissue. However, treatments for constant elevations of serum prolactin decreased sexual potency and increased the weight of the gland, the alveoli area and the epithelial cell height. Treatments for transient elevation of serum prolactin did not affect the sexual behaviour of males, but triggered these significant effects mainly at the ventral prostate. Conclusion The prostate is a sexual gland that responds to prolactin. Mating-induced prolactin release is required during sexual encounters to activate the epithelial cells in the gland. Here we saw a precise mechanism controlling the release of prolactin

  6. Food restriction modulates β-adrenergic-sensitive adenylate cyclase in rat liver during aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adenylate cyclase activities were studied in rat liver during postmaturational aging of male Fischer 344 rats fed ad libitum or restricted to 60% of the ad libitum intake. Catecholamine-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity increased by 200-300% between 6 and 24-27 mo of age in ad libitum-fed rats, whereas in food-restricted rats catecholamine response increased by only 58-84% between 6 and 30 mo. In ad libitum-fed rats, glucagon-stimulated enzyme activity also increased by 40% between 6 and 12 mo and in restricted rats a similar age-related increase was delayed until 18 mo. β-Adrenergic receptor density increased by 50% between 6 and 24 mo in livers from ad libitum-fed but not food-restricted rats and showed a highly significant correlation with maximal isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity over the postmaturational life span. Age-related increases in unstimulated (basal) adenylate cyclase activity and nonreceptor-mediated enzyme activation were retarded by food restriction. The results demonstrate that food restriction diminishes a marked age-related increase in β-adrenergic-sensitive adenylate cyclase activity of rat liver. Alterations of adrenergic-responsive adenylate cyclase with age and the modulatory effects of food restriction appear to be mediated by changes in both receptor and nonreceptor components of adenylate cyclase

  7. Dobutamine stress echocardiography in healthy adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couet Jacques

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dobutamine stress echocardiography is used to investigate a wide variety of heart diseases in humans. Dobutamine stress echocardiography has also been used in animal models of heart disease despite the facts that the normal response of healthy rat hearts to this type of pharmacological stress testing is unknown. This study was performed to assess this normal response. Methods 15 normal adult male Wistar rats were evaluated. Increasing doses of dobutamine were infused intravenously under continuous imaging of the heart by a 12 MHz ultrasound probe. Results Dobutamine stress echocardiography reduced gradually LV diastolic and systolic dimensions. Ejection fraction increased by a mean of +24% vs. baseline. Heart rate increased progressively without reaching a plateau. Changes in LV dimensions and ejection fraction reached a plateau after a mean of 4 minutes at a constant infusion rate. Conclusion DSE can be easily performed in rats. The normal response is an increase in heart rate and ejection fraction and a decrease in LV dimensions. A plateau in echocardiographic measurements is obtained after 4 minutes of a constant infusion rate in most animals.

  8. The effect of hypernatremic state on anesthesia: male Wistar rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydarpour F, Rostami A, Alipour M, Amini B, Heydarpour P

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The function of internal systems can be influenced significantly by hypernatremia, even anesthesia may be affected by this electrolyte imbalance. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a single anesthetic dose of ketamine in an experimental rat model of chronic hypernatremia. "n"nMethods: Sixty male Wistar rats, weighing 300(±20g, were allocated randomly to three groups: the control group received drinking water and test groups 1 and 2 received 1% and 2% NaCl, respectively, for 144 hours. We measured the parameters of sensitivity to the ketamine injection (125mg/kg including length of times to the inhibition of the righting reflex, inhibition of the response to painful stimulus and the times to the reappearance of the response to painful stimulus and recovery from anesthesia. We also determined the mortality rates during anesthesia. "n"nResults: The times for inhibition of the righting reflex and response to painful stimulus for group 2 were significantly shorter than those for group 1 and the control group. The times for the reappearance of response to painful stimulus and full recovery from anesthesia in group 2 were significantly longer than those of group 1 and the control group. "n"nConclusions: Hypernatremia affects ketamine anesthesia in the rat, increasing the speed of passing through the different steps of anesthesia. The duration of ketamine efficacy increases, while recovery from anesthesia is significantly delayed.

  9. Effect of pinealectomy and melatonin treatment during pregnancy on the sexual development of the female and male rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz López, B; Colmenero Urquijo, M D; Díaz Rodriguez, M E; Arce Fraguas, A; Esquifino Parras, A; Marín Fernández, B

    1995-06-01

    Sexual development of female and male rat offspring of control, pinealectomized (PIN-X) or melatonin (MEL 250 micrograms/100 g body wt)-treated mother rats during pregnancy was studied. Newborns were studied at the following phases of sexual development: neonate (5 days old), infantile (15 days old), juvenile (25 and 30 days old) and pubertal phase (55 days). In female offspring, MEL treatment during pregnancy significantly increased plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) in 15- and 25-day-old rats; however, at the end of the prepubertal period (30 days) the concentration of plasma LH decreased significantly as compared to control rats. This hormonal pattern was different from that observed in offspring of control and PIN-X rats, which had low LH levels at 25 days of age and higher LH levels at 30 days of age. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) did not vary significantly among the three groups. Plasma prolactin levels were affected by PIN-X of the mother, showing significantly higher levels in the 5-day-old offspring than in the controls; plasma prolactin levels were also affected by MEL treatment of the mother, producing hyperprolactinemia in the 30-day-old female offspring. In male offspring, sexual development in control male rats progressed rapidly with significantly increased LH and FSH levels at 25 and 30 days compared to those measured during the neonatal and infantile periods.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7788019

  10. The Effect of Two Different Modes of Exercise Swimming and Vitamin C Supplementation on Anemia Indices in Male Wistar Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Lashkari; Mohammad Ali Samavati Sharif; Kamal Ranjbar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: It has been shown that long term swimming exercise leads to anemia. Therefore the aim of the present study was the effect of vitamin C supplement and maximal and submaximal swimming exercise on anemia in without iron deficiency rats.Methods: For this purpose, 60 male wistar rats (6-8 week age and 170 -190 g weight) were divided into 6 groups: 1: Control rats (Con, n=10) 2: Vitamin C supplementation (Con+C, n=10) 3: Submaximal swimming (S, n=10) 4: Submaximal swimming + Vitamin C...

  11. Organ growth functions in maturing male Sprague-Dawley rats based on a collective database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirfazaelian, Ahmad; Fisher, Jeffrey W

    2007-06-01

    Ten different organ weights (liver, spleen, kidneys, heart, lungs, brain, adrenals, testes, epididymes, and seminal vesicles) of male Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats of different ages (1-280 d) were extracted based on a thorough literature survey database. A generalized Michaelis-Menten (GMM) model, used to fit organ weights versus age in a previous study (Schoeffner et al., 1999) based on a limited data, was used to find the best fit model for the present expanded data compilation. The GMM model has the functional form: Wt = (Wt(o).K(gamma) + Wt(max).Age(gamma))/(K(gamma) + Age(gamma)) where Wt is organ/tissue weight at a specified age, Wt(o) and Wt(max) are weight at birth and maximal growth, respectively, and K and gamma are constants. Organ weights were significantly correlated with their respective ages for all organs and tissues. GMM-derived organ growth and percent body weight (%BW) fractions of different tissues were plotted against animal age and compared with experimental values as well as previously published models. The GMM-based organ growth and %BW fraction profiles were in general agreement with our empirical data as well as with previous studies. The present model was compared with the GMM model developed previously for six organs--liver, spleen, kidneys, heart, lungs, and brain--based on a limited data, and no significant difference was noticed between the two sets of predictions. It was concluded that the GMM models presented herein for different male S-D rats organs (liver, spleen, kidneys, heart, lungs, brain, adrenals, testes, epididymes, and seminal vesicles) are capable of predicting organ weights and %BW ratios accurately at different ages. PMID:17497417

  12. Sexual dimorphism in the expression of mitochondria-related genes in rat heart at different ages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrant Vijay

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Moreover, sex and age are considered major risk factors in the development of CVDs. Mitochondria are vital for normal cardiac function, and regulation of mitochondrial structure and function may impact susceptibility to CVD. To identify potential role of mitochondria in sex-related differences in susceptibility to CVD, we analyzed the basal expression levels of mitochondria-related genes in the hearts of male and female rats. Whole genome expression profiling was performed in the hearts of young (8-week, adult (21-week, and old (78-week male and female Fischer 344 rats and the expression of 670 unique genes related to various mitochondrial functions was analyzed. A significant (p<0.05 sexual dimorphism in expression levels of 46, 114, and 41 genes was observed in young, adult and old rats, respectively. Gene Ontology analysis revealed the influence of sex on various biological pathways related to cardiac energy metabolism at different ages. The expression of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism was significantly different between the sexes in young and adult rat hearts. Adult male rats also showed higher expression of genes associated with the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex compared to females. In young and adult hearts, sexual dimorphism was not noted in genes encoding oxidative phosphorylation. In old rats, however, a majority of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation had higher expression in females compared to males. Such basal differences between the sexes in cardiac expression of genes associated with energy metabolism may indicate a likely involvement of mitochondria in susceptibility to CVDs. In addition, female rats showed lower expression levels of apoptotic genes in hearts compared to males at all ages, which may have implications for better preservation of cardiac mass in females than in males.

  13. Prenatal testosterone exposure worsen the reproductive performance of male rat at adulthood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani

    Full Text Available The reproductive system is extremely susceptible to environmental insults, for example exogenous steroids during gestational development and differentiation. Experimental induction of androgen excess during prenatal life in female animal models reprograms their reproductive physiology, however the fetal programming of the male reproductive system by androgen excess has not been well studied. We aimed to determine the effect of prenatal exposure of two different doses of testosterone on different gestational days, on the male reproductive system using a rat model. Sixteen pregnant rats were randomly divided into two experimental groups and two control groups. Experimental group І were subcutaneously injected with 3 mg free testosterone on gestational days 16-19 and its controls received solvent for that time; experimental group П were subcutaneously injected with 20 mg free testosterone on day 20 of gestational period and its controls received solvent at the same time. The reproductive system morphology and function of 32 male offspring of these study groups were compared at days 6-30-60 of age and after puberty. The anogenital distance of the male offspring of both experimental groups had no significant differences on the different days of measurement, compared with controls. In the offspring of experimental group І, the testes weight, number of Sertoli, Spermatocyte and Spermatid cells, sperm count and motility and the serum concentration of testosterone after puberty were significantly decreased; except for reduction of sperm motility (p< 0.01, the other effects were not observed in the offspring of experimental group ІІ. In summary, our data show that prenatal exposure of male rat fetuses to excess testosterone disrupted reproductive function, an effect highly dependent on the time, duration and level of exposure. It seems that the reproductive system in individuals exposed to high levels of androgens during fetal life should be

  14. Different responses to soy and estradiol in the reproductive system of prepubertal male rats and neonatal male pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concerns have been raised regarding the safety of soy infant formula based on phytochemical components such as genistein, structurally similar to estradiol (E2). To examine potential estrogenic actions on male development, we fed weanling male rats casein-based or soy protein isolate (SPI)-based die...

  15. Adrenal Steroids Uniquely Influence Sexual Motivation Behavior in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George T. Taylor

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The androgenic adrenal steroids dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and 4α-androstenedione (4-A have significant biological activity, but it is unclear if the behavioral effects are unique or only reflections of the effects of testosterone (TS. Gonadally intact male Long-Evans rats were assigned to groups to receive supplements of DHEA, 4-A, TS, corticosteroid (CORT, all at 400 µg steroid/kg of body weight, or vehicle only for 5 weeks. All males were tested in a paradigm for sexual motivation that measures time and urinary marks near an inaccessible receptive female. It was found that DHEA and 4-A supplements failed to influence time near the estrous female in the same way TS supplements did, and, indeed, 5 weeks of 4-A administration reduced the time similar to the suppressive effects of CORT after 3 weeks. Further, animals treated with DHEA or 4-A left fewer urinary marks near an estrous female than TS and control groups. These results suggest that DHEA and 4-A are not merely precursors of sex hormones, and provide support for these steroids influencing the brain and behavior in a unique fashion that is dissimilar from the effects of TS on male sexual behavior.

  16. The Effect of Aging on Erectile Function Induced by Apomorphine and Electric Field Stimulation to Rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李铮; 郑松; 向祖琼; 刘勇; 王益鑫

    2002-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect and mechanism of aging on erection by using ratmodel.Materials & Methods Forty male SD rats of 3, 9, 18 and 24 months old were divid-ed into 4 groups equally according to their age. Apomorphine given subcutaneously andcavernous nerve electric field stimulation was used to induce erection of rats.Results The successful erection rate, number of erection times, and intracavernouspressure (ICP) in the rats of 18 and 24 month old was significantly lower than that of3 and 9 month old.Conclusion The erectile function in aging rats is deteriorated. The damage mecha-nism with aging might be related to dopaminergic system in central nerves.

  17. Life cycle analysis of kidney gene expression in male F344 rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua C Kwekel

    Full Text Available Age is a predisposing condition for susceptibility to chronic kidney disease and progression as well as acute kidney injury that may arise due to the adverse effects of some drugs. Age-related differences in kidney biology, therefore, are a key concern in understanding drug safety and disease progression. We hypothesize that the underlying suite of genes expressed in the kidney at various life cycle stages will impact susceptibility to adverse drug reactions. Therefore, establishing changes in baseline expression data between these life stages is the first and necessary step in evaluating this hypothesis. Untreated male F344 rats were sacrificed at 2, 5, 6, 8, 15, 21, 78, and 104 weeks of age. Kidneys were collected for histology and gene expression analysis. Agilent whole-genome rat microarrays were used to query global expression profiles. An ANOVA (p1.5 in relative mRNA expression, was used to identify 3,724 unique differentially expressed genes (DEGs. Principal component analyses of these DEGs revealed three major divisions in life-cycle renal gene expression. K-means cluster analysis identified several groups of genes that shared age-specific patterns of expression. Pathway analysis of these gene groups revealed age-specific gene networks and functions related to renal function and aging, including extracellular matrix turnover, immune cell response, and renal tubular injury. Large age-related changes in expression were also demonstrated for the genes that code for qualified renal injury biomarkers KIM-1, Clu, and Tff3. These results suggest specific groups of genes that may underlie age-specific susceptibilities to adverse drug reactions and disease. This analysis of the basal gene expression patterns of renal genes throughout the life cycle of the rat will improve the use of current and future renal biomarkers and inform our assessments of kidney injury and disease.

  18. Increased insulin sensitivity and responsiveness of glucose metabolism in adipocytes from female versus male rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Guerre-Millo, M.; Leturque, A.; Girard, J.; Lavau, M

    1985-01-01

    This study was undertaken to examine whether there were sex-associated differences in the action of insulin on glucose metabolism in adipocytes. Insulin binding and the dose-response curves for glucose transport (assessed by measuring the cell-associated radioactivity after 15-s incubation with 50 microM [6-14C]glucose) and [U-14C]glucose (5 mM) metabolism into CO2 and lipids were compared in retroperitoneal adipocytes from age-matched (84 d) male and female rats. In addition, the activity of...

  19. Visual spatial memory is enhanced in female rats (but inhibited in males by dietary soy phytoestrogens

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    Setchell Kenneth DR

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In learning and memory tasks, requiring visual spatial memory (VSM, males exhibit superior performance to females (a difference attributed to the hormonal influence of estrogen. This study examined the influence of phytoestrogens (estrogen-like plant compounds on VSM, utilizing radial arm-maze methods to examine varying aspects of memory. Additionally, brain phytoestrogen, calbindin (CALB, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 levels were determined. Results Female rats receiving lifelong exposure to a high-phytoestrogen containing diet (Phyto-600 acquired the maze faster than females fed a phytoestrogen-free diet (Phyto-free; in males the opposite diet effect was identified. In a separate experiment, at 80 days-of-age, animals fed the Phyto-600 diet lifelong either remained on the Phyto-600 or were changed to the Phyto-free diet until 120 days-of-age. Following the diet change Phyto-600 females outperformed females switched to the Phyto-free diet, while in males the opposite diet effect was identified. Furthermore, males fed the Phyto-600 diet had significantly higher phytoestrogen concentrations in a number of brain regions (frontal cortex, amygdala & cerebellum; in frontal cortex, expression of CALB (a neuroprotective calcium-binding protein decreased while COX-2 (an inducible inflammatory factor prevalent in Alzheimer's disease increased. Conclusions Results suggest that dietary phytoestrogens significantly sex-reversed the normal sexually dimorphic expression of VSM. Specifically, in tasks requiring the use of reference, but not working, memory, VSM was enhanced in females fed the Phyto-600 diet, whereas, in males VSM was inhibited by the same diet. These findings suggest that dietary soy derived phytoestrogens can influence learning and memory and alter the expression of proteins involved in neural protection and inflammation in rats.

  20. STUDIES ON INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN MALE ALBINO RATS (RATTUS NORVEGICUS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levanox, a hepato protective drug, and garlic powder have been considered as safe anti-oxidant agents. The present investigation refers to biochemical and molecular studies to evaluate the protective role of levanox and/or garlic powder toward CCl4-induced toxicity in adult male albino rats. CCl4 intoxication was attempted using a dose of 0.03 ml/kg of rat body weight.Pre-treatment with levanox (one capsule/ kg of rat body weight, each capsule contains 100 mg catechu, 7.5 mg dandelion, 75 mg termiric 2% curcumin, 17.5 mg silymarin, 100 mg lecithin) was more effective than garlic powder (100mg/kg of rat body weight) in reducing CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity as revealed by its higher potency in reducing elevation of aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferases in serum. Serum of control rats and those treated with levanox or garlic or CCl4 produced 13 types of proteins, differing in the molecular weight (MW) and densities, while those of levanox + garlic or garlic +CCl4 produced 14 bands differing in the MW and densities. The similarity index at the epigenetic level was also studied using the primers under study. The control sample produced one amplified DNA fragment with Rf of 0.73 and a molecular size (MS) of 67 base pair (bp) . Using the same primers, no amplified DNA fragment with the same MS was produced in the sample taken from levanox + garlic treated group.OPA-2 primer of sequence 5?- AGA TGC AGC C-3? produced one amplified DNA band with MS of 292 bp and Rf of 0.46 . However, the same primer produced one amplified DNA characteristic band with a molecular size of 363 bp and Rf of 0.43 in the sample of levanox + garlic group.In the control sample, OPA-4 primer of sequence 5? - ACG CAC AAC C-3? produced one amplified DNA band of MS of 299 bp and Rf of 0.43. The same primer produced one amplified characteristic DNA band with MS of 363 bp and Rf of 0.43 in the sample of levanox + garlic group.Dual treatment with levanox and garlic powder resulted in a

  1. Effect of lead acetate toxicity on experimental male albino rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nabil M Ibrahim; Esam A Eweis; Hossam S El-Beltagi; Yasmin E Abdel-Mobdy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of different doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60 of LD50) on body weight gain, blood picture, plasma protein profile and the function of liver, kidney and thyroid gland. Methods: Male albino rats were divided into four groups, the first group represented the health control animals, while the second, third and fourth groups were ingested orally with sub lethal doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60) of the oral LD50, respectively. One dose was ingested every two days during the experimental period (14 weeks) including the adaptation time. Blood was collected and used for all analysis. Results: The results showed that, the ingestion of Pb2+ induced significant stimulation in glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT) and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminease (AST) activity. Also, total soluble protein and albumin contents of plasma were significantly decreased, while the content of globulin was changed by the Pb2+ treatments. The cholinesterase activity was inhibited, but the activities of alkaline and acid phosphates and lactate dehydrogenase were stimulated, while plasma glucose level was elevated as a result of lead acetate intoxication. In case of blood picture, Pb2+ ingestion reduced the contents of hemoglobin and RBCs count of intoxicated rat’s blood and the plasma levels of T3, T4 and blood WBCs count were decreased. Conclusions: It can be concluded that lead acetate has harmful effect on experimental male albino rats. Therefore, the present work advises people to prevent exposure to the lead compound to avoid injurious hazard risk.

  2. Histophysiological study of aluminum chloride effect on male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Al-Mallah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to detect the effects of aluminum chloride AlCl3 on some pathophysiological features of adult male rats. Eighteen rats were divided to 3 groups of 6 animals each. These included untreated control and 2 treated groups received AlCl3 at the doses 40 and 80 mg/kg of body weight, orally and daily for 30 days. The following parameters were recorded: Body weight (weekly, central nervous system activity tests (weekly, hematological examinations at 15 and 30 days of experimentally and gross and histopathology for brain, liver, kidneys and heart at the day (30. The results showed a significant decrease in body weight mean of 3rd group (80 mg/kg at 4th week, a significant decrease in the activity associated with time progress in experiment by recording (moving onset, square crossed and rearing in 3 minutes, negative geotaxis tests, there were no significant differences between groups at pack cell volume and hemoglobin concentration with a significant decrease in total leukocyte count at 2nd group (40 mg/kg. Differential leukocyte count revealed significant increase in lymphocyte at day 30. Histopathological changes were neuronal vaculation and proliferation of microgelial cells in brain, vacular degeneration and lymphocytic infiltrations in hepatic parenchyma with mild portal fibrosis in liver, at kidneys there were cloudy swelling, coagulative necrosis to the renal tubular epithelium, more severely noticed at 3rd group, no pathological changes were noticed at myocardium and coronary arteries at both treated groups.

  3. Caloric restriction increases internal iliac artery and penil nitric oxide synthase expression in rat: Comparison of aged and adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin Ozbek

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of the positive corelation between healthy cardiovascular system and sexual life we aimed to evaluate the effect of caloric restriction (CR on endothelial and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, nNOS expression in cavernousal tissues and eNOS expression in the internal iliac artery in young and aged rats. Young (3 mo, n = 7 and aged (24 mo, n = 7 male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 40% CR and were allowed free access to water for 3 months. Control rats (n = 14 fed ad libitum had free access to food and water at all times. On day 90, rats were sacrified and internal iliac arteries and penis were removed and parafinized, eNOS and nNOS expression evaluated with immunohistochemistry. Results were evaluated semiquantitatively. eNOS and nNOS expression in cavernousal tis- sue in CR rats were more strong than in control group in both young and old rats. eNOS expression was also higher in the internal iliac arteries of CR rats than in control in young and old rats. As a result of our study we can say that there is a positive link between CR and neurotransmitter of erection in cavernousal tissues and internal iliac arteries. CR has beneficial effect to prevent sexual dysfunction in young and old animals and possible humans.

  4. Impacts of prenatal nanomaterial exposure on male adult Sprague-Dawley rat behavior and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler-Chiurazzi, Elizabeth B; Stapleton, Phoebe A; Stalnaker, Jessica J; Ren, Xuefang; Hu, Heng; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R; McBride, Carroll R; Yi, Jinghai; Engels, Kevin; Simpkins, James W

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that gestational xenobiotic exposures result in systemic consequences in the adult F1 generation. However, data on detailed behavioral and cognitive consequences remain limited. Using our whole-body nanoparticle inhalation facility, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (gestational day [GD] 7) were exposed 4 d/wk to either filtered air (control) or nano-titanium dioxide aerosols (nano-TiO2; count median aerodynamic diameter of 170.9 ± 6.4 nm, 10.4 ± 0.4 mg/m(3), 5 h/d) for 7.8 ± 0.5 d of the remaining gestational period. All rats received their final exposure on GD 20 prior to delivery. The calculated daily maternal deposition was 13.9 ± 0.5 µg. Subsequently, at 5 mo of age, behavior and cognitive functions of these pups were evaluated employing a standard battery of locomotion, learning, and anxiety tests. These assessments revealed significant working impairments, especially under maximal mnemonic challenge, and possible deficits in initial motivation in male F1 adults. Evidence indicates that maternal engineered nanomaterial exposure during gestation produces psychological deficits that persist into adulthood in male rats. PMID:27092594

  5. Intrahippocampal Insulin Improves Memory in a Passive-Avoidance Task in Male Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babri, Shirin; Badie, Hamid Gholamipour; Khamenei, Saeed; Seyedlar, Mehdi Ordikhani

    2007-01-01

    The main impacts of insulin favor the peripheral organs. Although it functions as a neuropeptide, insulin possesses also some central effects. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of intrahippocampal infusion of insulin on passive avoidance learning in healthy male rats. Thirty male wistar rats were divided into three groups (n = 10…

  6. Pharmacological profiling of Argemone mexicana for its aphrodisiac potentials in male Wistar rats

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    Asuntha G

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: The EEAM has elevated sexual dysfunctions in male rats. These potentials may be related to protopine alkaloids and flavanols by means of physiological stimulus for penile vasculature. Thus, results support the use of EEAM in enhancing sexual behavior in sluggish male rats.

  7. Comparison of catalase immunoreactivity in the hippocampus between young, adult and aged mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Chen, Bai Hui; Shin, Bich-Na; Lee, Tae-Kyeong; Cho, Jeong Hwi; Kim, In Hye; Park, Joon Ha; Lee, Jae-Chul; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Choong-Hyun; Won, Moo-Ho; Lee, Yun Lyul; Choi, Soo Young; Hong, Seongkweon

    2016-07-01

    Catalase (CAT) is an important antioxidant enzyme and is crucial in modulating synaptic plasticity in the brain. In this study, CAT expression as well as neuronal distribution was compared in the hippocampus among young, adult and aged mice and rats. Male ICR mice and Sprague Dawley rats were used at postnatal month (PM) 1, PM 6 and PM 24 as the young, adult and aged groups, respectively (n=14/group). CAT expression was examined by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. In addition, neuronal distribution was examined by NeuN immunohistochemistry. In the present study, the mean number of NeuN‑immunoreactive neurons was marginally decreased in mouse and rat hippocampi during aging, although this change was not identified to be significantly different. However, CAT immunoreactivity was significantly increased in pyramidal and granule neurons in the adult mouse and rat hippocampi and was significantly decreased in the aged mouse and rat hippocampi compared with that in the young animals. CAT protein levels in the hippocampus were also lowest in the aged mouse and rat hippocampus. These results indicate that CAT expression is significantly decreased in the hippocampi of aged animals and decreased CAT expression may be closely associated with aging. PMID:27221506

  8. Age-related changes in receptor-mediated phosphoinositide hydrolysis in various regions of rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of age on cholinergic markers and receptor-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis was examined in the frontal cortex and striatum of male Fischer-344 rats. Choline acetyltransferase activity was decreased 27% in the striatum of aged rats compared to young controls. Muscarinic receptor density as measured by [3H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate binding showed a similar 26% decrease in the striatum of aged rats. Phosphoinositide hydrolysis was measured by the release of inositol phosphate (IP) from tissue slices prelabeled with [3H]myoinositol in response to carbachol, norepinephrine, and quisqualate. In the cortex, stimulated IP release was significantly greater in slices from aged rats compared to young rats for all three agonists. In contrast, stimulated IP release was significantly decreased in striatal slices from aged rats compared to young for all three agonists. These data indicate a differential effect of age on agonist-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis in the cortex and striatum. The decreased responsiveness in the latter area may result from the age-related loss of postsynaptic receptors

  9. Age effects on the pharmacokinetics of tityustoxin from Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom in rats

    OpenAIRE

    E.A. Nunan; V. Arya; G. Hochhaus; V.N. Cardoso; Moraes-Santos, T

    2004-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of scorpion venom and its toxins has been investigated in experimental models using adult animals, although, severe scorpion accidents are associated more frequently with children. We compared the effect of age on the pharmacokinetics of tityustoxin, one of the most active principles of Tityus serrulatus venom, in young male/female rats (21-22 days old, N = 5-8) and in adult male rats (150-160 days old, N = 5-8). Tityustoxin (6 µg) labeled with 99mTechnetium was administe...

  10. Respiratory modulation of sympathetic nerve activity is enhanced in male rat offspring following uteroplacental insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menuet, C; Wlodek, M E; Fong, A Y; Allen, A M

    2016-06-01

    Sympathetic nerve activity to the cardiovascular system displays prominent respiratory-related modulation which leads to the generation of rhythmic oscillations in blood pressure called Traube-Hering waves. An amplification of this respiratory modulation of sympathetic activity is observed in hypertension of both genetic, the spontaneously hypertensive rat, and induced, chronic intermittent hypoxia or maternal protein restriction during gestation, origin. Male offspring of mothers with uteroplacental insufficiency, induced by bilateral uterine vessel ligation at 18 days of gestation, are also hypertensive in adulthood. In this study we examined whether these male offspring display altered respiratory modulation of sympathetic activity at pre-hypertensive ages compared to controls. Respiratory, cardiovascular and sympathetic parameters were examined using the working heart-brainstem preparation in 35 day old male rats that had reduced birth weight due to uteroplacental insufficiency. Whilst all respiratory parameters were not different between groups, we observed an enhanced respiratory-related burst of thoracic sympathetic nerve activity and amplified Traube-Hering waves in the growth-restricted group. This group also showed an increased sympathetic and bradycardic response to activation of peripheral chemoreceptors. The observations add support to the view that altered respiratory modulation of sympathetic activity represents a common mechanism involved in the development of several forms of hypertension. PMID:26593642

  11. Effect of Thymus vulgaris oil on some reproductive characters in adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Kakel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to show the effect of thymus vulgaris oil administration at (0.3, 0.6 ml/kg orally for 60 days on male fertility and epididymal sperms characters in male rats at age of 100 days. The animals treated with thyme oil at a dose of (0.6 ml revealed a significant decrease in the weight of testes, body of epididymis, percentage of live/dead sperms and epididymyal sperm count, with a significant increase in the percentage of morphologically abnormal sperms. On the other hand the animals treated with thyme oil at a dose (0.3 ml show a significant decrease in the weight of body of epididymis, epididymal sperm count and the percentage of live/dead sperms accompanied with a significant increase in the percentage of morphologically abnormal sperms. Its concluded from this study that thymus vulgaris has an inhibitory effect on reproductive system and spermatogenesis in mature male rats.

  12. Different Effects of Testosterone on Acute and Chronic Pain in Gonadectomized Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    A Zarifkar; A Jamei; M Shariati

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Nociception and behavioral responses to noxious stimuli are different in males and females. It seems that these differences are due to the effects of sex hormones on the pain mechanisms. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of testosterone administration on nociception by formalin test in gonadectomized rats. Material & Methods: In this study 32 male wistar rats were divided into four groups (n=8) the control rats without receivi...

  13. The Establishment of Metabolic Syndrome Model by Induction of Fructose Drinking Water in Male Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Norshalizah Mamikutty; Zar Chi Thent; Shaiful Ridzwan Sapri; Natasya Nadia Sahruddin; Mohd Rafizul Mohd Yusof; Farihah Haji Suhaimi

    2014-01-01

    Background. Metabolic syndrome can be caused by modification of diet by means of consumption of high carbohydrate and high fat diet such as fructose. Aims. To develop a metabolic syndrome rat model by induction of fructose drinking water (FDW) in male Wistar rats. Methods. Eighteen male Wistar rats were fed with FDW 20% and FDW 25% for a duration of eight weeks. The physiological changes with regard to food and fluid intake, as well as calorie intake, were measured. The metabolic changes such...

  14. The effects of levamisole on urinary enzyme measurements and proximal tubule cell inclusions in male rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, G. O.; Goodwin, D A; Parsons, C. E.; Read, N G

    1988-01-01

    A markedly increased incidence of large angular secondary lysosomes was observed in the proximal tubular cells of male Wistar rats dosed orally with levamisole, 75 mg/kg body weight for 15 days. These inclusions were similar in appearance to those previously observed in male rats treated with decahydronaphthalene. Urinary enzymes were measured throughout the study, and of these enzymes lactate dehydrogenase and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase activities were higher on days 9 and 13 for rats d...

  15. Effect of Marine Collagen Peptides on Physiological and Neurobehavioral Development of Male Rats with Perinatal Asphyxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Xu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Asphyxia during delivery produces long-term deficits in brain development. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of marine collagen peptides (MCPs, isolated from Chum Salmon skin by enzymatic hydrolysis, on male rats with perinatal asphyxia (PA. PA was performed by immersing rat fetuses with uterine horns removed from ready-to-deliver rats into a water bath for 15 min. Caesarean-delivered pups were used as controls. PA rats were intragastrically administered with 0.33 g/kg, 1.0 g/kg and 3.0 g/kg body weight MCPs from postnatal day 0 (PND 0 till the age of 90-days. Behavioral tests were carried out at PND21, PND 28 and PND 90. The results indicated that MCPs facilitated early body weight gain of the PA pups, however had little effects on early physiological development. Behavioral tests revealed that MCPs facilitated long-term learning and memory of the pups with PA through reducing oxidative damage and acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity in the brain, and increasing hippocampus phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (p-CREB and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF expression.

  16. Effects of Resveratrol Supplementation on Bone Growth in Young Rats and Microarchitecture and Remodeling in Ageing Rats

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    Alice M. C. Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a highly prevalent skeletal disorder in the elderly that causes serious bone fractures. Peak bone mass achieved at adolescence has been shown to predict bone mass and osteoporosis related risk fracture later in life. Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol compound, may have the potential to promote bone formation and reduce bone resorption. However, it is unclear whether it can aid bone growth and bone mass accumulation during rapid growth and modulate bone metabolism during ageing. Using rat models, the current study investigated the potential effects of resveratrol supplementation during the rapid postnatal growth period and in late adulthood (early ageing on bone microarchitecture and metabolism. In the growth trial, 4-week-old male hooded Wistar rats on a normal chow diet were given resveratrol (2.5 mg/kg/day or vehicle control for 5 weeks. In the ageing trial, 6-month-old male hooded Wistar rats were treated with resveratrol (20 mg/kg/day or vehicle for 3 months. Treatment effects in the tibia were examined by μ-computer tomography (μ-CT analysis, bone histomorphometric measurements and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR gene expression analysis. Resveratrol treatment did not affect trabecular bone volume and bone remodeling indices in the youth animal model. Resveratrol supplementation in the early ageing rats tended to decrease trabecular bone volume, Sirt1 gene expression and increased expression of adipogenesis-related genes in bone, all of which were statistically insignificant. However, it decreased osteocalcin expression (p = 0.03. Furthermore, serum levels of bone resorption marker C-terminal telopeptides type I collagen (CTX-1 were significantly elevated in the resveratrol supplementation group (p = 0.02 with no changes observed in serum levels of bone formation marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP. These results in rat models suggest that resveratrol supplementation does not significantly affect bone

  17. Effects of Tail fat enriched diet on male Wistar rat reproductive system

    OpenAIRE

    Samira Ezi; Mehran Hosseini; Mahsa Hassanzadeh-Taheri; Farnaz Jahani; Mohammad Afshar; Mohammadmehdi Hassanzadeh-Taheri

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim: Male infertility is increasing worldwide. There is now emerging evidence that nutritional status is regarded as a critical determinant of normal reproductive function. Hence, today, the role of dietary nutrition has attracted the attention of researchers. Thus, the present study was conducted to elucidate the effects of tail fat (TF) enriched diet on male rat reproductive function. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 30 adult male Wistar rats were random...

  18. Follicle Development of Xenotransplanted Sheep Ovarian Tissue into Male and Female Immunodeficient Rats

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    Leila Sadat Tahaei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to assess follicle survival after xenotransplantation of sheep ovarian tissue into male and female immunodeficient rats. We evaluated the effects of gonadotropin treatment on follicular development in the transplanted tissue. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, sheep ovarian cortical strips were transplanted into the neck back muscles of 8 male and 8 female immunodeficient, castrated rats. Fourteen days after surgery, each rat was treated with human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG for 9 weeks. One day after the last injection, ovarian tissues were removed and fixed for histology assessment. Histology analyses were performed before and after grafting. Estradiol (E2 levels were measured before and after gonadectomy, and at the end of the experiment. The control group consisted of 7 male and 7 female noncastrated/ non-grafted rats and the sham group comprised 7 male and 7 female castrated/ non-grafted rats for comparison of serum E2 concentrations. Results: The percentage of primordial follicles decreased after transplantation in male (25.97% and female (24.14% rats compared to the control group (ovarian tissue nongrafted; 37.51%. Preantral follicles increased in the male (19.5% and female (19.49% transplanted rats compared to the control group (11.4%. Differences in antral follicles between male (0.06 ± 0.0% and female (0.06 ± 0.0% rats were not noticeable compared to control (1.25 ± 0.0% rats. We observed a significantly higher percent of mean E2 secretion in grafted males compared to grafted females (P˂0.05. Conclusion: Despite significant differences in E2 secretion between xenografted male and female rats, we observed no statistical differences in terms of follicular development.

  19. N-Acetylcysteine Prevents Programmed Hypertension in Male Rat Offspring Born to Suramin-Treated Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tain, You-Lin; Hsu, Chien-Ning; Lee, Chien-Te; Lin, Yu-Ju; Tsai, Ching-Chou

    2016-07-01

    Adulthood hypertension can be programmed by preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is associated with an imbalance in vasoactive factors, including nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and renin-angiotensin system (RAS). We examined whether maternal N-acetylcysteine (NAC) therapy prevented maternal suramin treatment-induced programmed hypertension in offspring and explored the effects of this therapy on NO, H2S, and RAS pathways in the kidneys. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were intraperitoneally administered 60 mg/kg suramin alone on Gestational Days 10 and 11 and were treated with or without 1% NAC through drinking water during the entire pregnancy and lactation period. Male offspring were divided into four groups (n = 8-10/group): control, suramin, NAC, and suramin plus NAC. All rat offspring were euthanized at 12 wk of age. Maternal suramin treatment induced programmed hypertension in male offspring, which was prevented by maternal NAC therapy. Suramin-induced programmed hypertension was associated with increased plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, an NO synthase inhibitor) level, decreased plasma l-arginine-to-ADMA ratio, and decreased renal dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (an ADMA-metabolizing enzyme) activity. Protective effects of NAC against suramin-induced programmed hypertension were associated with an increase in plasma glutathione level, increase in renal 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase level, and restoration of suramin-induced reduction in H2S synthesis in the kidneys. Suramin treatment exerted negligible effect on the RAS pathway in the adult male offspring kidneys. Our data suggested interplay among suramin, ADMA-NO pathway, and H2S synthesis pathway in programmed hypertension. Furthermore, NAC administration in pregnant rats with hypertension prevented programmed hypertension in adult offspring. PMID:27251093

  20. The relative age effect in the Spanish elite male handball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Sánchéz Rodríguez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The birth in different quarters of the year involved differences regarding maturational development in handball players, which may influence the selection, development and consolidation in the elite in handball. This study sought to investigate the relative age effect in elite male handball players in Spain. To do this, data of birth and specific position of 586 players were analyzed, who participe in the League ASOBAL in seasons between 2003-04 and 2008-09. Comparisons and differences were studied by 2 tests and Z.Analysis of results revealed a higher percentage of players born in the first quarter, significant differences were confirmed in spanish players. Specifically, the highest percentages of players born in the first months of the year were the specific positions of the first offensive line and the goalkeeper.In conclusion, the results seem to confirm a relative effect of age on the players analyzed. The nationality and specific positions have a significant relationship with this.Keys words:  RAE, professional, birth date, detection, selection, talent.

  1. Enhanced Post-Ischemic Neurogenesis in Aging Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Yao-Fang; Preston, Edward; Wojtowicz, J. Martin

    2010-01-01

    Hippocampal neurogenesis persists in adult mammals, but its rate declines dramatically with age. Evidence indicates that experimentally-reduced levels of neurogenesis (e.g., by irradiation) in young rats has profound influence on cognition as determined by learning and memory tests. In the present study we asked whether in middle-aged, 10- to 13-months-old rats, cell production can be restored toward the level present in young rats. To manipulate neurogenesis we induced bilateral carotid occl...

  2. Male brain ages faster: the age and gender dependence of subcortical volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Király, András; Szabó, Nikoletta; Tóth, Eszter; Csete, Gergő; Faragó, Péter; Kocsis, Krisztián; Must, Anita; Vécsei, László; Kincses, Zsigmond Tamás

    2016-09-01

    Effects of gender on grey matter (GM) volume differences in subcortical structures of the human brain have consistently been reported. Recent research evidence suggests that both gender and brain size influences volume distribution in subcortical areas independently. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of the interplay between brain size, gender and age contributing to volume differences of subcortical GM in the human brain. High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired from 53 healthy males and 50 age-matched healthy females. Total GM volume was determined using voxel-based morphometry. We used model-based subcortical segmentation analysis to measure the volume of subcortical nuclei. Main effects of gender, brain volume and aging on subcortical structures were examined using multivariate analysis of variance. No significant difference was found in total brain volume between the two genders after correcting for total intracranial volume. Our analysis revealed significantly larger hippocampus volume for females. Additionally, GM volumes of the caudate nucleus, putamen and thalamus displayed a significant age-related decrease in males as compared to females. In contrast to this only the thalamic volume loss proved significant for females. Strikingly, GM volume decreases faster in males than in females emphasizing the interplay between aging and gender on subcortical structures. These findings might have important implications for the interpretation of the effects of unalterable factors (i.e. gender and age) in cross-sectional structural MRI studies. Furthermore, the volume distribution and changes of subcortical structures have been consistently related to several neuropsychiatric disorders (e.g. Parkinson's disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, etc.). Understanding these changes might yield further insight in the course and prognosis of these disorders. PMID:26572143

  3. Pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats due to age-related arginase activation in intermittent hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, Akina; Nagai, Hisashi; Shintani-Ishida, Kaori; Ogura, Sayoko; Shimosawa, Tatsuo; Kuwahira, Ichiro; Shirai, Mikiyasu; Yoshida, Ken-ichi

    2015-08-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is prevalent in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Aging induces arginase activation and reduces nitric oxide (NO) production in the arteries. Intermittent hypoxia (IH), conferred by cycles of brief hypoxia and normoxia, contributes to OSAS pathogenesis. Here, we studied the role of arginase and aging in the pathogenesis of PAH in adult (9-mo-old) and young (2-mo-old) male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to IH or normoxia for 4 weeks and analyzed them with a pressure-volume catheter inserted into the right ventricle (RV) and by pulsed Doppler echocardiography. Western blot analysis was conducted on arginase, NO synthase isoforms, and nitrotyrosine. IH induced PAH, as shown by increased RV systolic pressure and RV hypertrophy, in adult rats but not in young rats. IH increased expression levels of arginase I and II proteins in the adult rats. IH also increased arginase I expression in the pulmonary artery endothelium and arginase II in the pulmonary artery adventitia. Furthermore, IH reduced pulmonary levels of nitrate and nitrite but increased nitrotyrosine levels in adult rats. An arginase inhibitor (N(ω)-hydroxy-nor-1-arginine) prevented IH-induced PAH and normalized nitrite and nitrate levels in adult rats. IH induced arginase up-regulation and PAH in adult rats, but not in young rats, through reduced NO production. Our findings suggest that arginase inhibition prevents or reverses PAH. PMID:25490411

  4. Anti-aggressive effects of neuropeptide S independent of anxiolysis in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela I Beiderbeck

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptide S (NPS exerts robust anxiolytic and memory enhancing effects, but only in a non-social context. In order to study whether NPS affects aggressive behavior we used Wistar rats bred for low (LAB and high (HAB levels of innate anxiety-related behaviour, respectively, which were both described to display increased levels of aggression compared with Wistar rats not selectively bred for anxiety (NAB. Male LAB, HAB and NAB rats were tested for aggressive behavior towards a male intruder rat within their home cage (10 min, resident-intruder [RI] test. Intracerebroventricular (icv infusion of NPS (1 nmol significantly reduced inter-male aggression in LAB rats, and tended to reduce aggression in HAB and NAB males. However, local infusion of NPS (0.2 or 0.1 nmol NPS into either the nucleus accumbens or the lateral hypothalamus did not influence aggressive behavior. Social investigation in the RI test and general social motivation assessed in the social preference paradigm were not altered by icv NPS. The anti-aggressive effect of NPS is most likely not causally linked to its anxiolytic properties, as intraperitoneal administration of the anxiogenic drug pentylenetetrazole decreased aggression in LAB rats whereas the anxiolytic drug diazepam did not affect aggression of HAB rats. Thus, although NPS has so far only been shown to exert effects on non-social behaviors, our results are the first demonstration of anti-aggressive effects of NPS in male rats.

  5. Effect of honey on the reproductive system of male rat offspring exposed to prenatal restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haron, M N; Mohamed, M

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to prenatal stress is associated with impaired reproductive function in male rat offspring. Honey is traditionally used by the Malays for enhancement of fertility. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of honey on reproductive system of male rat offspring exposed to prenatal restraint stress. Dams were divided into four groups (n = 10/group): control, honey, stress and honey + stress groups. Dams from honey and honey + stress groups received oral honey (1.2 g kg(-1) body weight) daily from day 1 of pregnancy, meanwhile dams from stress and honey + stress groups were subjected to restraint stress (three times per day) from day 11 of pregnancy until delivery. At 10 weeks old, each male rat offspring was mated with a regular oestrus cycle female. Male sexual behaviour and reproductive performance were evaluated. Then, male rats were euthanised for assessment on reproductive parameters. Honey supplementation during prenatal restraint stress significantly increased testis and epididymis weights as well as improved the percentages of abnormal spermatozoa and sperm motility in male rat offspring. In conclusion, this study might suggest that supplementation of honey during pregnancy seems to reduce the adverse effects of restraint stress on reproductive organs weight and sperm parameters in male rat offspring. PMID:26289766

  6. Partner preference behavior of estrous female rats affected by castration of tethered male incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekman, M; de Bruin, M; Smeenk, J; Slob, A K; van der Schoot, P

    1988-09-01

    Estrous female rats were allowed to interact with either of two tethered intact male rats or to stay in an empty middle part of a three-compartment observation cage during a 60-min test. Sexual interactions occurred with both males (resulting in one to five ejaculations) but most time was spent in the empty compartment. After castration of one of the males, females spent more time with this male than with the intact male, although sexual interactions continued with both incentive animals. This "preference" for the castrated male persisted through the second hour of observation in a second experiment (total test time 115 min) although sexual interactions had virtually ceased during this period. Females' preference for castrated males seemed largely the consequence of aversion to genital stimulation received during intromissions by intact animals: (a) when intromissions were prevented through vaginal occlusion, intact males became by far the preferred partners for the whole 2-hr period of testing while sexual behavior continued to occur throughout the test; (b) when choice was allowed between a testosterone-treated ovariectomized female and an intact male, sexual interaction occurred with both tethered incentive rats but the female became the preferred animal. The results suggest that two opposite tendencies play a role in sexual motivation of estrous female rats: attraction resulting from the action of ovarian hormones on the central nervous system and rejection resulting from genital sensory stimulation through the male's genitalia. PMID:3169698

  7. Effects on atrial fibrillation in aged hypertensive rats by Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, Jonas Goldin; Skibsbye, Lasse; Jespersen, Thomas;

    2011-01-01

    We have shown previously that inhibition of small conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (SK) channels is antiarrhythmic in models of acutely induced atrial fibrillation (AF). These models, however, do not take into account that AF derives from a wide range of predisposing factors, the most prevalent...... being hypertension. In this study we assessed the effects of two different SK channel inhibitors, NS8593 and UCL1684, in aging, spontaneously hypertensive rats to examine their antiarrhythmic properties in a setting of hypertension-induced atrial remodeling. Male spontaneously hypertensive rats and the...... normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rat strain were divided in 2×3 groups of animals aged 3, 8, and 11 months, respectively. The animals were randomly assigned to treatment with NS8593, UCL1684, or vehicle, and open chest in vivo experiments including burst pacing-induced AF were performed. The aging spontaneously...

  8. DEVELOPMENTAL ATRAZINE EXPOSURE SUPPRESSES IMMUNE FUNCTION IN MALE, BUT NOT FEMALE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental Atrazine Exposure Suppresses Immune Function in Male, but not Female Sprague-Dawley Rats Andrew A. Rooney,*,1 Raymond A. Matulka,? and Robert Luebke? *College of Veterinary Medicine, Anatomy, Physiological Sciences and Radiology, NCSU, Raleigh, North...

  9. Evaluation of the excopula ejaculatory potentials of Bersama engleriana in spinal male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pierre Watcho; Miguel Carro-Juarez

    2009-01-01

    tive ejaculation in spinal male rat is mediated through dopaminergic and oxytocinergic pathways. This prolonged ejaculatory latency caused by B. Engleriana could support its potential use in patients with rapid ejaculation.

  10. Aldosterone metabolism in the isolated perfused liver of female and male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sex-dependent metabolism of aldosterone has been reported in intact rats. To further characterize the hepatic elimination of aldosterone and its sex dependence, the metabolism of d-[4-14C]aldosterone was studied in isolated perfused liver from male and female Wistar rats, from male rats castrated 3 weeks before experiments, and from younger male rats (same body weight as the female rats). The livers were perfused at a constant flow rate in a recirculating mode with a hemoglobin-free medium containing aldosterone at initially 1 nM. Perfusate aldosterone was measured by a specific RIA. Total 4-14C radio-activity in perfusate and bile was determined. The perfusate [4-14C]aldosterone radiometabolite concentration was calculated. The radiometabolite pattern in additional experiments was studied by HPLC. The male rats exhibited 10% higher systolic blood pressure (P less than 0.05) and 51% higher fasting values of plasma aldosterone (P less than 0.05) compared to those in the female rats. In female rats the hepatic clearance rate of aldosterone per 100 g BW was 72% higher than that in male rats (11.2 +/- 2.7 to 6.5 +/- 1.8 ml/min: P less than 0.01), and that expressed per g liver wet wt was 75% higher (3.5 +/- 1.0 to 2.0 +/- 0.7 ml/min; P less than 0.01). When female rats were compared to younger male rats with the same body weight, 33% higher hepatic aldosterone clearance rates were still found in female rats (21.0 +/- 5.4 to 15.8 +/- 3.2 ml/min; P less than 0.05), and 51% higher values when expressed per g liver wet wt (3.5 +/- 1.0 to 2.3 +/- 0.5 ml/min; P less than 0.01). No difference in the aldosterone clearance rate was observed in castrated male rats compared to that in noncastrated male rats. 4-14C-Labeled radiometabolite levels accumulated similarly in the perfusate of livers of both sexes

  11. Antinociceptive Effect of Hydroalcoholic Leaf Extract of Hedera helix in Male Rat

    OpenAIRE

    shahidi, S.; S. Mohammadi; Mahmoudi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: The consumption of chemical compounds and medicinal herbs are different ways to control pain. On the other hand, the complications of chemical drugs and their expensiveness cause people to use herbal medicines The aim of this study was to inves-tigate the antinociceptive effect of hydroalcoholic leaf extract of Hedera helix in male rats. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, 36 adult male rats were divided into 6 groups: control, morphine (1mg/kg), Hedera ...

  12. Effects of pomegranate juice on insulin and glucose in diabetic and non-diabetic male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Elham Rezaei; , Seyyed Ebrahim Hosseini; Davood Mehrabani

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim: Diabetes is one of the diseases resulting from defects in insulin secretion or action. Pomegranate juice is a nutrient used in the treatment of some diseases in traditional medicine. Thus, the present study investigated the effects of pomegranate juice on blood glucose and insulin levels in adult male rats. Materials and Methods: The present study was an empirical one in which 90 adult male Wistar rats, weighing 200 to 220 g each, were randomly divided into five groups ...

  13. Adolescent male rats exposed to social defeat exhibit altered anxiety behavior and limbic monoamines as adults

    OpenAIRE

    Watt, Michael J.; Burke, Andrew R.; Renner, Kenneth J.; Forster, Gina L.

    2009-01-01

    Social stress in adolescence is correlated with emergence of psychopathologies during early adulthood. In this study, we investigated the impact of social defeat stress during mid-adolescence on adult male brain and behavior. Adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to repeated social defeat for five days while controls were placed into a novel empty cage. When exposed to defeat-associated cues as adults, previously defeated rats showed increased risk assessment and behavioral inhibit...

  14. Protective effects of Radix Pseudostellariae polysaccharides against exercise-induced oxidative stress in male rats

    OpenAIRE

    CHEN, ZICHAO; Li, Shanshan; Wang, Xiaoqin; ZHANG, CHUAN LONG

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the effect of Radix Pseudostellariae polysaccharides (RPPs) against swimming exercise-induced oxidative stress in male rats. A total of 40 male Wistar rats were randomized into four groups: the control (C), low-dose RPP supplementation (LRS), medium-dose RPP supplementation (MRS) and high-dose RPP supplementation (HRS) groups. The control group received saline solution and the supplementation groups received different doses of RPPs (100, 200 and 4...

  15. Physiological Changes Induced by Long Term Administration of Saccharin Compared with Aspartame to Male Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Abdallah, Inas Z. A.

    2002-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners have been in use by food industries for a long time. Safety concerns raised about artificial sweeteners since they are widely used nowadays. The present work aims to study the possible changes in body weight, blood picture, liver functions, blood glucose and liver glycogen content as wel as histopathological changes induced in liver and urinary bladder of male albino rats after administration of two artificial sweeteners (saccharin or aspartame). Male rats were administe...

  16. Anti Lithiasis Activity of Avocado (Persea americana Mill) Leaves Extract in White Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    IETJE WIENTARSIH; RINI MADYASTUTI; BAYU FEBRAM PRASETYO; ANGGARA ALDOBRATA

    2012-01-01

    In Indonesia, avocado leaves have been used as traditional medicines for diureticum to cure urolithiasis. This research was to determine anti lithiasis activity of avocado leaves (Persea americana Mill) extract on white male rats nefrolithiasis model induced by ethylene glycol. Ethanol extraction method was used to get extract of avogadro leaves. Twenty adult male white rats were divided into 4 different induction treatments i.e. aquadest, ethylene glycol 0.75% and ammonium chloride 2%, and e...

  17. Enhanced post-ischemic neurogenesis in aging rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EdwardPreston

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal neurogenesis persists in adult mammals, but its rate declines dramatically with age. Evidence indicates that experimentally-reduced levels of neurogenesis (e.g. by irradiation in young rats has profound influence on cognition as determined by learning and memory tests. In the present study we asked whether in middle-aged, 10-13 months old rats, cell production can be restored towards the level present in young rats. To manipulate neurogenesis we induced bilateral carotid occlusion with hypotension. This procedure is known to increase neurogenesis in young rats, presumably in a compensatory manner, but until now, has never been tested in aging rats. Cell production was measured at 10, 35 and 90 days after ischemia. The results indicate that neuronal proliferation and differentiation can be transiently restored in middle-aged rats. Furthermore, the effects are more pronounced in the dorsal as opposed to ventral hippocampus thus restoring the dorso-ventral gradient seen in younger rats. Our results support previous findings showing that some of the essential features of the age-dependent decline in neurogenesis are reversible. Thus, it may be possible to manipulate neurogenesis and improve learning and memory in old age.

  18. Features of intervertebral disc degeneration in rat's aging process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin-gang ZHANG; Zheng-ming SUN; Jiang-tao LIU; Shi-jie WANG; Feng-ling REN; Xiong GUO

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The age-related change is important part of degenerative disc disease. However, no appropriate animal model or objective evaluation index is available. This study aimed to investigate the features of intervertebral disc degeneration in aging process of rats. Methods: 22-month-old Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used as spontaneously occurring intervertebral disc degeneration models and 6-month-old rats as young controls. Expression of collagen types Ⅱ and Ⅹ was measured by immunohistochemistry. Degenerations of intervertebral discs were scored according to Miyamoto's method. Numbers and areas of afferent vascular buds were measured. The thicknesses of non-calcified and calcified layers were measured and statistically analyzed.Results: There were less collagen type Ⅱ expression and more collagen type Ⅹ expression in the calcified layer of the cartilage endplates and nucleus pulposus in the rats of the aged group than in the young control. There were fewer and smaller afferent vascular buds in the rats of the aged group than in the young control group. The ratio of the non-calcified to the calcified layers in the rats of the aged group significantly decreased, compared with that of the young control group (P<0.01). Conclusion: Rats can spontaneously establish intervertebral disc age-related degeneration. The expression of collagen types Ⅱ and Ⅹ, numbers and areas of afferent vascular buds, the ratio of the non-calcified to the calcified layers, and water and glycosaminoglycan contents in the nucleus pulposus are sensitive indexes of intervertebral disc degeneration.

  19. Recovery of lead-induced suppressed reproduction in male rats by testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshma Anjum, M; Sreenivasula Reddy, P

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of testosterone in recuperation of lead-induced suppressed reproduction in adult male rats. Lead acetate was administered orally to adult male rats (95 ± 5 days) at dosage level of 0.05 and 0.15% for 55 days through drinking water and injected intraperitoneally with either testoviron depot at a dose of 4.16 mg kg(-1) body weight or vehicle alone on days 1, 7 and 14 respectively. At the end of treatment, control and treated males were cohabited with untreated normal-cycling females. After cohabitation for 5 days, all the male rats were killed and weights of reproductive organs were determined. Significant increase in the indices of testis, epididymis, seminal vesicles, vas deferens and prostate glands was observed in testosterone (T)-treated rats when compared to those of lead-exposed rats. Testosterone treatment significantly increased epididymal sperm count, motile spermatozoa, viable spermatozoa and HOS tail-coiled spermatozoa and also the activity levels of testicular 3β- and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases when compared to those of lead-exposed males. From the results, it can be hypothesised that supplementation of testosterone mitigated lead-induced suppressed reproduction in male rats. PMID:24909355

  20. Gestational chronic mild stress: Effects on acoustic startle in male offspring of rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, K.S.; Mandrup, Karen; Kjaer, S.L.;

    2011-01-01

    from dams exposed to chronic mild stress (CMS) during gestation. In humans, decreased PPI has been reported to be associated with anxiety. Because of its potential translational value across species, the modulation of startle reactivity may be a useful tool in examining altered emotional reactivity......An increasing number of scientific studies indicate that maternal stress during pregnancy influences fetal development of the nervous system and thereby the behavioural phenotype. We have previously reported attenuated prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reaction in adult female rats derived...... following prenatal insults. The present study aimed at investigating whether prenatally stressed male offspring would display altered startle phenotype. Stress was induced by maternal gestational exposure to alternating procedures, i.e. CMS. At the age of 3 months, half of the offspring were blood sampled...

  1. Neurofunctional Evaluation of Young Male Offspring of Rat Dams with Diabetes Induced by Streptozotocin

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Delascio Lopes; Rita Sinigaglia-Coimbra; Jacqueline Mazzola; Luiz Camano; Rosiane Mattar

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex disease, being one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide. As a consequence, pregnancy-associated diabetes is increasingly common. Given the numerous studies about the influence of diabetes on offspring of diabetic rat dams, the neurological outcome is of outmost importance. This paper aimed at evaluating the neurofunctional performance of young male offspring of rat dams with diabetes induced by streptozotocin. Diabetes was induced in Wistar female rats ...

  2. 'When an old rat smells a cat': A decline in defense-related, but not accessory olfactory, Fos expression in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Glenn E; Van Nieuwenhuijzen, Petra S; Chan-Ling, Tailoi; McGregor, Iain S

    2011-04-01

    Comparisons were made between young (3-6 months) and aged (20-30 months) Wistar rats on locomotor activity, emergence, social interaction and cat odor avoidance. Aged rats were less active and spent less time in the open field during the emergence test than younger rats. Older rats also showed fewer contacts with a novel conspecific in the social interaction test, although total duration of interaction did not differ. There were very few behavioral differences between male and female rats. Older rats were less reactive than younger rats in a test of cat odor avoidance. However, they expressed similar amounts of cat odor-induced Fos in the posterior accessory olfactory bulb, a critical region for processing the predator odor stimulus. Older rats had reduced Fos expression in several defense-related brain regions that are normally activated by predator odors such as the medial amygdala and dorsal premammillary nucleus. These results indicate that aged rats are less reactive than younger rats to predator odors due to decreased responsiveness in defense-related but not necessarily olfactory circuits. PMID:19394115

  3. Dietary isoflavones alter regulatory behaviors, metabolic hormones and neuroendocrine function in Long-Evans male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu Lihong

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytoestrogens derived from soy foods (or isoflavones have received prevalent usage due to their 'health benefits' of decreasing: a age-related diseases, b hormone-dependent cancers and c postmenopausal symptoms. However, little is known about the influence of dietary phytoestrogens on regulatory behaviors, such as food and water intake, metabolic hormones and neuroendocrine parameters. This study examined important hormonal and metabolic health issues by testing the hypotheses that dietary soy-derived isoflavones influence: 1 body weight and adipose deposition, 2 food and water intake, 3 metabolic hormones (i.e., leptin, insulin, T3 and glucose levels, 4 brain neuropeptide Y (NPY levels, 5 heat production [in brown adipose tissue (BAT quantifying uncoupling protein (UCP-1 mRNA levels] and 6 core body temperature. Methods This was accomplished by conducting longitudinal studies where male Long-Evans rats were exposed (from conception to time of testing or tissue collection to a diet rich in isoflavones (at 600 micrograms/gram of diet or 600 ppm vs. a diet low in isoflavones (at approximately 10–15 micrograms/gram of diet or 10–15 ppm. Body, white adipose tissue and food intake were measured in grams and water intake in milliliters. The hormones (leptin, insulin, T3, glucose and NPY were quantified by radioimmunoassays (RIA. BAT UCP-1 mRNA levels were quantified by PCR and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis while core body temperatures were recorded by radio telemetry. The data were tested by analysis of variance (ANOVA (or where appropriate by repeated measures. Results Body and adipose tissue weights were decreased in Phyto-600 vs. Phyto-free fed rats. Food and water intake was greater in Phyto-600 animals, that displayed higher hypothalamic (NPY concentrations, but lower plasma leptin and insulin levels, vs. Phyto-free fed males. Higher thyroid levels (and a tendency for higher glucose levels and increased uncoupling

  4. Time-Course Expression Profiles of Hair Cycle-Associated Genes in Male Mini Rats after Depilation of Telogen-Phase Hairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Umeda-Ikawa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Jcl:WistarTGN(ARGHGEN1Nts rat (Mini rat is a growth hormone (GH-deficient transgenic rat. The hair cycle in the dorsal skin of male Mini rats enters a long-lasting telogen phase after eights weeks of age, but depilation can induce a transient hair cycle again. In this study, a time-course profiling of genes expression was done on the dorsal skin of male Mini rats along the progression of depilation-induced hair cycle using DNA microarray analysis. As a result, 1,215 probe sets including 1,171 hair cycle-related ones showed more than 3-fold changes in expression compared with that in before-depilation telogen phase. The present data will contribute to elucidating the mechanisms of hair cycle regulation and should lead to the identification of novel molecular targets for hair growth and/or depilation agents.

  5. Efficacy of Female Rat Models in Translational Cardiovascular Aging Research

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, K.M.; J. C. Fannin; Gillette, C.; E. R. Blough

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women in the United States. Aging is a primary risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease as well as cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Aging is a universal process that all humans undergo; however, research in aging is limited by cost and time constraints. Therefore, most research in aging has been done in primates and rodents; however it is unknown how well the effects of aging in rat models translate into h...

  6. Effect of methanol extract of Ricinus communis seed on reproduction of male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yinusa Raji; Ahmed Kolade Oloyo; Ayodele Olufemi Morakinyo

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of methanol extract of Ricinus communis seed (RCE) on male rats reproductive functions. Methods: Thirty-two male albino rats were divided into four groups. Groups 1, 2 and 3 were gavaged with 0.2 mL of 2.5 % tween 80 (RCE vehicle; control) or 20 mg/(kg.d) and 40 mg/(kg.d) of RCE, respectively, for 30 days, and group 4 was also gavaged with 40 mg/(kg·d) of RCE, but was allowed a recovery periold of 30 days.Five untreated female rats were cohabited with male rats in each group from day 25 of RCE treatment for 5 days,except group 4, where cohabitation began on day 25 of the recovery period. All male rats were sacrificed 24 h after the experiments. The female rats were laparatomized on day 19 of pregnancy and the number and weight of litters were recorded. Results: There was a significant decrease (P < 0.01) in the weight of the reproductive organs,sperm functions and serum levels of testosterone in RCE treated rats. There was disorganization in the cytoarchitecture of the testes, disruption of the seminiferous tubules and erosion of the germinal epithelium. The number and weight of litters of rats in groups 2 and 4 decreased significantly (P < 0.05) but no changes were observed in group 3. RCE caused no changes in liver, kidney, heart or body weights in male rats. Conclusion: RCE has a reversible negative impact on male reproductive functions, which appears to be mediated via gonadal disruption in testosterone secretion.

  7. A reliable morphological method to assess the age of male Anopheles gambiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Killeen Gerry F

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Release of genetically-modified (GM or sterile male mosquitoes for malaria control is hampered by inability to assess the age and mating history of free-living male Anopheles. Methods Age and mating-related changes in the reproductive system of male Anopheles gambiae were quantified and used to fit predictive statistical models. These models, based on numbers of spermatocysts, relative size of sperm reservoir and presence/absence of a clear area around the accessory gland, were evaluated using an independent sample of mosquitoes whose status was blinded during the experiment. Results The number of spermatocysts in male testes decreased with age, and the relative size of their sperm reservoir increased. The presence of a clear area around accessory glands was also linked to age and mating status. A quantitative model was able to categorize males from the blind trial into age groups of young (≤ 4 days and old (> 4 days with an overall efficiency of 89%. Using the parameters of this model, a simple table was compiled that can be used to predict male age. In contrast, mating history could not be reliably assessed as virgins could not be distinguished from mated males. Conclusion Simple assessment of a few morphological traits which are easily collected in the field allows accurate age-grading of male An. gambiae. This simple, yet robust, model enables evaluation of demographic patterns and mortality in wild and released males in populations targeted by GM or sterile male-based control programmes.

  8.  The Effect of Amantadine on Clomipramine Induced Sexual Dysfunction in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Kumar Eswar

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available  Objective: Several studies have reported that Clomipramine has the ability to suppress male rat sexual behavior. Literature indicatesthat the activation of brain D2 receptors causes facilitation of penile erection, and a number of reports have indicated dopamine’s involvement in sexual function. Hence this study was undertaken to investigate the effect of Amantadine, a dopamine agonists on the Clomipramine induced sexual dysfunction. Methods: The study subjects involved a total of 48 males and 48 females, 4 months old Sprague-Dawley albino rats, all housed in a group of six males and females separately in plexi glass cages in an acclimatized colony room (25±0.50C maintained on a 12/12 hr light/dark cycle. The male rats were randomly divided into four groups of 12 male rats each. Group I served as controls. Group II, III, and IV were treated with Amantadine (9 mg/kg body weight, p.o 30 min, prior to the treatment with 13.5 mg/kg, 27 mg/Kg and 54 mg/Kg bodyweight p.o of Clomipramine respectively for 60 days. The control group received vehicle 1 ml/kg p.o. The sexual behavior of the male rats was observed to determine the following parameters: mount latency, intromission latency, ejaculation latency, post ejaculatory pause, and intromission frequency. As well as the sexual behavior; serum testosterone and histopathology of the testes were also investigated in this study. Results: The results indicate that Amantadine in all aspects failed to antagonize Clomipramine induced sexual dysfunction in male rats. Even the sexual competence of male rats treated with 1/2 therapeutic dose (TD of Clomipramine failed to regain their sexual competence in the presence of Amantadine. Testicular damage and decline in testosterone levels continued in the presence of Amantadine. Conclusion: Overall, the results suggest that Amantadine could not be a safe antidote to antagonize Clomipramine induced sexual dysfunction.

  9. Effect of Fixed Oil of Nigella Sativa on Male Fertility in Normal and Hyperlipidemic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    A.E. Samir Bashandy

    2007-01-01

    High plasma level of cholesterol or triglycerides was associated with poor semen quality and direct adverse effects on testicular function that may lead to male infertility. The effect of fixed oil of Nigella sativa (N. sativa) on male fertility in normal and hyperlipidemic rats was studied. Induction of hyperlipidemia was done by feeding rats on a diet containing 1% cholesterol, 2% sheep fat and 0.5% cholic acid for 2 months. Oil of N. sativa was orally given (0.5mL/rat) for 2 months daily t...

  10. Developmental toxicity of toluene in male rats: effects on semen quality, testis morphology, and apoptotic neurodegeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, M.; Hossaini, A.; Hougaard, K.S.;

    2001-01-01

    In one study, pregnant Wistar rats were exposed to 1200 ppm toluene by inhalation 6 h a day from gestational day (GD) 7 to postnatal day (PND) 18. Sperm analysis was performed in the adult male offspring at PND 110 bp using computer-assisted sperm analysis. Toluene if id not affect the semen...... quality of exposed rats. In another study, pregnant rats were exposed to 1800 ppm from GD 7 to GD 20, and the male offspring were killed at PND 11, 21 or 90. Paired testes weight, histopathology and immunoexpression of vimentin in Sertoli cells were used as markers of testis toxicity. In the brain, the...

  11. Lifespan Changes in the Countermanding Performance of Young and Middle Aged Adult Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuk, Jonathan; Beninger, Richard J; Paré, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory control can be investigated with the countermanding task, which requires subjects to make a response to a go signal and cancel that response when a stop signal is presented occasionally. Adult humans performing the countermanding task typically exhibit impaired response time (RT), stop signal response time (SSRT) and response accuracy as they get older, but little change in post-error slowing. Rodent models of the countermanding paradigm have been developed recently, yet none have directly examined age-related changes in performance throughout the lifespan. Male Wistar rats (N = 16) were trained to respond to a visual stimulus (go signal) by pressing a lever directly below an illuminated light for food reward, but to countermand the lever press subsequent to a tone (stop signal) that was presented occasionally (25% of trials) at a variable delay. Subjects were tested in 1 h sessions at approximately 7 and 12 months of age with intermittent training in between. Rats demonstrated longer go trial RT, a higher proportion of go trial errors and performed less total trials at 12, compared to 7 months of age. Consistent SSRT and post-error slowing were observed for rats at both ages. These results suggest that the countermanding performance of rats does vary throughout the lifespan, in a manner similar to humans, suggesting that rodents may provide a suitable model for behavioral impairment related to normal aging. These findings also highlight the importance of indicating the age at which rodents are tested in countermanding investigations. PMID:27555818

  12. Lifespan Changes in the Countermanding Performance of Young and Middle Aged Adult Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuk, Jonathan; Beninger, Richard J.; Paré, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory control can be investigated with the countermanding task, which requires subjects to make a response to a go signal and cancel that response when a stop signal is presented occasionally. Adult humans performing the countermanding task typically exhibit impaired response time (RT), stop signal response time (SSRT) and response accuracy as they get older, but little change in post-error slowing. Rodent models of the countermanding paradigm have been developed recently, yet none have directly examined age-related changes in performance throughout the lifespan. Male Wistar rats (N = 16) were trained to respond to a visual stimulus (go signal) by pressing a lever directly below an illuminated light for food reward, but to countermand the lever press subsequent to a tone (stop signal) that was presented occasionally (25% of trials) at a variable delay. Subjects were tested in 1 h sessions at approximately 7 and 12 months of age with intermittent training in between. Rats demonstrated longer go trial RT, a higher proportion of go trial errors and performed less total trials at 12, compared to 7 months of age. Consistent SSRT and post-error slowing were observed for rats at both ages. These results suggest that the countermanding performance of rats does vary throughout the lifespan, in a manner similar to humans, suggesting that rodents may provide a suitable model for behavioral impairment related to normal aging. These findings also highlight the importance of indicating the age at which rodents are tested in countermanding investigations. PMID:27555818

  13. Comparison of the acute hematotoxicity of 2-butoxyethanol in male and female F344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanayem, B I; Ward, S M; Chanas, B; Nyska, A

    2000-03-01

    Administration of 2-butoxyethanol (BE) to rodents causes acute hemolytic anemia, and metabolic activation of BE to butoxyacetic acid (BAA) is required for the development of this effect. Recent studies have shown that female rats treated with BE exhibit a variety of histopathologic lesions that are absent in males and many of these lesions are attributed to the hemolytic effects of BE. Current studies were designed to compare the acute hematotoxicity of BE in male and female F344 rats. Rats were treated with 250 mg BE/kg body weight or water (control; 5 ml/kg) by gavage. At 4, 8, or 24 h after dosing, rats were anesthetized, blood was collected by cardiac puncture, and various blood parameters were measured. BE resulted in a time-dependent swelling of erythrocytes as evidenced by an early increase in hematocrit (Hct) and mean cell volume (MCV) in male rats. In contrast, increased Hct in female rats did not accompany an increase in MCV. It is likely that hemolysis was so severe at 4 h that Hct exhibited a decline in female rats at that time point. Subsequently, red blood cell (RBCs), hemoglobin concentration (Hgb), and Hct declined as hemolysis progressed. However, the onset of BE-induced hemolysis was faster in female compared to male rats. These effects were also associated with a significant increase in the spleen weight to body weight ratio. Blood smears were also prepared and morphological changes evaluated by light microscopy included stomatocytosis, spherocytosis, and schistocytosis. Furthermore, aggregation of RBCs in female rats as evidenced by increased formation of rouleaux was observed at 24 h after BE administration. These effects were observed earlier and more frequently in female rats. No differences in the sensitivity of RBCs obtained from male and female rats and exposed to butoxyacetic acid (BAA) in vitro was observed as determined by measuring the packed cell volume. In conclusion, these data suggest that female rats are more sensitive to

  14. Comparison of the Adulthood Chronic Stress Effect on Hippocampal BDNF Signaling in Male and Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niknazar, Somayeh; Nahavandi, Arezo; Peyvandi, Ali Asghar; Peyvandi, Hassan; Akhtari, Amin Shams; Karimi, Mohsen

    2016-08-01

    Studies show that gender plays an important role in stress-related disorders, and women are more vulnerable to its effect. The present study was undertaken to investigate differences in the change in expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and its tyrosine intracellular kinase-activating receptor (TrkB) genes in the male and female rats' hippocampus (HPC) under chronic mild repeated stress (CMRS) conditions. In this experiment, male and female Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: the CMRS and the control group. To induce stress, a repeated forced swimming paradigm was employed daily for adult male and female rats for 21 days. At the end of the stress phase, elevated plus maze (EPM) was used for measuring the stress behavioral effects. Serum corticosterone level was measured by ELISA. BDNF and TrkB gene methylation and protein expression in the HPC were detected using real-time PCR and Western blotting. Chronic stress in the adolescence had more effects on anxiety-like behavior and serum corticosterone concentration in female rats than males. Furthermore, stressed female rats had higher methylation levels and following reduced protein expression of BDNF but not TrkB compared to stressed male rats. These findings suggest that in exposure to a stressor, sex differences in BDNF methylation may be root cause of decreased BDNF levels in females and may underlie susceptibility to pathology development. PMID:26189832

  15. The Sex Attractant Pheromone of Male Brown Rats: Identification and Field Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, Stephen; Gries, Regine; Zhai, Huimin; Gries, Gerhard

    2016-05-10

    Trapping brown rats is challenging because they avoid newly placed traps in their habitat. Herein, we report the identification of the sex pheromone produced by male brown rats and its effect on trap captures of wild female brown rats. Collecting urine- and feces-soiled bedding material of laboratory-kept rats and comparing the soiled-bedding odorants of juvenile and adult males, as well as of adult males and females, we found nine compounds that were specific to, or most prevalent in, the odor profiles of sexually mature adult males. When we added a synthetic blend of six of these compounds (2-heptanone, 4-heptanone, 3-ethyl-2-heptanone, 2-octanone, 2-nonanone, 4-nonanone) to one of two paired food-baited trap boxes, these boxes attracted significantly more laboratory-strain female rats in laboratory experiments, and captured ten times more wild female rats in a field experiment than the corresponding control boxes. Our data show that the pheromone facilitates captures of wild female brown rats. PMID:27060700

  16. Effect of Lepidium meyenii (maca) roots on spermatogenesis of male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gustavo F. Gonzales; Ana Ruiz; Carla Gonzales; Leon Villegas; Amanda Cordova

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To determine the effect of oral administration of an aqueous extract from the roots of Lepidium meyenii (maca)on spermatogenesis in adult male rats. Methods: Male rats received an aqueous extract of the root (66.7 mg in one mL) twice a day for 14 consecutive days. Results: Treatment with Lepidium meyenii resulted in an increase in the weights of testis and epididymis but not the seminal vesicle weight. The length and frequency of stages IX-XIV seminiferous tubules, where mitosis occurred, were increased and stages Ⅰ-Ⅵ were reduced in rats treated with Lepidium meyenii. Conclusion: The Lepidium meyenii root invigorates spermatogenesis in male rats by acting on its initial stages (IX-XIV).

  17. Perinatal taurine exposure programs patterns of autonomic nerve activity responses to tooth pulp stimulation in adult male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khimsuksri, Sawita; Wyss, J. Michael; Thaeomor, Atcharaporn; Paphangkorakit, Jarin; Jirakulsomchok, Dusit; Roysommuti, Sanya

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal taurine excess or deficit influences adult health and disease, especially relative to the autonomic nervous system. This study tests the hypothesis that perinatal taurine exposure influences adult autonomic nervous system control of arterial pressure in response to acute electrical tooth pulp stimulation. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed normal rat chow with 3% β-alanine (taurine depletion, TD), 3% taurine (taurine supplementation, TS) or water alone (control, C) from conception to weaning. Their male offspring were fed normal rat chow and tap water throughout the experiment. At 8–10 weeks of age, blood chemistry, arterial pressure, heart rate and renal sympathetic nerve activity were measured in anesthetized rats. Age, body weight, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, plasma electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen, plasma creatinine and plasma cortisol were not significantly different among the three groups. Before tooth pulp stimulation, low (0.3–0.5 Hz) and high frequency (0.5–4.0 Hz) power spectral densities of arterial pressure were not significantly different among groups, while the power spectral densities of renal sympathetic nerve activity were significantly decreased in TD compared to control rats. Tooth pulp stimulation did not change arterial pressure, heart rate, renal sympathetic nerve and arterial pressure power spectral densities in the 0.3–4.0 Hz spectrum or renal sympathetic nerve firing rate in any group. In contrast, perinatal taurine imbalance disturbed very low frequency power spectral densities of both arterial pressure and renal sympathetic nerve activity (below 0.1 Hz), both before and after the tooth pulp stimulation. The power densities of TS were most sensitive to ganglionic blockade and central adrenergic inhibition, while those of TD were sensitive to both central and peripheral adrenergic inhibition. The present data indicate that perinatal taurine imbalance can lead to aberrant autonomic nervous system responses in

  18. A role for puberty in water maze performance in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willing, Jari; Drzewiecki, Carly M; Cuenod, Bethany A; Cortes, Laura R; Juraska, Janice M

    2016-08-01

    Adolescence is characterized by neuroanatomical changes that coincide with increased cognitive performance. This developmental period is particularly important for the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which mediates higher-order cognitive functioning. The authors' laboratory has shown that puberty is associated with sex-specific changes in neuron number and the dendritic tree in the rat mPFC, but the effects of pubertal onset on cognitive performance remain relatively unexplored. Here, we use a water maze task to assess spatial memory for the location of an escape platform, followed by a test of reversal learning, when the platform is moved to an alternate quadrant in the maze. For both males and females, 2 groups of prepubertal animals were tested (postnatal day [P]30 and P33 for females, P40 and P43 for males), along with 1 group of newly (2 days) postpubertal animals and 1 group of young adults (P60). There were no group differences in learning the initial location of the platform or when the platform location changed, although grouping pre- and postpubertal ages did result in significantly better performance in postpubertal animals. In addition after the platform location changed, individual prepubertal males and females spent a significantly greater percentage of time in the quadrant of the maze where the platform was formerly located than the postpubertal animals. This collectively implies that pubertal onset in both males and females coincides with improved performance on a reversal task, which may be linked with the neuroanatomical changes occurring in the mPFC during this time. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27054406

  19. Differentiation in boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain: A BNCT approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain after boron carrier injection (0.005 g Boric Acid+0.005 g Borax+10 ml distilled water, pH: 7.4) was studied in this research. Coronal sections of control and trial animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Using alpha autoradiography, significant differences in boron concentration were seen in forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain sections of male and female animal groups with the highest value, four hours after boron compound injection. - Highlights: ► Boron distribution in male and female rats' normal brain was studied in this research. ► Coronal sections of animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. ► Alpha and Lithium tracks were counted using alpha autoradiography. ► Different boron concentration was seen in brain sections of male and female rats. ► The highest boron concentration was seen in 4 h after boron compound injection.

  20. Effects of Microdesmis keayana roots on sexual behavior of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamblé, A; Sahpaz, S; Brunet, C; Bailleul, F

    2008-08-01

    In the present study, the aphrodisiac properties of Microdesmis keayana J. Léonard root extract and major isolated alkaloids were evaluated by observing the sexual behavior of male rats. Aqueous extract (150mg/kg body weight) and pure alkaloids (3mg/kg body weight) were administered orally by gavage to male rats. Latent times of observation, intromission and ejaculation, mounting behavior, number of intromissions and mating performances were evaluated and compared to those obtained with untreated rats in the presence of receptive and non-receptive females. The results have shown that aqueous extract and alkaloids of M. keayana stimulate sexual parameters in rats' sexual behavior. A short-term toxicity study undertaken to establish the therapeutic index of aqueous extract, showed that a high dose of the extract (2g/kg body weight) caused no mortality or changes in rats' behavior. PMID:18061417

  1. Studies On The Effect of Selenium And Vitamin (E) on Irradiated Male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present work is to investigate the protective role of intraperitoneally administered selenium and/or vitamin E on γ- radiation induced injury in adult male albino rats. Male albino rats(120-140 gm), were divided into the following groups:1- Control group: consisted of 10 rats. 2- Irradiated group: consisted of 10 rats exposed to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose level of 6 (Gy). 3- Injected -irradiated group: consisted of 90 rats intraperitoneally administered with selenium (Na2SeO3) at a dose level of 0.2 mg/Kg body weight or with vitamin E (di-αtocopheryl acetate) at a dose level of 10 mg/kg body weight or with combined dose of selenium and vitamin E (0.2 mg/Kg body weight + 10 mg/Kg body weight)

  2. Curcumin alters motor coordination but not total number of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum of adolescent male Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ginus Partadiredja; Sutarman; Taufik Nur Yahya; Christiana Tri Nuryana; Rina Susilowati

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:The present study aimed at investigating the effects of curcumin on the motor coordination and the estimate of the total number of cerebellar Purkinje cells of adolescent Wistar rats exposed to ethanol.METHODS:The total of 21 male Wistar rats aged 37 d old were divided into three groups,namely ethanol,ethanol-curcumin,and control groups.The ethanol group received 1.5 g/kg ethanol injected intraperitoneally and water given per oral; the ethanol-curcumin group received 1.5 g/kg ethanol injected intraperitoneally and curcumin extract given per oral; the control group received saline injection and oral water.The treatment was carried out daily for one month,after which the motor coordination performance of the rats was examined using revolving drum apparatus at test days 1,8,and 15.The rats were finally sacrificed and the cerebellum of the rats was further processed for stereological analysis.The estimate of the total number of Purkinje cells was calculated using physical fractionator method.RESULTS:The ethanol-curcumin group performed better than both ethanol and control groups in the motor coordination ability at day 8 of testing (P< 0.01).No Purkinje cell loss was observed as a result of one month intraperitoneal injection of ethanol.CONCLUSION:Curcumin may exert beneficial effects on the motor coordination of adolescent rats exposed to ethanol via undetermined hormetic mechanisms.

  3. Male chimpanzees' grooming rates vary by female age, parity, and fertility status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proctor, Darby P; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steve;

    2011-01-01

    males' preferences were based on interactions among females' fertility status, age, and parity. First, grooming increased with increasing female parity. We further found an effect of the estrous cycle on grooming; when females were at the lowest point of their cycle, males preferentially groomed parous...... females at peak reproductive age, but during maximal tumescence, males preferred the oldest multiparous females. Nulliparous females received relatively little grooming regardless of age or fertility. Thus, male chimpanzees apparently chose grooming partners based on both female's experience and fertility...

  4. Aging differentially affects male and female neural stem cell neurogenic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Waldron

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Jay Waldron1, Althea McCourty1, Laurent Lecanu1,21The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Canada; 2Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, CanadaPurpose: Neural stem cell transplantation as a brain repair strategy is a very promising technology. However, despite many attempts, the clinical success remains very deceiving. Despite clear evidence that sexual dimorphism rules many aspects of human biology, the occurrence of a sex difference in neural stem cell biology is largely understudied. Herein, we propose to determine whether gender is a dimension that drives the fate of neural stem cells through aging. Should it occur, we believe that neural stem cell sexual dimorphism and its variation during aging should be taken into account to refine clinical approaches of brain repair strategies.Methods: Neural stem cells were isolated from the subventricular zone of three- and 20-month-old male and female Long-Evans rats. Expression of the estrogen receptors, ERα and ERβ, progesterone receptor, androgen receptor, and glucocorticoid receptor was analyzed and quantified by Western blotting on undifferentiated neural stem cells. A second set of neural stem cells was treated with retinoic acid to trigger differentiation, and the expression of neuronal, astroglial, and oligodendroglial markers was determined using Western blotting.Conclusion: We provided in vitro evidence that the fate of neural stem cells is affected by sex and aging. Indeed, young male neural stem cells mainly expressed markers of neuronal and oligodendroglial fate, whereas young female neural stem cells underwent differentiation towards an astroglial phenotype. Aging resulted in a lessened capacity to express neuron and astrocyte markers. Undifferentiated neural stem cells displayed sexual dimorphism in the expression of steroid receptors, in particular ERα and ERβ, and the expression level of several steroid receptors increased

  5. Effects of Exercise on Memory Consolidation and Retrieval of Passive Avoidance Learning In Young Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadati

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Previous studies have shown that physical activity improves learning and memory. Present study was performed to determine the effects of short term and long term treadmill exercise on learning, memory consolidation and retrieval of passive avoidance learning in an animal model. Methods In this study fifty male Wistar rats with 3-4 months of age were randomly divided into five groups (n=10 in each group. Control group was trained in passive avoidance box and was tested 10 min, 24 hr, 10 days and 3 months later. Two groups exercised on treadmill one hour at 17 m. min for 10 days and 3 months respectively and then were trained in passive avoidance box and were tested 10 min and 24 hr later. The other two groups were trained and were tested 10 days and 24 hr later and then exercised on treadmill as same as other exercised groups. Results Obtained results showed that short-term (10 days and long-term (3 months treadmill running before training by passive avoidance test had significant (P=0.006 and P=0.001 respectively effects on memory consolidation. However, no significant difference was observed between latency time of rats before and after exercise in exercised groups retrieval (P>0.05. Conclusion Our results showed that physical activity promoted learning and memory consolidation but it did not affect retrieval memory performance.

  6. Peer influence on speeding behaviour among male drivers aged 18 and 28

    OpenAIRE

    Møller, Mette; HAUSTEIN, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    Despite extensive research, preventive efforts and general improvements in road safety levels, the accident risk of young male drivers remains increased. Based on a standardized survey of a random sample of 2,018 male drivers at the age of 18 and 28, this study looked into attitudes and behaviours related to traffic violations of male drivers. More specifically, the role of peer influence on speeding was examined in both age groups. In regression analyses it could be shown that the descriptiv...

  7. A reliable morphological method to assess the age of male Anopheles gambiae

    OpenAIRE

    Killeen Gerry F; Ng'habi Kija R; Huho Bernadette J; Nkwengulila Gamba; Knols Bart GJ; Ferguson Heather M

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Release of genetically-modified (GM) or sterile male mosquitoes for malaria control is hampered by inability to assess the age and mating history of free-living male Anopheles. Methods Age and mating-related changes in the reproductive system of male Anopheles gambiae were quantified and used to fit predictive statistical models. These models, based on numbers of spermatocysts, relative size of sperm reservoir and presence/absence of a clear area around the accessory gland...

  8. A reliable morphological method to assess the age of male Anopheles gambiae

    OpenAIRE

    Huho, B J; Ng'habi, K.R.; Kileen, G.F.; Nkwengulila, G.; Knols, B.G.J.; Ferguson, H.M.

    2006-01-01

    Background Release of genetically-modified (GM) or sterile male mosquitoes for malaria control is hampered by inability to assess the age and mating history of free-living male Anopheles. Methods Age and mating-related changes in the reproductive system of male Anopheles gambiae were quantified and used to fit predictive statistical models. These models, based on numbers of spermatocysts, relative size of sperm reservoir and presence/absence of a clear area around the accessory gla...

  9. Systemic Inflammatory Responses and Lung Injury following Hip Fracture Surgery Increases Susceptibility to Infection in Aged Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Zhang; Tiansheng Sun; Zhi Liu; Jianzheng Zhang; Xiaowei Wang; Jia Liu

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary infections frequently occur following hip fracture surgery in aged patients. However, the underlying reasons are not fully understood. The present study investigates the systemic inflammatory response and pulmonary conditions following hip fracture surgery as a means of identifying risk factors for lung infections using an aged rodent model. Aged, male Sprague-Dawley rats (8 animals per group) underwent a sham procedure or hip fracture plus femoral intramedullary pinning. Animals we...

  10. Relation of cigarette smoking in males of different ages to sex hormone binding globulin and testosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship of cigarette smoking, age, total testosterone free testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were examined by solid phase radioimmunoassay in 90 randomly chosen healthy males of different ages. The serum levels of these hormones were investigated for smokers compared with non-smokers, of the same ages in 3 groups (adolescent males, middle aged males, and old aged males). Results indicated that cigarette smokers showed increased serum levels of testosterone (60.0% higher, P> 0.05), free testosterone (51.0 higher, P > 0.005) in young adolescent males group, testosterone (27.8% higher, P > 0.001), free testosterone (21.3% higher, P > 0.001) in middle aged males group, and testosterone (21.0% higher, P > 0.001), free testosterone (16.8% higher, P > 0.4) in old ages males group. SHBG was calculated as a mean of free and total testosterone in each group. smokers showed higher mean values of SHBG than non-smokers. Age was positively associated with serum SHBG, it was found that SHBG increased by 17.2% from the youngest (> 18 years) to the oldest age (> 65 years)

  11. Different Effects of Testosterone on Acute and Chronic Pain in Gonadectomized Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zarifkar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Nociception and behavioral responses to noxious stimuli are different in males and females. It seems that these differences are due to the effects of sex hormones on the pain mechanisms. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of testosterone administration on nociception by formalin test in gonadectomized rats. Material & Methods: In this study 32 male wistar rats were divided into four groups (n=8 the control rats without receiving any drug or surgical operation, the sham – operated animals with surgical stress, the gonadectomized rats receiving 0.5 ml vehicle (olive oil i.p., and the gonadectomized rats receiving testosterone enantate (6 mg/100 gr body weight in 0.5 ml vehicle i.p.. On the sixth day after gonadectomy operation, formalin test was done in all rats. Pain scores in formalin test were statistically analyzed by SPSS and ANOVA. Results: The results showed that testosterone caused an increase in pain score in acute phase of formalin test in gonadectomized rats compared with sham-operated group (p<0.001. However, pain score in chronic phase was significantly reduced in testosterone received rats (p<0.001. Conclusion: It can be concluded that testosterone increases nociception in acute phase of formalin test in gonadectomized rats. On the other hand, testosterone relieved pain during chronic phase. Anti-nociceptive effects of testosterone in chronic phase may be through central nervous system by interacting with endogenous pain modulatory systems

  12. Estrogen has opposing effects on vascular reactivity in obese, insulin-resistant male Zucker rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Asplund, Esther M.; Shoukas, Artin A.; Kim, Soon-Yul; Burke, Sean A.; Berkowitz, Dan E.

    2002-01-01

    We hypothesized that estradiol treatment would improve vascular dysfunction commonly associated with obesity, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance. A sham operation or 17beta-estradiol pellet implantation was performed in male lean and obese Zucker rats. Maximal vasoconstriction (VC) to phenylephrine (PE) and potassium chloride was exaggerated in control obese rats compared with lean rats, but estradiol significantly attenuated VC in the obese rats. Estradiol reduced the PE EC50 in all groups. This effect was cyclooxygenase independent, because preincubation with indomethacin reduced VC response to PE similarly in a subset of control and estrogen-treated lean rats. Endothelium-independent vasodilation (VD) to sodium nitroprusside was similar among groups, but endothelium-dependent VD to ACh was significantly impaired in obese compared with lean rats. Estradiol improved VD in lean and obese rats by decreasing EC50 but impaired function by decreasing maximal VD. The shift in EC50 corresponded to an upregulation in nitric oxide synthase III protein expression in the aorta of the estrogen-treated obese rats. In summary, estrogen treatment improves vascular function in male insulin-resistant, obese rats, partially via an upregulation of nitric oxide synthase III protein expression. These effects are counteracted by adverse factors, such as hyperlipidemia and, potentially, a release of an endothelium-derived contractile agent.

  13. Effect of intermittent treatment with tamoxifen on reproduction in male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. K. Gill-Sharma; N. Balasinor; P. Parte

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To identify the antifertility effect of intrmittent oral administration of tamoxifen in male rat. Methods:Tamoxifen was administered orally at a dose of 0.4 mg@kg- 1@ d-1 with an intermittent regime for 120 days. Treated and control rats were mated with cycling female rats on days 60, 90 and 120 of treatment. The mated males were sacri riced and the weights of reproductive organs were recorded, and the semm levels of LH, FSH, testosterone and estradi ol estimated by radioimmunoassay. In the female rats, the numbers of implantation sites, corpora lutea, and numbers of normal and resorbed foetuses were recorded on d 21 of gestation. The potency, fecundity, fertility index, litter size and post-implantation loss were then calculated. Results: The fecundity of male rats was completely suppressed by tamoxifen while the potency was maintained at the control level. The fertility index was significantly decreased. No vi able litters were sired. Post implantation loss, indicative of non-viable embryos, was observed but was not significantly increased above the control level. The weights of the testes, epididymides, ventral prostate and seminal vesicles were significantly reduced. The blood LH and testosterone levels were significantly decreased, but not FSH and estradiol.Conclusion: Intermittent oral tarnoxifen administration completely suppressed the fecundity of adult male rats with reserved potency.

  14. Cohabitation between male rats after ejaculation: effects on conditioned partner preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibrian-Llanderal, Tamara; Triana-Del Rio, Rodrigo; Tecamachaltzi-Silvaran, Miriam; Pfaus, James G; Manzo, Jorge; García, Luis I; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2014-04-10

    Male rats display a conditioned ejaculatory preference for females that bear olfactory cues associated with ejaculation+the postejaculatory interval (PEI), or with the PEI alone. This indicates that exposure to a partner during the PEI is necessary and sufficient 'for the development of conditioned sexual partner preference. In the present study we examined the effect of cohabitation between two males during the PEI on the possible development of same-sex partner preference. Males first copulated with an ovariectomized, E+P primed female to one ejaculation and were immediately removed from the female's chamber and placed in another chamber with a conspecific male scented with almond odor as a conditioned stimulus (CS+). Cohabitation lasted for 1 h and started immediately after ejaculation in the PEI group and 7h later in the control group. Conditioning occurred daily for a total of ten trials with different females, but cohabitation during the PEI occurred always with the same stimulus male partner. On trial 11, males were tested for social partner preference with two stimulus male partners. One was the familiar scented male and the other an unfamiliar unscented male. Results indicated that males did not develop any social or sexual preference for the male associated with the PEI. In fact, rats from the PEI group interacted significantly less with the scented male as compared to the unscented male, and displayed more agonistic behaviors towards the scented male than towards the unscented male. These data show that conditioned same-sex preference does not develop as a result of cohabitation during the PEI. We discuss the implications for conditioned hostility in intrasexual competition. PMID:24548684

  15. Nitric oxide synthase inhibition ameliorates nicotine-induced sperm function decline in male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    IP Oyeyipo; Y Raji; AdeyomboF Bolarinwa

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effects of inhibiting nitric oxide synthase as a means of intervention in nicotine-induced infertility in male rats.Methods:Forty-eight male and thirty female Wistar rats (180-200 g) were randomly assigned to six groups and treated orally for 30 days with saline (control), nicotine (0.5 mg/kg, 1.0 mg/kg) with or without NG Nitro-L-Arginine Methyl Ester (L- NAME, 50 mg/kg). Treated male rats were cohabited with untreated females in ratio 1:2 for fertility studies. Sperm analysis was done by microscopy. Results:There was a significant decrease in the epididymal sperm motility and count after nicotine treatment. However, the percentage of abnormality significantly increased in nicotine treatment groups. Fertility studies revealed that nicotine reduced libido in male rats and decreased litter weight and number delivered by the untreated female during the experiments. Co-treatment with L-NAME effectively reversed the nicotine-mediated alterations in the sperm functional parameters, fertility indexes and hormone when compared to nicotine only.Conclusion: Taken together, the present data indicate the abilities of L-NAME to ameliorate nicotine-induced spermatotoxic effects in male rats via a mechanism dependent on the circulating testosterone level.

  16. Pharmacological profiling of Argemone mexicana for its aphrodisiac potentials in male Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Asuntha G; Prasanna Raju Y; Harini Chowdary V; Vandana KR; Arun Rasheed; Prasad KVSRG

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study the aphrodisiac potentials of ethanol extract of Argemone mexicana L. (A. mexicana) of Papaveraceae family in sexually sluggish male Wistar rats. Methods:The sexually inactive male rats were divided into two groups of 8 rats each. The test group animals were treated with ethanol extract of A. mexicana (EEAM) at 1 g/kg daily oral dose for 28 days. Other group animals were treated with sildenafil citrate at an oral dose of 5 mg/kg. The latencies of mount, intromission, ejaculation;post ejaculatory pause and frequencies of mount, intromission, and ejaculation were measured on 0, 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th days. Serum testosterone levels were estimated using ELISA. Results: The EEAM was nonlethal even at dose of 4.0 g/kg. The oral dosing of EEAM has significantly enhanced the orientation of males towards female by increase in ano-genital investigatory behavior, frequencies of mount, intromission, and ejaculation (P< 0.01). The latencies of mount, intromission and ejaculation were significantly decreased (P<0.05). The EEAM has produced marked variation in sexual behavior characteristics and was able to elevate the serum testosterone levels (P<0.01) on par to that of sildenafil citrate. Conclusion: The EEAM has elevated sexual dysfunctions in male rats. These potentials may be related to protopine alkaloids and flavanols by means of physiological stimulus for penile vasculature. Thus, results support the use of EEAM in enhancing sexual behavior in sluggish male rats.

  17. Protective effects of estrogens and caloric restriction during aging on various rat testis parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khaled Hamden; Dorothee Silandre; Christelle Delalande; Abdelfattah ElFek; Serge Carreau

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of 17β-estradiol (E2), Peganum harmala extract (PHE) and caloric restriction (CR) on various testis parameters during aging. Methods: Twelve-month-old male rats were treated for 6 months with either E2 or PHE, or submitted to CR (40%). Results: Our results show that estrogens and CR are able to protect the male gonad by preventing the decrease of testosterone and E2 levels as well as the decrease of aromatase and estrogen receptor gene expressions. Indeed, E2, PHE and CR treatments induced an increase in the superoxide dismutase activities and decreased the activity of testicular enzymes: gamma-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate deshydrogenase as well as the aspartate and lactate transaminases in aged animals. In addition, the testicular catalase and gluthatione peroxidase activities were enhanced in E2, PHE and CR-treated rats compared to untreated animals at 18 months of age. Moreover, the positive effects of estradiol, PHE and CR were further supported by a lower level of lipid peroxidation. Recovery of spermatogenesis was recorded in treated rats. Conclusion: Besides a low caloric diet which is beneficial for spermatogenesis, a protective antioxydant role of estrogens is suggested. Estrogens delay testicular cell damage, which leads to functional senescence and, therefore, estrogens are helpful in protecting the reproductive functions from the adverse effects exerted by reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in large quanti-ties in the aged testis.

  18. Acai fruit improves motor and cognitive function in aged rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aged rats show impaired performance on motor and cognitive tasks that require the use of spatial learning and memory. In previous studies, we have shown the beneficial effects of various berry fruits (blueberries, strawberries, and blackberries) in reversing age-related deficits in behavioral and ne...

  19. Steroidogenesis in fetal male rats is reduced by DEHP and DINP, but endocrine effects of DEHP are not modulated by DEHA in fetal, prepubertal and adult male rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Ladefoged, Ole; Hass, Ulla;

    2004-01-01

    with DEHA and DINP have led to the hypothesis that similarities inaction may also exist. Pregnant Wistar rats were gavaged during gestation and lactation with vehicle, DEHP (300 or 750 mg/kg bodyweight per day), DINP (750 mg/kg bodyweight per day), DEHP (750 mg/kg bodyweight per day) in combination......The plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) exhibits antiandrogenic effects in perinatally exposed male rats. Di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) and diisononyl phthalate (DINP) are currently being evaluated as potential substitutes for DEHP, but similarities in structure and metabolism of DEHP...

  20. Effects of long-term ethanol consumption on jejunal lipase and disaccharidase activities in male and female rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi-Chang Huang; Jiun-Rong Chen; Chieh-Chung Liu; Kung-Tung Chen; Ming-Jer Shieh; Suh-Ching Yang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of long-term ethanol consumption on jejunal lipase and disaccharidase (sucrase, maltase,and lactase) activities in rats and its gender difference. METHODS: Age-matched male and female Wistar rats were fed control or ethanol-containing liquid diets for 12 wk following the Lieber-DeCarli model. According to both theplasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities, 40 rats were divided into four groups as follows: male control group (MC), male ethanol group (ME), female control group (FC), and female ethanol group (FE).RESULTS: After ethanol feeding for 12 wk, the results revealed that plasma AST and ALT activities of group MEwere significantly increased by 58% and 92%, respectively,than those of group MC (P<0.05). Similarly, plasma AST and ALT activities of group FE were also significantly increased by 61% and 188%, respectively, than those of group FC (P<0.05). Fat accumulation was observed in both ethanol treated groups, while fatty changes were more severe in group FE than those in group ME. The induction of hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) was obviously seen in group ME and group FE, but was not detected in group MC and group FC. Jejunal lipase activity of group ME was significantly increased by 1.25-fold than that of group MC (P<0.05). In contrast to, sucrase, maltase, and lactase activities of group ME were significantly decreased by 63%, 62% and 67%, respectively, than those of group MC (P<0.05). Similarly, activities of these three enzymes of group FE were also significantly decreased by 43%, 46% and 52%, respectively, than those of group FC (P<0.05).There were no significant epithelial changes of the duodenal mucosa in any group.CONCLUSION: Long-term ethanol consumption significantly can increase jejunal lipase and decrease jejunal disaccharidase activities in both male and female rats.

  1. Physical and motor development in male and female rat offspring prenatally exposed to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of radiation on physical and motor development of male and female rats exposed to ionizing radiation in utero were studied. Rats were exposed to three different doses of radiation (150 rad, 15 rad and 6.8 rad, considered as high, moderate and low doses of radiation respectively) on the 20th day of prenatal life. Exposure to 150 rad contributed to significantly lower body weights of both male and female rat offspring. Upper jaw tooth eruption was delayed in 150 rad treated male offspring, as well as in 15 rad and 150 rad treated female offspring. Cliff-avoidance response was delayed in 6.8 rad, 15 rad, and 150 rad treated male offspring; and 150 rad treated female offspring. Lower jaw tooth eruption, eye opening, and crawling were not affected by radiation in male or female animals. Results indicate that radiation affected the developmental parameters of both male and female rat offspring, and sex of the offspring played no role in the magnitude of radiation induced damages

  2. The developmental inter-relationships between activity, novelty preferences, and delay discounting in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukkes, Jodi L; Thompson, Britta S; Freund, Nadja; Andersen, Susan L

    2016-03-01

    Increased locomotion, novelty-seeking, and impulsivity are risk factors associated with substance use. In this study, the inter-relationships between activity, novelty preferences, and delay discounting, a measure of impulsivity, were examined across three stages: juvenile/early adolescence (postnatal Day [P] 15, 19, and 42 for activity, novelty, and impulsivity, respectively), adolescent/late adolescent (P28, 32, 73), and adult (P90, 94, 137) in male and female rats. Our estimates of impulsive choice, where animals were trained to criterion, revealed an age × sex interaction where early adolescent females had the lowest levels of impulsivity. The relationships of activity and novelty to impulsivity significantly changed across age within each sex. Early adolescent males with high activity, but low novelty preferences, were more impulsive; however, low activity and high novelty preferences were related to high impulsivity in adult males. Female activity gradually increased across age, but did not show a strong relationship with impulsivity. Novelty preferences are moderately related to impulsivity into adulthood in females. These data show that males and females have different developmental trajectories for these behaviors. Males show greater sensation-seeking (e.g., activity) and risky behavior (e.g., novelty preferences) earlier in life, whereas these behaviors emerge during adolescence in females. PMID:26419783

  3. Effect of Aging and Obesity on Insulin Responsiveness and Glut-4 Glucose Transporter Content in Skeletal Muscle of Fischer 344 × Brown Norway Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Larkin, Lisa M.; Reynolds, Thomas H.; Supiano, Mark A.; Kahn, Barbara B.; Halter, Jeffrey B.

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the metabolic changes with age in the Fischer 344 × Brown Norway rat and its suitability as an animal model of postmaturational insulin resistance. Specifically, we determined whether an age-associated decrease in glucose disposal is associated with diminished whole body insulin responsiveness and/or a decrease in glucose transporter (GLUT-4) protein and mRNA content in medial gastrocnemius muscle of male Fischer 344 × Brown Norway rats of ages 8, 18, and 28 months. Fa...

  4. Toxicity of the pesticide carbaryl in male rats maintained on contaminated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pesticide carbaryl, used in a large scale, was chosen in the present study to evaluate its harmful effect on rats following successive treatment for a long period of time. Two groups of male rats were used for the present study, one group acts as control and the other was treated with daily oral dose of 28.3 mg/kg for three week. The results showed that there were no significant differences in organ/body weight ratios for both normal and treated male rats. The biochemical analysis of serum showed increased levels of AST, ALT, total bilirubin, urea and creatinine and decreased levels of T3, T4 and the male sex hormone testosterone while no changes were observed for both albumin and total proteins

  5. Hypoglycemic effect of Brassica juncea (seeds) on streptozotocin induced diabetic male albino rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T Thirumalai; S Viviyan Therasa; EK Elumalai; E David

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of Brassica juncea (seeds) on streptozotocin induced diabetic male albino rats. Methods: Hypoglycemic activity of Brassica juncea (seeds) aqueous extract at a dose of 250, 350 and 450 mg/kg body weight was evaluated. Adult male Swiss albino rats of six numbers in each group was undertaken for study and evaluated. Results: The serum insulin levels were recorded a significant depletion in all groups, short term as well as long term diabetic animals, when compared to that of normal animals. A significant dosage dependent augmenting effect of the seed extract on the serum insulin was recorded in both short term as well as long term groups. Conclusions: The aqueous seed extract of Brassica juncea has potent hypoglycemic activity in male albino rat.

  6. Wistar rats: A forgotten model of age-related hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Alvarado

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Age-related hearing loss (ARHL is one of the most frequent sensory impairments in senescence and is a source of important socio-economic consequences. Understanding the pathological responses that occur in the central auditory pathway of patients who suffer from this disability is vital to improve its diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, the goal of this study was to characterize age-related modifications in auditory brainstem responses (ABR and to determine whether these functional responses might be accompanied by an imbalance between excitation and inhibition in the cochlear nucleus of Wistar rats. To do so, ABR recordings at different frequencies and immunohistochemistry for the vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1 and the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN were performed in young, middle-aged and old male Wistar rats. The results demonstrate that there was a significant increase in the auditory thresholds, a significant decrease in the amplitudes and an increase in the latencies of the ABR waves as the age of the rat increased. Additionally, there were decreases in VGLUT1 and VGAT immunostaining in the VCN of older rats compared to younger rats. Therefore, the observed age-related decline in the magnitude of auditory evoked responses might be due in part to a reduction in markers of excitatory function; meanwhile, the concomitant reduction in both excitatory and inhibitory markers might reflect a common central alteration in animal models of ARLH. Together, these findings highlight the suitability of the Wistar rat as an excellent model to study ARHL.

  7. Effects of accelerated heavy ions on the development of male rat gonads (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of exposure to accelerated heavy ion beam on the development of rats in late organogenesis were studied both in utero and in vitro, with a special focus to the response of male gonads. Either rat fetuses in utero or the cultured fetal testes in vitro were irradiated with carbon or Ne ion beams at a dose range from 0.1 Gy to 2.5 Gy. In addition to the linear energy transfer (LET) value of 13 keV/μm of carbon ion beams and of 30 keV/μm of Ne ion beams for the in utero irradiation, the LET values at 40, 60, and 80 keV/μm of carbon ion beams were also applied for the in vitro investigation. In the mean time, effects from X-irradiations estimated under the same biological endpoints were studied comparatively for the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) estimation of the accelerated heavy ion irradiations. For the in utero studies, pups from dams received the accelerated heavy ion irradiations showed higher incidences of prenatal death and preweaning mortality, markedly delayed accomplishment in their physiological markers and reflexes and gain in body weight compared to that exposed to X-irradiations at the same doses. Significantly reduced ratios of main organ weight to body weight including brain, heart, thymus, lung, liver, kidney and testis were also observed in the pups from dams received the accelerated heavy ion irradiations compared to those exposed to X-irradiations at the same doses at postnatal ages of 1, 2 and three months. In addition, testes obtained at these postnatal ages are being studied on testicular development including conditions of the seminiferous tubules, the numbers of germ cells and Sertoli cells. For the in vitro experiments, effects of prenatal irradiation of accelerated heavy ions on the cultured male gonad tissue of fetal rats were studied with the emphasis on cell death and its time course, and gene expression. Dose-dependent induction of apoptosis in gonocytes was observed with a pick at 8-12 h after irradiations

  8. High Fiber Diet Effect On Haemopoietic And Endocrine System In Irradiated Male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheat bran was mixed with standard rat diet in order to assess the role of high fiber diet on the damage induced by 4 Gy gamma irradiation in male rats. Immediately after exposure to irradiation, the male albino rats were fed on diet containing 10% wheat bran ad libitum. After 15 days, the rats were decapitated then blood picture, levels of calcium, glucose, folic acid, vitamin B12 , triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), testosterone and insulin hormones were determined. The results denoted that wheat bran had an improvement effect on the radiation damage on blood picture, calcium level, vitamin B12 , folic acid and testosterone hormone, which most probably due to the effect of the high antioxidant action of wheat bran that might improve the gastro intestinal metabolism.

  9. Perinatal ethinyl oestradiol alters mammary gland development in male and female Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Karen; Hass, Ulla; Christiansen, Sofie;

    2012-01-01

    , Wistar rats were exposed to 0, 5, 15 or 50 μg/kg of ethinyl oestradiol per day during gestation and lactation. A wide range of morphological parameters were evaluated in whole mounts of mammary glands from male and female offspring PD21–22. This study showed that in both male and female pre......, indicating progressed development of mammary glands when exposed to oestrogens early in life. However, laboratories use different parameters to evaluate the development of mammary glands, making studies difficult to compare. Moreover, studies of whole mounts in Wistar rats are lacking. In the present study......‐pubertal Wistar rats, mammary gland development was accelerated after perinatal oestrogen exposure with increase in size, density and number of terminal end buds (TEBs). In female rats, the most sensitive parameters were the distance to the fifth gland, the relative growth towards the lymph node and the overall...

  10. Food restriction prevents an age-associated increase in rat liver beta-adrenergic receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dax, E.M.; Ingram, D.K.; Partilla, J.S.; Gregerman, R.I.

    1989-05-01

    In male Wistar rats fed ad libitum (24% protein, 4.5 Kcal/gm), the (/sup 125/I)iodopindolol binding capacity of the beta-adrenergic receptors in liver of 24-month-old animals is 3-4 times greater than that of 6-month-old counterparts. In rats fed the same diet, on alternate days from weaning, the receptor capacity did not increase significantly between 6 and 24 months (10.20 +/- 0.55 vs 9.20 +/- 0.72 fmol/mg) or between 24 and 30 months. This was not due to acute dietary deprivation, as rats food-restricted for only 2 weeks, at 23.5 months of age, also showed elevated receptor capacities compared to 6-month-old ad libitum fed animals. Moreover, intermittent feeding produced no significant effects among 6-month-old animals, whether restricted since weaning or for two weeks prior to sacrifice. Many biochemical parameters that decrease with aging in rats fed ad libitum are prevented by dietary restriction. Our results demonstrate that a reproducible biochemical process that increases with aging is also prevented with dietary restriction. The age-related, liver beta-receptor increase may be a potentially reliable marker for studying biochemical perturbations that modify life span.

  11. Food restriction prevents an age-associated increase in rat liver beta-adrenergic receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In male Wistar rats fed ad libitum (24% protein, 4.5 Kcal/gm), the [125I]iodopindolol binding capacity of the beta-adrenergic receptors in liver of 24-month-old animals is 3-4 times greater than that of 6-month-old counterparts. In rats fed the same diet, on alternate days from weaning, the receptor capacity did not increase significantly between 6 and 24 months (10.20 +/- 0.55 vs 9.20 +/- 0.72 fmol/mg) or between 24 and 30 months. This was not due to acute dietary deprivation, as rats food-restricted for only 2 weeks, at 23.5 months of age, also showed elevated receptor capacities compared to 6-month-old ad libitum fed animals. Moreover, intermittent feeding produced no significant effects among 6-month-old animals, whether restricted since weaning or for two weeks prior to sacrifice. Many biochemical parameters that decrease with aging in rats fed ad libitum are prevented by dietary restriction. Our results demonstrate that a reproducible biochemical process that increases with aging is also prevented with dietary restriction. The age-related, liver beta-receptor increase may be a potentially reliable marker for studying biochemical perturbations that modify life span

  12. Differential Proteomics in the Aging Noble Rat Ventral Prostate

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Ying Wai; Tam, Neville N. C.; Evans, James E.; Green, Karin M.; Zhang, Xiang; Ho, Shuk-Mei

    2008-01-01

    Incidence of prostatic diseases increases dramatically with age which may be related to a decline in androgen support. However, the key mechanisms underlying prostate aging remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the aging process in the ventral prostate of Noble rats by identifying differentially expressed prostate proteins between 3- and 16-month-old animals using ICAT and MS. In total, 472 proteins were identified with less than a 1% false positive rate, among which 34 were d...

  13. Possible Outcome of Fenugreek Seeds Powder Administration on the Fertility of Female and Male Albino Rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is an annual plant from the family of Papilionaceae-Leguminosae that has been credited with many medicinal properties. The current study aims to evaluate the possible fertility activity of fenugreek seeds powder on female and male albino rats. To achieve the theme, fenugreek seeds powder (200 mg/rat) were daily administered orally to both female and male Wistar rats for 15 and 30 consecutive days, after which the rats were sacrificed for both biochemical and histopathological observations. Fenugreek treatment significantly decreased the serum cholesterol levels in both female and male rats with a marked increase in the ovary and testis cholesterol levels following 30 days of consecutive administration. The circulating serum female hormones showed an initial elevation at the end of 15 days of fenugreek intake followed by a significant drop in the group of rats that continued to receive the daily fenugreek dose for 30 days. These observations were supported by the notable decline in the ovarian weights further validated by their ovarian histological sections revealing remarkable dissolution of some follicles and prominent abundance of inflammatory cells. In the 30 days interval treated males, the serum testosterone hormone concentrations significantly declined and the testis weights were reduced with evident damage to the seminiferous tubules and interstitial tissues as shown by the histopathological picture of testis tissue sections. Accordingly, it can be deduced that fenugreek seeds powder exert a significant antifertility adverse effect on the female and male rats when supplemented at a considerable dose for an extended time interval

  14. Function of the Serotonin Transporter in Vasculature of the Female Rat: comparison with the male

    OpenAIRE

    Linder, A. Elizabeth; Davis, Robert Patrick; Burnett, Robert; Watts, Stephanie W.

    2011-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) handles serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and is blocked by the antidepressant SERT inhibitors fluoxetine and fluvoxamine. While the importance of SERT in the central nervous system is clear, SERT also functions in the peripheral vasculature. We tested the hypothesis that vasculature from female rats has increased SERT function compared to male rats because females are more responsive to SERT inhibitors.In addition to in vitro experiments, we imposed the c...

  15. Systemic Effects of Ulna Loading in Male Rats During Functional Adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Sample, Susannah J.; Collins, Ryan J; Wilson, Aliya P; Racette, Molly A; Behan, Mary; Markel, Mark D.; Kalscheur, Vicki L.; Hao, Zhengling; Muir, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Functional skeletal adaptation is thought to be a local phenomenon controlled by osteoctyes. However, the nervous system also may have regulatory effects on adaptation. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of loading of a single bone on adaptation of other appendicular long bones and whether these responses were neuronally regulated. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. The right ulna was loaded to induce a modeling response. In other rats, a second regimen was used to indu...

  16. The Hypolipidemic Activity of Heterocyclic Thiosemicarbazones, Thioureas and Their Metal Complexes in Sprague Dawley Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Iris H.; Chen, S. Y.; Barnes, Betsy Jo; West, Douglas X.

    1999-01-01

    Heterocyclic thiosemicarbazones, thioureas and their copper, nickel, and cobalt complexes were shown to be potent hypolipidemic agents in male Sprague Dawley rats at 8 mg/kg/day, orally. These agents lowered the activity of rat hepatic rate limiting enzymes for the synthesis of cholesterol and triglycerides. The effects of these agnets on cytoplasmic ATP-dependent citrate lyase, acetyl CoA synthetase and HMG-CoA reductase activities were reduced by a magnitude to explain the reduction of seru...

  17. Protective Effect of Nigella Sativa Against Diabetic Complications on The Liver in White Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Nassar Ayoub Abdellatif

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the work: The effect of diabetes on the liver is associated with histological changes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the histological changes following administration of nigella sativa (NS) in the streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes mellitus in rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty six male white rats (n=36), weighing (180–230 g) were taken for this study. The animals were divided into 3 groups: 1- Normal control group. 2- Diabetic group. 3- Diabetic group treated by ...

  18. Ameliorating effect of olive oil on fertility of male rats fed on genetically modified soya bean

    OpenAIRE

    Shelat, Vishal G.; Thanaa A. F. El-Kholy; Hatim A. Al-Abbadi; Qahwaji, Dina; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed K; Sobhy, Hanan M.; Hilal, Mohammad Abu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Genetically modified soya bean (GMSB) is a commercialized food. It has been shown to have adverse effects on fertility in animal trials. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) has many beneficial effects including anti-oxidant properties. The aim of this study is to elucidate if addition of EVOO ameliorates the adverse effects on reproductive organs of rats fed on GMSB containing diet.Methods: Forty adult male albino rats (150–180 g) of Sprague Dawley strain were separated into four groups...

  19. Ameliorating effect of olive oil on fertility of male rats fed on genetically modified soya bean

    OpenAIRE

    Thanaa A. F. El-Kholy; Hatim A. Al-Abbadi; Dina Qahwaji; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed K; Shelat, Vishal G.; Sobhy, Hanan M.; Mohammad Abu Hilal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Genetically modified soya bean (GMSB) is a commercialized food. It has been shown to have adverse effects on fertility in animal trials. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) has many beneficial effects including anti-oxidant properties. The aim of this study is to elucidate if addition of EVOO ameliorates the adverse effects on reproductive organs of rats fed on GMSB containing diet. Methods: Forty adult male albino rats (150–180 g) of Sprague Dawley strain were separated into four group...

  20. Long-term moderate treadmill exercise promotes stress-coping strategies in male and female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lalanza, Jaume F.; Sanchez-Roige, Sandra; Cigarroa, Igor; Gagliano, Humberto; Fuentes, Silvia; Armario, Antonio; Capdevila, Lluís; Escorihuela, Rosa M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has revealed the impact of exercise in alleviating anxiety and mood disorders; however, the exercise protocol that exerts such benefit is far from known. The current study was aimed to assess the effects of long-term moderate exercise on behavioural coping strategies (active vs. passive) and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal response in rats. Sprague-Dawley male and female rats were exposed to 32-weeks of treadmill exercise and then tested for two-way active avoidance learning (s...

  1. Study of Salvia Officinalis Hydroethanolic Extract on Serum Thyroid Hormone Levels in Hypothyroid Male Rat

    OpenAIRE

    N. Mirazi; N. Abdolmaleki; Mahmoodi, M

    2013-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Medicinal plants are widely used throughout the world. Hypothyroid-ism is an important hormonal disease that causes some disorders in body organs. Salvia offi-cinalis has been known as a medicinal plant since ancient times. In this study the Salvia offi-cinalis extract (SOE) effects on thyroid hormones and TSH in hypothyroid rats have been investigated. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study the SOE extract was prepared and 40 male rats were randomly divided...

  2. Effect of regular aerobic exercise with ozone exposure on peripheral leukocyte populations in Wistar male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Afshar Jafari; Mohammad Ali Hosseinpour faizi; Fariba Askarian; Hassan Pourrazi

    2009-01-01

    • BACKGROUND: The immune system in endurance athletes may be at risk for deleterious effects of gasous pollutants such as ambient ozone. Therefore, this study was performed to assess the effect of regular aerobic exercise with ozone exposure on peripheral leukocytes populations in male Wistar rats.
    • METHODS: Twenty eight 8 weeks old rats were selected and randomly divided into four groups of ozone-u...

    • Effect of Aqueous Flower Extract of Catharanthus roseus on Alloxan Induced Diabetes in Male Albino Rats

      OpenAIRE

      Natarajan, A.; K. Syed Zameer Ahmed; Sundaresan, S.; A. Sivaraj; Devi, K; B Senthil Kumar

      2012-01-01

      Catharanthus roseus is widely used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The present study was carried out to investigate the antidiabetic and hyperlipidemic potential of Catharanthus roseus on alloxan induced diabetes in male albino rats. Oral administration of aqueous extract of Catharanthus roseus at a dose of 250 mg, 350 mg, and 450 mg/kg body weight for 30 days to diabetic rats resulted in significant reduction in blood glucose, reduction in lipid profile a...

    • Effect of renal ischemia-reperfusion on lung injury and inflammatory responses in male rat

      OpenAIRE

      Hadi Yousefi; Naser Ahmadiasl; Alireza Alihemmati; Parisa Habibi

      2014-01-01

      Objective(s):Acute kidney injury (AKI), a syndrome characterized by decreased glomerular filtration, occurs in every 1 of 5 hospitalized patients.  Renal ischemia-reperfusion, one of the main causes of AKI, is of particular importance in the setting of kidney transplantation. Materials and Methods: Sixty male rats were divided into four groups including control, nephrectomy, sham surgery and renal ischemia-reperfusion (IRI) group. The rats were anesthetized with intraperitonealketamin and ...

    • Prenatal Stress and Stress Coping Style Interact to Predict Metabolic Risk in Male Rats

      OpenAIRE

      Boersma, Gretha J.; Moghadam, Alexander A.; Cordner, Zachary A.; Tamashiro, Kellie L.

      2014-01-01

      Both prenatal stress (PNS) exposure and a passive stress-coping style have been identified as risk factors for insulin resistance in rats. In the current study, we test the hypothesis that PNS and stress-coping style may interact in predicting susceptibility for metabolic disease. To test this hypothesis, adult male control and PNS offspring were behaviorally characterized using a defensive burying test to have either a passive or proactive stress-coping style. In adulthood, all rats were fed...

    • Citrus aurantifolia impairs fertility facilitators and indices in male albino wistar rats

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Uduak Akpan Okon

      2014-06-01

      Full Text Available Background: The ability to reproduce is one of lifes essential functions; therefore factors that affect this ability are of vital importance to mankind. We therefore designed this study to assess the effect of various dosages of C. aurantifolia treatment on fertility promoters and indices in male albino wistar rats. Methods: Toxicity studies showed no lethality at 5000 mg/kg. Eighteen male albino wistar rats weighing between 220 and 240 g were used. They were randomly assigned into three groups of six rats each. Group one served as control and was gavaged 5 ml of normal saline, groups two and three were gavaged 1000 mg/kg and 1500 mg/kg body weight as medium and high dose respectively twice daily for 21 days. On the 22nd day, the rats were sacrificed and blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture; following standard procedure, the serum was obtained for hormonal (FSH, LH, prolactin and testosterone assay using microplate immunoenzymometric assay. The testes were harvested for semen analysis. Results: LH level was significantly lower in medium dose (P Citrus aurantifolia possess antifertility potentials in male albino wistar rats. Excessive intake should be with caution in males with fertility challenges. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 640-645

    • Effects of Tail fat enriched diet on male Wistar rat reproductive system

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Samira Ezi

      2016-04-01

      Full Text Available Background and Aim: Male infertility is increasing worldwide. There is now emerging evidence that nutritional status is regarded as a critical determinant of normal reproductive function. Hence, today, the role of dietary nutrition has attracted the attention of researchers. Thus, the present study was conducted to elucidate the effects of tail fat (TF enriched diet on male rat reproductive function. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 30 adult male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into three equal groups and were fed with either standard diet (control or standard diet enriched with 10 % of TF oil or standard diet enriched with 20% TF for 5 consecutive months. Finally, the rats were euthanized, the weights of their bodies, and their testes were measured. Then, the testes were dissected and the sections were stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin for quantitative histopathological examination. Besides, blood samples were collected for testosterone (T assessment. Results: Compared to the control group, the rats fed with a diet enriched with 20% TF had significantly (P≤0.05 more body weight, while, their testes weight significantly (P≤0.0001 decreased. Also, histological changes showed that TF, in a dose dependence manner, significantly decreased germinal layer, seminiferous area, and spermatogonia number in the rats’ testes. There was no significant difference in T concentration between the groups. Conclusion: It was clearly found that excessive and long term intake of TF can be causative of hypogonadism and increase infertility in male rats.

    • Persistence of the reproductive toxicity of chlorpiryphos-ethyl in male Wistar rat

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      Augustave Kenfack; Tah Patience Nain; Pierre Kamtchouing; Joseph Tchoumbou; Narcisse Bertin Vemo; Ferdinand Ngoula; Paul Dsir Womeni Dzeufiet; Omer Bb Ngouateu; Judith Kegne Chombong; Guylne Marie Zambou Zeukeng; Isabelle Leinyuy Nyuysemo

      2015-01-01

      Objective: To study the effects of chlorpiryphos-ethyl (CE) on male fertility. Methods:Rats were gavaged daily from 30 to 120 days old with four doses of CE (10.50;5.25;3.50 and 0.00 mg/kg) and thereafter followed up for 90 additional days. Following this period of observation, each male rat was submitted to a fertility test with two virgin females. Male were then sacrificed and organs collected while females were followed up till delivery. Results:The weights of the testis and epididymis were lower (P<0.05) in rats treated with 10.50 mg/kg CE dose compared to controls. A decrease in the number of sperm per cauda epididymis was recorded in rat given the highest dose of CE with respect to the control value. The sperm motility was lower (P<0.05) in all CE-treated groups compared to the controls. Severe histological abnormalities were observed in testes of treated rats. The males exposed to the highest dose of CE did not produce any offspring. Conclusion:The effects of CE on reproductive system were persistent 90 days after the end of exposure.

    • Sperm parameters in rats after low-dose irradiation of sex cells in male parents during two cycles of gametogenesis

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Chronic combined (internal and external) irradiation in low doses (absorbed doses 0.4 - 3.6 cGy) during two cycles of gametogenesis results in defective stimulation of spermatogenesis in male rats and provokes genotoxic action. The offspring from fathers with 0.7 and 3.6 cGy irradiation have decreased viability and oligozoospermia in mature age. The offsprings from the father with 3.6 cGy have increased sensitivity to weak irradiation and react by increases oligozoospermia. The data are accord with the idea about more pronounced genetic radioresistance of premeiosis cells during gametogenesis

    • Age difference in deposition of plutonium in organs of rats and the estimation of distribution in humans

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Differences in plutonium distribution in various organs, particularly the bones, of rats injected at different ages were examined in order to aid in estimating plutonium distribution in humans. Comparisons were made between rats and humans based on the bone histomorphometric and mineral density data. Male and female rats of three ages (3, 12, and 24 months old), respectively, received an injection of plutonium nitrate by two dose modalities; a fixed amount of plutonium without regard to age, sex, or body weight; per g of body weight. The rats were killed 2 weeks after the injection of plutonium. The amounts of plutonium deposited in the organs varied without regard to the body or organ weight; those in the skeleton increased from 3 to 12 months, reaching a peak at 12 months, but then decreased, along with the age-related changes in the bone surface, volume, and mineral density. Those in the liver, spleen and kidney decreased despite the body weight gain with age in both sexes. Age-related differences in the deposition of plutonium in humans were estimated based on the bone data characteristics obtained from the histomorphometry and bone mineral density for corresponding of ages between rats and humans. The results indicate that age is the most important factor in estimating the distribution of plutonium deposition in the early period after plutonium exposure, and that body or organ weight is not always a useful indicator, particularly in the aged. (author)

    • A mixture of odorant molecules potentially indicating oestrus in mammals elicits penile erections in male rats.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Nielsen, Birte L; Jerôme, Nathalie; Saint-Albin, Audrey; Thonat, Catherine; Briant, Christine; Boué, Franck; Rampin, Olivier; Maurin, Yves

      2011-12-01

      A common set of odorous molecules may indicate female receptiveness across species, as male rats display sexual arousal when exposed to the odour of oestrous faeces from rats, vixens and mares. More than 900 different compounds were identified by GC-MS analyses performed on faeces samples from di-oestrous and oestrous females and from males of the three species. Five carboxylic acids were found in lower concentrations in faeces from all oestrous females. We subjected 12 sexually trained male rats to a 30 min exposure to different dilutions of a mixture of these five molecules in the same proportions as found in female oestrous faeces. The behavioural responses of the rats were compared to those displayed when exposed to water (negative control) and faeces from oestrous female rats (positive control). Frequency of penile erections were found to be significantly dependent on mixture dilution, with two intermediate dilutions eliciting frequencies of penile erections that did not differ from those obtained during exposure to oestrous female rat faeces. Higher and lower dilutions did not elicit more penile erections than observed with water. These results support our hypothesis that a small set of odorous molecules may indicate sexual receptiveness in mammalian females. PMID:21884731

    • Factor analysis shows that female rat behaviour is characterized primarily by activity, male rats are driven by sex and anxiety.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Fernandes, C; González, M I; Wilson, C A; File, S E

      1999-12-01

      This experiment explored sex differences in behaviour using factor analysis to describe the relationship between different behavioral variables. A principal component solution with an orthogonal rotation of the factor matrix was used, ensuring that the extracted factors are independent of one another, and thus reflect separate processes. In the elevated plus-maze test of anxiety, in male rats factor 1 accounted for 75% of the variance and reflected anxiety, factor 2 represented activity, and accounted for 24% of the variance. This contrasted with the finding in female rats in which factor 1 was activity, accounting for 57% of the variance, with the anxiety factor accounting for only 34% of the variance. When behaviour in both the plus-maze and holeboard were analysed, a similar sex difference was found with anxiety emerging as factor 1 in males and holeboard activity as factor 1 in females. Locomotor activity in the inner portion of the holeboard loaded on the anxiety factor for males, but on activity for females. When behaviours in the plus-maze and sexual orientation tests were analysed, anxiety emerged as factor 1 in males, sexual preferences factor 2, and activity factor 3. In females, activity was factor 1, sexual preference factor 2, anxiety factor 3, and social interest factor 4. These results suggest caution should be exercised in interpreting the results from female rats in tests validated on males because the primary controlling factor may be different. PMID:10593196

    • Effect of Withania somnifera root extract on the sexual behaviour of male rats

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      IlayI; RatnWD

      2002-01-01

      Aim:To determine the effect of a methanolic extract of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal roots on sexual competence of male rats.Methods:Male rats were orally administered 3000 mg·kg-1·day-1 of root extract for 7 days.Their sexual behaviour was evaluated 7 days prior to treatment,day 3 and 7 of treatment,and day 7,14 and 30 posttreatment by pairing each male with a receptive female.Results:The root extract induced a marked impairment in libido,sexual performance,sexual vigour,and penile erectile dysfunction.These effects were partly reversible on cessation of treatment.These antimasculine effects ane not due to changes in testosterone levels or toxicity but may be attributed to hyperprolactinemic,GABAergic,serotonergic or sedative activities of the extract.Conclusion:Use of W.Somnifera roots may be detrimental to male sexual competence.

    • Bupropion Attenuates Methamphetamine Self-Administration in Adult Male Rats

      OpenAIRE

      Reichel, Carmela M.; Murray, Jennifer E.; Grant, Kathleen M.; Bevins, Rick A.

      2008-01-01

      Bupropion is a promising candidate medication for methamphetamine use disorder. As such, we used a preclinical model of drug-taking to determine the effects of bupropion on the reinforcing effects of methamphetamine (0.025, 0.05 or 0.1 mg/kg/infusion). Specificity was determined by investigating the effects of bupropion on responding maintained by sucrose. In the self-administration study, rats were surgically prepared with indwelling jugular catheters and trained to self-administer methamphe...

    • Chronic stress and social housing differentially affect neurogenesis in male and female rats

      OpenAIRE

      Westenbroek, Christel; Boer, Johan A. den; Veenhuis, Maarten; Horst, Gert J. ter

      2004-01-01

      Stress plays an important role in the development of affective disorders. Women show a higher prevalence for these disorders than men. The course of a depression is thought to be positively influenced by social support. We have used a chronic stress model in which rats received foot-shocks daily for 3 weeks. Since rats are social animals we hypothesised that ‘social support’ might reduce the adverse effects of chronic stress. To test this hypothesis, male and female rats were housed individua...

    • Effects of estrogen on hyperglycemia and liver dysfunction in diabetic male rats

      OpenAIRE

      Ahmed, Marwa A; Hassanein, Khaled M A

      2012-01-01

      Objective: To study the possible beneficial effect of estrogen (17β-estradiol E2) on hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and liver dysfunctions in STZ-induced diabetic rats. A total of 40 albino male rats were randomly divided into four groups: a control group (I), a diabetic group (II), a group given 17β estradiol (E2) for 15 days (III), and a diabetic group given E2 for 30 days (IV). Diabetes was induced in the rats by 65 mg/kg streptozosin (STZ) via an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. E2 was ...

    • Alcohol-Induced Suppression of Gluconeogenesis is Greater in Ethanol Fed Female Rat Hepatocytes Than Males

      OpenAIRE

      Sumida, Ken D.; Cogger, Alma A.; Matveyenko, Aleksey V.

      2007-01-01

      The impact of alcohol-induced suppression on hepatic gluconeogenesis (HGN) after chronic ethanol consumption between males and females is unknown. To determine the effects of chronic alcohol consumption (8 weeks) on HGN, the isolated hepatocyte technique was employed on 24 hr fasted male and female Wistar rats. Livers were initially perfused with collagenase and the hepatocytes were isolated. Aliquots of the cell suspension were placed in Krebs-Henseleit buffer and incubated for 30 minutes wi...

    • Inhibition of Estradiol Synthesis Impairs Fear Extinction in Male Rats

      Science.gov (United States)

      Graham, Bronwyn M.; Milad, Mohammed R.

      2014-01-01

      Emerging research has demonstrated that the sex hormone estradiol regulates fear extinction in female rodents and women. Estradiol may also regulate fear extinction in males, given its role in synaptic plasticity in both sexes. Here we report that inhibition of estradiol synthesis during extinction training, via the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole,…

    • Rock Sparrow Song Reflects Male Age and Reproductive Success

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Nemeth, Erwin; Kempenaers, Bart; Matessi, Giuliano;

      2012-01-01

      The evolution of mating signals is closely linked to sexual selection. Acoustic ornaments are often used as secondary sexual traits that signal the quality of the signaller. Here we show that song performance reflects age and reproductive success in the rock sparrow (Petronia petronia). In an Alp...

    • Effect of Ageing on the Passive and Active Tension and Pharmacodynamic Characteristics of Rat Coronary Arteries

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Sheykhzade, Majid; Simonsen, Anja Hviid; Boonen, Harrie C.M.; Outzen, Emilie Middelbo; Nyborg, Niels Chresten Berg

      The influence of ageing on the passive and active tension and pharmacodynamic characteristics of intramural coronary arteries from 3-month-old and 2-year-old male Wistar rats was investigated using an isometric myograph. The passive vessel wall tension measured in Ca2+-free physiological salt...... significantly higher in coronary arteries of old rats. The sensitivity (pD2) to 5-HT was significantly higher in arteries from old (6.43 ± 0.11, n = 22) than from young rats (6.16 ± 0.08, n = 29). Ketanserin induced a concentration-dependent rightward shift of the 5-HT concentration-response curve in arteries...... solution at L0 was significantly greater in arteries from old rats (1.46 ± 0.10 Nm–1, n = 7) than in young rats (1.13 ± 0.13 Nm–1, n = 6). However, the maximal active tension at L0 was similar. The spontaneous myogenic tone was increased by age and the vasorelaxation induced by extracellular K+ was...

  1. Study on the relationship between bone metabolism indexes and osteoporosis in aged males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the characteristics and significance of the changes of bone metabolism indexes related to the occurrence of osteoporosis in aged males. Methods: Serum interleukin 1β(IL-1β), insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II), parathyroid hormone (PTH-M) and 25-OH-D were measured by radio-immunoassay in 58 aged males with osteoporosis and 37 cases with bone mass loss. Bone density was measured in these subjects and all the indexes were compared with those in young and middle-aged and aged healthy controls. Results: IL-1β and PTH-M levels in aged males with osteoporosis or bone mass loss were higher than those in healthy controls (P < 0.01), while IGF-II and 25-OH-D were lower than in normal controls, especially in osteoporosis group (P < 0.01). With the age increasing and the deterioration of the disorder, bone density in the two groups of patients were significantly lower than those in young and middle-aged controls (P < 0.01). Aged males with osteoporosis had a significantly lower bone density than patients with bone mass loss. Conclusion: Cytokines and disturbance of bone metabolism indexes are the main factors that lead to osteoporosis characterized by more bone absorption and less bone formation in aged males

  2. Sensitization of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis in a Male Rat Chronic Stress Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Alier J; Chen, Chun; Scullen, Tyler; Zsombok, Andrea; Salahudeen, Ahmed A; Di, Shi; Herman, James P; Tasker, Jeffrey G

    2016-06-01

    Stress activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is regulated by rapid glucocorticoid negative feedback. Chronic unpredictable stress animal models recapitulate certain aspects of major depression in humans, which have been attributed to impaired glucocorticoid negative feedback. We tested for an attenuated HPA sensitivity to fast glucocorticoid feedback inhibition in male rats exposed to a chronic variable stress (CVS) paradigm. In vitro, parvocellular neuroendocrine cells of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus recorded in slices from CVS rats showed an increase in basal excitatory synaptic inputs and a decrease in basal inhibitory synaptic inputs compared with neurons from control rats. There was no difference between control and CVS-treated rats in the rapid glucocorticoid suppression of excitatory synaptic inputs, a fast feedback mechanism. In vivo, CVS-treated rats showed an increase in ACTH secretion at baseline and after both iv CRH and acute stress and no impairment of the corticosterone suppression of the ACTH response, compared with controls. In an in vitro pituitary preparation, an increase in basal ACTH release, a small increase in CRH-induced ACTH release, and no decrement in the glucocorticoid suppression of ACTH release were seen in pituitaries from CVS rats. Thus, CVS does not suppress rapid glucocorticoid negative feedback at the hypothalamus or pituitary, but increases the synaptic excitability of paraventricular nucleus CRH neurons and the CRH sensitivity of the pituitary. Therefore, increased HPA activity in chronically stressed male rats is due to sensitization of the HPA axis, rather than to desensitization to rapid glucocorticoid feedback. PMID:27054552

  3. Improved sexual behavior in male rats treated with a Chinese herbal extract: hormonal and neuronal implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paola Zanoli; Augusta Benelli; Manuela Zavatti; Marianna Rivasi; Claudia Baraldi; Mario Baraldi

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the influence of an extract obtained from five Chinese medicinal plants on sexual behavior of adult male rats. Methods: The extract was administered at doses of 30, 60 and 120 mg/kg by oral gavage, acutely (one time, 45 rain before mating test) or subchronically (daily for 10 days) in sexually potent and sexually sluggish/impo-tent rats. Sexual behavior, serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone (T) were evaluated in treated rats and compared with controls receiving vehicle. The effect of the extract on central dopaminergic neurotransmis-sion was assessed in the nucleus accumbens using a microdialysis technique. Results: In sexually potent rats, both acute and subchronic treatment with the extract dosed at 30 and 60 mg/kg reduced mount latency and intromission latency. In sluggish/impotent rats, the acutely administered extract at the dose of 60 mg/kg shortened ejaculation latency, whereas subchronically administered at the doses of 30 and 60 mg/kg, reduced mount, intromission and ejaculation latencies, increasing also the percentage of mounting and ejaculating rats. The extract dosed at 60 mg/kg significantly increased LH and T following acute and subchronic administration and increased 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid levels in the nucleus accumbens, 30 rain after the acute administration. Conclusion: The improvement in both appetitive and consummatory components of sexual behavior observed in male rats treated with the extract could be scribed to increased serum T level in parallel with the activation of the central dopaminergic system.

  4. Calorie restriction: A new therapeutic intervention for age-related dry eye disease in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A decrease in lacrimal gland secretory function is closely related to aging and leads to an increased prevalence of dry eye syndrome. Since calorie restriction (CR) is considered to prevent functional decline of various organs due to aging, we hypothesized that CR could prevent age-related lacrimal dysfunction. Six-month-old male Fischer 344 rats were randomly divided into ad libitum (AL) and CR (-35%) groups. After 6 months of CR, tear function was examined under conscious state. After euthanasia, lacrimal glands were subjected to histological examination, tear protein secretion stimulation test with Carbachol, and assessment of oxidative stress with 8-hydroxy-2 deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) antibodies. CR significantly improved tear volume and tended to increase tear protein secretion volume after stimulation with Carbachol compared to AL. The acinar unit density was significantly higher in the CR rats compared to AL rats. Lacrimal glands in the CR rats showed a lesser degree of interstitial fibrosis. CR reduced the concentration of 8-OHdG and the extent of staining with HNE in the lacrimal gland, compared to AL. Furthermore, our electron microscopic observations showed that mitochondrial structure of the lacrimal gland obtained from the middle-aged CR rats was preserved in comparison to the AL rats. Collectively, these results demonstrate for the first time that CR may attenuate oxidative stress related damage in the lacrimal gland with preservation of lacrimal gland functions. Although molecular mechanism(s) by which CR maintains lacrimal gland function remains to be resolved, CR might provide a novel therapeutic strategy for treating dry eye syndrome.

  5. Calorie restriction: A new therapeutic intervention for age-related dry eye disease in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawashima, Motoko; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Okada, Naoko; Ogawa, Yoko [Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Murat, Dogru [Department of Ocular Surface and Visual Optics, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Nakamura, Shigeru; Nakashima, Hideo [Research Center, Ophtecs Corporation, Hyogo (Japan); Shimmura, Shigeto [Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Shinmura, Ken [Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Tsubota, Kazuo, E-mail: tsubota@sc.itc.keio.ac.jp [Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-07-09

    A decrease in lacrimal gland secretory function is closely related to aging and leads to an increased prevalence of dry eye syndrome. Since calorie restriction (CR) is considered to prevent functional decline of various organs due to aging, we hypothesized that CR could prevent age-related lacrimal dysfunction. Six-month-old male Fischer 344 rats were randomly divided into ad libitum (AL) and CR (-35%) groups. After 6 months of CR, tear function was examined under conscious state. After euthanasia, lacrimal glands were subjected to histological examination, tear protein secretion stimulation test with Carbachol, and assessment of oxidative stress with 8-hydroxy-2 deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) antibodies. CR significantly improved tear volume and tended to increase tear protein secretion volume after stimulation with Carbachol compared to AL. The acinar unit density was significantly higher in the CR rats compared to AL rats. Lacrimal glands in the CR rats showed a lesser degree of interstitial fibrosis. CR reduced the concentration of 8-OHdG and the extent of staining with HNE in the lacrimal gland, compared to AL. Furthermore, our electron microscopic observations showed that mitochondrial structure of the lacrimal gland obtained from the middle-aged CR rats was preserved in comparison to the AL rats. Collectively, these results demonstrate for the first time that CR may attenuate oxidative stress related damage in the lacrimal gland with preservation of lacrimal gland functions. Although molecular mechanism(s) by which CR maintains lacrimal gland function remains to be resolved, CR might provide a novel therapeutic strategy for treating dry eye syndrome.

  6. Effects of Unilateral Nephrectomy on Renal Function in Male Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Fatty Rats: A Novel Obese Type 2 Diabetic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Katsuda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT fatty rat is a new model for obese type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of 1/2 nephrectomy (Nx on renal function and morphology and on blood pressure in SDT fatty rats. Male SDT fatty rats underwent 1/2 Nx or a sham operation (Sham. Subsequently, animals were studied with respect to renal function and histological alterations. Induction of 1/2 Nx in SDT fatty rats led to functional and morphological damage to the remnant kidney and to hypertension, which are considered main characteristics of chronic kidney disease, at a younger age compared with the sham group. In conclusion, the SDT fatty rat is useful in investigations to elucidate the pathogenesis of human diabetic nephropathy and in new drug discovery.

  7. Body Image Concerns in College-Aged Male Physical Education Students: A Descriptive Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Michele S.; Esco, Michael R.; Willifo, Hank

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine body image concerns in college-aged male physical education majors. Sixty volunteers completed validated body image instruments including two-dimensional figure drawings. In general, the sample reported that they preferred a larger, more muscular physique reflective of male images that currently abound the…

  8. Age ultrastructural features of sclera in intact rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulyanova N.A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The absence of adequate experimental myopia model is the actual problem in pathophysiological studying of the myopia progression. Studies of the chick eye have formed the basis for several hypotheses of myopic development. The most pathogenesis reasonable myopia animal model is a form-deprivation myopia in chicks. The introduction of form-deprivation myopia animal model in mammals in particular rats, is necessary to study the dynamics of age morphological changes in sclera. Objective. To examine age-related features of the sclera in intact rats on the ultra-structural level. Methods. It was investigated the sclera ultrastructure by using electron microscopy method in intact rats at 14, 21, 30, 90 days. Results. It was set that in rats’ eyes at the age of 14-21 days the sclera presence of fibroblasts, characterizing the active generation of plastic materials, mainly on collagen. At the age of 30-90 days, the number of fibroblasts decreases and normal cells become mature look. However, practically, in all study periods, but with advantage aged 14-21 days, some of the cells are eliminated by apoptosis. At the age of 14-21 days is not formed clear scleral tissue architecture, part of the collagen fibrils stacked in bundles, part loosely arranged. At the age of 90 days, collagen scleral stroma is ordered. Conclusion. We identified a significant amount of fibroblasts decreasing, fibroblasts functional activity reduction, and collagen fibers ordering in sclera of the intact rats during the period from 14 to 90 days of postnatal ontogenesis. The highest intensity of the restructuring in the sclera is observed between 14-30 days of postnatal ontogenesis. In our opinion, this period is optimal for experimental modeling myopia in rats.

  9. Early postnatal nociceptive stimulation results in deficits of spatial memory in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Cristiane; Antonio, Bruno; Oliveira, Maria Gabriela Menezes; Hamani, Clement; Guinsburg, Ruth; Covolan, Luciene

    2015-11-01

    Prematurely-born infants are exposed to multiple invasive procedures while in the intensive care unit. Newborn rats and humans have similar behavioral responses to noxious stimulation. Previous studies have shown that early noxious stimuli may alter dentate gyrus neurogenesis and the behavioral repertoire of adult rats. We evaluated the late effects of noxious stimulation administered during different phases of development on two spatial memory tests; object recognition (OR) and Morris water maze (WM) tests. Noxious stimulation was induced by an intra-plantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) on postnatal (P) day 1 (group P1) or 8 (P8). Control animals were not stimulated. Behavioral tests were conducted on P60 in both male and female animals. In the WM, three domains were evaluated: acquisition, probe trial performance and reversal re-acquisition. The number of Nissl stained cells in the dentate granule cell layer was assessed by stereological counting. The OR test revealed that P1 male rats had poor long-term memory compared to the control and P8 groups. In the WM, no short- or long-term memory differences were detected between early postnatal-stimulated male and female rats and their respective controls. However, the ability to find the hidden platform in a new position was reduced in P1 male rats. The number of dentate granule cells in P8 males was higher than in all other groups. This study demonstrates that noxious stimulation on P1 results in spatial learning deficits in male animals, but does not disrupt the development of the hippocampus-dependent strategies of learning and memory. PMID:26348792

  10. Atypical expression of mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase in subcutaneous adipose tissue of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumelin, S; Kohl, C; Girard, J; Pégorier, J P

    1999-06-01

    The mRNAs encoding mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase (mtHMG-CoA synthase), the rate limiting enzyme in ketone body production, are highly expressed in subcutaneous (SC) and, to a lesser extent, in peri-epididymal (PE) rat adipose tissues. This atypical mtHMG-CoA synthase gene expression is dependent on the age (from 9 weeks of age) and sex (higher in male than in female) of the rats. In contrast, the expression of mtHMG-CoA synthase in SC adipose deposit is independent of the nutritional state (fed versus starved) or of the thermic environment (24 degrees C versus 4 degrees C). The expression of mtHMG-CoA synthase is suppressed in SC fat pads of castrated male rats whereas treatment of castrated rats with testosterone restores a normal level of expression. Moreover, testosterone injection induces the expression mtHMG-CoA synthase in SC adipose tissue of age-matched females. The presence of the mtHMG-CoA synthase immunoreactive protein confers to mitochondria isolated from SC adipose deposits, the capacity to produce ketone bodies at a rate similar to that found in liver mitochondria (SC = 13.7 +/- 0.7, liver = 16.4 +/- 1.4 nmol/min/mg prot). mtHMG-CoA synthase is expressed in the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) whatever the adipose deposit considered. While acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) is only expressed in mature adipocytes, the other lipogenic enzymes, fatty acid synthase (FAS) and citrate cleavage enzyme (CCE), are expressed both in SVF cells and mature adipocytes. The expression of lipogenic enzyme genes is markedly reduced in adipocytes but not in SVF cells isolated from 48-h starved male rats. When SVF is subfractionated, mtHMG-CoA synthase mRNAs are mainly recovered in two fractions containing poorly digested structures such as microcapillaries whereas the lowest expression is found in the pre-adipocyte fraction. Interestingly, FAS and CCE mRNAs co-segregate with mtHMG-CoA synthase mRNA. The possible physiological relevance of such

  11. MDMA (ecstasy) effects in pubescent rats: Males are more sensitive than females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Julie; Lazarus, Christine; Jeltsch, Hélène; Ben Hamida, Sami; Riegert, Céline; Kelche, Christian; Jones, Byron C; Cassel, Jean-Christophe

    2005-07-01

    In Experiment 1, we assessed the effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on locomotor activity in pubescent male and female Long-Evans rats. Thirty-nine day old rats were injected ip with 10 mg/kg of MDMA (ambient temperature 25 degrees C) three times at 2 h intervals. Initially, females showed greater locomotor activation by the drug than males, however after the second injection, males showed greater hyperlocomotion. After the third injection, 3 of 10 females and all of the males died. In the surviving females, we observed serotonin depletion in cortex and hippocampus, but catecholaminergic markers were unaltered. In Experiment 2, male and female rats were repeatedly injected with saline or 2, 5 or 10 mg/kg MDMA and body temperature was measured (ambient temperature 21.5 degrees C). After the third injection of 10 mg/kg MDMA, the MDMA-induced hyperthermia was greater in males than in females (about +0.8 degrees C); at the lower dose, no difference was observed. Probably because of the lower ambient temperature, only 1 female and 2 males succumbed to the MDMA treatment, and MDMA induced less serotonin depletion than in the first experiment, with no difference between females and males. Thus, pubescent males appear to be more sensitive than females to locomotor and hyperpyretic effects of MDMA. This sex-dependent effect, which is at variance with previously reported dimorphisms in psychostimulant effects, is discussed in terms of possible differences in dopamine D1 and D2 receptors at pubescence, or other factors related to drug metabolism. PMID:15951008

  12. Biotransformation and male rat-specific renal toxicity of diethyl ethyl- and dimethyl methylphosphonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumbach, K; Pähler, A; Deger, H M; Dekant, W

    2000-01-01

    Dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) is a widely used chemical. Diethyl ethylphosphonate (DEEP) has been proposed as a replacement for DMMP in several applications. A long-term carcinogenesis study with DMMP in rats and mice showed a significant increase in the incidence of kidney tumors after 2 years of exposure in male but not in female rats and both sexes of mice. DMMP is not genotoxic. Due to these findings, a role of alpha(2u)-globulin accumulation in organ-specific tumorigenicity may be possible. alpha(2u)-Globulin is a low-molecular-weight protein synthesized in male rats under androgen control. Several male rat specific renal carcinogens have been shown to bind to alpha(2u)-globulin and to impair the renal degradation of this protein. This impairment results in alpha(2u)-globulin accumulation in the kidney, lysosomal overload, cell death, cell proliferation, and finally, renal tumor induction. To further characterize the toxicology of DMMP and DEEP, we investigated the biotransformation of these compounds and their ability to induce alpha(2u)-globulin accumulation in kidney. Biotransformation of both DMMP and DEEP were studied in male and female rats after single oral doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg. 31P-NMR and GC/MS showed that unchanged DMMP was excreted with urine; methyl phosphonate was identified as the only metabolite in urine. Unchanged DEEP was also excreted with urine; in addition, ethyl ethylphosphonate and ethylphosphonate were urinary metabolites. The majority of the applied dose of both compounds was recovered in urine within 24 h indicating rapid absorption and excretion. No sex-differences in rates of formation or excretion of metabolites were seen. To investigate alpha(2u)-globulin accumulation in the kidney after DMMP and DEEP, male and female Fischer-344 rats were administered DMMP or DEEP daily for five consecutive days by gavage. DMMP doses were 500- and 1,000-mg/kg body weight (bw); due to marked toxicity, daily DEEP dose of 50 and 100 mg

  13. Effect of Testosterone on Carrageenone Induced Inflammation in Gonadectomized Male Rats

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    A Zarifkar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Different nociceptive and inflammatory responses to noxious stimuli in male and female animals imply that sex hormones may affect on inflammatory factors, induction and intensity of the inflammation. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of testosterone administration on carrageenone induced inflammation in gonadectomized male rats. Materials & methods: Forty male Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n=8. 1-The control rats without receiving any drug or surgical operation. 2-The sham – operated animals with surgical stress. 3-The gonadectomized rats, receiving 0.5 ml vehicle (olive oil i.p. 4-The gonadectomized rats, receiving testosterone enantate (6 mg/100 gr body weight in 0.5 ml vehicle i.p.. At the sixth day of gonadectomy operation, inflammation was induced by injection of 1% carrageenone in the right hind paw of rats. Edematous paw volume as an index of inflammation was determined by immersing it into the mercury container. Weight of paw in the mercury was measured and then the paw volume was calculated in relation to specific gravity of mercury (13.6gm/ml. Data were statistically analyzed by SPSS software using ANOVA. Results: The results showed that edematous paw volume significantly was reduced in testosterone enantate administrated gonadectomized rats compared to the control group (P<0.01. Conclusion: It can be concluded that high dose of testosterone causes attenuation of inflammatory response. The testosterone anti-inflammatory effect is probably due to inhibition of inflammatory factors (Interleukins production or decrease in receptors of inflammatory factors. Keywords: Testosterone, Carrageenone, Inflammation, Rats

  14. Respiratory Tract Lung Geometry and Dosimetry Model for Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Frederick J.; Asgharian, Bahman; Schroeter, Jeffry D.; Price, Owen; Corley, Richard A.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Jacob, Rick E.; Cox, Timothy C.; Kabilan, Senthil; Bentley, Timothy

    2015-07-24

    While inhalation toxicological studies of various compounds have been conducted using a number of different strains of rats, mechanistic dosimetry models have only had tracheobronchial (TB) structural data for Long-Evans rats, detailed morphometric data on the alveolar region of Sprague-Dawley rats and limited alveolar data on other strains. Based upon CT imaging data for two male Sprague-Dawley rats, a 15-generation, symmetric typical path model was developed for the TB region. Literature data for the alveolar region of Sprague-Dawley rats were analyzed to develop an eight-generation model, and the two regions were joined to provide a complete lower respiratory tract model for Sprague-Dawley rats. The resulting lung model was used to examine particle deposition in Sprague-Dawley rats and to compare these results with predicted deposition in Long-Evans rats. Relationships of various physiologic variables and lung volumes were either developed in this study or extracted from the literature to provide the necessary input data for examining particle deposition. While the lengths, diameters and branching angles of the TB airways differed between the two Sprague-Dawley rats, the predicted deposition patterns in the three major respiratory tract regions were very similar. Between Sprague-Dawley and Long-Evans rats, significant differences in TB and alveolar predicted deposition fractions were observed over a wide range of particle sizes, with TB deposition fractions being up to 3- to 4-fold greater in Sprague-Dawley rats and alveolar deposition being significantly greater in Long-Evans rats. Thus, strain-specific lung geometry models should be used for particle deposition calculations and interspecies dose comparisons.

  15. Effect of 8 weeks Resistance Training on BDNF and TrkB in the Hippocampus of Adult Male Rats

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    S Mojtahedi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Exercise enhances the synaptic plasticity and neuroprotective effects in the adult brain. However, it remains unknown that how plasticity molecules change following types of training. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of eight weeks resistance training on protein levels of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor(BDNF and receptor of TrkB, in the hippocampus of adult male rats. Methods: In this experimental study, twelve adult male rats, 8 weeks of age, with an average weight of 200 to 225 grams were randomly divided into two groups, control and exercise respectively. The exercise was to increase the weight on the ladder. 24 hours after their last training session. The animals were killed and the hippocampus was removed for further testing. ELISA determined changes in protein levels. Data were analyzed by independent t test. Results: There was a significant difference between train and control groups In protein level of variables statically (p≤0.05. In addition, protein levels of BDNF and TrkB in the hippocampus of rats increased. Conclusion: Resistance training is beneficial for promoting hippocampal plasticity associated with BDNF signaling and consequently functional and cognitive benefits.

  16. ANTIFERTILITY EFFECT OF THE MULTIGLYCOSIDES OF TRIPTERYGIUM WILFORDII (GTW) ON MALE RATS AND ITS MECHANISM OF ACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENQiao-Qin; CHENHui

    1989-01-01

    It has been reported that GTW caused infertility in male rats and mice, In the present study, GTW was administered orally at a daffy dose of 10 rag/kg, 6 days a week:for 8 weeks to adult male rats. After treatment with the drug, the body weight growth of the

  17. Survey for late-onset hypogonadism among old and middle-aged males in Shanghai communities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai Sun; Guo-Qing Liang; Xiang-Feng Chen; Ping Ping; Wen-Liang Yao; Shi-Jun Zhang; Bo Wang; Ying-Hao Sun; Zheng Li

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to investigate late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) in old and middle-aged males in Shanghai communities,using symptom score evaluation systems and measurements of sex hormone levels.One thousand cases of males aged 40-70 years were investigated.The aging male symptoms (AMS) scale and androgen deficiency in aging males (ADAM) questionnaire were used at the beginning of the investigation,followed by measurement of the sex hormone-related factors (total testosterone (TT),free testosterone (fT),sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and bioavailability of testosterone (Bio-T)).There were 977 valid questionnaires.The LOH-positive rates shown by AMS and ADAM were 59.88% and 84.65%,respectively; values increased with the age of the patients.There were 946 results related to sex hormone measurements,which showed the following results:TT was not related to aging (P>0.05); levels of SHBG increased with age; and fT and Bio-T decreased with age.There was a significant difference in fT between LOH-positive and LOH-negative patients,as shown by the ADAM.In summary,TT levels were not related to aging,even though SHBG did increase while fT and Bio-T decreased with aging.Clinically,the diagnosis of LOH cannot be based on serum TT level.

  18. Protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii manipulates mate choice in rats by enhancing attractiveness of males.

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    Shantala Arundathi Hari Dass

    Full Text Available Females in various species typically avoid males infected with parasites, while parasite-free males advertise their status through conspicuous phenotypic traits. This process selects for heritable resistance and reduces direct exposure of the female to parasites. Coevolving parasites are likely to attempt to circumvent this obstacle. In this paper, we demonstrate a case of parasitic manipulation of host mate choice. We report that Toxoplasma gondii, a sexually transmitted infection of brown rats, enhances sexual attractiveness of infected males. Thus under some evolutionary niches, parasites can indeed manipulate host sexual signaling to their own advantage.

  19. Changes in radiosensitivity of male sex hormones in rats maintained on kelthane contaminated feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alteration of sex hormones levels in male rats after whole body gamma irradiation (6.5 Gy) has been studied. The hormonal response of irradiated rats fed on experimental feed contaminated with organo chlorine insecticide 'kelthane' (200 mg/kg body weight) for different time intervals (3,6 and 12 weeks), has been also investigated. Investigations included measurements of testes/body weight ratio; Testosterone; Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH); luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin levels in serum and testes homogenate of treated rats. The data indicate that whole body gamma irradiation causes significant alteration in all tested parameters except for the testosterone level. Normal rats fed on 'kelthane' contaminated feed, showed significant alteration in all tested parameters, which increased with the prolongation of 'kelthane' exposure period. Double treatment of 'kelthane' and irradiation resulted in more pronounced alterations. It can be concluded that the male sex hormones in rats fed on 'kelthane', were more sensitive to whole body gamma irradiation. Moreover, male sex hormones have shown reliable reliable dose/effect relationship for either radiation or pesticide internal contamination. This suggests their possible use as markers in early diagnosis of radiation exposure and pesticides toxication syndromes. 3 tabs

  20. The Establishment of Metabolic Syndrome Model by Induction of Fructose Drinking Water in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norshalizah Mamikutty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Metabolic syndrome can be caused by modification of diet by means of consumption of high carbohydrate and high fat diet such as fructose. Aims. To develop a metabolic syndrome rat model by induction of fructose drinking water (FDW in male Wistar rats. Methods. Eighteen male Wistar rats were fed with FDW 20% and FDW 25% for a duration of eight weeks. The physiological changes with regard to food and fluid intake, as well as calorie intake, were measured. The metabolic changes such as obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, and hyperglycaemia were determined. Data was presented in mean ± SEM subjected to one-way ANOVA. Results. Male Wistar rats fed with FDW 20% for eight weeks developed significant higher obesity parameters compared to those fed with FDW 25%. There was hypertrophy of adipocytes in F20 and F25. There were also systolic hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperglycemia in both groups. Conclusion. We conclude that the metabolic syndrome rat model is best established with the induction of FDW 20% for eight weeks. This was evident in the form of higher obesity parameter which caused the development of the metabolic syndrome.

  1. Local oxytocin expression and oxytocin receptor binding in the male rat brain is associated with aggressiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calcagnoli, Federica; de Boer, Sietse F.; Beiderbeck, Daniela I.; Althaus, Monika; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Neumann, Inga D.

    2014-01-01

    We recently demonstrated in male wild-type Groningen rats that enhancing brain oxytocin (OXT) levels acutely produces marked pro-social explorative and anti-aggressive effects. Moreover, these pharmacologically-induced changes are moderated by the individual's aggressive phenotype, suggesting an inv

  2. Perinatal and chronic hypothyroidism impair behavioural development in male and female rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van N.; Rijntjes, E.; Heijning, van de B.J.

    2008-01-01

    Perinatal and chronic hypothyroidism impair behavioural development in male and female rats. EXP PHYSIOL 00(0) 000-000, 0000. - A lack of thyroid hormone, i.e. hypothyroidism, during early development results in multiple morphological and functional alterations in the developing brain. In the presen

  3. Morphofunctional state of reproductive system in the male-rats, which were intrauterine irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The changes in cytogenetic studies and morphofunctional state of reproductive system in the male-rats, which were intrauterine irradiated. The alterations in relative mass organs, increase of number sperm cells and abnormal form of sperm cells in epididymis were ascertained. (authors)

  4. A Coherent Pattern Among Social Behavior, Blood Pressure, Corticosterone and Catecholamine Measures in Individual Male Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FOKKEMA, DS; SMIT, K; VANDERGUGTEN, J; KOOLHAAS, JM

    1988-01-01

    Behavioral and physiological responses of 18 chronically cannulated male TMD-S3 rats were assessed during various social interactions with conspecifics, both with and without the possibility for physical contact (social vs. psychosocial stimulation). Response magnitudes (behavior, blood pressure, pl

  5. Postweaning housing conditions and partner preference and sexual behavior of neonatally ATD-treated male rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bakker (Julie)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractMale rats were neonatally treated with cholesterol or a substance that bloccks the aromatization of testosterone to estradiol (1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17-dione: ATD). At weaning (21 days) they were either housed alone or in small groups (2–3 animals) and tested for partner preference beha

  6. DIBROMOACETIC ACID AFFECTS REPRODUCTIVE COMPETENCE AND SPERM QUALITY IN THE MALE RAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have recently shown that Dibromoacetic acid (DBAA) alters sperm quality in short duration tests. n this study, male rats were gavaged with 0, 2, 10, 50, 250 mg DBAA/kg/d for up to 49 d. Interim. and terminal measurements of sperm quality & reproductive outcome were made. BAA c...

  7. Medical management of erectile dysfunction in aging males: is it too late to treat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Erectile dysfunction (ED is a common disorder among aging males. However, most aging males refuse to seek medical help and believe that ED is an irreversible event in the aging process. The purpose of this study was to describe the current medical management of ED in aging males and to examine whether it is too late to treat this disorder in these elderly men. From 2007 to 2008, 4507 patients diagnosed with ED were gathered from 46 centers in China; 4241 completed the study, 3837 of whom were treated with sildenafil. The 3837 patients were divided into five groups based on age (group A: 20-30 years; group B: 31-40 years; group C: 41-50 years; group D: 51-60 years; and group E: >60 years. After comparing pre- and posttreatment International Index of Erectile Function-Erectile Function domain (IIEF-EF questionnaires, Erection Hardness Scale (EHS, and IIEF Q13 ("How satisfied have you been with your overall sex life?", we discovered that the aging males had worse erectile function, erection hardness, and sexual satisfaction than the younger males (P < 0.001. After treatment, the improvement rates in the IIEF-EF, EHS, and IIEF Q13 scores were 107.0%, 83.1%, and 116.5%, respectively. The magnitude of these changes demonstrated significant differences among groups (P < 0.001. Accordingly, aging males are likely to benefit more from medical treatment. We propose that aging males should be informed that age is not a limiting factor for medical ED management, and it is never too late to treat.

  8. Synaptic number changes in the medial prefrontal cortex across adolescence in male and female rats: A role for pubertal onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drzewiecki, Carly M; Willing, Jari; Juraska, Janice M

    2016-09-01

    Adolescence is a unique period of development, marked by maturation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), a region important for executive functioning. During this time, the human PFC decreases in overall volume and thickness. Likewise in adolescent rodents, losses of neurons, dendrites, dendritic spines and neurotransmitter receptors have been documented within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), sometimes with sex and layer specificity. However, changes in the number of synapses during this time have not been examined. In the present study, we stereologically quantified the number of synaptophysin-immunoreactive boutons in the male and female rat mPFC across multiple time points from the juvenile period through adulthood (postnatal days (P) 25, 35, 45, 60 and 90). In females, there was a significant decrease in synaptophysin boutons between P35 and P45, coinciding with the onset of puberty. In males, there was no significant main effect of age on synaptophysin boutons; however, in both males and females, pubertal onset was associated with significant synaptic losses. These results suggest that puberty is a critical period for synaptic pruning within the rat mPFC, potentially contributing to maturation of adolescent executive function. Synapse 70:361-368, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27103097

  9. Potential urinary aging markers of 20-month-old rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xundou

    2016-01-01

    Urine is a very good source for biomarker discovery because it accumulates changes in the body. However, a major challenge in urinary biomarker discovery is the fact that the urinary proteome is influenced by various elements. To circumvent these problems, simpler systems, such as animal models, can be used to establish associations between physiological or pathological conditions and alterations in the urinary proteome. In this study, the urinary proteomes of young (two months old) and old rats (20 months old; nine in each group) were analyzed using LC-MS/MS and quantified using the Progenesis LC-MS software. A total of 371 proteins were identified, 194 of which were shared between the young and old rats. Based on criteria of a fold change ≥2, P < 0.05 and identification in each rat of the high-abundance group, 33 proteins were found to be changed (15 increased and 18 decreased in old rats). By adding a more stringent standard (protein spectral counts from every rat in the higher group greater than those in the lower group), eight proteins showed consistent changes in all rats of the groups; two of these proteins are also altered in the urinary proteome of aging humans. However, no shared proteins between our results and the previous aging plasma proteome were identified. Twenty of the 33 (60%) altered proteins have been reported to be disease biomarkers, suggesting that aging may share similar urinary changes with some diseases. The 33 proteins corresponded to 28 human orthologs which, according to the Human Protein Atlas, are strongly expressed in the kidney, intestine, cerebellum and lung. Therefore, the urinary proteome may reflect aging conditions in these organs. PMID:27330854

  10. Spontaneous Object Recognition Memory in Aged Rats: Complexity versus Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamiz, Fernando; Gallo, Milagros

    2012-01-01

    Previous work on the effect of aging on spontaneous object recognition (SOR) memory tasks in rats has yielded controversial results. Although the results at long-retention intervals are consistent, conflicting results have been reported at shorter delays. We have assessed the potential relevance of the type of object used in the performance of…

  11. Bladder function in female rats: effects of aging and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilfehrt, H M; Carson, C C; Marson, L

    In vivo anesthetized cystometrograms and in vitro bladder tissue strip responses were examined in three groups of female rats: young virgins (3 month), older virgins (8 month), and retired breeders (8-9 month). Significant age-related in vivo changes were observed including greater resting pressures, but smaller voided volumes, void durations and void-to-void intervals in older versus young virgin rats. There were significant age-related changes in the in vitro responses. Greater peak and steady state contractions to high K+-modified Krebs (80 mM) depolarization were observed in young animals compared to older animals. Plus, young virgins exhibited greater sensitivity but smaller maximal, normalized contractions to acetylcholine (ACh) than older virgins. Diminished responses to adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) were detected in young versus older virgin rats. Pregnancy-related changes were compared between retired breeders and their age-matched controls, older virgin rats. In vivo voided volumes were greater in the retired breeders than in the older virgins. Smaller in vitro steady state contractions to high K+-modified Krebs depolarization and smaller normalized contractions to maximal concentrations of ACh were observed in the retired breeders than in the older virgins. Retired breeders exhibited diminished relaxation responses to norepinephrine compared to older virgins. ATP produced greater dose-dependent responses and greater maximal contractions in the retired breeders compared to the older virgins. In conclusion, age-related changes were present even prior to the onset of senescence, and multiple pregnancies altered bladder function. PMID:10627081

  12. Detrimental effects of a high fat/high cholesterol diet on memory and hippocampal markers in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledreux, Aurélie; Wang, Xiuzhe; Schultzberg, Marianne; Granholm, Ann-Charlotte; Freeman, Linnea R

    2016-10-01

    High fat diets have detrimental effects on cognitive performance, and can increase oxidative stress and inflammation in the brain. The aging brain provides a vulnerable environment to which a high fat diet could cause more damage. We investigated the effects of a high fat/high cholesterol (HFHC) diet on cognitive performance, neuroinflammation markers, and phosphorylated Tau (p-Tau) pathological markers in the hippocampus of Young (4-month old) versus Aged (14-month old) male rats. Young and Aged male Fisher 344 rats were fed a HFHC diet or a normal control diet for 6 months. All animals underwent cognitive testing for 12days in a water radial arm maze to assess spatial and working reference memory. Hippocampal tissue was analyzed by immunohistochemistry for structural changes and inflammation, and Western blot analysis. Young and Aged rats fed the HFHC diet exhibited worse performance on a spatial working memory task. They also exhibited significant reduction of NeuN and calbindin-D28k immunoreactivity as well as an increased activation of microglial cells in the hippocampal formation. Western blot analysis of the hippocampus showed higher levels of p-Tau S202/T205 and T231 in Aged HFHC rats, suggesting abnormal phosphorylation of Tau protein following the HFHC diet exposure. This work demonstrates HFHC diet-induced cognitive impairment with aging and a link between high fat diet consumption and pathological markers of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:27343935

  13. The Effect of Pollen on Some Reproductive Parameters of Male Rats

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    Güldeniz Selmanoğlu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Honeybee pollen is consumed as natural food in healthy human diet in many European and Asian countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pollen use on some reproductive parameters. In this study, mature male rats were fed on pollen of three different plant sources (Trifolium spp., Raphanus spp. and Cistus spp. at 60 mg/per animal/ per day over a 30-day period. At the end of the treatment, testosterone levels of rats were analysed and weights of testis, epididymis, prostate and seminal vesicle were recorded. In addition, epididymal sperms were counted. There were increases in testosterone levels, sperm counts and daily sperm production of rats fed with pollen of Raphanus spp. and Cistus spp. There were no significant changes in absolute weights, except in prostate weights. Also there were no changes in relative testis,prostate and seminal vesicle weights of rats fed on pollen, but relative epididymis weights of rats in pollen groups decreased. The results of this study show that bee pollen caused an increase in testosterone level and sperm counts of male rats. We suggest that bee pollen has an androgenic effect.

  14. Prenatal exposure to aflatoxin B1: developmental, behavioral, and reproductive alterations in male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriya, Ch.; Reddy, P. Sreenivasula

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that aflatoxin B1 (AfB1) inhibits androgen biosynthesis as a result of its ability to form a high-affinity complex with the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein. The results of the present study demonstrate the postnatal effects of in utero exposure to AfB1 in the rat. Pregnant Wistar rats were given 10, 20, or 50 μg AfB1/kg body weight daily from gestation day (GD) 12 to GD 19. At parturition, newborns were observed for clinical signs and survival. All animals were born alive and initially appeared to be active. Male pups from control and AfB1-exposed animals were weaned and maintained up to postnatal day (PD) 100. Litter size, birth weight, sex ratio, survival rate, and crown-rump length of the pups were significantly decreased in AfB1-exposed rats when compared to controls. Elapsed time (days) for testes to descend into the scrotal sac was significantly delayed in experimental pups when compared to control pups. Behavioral observations such as cliff avoidance, negative geotaxis, surface rightening activity, ascending wire mesh, open field behavior, and exploratory and locomotory activities were significantly impaired in experimental pups. Body weights and the indices of testis, cauda epididymis, prostate, seminal vesicles, and liver were significantly reduced on PD 100 in male rats exposed to AfB1 during embryonic development when compared with controls. Significant reduction in the testicular daily sperm production, epididymal sperm count, and number of viable, motile, and hypo-osmotic tail coiled sperm was observed in experimental rats. The levels of serum testosterone and activity levels of testicular hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases were significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner with a significant increase in the serum follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone in experimental rats. Deterioration in the testicular and cauda epididymal architecture was observed in experimental rats. The results of fertility

  15. Canine length in wild male baboons: maturation, aging and social dominance rank.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Galbany

    Full Text Available Canines represent an essential component of the dentition for any heterodont mammal. In primates, like many other mammals, canines are frequently used as weapons. Hence, tooth size and wear may have significant implications for fighting ability, and consequently for social dominance rank, reproductive success, and fitness. We evaluated sources of variance in canine growth and length in a well-studied wild primate population because of the potential importance of canines for male reproductive success in many primates. Specifically, we measured maxillary canine length in 80 wild male baboons (aged 5.04-20.45 years from the Amboseli ecosystem in southern Kenya, and examined its relationship with maturation, age, and social dominance rank. In our analysis of maturation, we compared food-enhanced baboons (those that fed part time at a refuse pit associated with a tourist lodge with wild-feeding males, and found that food-enhanced males achieved long canines earlier than wild-feeding males. Among adult males, canine length decreased with age because of tooth wear. We found some evidence that, after controlling for age, longer canines were associated with higher adult dominance rank (accounting for 9% of the variance in rank, but only among relatively high-ranking males. This result supports the idea that social rank, and thus reproductive success and fitness, may depend in part on fighting ability mediated by canine size.

  16. Physiological investigations on the effect of olive and rosemary leaves extracts in male rats exposed to thioacetamide

    OpenAIRE

    Atef M. Al-Attar; Shawush, Nessreen A.

    2014-01-01

    Physiologically, it is known that thioacetamide (TAA) toxicity is generally associated with hepatic fibrosis induction, complicated metabolic disorders and health problems. The capability of extracts of olive and rosemary leaves to attenuate the severe physiological disturbances induced by thioacetamide (TAA) intoxication in male rats has been evaluated. Healthy male Wistar rats were used in the present study and were divided randomly into eight groups. Rats of the first group were served as ...

  17. Effect of Aging on Adipose Tissue Inflammation in the Knee Joints of F344BN Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yao; Huebner, Janet L; Kraus, Virginia B; Griffin, Timothy M

    2016-09-01

    The infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) secretes inflammatory mediators in osteoarthritic knees, but the effect of aging on IFP inflammation is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that aging increases basal and interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-stimulated IFP inflammation in 10-, 20-, and 30-month-old male F344BN F1-hybrid rats. IFPs were cultured ex vivo for 24 hours and treated ±1ng/mL IL-1β to simulate injury-induced inflammation. IFP inflammation was evaluated by measuring secreted cytokine concentrations and by quantitative expression of immunoregulatory and pro- and anti-adipogenic genes. With age, osteoarthritis pathology increased and IFP mass decreased. Although adipocyte size did not change with age, variation in adipocyte size was positively associated with synovial thickness independent of age whereas associations with cartilage damage were age dependent. In the absence of IL-1β, aging was associated with a significant increase in IFP secretion of tumor necrosis factor α by 67% and IL-13 by 35% and a reduction in the expression of immunoregulatory M2 macrophage genes. However, following an IL-1β challenge, adipogenesis markers decreased and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines increased independent of age. The lone exception was leptin, which decreased >70% with age. Thus, although aging promotes osteoarthritis risk by increasing basal inflammation, our findings also revealed a potentially protective effect of aging by decreasing IL-1β-stimulated leptin production. PMID:26450946

  18. Effects of propoxur on male fertility in wistar rat exposed neonatally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustave Kenfack

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Propoxur is a carbamate pesticide widely used in crop and foodstuff protection. They are known to cause a wide variety of symptoms in animals. Methods: Twenty four young male rats were exposed to 0.00, 1.73, 2.60 and 5.20 mg/kg body weight through oral intubation for 90 days. Results: The testis weight increased significantly (P 0.05 but the percentage of sperm motility decreased significantly (P 0.05 change was observed between the control and treated males for the litter size, viability rate and sex-ratio. Conclusions: Despite the impairment of seminal epithelia and sperm characteristics, male rats orally exposed to the studied doses of propoxur maintained their fertility at the 90th day of treatment. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(4.000: 898-902

  19. Sexual activity increases the number of newborn cells in the accessory olfactory bulb of male rats.

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    Wendy ePortillo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In rodents, sexual behavior depends on the adequate detection of sexually relevant stimuli. The olfactory bulb (OB is a region of the adult mammalian brain undergoing constant cell renewal by continuous integration of new granular and periglomerular neurons in the accessory (AOB and main (MOB olfactory bulbs. The proliferation, migration, survival, maturation, and integration of these new cells to the OB depend on the stimulus that the subjects received. We have previously shown that 15 days after females control (paced the sexual interaction an increase in the number of cells is observed in the AOB. No changes are observed in the number of cells when females are not allowed to control the sexual interaction. In the present study we investigated if in male rats sexual behavior increases the number of new cells in the OB. Male rats were divided in five groups: 1 males that did not receive any sexual stimulation, 2 males that were exposed to female odors, 3 males that mated for 1 h and could not pace their sexual interaction, 4 males that paced their sexual interaction and ejaculated 1 time and 5 males that paced their sexual interaction and ejaculated 3 times. All males received three injections of the DNA synthesis marker bromodeoxyuridine at 1h intervals, starting 1h before the beginning of the behavioral test. Fifteen days later, males were sacrificed and the brains were processed to identify new cells and to evaluate if they differentiated into neurons. The number of newborn cells increased in the granular cell layer (also known as the internal cell layer of the AOB in males that ejaculated one or three times controlling (paced the rate of the sexual interaction. Some of these new cells were identified as neurons. In contrast, no significant differences were found in the mitral cell layer (also known as the external cell layer and glomerular cell layer of the AOB. In addition, no significant differences were found between groups in the MOB in

  20. Social buffering enhances extinction of conditioned fear responses in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Kaori; Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2016-09-01

    In social species, the phenomenon in which the presence of conspecific animals mitigates stress responses is called social buffering. We previously reported that social buffering in male rats ameliorated behavioral fear responses, as well as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, elicited by an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS). However, after social buffering, it is not clear whether rats exhibit fear responses when they are re-exposed to the same CS in the absence of another rat. In the present study, we addressed this issue using an experimental model of extinction. High stress levels during extinction training impaired extinction, suggesting that extinction is enhanced when stress levels during extinction training are low. Therefore, we hypothesized that rats that had received social buffering during extinction training would not show fear responses to a CS, even in the absence of another rat, because social buffering had enhanced the extinction of conditioned fear responses. To test this, we subjected male fear-conditioned rats to extinction training either alone or with a non-conditioned male rat. The subjects were then individually re-exposed to the CS in a recall test. When the subjects individually underwent extinction training, no responses were suppressed in the recall test. Conversely, when the subjects received social buffering during extinction training, freezing and Fos expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and lateral amygdala were suppressed. Additionally, the effects of social buffering were absent when the recall test was conducted in a different context from the extinction training. The present results suggest that social buffering enhances extinction of conditioned fear responses. PMID:27158024

  1. Modification Of Cesium Toxicity By Prussian Blue In Adult Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purposes of this study were to asses the toxicological effects of stable cesium chloride, and investigate the possible therapeutic role of Prussian blue (PB) in adult male albino rats.Thirty two adult male albino rats were used in this study and classified to 4 groups (8 rats/group) as follows:1- Group one (G1): rats were considered as controls and kept on the commercial diet without any treatments.2-Group two (G2): treated with daily oral cesium chloride (50 mg/300 g body weight).3-Group three (G3): treated with daily oral Prussian blue (250 mg/rats).4-Group four (G4): treated with cesium chloride at a daily oral dose of 50 mg/300 g body weight + Prussian blue at a daily oral dose of 250 mg/rats.All animals were administered the CsCl and/or PB via intubation tube and the duration of this study was 35 consecutive days. Hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht%), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), folic acid, vitamin B12, total protein, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio, ALT, AST, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, blood glucose, urea, creatinine, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), sodium, potassium, calcium and inorganic phosphorous and body weight were determined in all groups.The data obtained revealed that the intake of stable cesium chloride in adult male rats caused significant decreases in the Hb, hematocrit, folic acid, vitamin B12 and potassium contents, with significant increases in WBC count, urea and creatinine levels and no effect on the other parameters. On the other hand, PB as a therapeutic agent caused significant amelioration in the changes produced by CsCl with variable degrees leading to the conclusion that the therapeutic agents might provide a protection against the toxicological effects of CsCl.

  2. Effect of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa alcoholic extract on spermatogenesis in the adult wistar male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sailani, M. R.; Moeini, H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of alcohol extracts of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa that were used traditionally in medieval Persian medicine as male contraceptive drugs, on spermatogenesis in the adult male rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanol extracts of these plants were obtained by the maceration method. The male rats were injected intraperitionaly with C. sativa and R. graveolens 5% ethanol extracts at dose of 20 mg/day for 20 consecutive days, ...

  3. Effects of aged garlic extract and endurance exercise on skeletal muscle FNDC-5 and circulating irisin in high-fat-diet rat models

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Dae Yun; Kwak, Hyo Bum; Lee, Sung Ryul; Cho, Yeun Suk; Song, In-Sung; Kim, Nari; Bang, Hyun Seok; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Ko, Kyung Soo; Park, Byung Joo; Han, Jin

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Irisin, a newly identified hormone, is associated with energy homeostasis. We investigated whether aged garlic extract (AGE) and exercise training intervention could improve body weight, insulin sensitivity, skeletal muscle fibronectin domain containing protein 5 (FNDC-5) levels, and plasma irisin in high-fat diet (HFD). MATERIALS/METHODS Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed a ND (normal diet, n = 5) or HFD (n = 28) for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, all rats were divided into 5 g...

  4. Melatonin Counteracts at a Transcriptional Level the Inflammatory and Apoptotic Response Secondary to Ischemic Brain Injury Induced by Middle Cerebral Artery Blockade in Aging Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Paredes, Sergio D.; Rancan, Lisa; Kireev, Roman; González, Alberto; Louzao, Pedro; González, Pablo; Rodríguez-Bobada, Cruz; García, Cruz; Vara, Elena; Tresguerres, Jesús A.F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aging increases oxidative stress and inflammation. Melatonin counteracts inflammation and apoptosis. This study investigated the possible protective effect of melatonin on the inflammatory and apoptotic response secondary to ischemia induced by blockade of the right middle cerebral artery (MCA) in aging male Wistar rats. Animals were subjected to MCA obstruction. After 24 h or 7 days of procedure, 14-month-old nontreated and treated rats with a daily dose of 10 mg/kg melatonin were s...

  5. The Effect of Two Different Modes of Exercise Swimming and Vitamin C Supplementation on Anemia Indices in Male Wistar Rat

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    Fatemeh Lashkari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It has been shown that long term swimming exercise leads to anemia. Therefore the aim of the present study was the effect of vitamin C supplement and maximal and submaximal swimming exercise on anemia in without iron deficiency rats.Methods: For this purpose, 60 male wistar rats (6-8 week age and 170 -190 g weight were divided into 6 groups: 1: Control rats (Con, n=10 2: Vitamin C supplementation (Con+C, n=10 3: Submaximal swimming (S, n=10 4: Submaximal swimming + Vitamin C (S+C, n=10 5: Maximal swimming (M, n=10 and 6: Maximal swimming and Vitamin C (M+C, n=10. Swimming training lasted for 10 weeks (5 day per week for 60 min day−1. Rats in the vitamin C-treated groups drank water containing 0.1% Vitamin C. Submaximal and maximal exercise training carried out for 1and 3 hours per session. 5 cc blood sample was take from vena cava vein for the determine serum levels of anemia indices (serum iron, Ferritin, TIBC،Hct, Hb, reticulocytes, RBC, MCV، MCH، MCHC.Results: Statistical analysis showed that the serum iron, ferritin, TIBC and MCV were not significantly different between groups. Reticulocytes in Con+C and S+C groups decreased significantly. Also, RBC and Hct decreased significantly in S and S+C groups, but Hb increased in S group in compared with the other groups. In this regard, MCH and MCHC significantly increased in S and S+C groups.Conclusion: 10 week submaximal swimming exercise increased Hb, MCH and MCHC but have no effect on serum iron, Ferritin and TIBC in without iron deficiency rats. On the other hand, high intensity swimming training had no effect on anemia indices. 0.1 % Vitamin C supplement and swimming training despite an insignificant increased in ferritin has not effected on iron status in without iron deficiency rats.

  6. Effect of Aqueous Flower Extract of Catharanthus roseus on Alloxan Induced Diabetes in Male Albino Rats

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    A. Natarajan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Catharanthus roseus is widely used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The present study was carried out to investigate the antidiabetic and hyperlipidemic potential of Catharanthus roseus on alloxan induced diabetes in male albino rats. Oral administration of aqueous extract of Catharanthus roseus at a dose of 250 mg, 350 mg, and 450 mg/kg body weight for 30 days to diabetic rats resulted in significant reduction in blood glucose, reduction in lipid profile and also prevented a decrease in body weight. Histological observation demonstrated significant fatty changes and inflammatory cell infiltrates in pancreas of diabetic rats. But, supplementation with Catharanthus roseus to diabetic rats significantly reduced the fatty changes and inflammatory cell infiltrates.

  7. Effect of a water-maze procedure on the redox mechanisms in brain parts of aged rats

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    Natalia Andreevna Krivova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Morris water maze (MWM is a tool for assessment of age-related cognitive deficits. In our work, MWM was used for appraisal of cognitive deficits in 11-month-old rats and investigation of the effect exerted by training in the Morris water maze on the redox mechanisms in rat brain parts. Young adult (3-month-old and aged (11-month-old male rats were trained in the water maze. Intact animals of the corresponding age were used as the reference groups. The level of pro- and antioxidant capacity in brain tissue homogenates was assessed using the chemiluminescence method.Cognitive deficits were found in 11-month-old rats: at the first day of training they showed only 30% of successful MWM trials. However, at the last training day the percentage of successful trials was equal for young adult and aged animals. This indicates that cognitive deficits in aged rats can be reversed by MWM training. Therewith, the MWM spatial learning procedure itself produces changes in different processes of redox homeostasis in 11-month-old and 3-month-old rats as compared to intact animals. Young adult rats showed a decrease in prooxidant capacity in all brain parts, while 11-month-old rats demonstrated an increase in antioxidant capacity in the olfactory bulb, pons + medulla oblongata and frontal lobe cortex. Hence, the MWM procedure activates the mechanisms that restrict the oxidative stress in brain parts. The obtained results may be an argument for further development of the animal training procedures aimed to activate the mechanisms responsible for age-related cognitive deficits. This may be useful not only for the development of training procedures applicable to human patients with age-related cognitive impairments, but also for their rehabilitation.

  8. Aged rat hearts are not more susceptible to ischemia-reperfusion injury in vivo: role of glutathione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichtweis, S; Leeuwenburgh, C; Bejma, J; Ji, L L

    2001-05-15

    The current study tested the hypothesis that ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) can cause more severe myocardial dysfunction and oxidative damage in senescent rats than young adult rats. Male Fischer 344 rats at the age of 6 (adult) and 24 (old) months were subjected to an open-chest heart surgery and randomly assigned to one of the following treatments: ischemia only (I), with the occlusion of the main descending branch of the left coronary artery (LCA) for 30 min; I-R, with the release of LCA occlusion for 20 min; or sham (S) operation. Heart mechanical performance was monitored using a fluid-filled catheter inserted in the right carotid artery and advanced to the left ventricle. Ischemia caused similar reductions of left ventricle systolic pressure (LVSP) and contractility (+/-dP/dt) in adult and aged hearts. After I-R, adult hearts regained 82% (Pischemic LVSP, whereas the aged hearts regained 91% (P>0.05) of LVSP. There was no significant difference in the reduction of +/-dP/dt with I-R between adult and aged hearts. Old rats had lower pre-ischemic heart rate than adult rats, however, I-R caused no reduction of heart rate, and a smaller reduction of pressure-rate double product in the aged rats (10%, P>0.05) than the adult rats (23%, P<0.01). Aged rats demonstrated greater myocardial and plasma glutathione (GSH) concentrations prior to surgery, and maintained higher GSH levels and GSH:glutathione disulfide (GSSG) ratio with I-R. Aged hearts also had higher GSH peroxidase, GSH reductase and GSH sulfur-transferase activities than adult hearts, while I-R induced lipid peroxidation was similar. It is concluded that senescent hearts with intact circulatory and neural inputs are not more susceptible to I-R injury than adult hearts during myocardial I-R, partly because they have a greater GSH antioxidant protection. PMID:11295168

  9. Influence of LHRH on sex hormone receptors in the amygdala of the male rat

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    Drekić Dmitar M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoradiography was used to localize estrogen-accumulating cells in the amygdala (AMY, of male rats. with LHRH hormones of seven adult male rats (86 days old. Seven mail rats were each treated with an injection of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH, 25 μg at 83 days old and 3 days later with 250 μCi 3H-estradiol (E2. A control group of male rats was also treated with 250 μCi 3H-E2, two hours before sacrifice. Both groups were sacrificed at 86 days old. In the control group of male rats, the nuclei of the AMY with the highest density of estrogen binding (receptors were nucleus medialis (NM, nucleus corticalis (NCO, nucleus centralis (NCE and massa intercalata (MI of pars corticomedialis of AMY. These nuclei belong to the phylogenetically older corticomedial part of the AMY. Light to moderate labeling was present in the phylogenetically younger nucleus basomedialis (NBM and nucleus basolateralis (NBL. Weak labeling was present in nucleus lateralis anterior (NLA and nucleus lateralis posterior (NLP both from the phylogenetically younger basolateral part of the adult male rat AMY. This distribution of estrogen receptors could be related to the biologically more significant influence of estrogen on the regions of response divergence than on regions of sensory convergence of AMY. In the male rats treated with LHRH 3H-E2, we noticed different a distribution of estrogen receptors, in the different types nuclei of neurons (nucleus of AMY. We observed a smaller number of estrogen receptors in the nucleus of pyramidal neurons, while in fusiform and stellate neurons, a similar number of receptors was present as in the control group for NM, NCO, and NCE. In massa intercalata we found a large numberof receptors in the nuclei of neurons, in the older pars AMY. In younger pars AMY, NBL and NLP, we noticed a significant decrease of receptors for estradiol in the nuclei of pyramidal and fusiform neurons.

  10. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Massularia acuminata Stem on Sexual Behaviour of Male Wistar Rats

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    M. T. Yakubu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ancient literature alluded to the use of a number of plants/preparations as sex enhancer. One of such botanicals is Massularia acuminata in which the stem has been acclaimed to be used as an aphrodisiac. Documented experiments or clinical data are, however, lacking. Therefore, this study was undertaken to evaluate the acclaimed aphrodisiac activity of M. acuminata stem. Sixty male rats were completely randomized into 4 groups (A–D of 15 each. Rats in group A (control were administered with 1 mL of distilled water (the vehicle while those in groups B, C, and D were given same volume containing 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg body weight of the extract, respectively. Sexual behaviour parameters were monitored in the male rats for day 1 (after a single dose, day 3 (after three doses, once daily, and day 5 (after five doses, once daily by pairing with a receptive female (1 : 1. The male serum testosterone concentration was also determined. Cage side observation on the animals revealed proceptive behaviour (ear wiggling, darting, hopping, and lordosis by the receptive female rats and precopulatory behaviour (chasing, anogenital sniffing and mounting by the extract-treated male rats. The extract at 500, and 1000 mg/kg body weight significantly (P<.05 increased the frequencies of mount and intromission. In addition, the ejaculation latency was significantly prolonged (P<.05. The latencies of mount and intromission were reduced significantly whereas ejaculation frequency increased. The extract also reduced the postejaculatory interval of the animals. Computed percentages of index of libido, mounted, intromitted, ejaculated and copulatory efficiency were higher in the extract treated animals compared to the distilled water-administered control whereas the intercopulatory interval decreased significantly. The extract also significantly (P<.05 increased the serum testosterone content of the animals except in those administered with 250 mg/kg body

  11. A Mistaken Account of the Age-Crime Curve: Response to Males and Brown (2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Elizabeth P.; Steinberg, Laurence; Piquero, Alex R.

    2014-01-01

    The present article responds to Males and Brown's "Teenagers' High Arrest Rates: Features of Young Age or Youth Poverty?" which claims that the widely observed pattern of crime rates peaking in late adolescence or early adulthood is an artifact of age differences in poverty. We note that the authors' interpretation of…

  12. [Transaminase activity of the cortical layer of the kidney of rats of different ages and sex after administration of hydrocortisone and insulin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletaeva, K A

    1971-01-01

    Response of cortical layer of rat kidney to separate and combined administration of hydrocortisone and insulin, as manifested by the activity of aspartate-alpha-ketoglutarate transaminase (Asp-T) and alanine-alpha-ketoglutarate transaminase (Ala-T), varied in males and females of different age. Prolonged administration of insulin to normal preadolescent rats and to adult males and females did not affect the activity of Asp-T and Ala-T in the cortical layer of kidney. During simultaneous prolonged administration of hydrocortisone and insulin to preadolescent male rats, there occurred no increase in the activity of Asp-T induced by administration of hydrocortisone alone. During simultaneous prolonged administration of hydrocortisone and insulin to adult male rats, activity of Asp-T of the cortical layer of kidney remained at the same level at after administration of hydrocortisone alone. PMID:5317624

  13. Age-specific forced polymorphism: implications of ontogenetic changes in morphology for male mating tactics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irschick, Duncan J; Lailvaux, Simon P

    2006-01-01

    Age-specific forced polymorphism is the presence of two or more distinct phenotypes (here we consider only males) that occur in separate sexually mature age groups (e.g., horns in older males but not younger males). The life-stage morph maturation hypothesis posits that all younger males that possess a particular structure can transform into older males with a different structure, most likely via the influence of hormones. The life-stage morph selection hypothesis posits that polymorphism is due to intense selection resulting in a highly nonrandom sample of younger males surviving to become older males, thus leading to different mean phenotypes in different age groups. We conducted an extensive review of literature from the past 20 years (1983-2003) for cases of age-specific forced polymorphism. Overall, we found only a few cases that fit our criteria of age-specific forced polymorphism, and we argue that most (e.g., orangutans, elephant seals) have likely arisen via the life-stage morph maturation mechanism, but we also present several examples (e.g., green anole lizards) that appear to be candidates for life-stage morph selection. However, none of the reviewed studies provided enough information (e.g., age of morphs, growth patterns of the morphological structure) to definitively invoke either of the two mechanisms. We suggest that age-specific forced polymorphism is more common than reflected in this review and that future studies should gather demographic and laboratory data that will directly compare the life-stage morph maturation and life-stage morph selection hypotheses. PMID:16380929

  14. Both Castration and Goserelin Acetate Ameliorate Myocardial Ischemia Reperfusion Injury and Apoptosis in Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Najah R.; Yusif, Fadhil G.; Yousif, Maitham; Jaen, Karrar K.

    2014-01-01

    Although reperfusion of an ischemic organ is essential to prevent irreversible tissue damage, it may amplify tissue injury. This study investigates the role of endogenous testosterone in myocardial ischemia reperfusion and apoptosis in male rats. Material and method. Twenty four male rats were randomized into 4 equal groups: Group (1), sham group, rats underwent the same anesthetic and surgical procedure as the control group except for LAD ligation; Group (2), Active control group, rats underwent LAD ligation; Group (3), castrated, rats underwent surgical castration, left 3wks for recovery, and then underwent LAD ligation; and Group (4), Goserelin acetate treated, rats received 3.6 mg of Goserelin 3 wks before surgery and then underwent LAD ligation. At the end of experiment, plasma cTn I, cardiac TNF-α, IL1-β, ICAM-1, and Apoptosis level were measured and histological examination was made. Results. Compared to sham group, the levels of myocardial TNF-α, IL-1β, ICAM-1, apoptosis, and plasma cTn I were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in control group and all rats showed significant myocardial injury (P < 0.05). Castration and Goserelin acetates significantly counteract the increase in myocardial levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, ICAM-1, plasma cTn I, and apoptosis (P < 0.05) and significantly reduce (P < 0.05) the severity of myocardial injury. We conclude that castration and Goserelin acetates ameliorate myocardial I/R injury and apoptosis in rats via interfering with inflammatory reactions. PMID:24729888

  15. The metabolic clearance rate of corticosterone in lean and obese male Zucker rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The obese Zucker rat is an animal model of human juvenile-onset obesity. These rats exhibit numerous endocrine and metabolic abnormalities. Adrenalectomy of obese rats has been shown to reduce or reverse several of these abnormalities, thereby implying that corticosterone may contribute to the expression of obesity in this animal. Furthermore, it has been shown that the circadian rhythm of plasma corticosterone is disturbed in obese Zucker rats resulting in elevated morning plasma corticosterone concentrations in obese rats as compared to lean rats. In a effort to better elucidate the mechanism of the elevated morning levels of plasma corticosterone, the metabolic clearance rate of corticosterone was determined in the morning for lean and obese male Zucker rats (12 to 20 weeks). Additionally, the biliary and urinary excretion of labeled corticosterone and/or its metabolites were determined. The metabolic clearance rate of corticosterone was significantly greater in obese rats than in their lean counterparts. Both the metabolic clearance rate and the volume of compartments significantly correlated with body weight. No correlation was found between body weight and the elimination rate constant. The increased metabolic clearance rate of obese rats appeared to be due to an increase in the physiologic distribution of corticosterone and not to an alteration in the enzymes responsible for corticosterone metabolism. It appears that the metabolic clearance rate of corticosterone in obese Zucker rats does not contribute to elevated morning concentrations of plasma corticosterone previously observed in these animals. It suggests that the adrenal corticosterone secretion rate must actually be greater than one would expect from the plasma corticosterone concentrations alone

  16. Male Roman high and low avoidance rats show different patterns of copulatory behaviour: comparison with Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Fabrizio; Corda, Maria Giuseppa; Melis, Maria Rosaria; Piludu, Maria Antonietta; Giorgi, Osvaldo; Argiolas, Antonio

    2014-03-29

    Roman high- (RHA) and low-avoidance (RLA) rats, selectively bred for, respectively, rapid vs. extremely poor acquisition of avoidant behaviour in the shuttle-box, display different coping strategies when exposed to aversive environmental conditions: RLA rats are reactive copers and show hyperemotional behaviour characterized by hypomotility and freezing, while RHA rats show a proactive coping behaviour aimed at gaining control over the stressor. RHA rats also display a robust sensation/novelty seeking profile, high baseline levels of impulsivity, and marked preference for, and intake of, natural and drug rewards. This study shows that the Roman lines also differ in sexual behaviour, a main source of natural reward. Thus, male RHA rats engaged in copulatory activity with a receptive female showing more mounts, intromissions and ejaculations in the first copulation test as compared with their RLA counterparts and Sprague Dawley rats used as an external reference strain. Such differences decreased only partially in subsequent copulation tests, with RHA rats always showing higher levels of sexual motivation and performance than RLA rats. Accordingly, analysis of copulatory parameters of five copulation tests performed at 3-day intervals confirmed that the Roman lines display different patterns of copulatory activity that persist after stabilization of copulatory behaviour by sexual experience. Finally, the weight of the testes, epididymides and seminal vesicles increased to a similar extent in both Roman lines after sexual activity. These results are discussed in terms of the relative contribution of differences in brain neurotransmission (mainly dopamine) and neuroendocrine function to the different patterns of copulatory behaviour of the Roman lines. PMID:24472324

  17. The effect of age and gender on glucuronidation and sulphation in rat liver: a study using paracetamol as a model substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, K; Herd, B

    1993-01-01

    The effect of age and sex on glucuronidation and sulphation was studied in vitro in rat liver fractions, using paracetamol (acetaminophen) as substrate. Glucuronidation was more rapid in females; sulphation in males. Age was not a determinant of either metabolic pathway in either sex. PMID:15374341

  18. The influence of age on the female/male ratio of treated incidence rates in depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderer Peter

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor data exist on the influence of psychosocial variables on the female/male ratio of depression because of the small number of cases and the resulting limited numbers of variables available for investigation. For this investigation a large number of first admitted depressed patients (N = 2599 was available which offered the unique opportunity to calculate age specific sex ratios for different marital and employment status categories. Methods Age and sex specific population based depression rates were calculated for first ever admissions for single year intervals. Moving averages with interpolated corrections for marginal values in the age distribution were employed. Results For the total group the female/male ratio of depression showed an inverted U-shape over the life-cycle. This pattern was influenced by the group of married persons, which showed a sex-ratio of 3:1 between the age of 30–50, but ratios of around 1:1 at younger and older ages. For not married persons the female/male ratio was already around 2:1 at the age of 18 and rose to 2.5:1 in mid-life and declined to 1 at around 55. The almost parallel decline of depression rates in employed men and women resulted in a female/male ratio of about 2:1 from age 18 to age 50 and became 1 after the age of 60. The female/male ratio among the not employed was about 1, in mid-life it became negative. Conclusions Our analyses show that the gender-gap in first admitted depressed patients is age dependent and that psychosocial factors modify the sex ratio.

  19. Neurotoxic effects induced by endosulfan exposure during pregnancy and lactation in female and male rat striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, Anunciación; Pereiro, Natividad

    2013-09-01

    Possible neurotoxic effects induced by endosulfan exposure during pregnancy and lactation in striatum of Sprague-Dawley female and male offspring rats have been evaluated. Dams were treated orally with 0.61 or 6.12mg of endosulfan/kg/day from the beginning of gestation until weaning. At postnatal day 60 offspring were sacrificed. We studied variations of norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin content in striatum by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) in these animals. Dopamine and serotonin metabolism was also determined. Endosulfan inhibits the striatal aminergic systems in adult male rats by decreasing norepinephrine and serotonin concentration and dopamine and serotonin metabolism. However, in adult female rats, only a diminution of norepinephrine content and an increase of dopamine and serotonin content were observed after endosulfan administration at the dose of 6.12mg/kg/day, whereas the concentration and the metabolism of these biogenic amines were not with the dose of 0.61mg/kg/day. Gender differences emerge in the striatal aminergic system susceptibility to endosulfan exposure during the early life stages, being the neurotoxic effects of this organochlorine insecticide higher in male than in female rats. PMID:23702353

  20. Age-graded risks for commercial sexual exploitation of male and female youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Joan A; Piquero, Alex R

    2014-06-01

    Emerging evidence indicates male youth are affected by commercial sexual exploitation (CSE). However, most studies investigating risk markers influencing age of onset of CSE have focused on vulnerabilities of girls and women. Using a sample of 1,354 serious youthful offenders (of whom approximately 8% of males and females reported being paid for sex), the current study assessed whether risks associated with age of onset of CSE for girls and young women operated similarly in boys and young men. Findings showed that African American male youth were at heightened risk for CSE, while female youth of all races/ethnicities were at similar risk. For all youth, maternal substance use and earlier age of first sex were associated with early age of onset of CSE. For male youth, experiencing rape and substance use dependency were associated with early age of onset. Psychotic symptoms, likely experienced as social alienation, were associated with both early and late age of onset. For all youth, lower educational attainment was associated with CSE beginning in later adolescence or young adulthood. In addition, substance use dependency was linked to late age of onset for female youth. Implications of the study findings for theory development and application to CSE are noted. PMID:24366965

  1. Cytogenetic changes in the liver of progeny of irradiated male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transgenerational transmission of radiation damage of rat genom was studied on the basis of cytogenetic changes in somatic cells (hepatocytes). It was found, that the irradiation of rat males with dose of 3 Gy of gamma radiation caused latent cytogenetic damage to the liver, which was expressed during the course of an induced proliferation of hepatocytes (by partial hepatectomy) by lower proliferative activity and a high frequency of chromosomal aberrations. In the progeny of irradiated males (in the F1 generation), the radiation damage to DNA was manifested by similar changes, i.e. by lower proliferation activity and increase in ''spontaneous'' chromosomal aberration occurrence in liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy. Irradiating the progeny of irradiated males (the total radiation load of the progeny being 3 Gy+3 Gy) caused slighter changes in compared with irradiating the progeny of non-irradiated control males (the total radiation load of the progeny being 0 Gy+3 Gy), which suggests some kind of adaptive response, which was also found in other experimental systems and parameters. An analogous course of RNA and DNA quantitative changes in the liver of the F0 and F1 generations of rats confirms the partial transmission of radiation damage of genom to the progeny. (author)

  2. Gonadal Hormones Rapidly Enhance Spatial Memory and Increase Hippocampal Spine Density in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacome, Luis F; Barateli, Ketti; Buitrago, Dina; Lema, Franklin; Frankfurt, Maya; Luine, Victoria N

    2016-04-01

    17β-estradiol (E2) rapidly, within minutes, activates behaviors and cognition by binding to membrane estrogen receptors, activating cell signaling cascades and increasing dendritic spines. In female rodents, E2 enhances spatial memory within 2-4 hours, and spine density is increased in the CA1 area of the hippocampus within 30-60 minutes. Although chronic gonadal hormone treatments in male rats alter cognition and spines/spine synapses and acute hormone effects occur in hippocampal slices, effects of acute, in vivo hormone administration in males are unknown. Therefore, we assessed rapid effects of E2 (20 μg/kg) and testosterone (T) (750 μg/kg) on spatial memory using the object placement task and on hippocampal spine density using Golgi impregnation. Orchidectomized rats received hormones immediately after the training trial and were tested for retention 2 hours later. Vehicle-injected orchidectomized males spent equal time exploring objects in the old and new locations, but E2- or T-treated subjects spent more time exploring objects at the new location, suggesting enhanced memory. Both hormones also increased spine density in CA1, but not the dentate gyrus, by 20%-40% at 30 minutes and 2 hours after injections. This report is the first, to our knowledge, to show E2 and T enhancements of memory and spine density within such a short time frame in male rats. PMID:26844375

  3. Activation of PPAR by Rosiglitazone Does Not Negatively Impact Male Sex Steroid Hormones in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mansour

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR activation decreased serum testosterone (T in women with hyperthecosis and/or polycystic ovary syndrome and reduced the conversion of androgens to estradiol (E2 in female rats. This implies modulation of female sex steroid hormones by PPAR. It is not clear if PPAR modulates sex steroid hormones in diabetic males. Because PPAR activation by thiazolidinedione increased insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes, understanding the long term impact of PPAR activation on steroid sex hormones in males is critical. Our objective was to determine the effect of PPAR activation on serum and intratesticular T, luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and E2 concentrations in male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rats treated with the PPAR agonist rosiglitazone (a thiazolidinedione. Treatment for eight weeks increased PPAR mRNA and protein in the testis and elevated serum adiponectin, an adipokine marker for PPAR activation. PPAR activation did not alter serum or intratesticular T concentrations. In contrast, serum T level but not intratesticular T was reduced by diabetes. Neither diabetes nor PPAR activation altered serum E2 or gonadotropins FSH and LH concentrations. The results suggest that activation of PPAR by rosiglitazone has no negative impact on sex hormones in male ZDF rats.

  4. Lipid Lowering Effect of Punica granatum L. Peel in High Lipid Diet Fed Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Sadeghipour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The antilipidemic effect of hydroethanolic extract of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L. was investigated in high lipid diet fed male rats. Intraperitoneally administration of pomegranate peel extract (50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight for 23 days on the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, alkaline phosphatase (AP, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT in high lipid diet fed male rats was evaluated. Treatment of pomegranate extract decreased body weight in treated rats, significantly. Administration of the plant extract significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, alkaline phosphatise, AST, and ALT levels, whereas it increased serum HDL-C in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline control group. Also, histopathological study showed that treatment of pomegranate peel extract attenuates liver damage in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline group. It is concluded that the plant should be considered as an excellent candidate for future studies on dyslipidemia.

  5. Cypermethrin induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rats: protective role of Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Poonam; Huq, Amir Ul; Singh, Rambir

    2013-09-01

    The present study was designed to investigate role of ethanolic extract of Tribulus terrestris (EETT) against alpha-cypermethrin induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rats. 24 male Wistar rats weighing about 250-300g were divided in four groups. Group-I was control. alpha-cypermethrin (3.38 mg kg-1b.wt.) was given to group-IlI for 28 days. In Group-Ill, alpha-cypermethrin and EETT (100 mg kg -1b.wt.) were administered in combination for 28 days. Rats in group-IV were given EETT for 28 days. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed, testes and epididymis were removed and sperm characteristics, sex hormones and various biochemical parameters were studied. Decrease in weight of testes and epididymis, testicular sperm head count, sperm motility, live sperm count, serum testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), leutinizing hormone (LH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), total protein content and increase in sperm abnormalities and lipid peroxidation (LPO) level was observed in rats exposed to cypermethrin. In combination group-Ill, EETT treatment ameliorated alpha-cypermethrin induced damage. EETT treatment in group-IV increased testes and epididymis weight, sperm head counts, sperm motility, live sperm counts, testosterone, FSH, LH, GSH, CAT, SOD, GST, GR, GPx and total protein content. The study suggested that Tribulus terrestris plant possess reproductive system enhancement and antioxidant activity. PMID:24558798

  6. Effects of Toxoplasma gondii infection on anxiety, depression and ghrelin level in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvin, Zareian; Iraj, Mirzaii Dizgah; Minoo, Shaddel; Fatemeh, Khodabandehloo

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection on anxiety, depression and ghrelin level in male rats. Twenty four male rats were assessed in two equal groups. T. gondii tachyzoite (ip) were injected in infected group and control group received (2 ml) physiological serum (ip). Elevated plus Maze and swimming tests were used to assess anxiety and depression in rats respectively. The ghrelin and T. gondii IgG serum levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay kits. The Student's t test and Pearson correlation coefficient were used. The ghrelin serum level was significantly lower in the infected rats than control (P = 0.03). There were no significant differences in the depression and anxiety behavior between two groups. However, here were no significant correlations between ghrelin level and anxiety or depression in rats. It seems that latent T. gondii infection decreases the ghrelin serum level but does not change anxiety and depression like behaviors. PMID:27605768

  7. Biochemical studies on gamma irradiated male rats fed on whey protein concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study carried out to investigate the possible role of whey protein protein concentrate in ameliorating some biochemical disorders induced in gamma irradiated male rats. Forty eight male albino rats were divided into four equal groups: Group 1 fed on normal diet during experimental period. Group 2 where the diet contain 15 % whey protein concentrate instead of soybean protein . Group 3 rats were exposed to whole body gamma radiation with single dose of 5 Gy and fed on the normal diet. Group 4 rate exposed to 5 Gy then fed on diet contain 15 % whey protein concentrate, the rats were decapitated after two and four weeks post irradiation. Exposure to whole body irradiation caused significant elevation of serum ALT, AST, glucose, urea, creatinine and total triiodothyronine with significant decrease in total protein, albumin and thyroxin. Irradiated rats fed on whey protein concentrate revealed significant improvement of some biochemical parameters. It could be conclude that whey protein concentrate may be considered as a useful protein source for reducing radiation injury via metabolic pathway.

  8. Budget Constraints Affect Male Rats' Choices between Differently Priced Commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wingerden, Marijn; Marx, Christine; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Demand theory can be applied to analyse how a human or animal consumer changes her selection of commodities within a certain budget in response to changes in price of those commodities. This change in consumption assessed over a range of prices is defined as demand elasticity. Previously, income-compensated and income-uncompensated price changes have been investigated using human and animal consumers, as demand theory predicts different elasticities for both conditions. However, in these studies, demand elasticity was only evaluated over the entirety of choices made from a budget. As compensating budgets changes the number of attainable commodities relative to uncompensated conditions, and thus the number of choices, it remained unclear whether budget compensation has a trivial effect on demand elasticity by simply sampling from a different total number of choices or has a direct effect on consumers' sequential choice structure. If the budget context independently changes choices between commodities over and above price effects, this should become apparent when demand elasticity is assessed over choice sets of any reasonable size that are matched in choice opportunities between budget conditions. To gain more detailed insight in the sequential choice dynamics underlying differences in demand elasticity between budget conditions, we trained N=8 rat consumers to spend a daily budget by making a number of nosepokes to obtain two liquid commodities under different price regimes, in sessions with and without budget compensation. We confirmed that demand elasticity for both commodities differed between compensated and uncompensated budget conditions, also when the number of choices considered was matched, and showed that these elasticity differences emerge early in the sessions. These differences in demand elasticity were driven by a higher choice rate and an increased reselection bias for the preferred commodity in compensated compared to uncompensated budget conditions

  9. Budget Constraints Affect Male Rats' Choices between Differently Priced Commodities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijn van Wingerden

    Full Text Available Demand theory can be applied to analyse how a human or animal consumer changes her selection of commodities within a certain budget in response to changes in price of those commodities. This change in consumption assessed over a range of prices is defined as demand elasticity. Previously, income-compensated and income-uncompensated price changes have been investigated using human and animal consumers, as demand theory predicts different elasticities for both conditions. However, in these studies, demand elasticity was only evaluated over the entirety of choices made from a budget. As compensating budgets changes the number of attainable commodities relative to uncompensated conditions, and thus the number of choices, it remained unclear whether budget compensation has a trivial effect on demand elasticity by simply sampling from a different total number of choices or has a direct effect on consumers' sequential choice structure. If the budget context independently changes choices between commodities over and above price effects, this should become apparent when demand elasticity is assessed over choice sets of any reasonable size that are matched in choice opportunities between budget conditions. To gain more detailed insight in the sequential choice dynamics underlying differences in demand elasticity between budget conditions, we trained N=8 rat consumers to spend a daily budget by making a number of nosepokes to obtain two liquid commodities under different price regimes, in sessions with and without budget compensation. We confirmed that demand elasticity for both commodities differed between compensated and uncompensated budget conditions, also when the number of choices considered was matched, and showed that these elasticity differences emerge early in the sessions. These differences in demand elasticity were driven by a higher choice rate and an increased reselection bias for the preferred commodity in compensated compared to

  10. Sensibility of male rats fertility against olive oil, Nigella sativa oil and pomegranate extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sherif W Mansour; Sibghatullah Sangi; Sree Harsha; Mueen A Khaleel; A R N Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To clarify the modulatory effects of daily consumption of pomegranate extract (PE), olive oil (OO) and Nagilla sativa oil (NSO) on antioxidant activity, sperm quality and pituitary-testicular axis of adult male wistar rats. Methods:Thirty-two adult male Wistar rats were divided into four equal groups, eight rats each. Using rat gastric tubes, 1.0 mL distilled water, 1.0 mL PE, 0.4 mL NSO and 0.4 mL OO were orally administered daily for 6 weeks in the first, second, third and fourth groups, respectively. Reproductive organs, body weight, sperm criteria, testosterone, FSH, LH, inhibin-B, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzyme activities were investigated. At the end of the study protocol, analyses occurred at the same time. Data were analysed by ANOVA test and P<0.05 was considered to be a significant value. Results:In all studied groups, malondialdehyde level was significantly decreased accompanied with an increases in glutathione peroxidase and glutathione. Rats treated with PE showed an increase in catalase activities accompanied with an increase in sperm concentration which was also observed in NSO group. In PE treated group, sperm motility was also increased accompanied with decreased abnormal sperm rate. NSO, OO and PE treated groups shows an insignificant effect on testosterone, inhibin-B, FSH and LH in comparison with control group. Conclusions:These results show that administration of PE, NSO and OO could modify sperm characteristics and antioxidant activity of adult male wistar rats.

  11. Risk assessment of d-limonene: an example of male rat-specific renal tumorigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hard, G C; Whysner, J

    1994-01-01

    The naturally occurring food constituent d-limonene has been found to cause tumors at high doses only in the kidney of the male rat in association with the development of hyaline droplet nephropathy. In contrast, neither kidney tumors nor the associated nephropathy have been found in female rats or mice at much higher doses. Adult male rats produce large quantities of a specific low-molecular-weight protein in the liver, which is known as alpha 2U-globulin (alpha 2U-g). With administration of sufficient doses of d-limonene to male rats, this protein has been found to accumulate excessively in the P2 segment cells of renal proximal tubules, resulting in hyaline droplet formation as a manifestation of protein overload. Hyaline droplet accumulation is the first stage in a unique sequence of nephropathic lesions (also known as alpha 2U-g nephropathy), including granular casts in the outer medulla and linear mineralization in the papilla. The mechanism underlying protein accumulation appears to be the reversible binding of chemical to alpha 2U-g with subsequent prolongation of its half-life in the tubule cell. In the case of d-limonene, the minor metabolite d-limonene-1,2-oxide has been shown to be the primary chemical species that binds reversibly to alpha 2U-g, impeding the normal process of lysosomal proteinase degradation of alpha 2U-g. The ensuing nephropathy is associated with a sustained increase in compensatory renal tubule cell proliferation, which provides the putative mechanistic link with renal tumor formation possibly through tumor promotion of spontaneously initiated cells or enhanced spontaneous mutagenesis. This proposed mechanism has been supported by additional information, including negative genotoxicity tests for d-limonene and its oxide metabolites, experimentally verified tumor promotion, and enhanced cell proliferation primarily in P2 segment tubule cells in male F344 rats, but no such effects in the alpha 2U-g-deficient NBR rat. The mechanism of

  12. Contraceptive effect of Curcuma longa (L.) in male albino rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PurohitAshok; BhagatMeenakshi

    2004-01-01

    Aim:To study the contraceptive effect of the crude extracts of Curcuma longa in male albino rats.Methods:Rats were fed orally with Curcuma longa aqueous and 70% alcoholic extract for 60 days (500 mg·kg-1·day-1).Results:A reduction in sperm motility and density was observed in both the treated groups.Conclusion:Curcuma longa may have affected the androgen synthesis either by inhibiting the Leydig cell function or the hypothalamus pituitary axis and as a result,spermatogenesis is arrested.(Asian J Androl 2004 Mar;6:71-74)

  13. Male rats show an indifference-avoidance response for increasing concentrations of the artificial sweetener sucralose.

    OpenAIRE

    Bello, Nicholas T.; Hajnal, Andras

    2005-01-01

    Sucralose is a non-nutritive halogenated sucrose derivative that has been described by humans as tasting predominately sweet with little or no aftertaste. In this study we examined the preference for sucralose in adult male Sprague Dawley rats. A standard 24 hr two-bottle test was used to compare a wide range of sucralose concentrations (0.0003–10g/L; 0.8 μM–25 mM) with water. The rats did not prefer sucralose to water at low concentrations (0.0003–0.3 g/L) and avoided sucralose at high conce...

  14. Protein and energy metabolism of young male Wistar rats fed conjugated linoleic acid as structured triacylglycerol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, H.; Hansen, C. H.; Mu, Huiling;

    2010-01-01

    Twelve 4-week-old male Wistar rats weighing 100 g were fed diets semi-ad libitum for 22 d containing either 1.5% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA-diet) or high oleic sunflower oil (Control-diet). The CLA was structured triacylglycerol with predominantly cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 fatty aci...... isomers in the inner position and oleic acid in the other positions of the glycerol molecule. The rats were kept individually in metabolic cages. From days 8-16 energy, nitrogen (N) and carbon...

  15. Determination of the lactate threshold and maximal blood lactate steady state intensity in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Rafael Rodrigues; Cunha, Verusca Najara de Carvalho; Segundo, Paulo Russo; Moreira, Sérgio Rodrigues; Kokubun, Eduardo; Campbell, Carmen Sílvia Grubert; de Oliveira, Ricardo Jacó; Simões, Herbert Gustavo

    2009-08-01

    The reliability of the lactate threshold (LT) determined in aged rats and its validity to identify an exercise intensity corresponding to the maximal blood lactate steady state (MLSS) were analyzed. Eighteen male aged Wistar rats (approximately 365 days) were submitted to two incremental swimming tests until exhaustion, consisting of an initial load corresponding to 1% of body mass (BM) and increments of 1% BM at each 3-min with blood lactate ([lac]) measurements. The LT was determined by visual inspection (LT(V)) as well by applying a polynomial function on the [lac]/workload ratio (LT(P)) by considering the vertices of the curve. For the MLSS, twelve animals were submitted, on different days, to 3-4 exercise sessions of 30-min with workload corresponding to 4, 5 or 6% BM. The MLSS was considered the highest exercise intensity at which the [lac] variation was not higher than 0.07 mM.min(-1) during the last 20-min. No differences were observed for the test-retest results (4.9 +/- 0.7 and 5.0 +/- 0.8 %BM for LTv; and 6.0 +/- 0.6 and 5.8 +/- 0.6 %BM for LTp) that did not differ from the MLSS (5.4 +/- 0.5 %BM). The LT identified for aged rats in swimming, both by visual inspection and polynomial function, was reliable and did not differ from the MLSS. PMID:19585487

  16. Morphology and ornamentation in male frigatebirds: variation with age-class and mating status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Vinni; Dabelsteen, Torben; Osorio, Daniel; Osorno, José L.

    2007-01-01

    Male magnificent frigatebird (Fregata magnificens) ornamentation includes bright iridescent plumage and a red inflatable gular pouch. These signals are displayed during courtship, along with a drumming sound produced through specialized beak clackings resonating in the gular pouch. The extent of ...... tendency for back-feather iridescence to be of shorter reflectance wavelength spectra in mated than in unmated males, which, when combined with acoustic variables, improves prediction of age class and mating status....

  17. Appreciation of concentration of lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in serum of male rats under the influence of diet change composition and its supplementation with group B vitamins

    OpenAIRE

    Zuzanna Goluch-Koniuszy; Aldona Wierzbicka

    2011-01-01

      Background. This study was aimed at exploring, on animal model, how the diet changes, which results in exceeding 5 times the amount of deficit of group B vitamins after diet change, which up to a certain extent imitates supplementation method in people, influences the concentration of apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein B – the components of lipoprotein HDL-C and LDL-C. Material and methods. The research was conducted on 24 WISTAR male rats, aged ca 5 mo...

  18. Age of partners at first intercourse among Danish males and females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wielandt, H; Boldsen, J; Jeune, B

    1989-01-01

    In 1984-1985 a representative sample of 286 Danish women (response rate = 75.3%) and 336 Danish men (response rate = 77.8%), ages 16-20 years, was interviewed about their first sexual intercourse. A cumulative frequency function was constructed and the median age at sexual debut was estimated at 16.......8 years for both male and female. Generally the age difference between the partners at first intercourse was only a few years. However, the young women almost never reported their first sexual partner as younger than themselves. A cross-check was made of the information given by two homogeneous subsamples...... of the 47 young women and 80 young men who had their first sexual intercourse with a partner who was also a debutant. Self-reported age among the males differed significantly from the age of the first sexual partner as stated by the females in these subsamples. Therefore, there is bias in the reporting...

  19. Oxytocin Differentially Affects Sucrose Taking and Seeking in Male and Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Luyi; Ghee, Shannon M.; See, Ronald E.; Reichel, Carmela M.

    2015-01-01

    Oxytocin has a modulatory role in natural and drug reward processes. While the role of oxytocin in pair bonding and reproduction has been extensively studied, sex differences in conditioned and unconditioned behavioral responses to oxytocin treatment have not been fully characterized. Here, we determined whether male and female rats would show similar dose response curves in response to acute oxytocin on measures of locomotor activity, sucrose seeking, and sucrose intake. Male and freely cycling female rats received vehicle or oxytocin (0.1, 0.3, 1, 3 mg/kg, IP) injections before behavioral tests designed to assess general motor activity, as well as sucrose self-administration and seeking. Lower doses of oxytocin decreased motor activity in a novel environment in females relative to males. Likewise, lower doses of oxytocin in females decreased responding for sucrose during maintenance of sucrose self-administration and reinstatement to sucrose-conditioned cues. However, sucrose seeking in response to a sucrose prime was only decreased by the highest oxytocin dose in both sexes. In general, oxytocin had similar effects in both sexes. However, females were more sensitive to lower doses of oxytocin than males. These findings are consistent with the notion that oxytocin regulates many of the same behaviors in males and females, but that the effects are typically more profound in females. Therapeutic use of oxytocin should include sex as a factor in determining dose regimens. PMID:25647756

  20. Characterization of mammary adenocarcinomas in male rats after N-methyl-N-nitrosourea exposure-Potential for human male breast cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Yuki, Michiko; Kinoshita, Yuichi; Emoto, Yuko; Yuri, Takashi; Shikata, Nobuaki; Elmore, Susan A; Tsubura, Airo

    2016-05-01

    The frequency of breast cancer in men is extremely rare, reported to be less than 1% and there is currently no available animal model for male mammary tumors. We compared the characteristics of various immunohistochemical markers in N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced mammary adenocarcinomas in male and female Crj:CD(SD)IGS rats including: estrogen receptor α (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), androgen receptor (AR), receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2 (HER2), GATA binding protein 3 (GATA3), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Female mammary adenocarcinomas were strongly positive in the nuclei of tumor cells for PCNA and ER (100%) with only 60% and 53% expressing PgR and GATA3, respectively. 100% of male adenocarcinomas also exhibited strongly positive expression in the nuclei of tumor cells for PCNA, with 25% expressing AR and only 8% showing positivity for ER. Male carcinomas did not express PgR or GATA3 and none of the tumors, male or female, were positive for HER2. Based on the observed ER and PgR positivity and HER2 negativity within these tumors, MNU-induced mammary adenocarcinomas in female rats appear to be hormonally dependent, similar to human luminal A type breast cancer. In contrast, MNU-induced mammary adenocarcinomas in male rats showed no reactivity for ER, PgR, HER2 or GATA3, suggesting no hormonal dependency. Both male and female adenocarcinomas showed high proliferating activity by PCNA immunohistochemistry. Based on our literature review, human male breast cancers are mainly dependent on ER and/or PgR, therefore the biological pathogenesis of MNU-induced male mammary cancer in rats may differ from that of male breast cancer in humans. PMID:26852374

  1. Effect of aqueous extract of Bulbine natalensis (Baker) stem on the sexual behaviour of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, M T; Afolayan, A J

    2009-12-01

    The phytochemical constituents of aqueous extract of Bulbine natalensis (Baker) stem and its effect on male rat sexual behaviour were evaluated for 7 days. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, cardiac glycoside, tannins, alkaloids and anthraquinones. Administration of the extract at the doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg body weight resulted in the significant increase (p ejaculation frequency, serum testosterone and luteinizing hormone concentrations, computed indices of sexual behaviour, erection, quick flips, long flips and total penile reflexes whereas the mount latency, intromission latency and post-ejaculatory interval were significantly decreased (p management of disorders of desire/libido, premature ejaculation and erectile dysfunction in males. PMID:18710410

  2. Effects of di-n-butyl phthalate on male rat reproduction following pubertal exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Ai-Mei; Man, Xiao-Ming; Guo, Xue-Jiang; Dong, Hui-Bin; Wang, Fu-Qiang; Sun, Hong; Wang, Yu-Bang; Zhou, Zuo-min; Sha, Jia-Hao

    2011-01-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical that has the potential to affect male reproduction. However, the reproductive effects of low-dose DBP are still not well known, especially at the molecular level. In the present study, pubertal male Sprague–Dawley rats were orally administered DBP at a wide range of doses (0.1, 1.0, 10, 100 and 500 mg kg−1 day−1) for 30 days. The selected end points included reproductive organ weights, testicular histopathology and serum hormonal ...

  3. Aphrodisiac Activity and Curative Effects of Pedalium Murex (L) Against Ethanol Induced Infertility in Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    BALAMURUGAN, Gunasekaran; P. Muralidharan; POLAPALA, Satyanarayana

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that chronic ethanol exposure may result in testicular damage and infertility in males. Petroleum ether extract of Pedalium murex, family Pedaliaceae (PEPM), is evaluated in this study for its ability to increase aphrodisiac activity and to cure ethanol induced germ cell damage and infertility in male rat models. Doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg of PEPM showed a significant increase (P < 0.01, P < 0.001) in mating and mounting behaviour. The effect on fertility factors s...

  4. Benzonidazole levels in blood vary with age in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulffer, Romina Fernanda; Castro, José Alberto; Fanelli, Silvia Laura

    2011-05-01

    Benznidazole (Bz) exhibits toxic side effects in animal studies and clinical use. Reductive metabolism of Bz in liver microsomes modulates the duration of its chemotherapeutic effect and its toxicity. The rate of this metabolism depends on age and is less intense in newborns and youngsters than in adults. In the present study, we determined Bz blood levels in rats of different ages that received Bz intragastrically (100 mg/kg). We developed and validated a high-pressure liquid chromatography with UV detector method for determination of Bz levels in whole blood. Bz levels were significantly higher and persisted for longer periods of time in the blood of young rats when compared to that of adult animals. PMID:21655830

  5. Benznidazole levels in blood vary with age in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Fernanda Bulffer

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Benznidazole (Bz exhibits toxic side effects in animal studies and clinical use. Reductive metabolism of Bz in liver microsomes modulates the duration of its chemotherapeutic effect and its toxicity. The rate of this metabolism depends on age and is less intense in newborns and youngsters than in adults. In the present study, we determined Bz blood levels in rats of different ages that received Bz intragastrically (100 mg/kg. We developed and validated a high-pressure liquid chromatography with UV detector method for determination of Bz levels in whole blood. Bz levels were significantly higher and persisted for longer periods of time in the blood of young rats when compared to that of adult animals.

  6. Prenatal stress and stress coping style interact to predict metabolic risk in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, Gretha J; Moghadam, Alexander A; Cordner, Zachary A; Tamashiro, Kellie L

    2014-04-01

    Both prenatal stress (PNS) exposure and a passive stress-coping style have been identified as risk factors for insulin resistance in rats. In the current study, we test the hypothesis that PNS and stress-coping style may interact in predicting susceptibility for metabolic disease. To test this hypothesis, adult male control and PNS offspring were behaviorally characterized using a defensive burying test to have either a passive or proactive stress-coping style. In adulthood, all rats were fed either a standard chow or a high-fat diet for 3 weeks. After 3 weeks of diet exposure, glucose and insulin levels were assessed during an oral glucose tolerance test. Under high-fat diet conditions, PNS rats display elevated glucose and insulin responses to the oral glucose tolerance test, indicative of glucose intolerance. Interestingly, these effects of PNS were far more pronounced in rats characterized by a passive stress-coping style. Additionally, the passively coping PNS rats also gained more weight on the high-fat diet than all other rats tested. This observation suggests that a stressful prenatal environment in combination with a passive stress-coping strategy may prime an individual to be sensitive to diet-induced obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:24467745

  7. The Use of Statin Substitutes to Improve the Lipid Profile in Liver Dysfunctional Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More attention has been drawn to different strategies for prevention of cardiovascular associated with liver dysfunction. The aim of the present study is to compare between statin and free fat- milk supplemented with multivitamins in hyperlipidaemic male rats with or without liver dysfunction induced by CCl4. The animals were allocated to 7 equal experimental groups (16 rats each): control group, hypercholesterolemic group, hypercholestero-lemic-statin group, hypercholesterolemic-free fat milk-multivitamins group, hypercholesterolemic-CCl4 group, hypercholesterolemic-CCl4-statin group, and hypercholesterolemic-CCl4- fat-free milk-multivita-mins group. After one month half of the rats of each group were decapitated and the rest of the animals were decapitated after two months. Lipid profile, relative liver weight, liver function, CPK and LDH were determined. The effectiveness of statin drug in the management of blood lipids was confirmed without improving or worsening liver functions. Meanwhile, this effectiveness worsened in hypercholesterolemic rats treated with CCl4 as compared to hypercholesterolemic group. Administration of fat-free milk with multivitamins, as an alternative remedy for statin drug, has improved lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rats and it revealed no changes in liver enzymes in hypercholesterolemic rats with liver dysfunction indicating the favorable use of them as hypolipotropic agent without affecting liver metabolism

  8. Effect of dehydroepiandrosterone treatment on hormone levels and antioxidant parameters in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, F J; Kang, J; Han, N N; Ma, H T

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of chronic dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) administration on steroid hormones and antioxidant parameters in aged rats. To this end, three groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were compared: young (3 months of age) untreated; aged (19 months old) untreated; and aged rats treated with 20 mg/kg DHEA for 8 weeks. Major organs of aged rats in the untreated group demonstrated physiological atrophy, compared to those of young rats; this effect appeared to have been partially reversed by DHEA treatment. Testosterone and estradiol contents were significantly decreased and aldosterone significantly increased in aged untreated, compared to young untreated rats. Steroid hormone levels were obviously reversed, however, in aged rats treated with DHEA. Additionally, superoxide dismutase activity in serum, brain, heart, and liver was decreased, and maleic dialdehyde content in heart was markedly increased in untreated aged, compared to young, rats. Importantly, these changes in brain and heart of aged rats were reversed by DHEA treatment. Heme oxygenase mRNA levels were increased and inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA levels decreased in aged, compared to young, rats; DHEA treatment appeared to reverse these changes. These results indicate that chronic DHEA administration may have effects on steroid hormone levels and antioxidant parameters in aged rats and result in postponement of the aging process. PMID:26400361

  9. The Role of Antioxidants in Biochemical Disorders Induced by Arsenic in Adult male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation included biochemical, radiometric, molecular studies and histopathological examination to evaluate the protective role of Antox tablets toward Arsenic toxicity in adult male albino rats (Rattus rattus). Arsenic were given as sodium arsenate to different groups in drinking water at a dose of 100 mg/L, for 3 and 6 weeks led to severe tissue damage as revealed by an elevation of serum total protein and alteration of serum protein fractions. Using radioimmunoassay it was found that serum total testosterone level was significantly decreased. The decreased level of total testosterone paralleled the observed testicular damage. Treatment of male rats with antioxidant (Antox) along with arsenic led to an improvement in both the biochemical and histological alterations induced by arsenic. Thus the protective role of Antox is attributed to its antioxidant and free radicals scavenging properties of its components (selenium, vitamin A acetate, ascorbic acid and vitamin E).

  10. Regulation of antioxidant enzyme activities in male and female rat macrophages by sex steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo R.B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Human and animal immune functions present sex dimorphism that seems to be mainly regulated by sex hormones. In the present study, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes total superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px were measured in intraperitoneal resident macrophages from adult male and female rats. In addition to comparing males and females, we also examined the regulation of these enzyme activities in macrophages by sex steroids. GSH-Px activity did not differ between male and female macrophages. However, both total SOD and CAT activities were markedly higher in females than in males (83 and 180%. Removal of the gonads in both males and females (comparison between castrated groups increased the difference in SOD activity from 83 to 138% and reduced the difference in CAT activity from 180 to 86%. Castration and testosterone administration did not significantly modify the activities of the antioxidant enzymes in male macrophages. Ovariectomy did not affect SOD or GSH-Px activity but markedly reduced (48% CAT activity. This latter change was fully reversed by estrogen administration, whereas progesterone had a smaller effect. These results led us to conclude that differences in the SOD and CAT activities may partially explain some of the differences in immune function reported for males and females. Also, estrogen is a potent regulator of CAT in macrophages and therefore this enzyme activity in macrophages may vary considerably during the menstrual cycle.

  11. Age ultrastructural features of sclera in intact rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ulyanova N.A.; Dumbrova N.E.; Molchanyuk N.I.

    2013-01-01

    Background. The absence of adequate experimental myopia model is the actual problem in pathophysiological studying of the myopia progression. Studies of the chick eye have formed the basis for several hypotheses of myopic development. The most pathogenesis reasonable myopia animal model is a form-deprivation myopia in chicks. The introduction of form-deprivation myopia animal model in mammals in particular rats, is necessary to study the dynamics of age morphological changes in sclera. Object...

  12. Tissue distribution and excretion of n-methyl-2-pyrolidone in male and female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) belongs to solvents widely used in the petrochemical industry a well as in the production of pesticides, veterinary drugs and paint removers. NMP is easily absorbed from respiratory tract, digestive system and through the skin. It is a compound of slight acute toxicity that also displays moderate irritating activity. The aim of this study was to assess tissue distribution and excretion following a single intraperitoneal NPM administration. Tissue distribution and excretion of NMP following administration of a single dose of 250 mg/kg body weight (350 kBq/rat) was investigated using 14C. Blood plasma (6 rats per time point) were sampled up to 72 h after administration and determination of radioactivity. Male and female rats (4 animals per time point) were decapitated at appropriate time intervals and examined tissues were removed for determination of radioactivity. Excretion of 14C in urine and feces were also measured. All radioactivity measurements were carried out using a Rakbetta 1209 (LKB, Sweden) liquid scintillation counter. The highest in 14C activity in tissues and internal organs of female and male rats was observed 4 h after administration of the compound. The highest accumulation was in dected in the muscles and fat tissue as well as the liver and testicles. During 72 h following administration, approximately 80% of the dose was excreted in urine. Elimination of the compound in feces was far less significant: only about 5% of the dose was excreted at once. The results of the study indicate that there are no significant differences in 14C-NMP tissue distribution between male and female rats; NPM absorption from the peritoneal cavity to blood is rapid, disappearance from plasma is monophase and kidneys are the main route of excretion of NMP and/ or its metabolites from the rat body after administration of a dose equal to 10% of L50. The ability to accumulate NMP and/or its metabolites in testes and seminal vesicles may be the

  13. Age effects on the pharmacokinetics of tityustoxin from Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Nunan

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacokinetics of scorpion venom and its toxins has been investigated in experimental models using adult animals, although, severe scorpion accidents are associated more frequently with children. We compared the effect of age on the pharmacokinetics of tityustoxin, one of the most active principles of Tityus serrulatus venom, in young male/female rats (21-22 days old, N = 5-8 and in adult male rats (150-160 days old, N = 5-8. Tityustoxin (6 µg labeled with 99mTechnetium was administered subcutaneously to young and adult rats. The plasma concentration vs time data were subjected to non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis to obtain estimates of various pharmacokinetic parameters such as total body clearance (CL/F, distribution volume (Vd/F, area under the curve (AUC, and mean residence time. The data were analyzed with and without considering body weight. The data without correction for body weight showed a higher Cmax (62.30 ± 7.07 vs 12.71 ± 2.11 ng/ml, P < 0.05 and AUC (296.49 ± 21.09 vs 55.96 ± 5.41 ng h-1 ml-1, P < 0.05 and lower Tmax (0.64 ± 0.19 vs 2.44 ± 0.49 h, P < 0.05 in young rats. Furthermore, Vd/F (0.15 vs 0.42 l/kg and CL/F (0.02 ± 0.001 vs 0.11 ± 0.01 l h-1 kg-1, P < 0.05 were lower in young rats. However, when the data were reanalyzed taking body weight into consideration, the Cmax (40.43 ± 3.25 vs 78.21 ± 11.23 ng kg-1 ml-1, P < 0.05 and AUC (182.27 ± 11.74 vs 344.62 ± 32.11 ng h-1 ml-1, P < 0.05 were lower in young rats. The clearance (0.03 ± 0.002 vs 0.02 ± 0.002 l h-1 kg-1, P < 0.05 and Vd/F (0.210 vs 0.067 l/kg were higher in young rats. The raw data (not adjusted for body weight strongly suggest that age plays a pivotal role in the disposition of tityustoxin. Furthermore, our results also indicate that the differences in the severity of symptoms observed in children and adults after scorpion envenomation can be explained in part by differences in the pharmacokinetics of the toxin.

  14. Physiological responding to stress in middle-aged males enriched for longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Steffy W M; van Heemst, Diana; van der Grond, Jeroen;

    2016-01-01

    might be a more adaptive response to stress. To investigate this, male middle-aged offspring from long-lived families (n = 31) and male non-offspring (with no familial history of longevity) (n = 26) were randomly allocated to the Trier Social Stress Test or a control condition in an experimental design......Individuals enriched for familial longevity display a lower prevalence of age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular- and metabolic diseases. Since these diseases are associated with stress and increased cortisol levels, one of the underlying mechanisms that may contribute to healthy longevity...

  15. The Relative Age Effect and Physical Fitness Characteristics in German Male Tennis Players

    OpenAIRE

    Ulbricht, Alexander Christopher; Fernández-Fernández, Jaime; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the study were to test: 1) whether the relative age effect (RAE) was prevalent in young (U12-U18) German male tennis players; 2) the potential influence of age and/or skill level on RAE and 3) whether maturity, anthropometric and fitness measures vary according to birth date distribution in elite youth tennis players. For the present study the following male populations were analysed: Overall German population (n = 3.216.811), all players affiliated to the German Tennis Federation...

  16. Estradiol to aged female or male mice improves learning in inhibitory avoidance and water maze tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Frye, Cheryl A.; Rhodes, Madeline E; Dudek, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    Although 17β-Estradiol (E2) improves cognitive performance of aged female mice, its mnemonic effects when administered post-training to aged male mice have not been examined. E2 (10 µg, SC) or oil vehicle was administered to intact, 24-month-old female or male congenic (primarily C57BL/6 background) mice immediately after training in the inhibitory avoidance or water maze tasks. Following behavioral testing, effects of 1 or 24 h of E2 exposure on hippocampal levels of E2 and brain-derived neu...

  17. Is Greulich–Pyle age estimation applicable for determining maturation in male Africans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan G. Morri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal age estimation as a means of assessing development and skeletal maturation in children and adolescents is of great importance for clinical and forensic purposes. The skeletal age of a test population is estimated by comparison with established standards, the most common standards being those in the Radiographic atlas of skeletal development of the hand and wristpublished by Greulich and Pyle in 1959. These standards are based on the assumption that skeletal maturity in male individuals is attained by the chronological age of 19 years. Although they have been widely tested, the applicability of these standards to contemporary populations has yet to be tested on a population of African biological origin living in South Africa. We therefore estimated the skeletal age of 131 male Africans aged between 13 and 21 years, using the Greulich–Pyle method which we applied to pre-existing hand–wrist radiographs. Estimated skeletal age was compared to the known chronological age for each radiograph. Skeletal age was on average approximately 6 months younger than chronological age. The Greulich–Pyle method underestimated skeletal age for approximately 74%of the sample and overestimated skeletal age for 26%of the sample. Skeletal maturity as characterised by complete epiphyseal fusion occurred approximately 2.1 years later than Greulich and Pyle’s estimate of 19 years. Thus skeletal maturation was still in progress in a large proportion of the 20- and 21-year-old individuals in our study. The Greulich–Pyle method showed high precision but low accuracy and was therefore not directly applicable to African male individuals. Formulation of skeletal age estimation standards specific to South African populations is therefore recommended.

  18. Neuromedin B stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughton, C K; Patel, S A; Thompson, E L; Patterson, M; Curtis, A E; Amin, A; Chen, K; Ghatei, M A; Bloom, S R; Murphy, K G

    2013-11-10

    Neuromedin B (NMB) is a highly conserved bombesin-related peptide found in mammals. NMB mRNA is detected in the central nervous system (CNS) and is highly expressed in the rat hypothalamus, in particular the medial preoptic area and the arcuate nucleus. The mammalian bombesin family of receptors consists of three closely related G protein coupled receptors, BB1, BB2 and BB3. The BB1 receptor subtype has the highest affinity for NMB. NMB has well documented roles in the regulation of the thyroid axis and the stress axis in rats. However, there is little available data regarding the role of NMB in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. It is known that the NMB receptor is expressed in immortalised gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) releasing GT1-7 cells and murine forebrain GnRH neurons, and that anterior pituitary NMB-immunoreactivity is altered by changes in the sex steroid environment. The objective of these studies was thus to further investigate the effects of NMB on the HPG axis. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of NMB (10 nmol) to adult male rats significantly increased plasma luteinising hormone (LH) levels 30 min after injection (plasma LH ng/ml; saline 0.69±0.07, 10 nmol NMB 1.33±0.17, P<0.01). In vitro, NMB stimulated GnRH release from hypothalamic explants from male rats and from hypothalamic GT1-7 cells. NMB had no significant effect on LH release from anterior pituitary explants from male rats, or from pituitary LβT2 cells in vitro. These results suggest a previously unreported role for NMB in the stimulation of the HPG axis via hypothalamic GnRH. Further work is now required to determine the receptor mediating the effects of NMB on the reproductive axis and the physiological role of NMB in reproduction. PMID:24120470

  19. Effects of Dietary Calcium on Body Weight, Carcass Fat Content and Adipocyte Size in Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    J Malekzadeh; SA Keshavarz; F Siassi; M Kadkhodaei; Eshraghian MR; AR Dorosti Motlagh; A Aliehpoor; M Chamari

    2006-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Calcium is a micronutrient and now receiving much attention for its doubtful effects on weight and body fatness. A few mechanisms has been suggested for calcium effects on body fatness and the most emphasized one is the reducing of lipolysis and increasing lipogenesis via reducing parathyroid hormone levels. The present study is designed to evaluate the effects of nondairy dietary calcium on adipogenesis and adipocyte size in male Sprague dawley rats. Materials ...

  20. Changes in male rat urinary protein profile during puberty: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Vettorazzi, A; R. Wait; Nagy, J.; Monreal, JI; Mantle, P

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Androgen-dependent proteins (lipocalins) circulate in blood of male rats and mice and, being small (~ 18 kDa), pass freely into glomerular filtrate. Some are salvaged in proximal nephrons but some escape in urine. Several organic molecules can bind to these proteins causing, where salvage occurs, nephropathy including malignancy in renal cortex. In urine, both free lipocalins and ligands contribute to an increasingly-recognised vital biological role in social communication betw...

  1. Evaluation of the aphrodisiac activity of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in sexually sluggish male albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Surender Singh; Vinod Nair; Yogendra K Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To study the effect of acute and repeated dose administration of lyophilized aqueous extract of the dried fruits of Tribulus terrestris (LAET) on sexual function in sexually sluggish male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Aphrodisiac activity of the test drug was evaluated in terms of exhibited sexual behavior. In order to assess the effect of chronic T. terrestris exposure on the hypothalamus--pituitary--gonadal axis, testosterone level estimation and sperm count were carried o...

  2. Lipid Lowering Effect of Punica granatum L. Peel in High Lipid Diet Fed Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Sadeghipour; Maryam Eidi; Ali Ilchizadeh Kavgani; Reza Ghahramani; Saleh Shahabzadeh; Ali Anissian

    2014-01-01

    Many herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The antilipidemic effect of hydroethanolic extract of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L.) was investigated in high lipid diet fed male rats. Intraperitoneally administration of pomegranate peel extract (50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight) for 23 days on the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, alkaline phosphatase (AP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in ...

  3. Effect of Dexrazoxane and Amifostine on the Vertebral Bone Quality of Doxorubicin Treated Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    F Mwale; Marguier, G.; Ouellet, J.A; Petit, A.; Epure, L.M; Antoniou, J; Chalifour, L E

    2008-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is widely used in combination cocktails for treatment of childhood hematological cancers and solid tumors. A major factor limiting DOX usage is DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. However, it is not known whether protectants like dexrazoxane (DXR) and amifostine (AMF) can prevent DOX-mediated bone damage. The present study investigated whether administration of AMF alone or in combination with DXR would prevent any DOX-mediated bone damage. Male rat pups were treated with DOX, DXR, ...

  4. Protective Effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis) Extract on Naphthalene Induced Nephrotoxicity in Adult Male Albino Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Neveen M. El-Sherif; Noha Mohy Issa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Naphthalene (NA) is a common environmental contaminant and is abundant in tobacco smoke. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is a herb commonly used as a spice and flavoring agents in food processing and is useful in the treatment of many diseases. Aim of the work: To study the nephrotoxicity of NA and to evaluate the possible protective role of rosemary extract in adult male albino rat. Materials and Methods: 25 animals were divided into three groups: Group I (Control group), G...

  5. AVPV neurons containing estrogen receptor-beta in adult male rats are influenced by soy isoflavones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu Lihong

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isoflavones, the most abundant phytoestrogens in soy foods, are structurally similar to 17beta-estradiol. It is known that 17beta-estradiol induces apoptosis in anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV in rat brain. Also, there is evidence that consumption of soy isoflavones reduces the volume of AVPV in male rats. Therefore, in this study, we examined the influence of dietary soy isoflavones on apoptosis in AVPV of 150 day-old male rats fed either a soy isoflavone-free diet (Phyto-free or a soy isoflavone-rich diet (Phyto-600. Results The occurrence of apoptosis in AVPV was examined by TUNEL staining. The incidence of apoptosis was about 10 times higher in the Phyto-600 group (33.1 ± 1.7% than in the Phyto-free group (3.6 ± 1.0%. Furthermore, these apoptotic cells were identified as neurons by dual immunofluorescent staining of GFAP and NeuN as markers of astrocytes and neurons, respectively. Then the dopaminergic neurons in AVPV were detected by immunohistochemistry staining of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH. No significant difference in the number of TH neurons was observed between the diet treatment groups. When estrogen receptor (ER alpha and beta were examined by immunohistochemistry, we observed a 22% reduction of ERbeta-positive cell numbers in AVPV with consumption of soy isoflavones, whereas no significant change in ERalpha-positive cell numbers was detected. Furthermore, almost all the apoptotic cells were ERbeta-immunoreactive (ir, but not ERalpha-ir. Last, subcutaneous injections of equol (a major isoflavone metabolite that accounts for approximately 70–90% of the total circulating plasma isoflavone levels did not alter the volume of AVPV in adult male rats. Conclusion In summary, these findings provide direct evidence that consumption of soy isoflavones, but not the exposure to equol, influences the loss of ERbeta-containing neurons in male AVPV.

  6. Visual spatial memory is enhanced in female rats (but inhibited in males) by dietary soy phytoestrogens

    OpenAIRE

    Setchell Kenneth DR; Simmons Daniel L; Bu Lihong H; Tian Lilyan Y; West Timothy W; Lund Trent D; Adlercreutz Herman; Lephart Edwin D

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Background In learning and memory tasks, requiring visual spatial memory (VSM), males exhibit superior performance to females (a difference attributed to the hormonal influence of estrogen). This study examined the influence of phytoestrogens (estrogen-like plant compounds) on VSM, utilizing radial arm-maze methods to examine varying aspects of memory. Additionally, brain phytoestrogen, calbindin (CALB), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) levels were determined. Results Female rats receivi...

  7. Effect of aqueous extract of green tea on sexual efficiency in adult male rats

    OpenAIRE

    A. Y. Jasem; H. M. Jassem; H. K. Ismaiel

    2008-01-01

    This experiment was designed to study the effects of treatment with green tea (10 g /750ml deionized boiled water) for 30 days on some physiological and histological changes of male reproductive system of rats exposed to oxidative stress induced by alloxan (100 mg/kg body weight). The study showed that treatment with alloxan (100 mg/kg body weight), caused a significant decrease in body weights, epididymal body and seminal vesicles weight. total number of epididymal sperm, percentage of live ...

  8. Sexual behaviour of male rats after gamma-irradiation: some radiobiological features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pronounced and stable decrease in sexual motivation of male rats immediately after γ-irradiation of the head with a dose of 2.58 C/kg is shown. Exposure of the body to 1.29-2.58 C/kg radiation also inhibited sexual behaviour but only by the 45th-55th minute following irradiation: with higher doses some increase in sexual activity was observed immediately after irradiation

  9. Investigation of curcumin effects on liver tissue in adult male rats treated with cyclophosphamide

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra khodaparast; ali reza yousofi; ameneh khoshvagti

    2014-01-01

     Background & Objective: Cyclophosphamide is an antineoplastic drug that has many clinical uses in cancer treatment, but it has toxic effects due to creation of free radicals. In this study, the effects of curcumin" as an antioxidant drug” on liver tissue was investigated. Materials & methods: 50 wistar adult male rats were selected randomly and were divided in to five groups including control, sham (receiving normal saline and olive oil), cyclophosp...

  10. The Anti-Nociceptive Effect of Aloe. Vera Aqueous Extract in Fructose-Fed Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Shahraki

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A B S T R A C T Introduction: Aloe Vera extract is used as an anti-inflammatory and anti-bradikinin agent in laboratory animals. The aim of this survey was to evaluate the ant-nociceptive effect of A. Vera aqueous extract in fructose-fed male rats. Methods: Forty-five Wistar-Albino male rats were equally and randomly divided into five groups including sham operated and four test groups. Sham operated group consumed tap water and the test groups consumed fructoseenriched water. Test groups 2, 3 and 4 additionally received, 0, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg of A. Vera extract, respectively, whereas the other test group received distilled water daily. Tail flick reaction time, serum glucose and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT were measured. The results were analyzed by SPSS software using ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results were expressed as mean ± SD. Statistical differences were considered significant at p<0.05. Results: The results showed that tail flick reaction time significantly increased in test group 3 which received 200 mg/kg A. Vera extract comparing with that of sham operated group. However, OGTT and serum glucose value were significantly increased in all fructose-fed male rats comparing with those of sham operated group. Discussion: These results indicated that A. Vera aqueous extract can affect tail flick reaction time in fructose-fed male rats. Further studies are required to show the exact mechanism of anti-nociceptive effect of A. Vera extract.

  11. Adolescent social defeat alters neural, endocrine and behavioral responses to amphetamine in adult male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Andrew R.; Renner, Kenneth J.; Forster, Gina L.; Watt, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, which governs components of reward and goal-directed behaviors, undergoes final maturation during adolescence. Adolescent social stress contributes to adult behavioral dysfunction, and is linked to adult psychiatric and addiction disorders. Here, behavioral, corticosterone, and limbic dopamine responses to amphetamine were examined in adult male rats previously exposed to repeated social defeat stress during mid-adolescence. Amphetamine (2.5 mg/kg, ip) w...

  12. Memory and Motor Coordination Improvement by Folic Acid Supplementation in Healthy Adult Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Shooshtari, Maryam Khombi; Moazedi, Ahmad Ali; Parham, Gholam Ali

    2012-01-01

    Objective(s) Previous studies have shown that vitamin B as well as folate supplementation has been implicated in cognitive and neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson's diseases. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of folic acid on passive avoidance task and motor coordination in healthy adult male rats. Materials and Methods Animals were randomly divided into five groups with 10 in each. 1) Sham treated (Veh); received same volume of normal saline as ...

  13. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling in Male Germ Cell Apoptosis in the Rat1

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Yue; Castellanos, Jesse; Wang, Christina; Sinha-Hikim, Indrani; Lue, YanHe; Swerdloff, Ronald S.; Sinha-Hikim, Amiya P.

    2008-01-01

    Programmed germ cell death is critical for functional spermatogenesis. Increased germ cell apoptosis can be triggered by various regulatory stimuli, including testicular hyperthermia or deprivation of gonadotropins and intratesticular testosterone. We have previously shown the involvement of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) 14 in apoptotic signaling of male germ cells across species after hormone deprivation. This study investigates the role of MAPK14 in germ cell apoptosis in rats...

  14. ANTIACNE EFFECT OF POLYHERBAL GEL FORMULATION IN MALE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS

    OpenAIRE

    S. A. Thube; Patil, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is the commonest skin disorder to affect humans, characterized by both non-inflammatory (comedones) and inflammatory lesions (papules, pustules, and nodulocystic lesions). Topical gel formulation has been developed containing Barleria prionitis, Butea monosperma, Casuarina equisetifolia, Dalbergia sissoo and Lagenaria siceraria. In vivo antiacne activity was performed for the formulations using male sprague dawley rats. Physical observations were carried out at regular intervals...

  15. Genistein improves spatial learning and memory in male rats with elevated glucose level during memory consolidation

    OpenAIRE

    Kohara, Yumi; KAWAGUCHI,SHINICHIRO; Kuwahara, Rika; Uchida, Yutaro; Oku, Yushi; Yamashita, Kimihiro

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction due to higher blood glucose level has been reported previously. Genistein (GEN) is a phytoestrogen that we hypothesized might lead to improved memory, despite elevated blood glucose levels at the time of memory consolidation. To investigate this hypothesis, we compared the effects of orally administered GEN on the central nervous system in normal versus glucose-loaded adult male rats. A battery of behavioral assessments was carried out. In the MAZE test, which measured s...

  16. Role of testosterone in memory impairment of Alzheimer disease induced by Streptozotocin in male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Pourrabi Seyedreza; Mohajjel Nayebi Alireza; Hossini Seyedebrahim

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose of the study: Recent studies demonstrate that androgens, beyond regulating sexual behavior, exert several neuroprotective functions in the brain. The present study was designed to explore effect of testosterone in memory impairment induced by intra- cerebroventricular (icv) injection of streptozotocin (STZ) as a model of sporadic AD.Methods Study was carried out on male Wistar rats. Animals were randomly divided into 11 equal groups. Experimental model of AD was induced...

  17. Reproductive toxicity of Momordica charantia ethanol seed extracts in male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Panas Tumkiratiwong; Ravicha Ploypattarapinyo; Urai Pongchairerk; Wachiryah Thong-asa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Momordica charantia (M. charantia) seed has been supposed to have an antifertility property but mechanisms underlying the infertility effect have not been investigated. Objective: We investigated the antifertility effect of M. charantia ethanol seed extracts on reproductive toxicology and seminal and plasma testosterone in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: The control group (I) was provided daily 1 ml dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and the experimental groups II and III wer...

  18. Serotonergic projections from the caudal raphe nuclei to the hypoglossal nucleus in male and female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Jessica R.; Cathy F Thomas; Behan, Mary

    2008-01-01

    The respiratory control system is sexually dimorphic. In many brain regions, including respiratory motor nuclei, serotonin (5HT) levels are higher in females than in males. We hypothesized that there could be sex differences in 5HT input to the hypoglossal nucleus, a region of the brainstem involved in upper airway control. Adult Fischer 344 rats were anesthetized and a retrograde transsynaptic neuroanatomical tracer, Bartha pseudorabies virus (PRV), was injected into the tongue. Sections thr...

  19. Sexual odor discrimination and physiological profiles in adult male rats after a neonatal, short term, reversible nasal obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, S N; Padzys, G S; Trabalon, M

    2014-05-01

    The present study was designed to examine behavioral responses (interpreted as preferences) to olfactory cues (nest bedding odor and odors of estrous and anestrus females) in adult male rats after they had a short term reversible, bilateral, nasal obstruction (RbNO) as developing rat pups. These results were compared to behavior of control (untreated) and sham operated male littermates. Behavioral tests and physiological parameters were analyzed 90 days after recovery of nasal breathing. Experiments investigated the time spent in arms or the center of a maze of male rats in response to odors from the nest bedding or from adult females. There were no differences in responses between untreated, sham and RbNO adult male rats to fresh and nest bedding odors. RbNO males spent more time in the center of the maze when given a choice of estrus or anestrus female odors, or bedding odors from untreated or sham operated female rats. In contrast untreated and sham male rats preferred the odors of estrous females and of untreated or sham females. Plasma corticosterone levels in the males increased during the behavioral tests. Plasma testosterone levels were significantly lower in RbNO males compared to untreated males and did not increase during the behavioral tests compared to sham operated males. Males from all groups had similar preferences for the odor of bedding from adult RbNO females. Plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides were increased in RbNO adults. In conclusion, short term nasal obstruction in males while juvenile has long term consequences on hormones and behavioral preferences, thus potential partner selection when adult. PMID:24769524

  20. Gentamicin Induced Nephrotoxicity: The Role of Sex Hormones in Gonadectomized Male and Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshraghi-Jazi, Fatemeh; Talebi, Ardeshir; Moslemi, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background. Gentamicin (GM) induced nephrotoxicity may be sex hormones related. The effects of sex hormones on GM induced nephrotoxicity in gonadectomized rats were investigated. Methods. Ovariectomized rats received 0.25, 0.5, or 1 mg/kg/week of estradiol (ES) alone or accompanied with 10 mg/kg/week of progesterone (Pro) for two weeks followed by GM (100 mg/kg/day) for 9 days. Castrated rats were also treated with 10, 50, or 100 mg/kg/week of testosterone (TS) for two weeks and then received GM. In addition, a single castrated group received 0.25 mg/kg/week of ES plus GM. Results. GM increased the serum levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) and kidney tissue damage score (KTDS) (P GM in female while neither TS nor ES had beneficial effect on nephrotoxicity induced by GM in male, although ES aggravated it.

  1. ANTIACNE EFFECT OF POLYHERBAL GEL FORMULATION IN MALE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Thube

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Acne vulgaris is the commonest skin disorder to affect humans, characterized by both non-inflammatory (comedones and inflammatory lesions (papules, pustules, and nodulocystic lesions. Topical gel formulation has been developed containing Barleria prionitis, Butea monosperma, Casuarina equisetifolia, Dalbergia sissoo and Lagenaria siceraria. In vivo antiacne activity was performed for the formulations using male sprague dawley rats. Physical observations were carried out at regular intervals on the rat ear and progressive fading of comedo was found on treated animals. Test group showed significant improvement on comedo reduction of rat pinna observed photographically. Test group showed a significant improvement compared to standard. The present study scientifically evaluates the antiacne potential of the herbs as a single entity as well as in combination using in vivo methods. The results obtained will help in identification and isolation of bioactive constituents for treating the root causes of acne without side effects.

  2. Antifertility activity of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta leaf ethanolic extract in male rats

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    Ayodeji F Ajayi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Complementary medicine has grown over time with more botanicals emerging and remaining integral parts of medicare. Such botanicals include Cryptolepis sanguinolenta. AIM: This study investigated the effect of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta leaf ethanolic extract on male reproductive system using rat model. Materials and Methods: Control and treated rats were maintained on control diet. Treated rats also received graded doses of the extract. RESULTS: When compared with the controls, Cryptolepis sanguinolenta treatment led to significant testosterone suppression associated with consequent significant rise in luteinizing hormone (LH and decrease in sperm count. Treatment with Cryptolepis sanguinolenta did not result in significant attenuation of follicular stimulating hormone (FSH levels and testicular morphometry. Sperm viability, motility, and morphology were also comparable in all groups. Conclusion: These results suggest that Cryptolepis sanguinolenta possesses anti-androgenic and anti-spermatogenic properties with potential anti-aphrodisiac activity.

  3. Peer influence on speeding behaviour among male drivers aged 18 and 28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja

    2014-03-01

    Despite extensive research, preventive efforts and general improvements in road safety levels, the accident risk of young male drivers remains increased. Based on a standardized survey of a random sample of 2018 male drivers at the age of 18 and 28, this study looked into attitudes and behaviours related to traffic violations of male drivers. More specifically, the role of peer influence on speeding was examined in both age groups. In regression analyses it could be shown that the descriptive subjective norm, i.e., the perception of friends' speeding, was the most important predictor of speeding in both age groups. Other significant factors were: negative attitude towards speed limits, injunctive subjective norm, and the perceived risk of having an accident when speeding. In the older age group it was more common to drive faster than allowed and their speeding was largely in line with the perceived level of their friends' speeding. In the younger age group a higher discrepancy between own and friends' speeding was found indicating that young male drivers are socialized into increased speeding behaviour based on peer pressure. By contrast for the 28-year-olds peer pressure mainly seems to maintain or justify individual speeding behaviour. It is suggested that preventive measures should take these different influences of peer pressure into account by using a peer-based approach for the 18-year-olds and a more individual approach for the 28-year-olds. PMID:24355559

  4. Prophylactic effect of coconut water (Cocos nucifera L. on ethylene glycol induced nephrocalcinosis in male wistar rat

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    M. Gandhi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Many medicinal plants have been employed during ages to treat urinary stones though the rationale behind their use is not well established. Thus, the present study was proposed to evaluate the effect of coconut water as a prophylactic agent in experimentally induced nephrolithiasis in a rat model. Materials and Methods The male Wistar rats were divided randomly into three groups. Animals of group I (control were fed standard rat diet. In group II, the animals were administrated 0.75% ethylene glycol in drinking water for the induction of nephrolithiasis. Group III animals were administrated coconut water in addition to ethylene glycol. All the treatments were continued for a total duration of seven weeks. Results and Conclusion Treatment with coconut water inhibited crystal deposition in renal tissue as well as reduced the number of crystals in urine. Furthermore, coconut water also protected against impaired renal function and development of oxidative stress in the kidneys. The results indicate that coconut water could be a potential candidate for phytotherapy against urolithiasis.

  5. Multi-level femoral morphology and mechanical properties of rats of different ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Gong, He; Zhu, Dong; Ma, Renshi; Fang, Juan; Fan, Yobo

    2015-07-01

    A macro-micro-nano-multi-level study was conducted to explore age-related structural and mechanical properties of bone, as well as the effects of aging on bone properties. A total of 70 male Wistar rats were used, ranging in the ages of 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 14, 15, 16, and 17 months (n = 7/age group). After micro-computed tomography (CT) scanning, longitudinal cortical bone specimens with a length of 5mm were cut along the femoral shaft axis from left femur shafts for mechanical testing, and the cross-sectional areas were measured. The macro-mechanical properties obtained in mechanical testing and microarchitecture parameters measured by micro-CT were significantly correlated with the animal age (r(2) = 0.96, p 0.90, p 0.95, p < 0.001). Multi-level femur morphology, mechanical property, and mineral content were significantly correlated with the animal age. The correlations between bone mineral content and bone material morphological and mechanical properties may partly explain the increase in bone fragility with aging, which will provide a theoretical basis for the investigation of age-related bone properties in clinics. PMID:25857690

  6. The medial preoptic area modulates cocaine-induced locomotion in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Ryan G; Martz, Julia R; Dominguez, Juan M

    2016-05-15

    Cocaine-induced locomotion is mediated by dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Recent evidence indicates that the medial preoptic area (mPOA), a region in the rostral hypothalamus, modulates cocaine-induced dopamine in the NAc. Specifically, rats with lesions of the mPOA experienced a greater increase in dopamine following cocaine administration than rats with sham lesions. Whether the mPOA similarly influences cocaine-induced locomotion is not known. Here we examined whether radiofrequency or neurotoxic lesions of the mPOA in male rats influence changes in locomotion that follow cocaine administration. Locomotion was measured following cocaine administration in male rats with neurotoxic, radiofrequency, or sham lesions of the mPOA. Results indicate that bilateral lesions of the mPOA facilitated cocaine-induced locomotion. This facilitation was independent of lesion type, as increased locomotion was observed with either approach. These findings support a role for the mPOA as an integral region in the processing of cocaine-induced behavioral response, in this case locomotor activity. PMID:26947755

  7. Effects of aqueous extract of celery (Apium graveolens L. leaves on spermatogenesis in healthy male rats

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    Ameneh Hardani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Nowadays, a lot of attention has been paid to the therapeutic properties of herbs, including evaluation of the effects of these plants on fertility in laboratory animals. Apium graveolens L. (celery has been widely used in traditional medicine for treatment of various disorders including impotency. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of A. graveolens on testicular tissue and spermatogenesis in healthy male rats. Materials and Methods: In this research, 24 apparently healthy male rats were divided into three groups, including eight rats in each. The first group as control received only distilled water 1 ml/animal/day. The second and third groups orally received 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w. of the extract, respectively, for 30 days. The day after the last administration of the extract, the rats were sacrificed, the testes were removed entirely, and the morphometric studies were carried out. Epididymal sperm count and histological studies of testicular tissue were conducted. Results: The comparison between the treated and control groups revealed a remarkable increase in the seminiferous tubules diameter, testes volume (p≤0.001, and the number of spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes and spermatozoa. Furthermore, the increase in the number of spermatids and epididymal weight were only significant at high doses of the extract (p≤ 0.05. Conclusions: The results from this study indicated that administration of celery leaf extract may improve spermatogenesis process and also be useful for some sperm fertility parameters.

  8. Differential motivational profiles following adolescent sucrose access in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichelt, Amy C; Abbott, Kirsten N; Westbrook, R Fred; Morris, Margaret J

    2016-04-01

    Adolescents are the highest consumers of sugar sweetened drinks. Excessive consumption of such drinks is a likely contributor to the development of obesity and may be associated with enduring changes in the systems involved in reward and motivation. We examined the impact of daily sucrose consumption in young male and female rats (N=12 per group) across the adolescent period on the motivation to perform instrumental responses to gain food rewards as adults. Rats were or were not exposed to a sucrose solution for 2h each day for 28days across adolescence [postnatal days (P) 28-56]. They were then trained as adults (P70 onward) to lever press for a palatable 15% cherry flavored sucrose reward and tested on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule to assess motivation to respond for reinforcement. Female rats exposed to sucrose had higher breakpoints on the PR schedule than controls, whereas male rats exposed to sucrose had lower breakpoints than controls. These results show that consumption of sucrose during adolescence produced sex-specific behavioral changes in responding for sucrose as adults. PMID:26826605

  9. Anti Lithiasis Activity of Avocado (Persea americana Mill Leaves Extract in White Male Rats

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    IETJE WIENTARSIH

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia, avocado leaves have been used as traditional medicines for diureticum to cure urolithiasis. This research was to determine anti lithiasis activity of avocado leaves (Persea americana Mill extract on white male rats nefrolithiasis model induced by ethylene glycol. Ethanol extraction method was used to get extract of avogadro leaves. Twenty adult male white rats were divided into 4 different induction treatments i.e. aquadest, ethylene glycol 0.75% and ammonium chloride 2%, and extract of avocado leaves with different levels of 100 and 300 mg/kg bw respectively. Their body weight was measured daily to determine their growth ratio. And at the end of the trial, the kidney was analyzed its calcium level and inhibitory activity to formation of calcium oxalate crystals. The results showed that the amount of calcium level in the kidney of rats treated with extract of avogadro leaves was significantly decreased than that of rats treated with ethylene glycol 0.75% and ammonium chloride 2% (P < 0.05. The extract avocado leaves as a herbal remedy can be recommended as a phytotherapeutic agent especially for preventive action for urolithiasis diseases.

  10. The Protective Role of Ginger (Zingiber Officinales ) in Male Albino Rats Exposed to Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of preirradiation treatment with ginger (Zingiber Officinales) for 21 consecutive days before exposure in controlling post-irradiation hazards in male rats. Male albino rats weighing about 120±10 g were divided into four groups: ( I ) control, ( II ) treated with ginger 200 mg/kg , ( III ) irradiated with 6 Gy and ( IV ) treated with ginger 200 mg/kg before irradiated with 6 Gy gamma - radiation . The blood samples were collected from heart of animals 21 days after treatment with ginger and seven days post irradiation. Blood samples were subjected to biochemical analysts such as liver functions , lipid profile , kidney function and sex hormone. Whole body gamma irradiation of rats at 6 Gy (single dose) caused significant increase in (aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT), cholesterol, triglycerides , glucose, urea and creatinine) while alkaline phosphatase showed no effect. Irradiation caused decrease in the contents of total protein , albumin and testosterone. Ginger treatment exerted noticeable amelioration in the studied biochemical parameters of the irradiated albino rats. The mechanism of action of ginger may be due to its antiinflammatory properties against whole body gamma irradiation

  11. Mondia whitei (Periplocaceae prevents and Guibourtia tessmannii (Caesalpiniaceae facilitates fictive ejaculation in spinal male rats

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    Watcho Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mondia whitei and Guibourtia tessmannii are used in Cameroon traditional medicine as aphrodisiacs. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the pro-ejaculatory effects of the aqueous and organic solvent extracts of these plants in spinal male rats. Methods In spinal cord transected and urethane-anesthetized rats, two electrodes where inserted into the bulbospongiosus muscles and the ejaculatory motor pattern was recorded on a polygraph after urethral and penile stimulations, intravenous injection of saline (0.1 ml/100 g, dopamine (0.1 μM/kg, aqueous and organic solvent plant extracts (20 mg/kg. Results In all spinal rats, urethral and penile stimulations always induced the ejaculatory motor pattern. Aqueous or hexane extract of Mondia whitei (20 mg/kg prevented the expression of the ejaculatory motor pattern. The pro-ejaculatory effects of dopamine (0.1 μM/kg were not abolished in spinal rats pre-treated with Mondia whitei extracts. Aqueous and methanolic stem bark extracts of Guibourtia tessmannii (20 mg/kg induced fictive ejaculation characterized by rhythmic contractions of the bulbospongiosus muscles followed sometimes with expulsion of seminal plugs. In rats pre-treated with haloperidol (0.26 μM/kg, no ejaculatory motor pattern was recorded after intravenous injection of Guibourtia tessmannii extracts (20 mg/kg. Conclusion These results show that Mondia whitei possesses preventive effects on the expression of fictive ejaculation in spinal male rats, which is not mediated through dopaminergic pathway; on the contrary, the pro-ejaculatory activities of Guibourtia tessmannii require the integrity of dopaminergic system to exert its effects. The present findings further justify the ethno-medicinal claims of Mondia whitei and Guibourtia tessmannii.

  12. 6-gingerol ameliorates gentamicin induced renal cortex oxidative stress and apoptosis in adult male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, Ahmed M S; Mosaed, Mohammed M; Elshafey, Saad H; Bayomy, Naglaa A

    2016-06-01

    Ginger or Zingiber officinale which is used in traditional medicine has been found to possess antioxidant effect that can control the generation of free radicals. Free radicals are the causes of renal cell degeneration that leads to renal failure in case of gentamicin induced toxicity. This study was done to evaluate the possible protective effects of 6-gingerol as natural antioxidant on gentamicin-induced renal cortical oxidative stress and apoptosis in adult male albino rats. Forty adult male albino rats were used in this study and were randomly divided into four groups, control group; 6-gingerol treated group; gentamicin treated group and protected group (given simultaneous 6-gingerol and gentamicin). At the end of the study, blood samples were drawn for biochemical study. Kidney sections were processed for histological, and immunohistochemical examination for caspase-3 to detect apoptosis and anti heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) to detect oxidative damage. Gentamicin treated rats revealed a highly significant increase in renal function tests, tubular dilatation with marked vacuolar degeneration and desquamation of cells, interstitial hemorrhage and cellular infiltration. Immunohistochemically, gentamicin treated rats showed a strong positive immunoreaction for caspase-3 and anti heat shock protein 47 (HSP47). Protected rats showed more or less normal biochemical, histological, and immunohistochemical pictures. In conclusion, co-administration of 6-gingerol during gentamicin 'therapy' has a significant reno-protective effect in a rat model of gentamicin-induced renal damage. It is recommended that administration of ginger with gentamicin might be beneficial in men who receive gentamicin to treat infections. PMID:27036327

  13. Effects of hyperprolactinemia on toxicological parameters and proliferation of islet cells in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ose, Keiko; Miyata, Kaori; Yoshioka, Kaoru; Okuno, Yasuyoshi

    2009-04-01

    Prolactin has a wide variety of biological effects. Consequences of hyperprolactinemia on islet B cell proliferation as well as general toxicological parameters were here examined using anterior pituitary-grafted rats. Three or six anterior pituitary glands were implanted under single renal capsules of F344 male rats and left there for 13 weeks afterward. Clinical observation along with measurement of body weight and food consumption was conducted during the observation period, and subsequently hematology, blood biochemistry, gross pathology, organ weights and histopathology were examined. In addition, the proliferation rate of islet B cells was measured by a 5-bromo-2'-deoxy-uridine (BrdU) labeling technique. Serum prolactin concentrations at week 13 were 36, 70, 75 and 105 ng/ml in the sham-operated, 3-pituitary-grafted groups from male or female donors, and 6-pituitary-grafted group from male donors, respectively. Higher cholinesterase and total cholesterol values, lower trigriceride and leutenizing hormones (LH) values, and higher adrenal weights compared to those in the sham-operated group were apparent in the 3- and/or 6-pituitary-grafted groups. Also, the study revealed that mammary gland structure was transformed with change of differentiation from a male to a female acinar pattern. Furthermore a specific increase of islet cell proliferation rate was found, positively correlated with serum prolactin concentration. These findings suggest that elevation of serum prolactin level over 13 weeks induces islet cell proliferation and changes in toxicological parameters, including cholinesterase activity, elements of lipid metabolism and histopathology/morphology of the adrenals and mammary glands in male rats. PMID:19336972

  14. Two aromatase inhibitors inhibit the ability of a third to promote mating in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahr, Pauline

    2015-09-01

    Aromatase, the enzyme that aromatizes androstenedione (A) to estrone and testosterone (T) to estradiol (E), affects androgen control of male sex behavior in many vertebrates. In male monkeys, rats and quail, E mimics the ability of T to promote mating, and aromatase inhibitors block mating induced by T but not E. Aromatase inhibitors include androgens with different A-rings than T and A, e.g., 1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17-dione (ATD), azoles, e.g., fadrozole, and androgens α-halogenated at carbon 6, e.g., 6α-bromoA, 6α-fluoroA and 6α-fluoroT. 6α-FluoroT is the only 6α-halogenated androgen studied in regard to mating. It promotes mating in male rats and quail and was studied, before it was known to inhibit aromatase, because it cannot be aromatized yet has the same A-ring as T. 6α-FluoroT might promote mating by binding estrogen receptors (ER) directly, i.e., unassisted, or by metabolism to an androgen that binds ER. Since neither process would require aromatase, this study tested both hypotheses by determining how mating induced in castrated male rats by 6α-fluoroT is affected by ATD and fadrozole. Both aromatase inhibitors inhibited the effects of 6α-fluoroT on mating. Thus, 6α-fluoroT does not promote mating by direct ER binding or metabolism to another androgen. Since aromatase underlies a process in which 6α-fluoroT, unlike most nonaromatizable androgens, mimics T effects on male sex behavior, the process must involve a feature that 6α-fluoroT shares with T but not other nonaromatizable androgens. A-ring structure is a candidate. A hypothesis is also offered for how aromatase may participate without aromatizing the androgen. PMID:26232614

  15. The estimations of some morphofunctional changes in organs of reproductive system and liver of male rats after fractional irradiation at 1,0 Gy dose at the stage of early ontogenesis and in theirs progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relative organ weight of reproductive system and liver, the number of spermatozoa from epididymis, RNA, DNA and protein content in testes and liver tissue of rats fractionally irradiated at 1,0 Gy dose in early ontogenetic stage and in their first progeny from irradiated females (male rats in 2 and 6 month age) were analyzed. Essential changes of the studied parameters of rats reproductive system since 1 and 6 months after irradiation and moderate deviations of relative organ weight of reproductive system and biochemical indices in testes tissue of first progeny from irradiated parents were revealed. The morphofunctional indices of rat reproductive system can be used as markers of ionizing radiation action

  16. Postnatal Age Influences Hypoglycemia-induced Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase-1 Activation in the Brain Regions of Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Raghavendra; Sperr, Dustin; Ennis, Kathleen; Tran, Phu

    2009-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) overactivation plays a significant role in hypoglycemia-induced brain injury in adult rats. To determine the influence of postnatal age on PARP-1 activation, developing and adult male rats were subjected to acute hypoglycemia of equivalent severity and duration. The expression of PARP-1 and its downstream effectors, apoptosis inducing factor (Aifm1), caspase 3 (Casp3), NF-κB (Nfkb1) and bcl-2 (Bcl2), and cellular poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymer expression...

  17. Morphological and antioxidant impairments in the spinal cord of male offspring rats following exposure to a continuous 900MHz electromagnetic field during early and mid-adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İkinci, Ayşe; Mercantepe, Tolga; Unal, Deniz; Erol, Hüseyin Serkan; Şahin, Arzu; Aslan, Ali; Baş, Orhan; Erdem, Havva; Sönmez, Osman Fikret; Kaya, Haydar; Odacı, Ersan

    2016-09-01

    The effects of devices emitting electromagnetic field (EMF) on human health have become the subject of intense research among scientists due to the rapid increase in their use. Children and adolescents are particularly attracted to the use of devices emitting EMF, such as mobile phones. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate changes in the spinal cords of male rat pups exposed to the effect of 900MHz EMF. The study began with 24 Sprague-Dawley male rats aged 3 weeks. Three groups containing equal numbers of rats were established-control group (CG), sham group (SG) and EMF group (EMFG). EMFG rats were placed inside an EMF cage every day between postnatal days (PD) 21 and 46 and exposed to the effect of 900MHz EMF for 1h. SG rats were kept in the EMF cage for 1h without being exposed to the effect of EMF. At the end of the study, the spinal cords in the upper thoracic region of all rats were removed. Tissues were collected for biochemistry, light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) examination. Biochemistry results revealed significantly increased malondialdehyde and glutathione levels in EMFG compared to CG and SG, while SG and EMFG catalase and superoxide dismutase levels were significantly higher than those in CG. In EMFG, LM revealed atrophy in the spinal cord, vacuolization, myelin thickening and irregularities in the perikarya. TEM revealed marked loss of myelin sheath integrity and invagination into the axon and broad vacuoles in axoplasm. The study results show that biochemical alterations and pathological changes may occur in the spinal cords of male rats following exposure to 900MHz EMF for 1h a day on PD 21-46. PMID:26708410

  18. Aging male symptoms: the relationship between physical activity and quality of life

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa de Carvalho Souza; Adriana Coutinho de Azevedo Guimarães

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine the relationship between physical activity (PA) and the aging male symptoms of middle-aged men in the quality of life (QOL). Methodology: Cross-sectional study with a probabilistic samples of 416 men (40-59 years old), all residents in two cities in southern of Brazil. A questionnaire was used. The studied population was divided into two groups: with and without symptoms. The analyses were carried out in a descriptive and inferential approaches. Results: Ag...

  19. THE EFFECT OF THE MULTIGLYCOSIDES OF TRIPTERYGIUM WILFORDII ON THE HYPOTHALAMOPITUITARY-TESTIS AXIS OF MALE RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONGJian-Sun; QINJin-Xi; LIUXi-Guang; SUNYun-Tian; D.M.deKretser

    1989-01-01

    The multiglycosides of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f. (GTW) is a Chinese herb medicine used traditionally for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, chronic nephritis and some skin diseases. It has been recently shown to cause infertility in men, male rats and

  20. Histological study of the effects of oral administration of datura metel on the visual system of male wistar rats

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    Ibiyeye Yetunde Rukayat

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in order to elucidate some of the effects of oral administration of Cannabis sativa on the visual system of male Wistar rats as marker of toxicity using neurohistochemical study. 12 adult male Wistar rats were used for this study. The rats were distributed into two groups (A and B. The rats in group A served as the treatment group and were administered with 300 mg/kg body weight of Cannabis sativa while the rats in group B which served as the control were administered with equal volume of phosphate buffered saline. The duration of administration was for 14d. The rats were sacrificed using cervical dislocation 24 hrs after the last administration. The brains were excised from the skulls of the animals and were completely fixed in 10% formol calcium. 72 hours after fixation, right occipital cortex, right lateral geniculate nucleus and right superior colliculus were excised separately for histological (H&E processing. Microscopic observations made from the permanent photomicrographs revealed alterations in the histoarchitecture of the visual system of the rats in the treated group compared with the rats in the treated group with preserved histological outline. Oral administration of Cannabis sativa on the visual system of male Wistar rats caused neurodegeneration of the occipital cortex, right lateral geniculate nucleus and right superior colliculus of Wistar rats.

  1. Evaluation of the Anxiolytic and Antidepressant Effects of Alcoholic Extract of Kaempferia parviflora in Aged Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Jintanaporn Wattanathorn; Prasert Pangpookiew; Kittisak Sripanidkulchai; Supaporn Muchimapura; Bungorn Sripanidkuchai

    2007-01-01

    To date, the search for novel pharmacotherapy from medicinal plants for psychiatric illnesses has significantly progressed. The present study was performed to evaluate the anxiolytic and antidepressant like activities of the K.parviflora rhizome extract. Aged male Wistar rats were orally administered the alcoholic extract of this plant at various doses ranging from 100, 200 and 300 mg kgË1 BW once daily for 7 days. The anxiolytic and antidepressant activities were performed after both single ...

  2. Oxidation of Lipids and Proteins in Lens and Blood Plasma of Rats in Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova I.P.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to assess the intensity of oxidation of lipids and proteins in lens and blood plasma of Wistar rats in ageing. Materials and Methods. The experiments were carried out on 25 Wistar male rats of four age groups: 5, 12, 24 and 36 months. Materials for study were lens and blood plasma. Lipids were extracted using Folch partition. The content of diene and triene conjugates was assessed by means of spectrophotometry. The level of Schiff’s bases was studied according to fluorescence intensity, malon dialdehyde concentration — according to the intensity of interaction with thiobarbituric acid. Potentiality of substrate oxidation in specimen was assessed using the method of induced chemoluminescence, and the degree of protein oxidative modification was assessed according to the level of carbonyl derivatives with 2.4-dinitrophenylhydrasine. The investigation of the content of total lipids and total proteins were carried out using “Bio-Test Total Lipids” and “Total Protein-Vital”. Results. The processes of lipid peroxidation of lens membranes are increasing in animals aged 5—12 months and decreasing in the period of 12—24 months. The level of lipid peroxidation in blood plasma has an expressed tendency for increasing in ageing. Over the years, there is the level decrease of carbonyl derivatives of aminoacids of lens proteins and the tendency for the increase of oxidative modification of proteins in blood plasma.

  3. Morphometric and biomechanical remodeling of the small intestine during aging in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingbo; Gregersen, Hans

    2015-12-16

    The present study aimed to study the morphometric and biomechanical remodeling of the small intestine during aging in rats. Twenty-four male Wistar rats, aged from 6 to 22 months, were used in the study. The body weight and the wet weight per length of duodenal and ileal segments were measured at the termination of the experiments. Morphometry data was obtained by measuring the wall thickness and cross-sectional area. The mechanical test was done as a step-wise distension experiment. The intestinal diameter and length were obtained from digitized images of the segments at pre-selected pressure levels and at the no-load and zero-stress states. Circumferential and longitudinal stresses (force per area) and strains (deformation) were computed from the length, diameter and pressure data and from the zero-stress state geometry. The duodenal and ileal dimensions increased slightly from 6 to 22 months, e.g. the wall thickness and the wall cross-sectional area increased about 4% and 25% for duodenum and 5% and 8% for ileum. The opening angle gradually decreased from 154 to 117 degrees for duodenum and from 144 to 87 degrees for ileum during aging. The circumferential stress-strain curves significantly shifted to the left after 22 months (pstress-strain curves significantly shifted to the left after 18 months (prat intestine during aging. PMID:26596717

  4. Hepatoprotective Role of Ethanolic Extract of Vitex negundo in Thioacetamide-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kadir, Farkaad A; Kassim, Normadiah M.; Mahmood A. Abdulla; Wageeh A. Yehye

    2013-01-01

    The hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract from the leaves of Vitex negundo (VN) was conducted against thioacetamide- (TAA-) induced hepatic injury in Sprague Dawley rats. The therapeutic effect of the extract was investigated on adult male rats. Rats were divided into seven groups: control, TAA, Silymarin (SY), and VN high dose and low dose groups. Rats were administered with VN extract at two different doses, 100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg body weight. After 12 weeks, the rats administered...

  5. Chronic mild stressors and diet affect gene expression differently in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shuwen; Byers, Donna M; Irwin, Louis N

    2007-01-01

    While depression is reportedly more prevalent in women than men, a neurobiological basis for this difference has not been documented. Chronic mild stress (CMS) is a widely recognized animal model, which uses mild and unpredictable environmental stressors to induce depression. Studies of chronic stress, mainly in males, have reported an increase in the relative intake of "comfort food" as a means of counteracting the effects of stress. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that genes for certain neurotrophic factors, stress markers, and appetite regulators would be expressed differentially in male and female rats exposed to chronic, mild stressors with access to a preferred diet. Gene expression for neuropeptide Y was upregulated in females purely in response to stressors, whereas that for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) in males and fatty acid synthase (FASN) in females responded primarily to diet. Genes for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), AVP, and the cocaine-amphetamine regulator of transcription (CART) in males, and leptin in females, showed a significant response to the interaction between stressors and diet. Every affected gene showed a different pattern of expression in males and females. This study confirms the intimate relationship between dietary intake and response to stress at the molecular level, and emphasizes the sex- and gene-specific nature of those interactions. Therefore, it supports a neurobiological basis for differences in the affective state response to stress in males and females. PMID:17917078

  6. Resident intruder paradigm-induced aggression relieves depressive-like behaviors in male rats subjected to chronic mild stress

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Sheng; Ji, Xiao-wei; Wu, Chun-Ling; Li, Zi-fa; Sun, Peng; Wang, Jie-qiong; Zhao, Qi-tao; Gao, Jie; Guo, Ying-hui; Sun, Shi-guang; Qiao, Ming-qi

    2014-01-01

    Background Accumulating epidemiological evidence shows that life event stressors are major vulnerability factors for psychiatric diseases such as major depression. It is also well known that the resident intruder paradigm (RIP) results in aggressive behavior in male rats. However, it is not known how resident intruder paradigm-induced aggression affects depressive-like behavior in isolated male rats subjected to chronic mild stress (CMS), which is an animal model of depression. Material/Metho...

  7. Effect of Short-term Forced Exercise on Naloxone Induced Withdrawal Symptoms in Morphine Addicted Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    KH Saadipour; A Sarkaki; M Badavi; H Alaei

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Opioid dependence has been causing limitation in usage of morphine and other opioid drugs in pain control. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of short-term forced exercise on withdrawal syndrome in morphine addicted male rats. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was done in the physiology research center of Ahwas Jondishapour University of Medical Sciences. Twenty four young male Wistar rats, weighing 200-300gr, were randomly di...

  8. Effect of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. (burdock) roots on the sexual behavior of male rats

    OpenAIRE

    JianFeng Cao; PengYing Zhang; ChengWei Xu; TaoTao Huang; YunGui Bai; KaoShan Chen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Arctium lappa L. root has traditionally been recommended as an aphrodisiac agent. It is used to treat impotence and sterility in China, and Native Americans included the root in herbal preparations for women in labor. However, its use has not been scientifically validated. The present study therefore investigated the effects of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots on sexual behavior in normal male rats. Methods Seventy-five albino male rats were randomly divided into ...

  9. The effect of age on the mating competitiveness of male Glossina fuscipes fuscipes and G. palpalis palpalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.P. Abila

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of age on male Glossina fuscipes fuscipes, Newstead, and Glossina palpalis palpalis, Austin (Diptera: Glossinidae competiveness were investigated with a view to estimate optimal age for sterile male release. Sterile insect technique involves the mass production, sterilization and sequential release of males of the target species to out compete the wild male population. Mating between released sterile males and wild females produce inviable progeny and the population is reduced over several generations to unsustainable levels. It is vital that the released male are of high quality and are sexually competitive. Age is one parameter affecting the sexual competiveness of the male tsetse fly. The optimal release age was estimated by assessing sexual competitiveness of flies of different age categories, 1, 5, 8 and 13-days after adult eclosion. A walk-in field-cage was used in order to approximate as closely as possible the actual field scenario during sterile insect release programes. It was shown that 8 and 13-day old males mated significantly more frequently, i.e. were more competitive, in the presence of equal numbers of 1 and 5-day old males. The age of male tsetse flies significantly affected competitiveness in both species studied. The ability of G. f. fuscipes to inseminate was not age dependent, and insemination occurred in all females that mated regardless of male age. In G. p. palpalis, however, 1-day old males were least able to inseminate. Mating duration was not significantly affected by age in both species. Eight to thirteen day old males of the test species are here recommended as the optimal sterile male release age.

  10. Coach Selections and the Relative Age Effect in Male Youth Ice Hockey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, David J.; Ste-Marie, Diane M.; Young, Bradley W.

    2013-01-01

    Relative age effects (RAEs; when relatively older children possess participation and performance advantages over relatively younger children) are frequent in male team sports. One possible explanation is that coaches select players based on physical attributes, which are more likely witnessed in relatively older athletes. Purpose: To determine if…

  11. TESTOSTERONE, DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE, AND PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE IN OLDER MEN: RESULTS FROM THE MASSACHUSETTS MALE AGING STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript examines the relationships of total testosterone (T), bioavailable T, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and DHEA sulfate (DHEAS) to measures of physical performance in a large, population-based, random sample of men. In the most recent wave of the Massachusetts Male Aging Study, measur...

  12. Toxicological Features of Catha edulis (Khat) on Livers and Kidneys of Male and Female Sprague-Dawley Rats: A Subchronic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulsamad Alsalahi; Mahmood Ameen Abdulla; Mohammed Al-Mamary; Mohamed Ibrahim Noordin; Siddig Ibrahim Abdelwahab; Alabsi, Aied M.; Abdrabuh Shwter; Alshawsh, Mohammed A.

    2012-01-01

    Hepato- and nephrotoxicity of Khat consumption (Catha edulis Forskal) have been evoked. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate such possible hepatorenal toxicity in female and male Sprague-Dawley rats (SD rats) focusing primarily on liver and kidney. In addition, female and male rats were investigated separately. Accordingly, forty-eight SD-rats (100–120 g) were distributed randomly into four groups of males and female (n = 12). Normal controls (NCs) received distilled water, whereas...

  13. POTENTIAL ESTROGENIC EFFECTS OF BISPHENOL-A IN MALE RATS AND BENEFICIAL ADMINISTRATION OF SOME ANTIOXIDANTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisphenol-A is a chemical compound which is used primarily as a monomer in the manufacture of numerous chemical products. The objective of this study was to evaluate potential harmful effects of bisphenol-A on reproductive system of male rats and was designed to clarify the ability of zinc or selenium to improve this perturbation in the reproductive function of rats.As a result of bisphenol-A treatment, number of sperms, testis total protein, glutathione and glutathione peroxidase were decreased significantly. This effect was concomitant with a significant decrease in serum testosterone level. On the other hand, bisphenol-A caused a significant elevation in the abnormality of sperm (sperm malformed head or tail or head and tail) and testis total lipid. However, a significant increment was obtained in serum FSH, LH, PRL, E2 and progesterone levels when compared with their corresponding normal control rats.Moreover, the administration of zinc or selenium to treated rats with bisphenol-A rats led to a remarkable amelioration in all previous parameters

  14. Direct and indirect effects of kisspeptin on liver oxidant and antioxidant systems in young male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, M; Oktar, S; Yonden, Z; Ozturk, O H; Yilmaz, B

    2010-06-01

    Kisspeptin is a recently discovered hypothalamic peptide which plays an important role in the central control of reproductive functions. We have investigated direct and indirect effects of kisspeptin on the liver oxidative stress in young male rats. Twenty-four rats were divided into four groups (n = 6/group). First group served as control and received saline. Kisspeptin-10 was administered to the animals in the second group (20 nmol/rat/day), for a period of 7 days. Rats were given only one dose gosereline (0.9 mg/rat), a GnRH agonist in the third group. The last group received kisspeptin-10 with gosereline. The activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), xanthine oxidase (XO), adenosine deaminase (AD) and level of malondialdehyde were studied in liver tissue. Serum samples were separated for total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), colesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglyceride. Kisspeptin increased the activities of SOD and catalase (p < 0.05). When compared to the control group, the levels of malondialdehyde, TOS and AST were lower, but levels of BUN, cholesterole, HDL and AD were higher in the other three groups (p < 0.05). In conclusion, our findings suggest that kisspeptin may have antioxidant and thus protective effects on the liver tissue. PMID:20517893

  15. Combination of Vildagliptin and Pioglitazone in Experimental Type 2 Diabetes in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refaat, Rowaida; Sakr, Ahmed; Salama, Mona; El Sarha, Ashgan

    2016-09-01

    Preclinical Research The majority of studies on vildagliptin and pioglitazone have focused on their combination in glycemic control. The aim of the present study was to investigate their effects in combination on (i) hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and inflammation and (ii) on organs involved in the pathophysiology of diabetes, pancreas, kidney and liver. Type 2 diabetes was induced using low-dose streptozotocin in male Wistar rats. Diabetic rats were treated for 4 weeks, with vildagliptin (10 mg/kg/day), pioglitazone (10 mg/kg/day) and their combination. Diabetic rats showed elevated fasting serum glucose, fasting serum insulin, serum transaminases together with a deleterious lipid profile and elevated serum creatinine and urea concentrations. Serum levels of the inflammatory markers tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nitrite/nitrate were also elevated compared to normal rats. Oxidative stress was manifested by lowered hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Pancreatic sections from diabetic rats showed degenerated islets with poorly maintained architecture that was prevented by drug treatment. Pioglitazone was generally more effective than vildagliptin in the studied parameters except for the lipid profile where the effect of both drugs was comparable and for the liver enzymes and renal parameters where vildagliptin was more effective. The combination of vildagliptin and pioglitazone produced superior effects than either drug alone. Drug Dev Res 77 : 251-257, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27520857

  16. Weight loss by calorie restriction versus bariatric surgery differentially regulates the HPA axis in male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Bernadette E.; Hakala-Finch, Andrew P.; Kekulawala, Melani; Laub, Holly; Egan, Ann E.; Ressler, Ilana B.; Woods, Stephen C.; Herman, James P.; Seeley, Randy J.; Benoit, Stephen C.; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral modifications for the treatment of obesity, including caloric restriction, have notoriously low long-term success rates relative to bariatric weight-loss surgery. The reasons for the difference in sustained weight loss are not clear. One possibility is that caloric restriction alone activates the stress-responsive hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, undermining the long-term maintenance of weight loss, and that this is abrogated after bariatric surgery. Accordingly, we compared the HPA response to weight loss in 5 groups of male rats: (1) high-fat diet-induced obese (DIO) rats treated with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB, n=7), (2) DIO rats treated with vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG, n=11), (3) DIO rats given sham surgery and subsequently restricted to the food intake of the VSG/RYGB groups (Pair-fed, n=11), (4) ad libitum-fed DIO rats given sham surgery (Obese, n=11) and (5) ad libitum chow-fed rats given sham surgery (Lean, n=12). Compared to Lean controls, food-restricted rats exhibited elevated morning (nadir) non-stress plasma corticosterone concentrations and increased hypothalamic corticotropin releasing hormone and vasopressin mRNA expression, indicative of basal HPA activation. This was largely prevented when weight loss was achieved by bariatric surgery. DIO increased HPA activation by acute (novel environment) stress and this was diminished by bariatric surgery-, but not pair-feeding-, induced weight loss. These results suggest that the HPA axis is differentially affected by weight loss from caloric restriction versus bariatric surgery, and this may contribute to the differing long-term effectiveness of these two weight-loss approaches. PMID:25238021

  17. Evaluation of radio protective effects of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation is one of the most widespread sources of environmental stress in living environment which cause oxidative stress and metabolic changes. The basic purpose of this work was to determine the radio protective ability of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) seeds against whole body gamma irradiation of rats. The study was conducted on thirty two male rats which were classified into four equal groups. Control group: (normal, untreated). Coriander aqueous extract group (C.E.): rats received orally by gavage the aqueous extract of Coriander seed powder (300 mg/ kg b. wt. / day for 42 days). Irradiated group: rats were subjected to whole body irradiation at dose of 4 Gy delivered as a single exposure dose. Combined treatment group: rats received orally C.E. (300 mg/ kg b. wt. / day) for 42 days?at day 35 of C.E. treatment the rats were irradiated at dose level of 4 Gy. The animals exposed to gamma radiation showed a significant increase in serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), urea (U), creatinine (Cr), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and tissue thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS). On the other hand, a significant decrease was recorded in serum total protein (T.P), albumin (Alb), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). A decrease of liver and kidney reduced glutathione (GSH) content, superoxides dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were reported. Treatment of rats with C.E. significantly reduced the radiation-induced serum biochemical disorders which was associated with significant amelioration in the oxidant / antioxidant status of liver and kidney tissues. It could be concluded that C.E. might protect from radiation induced damage due to its ability to scavenge free radicals.

  18. Neonatal proinflammatory challenge in male Wistar rats: Effects on behavior, synaptic plasticity, and adrenocortical stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishkina, Anna; Stepanichev, Mikhail; Kudryashova, Irina; Freiman, Sofia; Onufriev, Mikhail; Lazareva, Natalia; Gulyaeva, Natalia

    2016-05-01

    Effects of neonatal proinflammatory stress (NPS) on the development of anxiety and depressive-like behavior, stress responsiveness, hippocampal plasticity and conditioned fear response were studied in adolescent and adult male Wistar rats. On PND 3 and PND 5, the pups were subcutaneously injected with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 50 μg/kg). In the open field test, signs of increased anxiety were demonstrated in adolescent (PND 32), but not in adult (PND 101) rats. In the elevated plus maze, no changes could be detected in adolescent rats, however, in the adults the number of entries into the open arms decreased suggesting increased anxiety after NPS. Signs of "behavioral despair" in the forced swim test, expressed in adolescent rats as a trend, became significant in the adults indicating depression-like behavior. In the majority of brain slices from PND 19-PND 33 rats subjected to NPS, deficit of LTP in the hippocampal CA1 field was detected, this deficit being associated with the impaired mechanisms of LTP induction. In the adult rats, NPS enhanced fear conditioning promoting improved formation of the novel context-foot shock association in the contextual fear conditioning paradigm without effect on cued fear conditioning. NPS significantly impaired functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA), resulting in an elevated corticosterone level maintained in the adolescents but not in the adults and in modified corticosterone response to behavioral sub-chronic stress in both adolescent and adult rats. Thus, NPS induces "perinatal malprogramming" resulting in development of depression-like behaviors, associated with abnormalities in functioning of the HPAA, impaired hippocampal neuroplasticity (LTP) and changes in hippocampus-dependent memory formation. PMID:26851557

  19. Western-style diet induces insulin insensitivity and hyperactivity in adolescent male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwitz, Shannon E; Woodie, Lauren N; Blythe, Sarah N

    2015-11-01

    The prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents has increased rapidly over the past 30 years, as has the incidence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In 2012, it was found that overweight children have a twofold higher chance of developing ADHD than their normal weight counterparts. Previous work has documented learning and memory impairments linked to consumption of an energy-dense diet in rats, but the relationship between diet and ADHD-like behaviors has yet to be explored using animal models. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the role of diet in the etiology of attention and hyperactivity disorders using a rat model of diet-induced obesity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a control diet or a Western-style diet (WSD) for ten weeks, and specific physiological and behavioral effects were examined. Tail blood samples were collected to measure fasting blood glucose and insulin levels in order to assess insulin insensitivity. Rats also performed several behavioral tasks, including the open field task, novel object recognition test, and attentional set-shifting task. Rats exposed to a WSD had significantly higher fasting insulin levels than controls, but both groups had similar glucose levels. The quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) indicated the development of insulin resistance in WSD rats. Performance in the open field test indicated that WSD induced pronounced hyperactivity and impulsivity. Further, control diet animals were able to discriminate between old and novel objects, but the WSD animals were significantly impaired in object recognition. However, regardless of dietary condition, rats were able to perform the attentional set-shifting paradigm. While WSD impaired episodic memory and induced hyperactivity, attentional set-shifting capabilities are unaffected. With the increasing prevalence of both obesity and ADHD, understanding the potential links between the two conditions is of clinical

  20. Prediction of seizure incidence probability in PTZ model of kindling through spatial learning ability in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeri, Narges-Al-Sadat; Palizvan, Mohammad Reza; Sadegh, Mehdi; Aghaei, Zohre; Rafiei, Mohammad

    2016-07-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disease characterized by periodic seizures. Cognitive deficits and impairments in learning and memory are also associated with epilepsy. Neuronal changes and synaptic modifications in kindling model of epilepsy are similar to those occur during the learning procedure and memory formation. Herein we investigated whether seizure susceptibility in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) model of kindling is predictable based on the learning ability in the Morris water maze (MWM) task in male and female rats. Allocentric learning was tested using MWM in present of light while egocentric learning was evaluated by MWM in dark room. The results indicated no significant differences in allocentric learning abilities between male and female rats. However, male rats were able to memorize the location of the platform more effectively compared to females in egocentric test. In addition, a statistically significant negative correlation between learning abilities (working memory) and seizure susceptibility in male rats was found while this correlation was positive in female rats. On the other hand, although there was no significant correlation between retrieval (reference memory) of spatial memories and seizure parameters in male rats, female rats showed a significant negative correlation. These findings may provide some evidences for prediction of seizure susceptibility according to learning ability and memory retention. PMID:27098273

  1. Oral administration of Kaempferia parviflora did not disturb male reproduction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisomboon, Hataitip; Tohei, Atsushi; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2008-10-01

    To investigate the androgenic effect of Kaempferia parviflora (KP), a Thai herbal plant, adult male rats were randomized into control and KP-treatment groups. Rats were treated orally with water in the control group and with 1,000 mg/kg/day of KP in the treatment group for 45 days. Blood samples were collected on days 10, 20, 30 and 45 for measurement of the serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, progesterone and corticosterone levels. The reproductive and non-reproductive organs were dissected on day 45 and weighed. Mating behavior was also observed on days 20 and 30. Body weight was measured throughout the study period. The results showed that KP induced an increase in body weight compared with the controls. There were no significant differences in the weights of either reproductive (testis, seminal vesicle plus coagulating gland, levator ani muscle plus bulbocarvernosus muscle and glans penis, except the prostate gland) or non-reproductive organs (kidney, adrenal gland and gastracnemius muscle). There were no significant differences in serum levels of either FSH or LH between the two groups. The serum testosterone and progesterone levels were insignificantly lower in the KP group during the first 30 days. The serum corticosterone levels in the KP group were lower than those in the controls throughout the study period and were significantly low on days 20 and 30. There were no significant changes in mating behavior in the rats treated with KP. Although KP affected the body weight and serum corticosterone level, it did not affect mating behavior, reproductive and non-reproductive organ weights or hormones related to the reproductive system in the adult male rats. Therefore, we conclude that the testosterone-like effect of KP did not disturb the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis or male reproduction. PMID:18594126

  2. Differences in behavior associated to anxiety in male and Female rats exposed to a chronic stress protocol: Early maternal separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duenas Gómez, Zulma Janeth

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available During the first stages of life, the environment and maternal interactions are essential for normal mammalian neuronal maturity and behavior. In fact, it has been demonstrated that disruption of mother-pup interaction during early life exert long-lasting effects on the development of central nervous, endocrine, and immune systems and behavioral responses. The principal aim of our work was to study the consequences of early maternal separation (EMS on adult male and female anxiety. The behaviors was evaluated using the Elavated Plus-Maze (EPM. Separation procedure was carried out in postnatal days 1 to 21 twice daily: three hours in the morning and three hours in the afternoon. As a control group we used animals that stayed with the mother but were manipulated daily for one minute in the morning and in the afternoon. In postnatal day 22, animals were distributed by sex and then kept in standard lab conditions. Behavioral testing in the EPM was performed at 90/95 days of age. All subjects were videotaped. Records included number of entries, time spent in each arm, and the frequency and time stretching, deeping, rearing, and grooming. Our results showed that separated females have more open arm entries and spent more time there, and exhibit more deeping and less grooming compared to females in the control group and males of the experimental and control group. Thus, based on the anxiolytic profile that female rat shows in the EPM, these data suggest that EMS affects differentially male and female adult rats

  3. Maternal Melatonin Therapy Rescues Prenatal Dexamethasone and Postnatal High-Fat Diet Induced Programmed Hypertension in Male Rat Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Lin eTain

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal dexamethasone (DEX exposure and high-fat (HF intake are linked to hypertension. We examined whether maternal melatonin therapy prevents programmed hypertension synergistically induced by prenatal DEX plus postnatal HF in adult offspring. We also examined whether DEX and melatonin causes renal programming using next-generation RNA sequencing (NGS technology. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received intraperitoneal dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg or vehicle from gestational day 16 to 22. In the melatonin-treatment groups (M, rats received 0.01% melatonin in drinking water during their entire pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring were assigned to five groups: control, DEX, HF, DEX+HF, and DEX+HF+M. Male offspring in the HF group were fed a HF diet from weaning to 4 months of age. Prenatal DEX and postnatal HF diet synergistically induced programmed hypertension in adult offspring, which melatonin prevented. Maternal melatonin treatment modified over 3000 renal transcripts in the developing offspring kidney. Our NGS data indicate that PPAR signaling and fatty acid metabolism are two significantly regulated pathways. In addition, maternal melatonin therapy elicits longstanding alterations on renal programming, including regulation of the melatonin signaling pathway and upregulation of Agtr1b and Mas1 expression in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS, to protect male offspring against programmed hypertension. Postnatal HF aggravates prenatal DEX induced programmed hypertension in adult offspring, which melatonin prevented. The protective effects of melatonin on programmed hypertension is associated with regulation of the RAS and melatonin receptors. The long-term effects of maternal melatonin therapy on renal transcriptome require further clarification.

  4. EFFECTS OF FOUR TRIHALOMETHANES ON DNA STRAND BREAKS, RENAL HYALINE DROPLET FORMATION AND SERUM TESTOSTERONE IN MALE F-344 RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    All four possible trihalomethanes (THMs) containing bromine and chlorine, as well as perchloroethylene (PCE), were evaluated for their ability to produce DNA strand breaks, a2u-globulin rich renal deposits, and testosterone changes in male F-344 rats. Rats received daily equimola...

  5. Effect of Hydrophilic Extract of Allium Jesdianum on Ethylene Glycol-Induced Renal Stone in Male Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    R Vahdani; S Mehrabi; J Malekzadeh; R Jannesar; H Sadeghi; A Shafaeifar

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aim: Considering the evidence which show the effect of herbal medicine on renal stone treatment, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Allium Jesdianum on prevention and treatment of calcium oxalate stone in rats. Methods: In the present experimental study, forty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (each group 11 rats) and then studied for 30 days. The Healthy control group only received normal water and a regular diet. The negative...

  6. Evaluating the Effect of Vitamins E and C on Sexual Cell Lineages in Adult Male Rats under Oxidative Stress Induced by Endosulfan Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    yazdan heydari; shirzad hosseini; mojtaba keshavarz; ahmad mozafar; mohammadhasaan meshkibaf; mohammadali takhshid

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objective: Endosulfan is one of the strong insecticides used in agriculture. This toxin is absorbed by inhalation and skin. Endosulfan has side effects such as infertility in men. This study surveys the effect of vitamins E and C on  preventing the harmful effects of Endosulfan on spermatogenesis in adult male rats. Materials & Methods: Adult male rats (200-250 g) from Wistar rats were divided into five groups of 10 rats. Rats in the experimental group...

  7. Chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC as a model of chronic psychosocial stress in male rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kewir D Nyuyki

    Full Text Available Chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC is an adequate and reliable mouse model of chronic psychosocial stress, resulting in reduced body weight gain, reduced thymus and increased adrenal weight, long-lasting anxiety-like behaviour, and spontaneous colitis. Furthermore, CSC mice show increased corticotrophin (ACTH responsiveness to acute heterotypic stressors, suggesting a general mechanism which allows a chronically-stressed organism to adequately respond to a novel threat. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to extend the CSC model to another rodent species, namely male Wistar rats, and to characterize relevant physiological, immunological, and behavioural consequences; placing particular emphasis on changes in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis responsiveness to an acute heterotypic stressor. In line with previous mouse data, exposure of Wistar rats to 19 days of CSC resulted in a decrease in body weight gain and absolute thymus mass, mild colonic barrier defects and intestinal immune activation. Moreover, no changes in stress-coping behaviour or social preference were seen; again in agreement with the mouse paradigm. Most importantly, CSC rats showed an increased plasma corticosterone response to an acute heterotypic stressor (open arm, 5 min despite displaying similar basal levels and similar basal and stressor-induced plasma ACTH levels. In contrast to CSC mice, anxiety-related behaviour and absolute, as well as relative adrenal weights remained unchanged in CSC rats. In summary, the CSC paradigm could be established as an adequate model of chronic psychosocial stress in male rats. Our data further support the initial hypothesis that adrenal hyper-responsiveness to ACTH during acute heterotypic stressors represents a general adaptation, which enables a chronically-stressed organism to adequately respond to novel challenges.

  8. Physiological and histopathological changes in the liver of male rats exposed to paracetamol and diazinon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdel-Tawab H Mossa; Tarek M Heikal; Enayat Abdel Aziz Omara

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study was conducted to evaluate the adverse effect of exposure to Diazinon (DIA) and Paracetamol (PARA) and their combination on male rats. Methods: Rats were orally administered PARA at a dose of 66.66 mg a.i. kg-1 body weight (maximum administration dose) and DIA at a dose 12.50 mg a.i. kg-1 b.wt. (1/100 LD50) for 28 consecutive days. Results:Significantly, decreased of body weights were observed in all treated groups, while significant increase in relative liver weight were recorded in DIA and DIA+PARA-treated groups compared to control rats. Liver dysfunction enzymes (e.g., aspartate aminotransferase, AST; alanine aminotransferase, ALT; alkaline phosphatase, ALP and lactate dehydrogenase, LDH) and Lipid Peroxidation Level (LPO) were increased in DIA, PARA and DIA+PARA-treated groups. Treatment of DIA and DIA+PARA caused significant decrease in the activity of serum Cholinesterase (ChE). PARA, DIA and PARA+DIA treatments caused histopathological changes and decreases in DNA content in liver cells of rats. The severities of such observations were more pronounced in their combined exposure. Conclusions: We can conclude that both paracetamol at maximum administration dose and diazinon caused biochemical and histopathological alteration in the liver of male rats. The severities of such observations were more pronounced in their combined exposure. The data throw light on the problem of simultaneous exposure to OPIs and commonly used drugs especially among agriculture sector workers in developing countries, where the handling of drugs (e.g., PARA) is mainly without medical prescription. Further studies, applied to pregnant women, newborns and childhood may be of great significance.

  9. Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya on Ethanol Induced Gastric Lesion in Adult Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Okesina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to elucidate the role of some important constituents of antioxidant defence such as Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx, Thiobarbituric Acid Reaction (TBAR, the activity of the enzyme Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH of Carica papaya on ethanol induced gastric lesion in adult male wistar rats. Twenty-four male adult Wistar rats weighing 180- 220 g were used in this study. Animals were divided into three groups (n = 8 per group. The control group A received phosphate buffered saline orally, with the aid of a cannula. 1 mL of 50% ethanol was administered orally, by a cannula, to produce the gastric lesion in group B (n = 8. And in the group C, 500 mg/kg body weight of paw paw leaf extract was administered orally, with a cannula, twelve hours after ethanol administration to the rats. This experiment lasted for twenty one consecutive days. The result showed that TBARS in gastric mucosa as an index for oxidative stress level was significantly increased after ethanol administration. CPL did not reduce significantly the levels of TBARS in the gastric mucosa. G-6-PDH activity was significantly increased in gastric mucosa after ethanol administration, but in rats treated with CPL, a reverse of G-6-PDH activity was observed. Ethanol induced a remarkable and significant decrease of GPx activity in gastric mucosa, whereas CPL induced a significant reversion of ethanol’s effect on the enzyme. The results therefore demonstrate that CPL treatment exerts antioxidant effects on ethanol-induced gastric lesions in wistar rats.

  10. Effect of aqueous extract of green tea on sexual efficiency in adult male rats

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    A. Y. Jasem

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was designed to study the effects of treatment with green tea (10 g /750ml deionized boiled water for 30 days on some physiological and histological changes of male reproductive system of rats exposed to oxidative stress induced by alloxan (100 mg/kg body weight. The study showed that treatment with alloxan (100 mg/kg body weight, caused a significant decrease in body weights, epididymal body and seminal vesicles weight. total number of epididymal sperm, percentage of live sperms, with significant increase in epididymal head,tail and prostate gland weight, percentage of dead sperms and sperm abnormalities, but there is no significant changes in the weight of the testes in the rats treated with alloxan.Treatment of rats exposed to oxidative stress induced by alloxan (100 mg/kg body weight with green tea (10 g/750ml deionized boiled water for 30 days in drinking water caused a significant increase in body weights, epididymal body & seminal vesicles, percentage of live sperms, with decrease in epididymal head, tail and prostate gland weights, percentage of dead sperms and sperm abnormalities as compared with alloxan treated group. With decrease in the total number of epididymal sperm count as compared with control. Histopathological changes observed in the testes of rats treated with alloxan (100 mg/kg included presence of abnormal spermatids with decrease in the number of sperms in the lumen of seminiferous tubules in addition to irregular division of germ cells.Treatment with green tea caused improvement in the histology of the testes. It was concluded that aqueous extract of green tea exerted an antioxidant effect on the histopathological aspects of the male reproductive system of rats exposed to oxidative stress induced by alloxan.

  11. Estradiol enhances the acquisition of lithium chloride-induced conditioned taste aversion in castrated male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Fan; Tsai, Yuan-Feen; Tai, Mei-Yun; Yeh, Kuei-Ying

    2015-10-01

    The present study examined the effects of short-term treatment with ovarian hormones on the acquisition of conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Adult male rats were castrated and randomly divided into LiCl- and saline-treated groups. Nineteen days after castration, all of the animals were subjected to 23.5-h daily water deprivation for seven successive days (day 1 to day 7). On the conditioning day (day 8), the rats received either a 4 ml/kg of 0.15 M LiCl or the same dose of saline injection immediately after administration of a 2 % sucrose solution during the 30-min water session. Starting from day 6, rats in both groups received one of the following treatments: daily subcutaneous injection of (1) estradiol alone (30 μg/kg; estradiol benzoate (E) group), (2) estradiol plus progesterone (500 μg; E + progesterone (P) group), or (3) olive oil. From day 9 to day 11, all of the rats were given daily two-bottle preference tests during the 30-min fluid session. The estradiol and estradiol plus progesterone treatments in the LiCl groups resulted in significantly lower preference scores for the sucrose solution compared with the olive oil treatment groups, but no difference in preference score was seen between these two groups. These results indicate that both the estradiol and estradiol plus progesterone treatments in the LiCl groups enhanced the acquisition of CTA learning and suggest that estradiol affects the acquisition of CTA mediated by an activational effect in male rats, whereas progesterone treatment does not influence the effects of estradiol on the acquisition of CTA.

  12. 3. Impact of altered gravity on CNS development and behavior in male and female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajdel-Sulkowska, E. M.; Nguon, K.; Ladd, B.; Sulkowski, V. A.; Sulkowski, Z. L.; Baxter, M. G.

    The present study examined the effect of altered gravity on CNS development. Specifically, we compared neurodevelopment, behavior, cerebellar structure and protein expression in rat neonates exposed perinatally to hypergravity. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 1.5G-1.75G hypergravity on a 24-ft centrifuge starting on gestational day (G) 10, through giving birth on G22/G23, and nursing their offspring through postnatal day (P) 21. Cerebellar mass on P6 was decreased in 1.75G-exposed male pups by 27.5 percent; in 1.75G-exposed female pups it was decreased by 22.5 percent. The observed cerebellar changes were associated with alterations in neurodevelopment and motor behavior. Exposure to hypergravity impaired performance on the following neurocognitive tests: (1) righting time on P3 was more than doubled in 1.75G-exposed rats and the effect appeared more pronounced in female pups, (2) startle response on P10 was delayed in both male and female HG pups; HG pups were one-fifth as likely to respond to a clapping noise as SC pups, and (3) performance on a rotorod on P21 was decreased in HG pups; the duration of the stay on rotorod recorded for HG pups of both sexes was one tenth of the SC pups. Furthermore, Western blot analysis of selected cerebellar proteins suggested gender-specific changes in glial and neuronal proteins. On P6, GFAP expression was decreased by 59.2 percent in HG males, while no significant decrease was observed in female cerebella. Synaptophysin expression was decreased in HG male neonates by 29.9 percent and in HG female neonates by 20.7 percent as compared to its expression in SC cerebella. The results of this experiment suggest that perinatal exposure to hypergravity affects cerebellar development and behavior differently in male and female neonates. If one accepts that hypergravity is a good paradigm to study the effect of microgravity on the CNS, and since males and females were shown to respond differently to hypergravity, it can be

  13. [The aging male: a global approach to late onset hypogonadism and erectile dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlamopoulos, Yannis; Jichlinski, Patrice; Tawadros, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    The concept of aging male is defined by an age in which might appear some clinical symptoms. These symptoms, including erectile dysfunction (ED), are sometimes similar to those met in the late onset hypogonadism. Simultaneously, cardiovascular diseases increase with age and are associated with ED. The diagnosis of ED, associated or not with late onset hypogonadism, is mostly clinical. Its management will include PDE-5 which are generally well tolerated. Early detection of late onset hypogonadism is recommended as testosterone substitution improves quality of life. Although testosterone substitution needs to be carefully monitored, there is no clear evidence of increased risk of prostate cancer or cardiovascular disease. PMID:25626250

  14. Relative sensitivity of developmental and immune parameters in juvenile versus adult male rats after exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonk, Elisa C.M., E-mail: ilse.tonk@rivm.nl [Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Verhoef, Aart; Gremmer, Eric R. [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Loveren, Henk van [Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Piersma, Aldert H. [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Veterinary Faculty, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-04-01

    The developing immune system displays a relatively high sensitivity as compared to both general toxicity parameters and to the adult immune system. In this study we have performed such comparisons using di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) as a model compound. DEHP is the most abundant phthalate in the environment and perinatal exposure to DEHP has been shown to disrupt male sexual differentiation. In addition, phthalate exposure has been associated with immune dysfunction as evidenced by effects on the expression of allergy. Male wistar rats were dosed with corn oil or DEHP by gavage from postnatal day (PND) 10–50 or PND 50–90 at doses between 1 and 1000 mg/kg/day. Androgen-dependent organ weights showed effects at lower dose levels in juvenile versus adult animals. Immune parameters affected included TDAR parameters in both age groups, NK activity in juvenile animals and TNF-α production by adherent splenocytes in adult animals. Immune parameters were affected at lower dose levels compared to developmental parameters. Overall, more immune parameters were affected in juvenile animals compared to adult animals and effects were observed at lower dose levels. The results of this study show a relatively higher sensitivity of juvenile versus adult rats. Furthermore, they illustrate the relative sensitivity of the developing immune system in juvenile animals as compared to general toxicity and developmental parameters. This study therefore provides further argumentation for performing dedicated developmental immune toxicity testing as a default in regulatory toxicology. -- Highlights: ► In this study we evaluate the relative sensitivities for DEHP induced effects. ► Results of this study demonstrate the age-dependency of DEHP toxicity. ► Functional immune parameters were more sensitive than structural immune parameters. ► Immune parameters were affected at lower dose levels than developmental parameters. ► Findings demonstrate the susceptibility of the

  15. Relative sensitivity of developmental and immune parameters in juvenile versus adult male rats after exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The developing immune system displays a relatively high sensitivity as compared to both general toxicity parameters and to the adult immune system. In this study we have performed such comparisons using di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) as a model compound. DEHP is the most abundant phthalate in the environment and perinatal exposure to DEHP has been shown to disrupt male sexual differentiation. In addition, phthalate exposure has been associated with immune dysfunction as evidenced by effects on the expression of allergy. Male wistar rats were dosed with corn oil or DEHP by gavage from postnatal day (PND) 10–50 or PND 50–90 at doses between 1 and 1000 mg/kg/day. Androgen-dependent organ weights showed effects at lower dose levels in juvenile versus adult animals. Immune parameters affected included TDAR parameters in both age groups, NK activity in juvenile animals and TNF-α production by adherent splenocytes in adult animals. Immune parameters were affected at lower dose levels compared to developmental parameters. Overall, more immune parameters were affected in juvenile animals compared to adult animals and effects were observed at lower dose levels. The results of this study show a relatively higher sensitivity of juvenile versus adult rats. Furthermore, they illustrate the relative sensitivity of the developing immune system in juvenile animals as compared to general toxicity and developmental parameters. This study therefore provides further argumentation for performing dedicated developmental immune toxicity testing as a default in regulatory toxicology. -- Highlights: ► In this study we evaluate the relative sensitivities for DEHP induced effects. ► Results of this study demonstrate the age-dependency of DEHP toxicity. ► Functional immune parameters were more sensitive than structural immune parameters. ► Immune parameters were affected at lower dose levels than developmental parameters. ► Findings demonstrate the susceptibility of the

  16. Effects of dietary lipids on renal function of aged rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valente Gamba C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal aging is accompanied by renal functional and morphological deterioration and dietetic manipulation has been used to delay this age-related decline. We examined the effects of chronic administration of diets containing 5% lipid-enriched diet (LD, w/w on renal function of rats at different ages. Three types of LD were tested: canola oil, fish oil and butter. Mean systemic tail-cuff blood pressure and glycemia remained within the normal range whatever the age and the diet of the animals. Proteinuria began to rise from the 8th month in the groups ingesting LD, while in the control group it increased significantly (above 10 mg/24 h only after the 10th month. With age, a significant and progressive decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR and renal plasma flow was observed in the LD groups but after 6 months of lipid supplementation, the decline in these parameters was more marked in the butter and fish oil groups. By the 18th month, the lowest GFR level was observed in the group ingesting the butter diet (2.93 ± 0.22 vs 5.01 ± 0.21 ml min-1 kg-1 in control, P<0.05. Net acid excretion, evaluated in 9- and 18-month-old rats, was stimulated in the fish oil group when compared both to control and to the other two LD groups. These results suggest that even low levels of LD in a chronic nutritional regimen can modify the age-related changes in renal function and that the impact of different types of lipid-supplemented diets on renal function depends on the kind of lipid present in the diet.

  17. Atrial arrhythmia in ageing spontaneously hypertensive rats: unraveling the substrate in hypertension and ageing.

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    Dennis H Lau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Both ageing and hypertension are known risk factors for atrial fibrillation (AF although the pathophysiological contribution or interaction of the individual factors remains poorly understood. Here we aim to delineate the arrhythmogenic atrial substrate in mature spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. METHODS: SHR were studied at 12 and 15 months of age (n = 8 per group together with equal numbers of age-matched normotensive Wistar-Kyoto control rats (WKY. Electrophysiologic study was performed on superfused isolated right and left atrial preparations using a custom built high-density multiple-electrode array to determine effective refractory periods (ERP, atrial conduction and atrial arrhythmia inducibility. Tissue specimens were harvested for structural analysis. RESULTS: COMPARED TO WKY CONTROLS, THE SHR DEMONSTRATED: Higher systolic blood pressure (p<0.0001, bi-atrial enlargement (p<0.05, bi-ventricular hypertrophy (p<0.05, lower atrial ERP (p = 0.008, increased atrial conduction heterogeneity (p = 0.001 and increased atrial interstitial fibrosis (p = 0.006 & CD68-positive macrophages infiltration (p<0.0001. These changes resulted in higher atrial arrhythmia inducibility (p = 0.01 and longer induced AF episodes (p = 0.02 in 15-month old SHR. Ageing contributed to incremental bi-atrial hypertrophy (p<0.01 and atrial conduction heterogeneity (p<0.01 without affecting atrial ERP, fibrosis and arrhythmia inducibility. The limited effect of ageing on the atrial substrate may be secondary to the reduction in CD68-positive macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: Significant atrial electrical and structural remodeling is evident in the ageing spontaneously hypertensive rat atria. Concomitant hypertension appears to play a greater pathophysiological role than ageing despite their compounding effect on the atrial substrate. Inflammation is pathophysiologically linked to the pro-fibrotic changes in the hypertensive atria.

  18. Type 3 Adenylyl Cyclase and Somatostatin Receptor 3 Expression Persists in Aged Rat Neocortical and Hippocampal Neuronal Cilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadiana, Sarah M.; Parker, Alexander K.; Filho, Gileno F.; Sequeira, Ashton; Semple-Rowland, Susan; Shaw, Gerry; Mandel, Ronald J.; Foster, Thomas C.; Kumar, Ashok; Sarkisian, Matthew R.

    2016-01-01

    The primary cilia of forebrain neurons assemble around birth and become enriched with neuromodulatory receptors. Our understanding of the permanence of these structures and their associated signaling pathways in the aging brain is poor, but they are worthy of investigation because disruptions in neuronal cilia signaling have been implicated in changes in learning and memory, depression-like symptoms, and sleep anomalies. Here, we asked whether neurons in aged forebrain retain primary cilia and whether the staining characteristics of aged cilia for type 3 adenylyl cyclase (ACIII), somatostatin receptor 3 (SSTR3), and pericentrin resemble those of cilia in younger forebrain. To test this, we analyzed immunostained sections of forebrain tissues taken from young and aged male Fischer 344 (F344) and F344 × Brown Norway (F344 × BN) rats. Analyses of ACIII and SSTR3 in young and aged cortices of both strains of rats revealed that the staining patterns in the neocortex and hippocampus were comparable. Virtually every NeuN positive cell examined possessed an ACIII positive cilium. The lengths of ACIII positive cilia in neocortex were similar between young and aged for both strains, whereas in F344 × BN hippocampus, the cilia lengths increased with age in CA1 and CA3, but not in dentate gyrus (DG). Additionally, the percentages of ACIII positive cilia that were also SSTR3 positive did not differ between young and aged tissues in either strain. We also found that pericentrin, a protein that localizes to the basal bodies of neuronal cilia and functions in primary cilia assembly, persisted in aged cortical neurons of both rat strains. Collectively, our data show that neurons in aged rat forebrain possess primary cilia and that these cilia, like those present in younger brain, continue to localize ACIII, SSTR3, and pericentrin. Further studies will be required to determine if the function and signaling pathways regulated by cilia are similar in aged compared to young brain

  19. Diet-Induced and Age-Related Changes in the Quadriceps Muscle: MRI and MRS in a Rat Model of Sarcopenia

    OpenAIRE

    Fellner, Claudia; Schick, Fritz; Kob, Robert; Hechtl, Christine; Vorbuchner, Marianne; Büttner, Roland; Hamer, Okka W.; Sieber, Cornel C.; Stroszczynski, Christian; Bollheimer, L Cornelius

    2014-01-01

    Background: Knowledge about the molecular pathomechanisms of sarcopenia is still sparse, especially with regard to nutritional risk factors and the subtype of sarcopenic obesity. Objective: The aim of this study was to characterize diet-induced and age-related changes on the quality and quantity of the quadriceps muscle in a rat model of sarcopenia by different magnetic resonance (MR) techniques. Methods: A total of 36 6-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly subdivid...

  20. Adverse Effects of Subchronic Dose of Aspirin on Reproductive Profile of Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Archana; Ram, Heera; Purohit, Ashok; Jatwa, Rameshwar

    2016-01-01

    Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is widely used for cardiovascular prophylaxis and as anti-inflammatory pharmaceutical. An investigation was carried out to evaluate the influence of subchronic dose of aspirin on reproductive profile of male rats, if any. Experimental animals were divided into three groups: control and aspirin subchronic dose of 12.5 mg/kg for 30 days and 60 days, respectively, while alterations in sperm dynamics, testicular histopathological and planimetric investigations, body and organs weights, lipid profiles, and hematology were performed as per aimed objectives. Subchronic dose of aspirin reduced sperm density, count, and mobility in cauda epididymis and testis; histopathology and developing primary spermatogonial cells (primary spermatogonia, secondary spermatogonia, and mature spermatocyte) count were also significantly decreased in rats. Hematological investigations revealed hemopoietic abnormalities in 60-day-treated animals along with dysfunctions in hepatic and renal functions. The findings of the present study revealed that administration with subchronic dose of aspirin to male rats resulted in altered reproductive profiles and serum biochemistry. PMID:27190691

  1. Androgen Receptor in Macrophages of Male Rat is Greater Than in Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Ahmadi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available he presence and possible sex differences of androgen receptor in peritoneal macrophages was investigated using immunomagnetic beads. Macrophages were incubated with different concentrations of [3H]-5αDHT in the presence or absence of a 100 fold excess of unlabelled 5α-DHT. Labelled cells were separated from unbound steroid by immunomagnetic beads coated with anti-rat macrophage antibody. The binding identified in the rat macrophages was highly selective towards androgenic compounds. The dissociation constant (kd value for the receptor was calculated to be 3.3X10-9M and 5X10-9M for macrophages of male and female rat respectively. The number of receptors in each cell was 792±3 and 120±1 for male and female respectively. Indicating a sex differences in androgen receptor (p<0.001. Taken together it can be concluded that part of sex differences in immune responses and also auto-immune disease could be related to sex differences in androgen receptor in macrophages.

  2. Unexpected Nephrotoxicity in Male Ablactated Rats Induced by Cordyceps militaris: The Involvement of Oxidative Changes

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    Xiaowen Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, many nutraceutical products containing the powdered or extracted parts of C. militaris have become available for health care. Due to the increased morbidity and mortality, poisonings associated with the use of herbs have raised the universal attention. Herein, we carried out the 28-day repeated toxicity test in male and female ablactated rats (three weeks old given C. militaris powder orally at 0 (control, 1, 2, and 3 g/kg per day. Noticeable increments of serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (ALT and AST levels were observed for both sexes, suggestive of weak hepatic toxicity. Nephrotoxicity characterized by tubular epithelium degeneration and necrosis was observed at the high dose, and the male rats were more susceptible to renal toxicity than female rats. In addition, the genes and protein expressions of novel markers of kidney toxicity, such as kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1 were enlarged in the renal cortex and the urine. Moreover, C. militaris treatment significantly decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities. However, the ratio of glutathione oxidized form (GSSG/glutathione reduced form (GSH was increased by C. militaris treatment. We conclude that dietary contamination with C. militaris may have renal toxicity potentials, at least in part by causing oxidative damage to the kidney.

  3. Red Palm Oil Attenuates Lead Acetate Induced Testicular Damage in Adult Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

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    A. I. Jegede

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the protective effect of Red Palm Oil (RPO on testicular damage induced by administration of lead acetate on male Sprague-Dawley rats, 28 rats divided into four groups of 7 animals each were used. They were administered orally with RPO (1 mL and 2 mL and lead acetate (i.p. 6 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively. Treatment was conducted for 8 weeks, and 24 hrs after the last treatment the rats were sacrificed using cervical dislocation. Sperms collected from epididymis were used for seminal fluid analyses; while the testes sample was used for ROS and oxidative enzyme activities assessment. Statistical analysis was carried out using GraphPad Prism 5.02 statistical analysis package. Administration of lead acetate increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS significantly (p<0.05 as evidenced by the elevated value of H2O2 and LPO and decreased GSH level. Also there was reduced epididymal sperm count, poor grade of sperm motility, and lower percentage of normal sperm morphology significantly. Coadministration with RPO, however, has a protective effect against lead toxicity by decreasing H2O2 production, increased GSH level, and increased sperm qualities especially. This shows that RPO has a potential to attenuate the toxic effect of lead on testicular cells preventing possible resultant male infertility.

  4. Red Palm Oil Attenuates Lead Acetate Induced Testicular Damage in Adult Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegede, A. I.; Offor, U.; Azu, O. O.; Akinloye, O.

    2015-01-01

    To study the protective effect of Red Palm Oil (RPO) on testicular damage induced by administration of lead acetate on male Sprague-Dawley rats, 28 rats divided into four groups of 7 animals each were used. They were administered orally with RPO (1 mL and 2 mL) and lead acetate (i.p.) 6 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively. Treatment was conducted for 8 weeks, and 24 hrs after the last treatment the rats were sacrificed using cervical dislocation. Sperms collected from epididymis were used for seminal fluid analyses; while the testes sample was used for ROS and oxidative enzyme activities assessment. Statistical analysis was carried out using GraphPad Prism 5.02 statistical analysis package. Administration of lead acetate increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) significantly (p < 0.05) as evidenced by the elevated value of H2O2 and LPO and decreased GSH level. Also there was reduced epididymal sperm count, poor grade of sperm motility, and lower percentage of normal sperm morphology significantly. Coadministration with RPO, however, has a protective effect against lead toxicity by decreasing H2O2 production, increased GSH level, and increased sperm qualities especially. This shows that RPO has a potential to attenuate the toxic effect of lead on testicular cells preventing possible resultant male infertility. PMID:26516332

  5. Effect of granulosis virus (virotecto) as bioinsecticide on some biochemical changes in male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study to determine the biochemical response of granulosis virus in male albino rats fed with potato treated with granulosis virus (0.15 g/Kg) against potato tuber moth in stores .It was carried out by evaluating the effect of daily feeding on treated potato for 5 weeks followed by withdrawal period for 10 days fed with normal diet on some biochemical and histological changes in kidney of male rats. A trail consists of 3 groups each one contain 18 rats, the first group fed on normal basal diet and served as control, the second group fed with 50% normal potato and 50% basal diet (potato group) and the third group fed with 50% basal diet and 50% potato treated with granulosis virus (virus group) through the experimental period. The obtained data revealed a significant reduction in final body weight and organs weight in both normal and treated potato groups. Sera collected at 2 and 5 weeks post feeding and at the end of withdrawal period, recorded significant disorders in some tested parameters. In addition, histological examination of kidney tissue showed different disorders in normal and treated groups.

  6. Traffic Noise: A Silent Killer of Male Gamate of Albino Rats

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    Purushottam Pramanik , Snehangshu Biswas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study aims to estimate the change in the weight of testis, sperm count, sperm morphology, testicular cholesterol and protein level in acute and chronic traffic noise exposed albino rats. Background: Road traffic is a significant source of noise pollution, a type of environmental stress. Traffic noise significantly increases adrenal cortical function and causes testicular dysfunction. Method: Experiment was performed on adult male albino rats. Animals were divided in to one control group and two experimental groups. Both the experimental groups were exposed to traffic noise having intensity 80 dB to 90 dB at the rate of 5 hr daily and control group was not exposed. First experimental group was exposed to traffic noise for 30 days and second group for 60 days. Testicular weight, sperm count, sperm morphology, testicular protein level and testicular cholesterol level were estimated. Statistical analysis was done using unpaired ‘t’ test. Result: Contribution of testis to body weight, testicular protein level and sperm count were low but testicular cholesterol level was more in traffic noise exposed rats than unexposed counterpart. Traffic noise exposure also increased percentage of morphologically abnormal sperm. Conclusion: Traffic noise adversely affect male gamete and such effect may be due to noise-induced suppression of testosterone synthesis.

  7. The effect of omega-3 on cognition in hypothyroid adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Allah, Eman S H; Gomaa, Asmaa M S; Sayed, Manal M

    2014-09-01

    Thyroid hormones and omega-3 are essential for normal brain functions. Recent studies have suggested that omega-3 may protect against the risk of dementia. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hypothyroidism on spatial learning and memory in adult male rats, the underlying mechanisms and the possible therapeutic value of omega-3 supplementation. Thirty male rats were divided into three groups; control, hypothyroid and omega-3 treated. Hypothyroidism induced significant deficits in working and reference memories in radial arm maze, retention deficits in passive avoidance test and impaired intermediate and long-term memories in novel object recognition test. Serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and hippocampal serotonin and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels were decreased in the hypothyroid group as compared to the control group. Moreover, the hippocampus of hypothyroid rats showed marked structural changes as diffuse vacuolar degeneration and distortion of the pyramidal cells. Immunohistochemistry showed that the expression of Cav1.2 (the voltage dependent LTCC alpha 1c subunit) protein was increased in the hypothyroid group as compared to the control group. Omega-3 supplementation ameliorated memory deficits, increased TAC, decreased the structural changes and decreased the expression of Cav1.2 protein. In conclusion omega-3 could be useful as a neuroprotective agent against hypothyroidism-induced cognitive impairment. PMID:25183510

  8. Biochemical and immunological changes on oral glutamate feeding in male albino rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D.; Bansal, Anju; Thomas, Pauline; Sairam, M.; Sharma, S. K.; Mongia, S. S.; Singh, R.; Selvamurthy, W.

    High altitude stress leads to lipid peroxidation and free radical formation which results in cell membrane damage in organs and tissues, and associated mountain diseases. This paper discusses the changes in biochemical parameters and antibody response on feeding glutamate to male albino Sprague Dawley rats under hypoxic stress. Exposure of rats to simulated hypoxia at 7576 m, for 6 h daily for 5 consecutive days, in an animal decompression chamber at 32+/-2° C resulted in an increase in plasma malondialdehyde level with a concomitant decrease in blood glutathione (reduced) level. Supplementation of glutamate orally at an optimal dose (27 mg/kg body weight) in male albino rats under hypoxia enhanced glutathione level and decreased malondialdehyde concentration significantly. Glutamate feeding improved total plasma protein and glucose levels under hypoxia. The activities of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and the urea level remained elevated on glutamate supplementation under hypoxia. Glutamate supplementation increased the humoral response against sheep red blood cells (antibody titre). These results indicate a possible utility of glutamate in the amelioration of hypoxia-induced oxidative stress.

  9. Low-dose effects of bisphenol A on early sexual development in male and female rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Sofie; Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Boberg, Julie;

    2014-01-01

    influence of BPA on early sexual development in male and female rats at dose levels covering both regulatory no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) (5 and 50 mg/kg bw per day) as well as doses in the microgram per kilogram dose range (0.025 and 0.25 mg/kg bw per day). Time-mated Wistar rats (n=22) were...... gavaged during pregnancy and lactation from gestation day 7 to pup day 22 with 0, 0.025, 0.25, 5 or 50 mg/kg bw per day BPA. From 0.250 mg/kg and above, male anogenital distance (AGD) was significantly decreased, whereas decreased female AGD was seen from 0.025 mg/kg bw per day and above. Moreover, the...... both sexes indicates effects on prenatal sexual development and provides new evidence of low-dose adverse effects of BPA in rats in the microgram per kilogram dose range. The NOAEL in this study is clearly below 5 mg/kg for BPA, which is used as the basis for establishment of the current tolerable...

  10. Antioxidant activity of eggplant (Solanum melongena) in male albino rats exposed to gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential benefits of dietary supplementation of eggplant (Solanum melongena) as antioxidant against γ- rays-induced biochemical changes in male albino rats by estimating some of the components of antioxidant defense in the; liver glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA), serum aspartate amino transferase,(AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transaminase (GGT), cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C). Male albino rats (120-150 g) were divided into four groups as Control group, group 2 received diet supplemented with 10% of eggplant (Solanum melongnea) fruit for 21 successive days , group 3: irradiated with a single dose (6.5 Gy), group 4 received eggplant for 21 successive days then exposed to 6.5 Gy. All animals were sacrificed after 1, 3 and 8 days post irradiation. Rats exposed to γ-rays exhibited a profound elevation of AST, ALT, ALP and GGT activities, and lipid abnormalities .Noticeable drop in liver GSH content and SOD activity associated with increase of MDA was recorded. Treatment with dietary eggplant for 21 days before irradiation significantly abolished radiation induced elevations in MDA and significantly elevates hepatic GSH content and SOD activity. The levels of cholesterol, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C as well as the activities of AST, ALT, and GGT in serum were significantly ameliorated and noticeable improvement in the lipid profile levels

  11. Development of motor coordination and cerebellar structure in male and female rat neonates exposed to hypergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguon, K.; Ladd, B.; Baxter, M. G.; Sajdel-Sulkowska, E. M.

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported that the developing rat cerebellum is affected by exposure to hypergravity. In the present study, we explored the hypothesis that the changes in cerebellar structure in hypergravity-exposed rat neonates may affect their motor coordination. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the changes observed at 1.5G will be magnified at higher gravitational loading. To test this hypothesis, we compared motor behavior, cerebellar structure, and protein expression in rat neonates exposed to 1.5 1.75G on a 24-ft centrifuge daily for 22.5 h starting on gestational day (G) 10, through birth on G22/G23 and through postnatal day (P) 21. Exposure to hypergravity impacted the neurodevelopmental process as indicated by: (1) impaired righting response on P3, more than doubling the righting time at 1.75G, and (2) delayed onset of the startle response by one day, from P9 in controls to P10 in hypergravity-exposed pups. Hypergravity exposure resulted in impaired motor functions as evidenced by performance on a rotarod on P21; the duration of the stay on the rotarod recorded for 1.75G pups of both sexes was one tenth that of the stationary control (SC) pups. These changes in motor behavior were associated with cerebellar changes: (1) cerebellar mass on P6 was decreased by 7.5% in 1.5G-exposed male pups, 27.5% in 1.75G-exposed male pups, 17.5% in 1.5G-exposed female pups, and 22.5% in 1.75G female pups and (2) changes in the expression of glial and neuronal proteins. The results of this study suggest that perinatal exposure to hypergravity affects cerebellar development as evidenced by decreased cerebellar mass and altered cerebellar protein expression; cerebellar changes observed in hypergravity-exposed rat neonates are associated with impaired motor behavior. Furthermore, the response to hypergravity appears to be different in male and female neonates. If one accepts that the hypergravity paradigm is a useful animal model with which to predict those biological processes

  12. Di-(2 ethylhexyl phthalate and flutamide alter gene expression in the testis of immature male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Frank H

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We previously demonstrated that the androgenic and anti-androgenic effects of endocrine disruptors (EDs alter reproductive function and exert distinct effects on developing male reproductive organs. To further investigate these effects, we used an immature rat model to examine the effects of di-(2 ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP and flutamide (Flu on the male reproductive system. Immature male SD rats were treated daily with DEHP and Flu on postnatal days (PNDs 21 to 35, in a dose-dependent manner. As results, the weights of the testes, prostate, and seminal vesicle and anogenital distances (AGD decreased significantly in response to high doses of DEHP or Flu. Testosterone (T levels significantly decreased in all DEHP- treated groups, whereas luteinizing hormone (LH plasma levels were not altered by any of the two treatments at PND 36. However, treatment with DEHP or Flu induced histopathological changes in the testes, wherein degeneration and disorders of Leydig cells, germ cells and dilatation of tubular lumen were observed in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, hyperplasia and denseness of Leydig, Sertoli and germ cells were observed in rats given with high doses of Flu. The results by cDNA microarray analysis indicated that 1,272 genes were up-regulated by more than two-fold, and 1,969 genes were down-regulated in response to DEHP, Flu or both EDs. These genes were selected based on their markedly increased or decreased expression levels. These genes have been also classified on the basis of gene ontology (e.g., steroid hormone biosynthetic process, regulation of transcription, signal transduction, metabolic process, biosynthetic process.... Significant decreases in gene expression were observed in steroidogenic genes (i.e., Star, Cyp11a1 and Hsd3b. In addition, the expression of a common set of target genes, including CaBP1, Vav2, Plcd1, Lhx1 and Isoc1, was altered following exposure to EDs, suggesting that they may be marker genes to

  13. Potential urinary aging markers of 20-month-old rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xundou; Gao, Youhe

    2016-01-01

    Urine is a very good source for biomarker discovery because it accumulates changes in the body. However, a major challenge in urinary biomarker discovery is the fact that the urinary proteome is influenced by various elements. To circumvent these problems, simpler systems, such as animal models, can be used to establish associations between physiological or pathological conditions and alterations in the urinary proteome. In this study, the urinary proteomes of young (two months old) and old rats (20 months old; nine in each group) were analyzed using LC-MS/MS and quantified using the Progenesis LC-MS software. A total of 371 proteins were identified, 194 of which were shared between the young and old rats. Based on criteria of a fold change ≥2, P humans. However, no shared proteins between our results and the previous aging plasma proteome were identified. Twenty of the 33 (60%) altered proteins have been reported to be disease biomarkers, suggesting that aging may share similar urinary changes with some diseases. The 33 proteins corresponded to 28 human orthologs which, according to the Human Protein Atlas, are strongly expressed in the kidney, intestine, cerebellum and lung. Therefore, the urinary proteome may reflect aging conditions in these organs. PMID:27330854

  14. Sequential changes of serum and liver subcellular oxidants and antoxidant concentrations in silymarin treated male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.A. Al-Sa'aidi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the role of silymarin as an antioxidant and/or it activity in induction of the endogenous antioxidants in intact adult male rats. Seventy males were randomly devided into control and silymarin treated groups (35 each, and were drenched with drinking water and silymarin suspension (200 mg/ kg b.w daily for 40 days. Each group was allocated to 5 equal subgroups; sacrificed before treatment (0 day, and after 10, 20, 30, and 40 days of treatment. At the end of each period, males were anaesthesized, dissected and blood samples were obtained for assessment of MDA, SOD, CAT and GSH concentrations. liver samples (1 g have been removed and homogenized for assessment of liver subcellular MDA, SOD, CAT and GSH concentrations. At the end of each periods, serum and liver subcellular MAD concentrations showed no significant changes between groups, whereas SOD, CAT, and GSH concentrations significantly increased at 10, 20, 30, and 40 day periods in silymarin treated males compared with control. It can be concluded that silymarin antioxidant activity is of pharmacological value not only as an antioxidant by itself but also as an inducer of endogenous enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants even in normal intact male.

  15. Percutaneous absorption of triadimefon in the adult and young male and female rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The percutaneous absorption of 14C-phenoxy ring labeled triadimefon was studied in adult and young male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Triadimefon was applied (41.1 to 46.4 micrograms/cm2) in 0.2 ml of acetone to areas comprising 3% of the body surface (7.0 to 14.5 cm2). Thirty-six animals were treated at the initiation of each study. Groups of three animals were subsequently killed at 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, and 192 hr after treatment. Skin from the treated area as well as blood, heart, liver, kidneys, remaining carcass, urine, and feces were analyzed for 14C by scintillation counting techniques. Based on 14C counts, triadimefon was lost more rapidly from the skin of young animals (t 1/2, 20 to 25 hr) than from the skin of adult animals (t 1/2, 29 to 53 hr). Recovery studies indicated that adult males, adult females, young males, and young females, respectively, absorbed 53, 82, 57, and 52% of the dose. The rest of the dose based on material balance was presumably lost by evaporation. Approximately 2.5 to 3.9% of the dose penetrated the skin in one hour and was available for absorption. The rate of entry triadimefon into blood was 2 to 2.5 times faster for young than that observed in adult animals. Elimination of it from blood was faster in the case of the young animals. Triadimefon was absorbed through the skins of the adult male, adult female, young male, and young female rats, respectively, at rates of 0.20, 0.50, 0.58, and 0.48 micrograms/hr/cm2 of skin

  16. Form of the male and female corpus callosum internal organization at the mature age

    OpenAIRE

    Костиленко, Юрий Петрович; Боягина, Ольга Дмитриевна

    2016-01-01

    Aim: to study the special features of the male and female corpus callosum internal organization at the mature age.Materials and methods: the total preparations of the male and female corpus callosum (10 preparation of each sex) at 45–60 years old were used as the material. The given preparations were used to get from it the plate cuts in the two mutually perpendicular planes with 2 mm. thick. Then the received tissue plates of the corpus callosum underwent plastination in the epoxy. Then the ...

  17. Effect of progesterone pretreatment on cadmium toxicity in male Fischer (F344/NCr) and Wistar (WF/NCr) rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Shiraishi, N; Barter, R. A.; Uno, H; Waalkes, M. P.

    1994-01-01

    A previous report indicated that progesterone pretreatment can markedly reduce cadmium (Cd) toxicity in male NAW mice. Therefore we examined the effects of progesterone pretreatment on Cd toxicity in male Fischer (F344) and Wistar (WF) rats. A single subcutaneous injection of 10 or 30 mumole (CdCl2)/kg proved nonlethal over 24 hr but caused the typical spectrum of testicular lesions in these rats. Moreover, when F344 rats were pretreated with progesterone (100 mg/kg, sc, at -48, -24, and 0 hr...

  18. Acute predator stress impairs the consolidation and retrieval of hippocampus-dependent memory in male and female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Collin R Park; Zoladz, Phillip R.; Conrad, Cheryl D.; Fleshner, Monika; Diamond, David M

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the effects of an acute predator stress experience on spatial learning and memory in adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. All rats were trained to learn the location of a hidden escape platform in the radial-arm water maze (RAWM), a hippocampus-dependent spatial memory task. In the control (non-stress) condition, female rats were superior to the males in the accuracy and consistency of their spatial memory performance tested over multiple days of training. In the stress ...

  19. Age dependence of radiation-induced renal cell carcinomas in an Eker rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to carcinogens early in life may contribute to cancer development later in life. The amount of radiation exposure children experience during medical procedures has been increasing, so it is important to evaluate the radiation risk of cancer in developing organs. Toward this goal, we assessed the risk of developing renal cell carcinoma using Eker rats as a kidney tumor model. F1 hybrids of male Eker (Tsc2 mutant) and female F344 rats were irradiated with 0.5 or 2 Gy gamma radiation on gestation days 15 and 19, and on postnatal days 5, 20, and 49. At 27 weeks of age, kidneys were examined for proliferative lesions. Preneoplastic lesions such as phenotypically altered tubules increased after postnatal irradiation as a function of age-at-irradiation, and hyperplasia were greatly increased after perinatal and postnatal irradiation. In contrast, development of adenoma and adenocarcinoma were evident in animals irradiated at perinatal ages, being maximal at gestational day 19. The frequency of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the Tsc2 locus was unexpectedly low -0% (0 of 4) for the unirradiated control, and 17% (6 of 35) for the irradiated group. Irrespective of LOH, the mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway, which is negatively regulated by the Tsc1/2 complex, was activated in both benign and malignant lesions, as evidenced by phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein and 4E-BP1. This suggests that the wild-type Tsc2 allele may be functionally inactivated. In conclusion, actively growing kidneys in perinatal-aged (F344 x Eker) F1 rats (Tsc2+/- are at risk for radiation-induced malignant transformation of the renal epithelium associated with mTOR activation. (author)

  20. Korean red ginseng extract rejuvenates testicular ineffectiveness and sperm maturation process in aged rats by regulating redox proteins and oxidative defense mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopalli, Spandana Rajendra; Hwang, Seock-Yeon; Won, Yu-Jin; Kim, Sung-Won; Cha, Kyu-Min; Han, Chang-Kyun; Hong, Jae-Yup; Kim, Si-Kwan

    2015-09-01

    Distortion of intracellular oxidant and antioxidant balances appears to be a common feature that underlies in age-related male sexual impairment. Therefore regulating oxidative defense mechanisms might be an ideal approach in improving male sexual dysfunctions. In the present study, the effect of Korean red ginseng aqueous extract (KRG) on age-induced testicular dysfunction in rats was investigated. KRG (200mg/kg) mixed with regular pellet diet was administered orally for six months and the morphological, spermatogenic and antioxidant enzyme status in testis of aged rats (18months) were evaluated. Data indicated a significant change in morphology and decrease in spermatogenesis-related parameters in aged rats (AC) compared with young rats (YC). Sperm number, germ cell count, Sertoli cell count and Sertoli cell index were significantly (p<0.05) restored in KRG-treated aged rat groups (G-AC). Further the increased lipid peroxidation as measured by malondialdehyde (p<0.05), and altered enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione reductase and catalase) and non-enzymatic (reduced glutathione, ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol) antioxidants (p<0.05) were attenuated by KRG treatment in aged rats to near normal levels as in YC groups. Furthermore, proteomic analysis demonstrated differential expression of selected proteins such as phosphatidylinositol transfer protein, fatty acid binding protein-9, triosephosphate isomerase-1 and aldehyde (aldose) reductase-1in aged rats was significantly (p<0.05) protected by KRG treatment. In conclusion, long-term administration of KRG restored aging-induced testicular ineffectiveness in rats by modulating redox proteins and oxidative defense mechanisms. PMID:25980653

  1. Long-term administration of large doses of paracetamol impairs the reproductive competence of male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.D.Ratnasooriya; J.R.A.C.Jayakody

    2000-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the anfireproductive effect of paracetamol in male rats. Methods: Male rats were orally administered daily with 500mg/kg or 1000mg/kg of paracetamol for 30 consecutive days. Their sexual behaviour and fertility were evaluated using receptive females. Results: At 2 h after treratment, sexual behaviour was not inhibited but on day 30 both doses of paracetamol caused marked impairment of libido (assessed by % mounting, % intromission and % ejaculation), sexual vigour (number of mounts and intromissions and copulatory efficiency) or sexual performance (intercopulatory interval). In mating experiments, the fertility (in terms of quantal pregnancy, fertility index, implantation index and number of implants) was significantly reduced. All these effects were reversible. The antireproductive effect was not due to a general toxicity but due to an increase in pre-implantation losses resulting from oligozoospermia,impairments of normal and hyper-activated sperm motility, and reduction in the fertilizing potential of spermatozoa.Conclusion: Long-term use of high doses of paracetamol may be detrimental to male reproductive competence.(Asian J Androl 2000 Dec;2:247-255)

  2. Effect of Sleep Deprivation on the Male Reproductive System in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Ho; Lee, Seung Hoon; Bae, Jae Hyun; Shim, Ji Sung; Park, Hong Seok; Kim, Young Sik; Shin, Chol

    2016-10-01

    There has been no study reporting on the influence of sleep deprivation on the male reproductive system including sperm quality. In this study, we hypothesized that sleep deprivation could lead to adverse effect on the male reproductive system. The rats were divided into three groups: 1) control (home-cage, n = 10); 2) SD4 (sleep deprivation for 4 days, n = 10); and 3) SD7 (sleep deprivation for 7 days, n = 10). Sleep deprivation was performed by a modified multiple platform method. Sperm quality (sperm motion parameters and counts), hormone levels (corticosterone and testosterone), and the histopathology of testis were evaluated and compared between the three groups. A statistically significant reduction (P = 0.018) was observed in sperm motility in the SD7 group compared to those of the control group. However, there were no significant differences in other sperm motion parameters, or in sperm counts of the testis and cauda epididymis between three groups. Compared with the control group, the SD4 (P = 0.033) and SD7 (P = 0.002) groups exhibited significant increases of corticosterone levels, but significant decreases of testosterone levels were found in the SD4 (P = 0.001) and SD7 (P Sleep deprivation may have an adverse effect on the male reproductive system in rats. PMID:27550492

  3. Sexual function of male rats exposed to the factors of the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using sexually active rats for experiments the influence of chronic combined internal and external irradiation at low doses on sexual behavior and fertility of sexual active animals keeping within the 30-km Chernobyl external zone studied. After the 1.5 month consumption of drinking water containing radionuclides of natural Chernobyl spectrum the decrease in proportion of sexually active animals and suppression sexual motivation and erection were observed. This deviations resulted in the reducing of the inseminated females number. Dependence between the magnitude of total absorbed dose and the function of the sexual behavior regulatory mechanisms was obtained. In addition, the reduction of rat fertility took place because of the increase of preimplantation, but not post-implantation death in clean females coupled with irradiated males. Irradiation of males at total absorbed dose to gonads 0.23 c Gy decreased the fertility because of sexual behavior disturbance, and this effect was intensified by negative influence of ionizing radiation in the range of 0.7-7.0 c Gy on male gametes

  4. Stimulating effects of quercetin on sperm quality and reproductive organs in adult male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ladachart Taepongsorat; Prakong Tangpraprutgul; Noppadon Kitana; Suchinda Malaivijitnond

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate effects of quercetin on weight and histology of testis and accessory sex organs and on sperm quality in adult male rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected s.c. with quercetin at the dose of 0, 30,90, or 270 mg/kg body weight/day (hereafter abbreviated Q0, Q30, Q90 and Q270, respectively), and each dose was administered for treatment durations of 3, 7 and 14 days. Results: From our study, it was found that the effects of quercetin on reproductive organs and sperm quality depended on the dose and duration of treatment. After Q270 treatment for 14 days, the weights of testes, epididymis and vas deferens were significantly increased, whereas the weights of seminal vesicle and prostate gland were significantly decreased, compared with those of Q0. The histo-logical alteration of those organs was observed after Q270 treatment for 7 days as well as 14 days. The sperm motility, viability and concentration were significantly increased after Q90 and Q270 injections after both of 7 and 14 days. Changes in sperm quality were earlier and greater than those in sex organ histology and weight, respectively.Conclusion: Overall results indicate that quercetin might indirectly affect sperm quality through the stimulation of the sex organs, both at the cellular and organ levels, depending on the dose and the duration of treatment. Therefore, the use of quercetin as an alternative drug for treatment of male infertility should be considered.

  5. Enhancement of N-nitrosodiethylamine-initiated hepatocarcinogenesis by phentoin in male F344/NCr rats at a dose causing maximal induction of CYP2B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, B A; Henneman, J R; Nims, R W

    2001-01-01

    The effect of the clinically important anticonvulsant phenytoin (DPH) on hepatocarcinogenesis of male F344/NCr rats initiated with a single i.p. dose of N-nitrosodiethylamine (75 mg/kg b.w.) was studied. Beginning 2 weeks post-initiation, the rats received control diet or diet containing 500 or 1,500 ppm DPH or 500 ppm phenobarbital. At 52 weeks age, the incidences (and multiplicities, in units of tumors per tumor-bearing rat) of hepatocellular adenomas were 0%, 17% (1 +/- 0), 42% (1.8 +/- 0.8), or 67% (2.5 +/- 1.9) in rats exposed to N-nitrosodiethylamine alone, or the carcinogen followed by 500 ppm DPH, 1,500 ppm DPH, or 500 ppm phenobarbital, respectively. Between 53 and 79 weeks of age, 39% of rats receiving N-nitrosodiethylamine alone developed multiple (1.5 +/- 0.8) hepatocellular adenomas. A similar incidence (41%) occurred in the rats administered the carcinogen followed by 500 ppm DPH. The incidence of hepatocellular adenomas (88% and 89%) was significantly greater in rats exposed to N-nitrosodiethylamine followed by 1,500 ppm DPH or 500 ppm phenobarbital, respectively. Multiplicities of hepatocellular adenomas were significantly greater than the control value in rats fed 1,500 ppm DPH or 500 ppm phenobarbital (5.9 +/- 4.8 and 10.1 +/- 6.7, respectively), but not in the rats receiving 500 ppm DPH (2.3 +/- 1.6). No rats exposed to N-nitrosodiethylamine alone or the carcinogen followed by 500 ppm DPH developed hepatocellular carcinomas, while hepatocellular carcinomas occurred in 29% or 67% of the rats given 1,500 ppm DPH or 500 ppm phenobarbital, respectively, following initiation. Increases in hepatic CYP2B-mediated benzyloxyresorufin O-dealkylation activity in rats exposed to 500 and 1,500 ppm DPH for 2 or 23 weeks were approximately 50% and approximately 100%, respectively, of the maximal induction caused by 500 ppm phenobarbital. Thus, in the rat model, DPH enhanced N-nitrosodiethyl-amine-initiated hepatocarcinogenesis when administered at a dose

  6. The Effect of Atorvastatin on the Pancreatic Tissue of Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Karimian

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background & aim: Statins are inhibitors drugs of hydroxymethyl glotaryl coenzyme A. In addition to decreasing plasma cholesterol, low-density cholesterol they reduce the rate of triglycerides. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of atorvastatin on rat pancreatic tissue.In addition to decreasing the rate of plasma cholesterol concentration they also decrease the rate of LDL and Triglyceride. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of atorvastatin on rat pancreatic tissue. Methods: In this study, 32 adult male rats were divided into four groups, control and three test groups. To conduct the present study, 32 male adult rats were divided into 4 equal groups: one control group and three test groups. Then the test groups were treated by Atorvastatin for 45 days with 10mg (group1, 20mg (group2 and 30 mg (group3 doses respectively. At the end of the treatment period, all rats were killed by taking blood from their hearts. The pancreas tissue of each rat (N=32 was separated. After fixation, tissue preparation and slide staining, Longerhans diameter was measured and number of cells was counted. Data were analyzed by t test.After fixing and coloring the tissue, all slides were prepared and evaluated under the microscope the diameter of I's of Longerhans and the number of cells. The data was analyzed through t-test. Results: There was no significant difference in the diameter mean of Longerhans between the test groups and the control group. The mean number of islets cells were increased in compared to the control group (P>0.05.There was also a significant increase was shown in the number of Longerhans cells in the test groups in relation to the control group (p (05/0>.(p>0.05. Conclusion: The consumption of the atorvastatine causes an increase in the number of Longerhans cells. In addition, the increase in the number of cells also increases the insulin secretion. As a result, blood sugar is decreased. Key Words

  7. Postnatal manganese exposure does not alter dopamine autoreceptor sensitivity in adult and adolescent male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Sanders A; Mohd-Yusof, Alena; Kaplan, Graham J; Abdulla, Zuhair I; Lee, Ryan J; Crawford, Cynthia A

    2013-04-15

    Administering manganese chloride (Mn) to rats on postnatal day (PD) 1-21 causes long-term reductions in dopamine transporter levels in the dorsal striatum, as well as a persistent increase in D1 and D2 receptor concentrations. Whether dopamine autoreceptors change in number or sensitivity is uncertain, although D2S receptors, which may be presynaptic in origin, are elevated in Mn-exposed rats. The purpose of this study was to determine if early Mn exposure causes long-term changes in dopamine autoreceptor sensitivity that persist into adolescence and adulthood. To this end, male rats were exposed to Mn on PD 1-21 and autoreceptor functioning was tested 7 or 70 days later by measuring (a) dopamine synthesis (i.e., DOPA accumulation) in the dorsal striatum after quinpirole or haloperidol treatment and (b) behavioral responsiveness after low-dose apomorphine treatment. Results showed that low doses (i.e., "autoreceptor" doses) of apomorphine (0.06 and 0.12 mg/kg) decreased the locomotor activity of adolescent and adult rats, while higher doses increased locomotion. The dopamine synthesis experiment also produced classic autoreceptor effects, because quinpirole decreased dorsal striatal DOPA accumulation; whereas, haloperidol increased DOPA levels in control rats, but not in rats given the nerve impulse inhibitor γ-butyrolactone. Importantly, early Mn exposure did not alter autoreceptor sensitivity when assessed in early adolescence or adulthood. The lack of Mn-induced effects was evident in both the dopamine synthesis and behavioral experiments. When considered together with past studies, it is clear that early Mn exposure alters the functioning of various dopaminergic presynaptic mechanisms, while dopamine autoreceptors remain unimpaired. PMID:23458069

  8. Green tea, phytic acid, and inositol in combination reduced the incidence of azoxymethane-induced colon tumors in Fisher 344 male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatiwada, Janak; Verghese, Martha; Davis, Shurrita; Williams, Leonard L

    2011-11-01

    Experimental as well as epidemiologic studies in human populations provide evidence that consumption of phytochemicals reduces the incidence of degenerative diseases. Green tea (GT) catechins are known for their antioxidative potential. Phytic acid (PA) also acts as a natural antioxidant and may have numerous health benefits. This experiment was designed to investigate the inhibitory effects of combinations of 1% and 2% GT, PA, and inositol (I) in reducing the incidence of azoxymethane-induced colon tumors in Fisher 344 male rats. After an acclimatization period of 1 week, nine groups of rats (15 rats per group) were initially assigned to consume AIN 93 G diet and later AIN 93 M diet after 20 weeks of age. Treatments were given in drinking water. All rats received azoxymethane injections (16 mg/kg of body weight) subcutaneously at 7 and 8 weeks of age. Rats were killed at 45 weeks of age by CO(2) euthanasia. Tumor incidence (93.76%) and the number of tumors per tumor-bearing rat ratio (2.25) were significantly (P<.05) higher in the control group compared with treatment groups. Glutathione S-transferase activity was significantly (P<.05) higher in rats fed combinations of 2% GT+PA+I and GT+PA (33.25 ± 1.23 and 29.83 ± 1.10 μmol/mL, respectively) compared with other groups. These findings suggest that the synergistic effect of the 2% level of GT, PA, and I may reduce the incidence of colon tumors and therefore have potential as a chemopreventive agent. PMID:21501094

  9. Early bone changes after incorporation of low quantities of alpha emitters in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work shows the early effects of cancergenic doses of alpha emitters in long bones of rats. The investigations were based on radiographic, morphologic, angiographic, histologic and electronmicroscopic methods. A special method for bone angiography in the rat was elaborated and a new method was developed for measurement of the femur neck-head angle. Numerous disturbances in bone growth and bone structure, in the blood supply of bone and also of the bone building cells were observed. There was a correlation between the severity of the damage and the radiation dose, the spacial distribution of the nuclide and partially the age of the rats. The bone injury due to plutonium was markedly reduced by administration of the chelating agent Zn-DTPA. (orig.)

  10. A mobile phone enabled health promotion program for middle-aged males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, H; Karunanithi, M; Duncan, M; Ireland, D; Noakes, M; Hooker, C

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic diseases among middle aged males outweigh their female counterparts in developed countries. To prevent this, delivery of health promotion programs targeting lifestyle modifications of physical activity and nutrition in middle-aged males has been essential, but often difficult. ManUp health promotion program was a recent initiative that uses current advances in information and communication technology (ICT) to reach the middle-aged males. One of the key components of the ICT approach was the development of smartphone application to enable middle-aged men to uptake the program with their own mobile phone. The smart phone application was aimed at providing varied level of challenges towards physical activity and healthy eating behavior, with interactive and motivational feedback SMS messages. The ManUp program was recently implemented and trialed in a randomized control trial in Gladstone and Rockhampton, Queens. This paper describes the components of the smart phone application integrated within the ManUp health promotion program. PMID:24109902

  11. Emblica officinalis Garten fruits extract ameliorates reproductive injury and oxidative testicular toxicity induced by chlorpyrifos in male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, Abir Lal; Sahu, Chitta Ranjan

    2013-01-01

    Organophosphate pesticides have destroying properties on male reproduction and chlorpyrifos adversely affects the male reproductive system. Emblica offcinalis Garten plays a vital role to challenge many diseases in human body. We investigated the induction of oxidative stress in the male reproductive system of adult rats (Wistar Strain) exposed to widely used organophosphate pesticide, Chlorpyrifos, and tried to establish the ameliorative properties of Emblica officinalis Garten with respect ...

  12. Treadmill exercise reduces self-administration of morphine in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mahmoud; Alaei, Hojjat Allah; Naderi, Asieh; Sharifi, Mohammad Reza; Zahed, Reza

    2009-06-01

    Exercise can activate the same pathways as morphine. The aim of the present study was to clarify the effect of short-term and mid-term exercises on the self-administration of morphine in rats. Male Wistar rats were initially trained to receive small pellets of food by pressing the active lever in self-administration apparatus. Rats were divided into 4 groups: Saline, Morphine, Exercise 1 (11 days) and Exercise 2 (30 days). Their jugular vein was cannulated. The animals were placed in self-administration apparatus and allowed to self-administer morphine (0.5mg per infusion all test groups) or saline (Saline group) during consecutive days, for 2h/sessions. In the group 1 the rats were running before each session of self-administration and of group Exercise 2, 30 days before surgery as well as before each session. The pressing numbers of active and passive levers in each group and among different groups were compared. The number of active lever pressing of Morphine group was significantly higher than Saline group (pExercise 1 and Exercise 2 groups, the number of active lever pressing was significantly lower than Morphine group (pexercise can activate many neurotransmitter systems involved in the addiction process and increase the release of endorphins, it is likely that could decrease the morphine self-administration in this experimental setup. PMID:19131225

  13. Possible Role of Humoral Immunity on Liver Dysfunction in Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty male albino rats were used in this study to correlate liver function after curcumin or/and malathion intake with the levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM). The rats were divided into four groups, the first was the control group, the second was given malathion in drinking water (200 ppm), the third was administrated curcumin orally (70 mg/kg b.w.) 5 times /week while the fourth group received both malathion and curcumin with the same previous concentrations. Liver state was evaluated every 10 days by estimating prothrombine time (P.T.) and concentration (PC) and albumin level from blood taken from the retroorbital vein of 5 rats of the malathion group. After 40 days when there is prolongation of P.T. and hypoalbuminemia, ten rats from each group were decapitated. Liver enzymes, total protein, glucose, insulin, IgG and IgM were estimated. The data revealed that there is an increase of liver enzymes, glucose, insulin, and immunoglobulins (IgG) and (IgM) in malathion group and positive correlation between liver enzymes and immunoglobulins. These results denoted that the increase of immunoglobulins after malathion intake had no beneficial effects on the prognosis of liver condition, on the contrary, it may worsen liver state if there is some element of auto immunity, as well as the study proved that turmeric has the potential to improve the toxic effects of Malathion, whether on the functions of the liver or immune globulins.

  14. Physiological and biochemical studies on the effect of septilin on irradiated male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study has been initiated to evaluate the radioprotective effect of septilin against whole body gamma radiation and identifying the mechanism whereby septilin extract could protect against radiation toxicity. Irradiation induced significant increase in the serum enzymes of liver ASAT, ALAT, ALP, GGT activities and total bilirubin level when rats exposed to both gamma irradiation doses while direct bilirubin level rise when rats exposed to 6 Gy gamma irradiation only. There was a significant increase in total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol with significant decrease in HDL cholesterol. Besides, it produced high levels of liver malondialdehyde, nitric oxide while serum nitric oxide rise when rats exposed to 6 Gy gamma irradiation only with significant decrease in total glutathione in liver and liver superoxide dismutase activity. Irradiation induced significant decrease in WBCs, RBCs, Hb, PCV, platelets count and blood indices.Septilin manifested good melioration in the radiation-induced changes in the studied parameters and histopathological changes. Hence, it could be concluded that septilin plays a beneficial radioprotective role against radiation hazard in male albino rats.

  15. Aphrodisiac activity of polyherbal formulation in experimental models on male rats

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    Himanshu Bhusan Sahoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the aphrodisiac potential of polyherbal formulations prepared from different parts of Tribulus terrestris, Curculigo orchioides, Allium tuberosum, Cucurbita pepo, Elephant creeper, Mucuna pruriens, and Terminalia catappa in Albino rats in specified ratio as suspension. Materials and Methods: The different concentrations of prepared polyherbal formulations i.e. 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg and sildenafil citrate as standard (5 mg/kg and vehicle (control were administered orally to rats (n = 6 animals per group for 3 weeks. Mating behavior parameters in male rats was monitored in first week and third week week of treatment pairing with receptive females. After termination of drug treatment, the mating performance, hormonal analysis, sperm count, and testes-body weight ratio were also evaluated. Results: The polyherbal formulation showed a significant increase in mating behavior as well as mating performance, serum hormonal levels, sperm count, and testes-body weight ratio with dose-dependent relationship as compared to vehicle control. But the dose of 600 mg/kg of polyherbal formulation assumes closer resemblance of above parameters with the standard used. Conclusion: The results of the study strongly suggest that the polyherbal formulations have a good aphrodisiac activity on rats in the above experimental models, which may be an alternative weapon for various sexual dysfunctions in future.

  16. Hippocampal testosterone relates to reference memory performance and synaptic plasticity in male rats

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    Kristina Schulz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Steroids are important neuromodulators influencing cognitive performance and synaptic plasticity. While the majority of literature concerns adrenal- and gonadectomized animals, very little is known about the “natural” endogenous release of hormones during learning. Therefore, we measured blood and brain (hippocampus, prefrontal cortex testosterone, estradiol, and corticosterone concentrations of intact male rats undergoing a spatial learning paradigm which is known to reinforce hippocampal plasticity. We found significant modulations of all investigated hormones over the training course. Corticosterone and testosterone were correlated manifold with behaviour, while estradiol expressed fewer correlations. In the recall session, testosterone was tightly coupled to reference memory performance, which is crucial for reinforcement of synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus. Intriguingly, prefrontal cortex and hippocampal levels related differentially to reference memory performance. Correlations of testosterone and corticosterone switched from unspecific activity to specific cognitive functions over training. Correspondingly, exogenous application of testosterone revealed different effects on synaptic and neuronal plasticity in trained versus untrained animals. While hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP of the field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP was prolonged in untrained rats, both the fEPSP- and the population spike amplitude-LTP was impaired in trained rats. Behavioural performance was unaffected, but correlations of hippocampal field potentials with behaviour were decoupled in treated rats. The data provide important evidence that besides adrenal, also gonadal steroids play a mechanistic role in linking synaptic plasticity to cognitive performance.

  17. Protective Effect of Vitamin E Against Lead-induced Memory and Learning Impairment in Male Rats

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    Salehi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Lead (Pb2+ is a neurotoxin substance that has been known for its adverse effects on central nervous system and memory. Previous studies reported the potential effect of vitamin E as a memory enhancer. Objectives The purpose of the present study was to assess the protective effects of vitamin E against Pb-induced amnesia. Materials and Methods Forty-eight male Wistar rats (200-250 g were divided equally into the saline, Pb, Pb + vitamin E, and vitamin E alone groups. To induce Pb toxicity, rats received water that contained 0.2% Pb instead of regular water for 1 month. Rats pretreated, treated or post treated with vitamin E (150 mg/kg for 2 months. Passive avoidance learning was assessed using Shuttle-Box after two months. Retention was tested 24 and 48 hours after training. Results The results showed that Pb caused impairment in acquisition and retrieval processes in passive avoidance learning. Vitamin E reversed learning and memory deficits in pre, post or co- exposure with Pb (P < 0.001. Conclusions According to the results of this study, administration of vitamin E to rats counteracts the negative effects of Pb on learning and memory. To more precisely extrapolate these findings to humans, future clinical studies are warranted.

  18. Short photoperiod condition increases susceptibility to stress in adolescent male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ling-Zhi; Liu, Li-Jing; Yuan, Ming; Li, Su-Xia; Yue, Xiao-Dong; Lai, Ju-Lian; Lu, Lin

    2016-03-01

    The seasonality of depressive symptoms is prevalent in children and adolescents. However, the mechanisms that underlie such susceptibility to seasonal influences on mood disorders are unclear. We examined the effects of a short photoperiod condition on the susceptibility to subchronic unpredictable mild stress (SCUS) and rhythmic alterations of plasma corticosterone (CORT), melatonin, and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in adolescent male rats. Compared with the 12h/12h light/dark photoperiod control (CON) rats, the 8h/16h photoperiod SCUS rats exhibited significant anhedonia, a core symptom of human depression, together with a blunted diurnal rhythm and elevation of 24h CORT, melatonin, and NPY levels. The 8h/16h photoperiod condition also blunted the rhythmicity of CORT, caused a phase inversion of melatonin, and caused a phase delay of NPY compared with 12h/12h CON rats. Such abnormalities of plasma CORT, NPY, and melatonin might cause adolescent individuals to present higher stress reactivity and greater vulnerability to stress over their lifetimes. The present study provides evidence of the susceptibility to the seasonality of stress-related disorders in adolescence. PMID:26655789

  19. Effect of Semecarpus anacardium fruits on reproductive function of male albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ArtiSharma; PramodKumarVerma; V.RDixit

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of an ethanolic extract of Semecarpus anacardium fruits on spermatogenesis in albino rats. Methods: Male albino rats were fed with a 50 % ethanolic extract of Semecarpus anacardium fruit at 100 mg·kg-l·day-1, 200 mg·kg-l·day-1 and 300 mg·kg-1·day-1 for 60 days. Fertility test was performed after 60 days of treatment. Sperm motility and density were observed in the cauda epididymis. Biochemical and histological analyses of the blood and reproductive organs were done. Recovery of fertility was followed to evaluate the reversibility of drug action. Results: S. anacardium fruit extract administration resulted in spermatogenic arrest in albino rats. Thes perm motility and density was reduced significantly. The RBC and WBC counts, haemoglobin, haematocrit, blood sugar and urea were found to be within the normal range in the whole blood. The protein, cholesterol and glycogen in the testes and the fructose in the seminal vesicle were significantly decreased after the treatment. The fruit extract feeding caused marked reduction in the number of primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes and spermatids.The number of mature Leydig cells was also decreased and degenerating cells increased proportionately. Conclusion:S. anacardium fruit extract causes spermatogenic arrest in albino rats. ( Asian J Androl 2003 Jun; 5: 121-124)

  20. Oral toxic exposure of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on serum biochemical changes in adult male Wistar rats

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    Dasal Vasantharaja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs are widely used in commercial food additives and cosmetics worldwide. Uptake of these nanoparticulate into humans by different routes and may exhibit potential side effects, lags behind the rapid development of nanotechnology. Thus, the present study designed to evaluate the toxic effect of mixed rutile and anatase TiO2 NPs on serum biochemical changes in rats. Materials and Methods: In this study, adult male Wistar rats were randomly allotted into the experimental and control groups (n=6, which were orally administered with 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight of TiO2 NPs. Toxic effects were assessed by the changes of serum biochemical parameters such as glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid and creatinine. All the serum biochemical markers were experimented in rats, after 14-days of post exposure. Results: Changes of the serum specific parameters indicated that liver and kidney were significantly affected in both experimental groups. The changes between the levels of total protein, glucose, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase indicate that TiO2 NPs induces liver damage. Significant increase in the blood urea nitrogen and uric acid indicates the renal damage in the TiO2 NPs treated rats. Conclusion: The data shows that the oral administration of TiO2 NPs (

  1. EFFECTS OF 50% ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA ON SEXUAL BEHAVIOR AND SERUM HORMONAL ASSAY IN MALE SPRAGUE DAWLEY RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Dasuki MS; Wan MH; Hasnan J; SitiAmrah S; D' Souza UJ

    2015-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata has been used for centuries as a medicinal herb for the treatment of various ailments. The present study was aimed to investigate the possible effect of A. paniculata extract on male sexual behavior parameters and sex hormone levels. Fifty Sprague Dawley male rats received 50% ethanolic extract of A. paniculata by gavaging for 10 weeks at the doses of 0.5, 1, 10, 100, 1000 mg/kg, while another 10 male rats were given distilled water. Sexual behavior study was carried o...

  2. Changes in certain diurnal hormonal rhythms in developing male rats exposed to adiurnal environmental cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooka-Souda, S

    1981-03-01

    It has traditionally been thought that diurnal rhythmicities cannot be entrained to follow adiurnal environmental cues that deviate greatly from a 24-hour periodicity. In this study, exposure of male rats pre- and postnatally to an adiurnal lighting schedule of 9 hours light: 9 hours dark resulted in the entertainment of certain hormonal rhythms (such as plasma corticosterone and plasma TSH) but not of others (such as pituitary TSH and plasma T3). Even though thyroid rhythms were influenced only partially by the shorter, 18-hour day, absolute levels of pituitary TSH and plasma T3 were significantly higher in experimental rats (9 hours light:9 hours dark) than controls (12 hours light:12 hours dark). Whole-body and kidney weights and tail length were also significantly increased in the 9 hours light:9 hours dark animals, suggesting a possible relationship of shorter day cycles to faster growth and higher thyroid hormone levels. PMID:7195965

  3. Biochemical Responses to Sub chronic Toxic Effects of Pesticides on Male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sub chronic toxicity study of malathion and nudrin on different metabolic activities was investigated in male rats by studying their toxic effects of feeding diet treated with 1/4 LD50 of malathion or nudrin for four consecutive weeks, followed by two weeks withdrawal periods. The results revealed an increase in the weights of liver and kidney of treated animals which returned more or less near the control levels at the withdrawal periods. Malathion induced hyperglycemia and decrease in the liver glycogen content, while nudrin caused hypoglycemia with an increase in the liver glycogen content. A significant decrease in serum total cholesterol and lipoprotein were noticed after the feeding of the two pesticides, with an increase in the serum total lipids content of rats. Thyroxin hormone was increased while triiodothyronine was decreased after the feeding of malathion or nudrin. The changes in such parameters during sub chronic treatments were recorded and the significance of such changes were discussed

  4. AMELIORATIVE EFFECT OF PUNICA GRANATUM ETHANOLIC EXTRACT IN CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE INDUCED TESTICULAR TOXICITY IN MALE WISTAR RATS

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    Divya Bhargavan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To explore the potential role of Punica granatum ethanolic extract (PGEE in Cyclophosphamide (CP induced testicular toxicity. Methods: Healthy male Wistar rats were allotted to 4 groups (N=6, each Group I: Control, Group II: CP 15mg/kg twice a week, Group III: PGEE 100mg/kg, Group IV: CP and PGEE for 28 days. At the end of the treatment period, organ weight, body weight, epididymal sperm count, motility, morphology, SOD, catalase, GSH, ACP & testosterone level in the testis were evaluated. Results: The CP treated rats showed toxicity evidenced by decreased organ and body weight, decreased sperm quality and testosterone level also increase in MDA and decrease in antioxidants SOD, GSH indicating oxidative stress. In contrast PGEE co-treatment with CP resulted in significant restoration of the above mentioned parameters. Conclusion: These results indicate that PGEE attenuates CP induced testicular toxicity through its ROS scavenging activity.

  5. Haematological And Biochemical Changes Induced By Amaranth Impact On Male Albino Rats

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    Shadia Ali Radwan; Ahmed Riad El-Sayed; Mohammed Salah Al-Shinnawy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was performed to study the effect of daily administration (interperitoneal injection of synthetic coloring agent amaranth at dose 50 mg /kg b.w. /day for two periods (7 and 21 days, using male albino rats. The effects of amaranth on growth, haematological and some biochemical parameters were examined throughout the study. The results revealed that amaranth treatment cause a marked change in treated groups when compared with control. They showed a significant decrease in percentage of body weight change, RBCs count, Hb concentration and HCT value, while, they recorded a significant increase in WBCs, serum activity of AST and ALP, in addition to serum urea and creatinine levels in treated rats. But ALT and bilirubin showed insignificant changes throughout the experiment.

  6. Some Neuro hormonal Effects of ruta chalepensis in adult male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oral sub-chronic administrations of Ruta chalepensis extract equivalent to 3.0 g/kg body weight were given to male albino rats daily for four weeks (0.5 ml solution/100 g/ rat). The data revealed significant increases in tyrosine, dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) in all tested brain areas throughout most of the experimental intervals. Significant increases of serum leutinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone were also observed while serum prolactin was decreased significantly. It could be also concluded from the present results that treatment with Ruta chalepensis extract significantly increased catecholamine content. This observation may be in part due to an increase in its synthesis through an increase of the peripheral availability of tyrosine for brain synthesis of catecholamine and/or a decrease in its release

  7. physiological,molecular and radiometric studies on treatment of induced hepatotoxicity in male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    levanox, a hepato protective drug, and garlic powder have been considered as safe anti-oxidant agents. the present investigation included physiological, radiometric and molecular studies to evaluate the protective role of levanox and/or garlic tablets toward CCl4 - induced toxicity in adult male albion rats ( Rattus norvegicus).CCl4 intoxication, at oral dose of 0.03 ml/kg of rat body weight, led to severe tissue damage as revealed by an elevation of serum activities of AST, ALT, ALP, CK and LDH. CCl4 caused an elevation of serum triglycerides with no effect on serum total cholesterol. it also increased serum creatinine and urea levels . these biochemical results were in coincidence with the liver and kidneys histopathological alterations . using radioimmunoassay, it was found that serum total testosterone level was significantly decreased while that of serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) was significantly increased due to CCl4 treatment

  8. Rapid and acute effects of estrogen on time perception in male and female rats

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    Kristen ePleil

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences in the rapid and acute effects of estrodiol on time perception were investigated in adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Because estrodiol has been shown to increase striatal dopamine release, it may be able to modify time perception and timed performance by increasing the speed of an internal clock in a manner similar to indirect dopamine agonists such as amphetamine and cocaine. Two groups of females (neonatally estradiol-treated/adult ovariectomized and neonatally oil-treated/adult ovariectomized and 2 groups of males (neonatally castrated and adult castrated were trained in a 2 s vs. 8 s duration bisection procedure and tested using intermediate signal durations. After obtaining oil-injected baseline psychometric functions over several days, rats were administered 5μg of estradiol for 4 days and behaviorally evaluated 30 min following each injection. This oil-estradiol administration cycle was subsequently repeated 3 times following the re-establishment of baseline training. Results revealed significant sex differences in the initial baseline functions that were not modifiable by organizational hormones, with males’ duration bisection functions shifted horizontally to the left of females’. Upon the first administration of estradiol, females, but not males, showed a significant, transient leftward shift in their bisection functions, indicative of an increase in clock speed. After extensive retraining in the duration bisection procedure, rats that were exposed to gonadal hormones during the first week of life showed a significant rightward shift in their bisection functions on the fourth day of estradiol administration during each cycle, suggesting a decrease in clock speed. Taken together, our results support the view that there are multiple mechanisms of estrogens’ action in the striatum that modulate dopaminergic activity and are differentially organized by gonadal steroids during early brain development.

  9. Low vitamin D and the risk of developing chronic widespread pain: results from the European male ageing study

    OpenAIRE

    McCabe, Paul S.; Pye, Stephen R.; Mc Beth, John; Lee, David M; Tajar, Abdelouahid; Bartfai, Gyorgy; Boonen, Steven; Bouillon, Roger; Casanueva, Felipe; Finn, Joseph D.; Forti, Gianni; Giwercman, Aleksander; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T.; Kula, Krzysztof; Pendleton, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Background The association between low levels of vitamin D and the occurrence of chronic widespread pain (CWP) remains unclear. The aim of our analysis was to determine the relationship between low vitamin D levels and the risk of developing CWP in a population sample of middle age and elderly men. Methods Three thousand three hundred sixty nine men aged 40–79 were recruited from 8 European centres for a longitudinal study of male ageing, the European Male Ageing Study. At baseline participan...

  10. Effect of Kaempferia parviflora Wall. ex. Baker on sexual activity of male rats and its toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudwan, Paiwan; Saenphet, Kanokporn; Saenphet, Supap; Suwansirikul, Songkiet

    2006-01-01

    Kaempferia parviflora Wall. Ex. Baker (Krachaidum) has long been used among Thai men for sexual enhancement. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of K. parviflora ethanolic extract on the sexual behavior of male rats and its toxicity. The experiment was divided into three groups of rats given K. parviflora extract at doses of 60, 120, and 240 mg/kg BW for 60 days, whilst a control group received distilled water at 1 ml/day per oral. The results showed that all groups of male rats had significantly higher courtship behavior during the first 10-minute period of observation than in the 2nd and 3rd 10-minute periods, except those receiving the highest dose of K. parviflora. They revealed the same amount of courtship behavior throughout a whole 30-minute period, which was significantly lower than the control group. There was no significant difference between treated and control groups in other sexual behaviors; mount frequency (MF), intromission frequency (IF), mount latency (ML), or intromission latency (IL). Toxicological study revealed no significant difference of hemoglobin, WBC or differential cell count. All dosages had no effect on kidney and liver function, according to the normal values of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Crea), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Nevertheless, the histopathological study showed a morphological change in the liver. It was concluded that K. parviflora extract at 240 mg/kg BW reduced the time in the first 10 mintues of rat courtship behavior and the use of high and chronic doses of K. parviflora in humans should be considered inadvisable. PMID:17547083

  11. Nocturnal surges and reflexive release of prolactin in parentally behaving virgin female and male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, M; Terkel, J

    1986-09-01

    Maternally behaving virgin rats are capable of releasing prolactin reflexively in response to stimulation by pups, especially during the proestrous/estrous phase of the cycle. When such rats are chronically exposed to pups they usually undergo a state of pseudopregnancy during which prolactin is secreted in a pattern of nocturnal surges. The present series of experiments evaluated the initiation of nocturnal prolactin surges in maternally behaving virgins, the role of estrogen in the reflexive release of prolactin, and the influence of gender on these two modes of prolactin secretion. It was found that the nocturnal surges of prolactin are already present on Days 1 and 2 of pup-induced pseudopregnancy. At this stage, however, the surges are not yet autonomous, seeing that pseudopregnancy is interrupted shortly after removal of the pups on Day 2. Activation by vaginocervical stimulation of the "mnemonic" neurogenic system that controls the autonomous nocturnal prolactin surges did not interfere with the reflexive pup-induced release of prolactin in maternally behaving virgins. The capacity of reflexive prolactin release in the virgin rat was abolished by ovariectomy, restored by estrogen replacement, and persisted for only 24 hr following estrogen removal. Paternally behaving males subjected to chronic exposure to pups were incapable of secreting nocturnal surges of prolactin characteristic of the pseudopregnant female. Such males were also incapable of releasing prolactin reflexively in response to stimulation by pups, even when supplemented with exogenous estrogen. These results indicate that the two modes of prolactin secretion are sex dependent, and that the maternally behaving virgin, unlike the postpartum rat, requires concurrent estrogenic facilitation for releasing prolactin in response to stimulation by young. PMID:3770651

  12. Paternal dapoxetine administration induced deterioration in reproductive performance, fetal outcome, sexual behavior and biochemistry of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElMazoudy, R; AbdelHameed, N; ElMasry, A

    2015-01-01

    Dapoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is considered an antidepressant drug and has been developed for the treatment of premature ejaculation. Hence the objective was to assess whether dapoxetine administration to male rats adversely affect sexual behavior and pregnancy outcomes after mating with untreated female rats. Proven fertile male rats were gavaged with 0, 2.0, 4.0 and 8.0 mg dapoxetine per kg body weight (bw) per day (DC, DI, DII and DIII groups, respectively) for 70 days prior to mating with untreated female rats. Weight gain, organ weights and feed consumption were decreased significantly in the DII and DIII groups. A significant decline in the number of spermatozoa in the DII and DIII groups is attributed to a significant decrease in testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone. Levels of prolactin were significantly increased in the DII and DIII groups. Rats treated with a high dose of dapoxetine (8.0 mg kg(-1)) showed a significant inhibition in sperm motility and increment in sperm abnormalities. There was a pronounced decrease in fertility index in females mated with males treated chronically with 4.0 and 8.0 mg per kg bw dapoxetine. In addition, the treatment markedly increased the number of fetal resorptions in female rats impregnated by males in the DII and DIII groups reflecting their infertility. The number of implantation sites and the number of viable fetuses were also notably decreased in female rats impregnated by males given 4.0 or 8.0 mg kg(-1) dapoxetine. These findings suggest that the long-term dapoxetine at high dosages causes failure of the fertilization or successful impregnation of the females mated with dapoxetine-treated male rats, which were clearly able to copulate. A detrimental effect of dapoxetine on fertility parameters was also revealed. PMID:26399566

  13. Prenatal exposure to di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) differentially alters androgen cascade in undeformed versus hypospadiac male rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jun-Tao; Zhong, Chen; Zhu, Yi-Ping; Xu, Dong-Liang; Wood, Kristofer; Sun, Wen-Lan; Li, En-Hui; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Zhao, Wei; Ruan, Yuan; Xia, Shu-Jie

    2016-06-01

    This study was to compare the alterations of androgen cascades in di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP)-exposed male offspring without hypospadias (undeformed) versus those with hypospadias. To induce hypospadias in male offspring, pregnant rats received DBP via oral gavage at a dose of 750mg/kg BW/day during gestational days 14-18. The mRNA expression levels of genes downstream of the androgen signaling pathway, such as androgen receptor (AR) and Srd5a2, in testes of undeformed rat pups were similar to those in controls; in hypospadiac rat pups these levels were significantly lower than those of control pups. In contrast, both undeformed and hypospadiac rats had decreased serum testosterone levels, reduced mRNA expression of key enzymes in the androgen synthetic pathway in the testes, and ablated genes of developmental pathways, such as Shh, Bmp4, Fgf8, Fgf10 and Fgfr2, in the genital tubercle (GT) as compared to those in DBP-unexposed controls, albeit hypospadiac rats had a more severe decrement than those of undeformed rats. Although other possibilities cannot be excluded, our findings suggest that the relatively normal levels of testosterone-AR-Srd5a2 may contribute to the resistance to DBP toxicity in undeformed rats. In conclusion, our results showed a potential correlation between decreased testosterone levels, reduced mRNA expression of AR and Srd5a2 and the occurrence of hypospadias in male rat offspring prenatally exposed to DBP. PMID:26948521

  14. METABOLIC RATE AS A FUNCTION OF AGE IN BROWN NORWAY AND LONG-EVANS RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown Norway (BN) rats are commonly used in aging studies but relatively little is known on their metabolism as it varies with age. In fact, there is considerable disagreement on the wholebody metabolism of aging rats with some studies indicating a decrease and others showing an...

  15. An enriched rearing environment calms adult male rat sexual activity: implication for distinct serotonergic and hormonal responses to females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu Urakawa

    Full Text Available Early life events induce alterations in neural function in adulthood. Although rearing in an enriched environment (EE has a great impact on behavioral development, the effects of enriched rearing on sociosexual behavior remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of rearing in an EE on male copulatory behavior and its underlying neurobiological mechanisms in Wistar-Imamichi rats. Three-week-old, recently weaned rats were continuously subjected to a standard environment (SE or an EE comprised of a large cage with several objects, such as toys, tunnels, ladders, and a running wheel. After 6 weeks, rats reared in an EE (EE rats showed decreased sexual activity compared with rats reared in a SE (SE rats. This included a lower number of ejaculations and longer latencies in three consecutive copulatory tests. In addition, EE rats showed decreased emotional responsiveness and less locomotor behavior in an open field. In a runway test, on the other hand, sexual motivation toward receptive females in EE males was comparable to that of SE males. Furthermore, following exposure to a female, increases in serotonin levels in the nucleus accumbens and the striatum were significantly suppressed in EE males, whereas dopaminergic responses were similar between the groups. Female-exposure-induced increases in the levels of plasma corticosterone and testosterone were also suppressed in EE rats compared to SE rats. These data suggest that rearing in an EE decreases male copulatory behavior, and serotonin and hormonal regulating systems may regulate the differences in sociosexual interactions that result from distinct rearing environments.

  16. An enriched rearing environment calms adult male rat sexual activity: implication for distinct serotonergic and hormonal responses to females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakawa, Susumu; Mitsushima, Dai; Shimozuru, Michito; Sakuma, Yasuo; Kondo, Yasuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Early life events induce alterations in neural function in adulthood. Although rearing in an enriched environment (EE) has a great impact on behavioral development, the effects of enriched rearing on sociosexual behavior remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of rearing in an EE on male copulatory behavior and its underlying neurobiological mechanisms in Wistar-Imamichi rats. Three-week-old, recently weaned rats were continuously subjected to a standard environment (SE) or an EE comprised of a large cage with several objects, such as toys, tunnels, ladders, and a running wheel. After 6 weeks, rats reared in an EE (EE rats) showed decreased sexual activity compared with rats reared in a SE (SE rats). This included a lower number of ejaculations and longer latencies in three consecutive copulatory tests. In addition, EE rats showed decreased emotional responsiveness and less locomotor behavior in an open field. In a runway test, on the other hand, sexual motivation toward receptive females in EE males was comparable to that of SE males. Furthermore, following exposure to a female, increases in serotonin levels in the nucleus accumbens and the striatum were significantly suppressed in EE males, whereas dopaminergic responses were similar between the groups. Female-exposure-induced increases in the levels of plasma corticosterone and testosterone were also suppressed in EE rats compared to SE rats. These data suggest that rearing in an EE decreases male copulatory behavior, and serotonin and hormonal regulating systems may regulate the differences in sociosexual interactions that result from distinct rearing environments. PMID:24505330

  17. Peak expiratory flow rate; the effect of smoking on younger AND middle aged males

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    B. Satyanarayana

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A total of 80 male subjects in age group of 20-50 years were selected for the purpose of the study. They were divided in two groups, smokers and non smokers. Each group subdivided into age groups of 20-35 and 36-50 yrs. The criteria for smoking was about 5-10 cigarettes per day since 6-12 months. Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (P.E.F.R. was determined by using Wright’s peak flow meter. The results showed that in Non-Smoker of age group 20-35 years, (n= 30 the mean PEFR value was 535±50 L/min, whereas in age group 36-50 years, (n=15 the mean P.E.F.R value was 515±50 L/min. In Smokers of age group 20-35 years, (n=10 mean P.E.F.R. value was 374±128 L/min whereas in age group 36-50 years, (n=25 mean P.E.F.R. value was 357±86 L/min. This shows that in smokers P.E.F.R. value is lower compared to Non-smokers in both age groups and that P.E.F.R. is lower in the elder age group in comparison to younger age group. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(4.000: 441-442

  18. Middle age has a significant impact on gene expression during skin wound healing in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Hagai; Lumenta, David Benjamin; Vierlinger, Klemens; Hofner, Manuela; Kitzinger, Hugo-Benito; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Nöhammer, Christa; Chilosi, Marco; Fraifeld, Vadim E

    2016-08-01

    The vast majority of research on the impact of age on skin wound healing (WH) compares old animals to young ones. The middle age is often ignored in biogerontological research despite the fact that many functions that decline in an age-dependent manner have starting points in mid-life. With this in mind, we examined gene expression patterns during skin WH in late middle-aged versus young adult male mice, using the head and back punch models. The rationale behind this study was that the impact of age would first be detectable at the transcriptional level. We pinpointed several pathways which were over-activated in the middle-aged mice, both in the intact skin and during WH. Among them were various metabolic, immune-inflammatory and growth-promoting pathways. These transcriptional changes were much more pronounced in the head than in the back. In summary, the middle age has a significant impact on gene expression in intact and healing skin. It seems that the head punch model is more sensitive to the effect of age than the back model, and we suggest that it should be more widely applied in aging research on wound healing. PMID:27241672

  19. Tetracycline-induced reproductive toxicity in male rats: effects of vitamin C and N-acetylcysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farombi, Ebenezer O; Ugwuezunmba, Mercy C; Ezenwadu, Teclar T; Oyeyemi, Matthew O; Ekor, Martins

    2008-06-01

    Tetracycline, a broad-spectrum antibiotic employed clinically in the treatment of bacteria infections, is known to cause a number of biochemical dysfunctions and suspected to induce testicular damage to animals and humans, but there is paucity of data on its effect and mechanism of action on the male reproductive system. The present study therefore evaluates its spermatotoxic and testicular toxicity in male rats and the chemoprotective effects of Vitamin C (Vit C) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Tetracycline was administered orally at the dose level of 28.6 mg/kg body weight per day in two equal divided doses (12h interval). Vit C and NAC were also administered orally to the rats at doses of 200 and 50 mg/kg body weight per day, respectively, for the 14 days of the experiment. While there was no change in the body weights of rats, tetracycline administration caused significant decrease in the relative weights of testis, epididymis and seminal vesicles (Ptetracycline caused a reduction in the epididymal sperm motility, percentage of live spermatozoa, sperm count, and an increase in abnormal sperm morphology, as well as induction of adverse histopathologic changes in the testes. While Vit C and NAC significantly mitigated the toxic effect of tetracycline on sperm parameters, the antioxidants did not improve the adverse histopathologic changes induced by antibiotic. Treatment of rats with tetracycline significantly decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and the levels of GSH and serum testosterone, while the activity of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) increased. Both Vit C and NAC significantly attenuated the toxic effects of tetracycline to the antioxidant and testicular marker enzymes as well as markers of oxidative stress. Collectively, the results suggest that therapeutic dose of tetracycline elicits spermatotoxic and testicular

  20. Pathological effects of anabolic steroid (Sustanon® on liver of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Al-Kennany

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present pathological study on the male rats aims to investigate the effects on liver tissue induced by repeated administration of three doses of sustanon for four periods. The experiment was done on the 100 adult male rats randomly divided into five groups 20 rats in each group. The first group is considered as a negative control treated with diet and water only. The second group is considered a positive control treated weekly for 60 days with sesame oil intramuscularly while groups III, IV and V treated with diluted sustanon in 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly weekly for 60 days respectively. Blood was collected in a period 15, 30 and 60 days after treatment for measurements liver function tests ALT (alanine aminotransferase and AST (aspartate aminotransferas enzymes. Then the animals were dissected to take samples in a period 15, 30 and 60 days after treatment for histopathological examination, then 5 rats were lefted in each group in the diet and water for 30 days after last treatment for examination the above mentioned parameters. The results revealed the presence of significantly increasing of liver enzyme activation represented by ALT and AST at level P<0.05 compared with control groups. The value of these levels were higher in group V in a day 60 after treatment and its continue to increase even after stopping treatment and remained on diet and water only for 30 days. Pathologically, all treated groups with sustanon revealed gross and histopathological changes in liver tissue, there were enlargement and congestion gross. Histopathologically, the liver sections elucidate cellular swelling, vacuolar degeneration in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes in addition to fatty change and programmed cell death in all groups during a period 15, 30 and 60 days these changes continue even after stopping the treatment for 30 days but portal fibrosis has been observed.It has been concluded from this study that sustanon in concentration 5, 10

  1. Correction of Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders in Male Rats with Developing Experimental Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didebulidze, N A; Kakabadze, M Sh; Gordadze, N G; Latsabidze, I N; Kordzaya, M E; Sikharulidze, I T

    2015-05-01

    Synthetic radioinert androgen methyltrienolone administered daily for 2 weeks to male rats with severe diabetes led to a sharp increase in blood testosterone and was accompanied by reduction in glucose level due to an increase in tissue sensitivity to insulin. Normalization of plasma testosterone concentration contributed to saturation of active androgen receptors in the myocardium with testosterone; the number of free receptors decreased by 1.8 times. Testosterone that diminishes the catabolic effects of glucocorticoids improved the state of the myocardium, which was confirmed by activation of DNA and RNA synthesis. PMID:26033581

  2. AMELIORATIVE EFFECT OF PUNICA GRANATUM ETHANOLIC EXTRACT IN CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE INDUCED TESTICULAR TOXICITY IN MALE WISTAR RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Divya Bhargavan; Harish Shetty; AP Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To explore the potential role of Punica granatum ethanolic extract (PGEE) in Cyclophosphamide (CP) induced testicular toxicity. Methods: Healthy male Wistar rats were allotted to 4 groups (N=6, each) Group I: Control, Group II: CP 15mg/kg twice a week, Group III: PGEE 100mg/kg, Group IV: CP and PGEE for 28 days. At the end of the treatment period, organ weight, body weight, epididymal sperm count, motility, morphology, SOD, catalase, GSH, ACP & testosterone level in the testis were evalu...

  3. Effect of Curcumin on Some Heavy Metals Induced Renal And Testicular Injuries in Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Tamer, M. M. Saad

    2013-01-01

    Back ground Toxic heavy metals in water, air and soil are global problems that are a growing threat to humanity. Heavy metals are widely distributed in the environment and some of them occur in food, water, air and tissues even in the absence of occupational exposure. The antioxidant and protective influences of curcumin on a mixture of some heavy metals (Pb, Hg and Cd) induced renal and testicular injuries in male rats were detected. Curcumin, a yellow pigment from Curcuma longa, is a m...

  4. Quantitative evaluation of integrated neuroendocrine and immune responses to chronic stress in rats male

    OpenAIRE

    Polovynko, Іlona S; Zajats, Lyubomyr М; Zukow, Walery; Yanchij, Roman I; Popovych, Іgor L

    2016-01-01

    Polovynko Іlona S, Zajats Lyubomyr М, Zukow Walery, Yanchij Roman I, Popovych Іgor L. Quantitative evaluation of integrated neuroendocrine and immune responses to chronic stress in rats male. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2016;6(8):154-166. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.60023 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/3745       The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evalua...

  5. A study of the prostate, androgens and sexual activity of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Luis I

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prostate is a sexual gland that produces important substances for the potency of sperm to fertilize eggs within the female reproductive tract, and is under complex endocrine control. Taking advantage of the peculiar behavioral pattern of copulating male rats, we developed experimental paradigms to determine the influence of sexual behavior on the level of serum testosterone, prostate androgen receptors, and mRNA for androgen receptors in male rats displaying up to four consecutive ejaculations. Methods The effect of four consecutive ejaculations was investigated by determining levels of (i testosterone in serum by solid phase RIA, (ii androgen receptors at the ventral prostate with Western Blots, and (iii androgen receptors-mRNA with RT-PCR. Data were analyzed with a one-way ANOVA followed by a post hoc application of Dunnett's test if required. Results The constant execution of sexual behavior did not produce any change in the weight of the ventral prostate. Serum testosterone increased after the second ejaculation, and remained elevated even after four ejaculations. The androgen receptor at the ventral prostate was higher after the first to third ejaculations, but returned suddenly to baseline levels after the fourth ejaculation. The level of mRNA increased after the first ejaculation, continued to increase after the second, and reached the highest peak after the third ejaculation; however, it returned suddenly to baseline levels after the fourth ejaculation. Conclusion Four consecutive ejaculations by sexually experienced male rats had important effects on the physiological responses of the ventral prostate. Fast responses were induced as a result of sexual behavior that involved an increase and decrease in androgen receptors after one and four ejaculations, respectively. However, a progressive response was observed in the elevation of mRNA for androgen receptors, which also showed a fast decrease after four

  6. [Reproductive function of the male rat after a flight on the Kosmos-1129 biosatellite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serova, L V; Denisova, L A; Apanasenko, Z I; Kuznetsova, M A; Meĭzerov, E S

    1982-01-01

    Male rats that were flown for 18.5 days on Cosmos-1129 were mated postflight with intact females. The mating 5 days postflight when the ejaculate consisted of spermatozoids that were exposed to zero-g effects in the mature stage yielded the litter which lagged behind the controls with respect to the growth and development during the first postnatal month. The mating 2.5-3 months postflight when the ejaculate consisted of spermatozoids that were exposed to zero-g effects at the stem cell stage yielded the litter which did not differ from the control. PMID:6890601

  7. Effects of Methane-Rich Saline on the Capability of One-Time Exhaustive Exercise in Male SD Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Xin; Xuejun Sun; Shujie Lou

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To explore the effects of methane-rich saline (CH4 saline) on the capability of one-time exhaustive exercise in male SD rats. Methods Thirty rats were equally divided into to three groups at random: control group (C), placebo group (P) and methane saline group (M). Rats in M group underwent intraperitoneal injection of CH4 saline, and the other two groups simultaneously underwent intraperitoneal injection of normal saline. Then, the exercise capability of rats was tested through one-t...

  8. Mixtures of environmentally relevant endocrine disrupting chemicals affect mammary gland development in female and male rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Karen Riiber; Johansson, Hanna Katarina Lilith; Boberg, Julie; Pedersen, Anne S.; Mortensen, Mette Sidsel; Jørgensen, Jennifer Solgaard; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Hass, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    Estrogenic chemicals are able to alter mammary gland development in female rodents, but little is known on the effects of anti-androgens and mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with dissimilar modes of action. Pregnant rat dams were exposed during gestation and lactation to mixtures...... of environmentally relevant EDCs with estrogenic, anti-androgenic or dissimilar modes of action (TotalMix) of 100-, 200- or 450-fold high end human intake estimates. Mammary glands of prepubertal and adult female and male offspring were examined. Oestrogens increased mammary outgrowth in prepubertal...... females and the mRNA level of matrix metalloproteinase-3, which may be a potential biomarker for increased outgrowth. Mixtures of EDCs gave rise to ductal hyperplasia in adult males. Adult female mammary glands of the TotalMix group showed morphological changes possibly reflecting increased prolactin...

  9. Finisher and performance trends in female and male mountain ultramarathoners by age group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüst CA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Christoph Alexander Rüst,1 Beat Knechtle,1,2 Evelyn Eichenberger,1 Thomas Rosemann,1 Romuald Lepers31Institute of General Practice and for Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland; 3French Institute of Health and Medical Research, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Burgundy, Dijon, FranceBackground: This study examined changes according to age group in the number of finishers and running times for athletes in female and male mountain ultramarathoners competing in the 78 km Swiss Alpine Marathon, the largest mountain ultramarathon in Europe and held in high alpine terrain.Methods: The association between age and performance was investigated using analysis of variance and both single and multilevel regression analyses.Results: Between 1998 and 2011, a total of 1,781 women and 12,198 men finished the Swiss Alpine Marathon. The number of female finishers increased (r2 = 0.64, P = 0.001, whereas the number of male finishers (r2 = 0.18, P = 0.15 showed no change. The annual top ten men became older and slower, whereas the annual top ten women became older but not slower. Regarding the number of finishers in the age groups, the number of female finishers decreased in the age group 18–24 years, whereas the number of finishers increased in the age groups 30–34, 40–44, 45–49, 50–54, 55–59, 60–64, and 70–74 years. In the age groups 25–29 and 35–39 years, the number of finishers showed no changes across the years. In the age group 70–74 years, the increase in number of finishers was linear. For all other age groups, the increase was exponential. For men, the number of finishers decreased in the age groups 18–24, 25–29, 30–34, and 35–39 years. In the age groups 40–44, 45–49, 50–54, 55–59, 60–64, 70–74, and 75–79 years, the number of finishers increased. In the age group 40–44 years, the increase was linear. For all other age groups, the

  10. Tetrandrine ameliorates sevoflurane‑induced cognitive impairment via the suppression of inflammation and apoptosis in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongmei; Yao, Li; Pang, Ling; Li, Xingwei; Yao, Qun

    2016-06-01

    Tetrandrine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid extracted from Stephania tetrandra, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, which has been observed to exert anti‑inflammatory effects. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether tetrandrine was able to ameliorate sevoflurane‑induced cognitive impairment in aged rats. Male 20‑month‑old Sprague‑Dawley rats underwent sevoflurane‑induction in an environment containing 2% sevoflurane for 5 h. The Morris water maze test was used to measure the effect of tetrandrine on learning and memory in sevoflurane‑treated aged rats. Western blot analysis of the protein expression levels of cyclooxygenase‑2 (COX‑2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and Bcl‑2 was conducted. ELISAs were used to measure the levels of interleukin (IL)‑1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF‑α), nuclear factor‑κB (NF‑κB) and caspase‑3. In the present study, tetrandrine improved the learning and memory deficits observed in sevoflurane‑treated aged rats. Treatment with tetrandrine reduced the expression levels of COX‑2, IL‑1β, TNF‑α, NF‑κB, iNOS and caspase‑3, and increased the Bcl‑2 protein expression in sevoflurane‑treated aged rats. In conclusion, the current study indicated that tetrandrine ameliorates sevoflurane‑induced cognitive impairment via the suppression of inflammation and apoptosis in aged rats. Thus, tetrandrine may be a potential novel candidate to protect against the effects of sevoflurane anesthesia on cognitive function. PMID:27082007

  11. Peer influence on speeding behaviour among male drivers aged 18 and 28

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    related to traffic violations of male drivers. More specifically, the role of peer influence on speeding was examined in both age groups. In regression analyses it could be shown that the descriptive subjective norm, i.e. the perception of friends’ speeding, was the most important predictor of speeding in...... perceived level of their friends’ speeding. In the younger age group a higher discrepancy between own and friends’ speeding was found indicating that young male drivers are socialized into increased speeding behaviour based on peer pressure. By contrast for the 28-year-olds peer pressure mainly seems to...... maintain or justify individual speeding behaviour. It is suggested that preventive measures should take these different influences of peer pressure into account by using a peer-based approach for the 18-year-olds and a more individual approach for the 28-year-olds....

  12. Physiological Changes Induced by Long Term Administration of Saccharin Compared with Aspartame to Male Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inas Z.A. Abdallah

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Artificial sweeteners have been in use by food industries for a long time. Safety concerns raised about artificial sweeteners since they are widely used nowadays. The present work aims to study the possible changes in body weight, blood picture, liver functions, blood glucose and liver glycogen content as wel as histopathological changes induced in liver and urinary bladder of male albino rats after administration of two artificial sweeteners (saccharin or aspartame. Male rats were administered saccharin (50 mg/kg b.w. or aspartame (100 mg/kg b.w. daily by intragastric gavage for 14 weeks. The results revealed that both saccharin and aspartame provoked highly significant reduction in body weight gain %. Saccharin exerted highly significant reduction in haemoglobin (Hb level, haematocrit (Hct% and red blood cel s (RBCs count, while aspartame induced insignificant changes in al haematological parameters. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST activity levels were significantly increased with saccharin and aspartame. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP levels in serum showed slightly insignificant increase by saccharim administration, while aspartame caused a significant rise in ALP. Blood glucose level of rats given saccharin significantly dropped, while aspartame caused a significant elevation in blood glucose level. Liver glycogen content of rats given saccharin significantly increased, while aspartame caused a significant reduction in liver glycogen content. Microscopic examination of liver sections showed lymphocytic and macrophages infiltration of the portal traid in rats administered saccharin, while aspartame group showed no histopathological changes except slight hydropic degeneration of hepatocytes. Urinary bladder sections of rats administered saccharin revealed proliferation of the mucosal epithelial cel s into papil ary invaginated projections with highly vascularized connective tissue core and mononuclear inflammatory

  13. Transplanted Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Ameliorate Testicular Dysfunction In A D-Galactose-Induced Aging Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun; Du, Yi-Kuan; Wang, Jun; Luan, Ping; Yang, Qin-Lao; Huang, Wen-Hua; Yuan, Lin

    2015-10-01

    Glycation product accumulation during aging of slowly renewing tissues may be an important mechanism underlying aging of the testis. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have shown promise in a novel tissue regenerative technique and may have utility in treating sexual dysfunction. ADSCs have also been found to be effective in antiaging therapy, although the mechanism underlying their effects remains unknown. This study was designed to investigate the anti-aging effect of ADSCs in a D-galactose (D-gal)-induced aging animal model and to clarify the underlying mechanism. Randomly selected 6-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were subcutaneously injected with D-gal daily for 8 weeks. Two weeks after completion of treatment, D-gal-induced aging rats were randomized to receive caudal vein injections of 3 × 10(6) 5-bromo 2'deoxy-uridine-labeled ADSCs or an equal volume of phosphate-buffered saline. Serum testosterone level, steroidogenic enzymes (3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity decreased significantly in aging rats compared with the control group; serum lipid peroxidation, spermatogenic cell apoptosis, and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) expression increased significantly. ADSCs increased the SOD level and reduced the MDA level in the aging animal model and restored levels of serum testosterone, steroidogenic enzymes, and spermatogenic cell apoptosis. These results demonstrate that ADSCs can contribute to testicular regeneration during aging. ADSCs also provide functional benefits through glycation suppression and antioxidant effects in a rat model of aging. Although some ADSCs differentiated into Leydig cells, the paracrine pathway seems to play a main role in this process, resulting in the reduction of apoptosis. PMID:25728126

  14. Antifertility effect of chronically administered Tabernaemontana divaricata leaf extract on male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sachin Jain; Ankit Jain; Pritesh Paliwal; Shailendra Singh Solanki

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To investigate the antifertility effect of chronically administeredTabernaemontana divaricata (T. divaricata) leaf extract on male rats.Methods:The effect of50% ethanol extract ofT. divaricata leaves on reproduction was studied on male rats.The study was divided into four groups of five animals each.The first groups(I) received vehicle alone to serve as control. The second, third and fourth groups(II,II andIV) of animals were administered theleaf extract daily at50 mg/kg body weight,p.o.,100 mg/kg body weight, p.o., and200 mg/kg body weight, p.o., respectively, for a period of60 days.Results:Significant decreases in the weight of testes, epididymis, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate were observed.A dose related reduction in the testicular sperm count, epididymal sperm count and motility, number of fertile male, ratio between delivered and inseminated females and numbers of pups were observed.The testis showed a clear correlation between the dose and severity of lesions of seminiferous epithelium. In general, the seminiferous tubules appear reduced in size with a frequently filled eosinophilic material.Spermatogenesis arrested at the secondary spermatocyte stage.Pachytene spermatocytes were undergoing degeneration.Disorganigation and sloughing of immature germ cell were visible. Leydinf cells were atrophied.No morphological changes were observed inSertoli cells.Significant reduction in serum concentration of luteinizing hormone and testosterone were observed.No distinct change in serumFSH concentration was recorded.The final body weights of all groups were elevated markedly.No alterations were recorded in any hematologiocal parameters. Conclusions:It is concluded that the50% ethanol extract ofT. divaricata leaf produced dose related effect on male reproduction without altering general body metabolism.

  15. Mitochondria-targeted ROS scavenger improves post-ischemic recovery of cardiac function and attenuates mitochondrial abnormalities in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobales, Nelson; Nuñez, Rebeca E; Jang, Sehwan; Parodi-Rullan, Rebecca; Ayala-Peña, Sylvette; Sacher, Joshua R; Skoda, Erin M; Wipf, Peter; Frontera, Walter; Javadov, Sabzali

    2014-12-01

    Mitochondria-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of aging and age-associated diseases. In this study, we evaluated the effects of XJB-5-131 (XJB), a mitochondria-targeted ROS and electron scavenger, on cardiac resistance to ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced oxidative stress in aged rats. Male adult (5-month old, n=17) and aged (29-month old, n=19) Fischer Brown Norway (F344/BN) rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: adult (A), adult+XJB (AX), aged (O), and aged+XJB (OX). XJB was administered 3 times per week (3mg/kg body weight, IP) for four weeks. At the end of the treatment period, cardiac function was continuously monitored in excised hearts using the Langendorff technique for 30 min, followed by 20 min of global ischemia, and 60-min reperfusion. XJB improved post-ischemic recovery of aged hearts, as evidenced by greater left ventricular developed-pressures and rate-pressure products than the untreated, aged-matched group. The state 3 respiration rates at complexes I, II and IV of mitochondria isolated from XJB-treated aged hearts were 57% (P<0.05), 25% (P<0.05) and 28% (P<0.05), respectively, higher than controls. Ca(2+)-induced swelling, an indicator of permeability transition pore opening, was reduced in the mitochondria of XJB-treated aged rats. In addition, XJB significantly attenuated the H2O2-induced depolarization of the mitochondrial inner membrane as well as the total and mitochondrial ROS levels in cultured cardiomyocytes. This study underlines the importance of mitochondrial ROS in aging-induced cardiac dysfunction and suggests that targeting mitochondrial ROS may be an effective therapeutic approach to protect the aged heart against IR injury. PMID:25451170

  16. Contribution of male sex, age, and obesity to mechanical instability of the upper airway during sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkness, Jason P.; Schwartz, Alan R.; Schneider, Hartmut; Punjabi, Naresh M.; Maly, Joseph J.; Laffan, Alison M.; McGinley, Brian M.; Magnuson, Thomas; Schweitzer, Michael; Smith, Philip L.; Patil, Susheel P.

    2008-01-01

    Male sex, obesity, and age are risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea, although the mechanisms by which these factors increase sleep apnea susceptibility are not entirely understood. This study examined the interrelationships between sleep apnea risk factors, upper airway mechanics, and sleep apnea susceptibility. In 164 (86 men, 78 women) participants with and without sleep apnea, upper airway pressure-flow relationships were characterized to determine their mechanical properties [pharynge...

  17. Health, fitness, physical activity, and morbidity of middle aged male factory workers. I.

    OpenAIRE

    Tuxworth, W.; Nevill, A M; White, C.; Jenkins, C

    1986-01-01

    A description of the fitness, physical activity of lifestyle, and some aspects of health status and attitudes in a population of male factory workers aged 35-60 is presented as the first part of a report on a study of morbidity in this population. A total of 1394 subjects were included, undergoing medical examination, fitness testing by bicycle ergometry, assessment of body fat, and interview questionnaire. The inter-relation of fitness, body composition, habitual exertion, health risk factor...

  18. Androgen Administration to Aged Male Mice Increases Anti-Anxiety Behavior and Enhances Cognitive Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Frye, Cheryl A.; Edinger, Kassandra; Sumida, Kanako

    2007-01-01

    Although androgen secretion is reduced with aging, and may underlie decrements in cognitive and affective performance, the effects and mechanisms of androgens to mediate these behaviors are not well understood. Testosterone (T), the primary male androgen, is aromatized to estrogen (E2), and reduced to dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which is converted to 5α-androstane, 3α, 17β-diol (3α-diol). To ascertain whether actions of the neuroactive metabolite of T, 3α-diol, mediates cognitive and affective...

  19. Improvement of andropause symptoms by dandelion and rooibos extract complex CRS-10 in aging male

    OpenAIRE

    Noh, Yoo-Hun; Kim, Do-Hee; Kim, Joon Yub; Park, Jiae; Kim, Ok Hyeon; Han, Daeseok; Kim, Won-Yong; KIM, SUNG-SU; Lee, Moo-Yeol; Heo, Seok-Hyun; Kim, Misook; Lee, Won Bok; Jeong, Yoonhwa; Myung, Soon Chul

    2012-01-01

    Many aging male suffer various andropause symptoms including loss of physical and mental activities. This study evaluated the putative alleviative effects of CRS-10 dandelion and rooibos extract complex (CRS-10) on the symptoms of andropause. The survival rate of TM3 Leydig cells (TM3 cells) treated with CRS-10 was measured based on typical physiological stress. After daily intake of CRS-10 for 4 weeks, the level of testosterone, physical activity and both the number and activity of sperm in ...

  20. Examination of P300 in Veteran Males: Aging, Physical Activity and Cognitive Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Kutlu, Necip; Buyukyazi, Gurbuz; Kaptan, Gulten; Selcuki, Deniz; Artug, Rengin

    2014-01-01

    Aim: In the recent years, the effects of long term exercise on physiological systems have been thoroughly investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term physical exercise on cognitive processing in elderly male athletes. Materials and Methods: Master athletes who had been exercising regularly (EME), healthy sedentary elderly volunteers (HSE) and healthy sedentary middle-aged volunteers (HSMA) were included in the study. Indirect maximum oxygen uptake ca...